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Anna Ma ecka HISTORY AS PHILOSOPHY TEACHING BY EXAMPLES: A STUDY IN OSKAR SCHINDLER’S ENAMEL FACTORY ...............................................................................................................................................................26 . .,

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Piotr Badyna DIAGNOZA – CHORA OJCZYZNA I TERAPIA ZAWARTA W ANATOMII RZECZYPOSPOLITEJ … WOJEWODY STANIS AWA GARCZY SKIEGO ...........................................................................................131

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. . .................................................................................................................................165 . . ................................................................................................................170 . . .......................................................................................................................................................174 Marek Motyka MECHANIZMY ZMIAN WOBEC SUBSTANCJI PSYCHOAKTYWNYCH W POLSCE – UJECIE WIELOWYMIAROWE.........................................................................................................................................179 .

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, . : , , . Olha Voitiuk Social and charitable activities of Studite monks in Galicia, 1920-1930th Charitable activity of Studite monks is analyzed, which was an important catalyst for social, political, national and cultural life of Galicia. It is stated, that the monks-Studites organized orphanages for many orphans and the sick peoples, raised the level of education among the peasantry, which helped Galicia, and particularly the Greek Catholic Church in the first half of the twentieth century. to endure life’s hardship and to avoid the assimilation. It is concluded that monks’s work in Galicia was helped for local Ukrainians to keep off the influence of Polish church. Thus, their activities had to some level also the national-defending value. Keywords: charitable activities, education of childrens, monks, Studites.

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, , , . D. R. GainetdinovThe Reformatory Activity of Metropolitan Vasyl Lypkivsky at the Head of the Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church The article studies the reform efforts of Metropolitan V. Lypkivsky, his role in the development and functioning of the Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church. Keywords: Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church, autocephaly, Ukrainian Cathedral Council Governing, Ukrainian Orthodox Church Council.

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, , , , . A. Kyrydon Phenomenon temporality of collective memory in dimension identity. Collective memory is considered the point of temporal modes of representation. Identified causal relationships using categories of time to analyze the human being and the moral foundations of personality transformation in communicative discursive space. In the conceptual keys proved that memory as a category of preservation and modernization of the past, live in the present and greatly affects the vectors in the future. Keywords: collective memory, identity, time experience, historiography, the responsibility of the historian. :

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Anna Ma ecka2 HISTORY AS PHILOSOPHY TEACHING BY EXAMPLES: A STUDY IN OSKAR SCHINDLER’S ENAMEL FACTORY – (Wydzia Humanistyczny AGH )

, (

)

The paper focuses upon the philosophical message conveyed by contemporary history museums, as exemplified by Oskar Schindler’s Enamel Factory – a new generation museum opened in Kraków in 2010, housing an exhibition entitled “Kraków under Nazi Occupation”. The role of the exhibition narrative based on symbols referring to the dialectics of loss and presence is emphasized. The visitor is involved in the process of museal communication. The focus is on active and meaningful engagement with represented history, in which the aesthetic arrangement of exhibition plays essential role. The displayed exhibits assume the function of semiophores, directing the viewers’ attention to the historic processes which they metaphorically indicate. Moreover, within the philosophical insight the concrete artifacts lead beyond history, to the intangible sphere of human condition as such and its universal dimension. Keywords: Oskar Schindler’s Enamel Factory, history museum, postmodern museum, World War II, Kraków under Nazi Occupation

History is philosophy teaching by examples. [attributed to Thucydides] The 21st century museum projects have significantly changed the concept of this cultural institution. As Theodore Adorno pertinently remarked, traditional museums resembled (not only phonetically) mausoleums in which exhibits were reverently kept as dead sanctified objects bearing no vivid relationship with the concerns of present day visitors, and displayed within the poetics of distance [1, 260]. Adorno’s reflection can be related to all conservative museums, including historical collections. The most recent museums, on the other hand, focus upon the idea of participation and interactivity. This applies especially to postmodern history museums which aim at the viewers’ symbolic participation in the creatively reconstructed past. The best known of such 21st century museums is Daniel Libeskind’s Jewish Museum in Berlin, which can be compared to architectural poem designed to evoke a metaphorical experience of the tragic fate of Jews in wartime Berlin, their extinction from the city, figuratively deconstructed by the Derridian “voids” – inaccessible empty spaces that run through the museum centre as its “heart”. In Poland, the first successful attempt at establishing a postmodern history museum dedicated to the heroic struggle of Poles during the times of the World War II is The Warsaw Uprising Museum opened in 2004, to celebrate the 60th anniversary of the uprising outbreak [5, 374-376]. The new generation historical museums reconstruct the past employing multimedia and other technological solutions to vivify the past and make it closer and more comprehensible for contemporary recipients. History is transformed through the prism of recent interpretation and outlook, emphasizing the message it may yield for today’s man. By being placed within the aesthetically and narratively arranged exhibition space, concrete documents and objects change their original and utilitarian status, and assume the role of semiophores, directing the viewers’ attention to the historic processes which they metaphorically indicate. Moreover, within the philosophical insight the concrete artifacts lead beyond history, to the intangible sphere of human condition as such and its universal dimension. If we agree with Thucydides that history is philosophy teaching by examples, it can be further concluded that museums teach by “meta-examples” – as they represent and interpret the philosophical issues implied by concrete historic events and processes, reconstructed on the basis of recovered fragments and deliberately developed designs. Especially postmodern museums devoted to the martyrology of World War II, which create an aesthetic frame for the visitor’s highly emotional reception, render it possible for them to experience an ersatz of the Jasperian Grenzsituationen – limit situations which reveal ultimate horizons to one’s existence in the context of the grim wartime reality. The Oskar Schindler’s Enamel Factory in Kraków constitutes one of recent projects which contribute to redefining the shape of the history museum. The exhibition opened in 2010 as a branch of the Historical Museum of the City of Kraków in the former administrative building of the factory which before the war had been owned by Jewish

2

AGH University of Science and Technology in Kraków

26


entrepreneurs, and after 1939 managed by Oskar Schindler – a Sudeten German member of the NSDAP and agent of the Abwehr. The Museum patron was made popular especially by the book Schindler's Ark (released in America as Schindler's List) published in 1982 by Australian novelist Thomas Keneally, and later adapted into the movie Schindler's List directed by Steven Spielberg. Both the novel and the film have its share in commemorating Schindler who saved approximately 1200 Jews and was awarded the medal “The Righteous among the Nations”, as well as was requested to plant a tree in Yad Vashem. Even though containing fictional elements, both artistic productions present historical contents and show actual people and events. The Museum is devoted not only to its patron and the tragic history of Jews in the wartime Kraków. The exhibition displayed in the building at No.4 Lipowa Street bears the title “Kraków under Nazi Occupation 1939-1945”, and focuses on multifarious aspects of life in the city during the time of war. It also captures the town’s climate in the interwar years, as well as in the years that followed 1945, when the German occupation was substituted by the Soviet one. The exhibition has two objectives: to provide historical information and evoke the overall atmosphere of that period; i.e. to appeal to Logos as well as to Pathos, also to present documents and arrange the space for individual “museum experience”. As Monika Bednarek, the head curator puts it, the exhibition is an outcome of specialists representing various branches and constitutes “a scientifically, thematically and artistically coherent project aimed in the first place at providing the visitors with basic knowledge on the city’s history in the discussed period on the one hand, and at evoking certain emotions and provoking reflection on the criminal and totalitarian nature of the Nazi system and the results of putting its laws into effect, as well as the tragedy of people afflicted by war. The exhibition permits certain identification of the visitors with the city and its residents both in the past and the present” [2, 37]. The museum areas are dedicated to diversified factual and existential aspects, from the tragic to the ordinary ones, presenting details in the way that appeals to imagination. History is not reconstructed just as a sequence of barren facts, but is vividly embellished. The individual becomes a true hero of the museum narration – both as past victim of history, and also as a present perceiving subject involved in the process of museal communication. The focus is on active and meaningful engagement with represented history. The exhibition follows the line of chronology. However, the discursive analysis, rooted in a dialectic of absence and present, the loss and remaining traces, appears to be more appropriate. “History as discourse is always, to a certain extent, engaged in the evocation of loss” – Naomi Stead remarks in her paper devoted to the Jewish Museum in Berlin [8, 6]. The existential motifs of loss, death and all kinds of threats to life constitute the very core of this wartime museum, illustrating the frailty and finitude of human life. In the exhibition space, the route from the peaceful Kraków to the Nazi occupied city figuratively leads through a dark tunnel. Leaving behind the careless atmosphere of the 1930s, and the anxious days immediately preceding the war, passing through the railway station waiting room equipped with all the attributes of that period, the visitors find themselves in the middle of the war, where the noises of fighting, radio announcements and the roar of air raids can be heard. Kraków was invaded by the prevailing forces, bombed by German aircraft since the early morning of 1 September 1939, and on 6th September the Wehrmacht entered the undefended city. A photograph showing soldiers installing a Wehrmacht flag over Wawel testifies to the beginning of terror which was to last for over five years. The conversations of Kraków citizens uncertain about their fate, which can be heard in the arranged hallway of a Kraków townhouse, help the visitor to identify emotionally with the subjects of the General Government established by the Hans Frank’s proclamation of 26th October 1939, and followed by his taking residence at Wawel. The persecutions of Kraków citizens began, marked by racial segregation of Jews, illustrated in the exhibition by photos presenting the humiliation of Jews by German soldiers. This aspect of the Nazi policy is also rendered in a reconstructed tram bearing information that the entrance is barred to Jews. The first open act of terror directed against the Kraków intellectual elite took place on the 6 th November 1939 when the professors of the Jagiellonian University and other Kraków universities, including the University of Mining, were invited to Colegium Novum to a discussion on the attitude of the Third Reich and national socialism towards science and higher education, and then treacherously arrested. The dark room to which the route from the tram square leads represents lecture hall No. 56 with university benches and the original chair, where the so called Sonderaktion Krakau took place. The gloomy mood of the place is completed by Müller the Gestapo officer’s speech delivered to the academics which is played by the loudspeakers, as well as by numerous documents, photographs, copies of the professors’ letters and objects exhibited in the following room. The list of arrested professors bears 183 names, some of whom died in the concentration camps of Sachsenhausen and Dachau to which they were sent. Their tragic lot is exemplified by an authentic object: a parcel from the Sachsenhausen camp, containing the urn of Professor Stanis aw Estreicher’s remains. The farther museum spaces illustrate the acts of the occupants’ growing terror. Numerous photographs present mass round-ups in the streets, mementos and secret letters of the prisoners kept in the jail at Montelupich and tortured by the Gestapo. The most gloomy artifacts envisage death: the announcement of 1943, containing the names of the executed persons, shocking backlit photographs showing public executions in 1942 at Wodna Street and Wola Duchacka quarter, a reconstruction of a death cell at St. Michael prison, which exemplifies death rows in other Kraków prisons where thousands of people died of exhaustion in result of interrogations or were shot [6, 24]. Another branch of

27


the Historical Museum of the City of Kraków situated at Pomorska Street houses the original cells with inscriptions on the walls engraved by the prisoners in the years 1943-1945, containing their prayers and last farewells. The museum is specifically dedicated to Kraków Jews whose exclusion and eventual annihilation is rendered by diversified exhibits. Chronologically, in subsequent rooms, the photos are presented showing the removal of Jews from Kraków in 1940, and the establishment of Ghetto, where 17,000 Jews were compelled to live in the overcrowded space in Podgórze district in the years 1941-1943. The visitors figuratively follow the Jews’ route to the Ghetto, going up to the second floor, while in the staircase they can read the plaques bearing the names of the streets from which Jews were deported. As in the case of the Jewish Museum in Berlin, several architectural symbols are employed in the farther rooms to illustrate the mournful fate of Jews. The stone sky and the labyrinth of walls built in the shapes imitating Jewish tombstones – matzevah convey the idea of uncertainty and eventual loss. The threat of death permeates the whole reconstructed Ghetto space, reminding the visitors, among others, of nearly 12,000 people who were deported to the annihilation camp in Be ec. The darkness of the space intensifies the dreadful atmosphere, bearing an appeal to emotions and imagination. However, the documentary character of the exhibition is also preserved, in the form of photographs of the Jews living in the Ghetto, their apocryphal diaries based on the authentic relations, including Roman Pola ski’s memories (the famous film director as a boy was deported to the Kraków Ghetto with his family), a reconstruction of their overcrowded dwelling space. The most dramatic accent in the Ghetto history is marked by its liquidation on 13th and 14th March 1943, when 2,000 Jews were murdered, and others transported to Auschwitz or to a forced labour camp. The pictures illustrate the Ghetto liquidation, showing a crowd of people marching down Lwowska and Limanowskiego Streets, deserted streets with abandoned bags, suitcases and chairs. The atmosphere of the void intrudes, as in the case of The Jewish Museum in Berlin. To commemorate the traces of Jewish lost presence, a weird “anti-monument” was erected in 2006 on Ghetto Heroes Square in Kraków, consisting of sculptures of empty chairs, scattered in the places where formerly the inhabitants of this area used to gather. Another aspect of the wartime Kraków was forced labour. The Arbeitsamt is reconstructed in a small room, with the documentation of its operation. Both Poles and Jews were exploited in forced labour camps, such as Liban quarry and Solvay soda production plant, where, among others, Karol Wojty a, the future pope John Paul II, worked. The photographs and multimedia presentations illustrate the working conditions under occupation. The most impressive example of the forced work exploitation is provided by the reconstructed fragment of the P aszów concentration camp. The camp was established in 1942, initially for Jews, but starting with 1943 Poles were imprisoned there as well. As it was built in the place of demolished Jewish cemeteries, the tombstones were used to pave the camp paths. To make it more realistic, the floor of the exhibition room is covered with fragments of stones, and a transport bogie of the type that was used in a quarry is displayed. The enlarged photographs and films document the operation and extremely hard working conditions at the camp. Those unfit for work or caught escaping were liquidated. Three locations at the aszów camp were used as mass executions sites. The Schindler’s Enamel Factory as a history museum of war time presents not only loss but also acts of heroism. The actions of the Polish resistance movement are exemplified within the exhibition by a reconstruction of conspirers’ flat, the mementos of the soldiers of the Home Army, scouts of the Grey Ranks (Szare Szeregi) formation, and members of other clandestine organisations. Fighting for independence, they risked imprisonment, torture and death. The museum bearing the name of Oskar Schindler obviously has special space dedicated to its patron. Thus Schindler’s office is reconstructed, where the biography of the factory owner is presented, his photographs, the history of the factory, and also the selection of enamelware manufactured in the factory. The original German map of Europe of that time is placed, though the original furnishings have not survived. A central place is occupied by an artistic installation designed by Micha Urban commemorating Schindler. It consists of a glass capsule filled with pots and prefabricated enamelware patterned after those manufactured at the factory. The metal rotunda inside bears the names of approx. 1,100 Jews saved by Oskar Schindler, thus introducing the monumental aspect to the Museum. The commemorative character of this area is supplemented with 100 recordings containing relations of the former employees of the Enamel Factory rescued by Schindler. Their relations constitute part of over 52,000 interviews gathered by the USC Shoah Foundation Institute for Visual History and Education established in 1994 in California. Aldous Huxley in his essay Tragedy and the Whole Truth says that the pathetic style of tragedy as a literary genre does not allow to cover the whole truth of real events and psychological motivation of people’s acting, i.e. the ordinary elements present even in the most dramatic and limit situations [3]. Accordingly, the contemporary martyrological museum which does not present a literarily idealised and thus distorted image of past events but aspires at approaching the historic truth should embrace also the ordinary experiences of people, which make up the total dimension of human existence. Therefore a special space of the discussed exhibition is devoted to everyday life under German occupation. Entering the subsequent rooms, the visitors pass through the reconstructed streets, squares, shops, various institutions and dwellings. They are confronted with original furnishings, photographs and documents, which exemplify the everyday problems of Kraków inhabitants related to getting food, accommodation, employment, and various types of prohibitions in force. The ration cards are displayed, the witness’ discussion concerning the black market where the goods could be bought is presented. Everyday life was regulated by the Nazi’s orders, the examples of which are exhibited in the form of announcements on the poster pillar. The German propaganda films are shown on the windows of the reconstructed tram. Moving back in chronology, we have also an opportunity to feel the climate of pre-war Kraków. The reconstruction of the photographic studio in the first room of the exhibition introduces the atmosphere of 28


Kraków in the period between the wars. The pictures show Poles and also Jews who constituted over 25% of inhabitants at that time, and major events such as the celebration on B onia Common Green of 25th anniversary of Józef Pi sudski’s First Cadre Company of the Polish Legions going to battle – a national feast of independent Poland. In the following room, a spectacular genuine stereoscope (the Photoplasticon) is exhibited, which attracts the visitors’ attention by its aesthetic qualities, and which is used to show the pictures marking the essential facts of pre-war history, also those which constitute contrast to the illusionary atmosphere of peace (such as the Anschluss – the annexation of Austria in 1938). The cultural life of Kraków is illustrated by the theatre and cinema posters. This part of exhibition is supplemented with multimedia presentations, maps, photo albums. The summary of the exhibition is provided by the bright Hall of Choices, to which the dark corridor of war leads. It figuratively refers to “the universal choices that were made by people during the war and provokes a reflection on the attitudes of our contemporaries. Heroism and courage, denunciations and blackmailing, indifference” [2, 453]. The rotunda is plastered with testimonies of people who dared to oppose evil and help others, risking their own lives. Testimonies to both heroic attitudes and those ignoble ones are quoted in the white and black books containing reports of Volksdeutsche and collaborationists who turned in the people involved in resistance movement or hiding Jews, thus condemning them to death. The aesthetics of the exhibition plays a very important role in the process of “history as philosophy teaching by examples” and in the reception of such teaching. In this context it would be pertinent to refer to Roman Ingarden’s theory of the work of art [4] and adjust it to the final conclusion of the outline discussion of the Oskar Schindler’s Enamel Factory. Considered as a specific kind of the work of art, also a historical museum exhibition can be treated as an object of aesthetic experience containing the so-called places of indeterminacy which are to be concretised in the individual perception and reflection of the recipient. Within this concretising act, the visitor constitutes their own aesthetic “vision” of the exhibition, interpreted through the prism of their baggage of experience, knowledge and sensitivity. It is only then that the subsequent ontic and semantic strata of the museum exhibits and space become completed, including the ones that may be of particular interest for the history museum students: the stratum of historic events rendered by the exhibition space, and finally the deepest stratum of the so-called metaphysical qualities. In the case of history museum the historic layer (rooted in the strata of visual appearances and the presented objects interrelated with other exhibits) becomes subjectively actualized. Eventually, the ultimate and most general stratum of the phenomenologically interpreted exhibition as an intentional object is revealed – the museum layer pointing to the universal dimension of history, evoking reflections on man’s predicament in the border situation of conflict, human tragedy brought about by wars, as well as multifarious aspects of human existence and suffering, with accompanying values such as heroism, endurance, sacrifice. The aesthetic value of the exhibition is rooted in the selection of diversified documents and original objects, films, sound records, posters, and reconstructions (building spaces, squares, residence and office rooms, prison cells, railway station waiting room, labour camp site, etc), interactive devices (such as five stamping press machines which can be used by the visitors to emboss stamps of various institutions operating during the war on specially prepared cards), and also imaginative arrangement of exhibits by the curators, which artistically creates the overwhelming atmosphere of wartime Kraków. As Monika Bednarek puts it, such an interdisciplinary exhibition, “translating into reality the creative visions of the authors of the scenario and the graphic design for such a large and complex display required cooperation, involvement and work on the part of a numerous group of people and firms from diverse branches, such as graphic artists, sculptors, graphic designers, architects and constructors, carpenters and model makers, computer specialists, or lighting and sound engineers” [2, 37]. In 2012, the Museum was visited by 240,000 guests, including foreign groups. Compared to 200,000 in 2011 the number is growing. The museum has become a place of meetings and debates devoted to differentiated aspects of recent Polish history as well as the nation’s identity, and aspires at becoming “a centre of education and dialogue about the future and the matters of importance for the contemporary people living in Kraków as well as elsewhere in the world, even though it tells about problematic events from the past” [2, 37]. All this shows that memory of history is an ever upto-date matter especially if supported by museological exhibits, if they are reconstructed in an aesthetically appealing and convincing way, engaging the recipients’ interests and sensitivity.

29


Kraków under Nazi occupation – fragment of the exhibition

Kraków Ghetto – fragment of the exhibition

Labour camp in P aszów – reconstruction LITERATURE 1. Adorno Theodore, Valery Proust Museum, [in:] idem, Prisms, Cambridge, Massachusetts 1983, pp.175-176. 2. Bednarek Monika, Gawron Edyta, Je owski Grzegorz, Zbroja Barbara, Zimmer Katarzyna, Kraków under Nazi Occupation 1939-1945, Kraków 2011. 3. Huxley Aldous, Tragedy and the Whole Truth, http://wenku.baidu.com/view/42976139376baf1ffc4fad58 (access 23.05.2013) 4. Ingarden Roman, Selected Papers in Aesthetics, (ed.) Peter J. McCormick, München Wien 1985. 5. Ma ecka Anna, The Existential and Aesthetic Aspects of the History Museum at the Turn of the Century, [in:] Tymieniecka Anna-Teresa (ed.), Phenomenology and Existentialism in the Twentieth Century, Dordrecht Heidelberg London New York 2009, pp. 367-378. 6. Marsza ek Anna, Bednarek Monika, Oskar Schindler’s Enamel Factory, Kraków 2011. 7. Popczyk Maria, Estetyczne przestrzenie ekspozycji muzealnych, Kraków 2008.

8. Staed Naomi, The Ruins of History: Allegories of Destruction in Daniel Libeskind’s Jewish Museum, “Open Museum Journal” Volume 2: Unsavory Histories, August 2000. 30


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, 2007 . – . 166 - 169. 8. . . , « » 1867 1880 / . .– , 1880. – 76 . 9. . . 1838-1887 . : , / . . // . - 1893. . 2. - . 265 – 278. 10. « » 20 ( 1867 – 1887) – [ .], [ .]. – 256 . – ( « » 1888 , 4 – 29). 11. . 20 ( 1867 – 1887) / . .– , 1888. - 252 . 12. . / . // . . – 1994. - 5 –6. – . 16 – 17. 13. . .[ ] // . – 1889. – . 24. – . 265. – . .: . – , 1887; 20 ( 1867 – 1887) / . .– , 1888; , 25 .– , 1888. 14. , « » ( 1887 1907 ). – , 1909. – 207 . 15. . : , , , / . .– ., 1883. – 274 . 16. . . / . . // . ..– ., 1867. – . 559 – 568. 17. . / . // . – ., 1910. – . 20, . 3. – . 33 238. 18. . . . 1847 – 1929 : , , , . – ., 1930. – , 264 . 19. . . ( ) / . . // : . .. ., . , 24-25 . 1993 . – , 1993. – . 18 - 19. 20. : 70. . : . ./ . . . .– : . , 2002. – 88 . 21. : 70. . : . ./ . . . ; . . . , . . .– : . , 2006. – 72 . 22. : 65. . : . ./ . . . . – : . , 2004. – 72 . 23. , …» : . . 12:35 : . . , , . . / . . . , . . . . . ; . . . , . . .– : . , 2009. – 112 . 24. : . .– , 2001. – 28 . 25. . . – : .. / ; . . . . ; .. . – ., 2004. – 376 . 26. . . , , (1917-1939 .) : . . / . .; . . . . . , .. – ., 1997. – 180 . 27. . , , 1917-1939, 1941-1944 . / ; . . . . , .. .– .: , 2001. – 285 . 28. . 1939–1941, 1944–2000 . / . – : . . , 2004. - 508 . 29. , , (1836-1944) : ./ ; . . . . , .. ; . . , . , . . – ., 1994. – 52 . 30. . . : , , / . . . – : ., 2001. – 360 . 31. . . – : ./ . . .– : , 2006. – 216 . 32. . . . . : , , : ./ . . . – ., 2007. – 242 .

36


930.1:331.582 «18/19» .

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, , , : . . N. Muravik. The socio-economic situation of industrial working in Ukraine on the brink of and twentieth century as a scientific problem.Compile and analyze the state of research on socio-ekonomic position of industry working in Ukraine on the brink of and twentieth century and contemporary works of soviet historians. Analyzed the working hours, working conditions in the workplace, the variation of wages, living conditions of workers, the presence of women and children in the production of ore, provision of medical support and political rights of the workers. Summary of the achievements and shortcomings in the study of the problems and the ways of further scientific research. Keywords:, historiography,industrial workers, socio-economic status.

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94(477) „195/196”: 316.343.72 .

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, , , , , . O. A. Onischyk. Genesis of scientific and technical intelligentsia as a separate socially-professional group in the second half of 1950th - first half of 1960th. The process of forming of scientific and technical intelligentsia as a separate socially-professional group in the period of development of scientific and technical revolution in Ukraine in the second half of the 1950th - the first half of the 1960th is covered. Theoretical bases of the concept «Soviet intelligentsia» are analyzed. The author attempt to give definition to concept of scientific and technical intelligentsia. Keywords: genesis, soviet intelligentsia, scientific and technical intelligentsia, social-professional group, scientific and technical progress.

. .

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. . 1958-1964 . / . . , . . // . . – 2012. 5. – . 126 – 129. 2. . . / . . .– .: « », 1976. – 156 . 3. . . 20-40. .[ ]/ . . , . . .– : http://archive.nbuv.gov.ua/portal/Soc_Gum/Ltkp/2011_65/ist/ist10.pdf 4. . – . -1682. – . 8. – . 2342. 5. 1957 . – . : , 1958. – 168 . 6. , 1898-1971 / [ . 8. ., . . . . , . . ]. – . : , 1981. – . 7. – 534 . 7. . . (1959-1970) / . . .– .:« », 1975. – 207 . 8. . . / . . // . . . – 1973. 10. – . 19 – 30. 9. . . / . . // . . . – 1970. 8. – . 12 – 20. 10. . . (1980-1990 .) : . . . . . : . 07.00.01 « »/ . . . – ., 1997. – 28 . 11. . . « » / . . // . – 2008. 2. – . 7 – 25. 12. , . .– .: , 1973. – 315 . 13. « ». . 1885-2010 / [ .: . . , . . , . . .; . . . ]. – . : « », 2008. – 408 . 14. 1961 .– .: , 1962. – 151 . 15. . . / . . // . – 1986. 3. – . 110 – 115. 16. . . / . . .– .: , 1986. – 224 . 17. . (1917-1975) / [ .: . . , . . .]. – . : , 1977. – 318 . 18. . (1917-1965) / [ . . . ]. – . : , 1968. – 432 . 19. . [ . . . ]. – . : , 1987. – 227 . 20. /[ . . . . , . . , . . , . . , . . . . . ]. – . : « », 1986. – 335 . 21. . . 19591965 . / . . // . . . – 1973. 8. – . 86 – 93. 22. ( – ). – . -4621. .1. . 174. 23. . – . -5074. .1. .7. 24. . . 47. 25.

45


377.3(477.83-25)"192/193" . . 1920-1930-

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, , , . Pasitska . I. Training of workers in the Lviv Ukrainian vocational schools during 1920–1930s The features of the organization and development of students’ training in Lviv Ukrainian vocational schools are highlighted. The history of creation of vocational schools and their activity are traced, particularly the main aspects and features of the academic and educational process, the number of students and their social position. Keywords: Ukrainian vocational schools, workers, vocational training, students, education, subjects of teaching, specialities.

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50

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. . , , , , . : Pryshchepa B.A. Formation of Medieval Towns in Volyn Polissya (Based on the Materials from the Horyn River Basin). This work characterizes Slavonic-Rus’ hillforts in Polissya regions of Pohorynna within the boundaries of Rivne region. The paper analyzes the main results of the field works, highlights transformation processes of the settlement structures during the tribal period of the 9th-10th cc. and the formation of the towns of Dubrovytsya and Stepan in the 12th-13th cc. Keywords: Volyn Polissya, the mediaeval period, archeological sources, hillfort, town.

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, 1993. – . 1. – . 41–67. 28. .« » // . – ., 1950. – 40. – . 214–259. 29. . . – .: , 1989. 30. . // .– , 1959. – 63. 31. Rauhut L. Wczesno redniowieczne materia y archeologiczne z terenów Ukrainy w Pa stwowym Muzeum Archeologicznym w Warszawie // Materia y wczesno redniowieczne. – Warszawa, 1960. – T. V. – S. 231–260.

: 94 (477/82) „18” .

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, , . O. P. Pryshchepa. Educational establishments in the cultural life of Volyn towns in the 19th – the beginning of the 20th c. Analyzes the growth of the network of educational establishments. The focus is on the cultural and educational establishments of Volyn (Kremenetska) gymnasium in the presence of dominating Polish cultural traditions. The conclusion is made about the control of state structures over the educational process and their impact on the formation of the cultural and educational environment in towns. Keywords: educational establishments, towns, educational and cultural environment, Volyn County, the Russian Empire.

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303.446.4:330.342.15-048.65:338.45(477)”1965/1980” . . . 1960- – 1980-

.

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, , . I. Rajko. Soviet historiography of socialist competition in the industry of the USSR in the II floor. 1960's - 1980's. We study the historiographical legacy of Soviet scientists to highlight the problems of socialist competition, common in the industries of the Ukrainian SSR in the II floor. 60's - 80's. the century. Applying modern techniques and methods, critically examined the basic tendency inherent in the Soviet era - the rise of the leading role of the party and its intervention in all spheres of society, through the introduction of the movement for communist labor, to improve the economic performance of the country. Keywords: socialist competition, labor discipline, communist labor, innovation, productivity, stimulating industrial production.

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64


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. . 66. – ., 1974. – .59-65. 11. / . . . – .: , 1987. – 135 . 12. / . , , . . – .: , 1982. – 295 . 13. . / . .– .:« », 1974. – 224 . 14. V : . – .: . – 1976. – .1. 15. , , (1898 - 1986). – .11. – ., 1986. 16. . ./ . .– : , 1970 – 302 . 17. . : . , 1917 – 1977 . / . . – ., 1979. – 324 . 18. . . , 1917-1970 / . .– .: , 1977. – 351 . 19. . : / . , . . – ., 1985. – 221 . 20. . . / ., . // . – 1978. – 8. – . 238-244. 21. . (1966-1980) / . – ., 1982. – 231 . 22. . / . . – ., 1982. – 103 . 23. . : / . . - .: , 1976 – 143 . 24. . / . – ., 1975. – 241 .. 25. ., ., . ./ ., ., .– .: , 1973. – 108 . 26. . (1946 – 1970 .) / . – ., 1972. - 220 . 27. . ./ . – .: « », 1973. – 79 . 28. . / . . – ., 1974. – 39 . 29. ., ., . / . , . , . . – ., 1981. – 229 . 30. . , 1917 – 1977/ . . – ., 1977. – 59 . 31. ., . / . , . . – .: , 1973. – 165 . 32. ., . / . , . . – ., 1974. – 63 . –

94 (477.7) . . (

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1918

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, ,

, . ,

. : , , , , , , . . Rybko. The formation of government bodies and local self-government in Volyn in period of the Ukrainian Central Rada (historiography of the problem)

67


The state of historiographical lighting transformation processes aimed at restructuring the power hierarchy and system of government in the territory of Volyn province, in the revolutionary events of 1917 and early 1918. It is noted that despite the presence of a number of works, which cover the position of the first stage of Volyn province Ukrainian revolution. The issue of regional peculiarities of formation and activities of the authorities and self-governing institutions of the edge, still were the subject of a comprehensive study. Keywords: historiography of the problem, Volyn, local government, memoir, national movement, local history, the Ukrainian Central Rada.

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; . 35. . (1917-1920 .) [ ] //Studia Politologica Ucraino-Polona. . 2011. 1. – .218-223. – :http://archive.nbuv.gov.ua/portal/soc_gum/Spup/2011_1/6-2%20Studia%20Politologica%20I%202011.pdf ( : 22-03-2013). 36. . ( 1917 1918 .) / // : . / . . . . ; . . . [ .]. : . - . 3. - . 65-73. 37. . . XIX .- 1917 .: . ... . . : 07.00.01 [ ]/ . . ; . . . . . — ., 2009. — 19 . — p. :http://www.nbuv.gov.ua/ard/2009/ 09raprvn.zip. ( : 25-03-2013). 38. . (1900-1939 .) / , // : . .,1993. - .69 – 71. 39. . . 1916–1919 . / . . , . // : : . . .– ; , 1994.– . 309–311. 40. 114 , . . / . . . // / . . ., . .. , . . . , . . ; . . . .: , 1994. - .62-64. 41. . /(1917–1920 .) / . // : : . . .: .– , 1993. – .64–65. 42. , . . (28 -8 1918 )/ . . . // : .: , 1997. - .5-7. 43. ., . ./ . , . // : .: / . . .: . , 1997. .3-5. 44. . ./ . // : : . . .– ; , 1994.– . 148150. 45. , . . 1917-1920 . / . . // / . . ., . , . .. : . ., 2002. - . 25, . 1. - . 102-108 . 46. . . / ., .– , 2001. – 640 . 47. . 1917/ ., . // /[ . . . ]. – : . , 2002. – . 258 – 261. 48. , . . [ ] / . . // " : ", 750, 3-6 . 2007 . / [ . . . . ]. . - . 1. - . 200-215. 49. 1917 - 1919 / // : . ; 1994 . , 1994. – . 372-384. 50. . 1917 – 1922 / . // . .– – : . " ", 2006.- . 89-101. 51. . . / . // / .– , 1996. – . 1 : 100. – .76-84. 52. . ( )/ . // . – 2001. – . – . 1–2. 53. . . ./ // " 19171920 ". – , 1998. – .3.

72


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, , , . : N. V. Rozhkov. Assistance of Association of Red Cross Society in case of overcoming of hunger in USRR in 20th XX of century. Activity of organizations of Association of Red Cross is examined on territory of USRR in 20th. Help to the population in a fight against hunger 1921-1923 became important direction of activity of Society of Red Cross USRR. An author comes to the conclusion that although activity of Society however it was of the use to the ordinary people. Due to activity of Red Cross thousands of human lives were saved. Keywords: Red Cross, fight against hunger, directions of activity, help to the population.

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90-

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. : , , , . O. Sanzharevskiy. Russian-Belarus military cooperation during the first half of 90s in the XX century (as of Russian Strategic Forces withdrawal from the Republic of Belarus) The article deals with the problems of Russian-Belarus military cooperation installment in terms of Belarus statehood restoration during the first half of 90s in the XX century. Stressed are the features and difficulties of the developing relations in the contradict military cooperation issues, as well as the problem of Russian troops withdrawal from the Belarus territory. Keywords: the Republic of Belarus, strategic forces, nuclear weapons, disarmament.

76


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, , . O. P Samantsov., Samantsova O. V. Factors of Motivation of Labour of the Workers of Coal and Steel Industry in Donetsk Region at the End of the 19th – the Beginning of the 20th Century There are analyzed the reasons affecting the urgency of the motivational factors in the organization of the modern labour process. The main attention is focused on the necessity to analyze the experience of the industrialists of the coal and steel industry in Donetsk region at the end of the 19th – the beginning of the 20th century. The basic attention is paid to the means and factors of involving the workers in the process of production, in the industrialists’ activities directed to creating the labour conditions and opportunities for the workers to improve their economic position and also their cultural development. The authors suggest applying to the experience of the industrialists’ activities concerning providing with skilled labour force. Keywords: Donetsk region at the end of the 19th – the beginning of the 20th century, skilled workers, consumer associations.

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. : , , , . V. V. SemenchukCharacter of Ivan Gonta in historical songs Historical events and figures of the past in the texts of folk songs were considered, in particular, the character of Ivan Gonta in historical songs, his role in the liberation struggle of Ukrainian people and the his impact on the folklore, the features of imaginative vision of historical events was finding out, including a typology of creation of character and modeling the image of Ivan Gonta by means of art expression. The problem of historicism of Ukrainian folk music and the fullness and wideness of reflecting of real and concrete history of people in the folk songs was brought to light. Keywords: historical song, historical folklore, Ivan Gonta, traditions of Ukrainian folk song.

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, , , , , , : , , , . Sychevsky A.A. Old believers communities of The Old Orthodox Church of Belokrinicka hierarchy in Zhytomyr province in 1944–1961 Life into churches of old believers of Belokrinicka hierarchy, religious mode, composition of clergy and managing organs of their communities in 1944–1961 is represented. Basic methods and forms of state influence on the old orthodox rite of Zhytomyr province in an investigated period are described. The features of anti-religious policy of public authorities are educed in relation to the old orthodox rite. Keywords: religious community, old believers, popovcy, Belokrinicka hierarchy, church, clergy, Zhytomyr province, soviet power, anti-religious policy, totalitarianism.

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XX .: , 2009. – 381 . 1970- – «

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1930 – 1931 . : , , , , . E. M. Strizhak Repressions of bolshevik totalitarian regime against polish educators in Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic in early 1930-s. The features of repressions of the bolshevik totalitarian regime against Polish teachers in 1930-s are analyzed. The so-called "case of polish teachers" in Kyiv in the years 1930 – 1931-s is highlighted in the article. Keywords: repressions, the intellectuals, Polish Soviet educators, counter-revolutionary work, teacher/educator.

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1. Stro ski H. Represje stalinizmu wobec ludno ci polskiej na Ukrainie w latach 1929–1939 / Stro ski H. – Warszawa, 1998. – 314 s.; . . 1920- – 30: / . .– . : , ; : . , 1992. – 176 .; ., . : (1929 – 1941) / ., .– .: . , 2003. – 302 .; . .“ ” 1930 – 1931 . – 1930./ . . // . . . .: : . . .– , 2004. – . 8. – . 299 – 303; . : / . // : . – . ; : . . , 2003. – . 267 – 275. 2. . . : / . .– .: , 1990. – 143 . 3. . : 20 – 30./ . – .; : , 1992. – 148 . 4. Stro ski H. Represje stalinizmu wobec ludno ci polskiej na Ukrainie w latach 1929 – 1939 / Stro ski H. – Warszawa, 1998. – 314 s. 5. ., . : (1929 – 1941) / ., .– .: , 2003. – 302 . 6. . . “ ” :“ “ ”” 1933 – 1934 . : , , / . . // : , , . – ., 2003. – . 7: . – . 170 – 189; . . “ ”, 1930// / . . – ., 2003. – . 13: 2 . : – : . – . 1. – . 275 – 319; . .“ ” 1930 – 1931 . – 1930./ . . // . . . .: : . . .– , 2004. – . 8. – . 299 – 303. 7. . “ ”, 1930/ . // . – ., 2003. – . 13: 2 . : – : . – . 1. – . 275 – 319. 8. czkowska-Zab ocka I. Wac awa Peretjatkowiczowa i jej szko a w Kijowie / B czkowska-Zab ocka I. // Pami tnik Kijowski. – Londyn, 1963. – T. II. – S. 249 – 252. 9. Nicieja S.-S. „Polski Kijów” i jego zag ada w latach 1918 – 1920 w wietle wspomnie kijowian / Nicieja S.-S. // Przegl d Wschodni (Warszawa). – 1994. – T. II, z. 4 (8). – S. 851 – 862. 10. . – . 263. . 1919 – 1953 . . 1, . 57003. . . . . 1930 – 1956 . – 210 . 11. ., . 1930/ ., . // . – 1995. – 1/2 (2/3). – . 116 – 156.

107


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14. VII 1934. – 716 .

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94 (477) «1905/1907» .

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: , « », , , . Tkachenko-Plachtiy O. P. The specific of the South Ukrainian anarchists’ expropriation practice at the beginning of the XX-th century and its transformation in the period of the Revolution 1905 – 1907. The aspects of the anarchists’ expropriations in the Southern Ukraine in 1905 – 1907 are examined, the differences of the conative affirmations in respect of the expropriation commitment of the different groups of «South anarchists» are analyzed. Much attention is paid to the main turns of the type of anarchist expropriations in the years of Revolution, particularly the gradual transformation of these actions into the ordinary armed assaults and knockovers is attended. Keywords: expropriation, «Southern anarchism», anarcho-communists, anarcho-syndicalists, the Russian Revolution of 1905.

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. 1883 – 1935 . 2 . / . 1. 1883 – 1916 . – .: « ), 1998. – 704 . 2. . . . . / . . // , 150. . – ., 1995. – . 3. http://oldcancer.narod.ru/150PAK/3-01Budnizky.htm 3. . . : , , ( XIX – XX .) / . . – .: « »( ), 2000.–399 . 4. . ( XIX – .) / , . . – .: , 2006. – 416 . 5. . . 1905 – 1910 .: .… . : 07.00.01 »/ . .– , 2011. – 229 . 6. . . 1894 – 1917 / . / . . . .– : , 1997. – 448 . 7. . – . 32, . 1, . 62, 28 . 8. . . « » 1905 – 1907 . / . . , . . // . – . / . . . . – .: « », 1996. - [ ] – : http://www.memo.ru/history/terror/dubovik.htm#back2 9. . . / . . // « »: . – .: , 2004. – . 411-487. 10. / . . . . . – .: , 22006. – 596 . 11. . . / . . // , , , . .– : « ». - 3 (9). – 2011: 3- . . 1. – . 61-65. 12. . . 1905 – 1907 . / . . // – . . XV. – .: , 2008. – . 73-79. 13. . . .– ., 1907. – 192 . 14. . – . / . . , . . , . . . . .– . . . – .: , 2002. – 952 . 15. : . – .: « » ), 2000. – 631 . »(

111


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. – 1906. – 05 . . – «Optimum», 2006. – 248 . 18. . . .

(23

). ( 1903 – 1913 ).

. )/ .

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//

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. . . – 2006. -

//

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1905 – 1907 . / . . // . . 169. , 1991. – . 138-147 : ( . – ., 2005. – . 4. – . 81-89 , . . – . 268, . 1, . 153, 187 .

. – .: 19.

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, . : , , , , . The development of education in the Volyn province late XIX - early XX century. The role of municipal governments and zemstva to increase the number of educational institutions in the province. The reasons for opening new schools craft schools and vocational classes that operate in Volhynia in the study period. Keywords: Volyn, zemstvo, professional education, high school, a real school.

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