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ARCHITECTURAL PHENOMENOLOGY EXPLORING THE EXPERIENTIAL POTENTIALITY OF ARCHITECTURE


ABSTRACT

Architecture is vital part of human life and it has emotional impact on human behavior .Human learn from their experiences. Thus it is necessary to study the human relationship with built environment as it can help designers in building places with identity and meaning by focusing on user experience. This paper provides understanding of human experience from phenomenological point of view. Phenomenology establishes the need for the observance of sensorial sensitivity in design for human experience. The integration of Phenomenology into our generation of designing will acknowledge architecture’s respect for human experience. But the key challenge is the awareness of how to use this theoretical knowledge in architectural practice. The purpose of this paper is to present ways of applying this knowledge in architectural practice. Inferences are drawn from survey conducted among architects and studying work of various phenomenologist’ for finding the ways of designing for better human experience. These inferences are further analyzed and elaborated for better understanding of interrelationship of human behavior, psychology with architectural spaces. The paper concludes by suggesting design approaches and tools for improving human experience in built environment. Key words: Phenomenology, Architectural phenomenology, Human Behavior, Experience, Atmosphere, Place, Sense of place.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I have taken efforts in this research paper. However, it would not have been possible without guidance of my guide, help from friends and faculties, and support from the college and my family. I would like to extend my sincere thanks to all of them. I would like to express my deepest gratitude to my guide Dr. Ila Gupta and coordinators Ar. Rajshree Mathur and Ar. Navneet Khurana for their guidance and constant supervision as well as for providing necessary information regarding the report and also for their support for completing my paper. I would also like to thank MBS School of Planning and Architecture, for their support and cooperation provided for the past several months. My thanks and appreciation also goes to all architects who presented their views in the survey and other faculty members who helped in developing the project and people who have willingly helped me out with their abilities.

JYOTI AHLAWAT

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CONTENTS Candidates’ Declaration

i

Abstract

ii

Acknowledgements

iii

List of Contents

iv-v

List of Illustrations

vi-vii

Chapter 1: INTRODUCTION

Page 1-6

1.1 Introduction…………………………………………………………...3 1.2 Nature of Problem…………………………………………….……...3 1.3 Need of Study…………………………………………………............4 1.4 Problem Statement…………………………………………..............4 1.5 Aim and Objective…………………………………………………...5 1.6 Methodology……………………………………………………....….5-6

Chapter 2: PHENOMENOLOGY IN ARCHITECTURE

Page 7-16

2.1 Brief Introduction: Phenomenology………………………………..9-13 2.1.1 What is phenomenology?.........................................................9 2.1.2 Historical background………………………………………..9 2.1.3 Views by Various Theorists…………………………………10 2.2 Conclusion……………………………………………....……..13 2.2 Need of Phenomenology in Architecture……….................................14-16 2.2.1 Theoretical Precedent………………………………………..14 2.2.2 Serving Purpose of Architecture…………………………….15 2.2.3 Conclusion……………………………………………….......16

Chapter 3: SURVEY

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3.1 Method of Survey……………………………………………………19 3.2 Result and Inferences………………………………………………..20 3.3 Conclusion……………………………………………………………26

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Chapter 4: CONTEXT ANALYSIS 4.1 Jewish museum, Berlin………………………………………….…..29 4.2 Therme Vals, Switzerland…………………………………………..34 Page 40-51

Chapter 5: APPROACHING ARCHITECTURAL PRACTISE 5.1 Design Approaches and Tools………………………………………42 5.2 Sense of Place in Architecture………………………………………42-46 5.2.1 Introduction………………………………………………….42 5.2.2 Understanding Place…………………………………………43 5.2.3Elements of Place…………………………………………….43 5.2.4 Factors Creating Sense of Place……………………………..45 5.2.5 Conclusion…………………………………………………...46 5.3 Atmosphere in Architecture………………………………………...47-51 5.3.1 Atmosphere in context of architecture………………………47 5.3.1 Creating atmosphere………………………………………... 48 5.3.2 Material Compatibility………………………………...49 5.2.3The sound of Space…………………………………….49 5.2.4 Level of Intimacy…………………………………...…50 5.2.3The Temperature of Space……………………………..50 5.2.4 The Light on Things…………………………..….…...50 5.3.3 Conclusion…………………………………………………...51

Chapter 6: CONCLUSION REFERENCES ANNEXURE

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Page 54-55

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LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS LIST OF FIGURES: Figure 1.1: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY……………………………………………….......................6 Figure 2.1: PHENOMENOLOGY AND ITS ASPECTS………………………………………………..….13 Figure 3.1: EXPERIENCE OF RESPONDENTS (IN YEARS)……………………………………...………20 Figure 3.2: ARCHITECTURE HAS POWER TO TRANSFORM HUMAN PSYCHOLOGY………………......21 Figure 3.3: SHOULD SPACE BE DESIGNED WITH PHENOMENOLOGICAL DESIGN APPROACH …….....22 Figure 3.4: USE OF PHENOMENOLOGICAL DESIGN APPROACHES BY RESPONDENTS IN DESIGN ...….23 Figure 3.5: WAYS FOR INCREASING EXPERIENTIAL QUALITY OF SPACE………………………...…..24 Figure 3.6: CHALLENGES IN PRACTICING EXPERIENTIAL DESIGN ………………………….…..…...25 Figure 4.1: SPATIAL CONFIGURATION OF JEWISH MUSEUM …………………………………...........30 Figure 4.2: DIFFERENT AXIS’S, JEWISH MUSEUM …………………………………............................31 Figure 4.3: REPRESENTATIONOF EXPERIENCE IN MUSEUM …………………………………….…...33 Figure 4.4: SPACES DESIGN FOR CREATING EXPERIENCE IN MUSEUM………………………………..…….33 Figure 4.5: SPACE ORGANISATION IN THERME VALS……………………………………………………...…...35 Figure 4.6: REPRESENTATIONOF EXPERIENCE IN THERME VALS…………………………………….………36 Figure 4.7: FLOOR PLAN THERME VALS…………………………………………………..………………..……...37 Figure 5.1: ELEMENTS OF PLACE……………………………………………………..……………………..………43 Figure 5.2: GESTALT PRINCIPLES OF VISUAL PERCEPTION………………………………………....…………44 Figure 6.1: HUMAN PERCEPTION OF SPACE…………………………………………………………………...….53 Figure 6.2: RELATION OF EXPERIENTIAL ARCHITECTURE…………………………………………………....54 Figure 6.3: FLOW CHART SHOWING DEVELOPED EXPERIENTIAL DESIGN APPROACH………….….…...55

LIST OF IMAGES: Image 4.1: SCARED FAÇADE, JEWISH MUSEUM………………………………………….....………..29 Image 4.2: DEFORMED INTERIOR, AXIS OF CONTINUITY………………………………………………..…….32 Image 4.3: GARDEN OF EXILE………………………………………………………………………………...….….32. ARCHITECTURAL PHENOMENOLOGY EXPLORING THE EXPERIENTIAL POTENTIALITY OF ARCHITECTURE

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Image 4.4: SCREAMING METAL FACES………………………………..………...………………...…...32 Image 4.5: VIEW OF THERME VALS…………………………...……………………..…………..…….34 Image 4.6: CONCEPT OF SCALE,THERME VALS……………………………………………..…………38 Image 4.7: LIGHTS IN MAIN INDOOR POOL……………………………………………………………39

LIST OF TABLES: Table 3.1: SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE CONTENT…………………………….……………………..…..19

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1

CHAPTER

INTRODUCTION


Introduction

This chapter gives the overview about the research paper. The aim and objective of research and research question. The chapter describes about research methodology followed for reaching at conclusion

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Introduction

1.1 INTRODUCTION Architectural Phenomenology is the study of architectural experiences of human in the built environment. Phenomenology in architecture promotes the integration of sensory perception as a function of a built form. Phenomenological concept strategies in architectural design intend to develop a unique experience for user. Phenomenology as demonstrated in architecture is the manipulation of various themes to create a memorable encounter through an impact on the human senses.

1.2 NATURE OF PROBLEM Architecture has an emotional impact on humans. Architecture is part of our life, we learn what we experience. Architecture is designed to serve the needs of human activity, therefore creates a relationship between human senses and the built environment. But there is a general lack of emotional richness in contemporary architecture. Today most of the buildings are designed as structures in trendy wrappings to grab attention. In result they are lacking the true essence of architecture that is the experience. ―Why do very few modern buildings appeal to our feelings, the building of our own time may arouse our curiosity with their daring or inventiveness, but they hardly give us any sense of meaning of our world or our existence‖ The above writing by Juhani Pallasmaa in “The geometry of feeling” about style of modern architecture suggest that modern architecture is lacking in experiential and sensorial aspects: Besides the functional and aesthetic demand the question for the design should include how the people will feel inside the building and how they are going to experience the space.

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Introduction

1.3 NEED OF STUDY “Experience of architecture is multi-sensory; qualities of matter, space and scale are measured equally by the eye, ear, nose, skin, tongue, skeleton and muscle. Architecture strengthens… one‘s sense of being in the world, essentially giving rise to a strengthened experience of self.‖ (Juhani Pallasmaa ,Eyes of the Skin,1996, 28). Our bodies, movement are in constant interaction with the environment, the world. They self inform and redefine each other constantly .With interaction between body, imagination and environment one eventually gain some experience. But today most of the architects are selling style not architecture which is result in places that lack physical and mental accessibility and experience. This depicts the need for reviving the true essence of architecture which is human experience. The form and function plays a very crucial role for building design but it should also value the experience of the individual which can be done by designing buildings and spaces keeping in mind the concept of architectural phenomenology.

1.4 PROBLEM STATEMENT “Space is an empty container for experience.” It‟s the architects‟ responsibility to create experience in a space. Architects have the capacity of creating meaningful places and producing distinctive memorable designs which harbor extraordinary experiences. But one of the key challenges in architecture is the lack of awareness of tools through which an experiential understanding of place can be achieved, communicated and translated into design. Architects can better communicate the experiences human have with built environment by understanding of strategies and concept of architectural phenomenology.

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Introduction

1.5 AIM & OBJECTIVE In today‟s era (post modern) architecture has been confined to the form and functioning of space which is indeed good thing but there is something missing which is experience that is communication between space and human. This research paper will address the issue of experience less and emotionless architecture by developing architectural approach to bridge the gap between physical properties and experiential qualities of architectural spaces with the help of concept of architectural phenomenology. The study will draw upon the following notion: 

Understanding what is architectural phenomenology, its origin and its importance in current architecture.

Exploring how certain aspects of phenomenology could provide conceptual foundations for a more experiential and context-sensitive architectural practice in present-day conditions.

Developing design approaches for better human experience in architectural spaces from the study of phenomenological strategies and analyzing the work of various phenomenologist.

1.6 METHODOLOGY The study is largely based on the secondary data collected from various secondary sources of data collection like websites, newspapers, magazines and various research papers and secondary surveys. The research utilizes a qualitative process, where conclusions are drawn based on interpretation of the research material reviewed. The research paper will emphasize on understanding of how to design for developing human experience. How architectural spaces can be enhanced using phenomenological design approaches to have better human experience. The research procedure is shown in figure 1.1.

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Introduction

The research is carried out in following given steps:

Understanding what is phenomenology and its background in architecture

Historical background study of phenomenology in architecture

Exploring the need of phenomenology in architecture by studying thoughts by various theorists and by conducting a survey

Conducting a survey among architects to get their views on

Need of phenomenology

Approaches for experiential design

Challenges while practicing experiential design approaches

Drawing inferences from views of survey respondents

Case study of buildings designed with experiential design approaches

Elaborating inferences drawn from case study and survey

Concluding the experiential design approaches for use in architectural practice Figure 1.1: Research Methodology

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CHAPTER

PHENOMENOLOGY IN ARCHITECTURE


Phenomenology in Architecture

This chapter gives the brief overview about architectural phenomenology, its interpretation by various phenomenologists and how phenomenology is viewed in architecture from past few decades. The chapter also draw notion on need of phenomenology in present architecture style.

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Phenomenology in Architecture

2.1 BRIEF INTRODUCTION: ARCHITECTURAL PHENOMENOLOGY 2.1.1 WHAT IS PHENOMENOLOGY? In philosophical terms, phenomenology is the interpretative study of human beings through their experiences in and of the world on an everyday life basis. Phenomenology is the study of structures of consciousness as experienced from the first-person point of view. The central structure of an experience is its intentionality, its being directed toward something, as it is an experience of or about some object. An experience is directed toward an object by virtue of its content or meaning (which represents the object) together with appropriate enabling conditions. (Stanford, 2013) “Architectural phenomenology,” can be defined as the phenomenological study of architectural experiences and meanings as constituted by qualities and features of both the built environment and human life (Seamon D.,2016).

2.1.2 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND The history of phenomenology is complex. (Spiegelberg. 1982).People have, of course experienced the world informally for millennia, however this field was developed by the German philosopher Edmund Husserl in the early years of the 20th Century to formally theories experience.(Stanford,2013) The phenomenological movement began with his Logical Investigations (1900-1901) .Over the time there developed different phenomenological schools, styles, and emphases. Phenomenology and architecture were linked in the 1970‟s by Christian Norberg-Schulz. Most phenomenology-based studies in architecture have utilised the works of philosophers such as Husserl, Heidegger and Merleau-Ponty.

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Phenomenology in Architecture

2.2.3 VIEWS BY VARIOUS THEORISTS Founding father of phenomenology Edmund Husserl believed that, beneath the changing flux of human experience and awareness, there are certain invariant structures of consciousness, which he claimed the phenomenological method could identify. Because Husserl viewed consciousness and its essential structures as a pure "region" separate from the flux of specific experiences and thoughts, his style of phenomenology came to be known as "transcendental." In his Inaugural Lecture at Freiburg im Breisgau (1917) Husserl states: A new fundamental science, pure phenomenology, has developed within philosophy: This is a science of a thoroughly new type and endless scope. It is inferior in methodological rigor to none of the modern sciences. All philosophical disciplines are rooted in pure phenomenology, through whose development, and through it alone, they obtain their proper force. Philosophy is possible as a rigorous science at all only through pure phenomenology. In The Crisis of European Sciences and Transcendental Phenomenology (1936), Husserl describes phenomenology as pure looking at a phenomenon and viewing its essence. The purpose of taking the phenomenological attitude is to recover human experience on a very large scale, i.e., using Husserl‟s terminology “to go back to the things themselves.” However other phenomenological thinkers such as the German philosopher Martin Heidegger and the French philosopher Maurice Merleau-Ponty reacted against Husserl's transcendental structures of consciousness. These "existential" phenomenologists, as they came to be called, argued that such transcendental structures are questionable because Husserl based their reality on speculative, cerebral reflection rather than on actual human experience taking place within the world of everyday life. Martin Heidegger describes phenomenology as “the science of phenomena” (Heidegger M. 1977). Phenomenology in its etymological sense is the activity of giving an account of the way things appear. ARCHITECTURAL PHENOMENOLOGY EXPLORING THE EXPERIENTIAL POTENTIALITY OF ARCHITECTURE

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Phenomenology in Architecture

The definition given by Maurice Merleau-Ponty in the introduction to his Phenomenology of Perception (1945) gives a more specific idea about phenomenology: Phenomenology is the study of essences; and according to it, all problems amount to finding definition of essences: the essence of perception, or the essence of consciousness, for example. But phenomenology is also a philosophy which puts essences back into existence, and does not expect to arrive at an understanding of man and the world from any starting point other than of their ‗facticity‘. It is a transcendental philosophy which places in abeyance the assertions arising out of the natural attitude, the better to understand them; but it is also a philosophy for which the world is always ‗already there‘ before reflection begins—as an inalienable presence; and all its efforts are concentrated upon re-achieving a direct and primitive contact with the world, and endowing that contact with a philosophical status. It is the search for a philosophy which shall be a ‗rigorous science‘, but it also offers an account of space, time and the world as we ‗live‘ them. It tries to give a direct description of our experience as it is. (Merleau- Ponty. 1945)

In Phenomenology of Perception, Maurice Merleau-Ponty(1945) broadened Heidegger's correction to include the active role of the body in human experience. Merleau-Ponty sought to reinterpret the division between body and mind common to most conventional Western philosophy and psychology. This "existential turn" of Heidegger and Merleau-Ponty moved Husserl's realm of pure intellectual consciousness "into the realm of the contingencies of history and embodiment".

In Being and Time (1962), Heidegger argued that, in conventional philosophy and psychology, the relationship between person and world has been reduced to either an idealist or realist perspective. In an idealist view, the world is a function of a person who acts on the world through consciousness and, therefore, actively knows and shapes his or her world. In contrast, a realist view sees the person as a function of the world in that the world acts on the person and he or she reacts. Heidegger claimed that both perspectives are out of touch with the nature of human life because they assume a separation and directional relationship between person and world ARCHITECTURAL PHENOMENOLOGY EXPLORING THE EXPERIENTIAL POTENTIALITY OF ARCHITECTURE

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Phenomenology in Architecture

that does not exist in the world of actual lived experience. Instead, Heidegger argued that people do not exist apart from the world but, rather, are intimately caught up in and immersed. As a second representative of phenomenological theory in architecture, Juhani Pallasmaa presents phenomenology as pure looking at the phenomenon, or viewing its essence (M. Reza Shirazi 2014). He claims that, by means of a naive seeing, we are able to approach the essence of things unburdened by convention or intellectualized explanation (Pallasmaa J. 2001).

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Phenomenology in Architecture

2.2.4 CONCLUSION Based on definitions by various theorists phenomenology can be defined as the exploration of phenomena, where phenomena refers to the experiences as human beings experience them and this experience can be formed from any object, event, situation or experience that a person can see, hear, touch, smell, taste, feel and understand. The notion drew from various interpretations points towards phenomenology in architecture as a way, a method or an approach for better understanding of architectural problem and their solutions.

Scale Material

Quality of Space

Emotions

Temperature Sound

Listening Visual Olfactory

Sense of Place

Touch Taste

Senses Interaction, Relation

Other

Phenomenology Human perception

Object vs. User User emotional response to architecture

Memory

Experience

Freedom, closed

Positive Negative

Figure 2.1: Phenomenology and its aspects

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Phenomenology in Architecture

2.2 NEED OF PHENOMENOLOGY IN ARCHITECTURE

2.2.1 THEORITICAL PRECEDENT If “architecture is about shaping our physical habitat to suit human purposes” it should consider the way we relate to space. It should take into account the specifics of a lived experience of space. Studying architectural phenomenology themes can enable architects to think deeply about the experience of space and evoke helpful images and details. One of the reasons phenomenology is useful to architects is its power to gather and even give intellectual legitimacy to many aspects related to architecture that are not apprehended by other philosophical or professional perspectives. In this sense, phenomenology relates well to architects „interdisciplinary minds and their desire to bring together sensitivity and sensibility to the applied, real-world processes of design and construction. Architectural theorists have attempted to enrich the awareness of architectural space by using the philosophical field of Phenomenology. The power of phenomenology can be understood by following view of architectural phenomenologist‟s. A functional building is not yet architecture. To become architecture, the functional building needs to have both „atmosphere‟ and „meaning‟ .( Pallasmaa J.1996 ) Architect Steven Holl explains: Phenomenology concerns the study of essences; architecture has the potential to put essences back into existence. By weaving form, space, and light, architecture can elevate the experience of daily life through the various phenomena that emerge from specific sites, programs, and architectures. On one level, an idea-

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force drives architecture; on another, structure, material space, color, light, and shadow intertwine in the fabrication of architecture. ( Holl S. 1996) Theorist Alberto Pérez-Gómez argues that, in an era when architecture has lost its metaphysical dimension and is no longer a privileged form of people-world reconciliation, only phenomenology can rediscover the primacy of perception and overcome the fundamental dilemma that modern philosophy inherited from Descartes.

2.2.2 SERVING PURPOSE OF ARCHITECTURE What is the task of architecture? It is to “to create enclosure for human necessities” or something else. ―We all experienced architecture before we have even heard the word.. The roots of our architectural understanding lie in our architectural experience: our room, our house, our street, our village, our town, our landscape, - we experience them all early on, unconsciously, and we subsequently compare them with the countryside, towns, and houses that we experience later on. The roots of our understanding of architecture lie in our childhood, in our youth; they lie in our biography.‖(Zumthor P. 2006) Architecture is not about building enclosure but its about creating meaningful spaces. Architectural experience is constant part of human life thus architecture can improve human life by creating timeless, free, joyous spaces for all activities in life. Architectural experience should not be misguided with the aesthetics and visual images as suggested in below quote. A real architecture experience is not simply a series of retinal images; a building is encountered – it is approached, confronted, encountered, related to one‘s body, moved about, utilized as a condition for other things. (Holl ; Pallasmaa; Pérez-Gómez, 2006 ).

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Phenomenology in Architecture

On a primary physical level, the purpose of architecture is to serve, providing for the necessity of shelter. On a secondary psychological level, shelter is given greater importance and significance when transformed into architecture. Acknowledging the feelings, desires and psychological needs of the occupants, architecture has the ability to serve a deeper function. It can offer a higher quality of life, providing the possibility of a stimulating and engaging experience. Integrating phenomenology in architecture can help serve this purpose of architecture.

2.2.3 CONCLUSION Phenomenology provides comprehensive foundations for a socially and culturally responsible architectural practice. Adopting a phenomenological perspective in relation to architecture, can help in designing keeping in mind interrelationship of the world with social, cultural, and historical realm in which we live. Phenomenology provides a pathway towards a more deeper and comprehensive design approach which emphasize on more experiential and contextual practice.

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3

CHAPTER

SURVEY


Survey

A survey is conducted to assess architectural professionalsâ€&#x; views on need of phenomenology in architecture and to analyze their opinion and viewpoints on use of phenomenological design tools in architectural practice. This chapter presents the inferences drawn from view of architects on use of phenomenology in architecture as presented in survey.

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Survey

3.1 METHOD OF SURVEY: Since questionnaire is efficient and reasonably effective at obtaining data and can be delivered to a large number of participant with little effort. A questionnaire survey was selected as most appropriate methodology since intention was to get opinion from as many as architects possible with working experience.

Part

Question

1

Do you think architecture have power to inspire and transform human behavior and psychology?

Type

Yes/No Do you think building or space should be designed with phenomenological design approach or should be designed to create an experience through impact on human senses?

Do you take into account experiential quality of space or architectural phenomenological design approach while designing? 2

3

Write the number starting from 1 to 6 for building type in order as per need or requirement for experiential quality design?(write 1 for highest requirement) Residence group housing offices public spaces museum and art galleries institutional

Ways or tools that you think can be used for increasing experiential quality of space or to have good impact on human senses?

Yes/No

Choice

Multiple choice selection

Give challenges that arise while implementing the design that focuses on experiential quality of space?

Table 3.1: Survey Questionnaire Content

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Survey

Survey questionnaires split into three parts. Table 3.1 summarize the content and design: 1 part asks about impact of architecture on human psychology and need of phenomenology. 2 part asks about use of experiential design tool in their practice and preference for design of particular building type. 3part ask about tools and challenges arise while implementing experiential design practice. To give respondents the opportunity to express views not covered in part three one optional part is given to add any comments.

3.2 RESULTS AND INFERENCES: The questionnaire is filled by 26 architects. Analysis of respondents data reveal distribution in term of experience of respondents as shown in figure 3.1.

Less than 5

5 to 10

More than 10

31% 48%

21%

Figure 3.1: Experience of respondents (in years)

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Survey

PART 1- Power of architecture and need of phenomenology The questions in this part are focused on knowing opinion about power of architecture to effect human psychology and need of phenomenology in present architecture. Question1-Do you think architecture have power to inspire and transform human behavior and psychology? Respondents are asked to give choices „Yes‟, „No‟

Yes

No

8%

92%

Figure 3.2: Architecture has power to transform human psychology

8% Respondents who gave negative response belong to experience group of more than 10 years.

92% respondents said architecture has power to transform the human psychology that means practicing architects do agree whatever they are designing it will have impact on human behavior .Thus it seems to be necessary to understand human psychology and its relation with built environment.

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Survey

Question2- Do you think building or space should be designed with phenomenological design approach or should be designed to create an experience through impact on human senses? Respondents are asked to give choices „Yes‟, „No‟ and „depend on type of building‟.

Yes

No

Depends on type of building

38%

58%

4%

Figure 3.3: Should space be designed with phenomenological design approach

100% respondents showed that they use experiential design approach in their practice this shows architects are aware of the need for experiential quality of spaces and there are doing their effort at individual and collective level to enhance human experience in architectural spaces.

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Survey

PART 2-Use of experiential design tool and preference for building type Question1 Do you take into account experiential quality of space or architectural phenomenological design approach while designing? Respondents are asked to give choices „Yes‟, „No‟ and „Its not required‟.

Yes

No

its not required 0%

100%

Figure 3.4: Use of phenomenological design approaches by respondents in design

100% Respondents indicated that they use experiential design tools in their practice. Question 2- write the number starting from 1 to 6 for building type in order as per need or requirement for experiential quality design?(write 1 for highest requirement) Residence group housing offices public spaces museum and art galleries institutional The first priority given to different building type is as follows: Residence-38.4%

Public spaces-26.9%

Group housing-7.6%

Museum and art galleries-23%

Offices-0%

Institutional-3.8%

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Survey

PART 3-Tools and challenges for approaching architectural practice Question 1- Ways or tools that you think can be used for increasing experiential quality of space or to have good impact on human senses? Respondents are given following Multiple select choices:   

Creating sense of place for the person who is going to be part of that space Use of materials that can be felt and experienced (eg playing with textures) Designing keeping in mind the cultural requirement of the group of people

Any other ………………………………………………………………………… Creating sense of place Use of different materials Designing keeping in mind the cultural requirements All of them

14% 46%

21%

19%

Figure 3.5: Ways for increasing experiential quality of space

To give respondents the opportunity to express views not covered Options one optional part is given to add any comments. Other view by respondents is as follows: 

Functional design for building type

Designing for comfort

Use of music and motifs

Understanding of inter-dependence nature and content which are co disciplinary

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Survey

Question 2- Give challenges that arise while implementing the design that focuses on experiential quality of space? Respondents are given following Multiple select choices: 

Underutilization of space

Ambiguity of cultural and psychological needs of unknown clients

Awareness of the experiential design tools

Any other……………………………………………………………………

Underutilization of space Ambiguity of cultural and psychological needs Awareness of experiential design tools All of them

6%

16%

42% 36%

Figure 3.6: Challenges in practicing experiential design

To give respondents the opportunity to express views not covered Options one optional part is given to add any comments. Other views by respondents are as follows: 

Awareness of client

Type of education system (too centric and sectorally focused)

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Survey

3.3 CONCLUSION: Based on result presented it can be concluded that architecture has the power to transform human behavior and psychology. Human behavior is shaped by its surroundings (built environment).Architecture is territory where humans develop and exists. Architecture is constantly experienced by us yet not mindfully considered. So the need for enhancing the human experience in architecture always exists which can be achieved by concept of architectural phenomenology and this need for phenomenology in architecture is also supported by respondents views. It is indicated in survey part 2 result that every architect at its individual level take care of experiential design for space. The preferences given by them indicate the importance of experience in residence at topmost level followed by public spaces. This can be understood as a cycle where an individual spend most of his/her time in residence followed by other spaces so the need for experience in residential design is highest. Survey views indicate that while we are approaching for experiential design of space creating sense of place for person who is going to be part of that space can be a major tool. Sense of place means a metal appreciation of environment and the creation of feeling among the users in relation to the environment. Other than these cultural and psychological needs of the user should be kept in mind while designing. Based on architects views indicated in survey inferences can be drawn that the key challenge is that every individual know the need of experiential design but there is general lack of awareness of design tools for enhancing experiential quality of space. This point towards the lack of basic learning of interrelationship of human psychology and built environment. The problem with learning any subject lies in preconceived notion about it. We always proceed with some preconceived idea of aesthetics, forms and utilitarian approach for designing and tend to miss the essence and rarely concerned about how the space makes us feel. So the problem can be solved by approaching it at basic level where we as amateurs are taught only about the visual seduction where architecture has more to offer. ARCHITECTURAL PHENOMENOLOGY EXPLORING THE EXPERIENTIAL POTENTIALITY OF ARCHITECTURE

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4

CONTEXT ANALYSIS

CHAPTER


Context Analysis

For finding the design approaches for experiential design buildings with experiential design approach are studied. This chapter includes study of two such buildinds that Jewish museum by Daniel Libeskind and Therme Vals by Peter Zumthor.The design of these two buildings are analyzed to understand basics of user experience in these buildings.

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4.1 JEWISH MUSEUM, BERLIN by Daniel Libeskind

The Jewish Museum in Berlin is the first major building of Libeskind. The museum design was the result of an international competition in 1989.The stated aims of the competition was twofold. First, the Jewish Museum Department, which was part of the Berlin Museum, was to be “enlarged and fully integrated into the Berlin Museum.” Second, the Berlin Museum itself needed more space.

Image 4.1: Scared Façade, Jewish museum (Source: http://www.flashpacklife.com/sites/default/files/styles/600x400/public/Jewish%20Museum%20Berlin_0.jpg) ARCHITECTURAL PHENOMENOLOGY EXPLORING THE EXPERIENTIAL POTENTIALITY OF ARCHITECTURE

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SPATIAL CONFIGURATION

Figure 4.1: Spatial configuration of Jewish museum (Source: http://visceralintricacyexperientialresearch.blogspot.in/2012/09/jewish-museum-vs-haunted-house.html)

The concept of the project was to create a museum representative of the Jewish struggle throughout history, which is defined in three major experiences: Axis of exile- It leads to exile garden Axis of death-It leads to holocaust tower which has no entrance

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Context Analysis

Axis of continuity- It holds the primary line of sight from the stair landing and leads to the permanent exhibition, which starts on the second level. Only axis of continuity leads to the museum and other two axes are shorter and leads to dead end with some symbolic meaning. The spatial arrangement of these axes create a curiosity in visitor as a triangular shaped island sits between the interlaced paths, making it possible to view only two axes at a time.

Figure 4.2: different axes, Jewish museum

The purpose of museum is to tell historical story of Berlin and the structure is used as medium for the narration of story. Here architect used no technological tools to move visitors through the space instead the spatial configuration is planned in a way to have a continuous experience.

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Image 4.2: Deformed interior, Axis of continuity (Source: http://photos1.blogger.com/blogger/3443/1587/1024/P1060025.jpg)

Image 4.3: Garden of exile (Source: http://www.jmberlin.de/blog-en/jmbblog-en/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/exil_stelen-kl.jpg)

Image 4.4: Screaming metal faces (Source: http://gettyimages.com)

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EXPERIENCE

Figure 4.3: Representationof experience in museum

The scale of museum architecture discourage human proportions and embodies neither perfect not unnatural human form.When confronted by scary façade and disturbing interiors visitors found themselves in another world,certainly in mental crisis as in same situation jewish supposed to be.The visitors experience terror differently in different spaces.

Figure 4.4: Spaces design for creating experience in museum

Real experience is created by placement of void space, squeezing between tall narrow walls, walking on iron faces, wandering in exile garden and terrifying in dark spaces to make the museum immortal in visitorâ€&#x;s experience as represented in figure 4.4.

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Context Analysis

4.2 THERME VALS, SWITZERLAND by Peter Zumthor Therme Vals is the hotel/spa complex in Vals, built over the only thermal springs in the Graub端nden.The aim is to create a contemporary thermal bath which has to be unique and independent, it has to have something to do with their valley, their mountain, but avoid cliches and provide a special atmosphere for bathing. The architect for the project Peter Zumthor created a space for bathing that unites the modern world with the ancient rituals of cleansing the body.

Image 4.5: View of Therme Vals (Source: https://s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/736x/1d/21/44/1d2144c5dd8043db86b8e72a12dac4ed.jpg)

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Context Analysis

CONCEPT 

The main conceptual idea is focused on the geology of the site itself and comprises an extremely distant memory almost prehistoric. According to Zumthor Stone and water reflects the topography of the site and their connection is magical.

The baths were designed to be timeless, to blend in completely with their surroundings. Zumthor achieved this through profound understanding of idea, form, material, detail, context and the realization of his envisioned end.

Design was based around the experience of the baths, the atmosphere that the building would create for the user. Zumthor believed that “rooms may owe their existence to an idea, but in the end, they consist of substance, of material that often does not obey any idea but rather, wants to come into its own”.

Figure 4.5: Space organisation in Therme Vals (Source: https://coreygrobe.files.wordpress.com/.../case-study-2-_-therme-vals.do)

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Architect combines both enclosed nodes for intensely focused healing and an abundance of exposed indoor and outdoor general healing spaces as shown in figure 4.5.

EXPERIENCE:

Figure 4.6: Representationof experience in Therme Vals

―As I descend the stairs the warm water slowly engulfs my body. The confined passageway forces me to move along the wall. A narrow opening draws me in. I traverse. Inside, the intimate scale of the bath is surrounded by tall stone walls, from which even the slightest whisper echoes; their jagged, Unpolished surface creates a unique texture for both the eye and the hand. Leaning against the brass rail, I gaze, feel and listen. It‘s so beautiful.”1 (Sabine Pagan,2010) From the above lines describing the experience of visitor inside building it can be understood the movement in building is full of surpises the spaces designed create a curiosity in the visitor to explore further.Sound of flowing water,echo of human voices,different temperature, aroma of water in different pools and play of space its an multisensorial experience in itself.

1-Extract from author‟s diary, research fieldtrip to Therme Vals, Switzerland, December 2010 ARCHITECTURAL PHENOMENOLOGY EXPLORING THE EXPERIENTIAL POTENTIALITY OF ARCHITECTURE

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SPATIAL CONFIGURATION:

Figure 4.7: Floor Plan Therme Vals (Source: https://coreygrobe.files.wordpress.com/.../case-study-2-_-therme-vals.do)

The circulation of the baths begins at the singular entrance, which is located in the basement of the main hotel. The user follows along a long corridor that creates a cave-like experience, then enters into a misty hallway along which run brass pipes that carry the warm spring waters.

The path through the baths focuses on waiting, imagining and walking into the unknown.

The large size of the main pool entices the user to explore further into the various spaces. The path that different users take through the smaller blocks is determined by curiosity.

Each pool has a distinct size, temperature and sensorial function: Flower bath, Sound bath, Fire bath, Cold bath, Indoor bath and Outdoor bath. The placement of these pools as well as the Sounding and drinking stones is ambiguous and, together with a deliberate lack of signage, bathers must rely on their senses to navigate through the space.

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Context Analysis

SCALE: The concept of scale is used in dramatic contrast. The large volumes of the Therme Vals seem to be largely out of scale with those that inhabit the space as seen in image 4.6. The large cavernous spaces feel as if you are passing through the quartzite tunnels of the quarry itself. These slabs that run in continuous bands around the entirely of the baths are grouped together in set of three. Although they seem quite randomly used,each set of three bands always equal to 15 centimeters, allowing the users to still feel as if he were the master of this space.

Image 4.6: Concept of scale,Therme Vals (Source:http://bobbijopmh.com/admin/wp-content/uploads/2014/09/Gestalt-Principles.png)

USE OF LIGHT: •

The experience one gets through the misty and humid environment lit by stripes of light from above is playful and mystical.

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Context Analysis

There is also a transition between the spaces close to the facade where the difference between darkness and light is extremely noticeable.

The combination of light and shade, open and enclosed spaces and linear elements make the visit to the baths a highly sensuous and restorative experience.

Image 4.7: Light in main indoor pool (Source:http://bobbijopmh.com/admin/wp-content/uploads/2014/09/Gestalt-Principles.png)

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5

CHAPTER

APPROACHING ARCHITECTURAL PRACTISE


Approaching Architectural Practice

This chapter reexamined phenomenological concepts in terms of their implications for the user in architecture. While applying theoretical knowledge into practice there arise a question how to proceed with this knowledge, how to incorporate it in the real world practices. This chapter explores the relation between theory and practice in the phenomenological perspective. In this context, it emphasizes the relevance of practical use for architectural discourse. This chapter also presents the understanding of sense of place in architecture.

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Approaching Architectural Practice

5.1 DESIGN APPROACHES AND TOOLS It is analyzed from the results of survey conducted that the major challenge in architecture is the lack of awareness of design approaches for experiential design. So to find the out how to design experiential architectural spaces work of architects and view of survey respondents are analyzed. Phenomenological design approaches in architecture can be generalized in following streams based on review of works of various architectural theorists and inferences of survey conducted. 

Sense of place- that is bringing back the importance of place in architecture. Sense of place is the creation of feeling among the users in relation to the environment.

Atmosphere- that is emphasizing the role of spatial experience as the key to the essence of architecture as seen in work of Juhani pallasmaa and Peter Zumthor. Atmosphere is the notion used by architects to argue that architecture and space is designed and built for people to use and experience.

For understanding the atmosphere majorly the work of Peter Zumthor is studied and elements from his book Atmospheres: Architectural Environments – Surrounding Objects (2006) are elaborated. These two streams are expressions of the relationships between space and body.

5.2 SENSE OF PLACE IN ARCHITECTURE 5.2.1 INTRODUCTION Sense of place means a metal appreciation of environment and the creation of feeling among the viewers in relation to the environment. Sense of place means people‟s mental perception from the environment and more or less conscious emotions from their environment, which put the person in the inner relationship with the environment ( Vali and Nasekhiyan. 2014). So that their understanding and feeling link to the context of the meaning and get integrated. This sense is a factor that makes a space become a place with specific ARCHITECTURAL PHENOMENOLOGY EXPLORING THE EXPERIENTIAL POTENTIALITY OF ARCHITECTURE

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emotional and behavioral characteristics for the particular individuals. According to Phenomenologist, sense of place means a place to link with a place through understanding symbols and daily activities.

5.2.2 UNDERSTANDING PLACE According to Oxford Dictionary of Geography, the word “place” is defined as a specific point on the earth identifiable for a location in which human values were formed and grown. According to Webster's Dictionary of English, in addition to the geographical concept place refers to the placement of individuals in society and in certain areas (social aspects of space). Place is part of space with specific value and meaning. ( Madanipoor A. 2000)

5.2.3 ELEMENTS OF PLACE As per Nurbery Schultz (2003) three main principles about place and its formed mental picture creating meaning and sense in a place are:

Figure 5.1: Elements of place Typology: it refers to the conceptual architecture and can be done by symbolization in a place which indicates four features in human: mood, understanding, dialogue, being with others. 

Mood: This means that the human mind interacts with its environment in a period of time without the need for intermediaries, and this implies the existence of certain features in the environment

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People identify the environment by using them and register their mental images in their memory. In fact, it is what a man feels from their environment.

Understanding: it implies the perception and understanding the environment through diagnosis of the direction and way and to understand the features of their environments.

Dialogue: it refers to the meaning and connection between people and places. Dialogue expresses the identity of places. As per Schultz view, architecture as part of human conversation reveals the identity of the world often identified by borders.

Being with others: this refers to the fact human share their world with others which Schultz named it sharing identity with others.

Topology: this emphasizes on the investigation of the properties and facilities of living space or actual by insisting the designer work on discipline and environment characteristics and utilizing the Gestalt principles2 and geometry because the properties of a place are specified by things with special features in it. In this context, he refers to entities in nature which are the things of earth including rocks, grass, plants, and waters since everything between heaven and earth should have such attributes and characteristics to be alive and complete.

Figure 5.2: GESTALT principles of visual perception (Source:http://bobbijopmh.com/admin/wp-content/uploads/2014/09/Gestalt-Principles.png)

2- Gestalt is a psychology term which means "unified whole". It refers to theories of visual perception developed by German psychologists in the 1920s. These theories attempt to describe how people tend to organize visual elements into groups or unified wholes when certain principles are applied. ARCHITECTURAL PHENOMENOLOGY EXPLORING THE EXPERIENTIAL POTENTIALITY OF ARCHITECTURE

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Morphology: this regard how to get and remain in a place, the relationship between inside and outside space, equality with the environment space, and feeling of being surrounded and central. And the environment could be complete and meaningful through this way and human finds their identity.

Place is a space felt, understood, and associated with memories. Therefore, the feeling towards a place commonly called “Sense of place” is formed in human‟s feeling and memories. Place is a space where human knows their presence. The original meaning of a place is beyond the functions provided by a place, higher than a community that occupies it, and beyond the artificial and material experiences of a place. However, all of these cases are required aspects of a place, but the nature of a place in experiences, from the unconscious attention to the place, identifies a place as a rich and deep center of the world and human existence. Architect responsibility is to change a space into a place which means to turn potential content into actual content.

SPACE

PLACE

5.2.4 FACTORS CREATING SENSE OF PLACE Sense of place is a complex mixture of meanings, symbols, and the quality that a person or a group percept from space or specific area consciously or unconsciously. (Shamai S. 1991)The sense of place is not just a feeling or emotion or any other relation to a specific place, but it is a cognitive and structural system by which individuals get a sense of belonging to the issues, people, things, and concepts of a place. The contributed factors to form the sense of place can be broadly divided into two groups; 

The cognitive and perceptual factors

The physical characteristics of a physical setting.

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THE COGNITIVE FACTORS: refer to the meanings and concepts that are understood by people in a place. Therefore, sense of place not only is a sense of affection with a place, but also it has a cognitive structure where an individual attach himself/herself to concepts and meanings of a place. In this case, sense of place as an emotional bonding between people and places is created after cognition. As a result, there are varied senses between different people and their experiences, motivations, their backgrounds, and also the Characteristics of physical setting influence the sense of place.

PHYSICAL FACTOR: The most important physical factors influencing the perception and sense of place include size, location, and degree of enclosure, contrast, scale, proportion, human scale, space, texture, color, smell, sound, and visual diversity.( Steele F 1981). The physical features of place with creating meanings, conceptions and also Safeguard of their function contribute to make Sense of place.

5.2.5 CONCLUSION Sense of place can be defined as an emotional relationship between people and places. Physical attributes, activities and meanings associated with places contribute to make sense of place. Every place is built for supporting a particular action, so an activity could refers to actions afforded by the place. However, meanings could refer to perceptual and psychological aspects of an environmental experience perceived by people. Peopleâ€&#x;s past experiences, backgrounds, memories, personality, knowledge, culture, attitude, motivations, beliefs, age and gender influence the perceived sense of place. Therefore, sense of place is a result of the interaction of human and his living space. However, places have different levels of sense of place and people usually will contribute to social activities based on their strength of emotional bonds with places. Some places have a high level of sense of place. These places encourage people to dwell, stay a little longer and to connect with one another. They provide opportunities for social interactions in urban areas and are important to the health and well being of

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people. Places and the meanings associated with them are important current issues in the built environment. Due to modernity, globalization and the societal changes, the role of space and places in contemporary society is currently undergoing fundamental changes. Modernity and globalization will continue to contribute towards „Placelessness‟ as described by Relph3 .This problem needs to be understand by understanding users. This can be done by learning more about the full spectrum of people‟s experiences of places including the complex and multi-faceted phenomena that comprise our emotional relationships to places.

5.3 ATMOSPHERE IN ARCHITECTURE: 5.3.1 ATMOSPHERE IN CONTEXT OF ARCHITECTURE ―What do we mean when we speak of architectural quality? It is a question that I have little difficulty in answering. Quality in architecture . . . is to me when a building manages to move me. What on earth is it that moves me? How can I get it into my own work? . . . How do people design things with such a beautiful, natural presence, things that move me every single time? One word for it is Atmosphere‖(Zumthor P. 2006)

It can be understood from above quote of architect Peter Zumthor that atmosphere refers to the sensorial qualities that a space emits. Atmosphere is an immediate form of physical perception, and is recognized through emotional sensibility. It is the very initial and immediate experience of space. Peter Zumthor explained more about atmosphere in a lecture titled “Presence in Architecture – Seven Personal Observation” at the school of Architecture in Tel Aviv University. ―In a fragment of a second you can understand: Things you know, things you don‘t know, things you don‘t know that you don‘t know, conscious, unconscious, things which in a fragrant of a second you can react to:

3- Relph is a Canadian geographer, best known for his book “Place and Placelessness”(1976) ARCHITECTURAL PHENOMENOLOGY EXPLORING THE EXPERIENTIAL POTENTIALITY OF ARCHITECTURE

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we can all imagine why this capacity was given to us as human beings - I guess to survive. Architecture to me has the same kind of capacity. It takes longer to capture, but the essence to me is the same. I call this atmosphere. When you experience a building and it gets to you. It sticks in your memory and your feelings. I guess thats what I am trying to do‖ (Gili Merin Archdaily, 2013) From the above lines it can understand that Architecture is not merely form it is all about how human perceive that space ,how they experience a space, how it became part of their memory,how the space affect the human emotions and this is summed up in one word that is “Atmosphere”. Learning from the view of masters always help in better understanding of the topic.Peter Zumthor and Juhani Pallasmaa both have worked on experiential design in architecture.The two architects address atmosphere in different ways: while Pallasmaa reflects on the relation of atmosphere with other crucial aspects of architectural experience in a theoretical sense, Zumthor directly uses atmosphere as a guiding principle in his architectural practice. Pallasmaa argued, atmosphere is immediately experienced as a unity, in which all senses are simultaneously at work. The experience of atmospheric quality in architecture, then, is by definition an embodied experience. However, since architecture is subject to use, atmosphere is by no means a merely individual task. Pallasmaa noted, moreover, that it is crucial for architects to empathise with users, clients and other perceivers of architecture, no matter how anonymous or distant they may seem. He thus considered, next to embodiment, compassion as a necessary skill for architects to be able to build atmosphere.( Havik K., Tielens G. 2013)

5.3.2 CREATING ATMOSPHERE Architecture is not about form, it is about many other things .It is about atmosphere, experience and feelings and emotions attached to space. The notion of atmosphere remains largely unaddressed in architecture. How atmosphere is present in and through architecture, and how architects can construct atmospheres, cannot be answered in a mere rational sense. ARCHITECTURAL PHENOMENOLOGY EXPLORING THE EXPERIENTIAL POTENTIALITY OF ARCHITECTURE

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To create atmosphere Architect need to imagine oneself in that space. The approach would be to have coordination and balance between different themes for creating atmosphere. The various themes which can play an important role in achieving atmosphere can be identified from Peter Zumthor work which he summed up in his book Atmospheres: Architectural Environments — Surrounding Objects (2006).He proposes „Material Compatibility‟, „The Sound of a Space‟, „The Temperature of a Space‟, „Levels of Intimacy‟, and „The Light on Things‟ as qualities form the essence of presence in architecture. (Zumthor P. 2006)

5.3.2.1 Material Compatibility ―We actually never talk about form in the office. we talk about construction, we can talk about science, and we talk about feelings. From the beginning the materials are there, right next to the desk , when we put materials together, a reaction starts, this is about materials, this is about creating an atmosphere, and this is about creating architecture.‖( Gili Merin Archdaily,2013) In above quote Peter Zumthor told about the importance of material in designing. Material is one of the main components for creating atmosphere. Every material is unique and have their different radiance .Use and composition of different materials wisely would result in something unique. There are so many possibilities that a material entails and it depends on how it can be crafted, how it‟s used and how it weights. 5.3.2.3 The Sound of a Space ―Listen interiors are like large instruments, collecting sound, amplifying it,transmitting it elsewhere.That has to do with space peculiar to each room and with the surfaces of the materials they contain and the way those material have been applied.Take a wonderful spruce floor like the top of violen and lay it across wood or again stick it to concrete slab.Do you notice the difference in sound? Of course.But unfortunately many people are not aware of the sound a room make.‖ (Zumthor P. 2006)

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Every activity in building have its own sound whether its people walking ,ceiling fan rotating,people chating that give the space its character.Architect need to understand quality of sound that is needed for the particular space whether its stillness,echo or anything else and the space should be designed according to that. 5.3.2.4

Levels of intimacy

one space can make us feel humble and small while another can make us feel proud and light. The contrast of the building to the body,Size, mass, gravity of things, proximity and distance, scale is that make it possible.The relation of human body with the elements of building the contrast in the mass and sclae create different feelings for example a room with low ceiling make us feel restricted ,closed while a double height space will create a sense of freedom,openness.So, the space and its elements sholud be designed keeping in mind its relation with human body and feeling ,emotions and experience that space will evoke. 5.3.2.5

The temperature of a space

Spaces in a building have different temperatures and the temperature too affect the feelings and experience of human.Every material used in the building have its own temperature.Steel for instance is cool and drags down the temperature while wood give the feeling of warmth.Materials extract warmth from our body.Temperature of space is not merely associated with the sense of touching materials, it entails more senses than touch, itâ€&#x;s also about what we see and feel in a more psychological manner. 5.3.2.5

The Light on Things

How light fell, how shadows are formed, how light is reflected within a space create a sensorial experience. Light is one of the important element for creating experience. One way of doing that as suggested by Peter Zumthor is to plan a building as pure mass of shadow and then afterwards to put in light as if you were hollowing out the darkness ,as if light were a new mass seeping in. Direct, diffused, reflected light falling creating patterns, casting shadows, illuminating the space light in itself is poetry in spaces.

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5.3.3 CONCLUSION Atmosphere is achieved by not only using our eyes but by thinking, imagining, using all of our other senses. Elements described by Zumthor and Pallasma tells us how the senses can be addressed.Atmosphere is the sensorial quality of space and it can be achieved when we imagine oneself in the space to be designed.We need to realize how the user is going to experience the space and what would be the emotions evoked by the space and for that we need to know the intangible aspects associated with the architecture.From the description of above themes it is analyzed that the use of light, shadow,material,sound,space quality,scale need to be address first,form is secondary thing and it can be done at end.

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6

CHAPTER

CONCLUSION


Conclusion

CONCLUSION The primary outcome of the study is the phenomenological design approaches and there use in architectural practice for better human experience in a space. Architecture is indispensable part of human life. We remain in built environment through our whole life cycle thus architecture plays an important role in shaping our behavior and psychology. Architecture role is not only to create functional and well designed spaces but also to provide possibilities to animate human senses and behavior. The figure 6.1 shows the relation between human and architecture and how human perceive a space

Figure 6.1: Human Perception of space

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Conclusion

Through the research presented it is stated that Architecture has the power to transform human behavior and experience. Architectural phenomenology can be used as a tool for creating experience in space. The result of survey conducted among architects proves the above statement. Through the literature reviewed and research it is analyzed that experience in architecture is result of individual human perception and quality of spaces created by the architect. Experience is created when the space is designed for creating a sense of place keeping in mind the user requirements and how the user will perceive that space as depicted in figure 6.2.Human experience space in perspective not in plan and elevation so the design should support the perspective need of human psychology.

Figure 6.2: Relation of experiential architecture

The sense of surprise, or the unexpected, is fundamental to the making of rich experiences for the user. Architect understanding of how users will inhabit his architecture plays a significant part in the success of his work. Design approaches for experiential design, developed through the inferences of survey and case studies are shown in figure 6.3.

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Conclusion

Understanding the site context and user background

Analyzing feeling and emotions space would evoke

Imaging oneself as user perceiving space

Selecting type of spacesIntimate, enclosed, open , closed as per need

+

Material selection and there effect on the user

Organizing spaces with

selected material to have a sense of surprise throughout movement

Merging Lighting and sound themes

Molding the elements into a building form

Figure 6.3: Flow chart showing developed experiential design approach

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Conclusion

Through this research paper I tried to find the various design approaches to have an experiential quality of space and to spread awareness among the young architects about the experiential aspect of a built form. To design is to create, to give life which can be achieved once we understand how people perceive, react and function in spaces and how it affects the experience of the all user associated with that space.

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REFERENCES Gili Merin. 2013, Peter Zumthor: Seven Personal Observations on Presence In Architecture,accessed on 12 Dec. 2015. http://www.archdaily.com/452513/peter-zumthor-seven-personal-observations-on-presence-in-architecture Havik, Klaske; Tielens Gus. 2013,Atmosphere, Compassion and Embodied Experience A conversation about Atmosphere with Juhani Pallasmaa, p.33, available at http://www.oasejournal.nl/en/Issues/91/AtmosphereCompassionAndEmbodiedExperience#033, accessed on 19 Dec. 2015 Heidegger, Martin. 1977 The Age of the World Picture. in The Question Concerning Technology and Other Essays, New York: Harper,p.74.

Heidegger, Martin. 1962. Being and Time. New York: Harper & Row

Holl Steven; Pallasmaa Juhani; Pérez-Gómez, 2006. Question of perception:Phenomenology of Architecture.San Francisco,CA:William Stout, p.35.

Holl S. 1996,Intertwining, NY: Princeton Architectural Press.p. 11. Madanipoor A (2000). Urban Space Design, an Attitude on the Social and Spatial Processes, translated by Mortezai F (Processing And Planning Company) Tehran.. Merleau- Ponty, 1945 (2002), Phenomenology of Perception, p.vii, 487. Pallasmaa,Juhani. 2001, The Architecture of Image: Existential Space in Cinema (Helsinki: Building Information), p.21.

Nurbery Schultz CH .2003. Architecture: Meaning and Place, translated by NuruziBorazjani V (Jan e Jahan Publication) Tehran.

Pallasmaa, Juhani, 1996. The Geometry Of Feeling, A Look at the Phenomenology of Architecture. In Kate Nesbitt, ed., Theorizing A New Agenda For Architecture: An Anthology of Architectural Theory 1965–1995 (NY: Princeton Architectural Press), p.448–453.

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Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2013), Phenomenology, accessed on 21 Aug. 2015. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/phenomenology/# Seamon, D., 2016. A Phenomenological and Hermeneutic Reading of Rem Koolhaas’s Seattle Public Library: Buildings as Life worlds and Architectural Texts. In R. Conway Dalton and C. Hölscher (eds.), Take One Building: Research Methods in Architecture. Farnham, UK: Ashgate, forthcoming.

Shamai SH .1991. Sense of place: A principle measurement. Israel, Geoforum 22, p. 347-358. Shirazi M. Reza. 2014, Towards an Articulated Phenomenological Interpretation of Architecture,available at http://samples.sainsburysebooks.co.uk/9781134698554_sample_642761.pdf,accessed 10 Dec. 2015.

Spiegelberg, H. 1982. The phenomenological movement. Dordrecht, the Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff.

Steele F. 1981. The Sense of Place ,Cbi Publishing Company, Boston.

Vali and Nasekhiyan .2014 Online International Journal Vol. 4 (S4), p. 3746-3753.available at http://www.cibtech.org/sp.ed/jls/2014/04/jls.htm, accessed on 3 Nov. 2015.

Zumthor Peter. 2006, Atmospheres: Architectural Environments – Surrounding Objects ,Basel: Birkhäuser, p.11-28.

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ANNEXURE QUESTIONNAIRE

Name of Architect -………………………………

firm/company……………………………

1-Major types of projects being done? Residence group housing offices public spaces museum and art galleries institutional 2-Do you think architecture have power to inspire and transform human behavior and psychology? Yes

No

3-Do you think building or space should be designed with phenomenological design approach or should be designed to create an experience through impact on human senses? Yes

No

Depends on type of building

4-Do you take into account experiential quality of space or architectural phenomenological design approach while designing? Yes

No

Its not required

5-write the number starting from 1 to 6 for building type in order as per need or requirement for experiential quality design?(write 1 for highest requirement) Residence group housing offices public spaces museum and art galleries institutional 6-Ways or tools that you think can be used for increasing experiential quality of space or to have good impact on human senses? Creating sense of place for the person who is going to be part of that space Use of materials that can be felt and experienced (eg playing with textures) Designing keeping in mind the cultural requirement of the group of people Any other …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 7-Give challenges that arise while implementing the design that focuses on experiential quality of space? Underutilization of space Ambiguity of cultural and psychological needs of unknown clients Awareness of the experiential design tools Any other……………………………………………………………………………………………………

NOTE: This questionnaire is part of survey for research paper on “Phenomenology of senses in architecture” as an academic requirement for Bachelor of Architecture degree. Your cooperation is appreciated.

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2015 Š Jyoti Ahlawat Contact: ahlawatjyoti2695@gmail.com

MBS School of Planning and architecture Sector 9, Dwarka, New Delhi 110075

Architectural Phenomenology exploring the experiential potentiality of architecture  

Undergraduate Research Paper

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