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GET INSPIRED With great ideas and tips for all types of trips: big city adventures, beach and sun, backpacking, camping, shopping and loads more! USE THE GUIDE What’s the real heart of Phuket? Where are New York’s best restaurants? The top beaches in the South of France? FIND THAT FLIGHT Find the best deals on flights, hotels and package holidays. Crosscheck every travel site – in one click!

As the eyes become accustomed to the ­darkness, the contours of the ship with its 2,000 iron nails, the sacrificed horses and, not least, the strikingly well-preserved ship’s ­anchor slowly emerge to full view. The burial mound over the ship has now been rebuilt and, when you enter, you step 1,100 years back in time. Around the year 925, a Viking king was buried here in his ship with horses, dogs and precious grave goods.

THE BOOK COVERS large and small attractions throughout D ­ enmark and gives directions to museums, ring fortresses, burial mounds, stone ships, rune stones, walking trails and vibrant Viking markets and ­settlements, where you can get close to the real meaning of “Viking”. A wide range of background articles, written by experts, give the Vikings their true and astonishing context – their history, society, art and culture, nature and geography. The guide is also richly illustrated with photos and maps.

From the book’s description of Ladby Viking Museum – Funen chapter

A TRAVEL GUIDE  VIKINGS IN DENMARK

ON TOUR WITH - THE INTERNET

A TRAVEL GUIDE

KEY FOR SYMBOLS IN ARTICLES

KEY FOR SYMBOLS ON MAPS TERRAIN Urban area Undeveloped area Pedestrian street Park Open land National park Cycling route Hiking trail Through road Historic building National border Regional border

VIKINGS IN DENMARK

TRANSPORTATION Airport Bus Ferry Freeway Metro Railway Road number Train E63 Waterway

SYMBOLS 1 Attraction 1 To attraction Bathing beaches/option Camping Castle Church Culture/nature attraction Hospital Hotel Information Monastery Parking Post office Ruin Tunnel Viewpoint Youth hostel

A Distance N Night life B Bathing beaches/options P Parking 0 Bank 9 Cash machine z Car hire/routes p Post office Hilltop/hilly terrain R Restaurant b Bus connections/-station r Equestrian/riding centre C Café s S-train c Camping D Scuba diving y Bike tours/hire Y Sail sports/ boat hire E Admission n Shopping F Holiday apartments > Page reference l Fishing Q Ski/winter sports a Flight connections/airport d Snorkelling f Ferry connections \ Tram connections G Golf j Swimming pool/spa bathing g Guided tour x Taxi H Disabled friendly facilities t Telephone h Hospital/emergency J Tennis/ball games treatment T Train connections/-station o Hotel/hostel O Tourist police i Touristinformation u Entertainment @ Internet café/internet access v Youth hostel q Calendar/event V Walking trail K Moped/motor bike hire = Water-ski k Culture/nature attraction w Website m Metro W Windsurfing/surfing M Mosque å Opening hours

s

U

politikensforlag.dk/rejser

Turen Går Til

ISBN 978-87-400-4759-2

PolForlag

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Politikensforlag

politikensforlag.dk/rejser

Turen Går Til

PolForlag

Politikensforlag

16/05/18 14:04


10 mm

GET INSPIRED With great ideas and tips for all types of trips: big city adventures, beach and sun, backpacking, camping, shopping and loads more! USE THE GUIDE What’s the real heart of Phuket? Where are New York’s best restaurants? The top beaches in the South of France? FIND THAT FLIGHT Find the best deals on flights, hotels and package holidays. Crosscheck every travel site – in one click!

As the eyes become accustomed to the ­darkness, the contours of the ship with its 2,000 iron nails, the sacrificed horses and, not least, the strikingly well-preserved ship’s ­anchor slowly emerge to full view. The burial mound over the ship has now been rebuilt and, when you enter, you step 1,100 years back in time. Around the year 925, a Viking king was buried here in his ship with horses, dogs and precious grave goods.

THE BOOK COVERS large and small attractions throughout D ­ enmark and gives directions to museums, ring fortresses, burial mounds, stone ships, rune stones, walking trails and vibrant Viking markets and ­settlements, where you can get close to the real meaning of “Viking”. A wide range of background articles, written by experts, give the Vikings their true and astonishing context – their history, society, art and culture, nature and geography. The guide is also richly illustrated with photos and maps.

From the book’s description of Ladby Viking Museum – Funen chapter

A TRAVEL GUIDE  VIKINGS IN DENMARK

ON TOUR WITH - THE INTERNET

A TRAVEL GUIDE

KEY FOR SYMBOLS IN ARTICLES

KEY FOR SYMBOLS ON MAPS TERRAIN Urban area Undeveloped area Pedestrian street Park Open land National park Cycling route Hiking trail Through road Historic building National border Regional border

VIKINGS IN DENMARK

TRANSPORTATION Airport Bus Ferry Freeway Metro Railway Road number Train E63 Waterway

SYMBOLS 1 Attraction 1 To attraction Bathing beaches/option Camping Castle Church Culture/nature attraction Hospital Hotel Information Monastery Parking Post office Ruin Tunnel Viewpoint Youth hostel

A Distance N Night life B Bathing beaches/options P Parking 0 Bank 9 Cash machine z Car hire/routes p Post office Hilltop/hilly terrain R Restaurant b Bus connections/-station r Equestrian/riding centre C Café s S-train c Camping D Scuba diving y Bike tours/hire Y Sail sports/ boat hire E Admission n Shopping F Holiday apartments > Page reference l Fishing Q Ski/winter sports a Flight connections/airport d Snorkelling f Ferry connections \ Tram connections G Golf j Swimming pool/spa bathing g Guided tour x Taxi H Disabled friendly facilities t Telephone h Hospital/emergency J Tennis/ball games treatment T Train connections/-station o Hotel/hostel O Tourist police i Touristinformation u Entertainment @ Internet café/internet access v Youth hostel q Calendar/event V Walking trail K Moped/motor bike hire = Water-ski k Culture/nature attraction w Website m Metro W Windsurfing/surfing M Mosque å Opening hours

s

U

politikensforlag.dk/rejser

Turen Går Til

ISBN 978-87-400-4759-2

PolForlag

108774_cover_tgt vikings in denmark_UK_NY.indd 1

Politikensforlag

politikensforlag.dk/rejser

Turen Går Til

PolForlag

Politikensforlag

16/05/18 14:04


A

TRAVEL GUIDE

VIKINGS IN ­D ENMARK

POLITIKENS REJSEBØGER

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DON’T MISS … THE RING FORTRESSES

Constructed in perfect symmetry with round ramparts that encircle systematically placed long halls, these Viking Age ring fortresses were built at strategic points across the realm. Today, the ring fortresses are popular attractions with fascinating exhibits and lots of activities.

MUSEUMS

Discover excavated Viking ships, valuable silver treasures, lethal weapons and magnificent grave goods alongside finds from everyday Viking life. A range of Denmark’s museums display fascinating finds from this era, and many are of world class standard.

LIVING HISTORY

At live settlements and markets, you can get up close to Viking society, with skilled craftsmen and traders, or you can try cooking around the long fire. Others might prefer fighting to keep the shield wall intact, or swinging an axe in warrior training.

RUNE STONES

All over the country there are rune stones, on which Viking rune carvers speak to us across the centuries. The Jelling Stones are the best known, but in each area of Denmark there are rune stones that tell their own particular stories and dramas of Viking life.

THE GREAT OUTDOORS

The oars are eased up when the wind fills the sails of the reconstructed Viking ships as they cruise along Danish fjords in the summer. On land, go on hiking trails into scenic areas similar to those in which the Vikings lived 1,000 years ago. Many exciting tours also pass visible traces of Viking culture.

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CONTENTS O .................O ..O ..O ..O ..O ..O ..O ..O ..O

UNDERSTANDING THE VIKING AGE Introduction 5 The Viking Age today 6 History 8 Important dates 13 People and society 18 Arts and culture 30 Food and drink 38 Nature and geography 40

COPENHAGEN CITY AND REGION PLUS BORNHOLM 44 ZEALAND – FJORD COUNTRY 56 ZEALAND, LOLLAND, FALSTER AND MØN 70 FUNEN 86 SOUTH EAST JUTLAND 100 WEST JUTLAND FROM SOUTH TO NORTH 112 EAST AND CENTRAL JUTLAND 126 NORTH JUTLAND 142 PRACTICAL INFORMATION 156 CONTRIBUTORS 161 MINI PHRASE BOOK 162 INDEX 164

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MADE BY VIKINGS Who wouldn’t like to jump into a time machine and travel back 1,000 years to the Viking Age? Sail in a raiding Viking ship with a dragon's head at the prow! Dress in vivid costumes adorned with pearls, silver brooches and coloured ribbons! Go to feasts where the table is laden with food from the Nordic countries and imported spices from abroad! Worship Odin, Thor and Freya with gory sacrifices! With Vikings in Denmark – A Travel Guide in your hands almost anything is possible. The following intro-articles – Understanding the Viking Age – help you pack all the background knowledge you need for the journey. Then it’s just a question of where to raid first! You can choose a wide-ranging exploration of the Viking Age in a particular geographical area and experience scenes, atmospheres and gripping tales in ultra-modern museums, interpretive centres, monuments and landscapes. Or, if you’re more inclined to pick a specific theme you could explore Denmark’s amazing rune stones and their backstories. Or if you find the awe-inspiring King Harald Bluetooth, his life and times, particularly fascinating, you can visit ring fortresses, bridges, ford crossings and his home in Jelling. Vikings in Denmark – A Travel Guide is a handy and fun guide to all the major Viking experiences and gripping sagas right across the country. It is said that a group of tourists once arrived in Denmark and asked their guide “so where do we find the Vikings?” – based on the notion that there are still Vikings here and they live on reservations like some of the indigenous peoples of the USA. But this question is not as far off as one may think, because even if the Viking Age ended a long time ago, it still feels as if the Vikings are all around us – in our TV series, films, in our lanMODERN REPLIC A S OF V IKING SHIP S PUSH INTO R O S K I L D E FJ O R D – J U S T L I K E T H E Y D I D 1 0 0 0 Y E A R S A G O.

guage, and in the products we surround ourselves with. We are made by Vikings, in fact. But what was the Viking Age really like? How did they live? How did they dress and what did they eat? And how were they buried? In recent years, the very best Viking interpretive centres right across the country have formed the Viking Ring network to promote awareness of the many high-quality experiences for both children and adults that are to be had all over Denmark. This stems from a keen desire to tell the whole fascinating story of the Vikings, who are otherwise often reduced to a caricature of bloodthirsty warriors plundering foreign countries. Vikings in Denmark – A Travel Guide is part of that work and an exciting aspiration. Today’s Danes have taken to the Viking Age in a way that leaves other historical periods in the shade. And we can only understand our own times by understanding our past; particularly with respect to the Viking Age, which is perhaps the most important historical period in Denmark’s history. It was at this time that many of the elements that came to make up the Denmark we know today were put in place: the country was unified, cities began to grow; we were made Christian; and Queen Margrethe II – Denmark’s sovereign citizen – can trace her lineage straight back to Viking kings. In the 1800s, the Viking Age was used and abused to forge a new national identity that has been debated extensively in recent years. The Viking Age is, for better or worse, part of the Danish cultural heritage and one of the primary international brands immediately associated with Denmark. In Viking times, the word Viking was a verb that meant to go touring, trading and or raiding. With Vikings in Denmark – A Travel Guide we have made it easier for everyone to "go a Viking-ing" on a tour around the country, meeting Vikings and our common past. O INTRODUCTION

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THE VIKING AGE TODAY

BURGER EATING FOOTBALL­ FANS IN WELLIES As a historical period, the Viking Age concluded around a 1,000 years ago – a long time. But there’s probably no other historical period quite as present in the everyday lives of Danes. The Viking Age is so ingrained in Danish culture that its presence is not even noticed. And in most cases, modern use of the Viking Age motif bears little relation to what we actually know about the Vikings. The word Viking is part of the Danish language in many other ways than the term people use when referring to those who lived in Scandinavia during the Viking era. According to the definitive dictionary of modern Danish – Den Danske Ordbog – in modern Denmark, the word Viking can refer to “a Dane living abroad who gets on in life by being aggres-

sive or boisterous.” This of course harks back to the best known historical facts about Vikings: their raiding expeditions – despite the fact that the vast majority of Vikings made their living by farming or crafts. The word Viking is also used to refer to people with special characteristics such as “bravery, strength or toughness” – anyone walking round in shorts in winter is a real Viking! The third and last noted use of the word Viking is also based on those particularly hardy souls “who swim in cold weather, often when it’s freezing as member of a club.”

SPORTING VIKINGS

And it’s in the world of sport that we often meet Vikings in a modern day setting - both

THE VIKING AGE – THE ESSENTIALS When: Approx. 700 – 1100. Population: Approx. 500,000 in the 800s. 5,760,694 in 2017. Climate: The climate was probably slightly warmer and more wet than today. Territory: 1) Denmark (- Bornholm) to the Eider. Østfold in present day Norway and Sweden’s west coast. 2) From 970 to 1013 Denmark to the Eider (+Bornholm) and all of Norway. 3) 1013-1042 as 2) + the Danelaw in England. Physical borders: Borders to Anglo Saxons in England, Swedes and Goths in Sweden, Franks and Carolingians in northwest Germany, Wends and Slavs in Germany and Poland. Historical period: The Viking Age followed the Iron Age and preceded the Middle Ages. Capitals/centres of power: Lejre early in the period, Jelling at the end. Biggest towns: Hedeby (1,000-2,000 people), Ripa (Ribe) and Aros (Aarhus). Currency: Silver in the form of cut-up jewellery and bars, as well as Arabic, English and German coins. Coins minted in Denmark from the 700s (Ripa), 800s (Hedeby) and by the

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Danish royal power from Harald Bluetooth in the 970s onwards. Language: Old Norse – also written in runes. Form of government: From division into smaller areas with chieftains and petty kings to unified kingdom under one king. Religion: Year 700: 100% pagan. Year 950: Approx. 50% Christian and 50% pagan. Year 1130: Approx. 95% Christian and 5% pagan. Year 2017: 500-1,000 believe in the Norse Gods. Most important livelihoods: Agriculture, trade, plunder and military. Most important export goods: Amber and warriors. Official name: The name ‘Denmark’ appears for the first time on two not precisely dated rune stones – the Jelling Stones (> 104) and the Skivum Stone (> 152). Wulfstan’s travel diary from about 890 is the oldest preserved text on which the word "Denmark" appears. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle from the 1000s describes the country as Denamearc. Longevity: 35-40 years. Very few made it to 50, and women usually lived longer than men. Just like today.

U N D E R S TA N D I N G T H E V I K I N G A G E

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G O V I K I N G S ! T H E F O O T B A L L T E A M M I N N E S O TA V I K I N G S F R O M T H E A M E R I C A N M I D W E S T C A R R I E S HEL ME TS WITH HORN LOGOS.

as active practitioners and spectators. In the grandstands and on spectator benches, thousands of optimistic fans are to be seen with horned clappy-hats and various versions of plastic helmets with horns that are more like fun versions of Bronze Age helmets; as we now know that Viking helmets had no horns. Sports clubs and associations across the country are named after the Vikings; so quite besides winter bathing, a modern link is there between gymnastics, soccer, Olympic handball, bowling, kayaking. In particular various kinds of extreme challenge races are given a Viking moniker – because we all know they were dynamic, strong and hardy. The Viking brand is also used internationally – in the name of sports teams for example: A group of men clad in purple and white run out onto the field in a football stadium in the US city of Minneapolis. They are wearing shoulder pads and protective helmets decorated with painted horns and they play for Minnesota Vikings. The crowd go wild and cry as one – "Go Vikings!". The Vikings have become a mainstream symbol, recognised and used worldwide.

FOOD AND DRINK

In Denmark, the Vikings are very much linked to food and drink – often when consumed in large quantities. Any self-respecting city or town will have either a grill room or bar called Viking. These would typically be places where guests will definitely get their bellies filled, but where the chef probably won’t

have great hopes of achieving a Michelin Star anytime soon. Vikings have also left their mark in almost every domestic Danish kitchen, where shopping for classic Danish dishes is concerned. Since 1950, the Gøl sausage brand has been marketed as a proud and Nordic Viking dish; just like Stryhn’s liver paté, which has a child friendly Viking on its logo with a fork and a broad smile rather than snarl and a spear. Viking is also the name of one of Kohberg’s most popular rye breads, on which almost all Danes were reared.

THE VIKING BRAND

In modern branding and marketing, the Viking as a symbol is very effective because it tells an immediate story as well as sells products. In the streets, one sees both men and women with tattoos written in runes and inspired by Viking art and legends. Danes are also wont to defy the typical Danish summer weather by wearing Viking wellies; learning to write with pencils? Use Viking brand; need roadside assistance? Call Viking; exporting a special breed of cattle? Yes it's Viking, need garden tools? Get Viking, going on a cruise? Call Viking, and NASA even has a space mission called Viking! In this way, we are continuously reminded of this small but significant part of Denmark’s past and our ancestors’ great achievements, which we might not always be able to justify, but nevertheless help our self-understanding as modern Vikings. O T H E V I K I N G A G E T O D AY

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HISTORY

VIKING TIMES AND VIKING LAND “Ragnhild raised this stone in memory of Alle the Pale, priest of the sanctuary, honourable thane of the royal guard. Alle’s sons made this monument in memory of their father, and his wife in memory of her husband. And Sote carved these runes in memory of his lord. Thor hallow these runes. He is cursed who damages this stone or drags it away for use in memory of another.” Glavendrup rune stone inscription on stone ship in North Funen (> 98).

THE LANDSCAPE IS A STORY

It’s probably not that many of the travellers moving through the Danish countryside who actually see and hear the landscape as a story. However, fields, place names, villages, mounds, forests and coastlines are all words in a book that tells of life here over thousands of years. It’s a book that changes with each SHIPS WERE THE ESSENCE OF VIKING LIFE. THEY P R O V I D E D A C R U C I A L A D VA N TA G E I N B O T H T R A D E A N D WA R FA R E .

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new generation. New pages are added while others are discarded for good. The pages of this landscape’s history book that were written 30 to 40 generations ago – in the Viking Age which we today define as the three centuries between 750-1050 – still take up a good part of the book. These pages tell us how the first small towns around marketplaces, grew larger. How agriculture began to spread. How forests shrank due to the timber used in major building projects like bridges, ports, ships and fortifications. How many chieftains came to be unified under a single king, and how the Kingdom of Denmark adopted European Christian culture.

RAGNHILD’S SHIP

One of the Danes who left a mark on the landscape and history was Ragnhild. At some point in the early 900s, the middle of the Viking Age, she raised a memorial for her dead husband Alle, at Glavendrup in North Funen. Her monument was a set of large boulders arranged as a 60 m long Viking ship – a stone ship. She also put a rune stone at the prow

BAG OM VIKINGETIDEN

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of this "ship". Ragnhild’s choice of a ship as a memorial form was no coincidence. The ship was the soul and lifeblood of the Viking Age. Long, slender ships like Ragnhild’s "ship" brought wealth to the country from distant shores and were literally the vehicle for Viking dreams of glory and booty. Viking ships had deep roots in the past, but the use of sails only started in the 5-600s. Travel range and options then increased in tact with new naval technologies and, by Viking times, launched a new society and economy. Ragnhild’s husband was a great chieftain in North Funen. His power rested mainly on property ownership, probably based on inheritance which was then passed on to his widow and sons after his death. That’s why both Ragnhild and her sons are named on the rune stone. The place where Ragnhild raised the stone was also carefully selected. Beside the stone ship was a Bronze Age grave mound. This asserted a connection with their ancestors, just as Ragnhild now secured her inheritance for posterity. Ragnhild and Alle owned and operated a large farm estate. Almost all Vikings were associated with an estate, as slaves, labourers, weavers, sailors, housecarls and so on. Some farms stood alone, others were clustered in different villages. Villages would ebb and flow, but many were firmly established in Viking times, with names they still have to this day.

FARMERS AND CHIEFTAINS

The farm was society’s basic unit, and the husband was the head of the household. As such, Alle bore full responsibility for people’s lives and welfare. A part of that role was also a duty to his surroundings, to ensure peace – not only with neighbours and kings, but also with other powers. As the, "Goði" or chief/ priest, he arranged sacrifices and other acts that kept the gods and natural forces happy. But Alle was not only a wealthy farmer and priest, he was – as Ragnhild says on the stone – also a thane of the royal guard. Exactly what a thane was, we don’t know today, but they were almost certainly powerful men with special obligations to the Royal House. In turn, this gave Alle great status and the right to be consulted on matters of state. As the Sagas show, Viking chieftains were constantly involved in the political game of alliances and allegiances.

KING AND ROYAL GUARD

As a member of the king’s guard, Alle from Funen almost certainly fought for the king’s standard. But we don’t know which king. Before Harald Bluetooth – sometime in the second half of the 900s – unified the whole of Denmark, there were probably several petty kings. But it may have been Harald’s father, Gorm the Old that Alle served. Or possibly the chieftain who was buried in a 22m long Viking ship at Ladby, Northeast Funen (> 89),who was probably a petty king. The epoch in which Alle and Ragnhild lived was also a time when Europe and England suffered attacks from large, well-organised Viking raiding fleets and regular armies. As early as the mid-800s – when Ragnhild’s grandparents were alive – the Vikings became a regular plague upon Frankish Europe. From 865 onwards, the great host of heathens as English sources called the Vikings, harried and conquered in England. There had been Viking attacks prior to this, but these were mostly minor hit-and-run attacks.

THE NORSE GODS

Whether the king Alle followed was one of the petty kings in that great heathen army W I T H O V E R 2 0 0 R U N E S , T H E G L AV E N D R U P S T O N E I N N O R T H F U N E N D I S P L AY S D E N M A R K ’ S LONGE ST RUNIC INSCRIP TION. H istory

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which plundered and conquered areas of England is not known. However, it seems clear that Alle and Ragnhild were pagans. Ragnhild’s choice of monument, a stone ship next to a mound and the rune words “Thor hallow these runes. He is cursed who damages this stone …” speaks for itself. Thor was part of a long established pantheon, and Alle may well have been a priest of a Thor cult, perhaps even of a temple – a so called Vi – devoted to the Norse All Father, god of war and wisdom, Odin. The rune stone’s final curse against those who might destroy or move the monument is just as important as the naming of Thor. Today, we don’t know exactly what a "ræte" is in the Danish curse, but it was part of the world of supernatural powers that were all around the Vikings. Such powers, like the forces of nature, had to be honoured and assuaged. Numerous finds of weapons, tools, gold and silver testify that sacrifices were religiously made in lakes, streams, groves and marshes to forces that are now beyond our ken.

ONE KING OF DENMARK

Alle’s and Ragnhild’s sons – mentioned on the Glavendrup stone – and their own children must have experienced the great changes that took place in Harald Bluetooth’s reign. A second and more famous rune stone, the larger Jelling Stone (> 106), is Harald’s evidence that it was he who in the 960’s could call himself sole king of Denmark and take credit for the Christianisation of the population. Many Danes were already baptised, but others continued to worship the old Norse gods. In fact, sacrifices to underground and supernatural creatures lasted for centuries after Christianity became official and were branded as foolish superstitions. The centralisation of power was a catalyst for new building projects and civic planning. Bridges, defence and port facilities were built, while towns and villages grew and more people were drawn to them. Only 12 km to the southeast of Ragnhild’s stone ship at Odin’s Vi – Odense – King Harald built a ring fortress (> 95); one of several meticulous, circular fortifications that were built

across the kingdom in strategic locations. At Vejle, a 750 m long wooden bridge was built (> 105). The role of king had changed from being just one of several military nobles to that of a sole king who controlled all policy, strategy and diplomacy at national and European level.

TOWNS BEGIN TO GROW

The first towns, such as Ribe, emerged before the Viking Age, but it was only now that they really became important. The growth of towns meant a weakening of the old society’s solid, farm-based structure. A part of the population – admittedly only a few people at the start – could now live as artisans or merchants in towns and cities without necessarily having a farm or even a family. So despite the fact that town growth was still modest, they added a new dynamism, mobility and openness to society.

EXPANSION AND INTEGRATION

On the one hand, the changes Ragnhild’s immediate descendants were witnessing encouraged further expansion. King Harald’s son, Svend Forkbeard, became king of England in 1014 and, under his grandson King Knut (Canute), the realm of Denmark was at its zenith, encompassing Norway, England and parts of Sweden. Trade, coinage and army organization were better than

F R O M T H E M I D - 8 0 0 S O N W A R D S , V I K I N G ATTA C K S - E S P E C I A L LY A G A I N S T T H E F R A N K S A N D E N G L I S H - B E C A M E M O R E O R G A N I S E D. 10

U N D E R S TA N D I N G T H E V I K I N G A G E

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ever. Viking ships were longer, and the fleet numbered hundreds of combat-ready ships. On the other hand, all this paved the way for changes that had already begun during Harald’s time – the integration of Denmark into a Christian Europe where traditional warlike ideals and virtues were no longer cherished. When, in 1086, Knut the Holy was killed in front of the altar in Sankt Albani Church Odense, he had resumed ancestral Viking raids on several occasions. His murder was possibly due to yet another attempt by the king to raise support for a new Viking expedition to England. But it was too late. The Viking Age was definitively over.

A RICH AND ATTRACTIVE WIDOW

The Viking Age left an indelible imprint and very many pages in the history book of the Danish landscape. Ragnhild’s rune stone and stone ship still stood high and mighty, only 12 km away from the church where the last Viking king – Knut – was killed. Grave mounds adorned meadows and fields and gazing down on the silhouettes of the growing towns below as night descended. Fields replaced great forests. Wharfs, loading stations and harbours were now on every coastline. Most of all, the Vikings – those conquerers of foreign countries – had conquered their own country, and given names to its

places. Odense is just one of them; particularly numerous are those that honoured Thor: Thorsager, Torsted etc., although some of the names are probably pre Viking. Before Christianity arrived, the old gods had ruled for many centuries, even before the Viking era and just like burial mounds and other human imprints on the landscape, the place names for pagan gods are an important element of the landscape book that the Vikings inherited from their ancestors. But it is the Vikings who, perhaps, have written the most significant chapter in Denmark’s history. The noble lady Ragnhild was one of those who left traces in the landscape. A powerful, rich and therefore attractive widow. Nor was the Funen chieftain Alle her only marriage – before or after him, she had had another husband, Gunulf. Ragnhild lived with Gunulf at Stevns, and after Gunulf’s death, she raised a stone for him as well – the so-called "Tryggevælde stone" (> 79). The traces left by more "ordinary" people in the Viking Age must be seen, perhaps, in the bigger picture. They are beneath the towns, or the cultivated land. Together, Viking Age fields, towns, coasts and monuments fill many pages in the historical narrative of the landscape. O THE FIR ST TOWNS IN DENM ARK BEG AN TO E MERGE IN THE VIKING AGE. RESIDENTS LIVED L A R G E LY F R O M C O M M E R C E A N D C R A F T S .

H istory

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ZEALAND – FJORD COUNTRY A fjord landscape was a Viking’s favourite terrain – offering a safe distance from open coasts, which were difficult to defend, but still giving access to trade with the outside world. Thus it’s no surprise that Denmark’s oldest kings chose Roskilde Fjord as their base.

In Viking times, Roskilde Fjord was a key maritime artery which brought shipping right into the heart of Zealand. Along the coasts, settlements were small and people there lived as farmers and from hunting, fishing and handicrafts. However, towards the end of the 900s, commercial trading grew in importance. Control of this fjord terrain was, therefore, of great strategic importance and all landing stages were subject to royal fiat. The king sought to keep hostile forces out of the fjord by, for example, laying a defence boom at Skuldelev (> 69) where five ships were scuttled to make further entrance difficult and dangerous for those who didn’t know the channels. The early royal line was housed at Lejre. Danes refer to these kings as the legendary kings of Denmark, but their rule didn’t extend across the Denmark of today. According to the Icelandic sagas, Odin sent his son Skjold T H E V I K I N G S H I P M U S E U M I N R O S K I L D E I S B U I LT A R O U N D F I V E V I K I N G S H I P S F O U N D AT S K U L D E L E V I N R O S K I L D E FJ O R D ( > 6 9 ).

to Denmark to unite the people, and he settled at Lejre. Skjold was the founding father of the Scylding dynasty which produced the renowned kings Roar, Helge, Frode Fredegod (> 135) and, most famous of all, Rolf Krake. The stories about the Lejre kings are myth, but excavations of settlements and burial sites, along with visible monuments in the landscape around Gl. Lejre (Old Lejre) confirm that Lejre was indeed a royal seat in the late Iron Age and Viking period 500-1000 (> 63). The Lejre kings lost their power to the Jelling dynasty that made Roskilde Zealand’s capital, when Harald Bluetooth built a church there about 980 (> 60). But is this correct? The few written sources from this period that cite Harald Bluetooth as the founder of Roskilde are not supported by the extensive archaeological excavations in the city over the last 10-15 years, which have thrown up very few artefacts that date before 1000. Given that Roskilde, from an archaeological perspective, only begins to exist around 1000 – nearly 20 years after the death of ZE A L A N D – FJO RD COU N T RY

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Z E A L A N D – Fjord country

Harald Bluetooth – it can hardly be him that founded the city. This has spurred new research into the birth of Roskilde. Roskilde is first mentioned in text sources in 1022, so the city was firmly established in less than a generation and only the writ of a powerful king can make that happen. Around 1000, Svend Forkbeard (upstart son of Harald) was king of Denmark. His strategy was to strengthen both his own power over the country and that of the church. Archaeologists believe he did this by founding Roskilde, Lund (now in Sweden), Odense on Funen and Viborg in Jutland – a new primary city in each of the four main areas of the kingdom and they highlight three key factors in this ambitious development plan: Svend chose sites where pagan worship had once flourished. This is documented In Viborg (> 135) and Odense (> 95). Roskilde has a wealth of streams and springs that may have staged cultic rituals, bearing in mind that streams play an important role in Norse mythology – for example in the world tree Yggdrasil, under which three vital streams

A VOICE FROM THE PAST: WHO FOUNDED ROSKILDE? Adam of Bremen’s famous chronicle is the basis of our knowledge about the founding of Roskilde. Adam lived approx. between 1040 and 1081 and was both a canon and head of the Cathedral School in Bremen. He wrote a chronicle around 1075 which suggests he had spoken personally to King Svend Estridsen about the situation in Denmark. Thus he is one of the main sources of early Danish history. With regard to Roskilde, he writes amongst other things: “In this unfortunate war that was worse than a civil war, Harald and his people suffered defeat. He himself fled wounded from the battlefield, boarded a ship and escaped to the Slavic city of Jumne (Wolin – Poland). Rather against expectations – these people are pagans – he received a warm welcome. However, he was so weakened by his wounds that a few days later he passed away after reconciling himself with Christ. His body was transported to his homeland by his army, where he was buried in the town of Roscald in the church he himself had built in honour of the Holy Trinity.”

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run. The king also needed sites with a substantial hinterland to buttress the growth of the cities, and the area around Roskilde was well populated in Viking times. And last but not least, all four cities share the advantage of natural height, with a strong rise in the terrain on one side, so the sites not only looked more impressive but were more easily defended. In Roskilde’s case, there is a 14% drop from the Cathedral down to the fjord. All this may indicate that the foundation of these four cities around 1000 was part of an overall plan to assert the power of the king and forge a strong link – ideologically and physically – between the old gods and the new Christian monarchy.

KEY Roskilde (> 58) Lejre (> 63) Hornsherred (> 68)

ROSKILDE (Map > back flap i) Viking Age Roskilde is unfortunately not immediately discernible in the city’s streets today. The city fathers have always been wealthy enough to demolish buildings, build again or rebuild and extend. Visitors have to walk right down to the fjord and the picturesque St. Jørgensbjerg Church to find visible evidence of a Viking presence. This church is one of the country’s oldest, built around 1020. The magnificent Viking Ship Museum is also located at the edge of the fjord and it’s here the five Viking ships discovered in Roskilde Fjord have been exhibited since 1969. The museum attracts hordes of visitors – about 80% from abroad – not least because of these internationally renowned ships. Regardless of which king built the cathedral, it’s still there to this day and you can learn more about the city’s fascinating history at Roskilde Museum in the city centre.

THE VIKING SHIP MUSEUM kR The smell of tar and racket of shipbuilding is all around at the Viking Ship Museum and you’ll feel the crunch of newly cut wood shavings underfoot as you walk about. Or, out on the fjord, the wind will tug at your hair

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Z E A L A N D – Fjord country AT T H E D O C K YA R D B E S I D E T H E V I K I N G S H I P M U S E U M I N R O S K I L D E , V I K I N G S H I P S A R E B U I LT A N D E X P E R I M E N T S M A D E W I T H M AT E R I A L S A N D T E C H N I Q U E S .

as you pull on the oars with the rest of the crew. For here you are brought right to the centre of Viking seafaring. Using oak wood and wool as their base material, the Vikings developed a sailing technology that enabled them to roam the world and forge a new society back at home. Explore the history of the Vikings at sea, at war, trading and travelling to very distant shores, and go hands on with the materials and craftsmanship that made the Vikings so successful. At the Viking Ship Museum, you live and breathe Vikings by way of the museum’s wonderfully innovative descriptions and presentation, inside and out.

overhangs the shoreline of Roskilde Fjord, so the ships seem still to be bobbing on the waves. These vessels were excavated in the fjord in 1962 (> 69), about 30km from the museum and have been exhibited here since 1969. In the hall you can see a film about the excavations and a smaller, permanent exhibition on Viking seafaring, as well as special exhibitions. There’s also a brilliant playroom for children and the young at heart – dress up as Vikings, jump aboard a Viking ship and see the lyrical documentary on the Sea Stallion’s voyage to Dublin.

THE VIKING SHIP MUSEUM – THE ESSENTIALS

The museum docks At the museum docks, boat builders repair and build ships in accordance with Viking traditions. They reconstruct Viking ships from the whole of the Nordic world and even take orders from anyone who wants a real Viking ship – and who wouldn’t? All summer long, the maritime skills of Viking Age boat builders, rope and sail makers, blacksmiths and carpenters are on show here as artisans take turns to demonstrate their special abilities. All are invited to watch and participate. The museum’s harbour berths many replicas of Viking and old Nordic wooden ships. Visitors are welcome to go aboard the world’s

Vindeboder 12, Roskilde. t +45 46 30 02 00. w vikingeskibsmuseet. dk. å daily. 10-16; May-Aug. and school hols (Winter, Easter- and autumn hols) 10-17. E 85 kr., children u. 18 free. R Café Knarr (> 60). n The museum also has a large shop with a wide range of Viking and Nordic items.

The Viking ship hall The Viking ship hall displays five authentic Viking age ships side by side and its back "wall" is a huge, widescreen window that

ROSKILDE

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THE GLENDALOUGH SEA STALLION – "HAVHINGSTEN" Z E A L A N D – Fjord country

The shrouds tighten on the port side. Lines of concentration are etched into the windscoured faces of the crew. The captain’s commands are only interrupted by the creaking of the mast and the wind in the sail. The waves thump relentlessly against the ship, and the wall of ice water seems about to smash the strakes. The cold chills to the marrow. Those “off watch” pack themselves under woollen blankets as the dawn rises on the horizon. Porridge is sent around, but many crew members are still too delicate after their overnight hardships. The Sea Stallion – Havhingsten – is the world’s largest replica Viking warship. In 2007-08, the Viking Ship Museum in Roskilde sent this longship on a trial voyage to Dublin and back. The aim was to test its seaworthiness, speed and sailing characteristics and also test crew duties and organization in the same seas the original ship was built to navigate. The voyage was the culmination of 25 years of experimental archaeological research and an extreme and dramatic adventure. A longship like The Sea Stallion moulds its crew. The cramped conditions on board require mental and physical rigour, a military discipline and command structure, as well as duty drills to be learned and performed day or night, whatever the weather. Ship, rig and crew must be one unit – from the lookout at the prow to the helmsman back aft. In fact life on board had even more challenges. It was a test of the crew’s desire to work and hold together – of the human qualities that have carried sailors across the seas since ancient times. The crew’s courage and will to brave the challenge infused the research and chronicling with curiosity and adventurousness in a project that created both lifechanging events and friendships for life. Original ship: Skuldelev 2 Shipyard: built in Ireland, approx. 1042 Length: 30 metres Oars: 60 Sail span: 112 m2 Crew: 65-70 men Discovered: Roskilde Fjord in 1962

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longest Viking ship replica – Havhingsten – The Sea Stallion – from Glendalough, or the merchant vessel Ottar.

Sail on a real Viking ship Between May and September you can experience your own Viking ship foray on one of the museum’s ships. After a thorough safety drill and course briefing, a group of 12-16 go aboard. All are expected to pull on the oars and help set sail. Sure there’s a bit of hard work to be done, but all agree it’s worth it for the indescribable buzz you get when the boat slips out into the fjord. This really is living history at its very best. All in all, the tour lasts about 50 min. Café Knarr Any real Viking, will be starving after a long day at sea. And the museum’s own Café Knarr is the place to go. A Knarr was a Viking cargo ship and the Café serves new Nordic cuisine based on the same ingredients used by the Vikings, either home-grown or brought back from their worldwide trade (> 39). Try chicken salad on rye, for example, with wild garlic mayo, cabbage, herbs, pickled red onion and watercress – then Viking plum pie to finish off.

ROSKILDE CATHEDRAL k We will probably never know whether it was actually Harald Bluetooth who built the first wooden church where Roskilde Cathedral stands today. According to the written sources, the first stone church was built by King Svend Estridsen’s mother Estrid after 1026 (> 62), but no archaeological evidence for this has ever been found, so the texts may be referring to St. Jørgensbjerg Church (> 58). But there’s no doubt that the remains of Svend Estridsen were found in the limestone cathedral of 1080, most recently when Queen Margrethe II’s future burial chapel was excavated in 2013 by archaeologists from the National Museum. This was the first excavation inside Roskilde Cathedral for more than 60 years. St. Birgitte’s Chapel, where the queen will one day be put to rest, was built in the latter half of the 1400s in a section of the cathedral area that was previously a cemetery. Archaeologists found the skeletons of former Roskilde citizens or priests, but none of them could be dated to the 1000s with certainty.

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pens. 40 kr., groups (per person in groups of min. of 10) 40 kr. w roskildedomkirke.dk.

ROSKILDE MUSEUM k A new exhibition here chronicles Roskilde’s cultural history and exhibits finds from the bountiful Roskilde district, from the Stone Age to today. Special Viking Age highlights include the unique Gerdrup burial site (> 64) and a wide range of jewellery and work tools – all from the museum’s explorations at places like Vindinge and Kirke Hyllinge (> 68). Of special interest are the remains of a grave holding a presumed troll woman found at Trekroner. The new exhibition is interactive and hitech to ensure an amazing sensory experience. Sankt Ols Stræde 3, Roskilde. å Mon.-Tues. and Thurs.-Sun. 11-16 Wed. 11-21 E 45 kr., Children u. 18 free, Groups (min. 15 pers.) 35 kr. t +45 46 31 65 29. w roskildemuseum.dk. n The museum shop stocks replica jewellery, books, games, drinks and much more. R ‘Romus’ is Roskilde Museum’s lunch restaurant and offers a range of side dishes and main meals.

Z E A L A N D – Fjord country

Today Roskilde Cathedral presents as a large Gothic brick cathedral begun about 1170. The cathedral serves as a royal burial site for more than 35 kings and queens. The cathedral is one of the earliest examples of Gothic brick architecture and has been listed as a UNESCO world heritage site. In the middle ages the raised choir was the most sacred place in the church. It was here the cathedral’s founders were entombed – Harald Bluetooth, Estrid, her son Svend Estridsen and Bishop Vilhelm. Relics were also stored here. Harold’s grave is now empty, but William’s grave holds two skeletons, one of which has a war injury from an arrow. According to Saxo, Harald was killed by an arrow when he went into the woods to relieve himself (> 141). So perhaps Harald accidentally ended up with Vilhelm? But Saxo says it’s not Harald, and for once historians are inclined to agree with him. Thus we don’t know where Harald was buried. Domkirkepladsen 3, Roskilde. å Apr.-Sep. Mon.Sat. 10-18, Sun. 13-18; Oct.-Mar. Mon.-Sat. 10-16, Sun. 13-16. Cathedral admission times can change on an ongoing basis due to church events. E 60 kr., children (0-17 years) free, stud. and

R O S K I L D E C AT H E D R A L L O O K S D O W N O N T H E V I K I N G S H I P M U S E U M , W H I C H I S L O C AT E D R I G H T AT T H E E D G E O F R O S K I L D E FJ O R D.

ROSKILDE

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PRACTICAL INFORMATION WHEN TO VISIT

GENERAL INFORMATION

For a general overview of Viking experiences in Denmark, see: w madebyvikings.dk. The Destination Viking Association, on behalf of the European Institute of Cultural Routes, has compiled a European Viking route with information on Viking experiences in the rest of Europe. For information, see: w culture-routes.net/routes/the-viking-routes and w destinationviking.com. All of the major Danish attractions have websites with practical information about opening hours, prices, access conditions, etc. – see under the individual attractions. If you are mainly interested in preserved ancient sites, it might be worthwhile taking a look at the project Danmarks Oldtid i Landskabet by the Danish Agency for Culture and AT B O R K V I K I N G H A R B O U R , B O T H C H I L D R E N A N D A D U LT S A R E I M M E R S E D I N T H E V I K I N G WAY O F L I F E .

Palaces: w slks.dk/fortidsminder-diger/danmarks-oldtid-i-landskabet.

LITERATURE

If you would like to read more about the Viking Age in Denmark (Danish and English):

Non-fiction Lisbeth M. Imer: Danmarks runesten – en fortælling. National Museum of Denmark, 2016 Jørgen Jensen: Danmarks oldtid – fra stenalder til vikingetid. Gyldendal, 2013. Kurt Villads Jensen & Jeanette Varberg: Historien om Danmark- Oldtid og middelalder. Gad 2017. Published in co-operation with DR. Kaare Johannessen: Politikens bog om Danmarks vikingetid. Politikens Forlag, 2001. Else Roesdahl: Vikingernes verden – vikingerne hjemme og ude. Gyldendal, 2012. Jeanette Varberg: Fortidens slagmarker – krig og konflikt fra stenalder til vikingetid. Gyldendal, 2014.

P ractical information

The museums are open all year round, while the interpretive centres are typically open from Easter up to and including autumn, possibly with special openings at Christmas and during school holidays. The historical relics in the Danish countryside and the rune stones at village churches etc., may be visited all year round and in all kinds of weather.

Fiction A large number of works of fiction are set in the Viking Age, including: Frans G. Bengtsson: The Long Ships. Harper Collins, 1994. Lars-Henrik Olsen: Erik and the Gods. Aurora Metro Books, 2017 The Complete Sagas of Icelanders – with a preface by Jane Smiley. Penguin, 2001. Practical information 1 5 7

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CURRENCY

You can pay with ordinary currency at all sites. At many of the attractions you can also strike your own coins, which are not valid elsewhere.

the Viking Age to take that holiday photo. If you feel a greater urge to wear Viking clothes, you can buy most of the things you need at the summer Viking markets. For more info on Viking clothing: (> 32).

ALCOHOL

VIKING MARKETS

Denmark has a wide range of Viking beer available from local microbreweries, representing the history of a particular area. The main ones have been mentioned in the book. Mead, a drink reminiscent of dessert/fortified wine, is on sale in most museum gift shops (> 38).

TOWN AND STREET NAMES

Note town names that end in -by or -lev; these are towns that were founded in the Viking Age. The Danish word gade (street) also originated in the Viking Age, but it’s not known whether there are streets in Denmark today that have borne the same name for 1,000 years. However, there are certainly such streets in York. The street names there ending in gate have their origins in Viking times.

P ractical information

POLITENESS AND ETIQUETTE

When in Rome do as the Romans do, and that applies in particular when you are travelling in other countries and times. A thorough introduction to Viking etiquette is to be found in the norse poem Hàvamàl.

CLOTHING

At many of the attractions, children and adults can dress up in replica clothes from

All of the major Viking attractions have wellstocked shops where you can buy all the Viking souvenirs your heart desires – including books, crafts and jewellery. During the high season, Viking markets are held in a regular order: Late February – Jorvik Viking Festival, York, England Late April – Ribe Viking Market and Centre Late May – Viking Market on Mors Early June – The Viking Smiths’ Market, Kysinge Strand Early June – Viking Market on Bornholm, Aakirkeby Early June – Viking Market on Doverodde, Thy Mid-June – Ramme Viking Market Late June – Frederikssund Viking Market Late June – Market at Lindholm Høje Late June – Viking Market in Foteviken, Scania, Sweden Early July – Viking Market in Jels Mid-July – Trelleborg Viking Market Late July – Orø Viking Festival Late July – Moesgaard Viking Rally Early August – Viking Market in Hobro Mid-August – Viking Days at the Danish Castle Centre, Vordingborg

WA R R I O R T R A I N I N G I S A N I N T E G R A L PA R T O F T H E E X P E R I E N C E AT M A N Y D A N I S H V I K I N G AT T R A C TIONS.

1 5 8 Practical information

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V I K I N G E N T H U S I A S T S R E V I V E O L D C R A F T T E C H N I Q U E S A N D AV O I D U S I N G M O D E R N T O O L S .

PLACES TO EAT

Viking food, either in its original form or as a modern interpretation, can be obtained at most of the attractions (> 38 and 39). Alternatively, you can apparently eat like a Viking – i.e. in plentiful amounts – at one of the country’s many barbecues or pizzerias with the word "Viking" in their names. Such eateries are found all over the country, e.g.: Vikingernes Spisehus, Sankt Clara Vej 14, Roskilde – classic grill bar and pizzeria. The Viking House, Vimmelskaftet 49, Copenhagen K – a pub in the traditional English style, but on the walls hang swords, shields and other Viking paraphernalia. The menu includes such items as Odin’s Fish ’n’ Chips, Thor’s Hammer Steak, The Beserker Breakfast and The Barbarian Burger. Viking Steakhouse, Dyrehavsbakken, Klam­ penborg – steakhouse and coffee/cake.

Café Viking, Frederiksgade 2, Slagelse. Viking Pizzeria, Bredegade 44, Slagelse. Viking Gryde, Jernbanegade 15, Næstved. Viking Pizza & Kebabhus, Kræmmergade 3, Varde. Viking Pizza, Hovervej 6, Hee, Ringkøbing. Viking Pizza, Østergade 53, Rudkøbing.

NIGHTLIFE

Not only can you eat like a Viking, but also drink like one. Numerous pubs have been named after the Vikings, such as: Café Viking, Ægirsgade 36, Copenhagen N – a classic Copenhagen pub. Restaurant Viking, Løngang 27, Sønderborg – decorated with Viking pictures and Viking trinkets. Vikingen, Tolderlundsvej 46, Odense C – classic pub. Den Glade Viking – discos and bars known from TV, in Bulgaria, Spain and Thailand.

P ractical information

Mid-August – Viking Festival on Vestvågøy, Lofoten, Norway Mid-August – Schleswig Viking Days, Schleswig, Germany Late August – Kællinghøl Viking Market, Bjerringbro Early September – Viking market at Glavendruplund, North Fyn Mid-September – Hvolris Market Early October – Tissø Viking Market

ACCOMMODATION

Hotel Viking, Frederikshavnsvej 70, Sæby – a pleasant family place, but otherwise nothing to do with Vikings. The Kerteminde area, on the other hand, offers real Viking-style accommodation: (> 91). A list of shelters and other forms of open-air accommodation, close to Viking sites, may be found here w naturstyrelsen.dk/naturoplevelser/overnatning. Practical information 1 5 9

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10 mm

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As the eyes become accustomed to the ­darkness, the contours of the ship with its 2,000 iron nails, the sacrificed horses and, not least, the strikingly well-preserved ship’s ­anchor slowly emerge to full view. The burial mound over the ship has now been rebuilt and, when you enter, you step 1,100 years back in time. Around the year 925, a Viking king was buried here in his ship with horses, dogs and precious grave goods.

THE BOOK COVERS large and small attractions throughout D ­ enmark and gives directions to museums, ring fortresses, burial mounds, stone ships, rune stones, walking trails and vibrant Viking markets and ­settlements, where you can get close to the real meaning of “Viking”. A wide range of background articles, written by experts, give the Vikings their true and astonishing context – their history, society, art and culture, nature and geography. The guide is also richly illustrated with photos and maps.

From the book’s description of Ladby Viking Museum – Funen chapter

A TRAVEL GUIDE  VIKINGS IN DENMARK

ON TOUR WITH - THE INTERNET

A TRAVEL GUIDE

KEY FOR SYMBOLS IN ARTICLES

KEY FOR SYMBOLS ON MAPS TERRAIN Urban area Undeveloped area Pedestrian street Park Open land National park Cycling route Hiking trail Through road Historic building National border Regional border

VIKINGS IN DENMARK

TRANSPORTATION Airport Bus Ferry Freeway Metro Railway Road number Train E63 Waterway

SYMBOLS 1 Attraction 1 To attraction Bathing beaches/option Camping Castle Church Culture/nature attraction Hospital Hotel Information Monastery Parking Post office Ruin Tunnel Viewpoint Youth hostel

A Distance N Night life B Bathing beaches/options P Parking 0 Bank 9 Cash machine z Car hire/routes p Post office Hilltop/hilly terrain R Restaurant b Bus connections/-station r Equestrian/riding centre C Café s S-train c Camping D Scuba diving y Bike tours/hire Y Sail sports/ boat hire E Admission n Shopping F Holiday apartments > Page reference l Fishing Q Ski/winter sports a Flight connections/airport d Snorkelling f Ferry connections \ Tram connections G Golf j Swimming pool/spa bathing g Guided tour x Taxi H Disabled friendly facilities t Telephone h Hospital/emergency J Tennis/ball games treatment T Train connections/-station o Hotel/hostel O Tourist police i Touristinformation u Entertainment @ Internet café/internet access v Youth hostel q Calendar/event V Walking trail K Moped/motor bike hire = Water-ski k Culture/nature attraction w Website m Metro W Windsurfing/surfing M Mosque å Opening hours

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politikensforlag.dk/rejser

Turen Går Til

ISBN 978-87-400-4759-2

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Turen Går Til

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A travel guide: Vikings in Denmark  

The book covers large and small viking attractions throughout Denmark and gives directions to museums, ring fortresses, burial mounds, stone...

A travel guide: Vikings in Denmark  

The book covers large and small viking attractions throughout Denmark and gives directions to museums, ring fortresses, burial mounds, stone...

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