P&HE – Quarter One – 2021

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Exploring the International Space Station

Why cutting home emissions matters

Hong Kong’s lessons from COVID-19

RACE AGAINST TIME Our 2021 campaign to help save the planet begins



We’re online!


Visit pandhengineering. co.uk for regular updates and archived features

The sharp-eyed among you will have noticed some changes. P&H Engineering is going quarterly and getting bigger. We’ve had some amazing feedback from you so we’re giving you more of what you want. The Journal is going to continue to improve and we’ll also be increasing our content on the P&H website. It’s going to be a big year. The Institute is stepping up its work and increasing visibility of its activities so we’re starting as we mean to go on by setting out the CIPHE manifesto for change, hearing from someone determined to change the way we live, and getting ready for the UN climate summit. And if this planet isn’t enough, we’re going out of this world to look at life on the International Space Station. We’ve got a new product news section and more inside. Enjoy the edition, stay safe, and do contact me via the details below with feedback, ideas and suggestions. This will always be your magazine.




5 From the CEO

12 Stand and deliver

Kevin Wellman on dealing with difficult times

The CIPHE’s campaigning manifesto for the year ahead

6 Frontline

16 Designs for life

Carbon-cutting targets, the deadly effects of asbestos, and more

How thoughtful design can help vulnerable people live safely at home

28 International outlook

20 Breathe easy

News from our Hong Kong branch

What can be done to deal with negative effects of air pollution?

30 The Fix

25 Out of this world

Ensuring hot water systems meet consumer demands

A look at the workings of the International Space Station

45 Under pressure Make sure you take time to take care of your health



46 Q&A: Michael Walsh

Setting the agenda to help save the planet Page 18

One of our newest members on why he loves his job, and loves learning

pandhengineering@ jamespembrokemedia.co.uk

Editor Chris Smith Project manager Emma Dance Head of design Simon Goddard Publisher James Houston Published by James Pembroke Media, 90 Walcot Street, Bath BA1 5BG Tel 01225 337777 Advertising sales executive Harvey Falshaw, harvey.falshaw@jamespembrokemedia.co.uk Chartered Institute of Plumbing and Heating Engineering (CIPHE) 64 Station Lane, Hornchurch, Essex RM12 6NB Tel 01708 472791

Illustration: Adam Gale

Membership Founded in 1906, the Chartered Institute of Plumbing and Heating Engineering (CIPHE) is the professional body for the UK plumbing and heating industry. Membership is made up of consultants, specifiers, designers, public health engineers, lecturers, trainers, trainees and practitioners. The CIPHE has a membership of 7,500, including over 150 manufacturers and distributors. The majority of members live in the UK, although over 1,000 are residents in Hong Kong. The CIPHE is a member of the Construction Industry Council and a licensed member of the Engineering Council.

Subscriptions P&H Engineering is the magazine for the Chartered Institute of Plumbing and Heating Engineering, containing technical articles, latest industry news and environmental and educational updates.

It is published six times a year and sent free to members. Annual subscription for non-member £120 Annual subscription for overseas non-member £145 To join CIPHE, email tims@ciphe.org.uk

Copyright notice and disclaimer P&H Engineering is published bi-monthly by the Chartered Institute of Plumbing and Heating Engineering. All material is copyright of the Chartered Institute of Plumbing and Heating Engineering and may not be reproduced without written permission. The publishers do not accept responsibility for errors or omissions. The views expressed in the magazine are not necessarily those of the Institute and publication of an advertisement or article does not necessarily mean the Institute endorses those products, materials or techniques.





I remain concerned that damage has been done

KEVIN WELLMAN Chief executive officer kevinw@ciphe.org.uk


ometimes, being proved right is actually pretty empty. The COVID-19 crisis is one of those times. We planned for the long haul and we expect this to be with us beyond the spring months. The CIPHE has produced resources on safe working practices for members of the plumbing and heating industry so they can keep seeing customers during COVID-19 lockdown. It’s all on the website – which we’re constantly updating. Now, we are making access to self-testing kits available to members and their businesses to offer further protection and reassurance that can keep you working safely.


YOUR INSTITUTE, YOUR VALUES The CIPHE’s manifesto details the Institute’s mission to safeguard public health, to improve education, support research and further our members’ career development. Find out more at https://bit.ly/3klbmwF


There was a flurry of government activity at the end of the year on the drive to hit Net Zero by 2050. We stepped in after a clerical error promising to outlaw gas boilers in new homes by 2023 was accidentally included. But I remain concerned that damage has been done. Currently, the Future Home Standard is due to come into play from 2025 – meaning that gas central heating appliances in all new build properties will be banned and will require an alternative heating source.

SAFER BUILDS We’re members of the Competence Steering Group (CSG) which was set up following the dreadful Grenfell fire. The second and final report ‘Setting the Bar’ was published just before year-end, providing a blueprint to improve competence for those working on

We’ll be living with COVID-19 for some time

higher-risk buildings and drive culture change. It has been set out by a cross-industry group representing more than 150 organisations in the fire and built environment industries. There are new competence standards, a system of independent assessment and checks on the people doing it. If you have been following the Grenfell Tower Inquiry, you’ll have heard the same thing over and over. Nobody checked, nobody questioned, nobody thought. And now the risks of such an approach are laid bare. The CSG has worked closely with the Ministry of Housing Communities and Local Government and some of the report’s key recommendations have already been adopted. It has not been easy, but we believe it will save lives.



Frontline Front line All that’s happening in plumbing and heating

KEEP INFORMED Read all the latest news, updates, and member benefits Facebook/CIPHE twitter.com/CIPHE www.ciphe.org.uk

Road to Glasgow


Got a news story? Get in touch with editor Chris Smith using the email address on p3


CIPHE SETS COURSE FOR CAMPAIGNING YEAR CIPHE lays out an ambitious agenda, campaigning for important changes over the coming year


mproving public health, taking on people traffickers and getting mandatory registration are among the CIPHE’s objectives for 2021. Despite the challenges of the COVID-19 outbreak, the Institute is set for a year of campaigning on big issues as part of a manifesto aimed at improving public safety and professionalising the industry. Top priority will be working with industry leaders and the government on the Building Safety Bill which will be introduced in the next session of parliament. It will create the powers for a new regulator.


The CIPHE will be pushing for the bill to create a demand for professional bodies to maintain registers of competent individuals. CIPHE chief executive officer Kevin Wellman said “There have already been some early successes thanks to long-term work by the Competence Steering Group to reform building standards. “Some of the key recommendations have already been adopted, including the proposal for a Committee on Industry Competence as set out in the draft Building Safety Bill. We’re starting 2021 as we mean to go on.” See more on page 13


DOZENS OF COUNTRIES have signalled that they are ready to sign up to ambitious carbon cutting targets at this year’s crucial UN climate change summit. A group of 24 countries announced new commitments, strategies or plans to reach net zero or carbon neutrality ready for November’s UN climate conference COP26 in Glasgow. The December update from the UN also included pledges from businesses to reduce their emissions. The CIPHE’s work with the government on cutting housing emissions will feed into the agreement which will be signed at the summit. United Nations secretary-general António Guterres said: “The summit has now sent strong signals that more businesses are ready to take the bold climate action on which our future security and prosperity depend.” See more on page 13

Health & Safety

ASBESTOS REMAINS MAJOR KILLER, WARNS HSES ASBESTOS EXPOSURE remains a major killer, according to data from the HSE. Its data for 2019/20 covering workplace health also revealed injury at work costs have topped £16bn. The key findings were: 1 .6 million working people suffering from • a work-related illness 2,446 mesothelioma deaths due to past • asbestos exposures (2018) • 111 workers killed at work • 693,000 working people sustain an injury at work according to the Labour Force Survey 65,427 injuries to employees reported • under RIDDOR 38.8 million working days lost due to • work-related illness and workplace injury £16.2 billion estimated cost of injuries • and ill health from current working conditions (2018/19)



OUT OF THIS WORLD The International Space Station has been enabling crucial research for two decades Page 25


CIPHE backs police call for tougher landlord laws THE CIPHE has backed calls by one of the country’s top police chiefs for tougher regulation of housing providers. West Midlands Chief Constable Dave Thompson said rogue landlords in his force’s area – including criminal gangs – were exploiting loopholes in the laws covering accommodation for vulnerable people. As a result, unsafe housing and anti-social behaviour was having to be investigated by his officers. Investigations have also established links between the landlords and organised crime including money laundering and tenants being used for modern slavery. He told P&H Engineering: “They are absentee landlords, and vulnerable people are suffering as a result. Local authorities do not have the power to intervene – and they should.” He added: “It is too easy to set up companies. When we investigate, names change overnight.” His comments coincided with the

TWITTER TALK The CIPHE mounted a Christmas campaign to stop celebrations going down the drain @CIPHE #dinner may make your mouth water, there is an unsavoury side should the #fat, #oil and #grease (FOG) from cooking #block your #drains. Find out how to avoid a plumbing disaster this Christmas day with the latest advice from www.ciphe.org.uk

release of a report by the National Crime Agency which warned the housing industry remains a top target for international money launderers. CIPHE chief executive officer Kevin Wellman has backed the chief constable’s call for change. He said: “Anyone can establish a business regardless of relevant and supporting qualifications. This has allowed a small, but undesirable rogue operator culture to arise and lives are being put at risk.”

@WatersafeUK also wanted to educate the public on safety: What is #backflow, how can it make your #water supply unsafe and what can you do to prevent it? @WRAS_UK helped the public take on utility firms: Need to contact your local water company? @WatersafeUK have it covered with a quick and easy way of locating them and their contact details! Go to https://bit.ly/32BgRxy and select your region.

Our partners Air quality


following a landmark ruling by a coroner into the death of a schoolgirl. South London coroner Philip Barlow ruled the death in 2013 of Ella Kissi-Debrah, aged 9, was due to acute respiratory failure due to exposure to pollution. “Ella died of asthma contributed to by exposure to excessive air pollution,” he said. The UK has a target for the annual average


concentration level of nitrogen dioxide not to exceed 40 micrograms per cubic metre. The UK has not met it in a decade. Household emissions from boilers are among the biggest contributors to poor air quality. London mayor Sadiq Khan said: “Toxic air pollution is a public health crisis. Ministers and the previous Mayor have acted too slowly in the past, but they must now learn the lessons from the Coroner’s ruling.”

@WhichTraders were raising awareness of safety at home: “There’s never been a more important time to have a working carbon monoxide (CO) alarm in your home.”

And @IWSH_Foundation shared some wonderful news: Launching a new education and training collaboration with BORDA India this week, supporting plumbers in Leh, a city in the remote Himalayan district of Ladakh! https://bit. ly/36X7v4p

Breathe easy: see page 20





Scottish town to get hydrogen heating

TESTING TIMES SEVERN TRENT AND HARFEN DYFRDWY are now accepting applications from RPZ testers to join their Approved Plumbers Scheme, WaterMark. Find out more and apply by contacting watermark@ severntrent.co.uk

MEL IS TWO-TERM PRESIDENT CURRENT CIPHE president Mel Gumbs is extending his term by a year due to the COVID-19 crisis. The traditional handover after 12 months has been agreed to be rolled over as all of the events and activities have been cancelled. For more, contact kevinw@ciphe.org.uk



POLYPIPE BUILDING PRODUCTS has appointed Steve Heeley as their new managing director. He has moved to the Doncaster production centre from his previous role as managing director at the Polypipe-owned firm Manthorpe Building Products.

COMPETITION TIME THERE’S STILL TIME to enter the Heating Installer Awards 2021. The CIPHE is again supporting the awards which are dedicated to excellence and sustainability. Categories include Rising Star and Most Sustainable Installer. heatinginstallerawards. co.uk


WORK ON THE WORLD’S first hydrogen heating network has begun after getting the green light from the energy regulator. Gas network provider SGN announced the project, H100 Fife, would begin to enable 300 customers in Fife to begin trials in 2023. Clean gas will be produced locally by a dedicated electrolysis plant powered by a nearby offshore wind turbine. The project

will be the first of its kind to use a direct clean power supply to produce hydrogen for domestic heating. Angus McIntosh, director of energy futures at SGN said: “H100 Fife is the UK’s priority project in this area and is designed to demonstrate hydrogen distribution and in-home performance in a real-world setting.” But the UK will need to scale up to meet its carbon cutting commitments. The CIPHE estimates the country will need approximately 100,000 trained engineers to roll out the new technology. Paul Harmer, CIPHE lead technical consultant, said: “The CIPHE is working hard to make low carbon heating a reality. Investment in training and manufacturing will be crucial, but there will be opportunities for installers in an industry willing to adapt to change.”


TRAINING REVIEW PLANNED THE CIPHE has been invited to participate in a major review of training by the Institute for Apprenticeships. The review, starting in February, will look at the Level 3 Plumbing and Domestic Heating Technician Apprenticeship framework. The IfA is keen to hear from employers of apprentices from micro businesses with up to five employees and also mid-sized firms. The review will include online video conferences to share experiences. Chief executive officer, Kevin Wellman said: “Members, especially those employing apprentices or those involved as lecturers or trainers, should send us their comments to ensure that the information is fed into the review.” Send your feedback or sign up by emailing lesleyc@ciphe.org.uk

Public health

FLIP FOR YOUR LIVES, URGES CIPHE THE PUBLIC has been urged by the CIPHE to flip down the toilet seat, as part of a COVID19 health campaign. The social media campaign was triggered by international health research which concluded putting the lid down was crucial to preventing the spread of water vapour that could contain the virus. Read more: http://ow.ly/Brke50CGwMD



HOME COMFORT A leading expert explains how thoughtful design can help the vulnerable live safely at home Page 16

Find out more



You can find more regulation updates at www.pandhengineering. co.uk

A blueprint to improve competence for those working on higher-risk buildings and drive culture change has been published.


HE 200 PEOPLE who logged in for a web stream of the annual Worshipful Company of Plumbers Autumn Lecture were urged to step up efforts to improve water efficiency because the government is focused on COVID-19 and Brexit. The CIPHE-backed proposals created by a cross-industry group have been finalised and shared with the government. More than 150 organisations in the fire and built environment industries have backed an overarching system of competence based on four key elements: • a new competence committee sitting within the new Building Safety Regulator • a national suite of competence standards – including new sectorspecific frameworks developed by 12 Working Groups (CIPHE assisted with Working Group 1) • a rrangements for independent assessment and reassessment against the competence standards • a mechanism to ensure that those assessing and certifying people against the standards have appropriate levels of oversight The document also contained these significant recommendations: RECOMMENDATION 1: A NEW COMMITTEE FOR COMPETENCE. A strategic, industry-led building safety competence committee should be created comprising representatives of relevant industry bodies, independent experts,


building owners and Government. The committee should be appointed or designated by the Building Safety Regulator to: • raise competence by working with and challenging professional and trade bodies to drive gap-filling • promote the equivalence of accreditation or licensing systems • i ssue guidance to dutyholders and the Regulator on selecting competent people • provide a space for industry to continue to work collaboratively to drive competence more widely RECOMMENDATION 5: MANDATE CONTINUING PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT. Levels of competence should be maintained and subject to continuing professional development. Common principles of CPD should be established for each sector, which the building safety competence committee should use to hold sectors to account. RECOMMENDATION 11: ADOPT THE SECTORAL COMPETENCE FRAMEWORKS. The competence frameworks proposed by each working group (WG1-WG12) should be adopted as the basis for assessing the competence of those in the profession/trade covered by the framework who work on higher-risk buildings. Professional and trade bodies are expected to develop and maintain their sector-specific or discipline competence frameworks.

RECOMMENDATION 13: PROFESSIONAL BODIES SHOULD MAINTAIN REGISTERS OF COMPETENT INDIVIDUALS. Professional and trade bodies that assess and reassess members against a sector specific competence framework for higher-risk buildings are expected to maintain a register of those individuals certified under their scheme. RECOMMENDATION 16: MANDATORY REGISTRATION/ CERTIFICATION. Wherever appropriate, Government should mandate persons working on higher-risk buildings to be registered/certified by a recognised professional/certification body. RECOMMENDATION 25: RECOGNISE PROFESSIONAL ENGINEERS. Professional engineers (individuals who are members of a Professional Engineering Institution licensed by the Engineering Council) should be recognised as a means of providing assurance of relevant competence. RECOMMENDATION 54: PROFESSIONAL BODY MEMBERSHIP MANDATORY. That all project managers in this field must be members of a recognised professional body (or equivalent).

Read more at: www.ife.org.uk





Post-Grenfell safety bill to start scrutiny

CHANGES aimed at overhauling the build and construction regulations following the Grenfell Tower fire are set to begin scrutiny. The Draft Building Safety Bill is set to be considered by MPs and peers in early 2021 to strengthen regulations governing tall buildings and formalise the new industry regulator. The new laws should be in operation

from 2023. There have been changes to the legislation since the first draft was published in July last year. The Bill will implement the main findings from the inquiry by Dame Judith Hackitt which sought to create a ‘golden thread of responsibility’ that goes through the life cycle of a building from drawing board to maintenance. It will also toughen the rules for buildings more than 18m tall and will set out the legal framework that the new Building Safety Regulator will operate in. CIPHE chief executive officer Kevin Wellman said: “The new regulator will drive a culture change in the industry towards standards. We will be engaging with politicians to ensure the best outcome possible.” Follow the progress at: www.services.parliament.uk/bills/

The new laws should be in operation from 2023


BREXIT BRINGS KITEMARK CHANGE LEAVING THE EU resulted in a change in product kitemarking, an industry affiliate has warned. The change in UK legislation from CE to UKCA Marking (UK Conformity Assessed) came into force on 1st January 2021 with a year-long transition. It does not apply to products made before the EU exit. David Osborne, managing director of shower design firm Roman explains: “It is the responsibility of manufacturers to ensure their showering products conform to the standard, but the final reseller of the products – builders merchants and plumbers – also have a legal responsibility to ensure the products they stock, or are specifying, also conform to the standard.” Read more at: https://bit.ly/3qV1vk1


INDUSTRY BACKS RETROFIT STRATEGY CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY LEADERS have given their support to the government’s emissions cutting strategy. The Construction Leadership Council (CLC) has given its backing to the National Retrofit Strategy. It said the government’s plan will help make homes greener and more energy and water efficient, warmer and cheaper to run, and would cut housing emissions. Existing homes use 35% of all the energy in the UK and are responsible for 20% of



carbon dioxide emissions. The CIC said: “The National Retrofit Strategy puts forward a plan for upgrades that are vital if we are to meet the country’s net zero targets. A national retrofit programme will aid recovery in the repair, maintenance and improvement (RMI) sector, and provide opportunity for a joined-up approach to tackling climate change by all parts of the construction industry.” Read more: www. constructionleadershipcouncil.co.uk



CIPHE REMEMBERS TWO MODERNISING PRESIDENTS Two past presidents who had a central role in modernising the institute have passed away within a few months of each other, writes 1996-1997 president Owen O’Neill.


wo CIPHE presidents who led the way in the early 1990s have sadly died. Ronald Heritage, who was 19921993 president, and Stanley Tildsley, who succeeded him, both passed away last year. Ron joined the Registered Plumbers’ Association and then the Institute of Plumbing in 1970 at the time of the merger. He worked tirelessly throughout his busy working life to promote the aims and ideals of the institute and led by example. He served as the Kent Branch Secretary for almost 30 years – an important role which he undertook assiduously and with good nature. Ron sat on the panel of the Professional Standards Committee, the purpose of which was to set and maintain standards for the institute’s members, in a voluntary capacity for 18 years. This committee dealt with membership and the investigation of complaints. As he was self-employed, this meant that he forfeited a day’s earnings to attend each monthly meeting. Nothing better demonstrates his personal commitment to the Institute and to his own principles. In 1992 Ron was elected to serve as president and, together with his wife Mary, embarked upon a busy, varied, and absorbing year.


In retirement Ron went back to his naval traditions and took to the water by narrowboat, cruising UK canals and inland waterways. Members will remember someone who was loyal, helpful, dedicated, and hardworking, taking great pride in his work and, in fact, a true professional. In recent times as his health deteriorated, he never moaned nor complained. Stan was a member of the Institute of Plumbing from 1972 and he too volunteered much of his time to help it to achieve its aims. It was a source of great pride for Stan when he followed on from Ron, serving with distinction as president from 1993 to 1994. His long-lasting legacy for the institute was in his role as project co-ordinator for the production of the 2002 edition of the CIPHE Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide. Covering topics ranging from hot and cold water services to resource efficient design, much of its content is as relevant today as it was when first printed. Ron and Stan were much admired and made their own significant contributions to the history of the CIPHE. They will be sadly missed, but not forgotten, by all of us who knew them.

Ronald Heritage

Stanley Tildsley





‘PIONEER, INNOVATOR AND GOOD GUY’: CECIL DUCKWORTH REMEMBERED Tributes have been paid to the founder of Britain’s biggest boiler manufacturer who has died at the age of 83


ECIL DUCKWORTH CBE, who started what is now Worcester Bosch, passed away peacefully at home in November 2020. He had been suffering from cancer. After seeing a gap in the market, he borrowed £300 from his wife to start up a company first known as Worcester Engineering in 1962. He pioneered the Combi Boiler in the UK and laid the foundations from which the company grew to be the number one boiler manufacturer in the UK. He then found a good cultural fit with Bosch, and finally handed over the reins in 1996, retiring aged 59 to focus on his local community. He then started his second career, building the Worcester Warriors into the established Premiership Rugby Club it is today, with facilities and off the pitch experiences that are the envy of the Premiership. He also worked tirelessly in the Worcestershire community helping many charities, particularly the local Acorn Hospice. Concerned about environmental issues, he set up the Duckworth Worcestershire Trust in 1998 to get people from disadvantaged backgrounds to protect natural habitats and fund local schools. His dedication towards education and opportunities also saw the 2020 launch of the Duckworth Centre of Engineering at CIPHE Approved Training Centre, Heart of Worcestershire College. He was also a Freeman of Worcester and chairman of the county’s cricket club. In 2013 Cecil was appointed a CBE in the Queen’s Birthday Honours list for his charitable contributions to the Worcestershire community. Worcester Bosch said: “Cecil was a unique person, an extremely talented businessman and entrepreneur, a



Cecil Duckworth (seated, left) , raises a glass

pioneer, a visionary, an innovator, and at the same time, a dedicated family man and a caring, fun person to be around, and of course a keen supporter of the Worcestershire area.” Among those to pay tribute was Richard Soper CBE, former chief executive of the firm. He wrote for the Journal: “Boss, friend and mentor, it is not hard to put into words that CD had such an incredible effect on my life both professionally and personally. His support and direction formed a long-lasting business, that has given me and so many of my colleagues and friends such a great start and a major effect on our careers. He built a family culture within our company which has

continued to this day.” He recalled: “We are left with so many fond and happy memories, working alongside CD in the market development of the ‘Combi’ from niche to market leading. Also, being so proud of his legacy with his tireless involvement in the local community through the Duckworth Trust and his Chairmanship of the Worcester Warriors, amongst many others.” He concluded: “I owe so much to this great man, who opened the door to my career and was such a great person to work with and be around. Be ever in my mind and heart.” The company he created summed up: “He was simply ‘one of life’s good guys’ and he will be sorely missed by all.”



STAND AND DELIVER The CIPHE’s success in lobbying for the industry during the COVID-19 crisis has led to a big change with a new strategy for campaigning. P&H Engineering reveals the plans for 2021


hen the COVID-19 outbreak started, it brought some rapid changes and an unexpected benefit. Whitehall mandarins who needed crucial answers asked the CIPHE for help – and they got it. It led to more enquiries and opportunities to highlight priorities from our own agenda that were not previously available. Just a couple of months before, the Institute had put forward


a manifesto aimed at influencing politicians during the general election. Faced with a rapidly changing situation, a decision was taken. Rather than abandon aims and objectives, why not seize the new connections and circumstances to achieve lasting changes? The solution has been to create a rolling manifesto that will run every year and continue to adapt and develop as the objectives

are achieved. CIPHE chief executive officer Kevin Wellman explains the logic: “Due to COVID-19 and Brexit, it is clear that we are entering a period of significant change. Going forward, the UK is going to need skilled, qualified and competent engineers in all disciplines, to achieve its domestic and international aims. “As the Professional Body for the




plumbing and heating industry, and a registered educational charity dedicated to protecting the public health, the CIPHE is uniquely placed to give a voice to the industry, while upholding the interest of the public.” So over the next 12 months, the team will be engaging directly with the government to refine legislation, work with campaigners, engage with the media, support colleges and more.

Here are some of the highlights: S TA N DA R D S The issue: A new regulator for England The issue: The Hackitt Inquiry report created the opportunity What we’re doing about it: As part of the Construction Industry Council, we’ve been working since the Grenfell fire to rid the industry of rogue operators and untrained workers


and to strengthen the regulatory environment. A big achievement has been the industry report setting out objectives. As the building safety legislation is scrutinised, we’ll be working with others to get mandatory registration. M O D E R N S L AV E RY The issue: Under-cutting small firms Why get involved? Safety and human rights are at risk What we’re doing about it: We’re working with MPs and ministers to enable trading standards and police officers to be able to require proof of competency in the form of qualifications. We know the construction industry is being targeted and the gangs involved are also linked to money laundering and more. SCALDING The issue: Risk of injury Why get involved? The Health and


Safety Executive states around 20 people die from scalding each year and the elderly are five times more likely to receive a fatal burn or scald injury than the general population. Hot bath water continues to be responsible for the highest number of fatal and severe scalding injuries among young children. What we’re doing about it: We’ll be working with industry associations to push for legislation requiring the use of Thermostatic Mixing Valves (TMVs) in all domestic dwellings. LEGIONELL A The issue: The number of cases is still alarming Why get involved: Schools and hospitals are dealing with it, but home hot tub owners aren’t What we’re doing about it: We’re lobbying the industry and the regulator to review, update and strengthen enforcement of the Water



Around 20 people die from scalding each year

Regulations. We’ll also be calling for the introduction of further legislation around the installation and use of domestic hot tubs and spa baths. E D U C AT I O N The issue: Colleges are facing uncertain times Why get involved: Apprentices are hardest-hit in recessions What we’re doing about it: The transition to low carbon heating requires a fit for purpose training and education programme for the industry so we are working with other industry partners and further education leads within government to ensure the courses are protected. We are also developing the low carbon training requirements with the government. CO U N T E R F E I T PA R T S The issue: 3D printing and post-Brexit supply chain issues risk exacerbating a long-standing problem


Why get involved? Safety and customer protection What we’re doing about it: Along with manufacturers and distributors for compliant products and parts, we will push for Trading Standards teams and the National Crime Agency to step up policing of the sale of products not manufactured to the necessary standards, including the online marketplaces. We will continue to provide education and information on responsibilities and liabilities for products that are installed. PUBLIC TOILETS The issue: Local authority cuts Why get involved? Public health matters What we’re doing about it: This year has highlighted the impact of social isolation and yet, for too many, this is the reality for every day of their lives. Just for the want of access to safe, clean public toilet facilities.

We’re adding new momentum to our campaign to protect current conveniences and lobbying Westminster to ensure funding gets through. The Public Health Act 1936 gave local authorities the power to provide public toilets, but it is not a legal requirement for them to do so. We want the loophole closed. U N C L I M AT E C H A N G E CO N F E R E N C E The issue: Reducing emissions Why get involved? Government legally established objectives which are impossible to hit without contribution by the plumbing and heating industry What we’re doing about it: Our working group has been partnering up with officials at the Department for Business, Energy & Industrial Strategy to work out how the industry will deliver the low carbon agenda. If the UN climate change conference goes ahead in the autumn, we very much intend to be there to influence, inform and raise our profile. It’s a big agenda but the Institute is confident about making a difference in 2021. Kevin Wellman says: “We are clear that CIPHE members represent the best of the plumbing and heating industry. The knowledge and experience we have means we are well placed to help tackle these big issues head-on.”

Want to find out more? Go to the CIPHE’s website www.ciphe.org.uk




HOME S COMFORT Millions of vulnerable people need help to live safely at home. One of the country’s leading occupational therapists explains how thoughtful design can help them, and the NHS.



mall actions at the right time can make a huge difference, not least when it comes to the care of vulnerable people. Sadly, the UK is still wedded to the out-dated ideas of ‘home help’ and ‘home adaptations’. Whether it’s old age, becoming partially sighted or losing the use of limbs, most work to keep people in their own homes is based on a social services assessment and funding pots. But the number of older people is growing and, thanks to medical advances, people with previously lifelimiting conditions are living longer. One of the country’s top occupational therapists is challenging the country’s approach to home design, arguing that




We need housing that’s going to help us help them

Her approach is based on analysis and problem-solving. She is concerned why the UK is so stuck in its ways. She says: “Things are changing; we’re getting there slowly. The problem we have is that there are lots of silos in industry and especially in government. There’s the Department of Health, the Ministry for Housing Communities and Local Government and Department for Education and Skills. You’d think they talk to each other; in practice, they don’t. “Then you have the housebuilders who are influenced by shareholders and don’t want to do anything because it will impact on their profit. But all this is inefficient for everybody. We need housing that’s going to help us to help them.” The industry needs to adapt to a changing customer base

really great solutions and installation can add quality to people’s lives – and save the NHS millions.

What are the problems? Kate Sheehan is director of The OT Service consultancy and a leading occupational therapy expert on bathrooms and kitchens. Occupational therapy is about not only clinical health, but also psychology and mental health. It’s about adapting the tasks and environment taking into account people’s physical health. And Sheehan wants our industry’s decision-makers to catch up with a customer base that has changed radically.


And what about the point of sale? “The problem we’ve got is the disparity between industry and mainstream buyers, and that’s fundamental,” Sheehan says. “They make everything as though everybody is one person. I’m one of five in my family and I’m 5ft 5in. My brother is 6ft 1in. When you’re designing for both people it’s as if they’re in different places – but most people have one accommodation. Why aren’t we designing in a new way for mainstream? We should be designing for different.” The decision-makers, installers and buyers aren’t focused on every day activities. She explains: “Most people over 40 wear glasses for many forms of work or for reading or driving. It’s part

Kate Sheehan’s step by step guide to getting home design right • I look at the person and their needs. Ask what they need and want to do. • Think: What do they use the space for, when and how? • Use a checklist of questions and have a copy of the plan where the work is being done • Educate: people must need and want to do something. Show the research to back up your advice. After that, very few say ‘I’m not having that’. • Personal care is important. They need things explained. It’s not only about cognitive ability; it’s politeness.

SHOULDER OUT, DON’T LOOK BACK Two quick fixes can avoid design errors. When working while standing, people start at shoulder height. Forensic scientists can calculate the height of a vandal by where graffiti on a wall starts. Shower installers start at their shoulder height, not the reach of an older person. If you’re 6ft and the client is 5ft 2in, the installation has to be lower. People sometimes make design decisions by imagining themselves as the client, but it can go wrong. An engineer at Jaguar Cars once reflected that the company’s decline began because Sir William Lyons was a man in his 60s trying to imagine what someone two generations younger wanted.




The bathroom is one of the key places for accidents

of the deterioration of the body. But it’s forgotten in design. Who showers with their glasses on?” There is a fix, Sheehan believes, and it involves creating best products rather than for the ‘average’ consumer. Sheehan says: “We need to design better to meet the multi-generational needs, so we don’t have to adapt repeatedly in properties. We are moving into a society where we increasingly have multi-generations living in one home because of things like young people not being able to afford to move out. It’s called inclusive design and it’s been around for decades.” So how can the industry stop older people and the less able getting such a raw deal? Sheehan says they should think about the environment and the person’s connection with it: “Heating is just one example; there’s lots of people in later

BIOGRAPHY KATE SHEEHAN, DipCOT MRCOT, is director of The OT Service. She qualified in 1987. She has presented her work on Inclusive Design and housing standards at The Royal College of Occupational Therapists and internationally. The former chairperson and treasurer of the RCOTSS, she developed and teaches the first Housing pathway MSc at York St John University. She is co-author of the new Wheelchair Housing Design Guide.



life who all have the same functions but how they use the space is different. If someone has a physical impairment, they tend to stay in one place for longer. “As every plumbing and heating engineer knows, maintaining a higher home temperature is the ideal. It’s how you say to the client why that’s the case, but it’s also about a better conversation when you know the complexity of how they live so you can coordinate how they go from even temperature to even temperature.” She explains: “Ideally, 18ºC is the temperature we want. Let’s look at the rooms and how we achieve it. Where is the person most active? In the kitchen, because of the oven, you don’t need an additional heat source. But if they are sitting in the lounge watching TV or not feeling very well, having some form of additional heating is very useful. It could just be installing thermostatic



radiators or a smart thermostat.” A familiar problem – but it has a serious health impact. Sheehan says: “There’s a risk on the body; moving regularly from high to low temperatures can cause heart problems. Scalding – a major campaign issue for the CIPHE – is also an area of concern for her.“The bathroom is one of the key places where we have these accidents. We’re more vulnerable and the most delicate parts of the skin are usually involved,” she says. She offers a forensic analysis of how it can go badly wrong: “If you wear glasses, you tend to take them off in the bathroom, leaving you with limited vision. If you’ve got children, there are distractions – and they are not always aware of the risks.”

What can installers do to make a difference? “Thermostatic showers and taps make a huge difference. It’s not about getting rid of choice: if you’re using a programmable shower you can set it for different people,” she says. “Talking about this at the start is the key. Ask the householder ‘do you have any vulnerable people in your house?’” Falls and trips in the home are traditionally associated with poorfitting slippers. It’s a misnomer because there are other significant risks. Sheehan says: “With the older generation, their balance isn’t as good. Slips and falls in the bathroom are common. Why don’t we design out the risks early? A real bug-bear of mine is the positioning of radiators in a bathroom,” she says. “They tend to be next to the toilet. A lot of falls happen getting on or off it. What happens if you are sitting on a toilet is that you can fall down and grab or land next to it. If you don’t move quickly, you will get a significant burn. Is there anywhere else you can put the radiator?” It doesn’t end there: “Think not only about the position of products but how they can be used. Another bug bear is


where people put toilet lever pushes. When it’s put on the corner, you have to reach and that can take an older person off-centre, unbalancing them. Put it on the outside end, not on the corner.” Quality also counts towards safety: “Push buttons on toilets don’t work for a lot of people. If you have long fingernail extensions or arthritis, it’s a problem. Those £50 nail extensions ping off. It’s better to have a lever with a normal movement. Showers are slippery places. Why don’t you have a riser or a grab rail as well?”

Why make changes? Those changes are inexpensive but can save lives – and save the NHS money. She says: “Showers and washing facilities are where falls happen that cause hip fractures. A hip replacement costs £25,000. Why risk it for £100? It’s just good practice.” Sheehan also reveals a quirk among installers that could render even the best-chosen product useless. “Installers often fit to their working height not the height needed for the customer, so I have detailed plans that go down to the millimetre,” she says. “And I still have installers that don’t seem to read them beforehand, so I have a build sheet that I stick on the wall where the work is being done.” But ultimately, it’s about more than just health and safety or neat design. For Sheehan, all those small details protect the mental health and dignity of the client. She says: “Personal acceptance in decision-making is part of control and empowerment. You want to do things like have a shower because they are good for you mentally and physically. When somebody suggests that an older person can just strip wash, I go ballistic. If this was 100 years ago, that would be the norm. Today that’s not acceptable.” And how should we think to best achieve inclusive design? Sheehan sums it up in one thought: “If this was you, how would you feel?”

RIGHT FIRST TIME: THE PRODUCTS THAT WORK There are plenty of products that fit the bill: CIPHE Industrial Associates Triton and Ideal Standard (under the Armitage brand) both have a really good riser.

WE THE PEOPLE Think no two customers are the same? You’re right, and here are the reasons why: • Multi-family households (consisting of two or more families) were the fastest growing household type over the last two decades to 2019, according to the ONS • According to Scope, 14.1 million people are disabled in the UK • The ONS estimates 68% of UK people wear glasses • The average Briton has got taller at the rate of 0.75 inches a generation. Average height of males rose slightly during the period in consideration from 174.4cm in 1998 to 175.6cm in 2013 • There are now 5.4 million people aged 75 or over • The NHS says more than 10 million people have arthritis or similar conditions that affect the joints • The nation’s feet have increased two sizes over the last four decades according to the College of Podiatry






Two people die in the UK from asthma caused by air pollution every day. A legal precedent could spur action. But what can be done? P&H Engineering investigates




amily and friends of Ella AdooKissi-Debrah describe a funny, busy, clever, curious, sporty and musical child. And now she is also a child who made history for a very sad reason. After developing asthma, she died in 2013 aged just nine. Her mother wanted answers to what caused it and, just before Christmas, a second inquest led by Coroner Philip Barlow set a legal precedent. He concluded Ella had been exposed to “excessive” levels of pollution. “There was a recognised failure to reduce the levels of nitrogen dioxide, which possibly contributed to her death,” he said.

Sarah Woolnough, chief executive of Asthma UK and the British Lung Foundation, says the verdict “sets the precedent for a seismic shift in the pace and extent to which the government, local authorities and clinicians must now work together to tackle the country’s air pollution health crisis”. How bad is it? Currently in the UK three people die from asthma every day and at least two of those deaths are avoidable, according to Asthma UK. But the true extent of poor air quality isn’t known. The biggest places of concern are urban areas and they change every day. Complex urban environments make it difficult to predict how much pollution we breathe



to measure how pollution impacts each person directly and the effectiveness of intervention actions. But it’s early days. Professor Gavin Shaddick, Chair of Data Science and Statistics at the University of Exeter, leads the WHO Global Platform on Air Quality and Health Data Integration Task Force and serves on the UK government’s Committee on the Medical Effects of Air Pollutants (COMEAP). He says: “The primary source of information for estimating population exposures to air pollution has been measurements from ground monitoring networks but, although coverage is increasing, regions remain in which monitoring is limited.”

But what are the causes?

There are two main air pollutants of concern in London

in on a day-to-day basis. Our exposure to air pollution can vary based on something as simple as which route we take to work. Variations in the weather are another factor. According to the National Centre for Atmospheric Science, cold, still air can exacerbate the effects of the pollution because it stays in one area.

Monitoring the impact Part of the problem is that monitoring by the government covers wide areas such as cities and methods involved haven’t changed. So, a team at the University of Exeter, working with The Met Office has begun using AI to narrow the data to an individual level,


There are two main air pollutants of concern in London, based on their impact on human health: nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter that becomes fine dust (PM2.5). According to the Department for the Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA), the sources are: • Sulphur dioxide • Nitrogen oxides • Particulate matter (formed by a mixture of solid particles and liquid droplets suspended in the atmosphere) • Ozone and volatile organic compounds • Toxic Organic Micro-Pollutants (TOMPS) • Benzene • 1,3-Butadiene • Carbon monoxide • Lead and heavy metals What’s creating the pollution? The breakdown, according to scientists and DEFRA is: : • 38% from burning wood and coal in domestic open fires and solid fuel stoves • 12% from road transport • 13% from solvent use and industrial processes • 16% from industrial combustion (nondomestic burning).

THE COST OF POLLUTION The Royal College of Physicians estimates pollution is costing the UK:



million sick days a year Total social cost of

£22.6 billion per year

They can be exposed to pollutants in their homes QUARTER ONE / 2021



Today, just as in the Victorian era of unregulated factories and smog, poverty is a factor in who is most affected by air pollution. Oliver Lord, head of policy and campaigns at Environmental Defense Fund Europe said: “The health burden of air pollution is not equal. Whether kids attend school on a main road or in a leafy suburb should not determine the quality of air they breathe, which will affect them for the rest of their lives.” The government says transport is the biggest offender, but data collected during the first lockdown in spring 2020 showed our homes and offices are also a big problem. The National Centre for Atmospheric Science calculated that during lockdown, levels of nitrogen dioxide were 43% lower in urban areas, compared to the same period over the previous five years. But there were smaller changes for small particle pollution, known as PM2.5 - which is linked to housing. The Climate Change Committee (CCC) the statutory body established under the Climate Change Act 2008, made the link. A report by its health advisory group to the government, published in November last year called for the design and retrofit of homes to be energy efficient and healthy. The CCC’s chief executive, Chris Stark, says: “There is no doubt that reducing polluting emissions has significant health benefits.”

Indoor air quality Scientists are also warning that the indoor environment is just as big a concern. Badly built, poorly maintained buildings that circulate dust or spores are just as lethal as a road full of traffic. Professor Nicola Carslaw of the University of York set out new research showing the risks. She warns that damp, the burning of fossil fuels and wood, dust, and chemicals from building materials all lower the quality of air in the place where people spend most of their time. She says: “Although



The health burden of air pollution is not equal people are generally very aware of air pollutants outdoors and their exposure to them – such as when they walk along a heavily trafficked street – they are much less aware that they can be exposed to pollutants in their homes.” Professor Jonathan Grigg, Paediatric Respiratory Consultant from the Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health (RCPCH) said: “We’re finally paying attention to the quality of our indoor air, and this is long overdue. Too many of our homes and schools are damp and poorly ventilated – this is adversely affecting the health of children.” So, what can the HVAC industry do and are there any innovations that are on the way? Good building ventilation along with practical measures, such as cleaning ductwork in HVAC systems can all help. But there are bigger wins to be had. Reducing gas dependency is another factor. Boiler emissions are cited as a major source of air pollution – up to 12% in urban areas. There are 21 million gas boilers in the UK and less than 5% of homes are heated by low carbon sources. Natural gas, used mainly for heating buildings and water, accounts for 37% of all greenhouse gas emissions in London. A report by the Energy and Climate Intelligence Unit warned last autumn: “Nitrogen oxides (NOx) emission from gas boilers, could spike over the course of a winter spent working from home, potentially compromising the UK’s ability to meet legally binding air quality targets.” The Mayor of London has already been looking at this. Last year testing was carried out to compare emissions against the manufacturers’ stated emission rates for each boiler. The aim

was to start gathering data. With the exception of one boiler, measured and manufacturer’s stated emission rates compared well, with an average of 94 per cent agreement. Given killer air supply is a problem today, what can be done immediately? Right now, the best advice from the government is to meet the emission and design standards we have. For industrial boilers and furnaces in England there is a government permit scheme that sets design and limits aimed at reducing pollution. Small changes at home can make a big difference too. Professor Carslaw says: “Using an extractor fan that vents outdoors when cooking is one way to improve air quality in the home, and making sure that cleaning is carried out in a wellventilated space is another.” The CIPHE advice is to ensure that HVAC systems are maintained and cleaned so they not only remain at optimum performance but don’t pump through accumulated dust particles. Long-term, policymakers are already saying that the retro-fitting of low carbon HVAC systems, such as ground source heat pumps, is going to be part of the solution.

Finding solutions London, with a population of 8 million, is set to lead the way. A report by the Carbon Trust commissioned by Mayor Sadiq Khan published last summer set out a blueprint of how to do it. It included detailed analysis of the potential to retrofit heat pumps across a range of existing buildings in London and recommended an action plan for scaling up energy efficiency and heat pump retrofit across the capital. The report’s findings will be familiar to CIPHE members who have been following the development of the low carbon agenda over the last two years. “Heat pumps are not a like-for-like replacement for gas boilers, and good practice system design will be essential to their effective deployment,” it says.



BUILDING THE NEW The Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health (RCPCH) is calling for: • Legally binding performance standards for indoor air quality to include ventilation rates, maximum concentration levels for specific pollutants, labelling of materials, and testing of appliances • Air quality tests when local authority construction is complete and before the building is signed off • Compliance tests after construction stages and assessment of buildings once occupied – this may require ring-fenced resources for local authorities to take enforcement action.

PURE IN DEED Action must be taken to reduce air pollution

The report contains guidance for building owners on the technical options for installation and the principles of good practice system design in heat pump retrofit. The Carbon Trust adds: “A prerequisite for the roll out of heat pumps in many buildings will be improved thermal energy efficiency, which is likely to require significant investment from central government, alongside investment and co-ordination with local authorities and the private sector.” Tom Delay, chief executive of the Carbon Trust, is realistic that cutting building emissions is not going to solve the big problems: “As always, heat pumps are not a silver bullet solution, which is why we have provided a suite of policy recommendations, including investment in energy efficiency in buildings and flexibility in the energy system.” The trust isn’t the only organisation to


make clear that achieving clean air will have to be a national effort led by the government rather than relying on early adopters and one or two politicians. The Royal College of Physicians wants the government to “require national agencies and local authorities to protect those most at risk and to reduce exposure to air pollution among vulnerable groups such as children, older people and those with pre-existing health conditions”. Sadly, the scale of the problem after decades of failing to take action – and the lack of meaningful data – means illness caused by poor air quality is going to be an issue for years to come. But the verdict in the case of Ella AdooKissi-Debrah could be the wake-up call needed because of future legal implications. The CIPHE is lobbying the government and working with industry to get

Air purifiers are a quick solution to getting clean air into a building. There are stand alone domestic units on the market starting from £120 up to medical-grade units which cost more. They must meet the Highefficiency particulate air (HEPA) standard for filtering. A unit rated HEPA H14 will pass up 0.005% of 0.1 micron particles per litre of air. Products include the Blueair Blue Pure 411 and the Dimplex DXAPV3N Air Purifier. improvements but it’s a complex task. Kevin Wellman, CEO of CIPHE said: “Just banning cars isn’t going to deliver the change we need. It’s also about better building design and build as well as cutting building emissions. None of this is easy or cheap. But if continuing as is will result in preventable deaths, then it is clear that action must be taken.”




OUT OF THIS WORLD Space remains the final frontier for mankind. For two decades, the International Space Station has been sustaining astronauts and enabling crucial research. P&H finds out how


he sky at night is both deceiving and fascinating – and its exploration is helping to save lives here on Earth. On a clear night, you might spot the blips of light from the International Space Station, blissfully unaware of its scale or the cutting-edge scientific work it is doing. It has returned to the headlines after celebrating two decades orbiting the Earth, and as part of renewed interest in space exploration that includes plans

Weightlessness alters many observable phenomena www.ciphe.org.uk

for manned missions to Mars of NASA’s early scientists and private space flights. but President Kennedy’s Fun fact: The images of decision to land on the The movie Apollo 13, astronauts floating moon shelved progress. starring Tom Hanks as Jim Lovell, is shown by NASA to in its cramped space The first section its newest team members as belie the fact that the launched in November part of their training. International Space 1998 and the final section Station is the largest followed in May 2008. The artificial object in space – the station has been continually size of an American football pitch. inhabited since October 2000. Yet it is ‘home’ to just six people at It is made up of 14 elements with a any one time. mass of 900,000 lbm and is operated by 15 countries to provide a scientific Staying alive laboratory dedicated to physical and So how does it keep that crew alive? biological sciences. And has there been any practical But in an age of computer simulation, benefit from the work that has gone on? why go there? NASA explains that by The complexities of building it in low changing the environment, there’s orbit were preceded by an equally better data. challenging development. The Space The agency says: “Microgravity, or Station had been the central aim weightlessness, alters many observable




Teams of flight controllers are constantly monitoring the station’s health phenomena within the physical and life sciences. Systems and processes affected by microgravity include surface wetting and interfacial tension, multiphase flow and heat transfer, multiphase system dynamics, solidification, and fire phenomena and combustion.” Conditions in space include “exposure to extreme heat and cold cycling, ultra-vacuum, atomic oxygen,

Space Station in numbers • Size: 51m (167.3ft) from front to back and 109m (375.5ft) from one tip of the truss to the other. The ISS is about five times as large as Skylab, the first US space station. •M ass: 419,400 kg (924,700 lbs), the equivalent of more than 320 cars. •P ressurized Volume: 916 m3 (32,333 ft 3 ), or equal to that of a Boeing 747. ight solar arrays on the US •E Segment are capable of producing a total of 84 kilowatts of solar power. The solar array wingspan (73m [240ft]) is longer than that of a Boeing 777-200/300 model. •T he total ISS solar array surface area is nearly 4,050m2 (1 acre) in size. 13km (8miles) of wire connect the electrical power system. •H abitable Volume: 388m3 (13,696 ft3), roughly the same living space as a 158m2 house that has 2.5m (8ft) walls.



View of Earth through the Cupola on the International Space Station

and high energy radiation”. The biggest research area is on one of the simplest parts of our daily lives: generating heat – and emissions. NASA explains: “For the foreseeable future the overwhelming majority of delivered energy in terrestrial applications will be from combustion or other chemically reacting systems. These energy uses cover the range from electric power and transportation to processes directly tied to manufacture.” “These processes produce some of the most important environmental hazards currently facing humanity: global climate change, acid gas pollution, mercury contamination from coal, and wild-land fires.” The agency adds: “Despite being the subject of active research for over 80 years, combustion processes remain one of the most poorly-controlled phenomena that have a significant impact on human health, comfort and safety.” And all this research is happening at a speed of 17,500 mph. At 51 degrees inclination and an altitude of approximately 240 miles (400 kilometres), the ISS can orbit the Earth in 90 minutes with an orbital path covering 90% of its population.

And HVAC has a crucial role in making it all happen in a ‘shirtsleeve environment’. The Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) provides a breathable atmosphere at a normal atmospheric pressure. This means the system provides oxygen (O2 ) and nitrogen (N2 ) at the same ratio as on Earth while removing contaminates such as carbon dioxide (CO2 ) and other impurities in the gas. Ducting passes air between all the modules to ensure uniform mixing through High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters. These have to be cleaned regularly as objects collect in the vents due to the lack of gravity. Heating is critical as the temperature in Space is −270.45 °C. An active thermal control system uses heat exchangers and cooling loops filled with water to moderate temperature between 16.1 and 18.3°C. One section of pipes are filled with ammonia which has a lower freezing point at -77 °C. Two giant radiator panels outside the living section send excess heat into space. Four tanks supply the oxygen and nitrogen needed for breathing. The tanks can either be vented directly to the cabin or stored. Transporting



oxygen is expensive so generators produce it from water using electrolysis, which is the process of splitting water molecules into hydrogen (H2) and O2 using electricity. Having two independent systems provides redundancy if one suffers a problem. But the biggest innovation is the water system used for rehydrating food, bathing and waste removal. Transporting water tanks is expensive and impractical. So water of every kind is filtered and reused. Here’s how they do it: “Using flush water, the Waste and Hygiene Compartment sends the urine to a unit (solids are retained in a tank to be disposed of later). It is treated with a chemical, called pretreat, to prevent the urea from crystalizing and potentially plugging the plumbing lines. A filter also removes any particulates that are left behind,” says NASA. “It is pumped to the distillate assembly where the temperature is raised and the pressure is lowered to cause water evaporation. This evaporated water is compressed back into liquid form and is passed along to the WPA for further processing. The remaining fluid, called brine, is sent to the Advanced Recycle Filter Tank Assembly (ARFTA) where multiple filters pull out any particulates as the brine is sent back to the distillate assembly where it joins with more pretreat urine and more water is pulled out.”

High maintenance But with just six people in space, who coordinates maintenance? On the station, the Environmental and Thermal Operating Systems (ETHOS) flight controller is responsible

NASA innovators are constantly creating new technology www.ciphe.org.uk

for monitoring systems. A NASA spokesman tells P&H Engineering: “In terms of who makes maintenance decisions, there are teams of flight controllers and program representatives constantly monitoring the station’s health and tasking astronauts for scheduled maintenance activities when appropriate. “For larger maintenance activities, the International Space Station Mission Management Team consists of representatives from all space station international partner agencies and meets regularly to discuss and approve maintenance.” Have there been any real-world benefits from all this work? The ISS team has produced a 212page dossier detailing the patents and projects that have resulted. And many of them involve creating safe water supplies around the world. Among them is the Aquaporin Inside Tap Water Reverse Osmosis membrane for household purifiers. The microbial water analysis kit – part of the space station’s environmental control systems – is being shared by mWater, a non-profit venture focused on providing low-cost test kits and monitoring software in support of the global Water and Sanitation for Health (WASH). “Whether working to send the first woman and next man to the Moon or helping improve the technology that carries passengers from Portland, Maine, to Portland, Oregon, NASA innovators are constantly creating new technology,” said Jim Reuter, associate administrator of the agency’s Space Technology Mission Directorate in Washington. “Often these advances have wide-ranging benefits well beyond the need they were first imagined to meet.” There’s another goal; in an era of fake news and conspiracy theories the scientists want to share the successful adaptations. He adds: “Telling the public that story is one way we fulfil our mission to find

SATELLITE TV ANYONE? Looking for high-definition views of Earth from the space station? You can watch the ISS live on the Earth Viewing Experiment on UStream. Spoiler alert: It’s only available when the space station is in contact with the ground. VISIT: https://go.nasa. gov/38q79mo

THINKING OF APPLYING? Astronaut training for a mission takes three years, depending on the tasks that will be involved. A scientific or aeronautical background is preferred. And all ISS missions require the ability to speak Russian – training is extended for this. Want to stay more grounded? The UK has around 15 firms plus universities –including the University of Leicester – that build satellites. Dust particles can render the equipment useless so complex HVAC systems are needed for production facilities. Maintenance roles are specialist, but the market is expanding. A new £500m Deep Space research centre is set to be built in Leicester. homes for the technology beyond the agency for maximum benefit.” Reuter says proudly: “Transferring NASA technology beyond the space agency is part of our culture and one of our longest-standing missions.”

Spot the station Track the International Space Station and learn where to look to spot it passing overhead spotthestation.nasa.gov




OVERSEAS DEVELOPMENTS The Hong Kong branch of the CIPHE is thriving and delivering critical public health work to help end the COVID-19 crisis


he COVID-19 pandemic was a global crisis that needed a global response and because of its unique membership – and a huge resource of knowledge – the CIPHE has been able to give a global response. Every day, the CIPHE-HK, as we are known, works to be a bridge between the industry and the Government Departments. We do this because to be able to work as a plumbing or HVAC engineer you have to be registered with the government. There is no way around it. But it also means we have been able to make a significant contribution to the global response to the crisis which is both a government and a public health issue.

Sharing knowledge For us, it wasn’t the first health crisis that we have had to respond to. The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) reached Hong Kong in March 2003



FIND OUT MORE Governments around the world have looked to Hong Kong’s response because of some impressive data. As of 5 January 2021, Hong Kong had 9,050 confirmed cases (including probable cases), with 8,127 recoveries. That response used the experiences gained during 2003. The SARS outbreak was a major public health incident. You can read more about the lessons learned in a range of scientific papers. Two useful examples are: https://bit.ly/3pSinr1 and https://bit.ly/3s0SB5G

and sadly 286 people died. SARS was a very painful experience for us and as a population we are very aware of contagious infections. For those who do not know, both COVID-19 and SARS are caused by coronaviruses which are a group of viruses that cause respiratory illnesses. At the height of the outbreak, in early April 2003 the SARS virus reached a housing estate called Amoy Gardens. It infected 329 residents and 33 died. Toilet discharge pipes were linked to its spread in the homes. An investigation by eight agencies and the Department of Health found vertical soil stacks collecting effluent from all floors was an issue. As COVID-19 began to take hold, we considered the possibility of it being transmitted through pipes in the same way as the SARS virus. We worked quickly and were able to share our findings in P&H Engineering to help other professionals around the world.



CIPHE-HKB is part of the Joint Taskforce (JTF) Working Group on the Design, Installation, Operation and Maintenance of Drainage System and Ventilation Effectiveness of Toilets in Residential Buildings in Hong Kong. It is looking at virus spread and presented findings at a press conference in December. See P&H Engineering website for more.

WHO ARE WE? CIPHE-HKB is one of the Accredited Providers under Voluntary Continuing Professional Development Scheme for Licensed Plumbers. Current membership: 1,499 Chair of Hong Kong Branch: Sylvia Liu The Hong Kong Branch of The Chartered Institute of Plumbing & Heating Engineering (formerly

We share the same values and determination to make a difference We’ve been sharing our expertise globally too, including the World Plumbing Council and the media. We’ll be telling you more about our response and the lessons that can be learnt from this in the next edition of the journal. But we are also looking to the future as soon, we hope, the crisis will be over. In December, we held our AGM and elections to committee posts. We are delighted to announce Sylvia Liu is our new Chairwoman. Like everywhere in the world, saving


water is a concern and a priority. Water network management, its preventative maintenance, repair and rehabilitation is a priority. Education, especially youth participation is also important – as many of you will recognise. Professional development, with officially recognised qualifications is vital to maintaining standards. Members are studying hard and we look forward to seeing their names in the journal! The year ahead includes the World Plumbing Council and the UN Climate summit. We may be in a different time zone but we share the same values and determination to make a difference.

More information You can find out more about us and who we work with on the CIPHE website: https://bit.ly/35eyyXP

known as Institute of Plumbing) was registered in the Societies Registration Office by Mr. G. S. Stokes. The main objective of the Hong Kong Branch was to provide better service to the members in Hong Kong region. Since the inception of the local branch, it maintains frequent dialogue with the Water Authority which forms a bridge between the industry and the Government Departments. The Chartered Institute of Plumbing & Heating Engineering– Hong Kong Branch came into being in July 2008. The new title better reflects their scope of work and firmly identifies plumbing and heating as an engineering discipline. The parent Institute in the UK provides full support to the Hong Kong Branch in terms of advancement of science and practice of plumbing. The number of Hong Kong members grew dramatically from about 200 members and today it is almost eight times that number. Our main objectives are to advance for the public benefit and education of the public, the science, practice and principles of Plumbing and Heating Engineering in Hong Kong region.



TheFix The Fix Advice on preparing older homes for low-carbon heating systems, and water storage regulations


Safety before efficiency Understanding the impact on your hot water system design with high primary flow rates and hot water demand is vital


ver the last 12 months the term ‘low carbon’ has become the buzz word with heat pump technology being pushed to the forefront of government’s decarbonisation of heat strategy during the 2020s. As an ex installer I can remember many shifts by government in policy towards encouraging renewable heat technology deployment. However, I was always left uncertain and confused as to what was actually required to become a competent low carbon heating installer. The next 12 months will be a precarious transition for the low carbon education and skills sector, with a risk of a proliferation of standards and a race to the bottom. Therefore, it is paramount that both government and industry ensure the sector is joined up whilst avoiding the development of education initiatives in silos.

POSITIVE DISRUPTIVE INNOVATION IN EDUCATION IS NEEDED The education sector is traditionally slow moving, meaning it sometimes fails to maintain pace with current technology and methods being deployed by technology innovators



such as CIPHE industrial associate manufacturers, so the ongoing collaboration between the education sector, employers, installers and the technology innovators is critical moving forward.

THE LOW CARBON TECHNOLOGY OF TODAY There has been endless debates about what will be the heat source of the future, and the holy grail for decarbonising our heating systems as we embark on an ambitious net zero journey. However, whilst we need to encourage and accelerate innovation, we need to also get the basics right in

PAUL HARMER CIPHE Lead technical consultant CEng MIET Paul is a chartered engineer who has consulted and led on many high-profile plumbing and heating industry projects paulh@ciphe.org.uk

the fi rst place. If I could have a pound for every time I have read about the importance of heat loss, system balancing and oversizing over the last two years I would be a millionaire. Nevertheless, whilst carrying out a room-by-room heat loss assessment, and ensuring that we do not oversize equipment for effi ciency is critical, we cannot ignore safety and the other critical elements in the room, such as the domestic hot water system. This article focuses on the importance of ensuring the consumer needs are addressed whilst ensuring the safety, health and welfare of the public is considered when specifying a domestic hot water system. As we transition towards much smaller heat generator sizes with lower fl ow temperatures, the relationship between the manufacturer, consumer and installer has never been so important.




Requirements for safe hot water storage and distribution

WHAT ARE THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE TEMPERATURE REGIME FOR A SAFE HOT WATER STORAGE AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM? Figure 1 illustrates the requirements laid out in HSG 274 part 2, water regulations guidance, ACOP L8 and the CIPHE PESDG (Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide) which highlights the domestic hot and cold water temperature requirements. In the Health and Safety at Work etc Act 1974, section 15 and 16 states that you have to comply with equal to or better than the guidance notes, such as ACOP L8: 75 Designers, manufacturers, importers, suppliers and installers of water systems that may create a risk of exposure to legionella bacteria must: a) Ensure, so far as is reasonably practicable, that the water system is so designed and constructed that it will be safe and without risks to health. The reasons for following these simple rules are to reduce the risk of legionella growth in both the storage and distribution of a hot and cold water


system whilst preventing the risk of scalding at the outlets. In any system during peak demand there will always be a time where the temperatures fall below the minimum temperatures, so it is important that pasteurisation of the hot water storage and pipework is carried out where required, such as once a week. There are also some simple installation tips that will also help to protect the system from legionella. • Keep the cylinder maintained at a temperature of 60-65°C. • Insulate the cold water pipework to prevent the transfer of heat from other services such as heating pipes. • Ensure that hot water pipes are installed above cold water pipework. • If there is a cold water storage cistern in the loft space, then ensure it is fully insulated to avoid the water from reaching temperatures above 20°C with suitable ventilation in the area. • Install a pumped domestic hot water return circuit in long pipe runs and ensure the return temperature never drops below 50°C at point of return to the cylinder. • I nsulate the hot water pipework on the hot water return circuit to maintain the higher return temperatures. • I nstall a destratification pump on the

cylinder to ensure the whole cylinder is evenly heated. • Ensure the DHW control strategy, heat exchanger type and volume mitigates the risks of small heat generators.

NOW WE KNOW ABOUT THE TEMPERATURES NEEDED TO KEEP THE WATER SAFE, HOW DO WE ENSURE CONSUMER COMFORT? One of the most obvious reasons for installing sufficient DHW storage volume is to ensure consumer comfort is maintained, but, an undersized cylinder will increase the frequency of temperatures falling below the safety limits at peak times. The first key step is to understand the consumer’s domestic hot water needs by potentially one of two simple measures: 1) Calculate the hot water requirements based upon occupancy and the property. a) N umber of bedrooms plus 1 b) Number of occupants (Caution required) Low usage = 45 litres per person Medium usage = 55 litres per person High usage = 65 litres per person The designer should use the highest number out of a) and b) to avoid the risk





The effect on the amount of usable hot water with different primary flow temperatures


cylinder for a small heat generator with lower flow temperatures. Figure 2 illustrates an example of a 9kW boiler and a 210 litre hot water cylinder installed within a 4 bedroom house using the 225 litres of daily hot water from the example above. The daily usage profile has been taken from EN 50440 and is also stated within the latest BS EN 12831:2017 part 3 standard as a means of assessment in the absence of any national annex.

The important thing to understand is that this calculated number may be a useful strategy for calculating the cylinder size for high output, high temperature heat generators; nonetheless, it is advisable to specify additional volume when sizing a

Figure 2 illustrates a limitation when applying the rule of thumb method to sizing a cylinder for a low temperature heat source without understanding the system requirements and the consumer

of the system being undersized in situations where the number of occupants are less than the number of bedrooms plus one. Below is an example demonstrating the assumption for a four-bedroom house. a) (4 bedrooms + 1) x 45 l/p = 225 litres per day DHW usage



needs. The above example assumes the use of a priority hot water control system that takes priority over the heating load upon demand. It is also worth considering that when matching the heat generator size to the actual peak heat loss of the building without any response capacity, then the DHW storage capacity needs to be sized sufficiently to cope with demand during the colder winter months. Historically, heat generators have been oversized as high as twice the peak heating load of the building for this exact purpose. This has helped cope with the high usage periods demonstrated in the blue shaded area in figure 2. Nonetheless, the future low carbon heating system




High water usage during periods of peak demand

output will need to be matched as closely as possible to the actual building heat loss with heating temperatures lower than 55°C, so correct DHW sizing is essential. There are many different DHW technology solutions supplied today that help solve these challenges as we transition, so it is paramount that the CIPHE members consult the manufacturer first for advice before purchasing a cylinder or heat pump. Whilst using this simple method of calculating daily hot water usage can be effective, it is advisable to follow method 2 especially when faced with a property with high occupancy and multiple bathrooms. 2) Calculate the hot water requirement by an assessment of the actual consumer’s hot water behaviour. When assessing the DHW requirements of the consumer it is advisable to fully understand their peak day DHW usage profile similar to the importance of calculating the peak heat loss of the


property. It is important to understand the type of outlets, duration of use and the cold water inlet dynamic pressure and flow rate before specifying any equipment. This can appear laborious, but it will lead to a safer, happier and healthier consumer. Example Using the same 210l cylinder as used above, a large family with a single bathroom may consecutively use a 12l/ min shower for 30 minutes in the morning before work totalling 360 litres of water at 40°C. During this peak usage period there is also a heating requirement of 9 kW per hour for two hours after a night setback of 17°C to maintain the internal temperature of 20°C in the morning. As many consumers are increasingly searching for that powerful showering experience, situations with such peak demand illustrated within figure 3 can become a reality, albeit as the blue dotted line drops below the minimum temperature the user would stop showering. In a situation with

such high demand of hot water, I would install a cylinder with a destratification pump that charges the whole cylinder to the required temperature.

UNDERSTANDING SOME BASIC TYPES OF DOMESTIC HOT WATER SYSTEMS There is a wide variety of different domestic hot water cylinders and stores available on the market today, many of which fall into one of two main DHW system types; Mixed and loading hot water systems which are defined within BS EN 12831 Part 3:2017. One of the limitations of the traditional indirect mixed hot water storage cylinder (figure 4c) is the effects of stratification and the amount of usable hot water within a given storage volume compared to a fully de-stratified and charged hot water storage system such as the one in figure 4d. Due to the mixing effect within an indirect coil system during both the charging and discharging phase, the





Examples of domestic hot water systems

amount of stored water needs to be sufficient to avoid any disruption in supply. System type A – Thermal storage with internal mains pressure coil The volume of water within this thermal store is heated directly by the primary heat source which heats the integral DHW main pressure coil running throughout the cylinder. The pressure drop across the thermal store is minimal on the primary side, which is perfect for high flow rate systems such as a heat pump. However, care would need to be taken to understand the pressure drop across the DHW coil to ensure a dynamic pressure of no less than 1 bar (check manufacturer requirements) is achieved at the outlets such as the shower. TIP: Ask the manufacturer for their pressure drop graph of their cylinder coil and check the pressure drop across the coil with your DHW design system flow rate, for example 12l/min. If the pressure differential across the coil is too high, this will have a huge impact on reheat times. System type B – ‘Tank in Tank’ A tank in tank hot water cylinder contains a tank within a tank as the name suggests. The inner tank which is typically made out of stainless steel includes both a mains pressure cold water inlet and DHW outlet. The outer tank that surrounds the inner tank contains the primary heated water directly from the heat source itself. This type of cylinder can provide a quick



recovery solution with the whole surface area of the inner tank acting as the heat exchanger, however, the performance of system type C with a larger finned coil surface area at the base of the cylinder will deliver greater performance in general. System type C – Traditional indirect DHW storage cylinder One solution for dealing with lower flow temperatures is to specify a cylinder with a larger surface area coil. This improves the effectiveness of the coil surface area at the base of the cylinder and heating up times, however, there are many different types of cylinders on the market so it is important to discuss your requirements with the manufacturer before purchasing, and highlighting the type of system you are installing such as a low temperature heat pump. TIP: If you are purchasing an indirect type C cylinder for a heat pump installation, make sure you purchase a cylinder with a coil that has an increased surface area and larger diameter – you will get a more effective heat transfer when the coil is at the lowest point of the cylinder. This reduces the degradation effect of the coil’s ability to transfer heat. The coil at the lower part of the cylinder will have its surface area immersed within the colder water for longer, hence being able to deliver its full capacity over a greater t. (Figure 6 illustrates this principle.) TIP: When buying an indirect cylinder to be used on a heat pump system with

much higher flow rates, always check the manufacturer’s pressure drop across the coil to ensure your primary pump has the available head of pressure to deliver the heat required to heat up the water. If the primary circuit is undersized then the consumer will receive a system that may not meet their expectations. System type D – DHW storage cylinder with external plate heat exchanger and loading pump. The DHW loading storage system enables the whole volume of the DHW to be heated to an even temperature throughout the tank by the use of a bronze pump that circulates the higher temperature throughout the whole cylinder. This system offers an increased amount of usable hot water compared to an equivalent volume of the water within system C, as the primary coil within system C experiences a reduction in heat exchanger effectiveness during the charging and discharging phase. This system increases the amount of available hot water whilst improving protection against the risks of legionella by avoiding cold spots between 20 and 45°C within the cylinder. TIP: Ask the manufacturer for their pressure drop graph of their plate heat exchanger (HEX) and check the pressure drop across the HEX at the design flow rate against the available head of pressure of the primary pump. A 9 kW heat pump could deliver 26 litres per minute.



Two cylinders of the same volume

System type E – (PCM) Phase change material thermal battery. Thermal batteries use phase-change materials (PCM) to store the energy needed to heat water. They store the same amount of energy in a much smaller space (3-4 times smaller) than water. The energy is stored by melting the PCM through energy input from a primary heat source or an internal element. This energy is then used to heat the water flowing through the secondary coil. Because there is both a primary and a secondary coil involved, it is important to take the pressure drop across both these coils into account when designing the system. It is worth noting that from a safety perspective legionella risks are greatly reduced when using these systems, as

no water is being stored. For the same reason they also don’t require a Pressure and Temperature Relief Valve with low water content coils. Understanding the pressure drop across your hot water heat exchanger as well as all of the components on your priority hot water circuit such as pipework, fittings, filters, zones etc will dramatically reduce your risks. Most manufacturer instructions will display the pressure drop across the cylinder coil at a given flow rate, so it is paramount you understand how this might affect your system design and specification. In properties that have a high demand for hot water at peak periods, it can be common to find that the DHW priority circuit may have the highest pressure drop and hence becoming your system index circuit. Figure 5 shows two different cylinders of the same volume being applied to a 16 kW heat pump installation. Cylinder 1 is a standard unvented hot water cylinder with a 0.5m2 coil and cylinder 2 is a heat pump ready cylinder with a larger diameter and surface area coil.


Comparing cylinder coil available power reduction


KEY POINTS TO REMEMBER 1 A lways follow manufacturers’ instructions and if unsure talk to their technical department. 2 When comparing products, convert everything to a single common unit such as kPa or Pascals. 3 I f you are designing your heat generator to be exactly the same as the design heat load, ensure you have specified a sufficient volume of water to meet the consumers needs during the colder winter months. 4 When you calculate a heat loss of a building before designing your DHW system, ensure you have selected a suitable outside temperature based upon variable risks. 5 M ake sure you install a priority hot water system with a suitable DHW heat exchanger that meets the needs of the consumer and does not starve the space heating for long periods of DHW usage on the cold days. 6 When installing a high flow rate heating system with low T’s, ensure that the primary heating pump has sufficient available head to deal with the pressure drops across the primary circuit and all components on the DHW circuit. 7 Fit a destratification pump to increase usable hot water and to prevent cold areas within the DHW cylinder. 8 I nsulate all pipework in the system to maintain the safe water regime and to save energy. 9 E nsure your primary pipework feeding the DHW cylinder is sized sufficiently below 1.5 m/s to avoid noise and large pressure drops. High velocities running through a cylinder coil may cause noise and even detach the internal coil. Remember excessive noise in your heating system is a sign you are wasting energy.





Made to measure With 400,000 hot water cylinders sold per year, some will inevitably fail. Technical manager Jerry Whiteley explains why checks against regulations can help


ot water cylinders, copper or stainless steel, have been brought to my attention for failing in a short time. One report had many on the same housing estate that failed very quickly. Here we look at the probable causes and solutions.

MAKE THE GRADE Cylinders made from copper or stainless steel have to be made to meet British Standards, that being, BS I566:2002 (Part L). Copper cylinders used to include a sacrificial anode that attracted corrosion to protect the tank, but they are now frequently no longer included



in standard domestic sized cylinders. Copper cylinders come in three variants of grade. Grade 1 has the thickest copper sheet (from 1.2- 2.0mm) and is recommended for a head of pressure at 25 M. Grade 2 at 15 M (0.9- 1.4mm) and grade 3 at 10 M and have a thickness of material from (0.7-1.2mm) thick. The less head of pressure, the thinner the copper. However, what is also quoted is the pH value of the water. Now, 7 on the pH scale is neutral which means if you have an area with high acidity (a lower pH value), then the grade 3 cylinder might not be the correct choice. Another factor of

choice might be cost. If you buy the cheapest it’s cheap for a reason. A grade 1 cylinder is around three times the thickness as a grade 3 but is bound to last far longer. The solution? Open vented cylinders can be found in stainless steel. These products will still have a limit on the pH value of the water within, as no manufacturer will guarantee a product against corrosion from water acidity or alkalinity. However, a stainless-steel cylinder is made of a much stronger material and resistance to corrosion ought to be greater.

CORROSION Water dissolves some materials when in contact with them. The level of solvency-acidity, or limescale -Alkaline, depends upon: 1. The source of the water and natural geological conditions 2. The pH value of the water can also be affected by acid rain





5. 6.


The European directive for water quality warns: The water quality shall be in accordance with European Council Directive 98/83 EC, or revised version at the date of installation, and is not fed with water from a private supply. Particular: Chloride content: Max. 200 mg/l Sulphate content: Max. 200 mg/l Combination chloride/sulphate: Max. 300 mg/l (in total). Here in the UK, you will find varying degrees of water hardness. This is measured by the pH value – a numerical scale of acidity from 0-14 - which tells how acidic or alkaline the water is. More acidic water has a lower pH value and is corrosive, while more alkalinity the water is, the higher the pH value on the scale. Members have raised concerns with pin holes in copper cylinders after just a few years. The worries are about the quality of the products, manufacturers warranties, their customers


disappointment, the embarrassment to the original installer and the on-cost of replacement.

BUYER BEWARE Knowing the impact of water solvency and manufacturers’ Terms and Conditions on products is vital. A leaking cylinder due to corrosion might be perceived as the installer’s fault if the checks are not carried out at survey. A new cylinder, either copper or stainless steel, has warranty. But if you step outside the terms and conditions you may be unable to argue for a replacement if there’s a fault. Let us look at some terms and conditions – and their fixes: 1. Failure to carry out safety checks invalidates the warranty on an UVHW cylinder. 2. A lifetime guarantee will require registering via the manufacturer within 28 days of installation and

proven servicing records along with the Benchmark document will be required. Is the customer aware of a guarantee? If the house is a new build, who goes back to service? Things like immersion heaters, water control valves etc can have a two-year warranty when installed on a new build. If it’s a replacement retro fit, it’s one year. Benchmark documents and proof of purchase should be with a consumer. Servicing records should also be with the consumer if it has been serviced. The pH value of the water supply must be at 7.5. Can you prove this? Exclusions are things like any labour charges for replacements, lime scale build up, or consequential losses occurred. Water supplied from a main supply only. Not suitable from a private supply?

There are some variations of warranties, but they do focus on servicing, water quality and documentation. If any of this is not done, then it’s down to the installer and the consumer. Of course, it’s not just the cylinder to consider. The copper pipes and terminal fittings will also be affected by the solvency of water.

TREATMENT Water can be treated with a water softener. It adds sodium so you must have a non-treated supply to at least the main drinking tap, normally the kitchen sink. This addition, when set and used correctly, will alter the pH value of the water and protect the system. In addition, the components, such as a cylinder will comply to their warranty specification. So: checking the pH value before you start will save time, money and call back. And always read the T&Cs.



Your CPD CIPHE members are expected to complete 30 hours of CPD each year. Completion of these assessments can count towards this requirement.

Been keeping up your CPD?


Assessment: Water supplies and cylinders 1

Where might water supplied from a private supply come from (select all that apply)? A: Trunk main B: Spring C: Well D: Cistern fed


If you take a water sample and get a reading of 4.2 on the pH scale, is this acidic or alkaline? (select your answer) A: Acidic B: Alkaline


Limescale is found mostly in acidic or alkaline water? (select your answer) A: Acidic B: Alkaline


Identify which cylinder has the thickest walls of copper. A: Grade 1 B: Grade 2 C: Grade 3



For all the 2020 answers go to www. pandhengineering.co.uk

What to do Answer the questions (using an additional A4 sheet if necessary) and return by scanning and emailing or posting to the address below.

Your details Please complete this form


Relating to the electromotive series, identify if copper is a Cathodic or Anodic. (select your answer) A: Cathodic B: Anodic


Your name:

Heated acidic water will have which impact on copper? A: Speed up corrosion B: Slow down corrosion

CIPHE membership number:




When installing a domestic hot water return pipe to the cylinder, what is the minimum allowable temperature upon returning to the cylinder? A: > or = to 45oC B: > or = to 50 oC C: > or = to 55oC D: > or = to 65oC E: none of the above


What temperature should you store a domestic hot water cylinder at? A: 50 oC to 55oC B: 55oC to 65oC

Return to: CPD Assessment, CIPHE, 64 Station Lane, Hornchurch, Essex RM12 6NB Email: info@ciphe.org.uk Or visit the members-only area of the CIPHE website: www.ciphe.org.uk/cpd

C: 60 oC to 65oC D: 50 oC to 65oC



Online resource


Got a new product Prototype


Get in touch with editor Chris Smith using the email address on p3

A new prototype boiler, that runs solely on hydrogen gas, has been developed


orcester Bosch has begun promoting a prototype boiler that can run on 100% hydrogen gas. To coincide with UK government announcements to develop a hydrogen energy network, the company revealed it is preparing to bring a boiler to market. Technical innovations include simulating the traditional visible flame burn by

using a UV cell. They said: “The prototype has been designed to also run effectively on natural gas. This means that in the future if hydrogen gas becomes reality, those who have a ‘hydrogenready’ boiler can simply convert to hydrogen without the need for an entirely new heating system.” See the prototype at: https://bit.ly/3nKU0eg

On show


manufacturer, Roman, has opened its London showroom. Located in the heart of the Chelsea design quarter, it has three meeting spaces and a showroom displaying fabricated Corian vanity tops, shower enclosures, anti-slip trays and fluted glass options. It will constantly be rotating displays to show new designs and finishes during 2021 as part of a drive to increase its client base in the international hotel sector. Roman has supplied fluted glass to the international hotel sector for some


time, with designer brands moving away from chrome and clear glass into coloured finishes and textured and printed decorative glass; and will be unveiling new fluted glass options to its Liberty range in early 2021. David Osborne, CEO at Roman said: “London is continuing to increase its importance as a worldwide centre for hotel design and architecture. We’ve been looking for an A&D showroom in London for some time and we are delighted with this stunning space in an inspirational location and setting.”

KENSA has created an online resource to demonstrate the range of applications for its products. The UK’s only manufacturer and supplier of ground source heat pumps has created an online project hub so that installers and designers can see how the systems can work in real life situations. Kensa said: “Browse the advantages, costs and case studies unique to your project in Kensa’s heat pump solution section. Here, you’ll find handy examples on anything from holiday lodges to developments.” See more at: https://bit.ly/34DHgP6

Smart work

TPI MAKES SMART OFFER ON NEW ANALYSER TPI EUROPE is promoting its new DC710 Flue Gas Analyser with installers. They say the redesigned unit can allow for a much lower price by utilising existing hardware, such as mobile phones and tablets, to calculate and display the readings. It can also tap into other features such as GPS for providing proof of when and where the tasks were performed. TPI said: “Using technology can cut down on human error, by integrating the FGA readings directly into forms such as the Landlords Gas Safety records, or with the integration within the Office Job Management type apps, or even directly into your existing system, with the result of a reduction in potential revisits.” See more at: www.tpieurope.com

Efficient design

ARISTON GETS EVEN ON TANKS ARISTON has shared how its Velis Evo water tanks avoid the problem of uneven water heating. The firm said: “This unvented electric storage water heater utilises our patented WaterPlus technology to keep incoming cold water at the bottom of its tank to avoid mixing.” Find out more: https://bit.ly/2M2v4Rw



Your Membership Find out more about key membership benefits, and how you can get more involved with the CIPHE TIM SAINTY CIPHE Membership Director


Tim looks after the growing CIPHE membership, enhancing services for members and improving communications


tims@ciphe.org.uk +44 (0)1708 463102

We’re fighting the rogue traders, battling to improve standards and supporting members every step of the way from student to retirement. We want to make more available, and the more you use the more you will benefit


he year ahead is going to test everyone as never before and the Institute is determined to make a difference for the better. We have made some big changes to our member benefits to ensure you have all the tools you need to succeed. And we’d like to help more of you in 2021. Starting, running and growing a business is challenging at the best of times – especially if you’re a sole trader

as many of our members are. So we’ve put together a comprehensive package of services that provides support, knowledge and care when you need it. We’ve recently sent out a detailed member benefits guide that you can also find on the CIPHE website. But here’s an outline of just some of what we can do for you.

Find the benefits guide here: https://bit.ly/2YcHV6A

We can help improve your career prospects



Professional development Continuing professional development (CPD) is vital to keep you up to speed with the technical developments – and keep you ahead of the competition. Our technical team produces a range of publications through the year as well as the quarterly journal, P&H Engineering. They cover changes in legislation, technical articles, guidance on professional development and latest news from manufacturers, along with important news from the profession. Topics range from scald prevention and legionella, to water regulations and domestic heating, to solar heating design. Above all of these stands the CIPHE Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide, cutting through all specialisms within plumbing and heating disciplines. Our website, ciphepd.org.uk, offers members a range of training modules to support learning – not just as a student or apprentice, but throughout your career. Delivering regularly updated industry-specific training skills



Tech support and legal advice is just a phone call away

alongside IT and business-relevant education, all are intended to assist you in being a plumbing and heating industry professional. Also available in 2021 is the MYCAREERPATH ® Plan, so you can evaluate and record your professional development on the go. It’s an online facility which allows you to record your evidence, by uploading certificates of attendance at training sessions for example, as well as keeping a record of all further learning or the reading of technical publications. During lockdown we ran a series of live webinars and other online CPD events in collaboration with a wide range of industry partners. They were so successful that we’ll be doing more in 2021, working with experts to deliver high quality professional guidance, advice and resources.

Continuing professional development is vital to keep you ahead of the competition www.ciphe.org.uk

Technical helpline Responding to hundreds of calls from members each year, the CIPHE’s technical support covers topics ranging from water regulations guidance to design requirements for underfloor heating, and from heat loss calculations to flexible hoses and more.

Legal advice The Law Express telephone legal helpline provides members access to advice on any of the following legal issues: Family, Motoring, Wills & Probate, Property, Consumer, Landlord and Tenant, Employment, Tax Information, Commercial and Company law, Data protection, Debt, Medical negligence and more.

You’re covered We’ve secured cover with United Insurance Brokers Ltd – one of the largest, privately owned, independent national and international Lloyd’s insurance and reinsurance brokers. In addition to Public Liability Insurance, UIB can also help with insurance for tools, vans, breakdown, motor fleet, employer’s liability and much more.

Proud to be professional As a licensed Professional Engineering Institution, the Chartered Institute of

Plumbing & Heating Engineering can register suitably qualified members at Engineering Technician (EngTech), Incorporated Engineer (IEng) and Chartered Engineer (CEng) levels with Engineering Council. Registration at these levels delivers international recognition of your competence and commitment, and demonstrates a professional attitude that in turn gives you greater influence, higher earnings potential and improved career prospects.

And there’s more… There’s also our business directory, accountancy support, the Copronet project management system, pension advice, WHICH? Trusted Traders discount, a fleet management and vehicle leasing deal, our medical healthcare insurance and much more.

WHO ARE WE? The Chartered Institute of Plumbing and Heating Engineering (CIPHE) is the professional body for our industry. Established in 1906, today it has more than 7,000 members worldwide, including a thriving branch in Hong Kong.

WHERE DO I SIGN? Renewing your membership couldn’t be easier. For new applications for membership, upgrades or transfers, registration with the Engineering Council, changes in contact details or payment of subscriptions please email membership@ ciphe.org.uk or call on 01708 463116. You can write to us at: 64 Station Lane Hornchurch, Essex RM12 6NB

IF YOU SEE SID, TELL HIM. AND THE APPRENTICE. AND… We’re on a mission to professionalise the industry. The more members we have, the bigger our voice is. So, encouraging other people to join the CIPHE will make a huge difference. Get them to email me and I’ll do the rest. tims@ciphe.org.uk










Under pressure: whole new you

Looking after your health has never been more important, so make sure you take some time for yourself


tarting the New Year is traditionally linked to dieting and resolutions. The festive season brings plenty of treats and time off to enjoy them – and comfort eating has been a major coping mechanism for getting through the COVID-19 crisis over the last few months. Should we join everyone else by A walk in the morning can be a doing a New Year great way to start the day abstain to gain? And what’s the The good news alternative if gyms around the country The NHS has a health check programme if are closed? you’re aged over 40 – just visit Despite doing a very active job every www.nhs.uk to find out more. Your GP day, global research reveals a lot of can also organise a simple and quick people in the industry are putting check-up. There are also some really the job before their health. Studies of easy ways to improve your health industry workers in Australia and the without having to beat yourself up Far East found high blood pressure and with resolutions you might not be being over-weight were common issues, able to commit to, or taking out a gym despite people doing intensive work membership you’ll barely use – even if every day. you could. General & Medical, which provides the CIPHE’s health insurance, has some great advice for the winter months. Their experts say an early walk will help: “Motivation can often be what you lack when it comes to working up a sweat. Early morning exercise can be great and can help you keep on top of your health throughout the day, it also

What’s the alternative if gyms around the country are closed? www.ciphe.org.uk

allows you to spend time in the evening unwinding and relaxing.”

Diet tomorrow? Changing what you eat can make a big difference. The team at General & Medical says: “Ensure that you’re eating your five a day. Foods such as spinach and kale are rich in vitamin C and can help improve the immune system’s defence against illnesses. Meanwhile, white foods such as parsnips, radishes, onions and cauliflowers are high in allicin which has strong anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties supporting the lungs and intestines.” And if it all gets too much: “Be kind to yourself – don’t put too much pressure on yourself, especially if you’re already feeling low. If you’re tired and cold, don’t suffer through it, just take a break, put the kettle on and relax.”

Want a health check? CIPHE provides members and their loved ones with access to its voluntary Private Health Insurance scheme. You’ll have access to online health and wellbeing support and information to help you achieve your fitness goals or get help to prevent or manage longterm conditions. To find out more, contact M&L Healthcare on 0800 145 5838, 01223 881779 or via email at ciphe@mlhs.co.uk




Michael Walsh, MCIPHE RP One of 2020’s newest members and owner of Walsh & Son celebrates signing up after 25 years, and the success of a rugby club that started on a council pitch


That you never stop learning. CPD is so important. I read everything; I even phone the manufacturers to ask questions. Some are great and some don’t like the trickier questions… I’m passionate about energy efficiency. I tell customers I deliver comfort, I don’t deliver heat.



How did you get into your current role?


Tell us something people don’t know about you



I got incorporated in 2002. It’s a small business; we specialise

I’ve been in rugby most of my life. I’ve been a player and coached Battersea Ironsides. We went from being a small club with a council pitch to challenging for an English title. That’s something special. Giving back is part of my DNA.



in Victorian refurbishments and wet rooms. It’s developed too – we’ve become involved in lots of heat loss prevention. It’s about doing something efficiently and to a standard. Our wet rooms are designed to British Standards.


What’s the most interesting thing you’ve learnt along the way?


Not to let things get you down. If you don’t read in 40 years, you’ll have nothing but stress. If you never take the small wins, you’ll never survive. And social media; I’m on Twitter!

Have you got a stand-out moment?

Recently we did a domestic job in Streatham that I was really proud of. The previous installer hadn’t calculated the heating system. They thought 45KW would do, but it actually needed a lot less.

Mick Walsh, and his wife Ellen, at the England Rugby HQ in Twickenham

How did you get into the industry?

I started in a builder’s merchants and went to night school in Lewisham to learn 25 years ago. It took me three years. I had great teachers who really took an interest in me because I wanted to learn. I got onto some big contracts after that and learned on the job. It wasn’t the perfect way but I tell people that if there’s a hole to fall into, I fell into it. But that’s also how you learn.



What do you love about your job?


What are the benefits of a CIPHE membership?


Would you do it again?


The peer-to-peer learning and the back-up. I know what I’m doing but the stress of finding the resources to help me before was huge. I wish I’d joined years ago. It should be a legal requirement that you join first, before your gas, NVQ or anything else.


Every minute of every day I’ve done, I’ve loved it. The job’s given me a lot of heartache but also given me huge satisfaction – from solving something to showing I can run a business and be good at something. I still get excited every time I fire up a boiler for the first time. There’s still a bit of magic there and I’ve installed thousands.

Get in touch Would you like to feature here? Contact the editor on pandhengineering@ jamespembrokemedia.co.uk


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