P&H Engineering January/February 2020

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How the CIPHE is taking action to meet emissions targets

Planning and installing pumps for trouble-free underfloor heating

Why we should all stay up to date with the new Approved Documents

BREAKING THE SILENCE Why we need to act to end isolation and improve mental health in our industry


Welcome We’re starting the New Year determined to make a real difference and change lives. The stresses of working in the industry are killing people and we believe it’s time to end the silence about it. Whether you’re a lone worker on the tools or a designer working on computers all day, the challenges are real and no one need face them alone. So, we’ve teamed up with mental health experts and will be running our new Under Pressure campaign in 2020 to give advice and support designed to make a difference. The coming year will also see a big push by the Institute to shape the low-carbon agenda. There’s a legal deadline to meet and a climate emergency to face. Change is coming. We’re explaining in this issue what it means and how you can be ready. We’re also ready to tell you about the CIPHE’s merger and the benefits this will bring. In 2020, we’re going to be the change we want to see. We are glad to have you with us on the journey and wish you a happy New Year.

We’re online! Visit pandhengineering. co.uk for regular updates and archived features


Contents FEATURES The Approved Documents covering building regulations are changing. We show you how to keep up

Underfloor heating systems 25 Q&A CPD questions to bolster your skills 26 Misconnections Fixing wrongly connected drains

14 Breaking the silence

30 Your membership

We kick off our Under Pressure campaign with a look at the state of mental health in our industry

Industrial Associate Development Group meet leads to new strategy; renewal discount

18 Time for change

33 Advice

We explain how the CIPHE is helping to create a greener industry

How to use social media to build up your business


34 Q&A: Clare King MCIPHE RP RHP … on setting up a family business

In 2020 we need to work closer with ministers to bring about change

6 Frontline

Editor pandhengineering@ jamespembrokemedia.co.uk

Editor Chris Smith Project manager Lizzie Hufton Head of design Simon Goddard Publisher James Houston Published by James Pembroke Media, 90 Walcot Street, Bath BA1 5BG Tel 01225 337777 Group Advertising Sales Manager Mark Durham, mark.durham@jamespembrokemedia.co.uk Advertising sales executive Harvey Falshaw, harvey.falshaw@jamespembrokemedia.co.uk Chartered Institute of Plumbing and Heating Engineering (CIPHE) 64 Station Lane, Hornchurch, Essex RM12 6NB Tel 01708 472791


12 Cracking the code

5 From the CEO



Tackling mental health issues, plus news from around the industry

Subscriptions P&H Engineering is the magazine for the Chartered Institute of Plumbing and Heating Engineering, containing technical articles, latest industry news and environmental and educational updates. It is published six times a year and sent free to members. Annual subscription for non-member £120 Annual subscription for overseas non-member £145 To join CIPHE, email tims@ciphe.org.uk

ON THE COVER Improving mental health in our industry Page 14 Illustration: Adam Gale

Membership Founded in 1906, the Chartered Institute of Plumbing and Heating Engineering (CIPHE) is the professional body for the UK plumbing and heating industry. Membership is made up of consultants, specifiers, designers, public health engineers, lecturers, trainers, trainees and practitioners. The CIPHE has a membership of 7,500, including over 150 manufacturers and distributors. The majority of members live in the UK, although over 1,000 are residents in Hong Kong. The CIPHE is a member of the Construction Industry Council and a licensed member of the Engineering Council.

Copyright notice and disclaimer P&H Engineering is published bi-monthly by the Chartered Institute of Plumbing and Heating Engineering. All material is copyright of the Chartered Institute of Plumbing and Heating Engineering and may not be reproduced without written permission. The publishers do not accept responsibility for errors or omissions. The views expressed in the magazine are not necessarily those of the Institute and publication of an advertisement or article does not necessarily mean the Institute endorses those products, materials or techniques.


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Experience has shown that radical change is required

KEVIN WELLMAN Chief executive officer kevinw@ciphe.org.uk

We’re campaigning for the change that’s needed


GET INVOLVED This year will be crucial for the industry and we are determined to lead the way. We have launched our manifesto covering safety, health, standards and more. If you’d like to help promote it, contact either myself or membership director Tim Sainty.


Stay in

his year will undoubtedly be recognising skilled workers and touch bring new challenges and upskilling the industry in respect of Follow our campaign progress in 2020 opportunities, and I hope low carbon technologies. on Twitter 2020 is very successful for you all. @CIPHE During the run up to the General Change is needed Election, the three main parties pledged Experience has shown that radical a variety of ideas presenting their own ways change is required, without which the skills to make Britain great again. There continues to crises could worsen, more members of the public be many issues that affect the public and it’s will succumb to plumbing and water-related the vulnerable that the new problems and the impact on the government requires most help NHS will be even greater. with. The Conservative Party Last year the Local now represents a new coalition Government Association of voters and regions and a recognised that poor-quality new focus will be required in housing can have a detrimental order to prioritise their needs. impact on both physical and Personally, I hope ministers mental health and wellbeing. will recognise the benefits of It can exacerbate serious aligning more closely with respiratory diseases such as chartered bodies such as the asthma and bronchitis. The NHS CIPHE. It is for this reason spends at least £2.5bn a year that CIPHE has developed its treating people with illnesses own manifesto to promote directly linked to living in cold, consistently throughout 2020. damp and dangerous conditions. We will continue to promote The need for plumbing health the need to safeguard public checks and a license to practice safety, health and welfare and support measures is greater than ever. to safeguard the environment, especially in the If you have access to authorised statistics and fight against carbon emissions. meaningful facts that demonstrate the effects of A YouGov poll at the end of last year found plumbing and heating on the public, or if you can that 27% of Britons list the environment as relay information based on your own experiences among the top three issues facing Britain (after on the job, please let me know. Brexit at 67% and health at 32%). The Government’s claim to achieve net zero carbon in the coming decades is laudable but will be difficult, if not impossible, to actually accomplish without meaningful industry engagement. An essential aspect of this will

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KEEP INFORMED Read all the latest news, updates, and member benefits Facebook/CIPHE twitter.com/CIPHE www.ciphe.org.uk

All that’s happening in plumbing and heating Clean energy and the environment are issues high on the agenda of CIPHE’s new manifesto

All political parties promised to improve building regulations

Got a news story? Get in touch with editor Chris Smith using the email address on p3


CIPHE LAUNCHES NEW 2020 MANIFESTO A manifesto to drive a year of campaigning on critical industry issues has been launched by the Institute


hroughout 2020, lobbying and media work will raise awareness on issues linked to health, public safety, education, energy saving and the environment along with further emphasis on the issue of counterfeit parts. Driving it will be a detailed 12-page manifesto setting out priorities for policy makers and standards bodies. With public concern increasing about the environment and building standards, the CIPHE will be raising focal points with the new ministerial teams. Deadlines for cutting carbon emissions will

The CIPHE will be raising concerns with ministerial teams 6 P&H ENGINEERING

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be one of the levers the senior team will be using to drive the change of emphasis within Westminster. It will also be a factor in pushing for changes to the way education and training is delivered across the country. Kevin Wellman, CIPHE chief executive officer said: “As the professional body for the plumbing and heating industry, and a registered educational charity dedicated to protecting the public health, the CIPHE is uniquely placed to give a voice to the industry on matters that affect the health and wealth of the nation.” He added: “CIPHE members represent the best of the plumbing and heating industry and, as such, will be extremely well placed to help tackle those issues head-on.”


BUILDING REGULATIONS SET FOR OVERHAUL Building rules will be revamped when the new government gets fully under way. Commitments were made by all parties during the election campaign to implement changes recommended in the Hackitt Review, leading to hopes of a cross-party consensus. BEAMA, which represents electrical manufacturers for the industry, welcomed the pledges, but called for better drafting of new legislation. It said: “We make a general request that in the next Parliament we have competent, coherent policy development, where regulations are adequately enforced.” CIPHE chief executive officer Kevin Wellman said: “All the Westminster MPs stood on manifestos committed to change and we will hold them to it.”

Not a member? Contact us to find out how you can sign up today membership@ciphe.org.uk 01708 463116



FEELING THE HEAT Why workers in our industry are under mental strain – and how we can help Page 14




Full steam ahead for British Salt

EU funds worm water treatment study

WORK HAS BEGUN on one of the UK’s biggest boiler installations. Two state-of-the-art boilers will form the centrepiece of a new £7.2m facility being built by British Salt at its site in Middlewich, Cheshire. Weighing over 90 tons each, the 12-metre long, 6.2-metre wide units are replacing 50-yearold predecessors that are now approaching the end of their working life. Not only will the new boilers present improved operational capabilities and reliability, they will also comply with the Industrial Emissions Directive. The new boilers will produce less than half the NOx emissions of the current boilers. The flue stack on the site will be reduced from 67m to 30m as part of

The huge units required careful transportation

the project, which is scheduled to be completed by spring 2020. A complex logistics operation was mounted, including a police escort, for their arrival from Bilbao, Spain, where they were manufactured. Projects director Ladan Iravanian said: “We are delighted to take delivery of the new boilers at our British Salt HQ. This very special delivery is the culmination of more than a year of planning. The three hours’ journey from the Ellesmere Port dockside to Middlewich required military precision by all involved, including transport and logistics specialists. Our thanks go to all concerned for ensuring that the operation was hitch-free.”


HSE prosecutes fitter over lapsed Gas Safe registration A gas fitter has been fined for working without up-to-date Gas Safe registration. Mansfield Magistrates’ Court heard that, during September and October 2016, Adam Mansbridge replaced the gas central heating boilers at two addresses without


being registered with Gas Safe Register. An investigation by the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) showed Mansbridge’s registration with Gas Safe Register had not been renewed when he did the work. He was given a curfew order for 12 weeks, ordered to

pay costs of £2,500, and to pay £500 compensation to one of the customers. HSE inspector Lee Greatorex said: “All gas work must be carried out by registered Gas Safe engineers to ensure the highest standards are met to prevent injury and loss of life.”

Scottish Water is taking part in an EU-funded study to see if earthworms can help treat waste water. The 12-month pilot involves filling a tank with earthworms that eat the larger particles of organic matter in the waste water. Scientists want to see if the carbonneutral process will result in water that could be returned back to the natural environment.


Worcester Bosch steps up for mental health Boiler manufacturer Worcester Bosch is supporting the Time to Change Employer Pledge as part of its mental health strategy. The firm announced it is implementing a six-point strategy to enable its staff to develop awareness of issues that colleagues may have, ensure they have a healthy work-life balance and create opportunities for development. Carl Arntzen, chief executive officer at Worcester Bosch, said: “We understand the importance of raising awareness around mental health within all levels of our organisation.” Read more: tinyurl.com/y4w23c2u


Steam market to grow The global market for steam boilers will be worth $21.6bn (£16.4bn) by 2023, according to analysts Markets and Markets. Growth will be driven by demand for power generation plus heavy industries such as oil and gas. It’s an increase from the $17bn (£12.9bn) valuation in 2017.

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Read our feature on tackling mental health issues in the industry on page 14

Trading standards

BMA gets Notts seal of approval The Bathroom Manufacturers Association has achieved Primary Authority Status with Nottinghamshire Trading Standards. The Primary Authority Status is a formal partnership, recognised in statute and overseen by the Office for Product Safety and Standards (OPSS). BMA chief executive officer, Tom Reynolds said, “This is an important milestone in our campaign on compliance. The BMA and its members will have access to formalised advice and guidance on compliance matters, and it signals to the industry our commitment to champion those that invest in bringing compliant products to market.”





Find out more




Isolation and financial problems cause stress


CIPHE launches campaign to reduce suicides THE CIPHE HAS launched its Under Pressure campaign to address mental health problems in the construction industry. The industry has the highest number of suicides than any other sector of the economy. Financial worries and isolation are among the issues putting strain on workers. In a poll, conducted by the Building Engineering Services Association (BESA) and 25 other construction trade bodies, 41% of respondents said that payment issues had strained their relationship with their partner,

with 5% reporting it caused it to breakdown entirely. P&H Engineering will be campaigning throughout 2020 with the CIPHE to change the workplace culture and help members experiencing mental health issues. CIPHE membership director, Tim Sainty, said: “Working in plumbing and heating engineering can be a highly pressured environment. We want to equip our members with the knowledge to minimise the occasions this impacts negatively on their mental health and to provide a route to support on the occasions it does.”


Polypipe upbeat on 2020 prospects

New appointment

Fernox finds perfect chemistry Leading water treatment and filter manufacturer Fernox has appointed Richard Crisp as its new head of chemistry. Previously fulfilling the role of technical manager, he played an instrumental role in the recent enhancements to the Fernox ‘F’ range which have been designed to ensure that installers can easily dose central heating systems correctly. He said: “I am looking forward to shaping the future of research and development and evolving our product range.”


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POLYPIPE SAYS its business will grow in 2020 despite a difficult 2019, when project delays led to a 5.8% decline in revenue.

Martin Payne, chief executive officer, said: “Fundamentals in the group’s markets remain strong, with a structural housing shortage, historically

low interest rates, real wage growth and near full employment, which means that we view our future prospects with confidence.”


Viessmann opens plant in China BOILER FIRM VIESSMANN has opened a new plant to manufacture wall-mounted gas boilers for the Chinese market, in Pinghu, a city close to Shanghai. In addition to the 12,000m2 factory, the company has also built a centre

for the research and development of new technologies and services. “We see an enormous potential in the Chinese market and have decided to expand our production capacities here,” said Prof Dr Martin Viessmann, group chairman.



GET SET FOR CHANGE Find out how to prepare for planned changes to the Approved Documents Page 12

Water supply


Water regulator toughens line on utilities


OFWAT SAYS IT IS TOUGHENING its approach to the major firms. It has announced a new price framework that will drive an overhaul of infrastructure in England and Wales as well as a commitment, Water 2020, to reducing water waste to meet climate change objectives. The regulator also said it wanted to see resilient supply and resilient systems that recover quickly from problems like bursts and floods. Ofwat said: “Delivering [our] vision relies on everyone in the sector working together, listening to customers and tackling long-term

Reliable water supplies must be protected

challenges. We are making changes to the way we regulate to make sure we fully play our part and can tackle the major challenges facing the sector: population growth, climate change and ongoing affordability.” Kevin Wellman, CIPHE chief executive officer said: “At a time when consumers are being asked to reduce consumption, now is the time for water companies to act and show that the industry is taking the lead on this matter. We want to see words matched by actions. Water shortages are a real issue, as is climate change.”


US regulator probes HVAC tech AN AMERICAN REGULATOR is to investigate firms selling smart meters. The US International Trade Commission (USITC) will look into whether sales of smart

thermostats, smart HVAC systems and components have broken trade tariffs. The probe follows a complaint from EcoFactor, a Californiabased company that

provides ‘energyefficient’ HVAC systems. Among the firms under investigation is Google over its smart thermostat brand, Nest.


FUEL TRADE CALLS FOR INSULATION GRANTS THE FUEL TRADE has called on the government to improve home insulation in rural areas. The UK and Ireland Fuel Distributors Association (UKIFDA) said these homes were worst-hit by fuel poverty. Guy Pulham, chief executive officer, said: “It is no surprise that fuel poverty rates are higher in rural areas. Off-grid properties tend to be older and poorly insulated so are more difficult and expensive to heat.”


Vericon Systems, a leading provider of building management systems and technologies, has launched BCM:Connect. The intelligent universal device monitors a boiler’s health and status in real time and predicts when it might fail to allow preventative maintenance to ensure it is working when needed most. The firm has targeted housing associations and those with direct responsibility for their tenants’ welfare to tackle common failures such as low pressure, loss of gas and even a frozen condensate pipe.

Heat pumps

GENTOO DELIVERS ON CORE PROJECT Residents in 364 homes across seven tower blocks in Sunderland are embracing the green housing revolution. Gentoo Group has removed their gas boilers and replaced them with renewable and low-carbon ground source heat pumps. The firm is delivering the ‘Core 364’ project with the support of energy and regeneration specialist, ENGIE, and ground source heat pump specialists, Kensa Contracting.

New appointment

NORDEN HEADS FOR PACIFICA Pacifica Group, one of the UK’s largest providers of appliance and heating systems repair has appointed experienced chief financial officer, Michael Norden. His appointment at the North Eastbased company enables long-standing CFO, Scott Pallister, who has been with Pacifica Group since 2003, to become chief operating officer. Norden will support the organisation’s continued expansion in the UK home services sector.

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Find out more You can buy standards to read in full at shop.bsigroup.com

Central heating

Flushing regs updated by BSI The new ISO/IEC standard will help smart systems to be more effective

Smart systems

ISO ENABLES SMART METER EXPANSION The international standards regulator has set new rules to enable better data sharing between smart devices. The International Standards Organisation has created ISO/IEC 23093, the series of International Standards for the Internet of Media Things developed by ISO and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). It provides the requirements and common language to enable media devices, applications and services to work together, outlining specifications for the effective flow of data between media things. The series provides a framework that can be used across technologies and national boundaries, enabling communication, storage, analysis, interpretation and retrieval of media big data. A further two standards in the series, due to be published in 2020, will cover, respectively, architecture and reference software and conformance. The ISO said in a statement: “Internet of Media Things (IoMT) has the potential to change our world through massive-scale data exchange. But synchronisation and interoperability are vital for this to work.”


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REGULATIONS ON FLUSHING central heating systems have been updated. The code of practice for cleaning central heating systems has been changed by the British Standards Institute to BS7593:2019. The predecessor, BS7593:2006, was a code of practice for cleaning and inhibiting the primary circuit of domestic wet central heating systems with the objective of minimising corrosion, inhibiting scale and maintaining system efficiency. The standard now covers heating and cooling within single dwellings and individual circuits within multiple residential premises but generally, the objectives remain the same. Andy Drummond, CIPHE fellow and chairman of the BS7593:2019 revision drafting panel, said: “Cleaning and flushing methodologies have been updated to reflect evolving best practice.”

Central heating systems must be flushed regularly

He added: “The standard is referenced in the compliance guide to Part L of the Building Regulations and therefore needs to be future proof because it is also being revised. BS7593:2006 was getting past its sell by date.”

The three big changes are:


Cleaning and flushing methodologies have been updated to reflect evolving best practice. Inline filters are new, with a recommendation that they should be permanently installed to protect system components and maintain system cleanliness. System protection has been expanded to include inhibited antifreeze and biocidal products for systems that run at temperatures below 60ºC.

2 3


SUSTAINABILITY GETS INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ALL INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS will now have to include sustainability assessments. The International Standards Organisation has added its weight to the environmental lobby by issuing ISO Guide 82 on how assessors and writers can address sustainability issues in all ISO demands. The ISO said: “It helps raise awareness of the challenges of sustainable development amongst standards writers and provides them with a systematic and consistent approach to identifying and assessing sustainability factors inherent in every standardisation project.”



CR ACKING THE CODE The Approved Documents are being overhauled so that building regulations are fit for purpose. Find out how to make sure you’re ready for the changes


ike buses, you don’t see many changes to building rules for ages, then lots of them arrive together. The Ministry of Housing, Communities and Local Government publishes guidance on its website, called Approved Documents, on ways to meet building regulations. Up until now, the documents have been the domain of planning inspectors, architects and civil servants, but complaints over the quality of new developments, the need to fight climate change and the Grenfell Tower tragedy mean that they have taken on a new importance.

Staying in touch In the past few months, the documents have been overhauled, as they will continue to be throughout 2020, as the recommendations made by Dame Judith Hackitt are implemented. Kevin Wellman, CIPHE chief executive officer, says: “Forewarned is forearmed. The CIPHE will continue to make representations to keep to a minimum the impact on the professional lives of our members while balancing that with the need to see a professional industry that upholds standards. “We share updates with members but this year is going to see a lot of changes. We all have smartphones, so regularly checking the Approved Documents is


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going to keep us all up to date,” he adds. The current Approved Documents run from parts A to R with a final section on workmanship. Document B, which covers fire safety, will see the most changes. Document F covers ventilation, while Document H deals with drainage and waste disposal. There were two major overhauls last year to Document B, firstly to correct errors generated by the rapid response from civil servants after Grenfell, and secondly to include critical information for heating and ventilation engineers. For example, smoke control dampers, which are part of ventilation systems, have been revised: “The smoke shaft should be constructed from a class A1 material. All vents should either be a fire doorset (see Appendix C, Table C1, item

Regularly checking the Approved Documents online is simple

The changes take effect immediately, there is no transition period 2.e for minimum fire resistance) or fitted with a smoke control damper achieving the same period of fire resistance.” The Ministry said: “The changes made to the Approved Documents apply only to buildings and building work in England.



To find out more on Approved Document B and consultations go to: tinyurl.com/yyz9m6zr

MHCLG can be contacted with questions related to the document. Telephone enquiries on the Approved Documents go to the Technical Policy Division on 0303 444 0000 and all email enquiries to enquiries.br@communities.gov.uk

The full document can be found at: https://www.planningportal.co.uk/ info/200135/approved_documentsb




An inspector calls

There are no excuses for installers not to become certified

The changes take effect immediately, there is no transition period.” There is more to come, as consultations on how to meet tough carbon-cutting targets have also been opened. “This is the first stage of a two-part consultation about proposed changes to building regulations,” the Ministry advises. “It also covers the wider impacts of Part L for new homes, including changes to Part F (ventilation), its associated Approved Document guidance, airtightness and improving as-built performance of the constructed home.”

Working with change So, what’s the best way to approach those changes having found the regulations? How can you adapt the way you work? CIPHE member Paul Stavers EngTech has worked in the industry for more than 30 years. He now runs the building control office for the City of London and has overseen some of the most technically challenging developments in the country, including major projects such as Bloomberg Place. “Over the past three decades, the plumbing industry has gone through several changes, many associated

The three most common mistakes that Paul Stavers has seen in installations: Wrong material used Incorrect point of discharge Incorrect compliance with building regulations

with new, innovative designs, system performance improvements or manufacturing developments,” he explains. “All of these come with either installation criteria, improved manufacturing standards or are encompassed within building regulations to prevent potential damage to buildings or, more importantly, to protect the end user from minor or life-changing injuries,” he says. Stavers argues that installers and designers should set the standards and expect others to follow them: “Over the past few years, I have seen a general decline in installation standards and good practice that give cause for concern to the customer, or alarm for the industry.” The element of the building regulations that Stavers is most concerned about is Approved Document G and in particular Part G3, which covers hot water supply and systems. “There are no excuses for installers not to become certified or a competent installer of any form of heater, as we within the plumbing industry have been dealing with hot water storage and its safe installation for decades,” says Stavers.

Training updates An easy approach is to check with manufacturers as they must also comply with the rules and employ regulatory teams to keep up with the changes. “Many manufacturers either recommend or provide guidance based on part G3 of the building regulations,

He argues that trainees, rather than waiting to be told, should pay just as much attention to the regulations as qualified installers. The CIPHE views the changes as a chance for the industry to set the standard within the construction business. “Dame Judith Hackitt wants a culture change,” says Kevin Wellman. “People have been going into failed buildings and seeing issues but saying ‘It’s not my problem’. If you’re on site and see defective fire doors, it’s everyone’s problem. So let’s be ready for it and bring about the change that we all want to see.”

and some even extend this to a training course to enable safe practices or proper installation of their products or systems,” explains Stavers. “Installers must commit to putting into practice what they learn on the courses they attend. Not doing so potentially endangers everyone who comes into contact with temperature and pressure relief discharges.”


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Illustrations: Adam Gale

Illustration: Adam Gale







B RE AKING THE SILE NCE The CIPHE’s new Under Pressure campaign aims to get people talking about mental health in our industry


o one guessed, no one knew what was going on behind the cheery smile, the coroner at Maidstone Court was told. The inquest in April 2019 into the suicide of Karl Edmunds, 41, heard that the plumber had been seeking help for depression since 2017. He had been found dead at home by a friend. Detective Sergeant Kevin Gurr, who investigated, said most people who had


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known Karl Edmunds were unaware of his situation: “The majority of people I spoke to, most of them just expressed how happy he was,” he said. “He just appeared to be happy and upbeat.” Sadly, his tragic story is all too familiar. Suicide is now a major cause of death in the UK, with over 6,500 people taking their own life in 2018. And 75% of them are men. It’s now the biggest killer of men under 45.

You’re often working in difficult places with dangerous stuff



Construction industry workers account for the largest proportion, with the highest suicide rate of any profession. According to the Office for National Statistics, between 2011 and 2015, more than 1,400 UK construction workers took their own lives. In 2016, there were over 450 deaths.


Self-managing your mental health is difficult when you work for yourself

A safety net Bill Hill is chief executive of the construction industry charity Lighthouse Club, which has been providing mental health support to people working in the industry since 1956. He says there are a lot of reasons why. Stress and working alone are the two biggest factors, he reveals. “Social isolation is a big problem across the board. The industry has high-risk factors. You’re often working in difficult places with dangerous stuff. You’re often on your own in dark places or with complicated, expensive equipment without any back-up, and you don’t always have the knowledge. There’s a lot of improvising without certain knowledge and the stress of what might happen if it doesn’t come off.” Ruth Sutherland, CEO of Samaritans agrees: “Work can be a big part of our identity and it fundamentally influences our wellbeing. Every place of work is different. Tight deadlines, too much


Stress, depression or anxiety accounts for a fifth of all workrelated illness


Risk of suicide among males in skilled trades is 35% higher than the national average

responsibility and lack of managerial support are the main factors causing work-related stress, depression or anxiety. Lone workers face unique challenges when it comes to mental health and wellbeing.” She adds: “We spend a great deal of our adult lives at work, so it’s likely that there are people struggling to cope in your own workplace and trying to hide it. We all have a responsibility to support our colleagues and employees.” Even if someone wants to talk about their problems, they may not always be in the position to do so because of the culture in a largely male-dominated workplace – or if they work for themselves. Hill says: “Self-managing your mental health is difficult when you work for yourself and you need the job to pay the bills. And you’re often working away from home so you don’t have your family or your network of friends to support you. You don’t know where to go.” He adds: “Even for those who can get home, there’s the stress of long hours because of long commutes and meeting deadlines.”

Help a colleague to open up If you notice a co-worker struggling, encourage them to talk about it Offer to lend an ear – and

listen without judgement. Find a good time and place to talk. Use open language. Don’t talk a problem down. Phrases like ‘it doesn’t matter’ may lead someone to think you are trivialising their problems. Remind your colleague that they are valued and appreciated. Encourage them to take some exercise: endorphins released in exercise can help to reduce depression. Arrange to meet again, or plan in an enjoyable activity on a future date that they can focus on. Encourage them to seek help from a medical professional. Read more Samaritans advice on helping a peer at tinyurl.com/y2jucmfy

Multiple stresses One of the biggest issues that Hill comes across is the fear of financial hardship. It is this that is most common among older men in the industry. He says: “There’s no support if you are injured and there comes a time in your life when you realise that you’re not invincible and you’re only two pay cheques away from poverty.” Basic health needs are also not met which, although not a major contributor,


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Want to get involved? We’d like to hear from CIPHE members who have recovered from a mental health episode and would be happy to share their learning. We also want to hear from people who would be interested in becoming mental health first aiders. Email us at the address on p3. Your correspondence will be kept confidential.

adds to the chain of issues that lead to mental health episodes. Hill says: “There’s a heavy drinking culture and the diet is awful. It all adds up.” New Year is a time for resolutions – but January is also usually the toughest part of the year: with long nights, freezing working conditions and a lull after the excitement of Christmas. The good news is that help is at hand, and the CIPHE is taking action to break the silence on depression in the industry.

Helping people to speak about their problems could save a life

Change starts here The CIPHE has begun working with Lighthouse Club and the Samaritans to help anyone who is going through tough times. And throughout the rest of this year, we will be running our Under Pressure campaign to tackle issues linked to mental health and offer practical advice and support. Bill Hill says: “A lot can be done; no one needs to suffer alone. The industry has woken up and the dials are moving in the right direction. There’s more openness: people in the workplace are being encouraged to get help.” There are resources for both workers who feel they need help and employers


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who want to change the workplace culture to lower the risk of depression spiralling. There’s an added benefit for employers: according to Lighthouse Club, 2.4m work days are lost in the industry every year to mental health. So a healthy workplace has fewer sick days. Lighthouse Club’s approach is based on the reality that mental health episodes are complex. Hill says: “It’s never just one that’s crept up and hurt your psyche.” So, it has created an app – the Construction Industry Helpline – that you can download from the App Store or Google Play onto your

smartphone. On it, you will find simple advice on many of the issues people face. Once it’s on your phone, you can use it anytime, anywhere. Or, if a human voice can make a better difference, you can call the Construction Industry Helpline (see box, far right), which is available for families, too. Not only that, there’s financial help, debt advice and support for injured people who need to retrain for a new career. Last year, the charity helped 1,662 families in crisis and delivered £1,486,726 in emergency financial aid.



For employers, the charity has developed a five-step charter that sets out what organisations can do and will train employees to become mental health first-aiders. Its target is to train 5,000 people. It has also created 500,000 advice cards that employers and workers can share with other people. Hill says: “I want to surround people with the toolset. I’d love all 2.6 million people in the construction industry to either download the app or carry the card.”

Complete care It’s not the only organisation that offers help. Samaritans is the biggest support organisation in the country and it too has developed advice and training. Ruth Sutherland says: “We know that every company and workplace culture is unique. Samaritans can help by providing courses, talks, sessions and tools to support companies to help employees. “We’ve delivered training for over 15 years to businesses in the UK and Ireland. This includes communications, resilience and wellbeing training that provides individuals with techniques that support their emotional wellbeing in their private or work life. “We also developed an award-winning online tool – Wellbeing in the Workplace – that gives employees the skills to intervene when someone is struggling, actively listen and manage difficult conversations. It also teaches employees the skills to look after their emotional health and to look out for others, before they reach crisis point.” People who are worried about someone can make a real difference by talking to them, and

It is more difficult to support people when nobody is able to speak out www.ciphe.org.uk

CIPHE’s Under Pressure campaign will support members who are experiencing mental health problems

Next month Reduce your anxiety levels

preparing for that conversation is key. Sutherland says: “We believe anyone can need help and anyone, with the right knowledge, can provide support. Many people struggle to cope at one point or another in their lives. If you’re worried about someone, you can talk to them about their feelings. There’s advice on our website on having a difficult conversation. Supporting someone in distress can be distressing in itself. If you’re helping someone who’s struggling, make sure to take care of yourself as well.”

Time to listen Everyone can help and as part of Under Pressure, we will be encouraging people to start by asking “are you okay?” – and taking time to listen to the answer. Kevin Wellman, chief executive officer of the CIPHE says: “CIPHE members have worked long and hard to achieve the levels of qualification and professionalism that provide such public benefit. It is a loss for all of us if issues surrounding mental health prevent them from being the best that they can be. We have to be prepared to talk about this subject as it is so much more difficult to support people when they do not feel able to speak out. If we can open the way for people to share their

problems, we can help them make that first crucial step – and maybe save a life.” Hill says the biggest step forward to preventing more deaths like that of Karl Edmunds is to start talking about mental health issues. One in four people have a mental health episode at some point, according to the NHS. So the first step towards solving a problem is admitting there is one to be solved. He says: “Stopping people dropping through the floor is something we can all get involved with. With our support, we will catch them. Stigma is our biggest enemy.”

More information If you’re a manager and want to improve your approach to mental health support, visit www.buildingmentalhealth.net

If you’re feeling low, there’s help on hand. Call the Construction Industry Helpline – a confidential line open 24/7 – on 0345 605 1956 Download the Construction Industry Helpline app from the App Store of Google Play. Get more advice and updates from the Lighthouse Club charity at www.lighthouseclub.org

Call Samaritans free anytime from any phone on 116 123. Find more advice at www.samaritans.org

JAN / FEB 2020


TIME TO CHANG E The CIPHE is leading the way in Whitehall on the low-carbon agenda, and here’s what it means for you



othing focuses the mind like an emergency, and increased awareness of the climate change crisis has led to an upshift at the heart of government. The CIPHE has been engaging with government officials across departments to make sure that everyone who is affected is aware of the change and is prepared for it, and to reiterate that it is support of Professional Bodies and their memberships that will provide the best chance of success. The government has recent experience of policy failure in this area. The Green Deal failed to achieve its goals precisely because it did not engage fully with industry and came at a significant cost to customers and installers whilst producing negligible benefits. However, the Climate Emergency has changed the hearts and minds of ministers fast – and this time they are listening. Policy and regulation is always complex to navigate your way through. So what’s coming, what does it mean and what’s the CIPHE’s advice? The big driver of change is the target for gas boilers to be replaced by alternative fuels in all new homes built after 2025. There is also a long-term government target for the UK to be carbon neutral by 2050. Alongside this is the government’s self-imposed target on renewables: “The renewables obligation (RO) scheme places an annual obligation on UK electricity suppliers to present to Ofgem (the scheme’s administrator) a specified number of Renewables Obligation Certificates (ROCs) per megawatt hour of

Climate change is real and the existing deadlines are not going to change. So trying to resist them is pointless

Ground-sourced heat pumps rely on ambient heat from the ground rather than burning fuel

electricity supplied to customers during each obligation period.” Add all this together and that means radical change in a very short period.

What the CIPHE did next The choice has been simple: leave it up to government and major industry bodies to agree the response or shape what needs to be done. The CIPHE has been in discussions with the government and industry for two years and is now starting to see the outcomes from those conversations. To help shape agenda, the CIPHE set up a technical strategy group chaired and contributed to by expertise from across the industry and supported by CIPHE chief executive officer Kevin Wellman and lead technical consultant Paul Harmer. The group decided its work would be driven by three things: policy milestones, supporting proposals the CIPHE agreed with, and setting out what it wanted to see happen. Paul Harmer says: “The first thing is that the CIPHE needs to look at supporting both the installer and consumer during the transition towards low-carbon heating systems.” The CIPHE supported government in the evidence-gathering phase by running an installer workshop held at BEIS during 2019. The workshop was aimed at giving the installer the opportunity to have a say.

Harmer says: “It was evident from the workshop that installers will need to be trained to handle the replacement programme, with financial support from government.”

The next big thing Heat pumps and hydrogen boilers, as discussed in previous issues, are contenders to replace gas boilers, but the implications of a mass-scale up are huge. So the new government is set to spend £16.5m on research and a live trial of heat pump installations in 750 homes (see panel, page 20). Details are still to be finalised, but the pilot scheme will look at the whole process, from initial consumer engagement to the testing of innovations such as thermal batteries that use phasechange materials. Trials will commence in 2020 and are set to run for a two-year period but the government is already intent on industry accelerating the adoption of heat pumps. The biggest obstacles to decarbonisation of heat will be consumer adoption and the upskilling of the workforce. If government policy is to be successful this time, it must deliver a package of financial support for both installer training and to bridge the economic gap for consumers to convert from traditional to new low-carbon heating systems. Harmer says: “Consumer behaviour won’t change on its own – installers are the ones with the consumer relationships


JAN / FEB 2020



Did you know? Heat pumps use the same principles as refrigerators but the other way around

and there will need to be emphasis on a co-design process between the installer and consumer to ensure that a fit for purpose system is delivered from day one.” The targets have been set for new-build, but that leaves the issue of how existing properties can be retro-fitted with lowcarbon solutions. The critical changes are to Part L of the building regulations and it’s here where the technical group has been busy. The government is set to launch a consultation on the section covering existing buildings. The crux of the issue is a small but crucial regulation that will have a big impact on the industry. Harmer explains: “It’s about the need for mandatory flow temperatures in a heating system. Our position is we would like to see the enforcement of a maximum of 55ºC in all new heating installations. Government should focus resources into this area if it is to drive the low carbon economy.”

Year zero The other critical deadline is the Future House Standard that means no gas is going into new homes from 2025. That means installers must be able to fit the right equipment, so a huge training programme will have to rapidly take place to upskill the industry. The CIPHE predicted this would be a critical issue. Harmer says: “We need to upskill the existing workforce on low-carbon heating. We’ve been doing a lot of this already in terms of agreed calculations. No matter what system emerges we’re all working on the same principles.”

The crux of the issue is a small but crucial regulation that will have a big impact on the industry 20 P&H ENGINEERING

JAN / FEB 2020


The big heatpump trial

Air-sourced heat pumps are among the candidates to replace gas boilers

What this means is an industry-wide course that is now being scoped out by the CIPHE. Work to create it began late last year with the aim of launching in late 2021. Training for apprenticeships will remain unchanged so they can learn the basic principles of low-carbon heating before upskilling. The CIPHE’s view, according to Harmer, is that “we should consider a skills card just like the Gas Safe system – but it needs careful thought about the benefits for installers”. What should installers do next? First, keep an eye on updates on progress from the strategy group, which will be shared here and through its members. Also, think about how to help consumers co-design low-carbon systems by being ready to educate them about the choices that they can make. Political upheavals have led to uncertainty and the group is clear that ministers need to commit to lasting change. The carbon reduction targets won’t go away and consumer sentiment has moved. Harmer says: “Government has woken up, industry has woken up and consumers have woken up. We’re in a different world now.”

More information To follow progress on the low-carbon agenda, visit: www.ciphe.org.uk

Currently only 20,000 homes convert to low-carbon heat each year, but the figure needs to reach one million annually during the 2020s. We’re making progress – renewable energy supplied the majority of demand in the national grid last year for the first time – but clearly faster action is needed. As part of the drive to find a solution, the government is planning a large-scale trial of heat pumps which will be installed in 750 homes across Britain to try and identify possible challenges and work out solutions before a major nationwide rollout in 2025. The trial’s objectives include: Develop, test and evaluate innovative products and services that increase the appeal of heat pumps across a wide range of homes. Demonstrate that heat pumps, including gas-electric hybrids, can deliver high consumer satisfaction. Demonstrate the practical and technical feasibility of heat pumps across diverse housing stock. Help improve awareness across the heating supply chain. As well as examining the practical barriers to change, cost will need to be addressed. With gas currently four times cheaper than electricity – 4p per kWh versus 15p per kWh – there will have to be action from the government and the regulator Ofgem to help consumers switch, particularly those on low incomes.



Technical and professional advice from experts on hydraulic separation and drain misconnections PAUL HARMER Lead technical consultant CIPHE CEng MIET Paul is a chartered engineer who has consulted and led on many high-profile plumbing and heating industry projects paulh@ciphe.org.uk

Hydraulic separation

TT-B-011 Hydraulic separation

How to ensure trouble-free heating Correct pump installation is crucial for multiple floor, low-carbon heating systems, as Paul Harmer explains‌


arly 2020 will see the new government publish an update to part L1A of the Building Regulations and there is a strong possibility it will include mandatory low-temperature heating systems in new-build properties. It may also include measures, such as maximum permissible flow temperatures of 55°C. But we cannot forget that the vast majority of UK homes are existing retrofit properties, which will also need to be updated to low-temperature heating systems.


JAN / FEB 2020

The CIPHE renewables and lowcarbon technical working group agreed its position on this matter at the last meeting in November (read more about this on page 18) and will be asking for mandatory maximum flow temperatures to be applicable in all new retrofit installations by 2025 at the latest. This transition should not be taken lightly, however, as the majority of heating installers will need to upskill in various areas of heating design. Warm-water underfloor heating (UFH) systems will become more popular as

a means of delivering low-temperature heating into the buildings of the future. It is therefore important for installers to understand how to correctly size the primary pipework and pumps in order to ensure trouble-free, efficient heat for the consumer.

BASIC PUMP THEORY Typically, underfloor heating systems are designed with multiple pumps and manifolds to feed different floors. As such, anyone installing a low-carbon heating system in the future will need to understand how these multiple pumps can operate correctly, without reducing their lifespan.

The vast majority of UK homes will need to be updated to low-temperature heating systems www.ciphe.org.uk




Two pumps installed in series Pressure head increases; flow remains the same

Two pumps installed in parallel Pressure head remains the same; flow increases

Two pumps in series



Two pumps in parallel

Single pump

Single pump

System curve

System curve


Fitting pumps in series can cause issues in the system and may damage the pumps themselves

The two diagrams (above) show two types of pump configuration – one running in series, the other in parallel – and how each configuration effects the available flow and pressure head within the respective system. Figure 1a illustrates that when two pumps are fitted on to the same pipework (in series), the available pressure head increases, but the available flow remains the same. Conversely, when two pumps are fitted in parallel (Figure 1b), the available head of pressure stays the same, but the available flow increases. Unfortunately, fitting pumps in series can cause issues in the system and may damage the pumps themselves, resulting in an unhappy customer. This type of scenario is quite common in heating systems that contain a system or combi



boiler, which have their own integral primary pump. Figure 2 (page 24) shows a typical layout of a system boiler with hydraulic separation that prevents the pumps from operating in series with this increased head of pressure scenario. While this increased head of pressure will help distribute the heat more effectively, it will also accelerate the risk of pump failure in the future, as well as create unnecessary noise due to the high-water velocities.

HOW CAN YOU AVOID PUMP FAILURE AND SYSTEM NOISE? There are two things you need to do to avoid pump failure and noise in an UFH system running two pumps in series: check the pumps are of the required size and ensure that the pipework is big enough to deliver sufficient flow. The fi rst thing to do is check that the size of the pump supplied by your underfloor heating designer and supplier meets the requirements of the index circuit (UFH loop) from your manifold. The index circuit is the loop with the greatest pressure loss, such as the longest UFH loop, and will need to be added to the pressure loss created through the UFH mixer valve and manifold at a given design flow rate.

When plotting your UFH system duty point onto a pump curve, you will need to add up the total flow volume of all of the UFH circuits, along with ascertaining the circuit with the greatest pressure loss (the index circuit). The second thing to do is to ensure the primary flow and return pipework from the heat generator is sized correctly to deliver sufficient flow, with velocities no greater than 1.5m/s to the manifold to meet the peak heating load. The primary pipework from the heat generator will need to be sized correctly to ensure that the frictional pressure loss created through the pipe and fittings is less than the available head of pressure delivered by the integral boiler pump.. As the UFH pump supplied with the manifold will need to be hydraulically separated to avoid the primary and

The primary pipework from the heat generator will need to be sized correctly JAN / FEB 2020



secondary pumps operating in series, there will need to be some further investigation into the system.


A typical multi-floor boiler system layout Close-coupled tees installed prior to an UFH manifold


1 Minimum 8 x pipe diameter 2 Maximum 4 x pipe diameter ** 3 Minimum 4 x pipe diameter

One option for creating hydraulic separation between both pumps is by installing close-coupled tees. It is important to hydraulically separate the UFH pump and manifold from the primary pump circuit to avoid the aforementioned pump-inseries problem. A close-coupled tee configuration is a low-cost but effective solution. Figures 2 and 3 illustrate a closecoupled tee installed before a UFH manifold with simple rule-of-thumb guidance. Although a close-coupled tee configuration is a low-cost option, there are other suitable solutions, albeit at greater costs – such as loss headers with built-in air and dirt separation.

WHAT HAPPENS IF YOU FIND A SYSTEM WITH TWO PUMPS RUNNING IN SERIES AND NO HYDRAULIC SEPARATION? One of the issues with retrofitting hydraulic separation to solve the pumpin-series problem is that you may fi nd that both the primary and secondary pipework is undersized. As described earlier, two pumps installed in series will have increased the available pressure head, so retrospectively adding some form of hydraulic separation may cause the original system to fail, as both the primary and secondary circuits will then be subsequently operating on a single

** As close as practical to create a no-pressure zone

Write to us Send your technical questions to paulh@ciphe.org.uk

pump. In addition to the hydraulic separation, you must ensure the water in the system is clean and free of air, then perform a thorough system balancing procedure. Do not forget that by making these retrospective incremental changes you will have changed the balancing requirements of your heating system.

WHAT TO EXPECT IN 2020 The CIPHE renewables and low-carbon technical working group is developing a training course that will help equip installers with the core skills required to deliver efficient and effective lowcarbon heating to consumers. For more on the training and the switch to lowcarbon heating, see page 18.


Close-coupled tees A configuration like this will create a form of hydraulic separation

Secondary flow

Secondary return

Two pumps installed in series will have increased the available pressure head 24 P&H ENGINEERING

JAN / FEB 2020

Close-coupled tees Primary return Primary flow

Coming next issue The future of thermal battery storage in consumer homes. For more CPD learning, visit pandhengineering. co.uk



Assessment: Building regulations

Career progression Under the CIPHE Code of Professional Standards, members are required to participate in CPD

Questions on the building regulations Approved Document


Your CPD CIPHE members are expected to complete 30 hours of CPD each year. Completion of these assessments can count towards this requirement.

What to do

Which document covers the rules on ventilation? .................................................................................... .................................................................................... .................................................................................... .................................................................................... ....................................................................................

What is the maximum estimated consumption of water of a new dwelling? .................................................................................... .................................................................................... .................................................................................... ....................................................................................


Answer the questions (using an additional A4 sheet if necessary) and return by scanning and emailing or posting to the address below.

Air permeability is presumed at what rate of infi ltration? .................................................................................... .................................................................................... .................................................................................... ....................................................................................



Please complete this form



What is the continuous extraction rate requirement for a bathroom? .................................................................................... .................................................................................... .................................................................................... ....................................................................................


In new dwellings, what is the criteria that must be met on alternative ventilation systems if they are to be signed off by building control? .................................................................................... .................................................................................... .................................................................................... .................................................................................... ....................................................................................


What does document G cover? ........................................................................... .................................................................................... .................................................................................... .................................................................................... ....................................................................................


Which British Standards should hot water storage systems meet? ‌ ................................................................................. .................................................................................... .................................................................................... .................................................................................... To minimise the danger from excessive pressure how many safety devices should an unvented hot water storage system have? .................................................................................... .................................................................................... .................................................................................... ....................................................................................


Document H covers which areas of drainage? .................................................................................... .................................................................................... .................................................................................... ....................................................................................

1Â 0

Venting sanitary pipework has a requirement for meeting open air. What is it? .................................................................................... .................................................................................... .................................................................................... ....................................................................................

Your details

Your name:

CIPHE membership number:


Return to: CPD Assessment, CIPHE, 64 Station Lane, Hornchurch, Essex RM12 6NB Email: info@ciphe.org.uk Or visit the members-only area of the CIPHE website: www.ciphe.org.uk/cpd

JAN / FEB 2020


Write to us Send your technical questions to paulh@ciphe.org.uk

Misconnected drains

Keeping it clean Wrongly connected drains are one of the biggest water polluters. Technical manager Jerry Whiteley offers advice to help you spot and correct them


iguring out drains and misconnections involves a bit of fact checking and following basic design. But it is vitally needed: a UK Water Industry report suggests around 140,000 properties – and in some areas up to one in five properties – are misconnected. The nationwide total could be more than 500,000. There are two main types of sewer: separate systems and combined systems. The combined system does exactly that, both foul and rain water are in one pipe whereas separate systems have two pipes. Foul (wastewater) systems carry water from waste pipes and toilets, while surface-water sewers carry rainwater that has come down from guttering and driveways and discharges into rivers and the sea.

There are two main types of sewer: separate and combined systems 26 P&H ENGINEERING

JAN / FEB 2020

Misconnections most commonly happen when work is carried out to extend or modernise a property, or when a new washing machine or dishwasher is plumbed into the household system. If the new plumbing wrongly drains to a surface-water sewer then the effluent will pollute local rivers, which is not only bad for the environment but also a legal issue. Equally, if clean-water drains are not connected properly, they could overflow and cause flooding. There are simple fixes that can sort these problems out – as long as you know where to look. Follow these steps to help resolve issues.


Work out when the property was built. In most houses built after 1920, wastewater drains into separate sewer systems (foul sewers and surface-water sewers). In this kind of system, clean rainwater runs away to a surface-water sewer, which drains straight into local rivers and streams. The other simple way to recognise what you have is that a separate system will also have two manhole covers close by each other (one trench was dug to fit both pipes hence

Rainwater pipes should not have waste from showers or basins feeding into them

they are mostly side by side), these are generally found at boundaries and at any change of direction, e.g. going to the side or rear of a property. If the property dates before 1920, it will most likely have ‘combined’ drainage that goes directly to a sewerage works.


Drains are laid, in most cases, as point to point when the building was built and run in as straight a line as possible. This is because to discharge the contents they require not only gradient but minimum changes of direction so they don’t have the potential to block.


The system will have access points at a change of direction or a junction in the form of a manhole or inspection chamber. These are generally heavy and jammed in over many years of being compressed in older properties and might require specialist equipment to lift them. Modern properties will probably have plastic pipes and manholes etc. However, if you are going to start lifting manhole covers then beware that they could be really heavy. Some are concrete and they can easily trap fingers or toes, or worst case drop inside the drain if you don’t know what you are doing. Until you lift a manhole you don’t know just how deep they might be and some are very deep. On top of this you should consider others around you, if you start to lift manholes




CORRECT DRAINAGE CONNECTIONS Source: www.connectright.org.uk


Buyer beware: the legal responsibility Washing machine or dishwasher

∞ It’s the homeowner’s responsibility to ensure there are no misconnections at their property.

Yard gully

∞ The homeowner is also responsible for pipework on their property up to where it joins the public sewer.

Road gully


Fo u

f a ce

l wa

te r

w at

s ew

er s




Goes to a stream or river Goes to a Wastewater Treatment Works

and leave holes for someone to fall into, e.g. the homeowner or visitors. They will be assuming that the environment they are used to walking around is safe! This type of inspection isn’t a DIY job and requires risk assessing as well as safety equipment and probably more than one person.


When tracing water in a drainage system a dye is used. This allows the thorough inspection to check for leakage, direction and cross connections as the bright dye will show up far easier than water being flushed.


Main sewers are generally located in the road, even here you can quickly spot the number of manholes side by side if it’s a separate system. This is the property of the local authority and must not be tampered with. These are the starting point and the deepest point. As the connection is brought into the property, the pipes beneath will have a gradient and generally head as the crow flies. Cross connections occur when additional work is done at what is known as the head of the drain – the top or the furthest point.


In houses built after 1920, drains generally connect to separate sewer systems (pipe colours for illustration only). Surface water: for clean rainwater from roofs and ground runoff Foul water: for dirty water from toilets, sinks, washing machines etc


Has the building been altered in any way since it was built? If there is an extension or if a new bathroom or kitchen has been installed in a new location, you will need to check if it has been installed correctly to the nearest suitable pipe. This is especially important for macerator toilets as these are often wrongly installed into surface drains causing pollution. Cross connections occur when additional work is done at what is known as the head of the drain (the top or furthest point). The drains need to be covered with earth after installation and finished off with either grass or some sort of paving if it’s a public area. If the existing system is already at the highest point then extending it is a bigger job and this is where short cuts start to creep in and things go badly wrong.

Trace the steps that have been taken by the previous installer


Plot the guttering pipes. Look at all exterior guttering downpipes to see if there have been any new connections from inside the property that should be sewerage pipes. It’s not uncommon to see a washbasin or shower added into a room and the waste pipe cut into the rain water pipe outside simply because this was for them the nearest pipe!


Outside toilets and utility rooms, including domestic garages converted into rooms, can also cause problems as they are frequently connected to water drains as a quick fix. Drainage systems and alterations in most cases come under Building Control and ought to have been inspected at the time. However, building extensions below 3m (4m on detached properties) are not subject to inspection so cross connections can be more commonly found. Cross connections are a breach of the Building Regulations Part H and G5 sanitation and create contamination. Drinking water is taken from rivers and streams in some areas. If a cross connection is discharging effluent into this then it becomes a very serious public health hazard. The basic rules are: trace the steps that have been taken by the previous installer. Waste pipes must go to foul drains and not rainwater pipes or guttering.

JAN / FEB 2020



RINNAI AIMS FOR DOUBLE GROWTH IN LESS THAN 10 YEARS New products and services plus marketing initiatives will drive Rinnai’s business over the next 10 years, with a view to it doubling in size by 2030, reveals managing director, Tony Gittings


JAN / FEB 2020


innai, a UK leader in the manufacture and supply of heating and continuous flow hot water delivery systems and units for residential and commercial sites, has announced that it is planning on doubling its size within 10 years. The announcement, made by managing director Tony Gittings at a major event held at Skinners Hall in the City of London before a large audience of contractors, installers, consultants, estates managers and end-user organisations, detailed the company’s plans for a series of new product developments, marketing initiatives and service launches. In 2019 the company has completed the following:



Our reliability and commitment to customer service excellence is the industry standard

ABOVE LEFT: Tony Gittings, managing director of Rinnai BELOW: The Rinnai Zen and Zen Plus system offers the provision of luxury levels of hot water at affordable sums

L aunch of service division offering customers Service Plans for peace of mind so they can know that, in the unlikely event of a problem, they have an instant answer to the problem. All inspections and all remedial works are carried out by Gas Safe registered engineers. It is a legal requirement for the obvious safety reasons that all works carried out to a gas fired appliance or system must be done by a fully qualified and registered gas engineer. L aunch of the new N series of hot water heating units – The Rinnai SENSEI water heater range offers a new, more compact and enhanced combustion design that allows for easier installation, enhanced operational performance and, importantly, increased levels of serviceability. All the components within the SENSEI are designed and manufactured by Rinnai. This ensures maximum quality and reliability from the industry leader in commercial continuous flow water. L aunch of the A series of domestic hot water heating units L aunch of the Zen and Zen Plus home hot water and heating system, which marries established and proven manufacture durability with new

technologies to offer great energy efficiencies, user control and, importantly, unparalleled level of comfort. The Rinnai Zen and Zen Plus system will increase comfort and reduce energy usage while also providing a highly economical solution for today’s changing marketplace. L aunch of the Trust Partnership with the formation of an installer network specifically for its domestic product range, the Zen and Zen Plus. The installer domestic partnership network includes all bona fide, Gas Safe registered installers of residential heating and hot water units and systems. The launch is complementary to the recent introduction of the Rinnai Zen and Zen Plus domestic heating hot water system. The Rinnai range of hot water heating products are manufactured to the highest possible quality standards, which ensures a long working life. Our reliability and commitment to customer service excellence is the industry standard.

ABOUT RINNAI Rinnai is the UK leader in ErP ‘A’ rated continuous flow hot water heating units. The company makes and sells over 12 million gas appliances every year, which are distributed globally to all parts of the world and are all ISO 9001 and ISO 1400I certified (International standard for environmental management systems). Backed with extensive warranties and fully qualified service teams, Rinnai is the first choice for continuous flow hot water, providing the most energy and economically efficient solution by using individual or multiple manifold appliances. “Rinnai employs innovative manufacturing and testing techniques to deliver unparalleled levels of safety, comfort and efficiency. With the Rinnai Continuous Flow Hot Water System, you will never run out of hot water,” adds Chris Goggin, head of Rinnai UK operations.

More information For more information on the RINNAI product range visit www.rinnaiuk.com


JAN / FEB 2020


Your Membership One of the key benefits of being a CIPHE member is being kept informed on the industry issues that matter TIM SAINTY CIPHE Membership Director Tim looks after the growing CIPHE membership, enhancing services for members and improving communications

Industrial Associates



+44 (0)1708 463102

Working with the industry is hugely important and it’s helping us all to improve what we do


ur Industrial Associates Development Group is a great opportunity to learn more about the CIPHE’s industry strategy and approach to raising the standards of plumbing and heating engineering. It’s where we go to get industry thoughts and feedback as well as to encourage major players in the industry to become more involved with the work of the Institute. Our last big meeting was in November, hosted by Monument Tools’ managing director, Jonathan Collier and his colleague, sales director, Jamie Fisher.

We regularly hold these meetings throughout the year and they are useful as technical and networking events. They are also a very useful forum for discussing the issues that are affecting the industry.

Issues raised At November’s meeting we held some feedback groups to gauge members’ current opinions and the results were fascinating. Here is a sample of some of the comments that were made: We should investigate why the insurance industry is content to pay for claims related to lack of competency and non-compliant products, and why it isn’t supporting the issues we are aware of. We should talk to plumbers in the USA as they are appalled by the lack of regulation over here. We work

Members’ comments included a suggestion to take the CIPHE Consumer Compliance (Home) Health Check to insurers for their support


JAN / FEB 2020

It’s where we go to get industry thoughts and feedback

in a profession with professional responsibilities and enforced responsibilities towards state building controls. That is not what US plumbers see when they look at the UK. CIPHE should take its Home Healthcheck project to insurers for support from that direction. Consumer penalties for installation and failure of non-compliant products are required. Until this happens, then honest plumbers will be the ones who pay the price.

FIND OUT MORE For dates on IA events in 2020, go to www.pandhengineering.co.uk



Mental health

Mind your head Collaboration

Two become one THE AMALGAMATION BETWEEN the CIPHE and the Institute of Domestic Heating and Environmental Engineers is starting to gather pace and I am delighted to say that we have already been contacted by over 200 former members of IDHEE who are wishing to transfer their membership to CIPHE. A very warm welcome to those who are

Kevin Wellman (left) with Peter Thom, director of IDHEE

reading this today. Like everything else we do, there is a clear purpose behind the decision. As far as the CIPHE is concerned, this alignment makes perfect sense, positioning the organisation to provide cross-sector discipline support, information and services to the industry. This strengthening of the CIPHE’s heating-focused resources will provide

further benefits to the CIPHE position on matters relating to the future of heat and the low- carbon agenda. This strategy directly relates to workshops at the November 2018 IADG meeting, during which more alignment and collaboration between industry representative bodies was one of the actions sought by members.


New Year aims: cutting claims

CIPHE guidance can help avoid escaped water on construction sites

A SIGNIFICANT PIECE of work for us this year is going to be working with the insurance industry to cut damage claims for construction sites. The CIPHE is representing the industry on the Construction Insurance Risk Engineers Group in publishing best


practice guidance on The Avoidance of Escape of Water on Construction Sites. Annual insurance company pay-outs in respect of Escape of Water claims totals £1.6bn. Quality of workmanship and installation is acknowledged as being a key contributory factor so the CIPHE is pushing very hard for this to be another route towards the recognition of a qualified and competent workforce. The CIPHE sees a common interest here with those of our Industrial Associate members who are often investing increasing sums to support postinstallation issues. There’s a big win here for us if we get it right – and you can help by getting involved in our campaign work.

As you will have seen in this issue, we have started our Under Pressure campaign to improve the mental health of our members. Another benefit of CIPHE membership is the access to healthcare and support. You can find out more on our website and in the recently issued membership benefits guide for 2020. No-one needs to suffer in silence.


Two-level training The membership package for approved training centres has been split into entry and professional levels. The professional level includes membership for trainees until conclusion of their course, staff membership, access to CIPHE digital learning materials and supported package from CIPHE IA members. We already have commitments from our IA members who want to buy into this programme with CIPHE and are seeking further support.

Diary dates 12-14 MAY 2020 Installer Live returns to Coventry’s Ricoh Arena. 11-12 NOVEMBER 2020 Elements, a new event at the ExCeL London, will cover heat, water, energy and air. It will focus on raising the profile of the industry and gaining access to ministers and policy makers.

JAN / FEB 2020



TO ADVERTISE IN P&H ENGINEERING CONTACT MARK DURHAM mark.durham@jamespembrokemedia.co.uk 0203 859 7097


Social skills Whether you’re a Facebook fan, a Twitter lover or an Instagram addict, social media presents a great opportunity for you to connect with customers


aking your business stand out on social media doesn’t mean you have to hire a web marketing specialist. There are five simple things you can do.

Setting aside time to update your company’s social media pages will be worthwhile


Show and tell Posting before-and-after pictures of your work on social media is an easy way to show customers what you can do. Make sure the picture is in focus, well-lit and you’re not reflecting in any surface like a shower screen.


Make it personal Post pictures of yourself at work, on a job. Post pictures of members of your team and be positive about them. Post shared milestones like birthdays. Use words such as ‘I’ and ‘we’ when talking about your business.

Want to know more?


Get competitive Holding a giveaway competition on your social media channels can help you to connect with customers. All you have to do is offer a prize; ask people to like, comment on or share your post to enter; then pick a winner.


Draw in your customers Get them thinking. You can use this technique to directly advertise your

Make it personal. Post pictures of yourself at work, on a job www.ciphe.org.uk

Want to get more media advice from Which? then go to tinyurl.com/ uz3m7u8

services, for example: ‘Do you need a new boiler but don’t know who to call?’ or ‘Don’t wait for an emergency. Book a plumbing system health check before something goes wrong’. Make sure you use this technique in moderation, though.


Fly the standards fl ag Use your membership of a Professional body such as the CIPHE and of Trusted Trader as part of your online brand. Use the logos in your business, including on your stationery, workwear, vehicles, social media accounts and website. Showcase the professionalism

that helps you stand out from your competitors. This is a sign of reputation and trust; recognising competence and making it easier for customers to hire a tradesperson they can rely on.

Become a Trusted Trader The CIPHE is partnered with Which? To find out more about how to join and the benefits, go to the CIPHE website. www.ciphe.org.uk

JAN / FEB 2020



Clare King MCIPHE RP RHP The founder and owner of Pink Lady Plumbing on being inspired by her parents, finding confidence and tackling assault courses when she’s not on the tools



What interests you about the industry?


I wanted to do something where I could make a difference. Before plumbing I was working in an optician’s shop.



I taught my sister plumbing and my daughter and another lady. So there are at least four female plumbers in Northampton – and I trained three of them. My daughter is doing really well, I’m really proud of her.

How did you get into it?

My parents built an extension on their house. My dad was an engineer with Cosworth so he knew what he was doing. I was 15 and I already knew how to drain a central heating system. The government said we were short of tradespeople so I found a college and got on a course. I was one woman among 89 men. It was a bit daunting, but I’d done my research.



How did you get into your current role?

I went on my own very early on. A family friend was gas registered and he helped me get my training done. I set up on my own so I could work around my kids. I used to bring them on

Van with a plan: Clare King, who started her own business

jobs with me. And then my daughter said ‘I want to come along and work with you’. Now she’s learning the trade, doing her exams and getting on.


What’s the best thing you’ve learned?

Self confidence. Meeting so many different people has been a massive positive in my life. I’ve grown a lot and nothing phases me now.


What’s the benefit of CIPHE membership?


Would you do it all over again?


It helps you stand out. It helps raise awareness that you’re out there and committed to doing a good job. It’s a mark of quality.


Absolutely – and I would have done it sooner. I waited, and if I knew then what I knew now, I wouldn’t have done that.




I did gymnastics to competition level and now I do obstacle races. I’ve done a Rat Race Dirty Weekend – 20 miles with 200 obstacles. It took me 6.5 hours but I enjoyed it.


JAN / FEB 2020

Share your story Clare used to be an avid gymnast, but now keeps fit by taking part in national endurance events

Would you like to appear on our Q&A page? Drop a line to editor Chris Smith pandhengineering@ jamespembrokemedia.co.uk