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Legionella prevention for outdoor installations

Get up-to-speed on new, low-carbon heating systems

An in-depth look at mechanical ventilation systems

BREAKING BARRIERS Why we need to encourage a new, diverse workforce


Welcome You never know what you’re going to find behind the next door. It’s a part of what makes the job interesting: it can be a complex job that needs some clever thinking or finding a vulnerable customer in distress. But, as we discover in this edition, it’s not just the work that’s diverse. Britain today is an interesting place, full of different people with different needs. The industry is facing a skills shortage and that means we need more than ever to welcome in a diverse range of apprentices. Progress made by the NHS means people are getting older and they want to live independently – so, as customers become increasingly diverse, so must the solutions to meet their needs. The industry must be barrier-free in every sense. We also look at how better awareness of legionella can save lives and money, and meet the CIPHE’s new president to hear about his priorities for the year ahead. Our diversity edition certainly lives up to its promise. Enjoy reading!





11 Smarttalk

12 Changing faces

The CIPHE has partnered with Which? to bring you advice on contracts

As well as boosting inclusion, we need to end the skills shortage, and diversity could be the solution

16 Legionella vs luxury An investigation into how spas and hot tubs have been linked to the deadly Legionnaire’s disease

22 THE FIX Paul Harmer gives advice on adapting to low-temperature heating systems 26 Mechanical ventilation Guidance on keeping the air clear

28 Your membership 20 President handover We say goodbye to Tracey Richardson and hello to Chris Northey

The World Plumbing Conference and an update on wood-burning stoves

30 Q&A: Bradley Ellis... ...on what he’s learnt coming up


through the ranks

5 From the CEO


Our water resources are dwindling and we must take action

6 Frontline

Editor pandhengineering@

Editor Chris Smith Project manager Lizzie Hufton Head of design Simon Goddard Publisher James Houston Published by James Pembroke Media, 90 Walcot Street, Bath BA1 5BG Tel 01225 337777 Group Advertising Sales Manager Lee Morris, Advertising sales executive Hannah Sarsfield, Chartered Institute of Plumbing and Heating Engineering (CIPHE) 64 Station Lane, Hornchurch, Essex RM12 6NB Tel 01708 472791

Industry news, legislation and regulation updates, and more

Subscriptions P&H Engineering is the magazine for the Chartered Institute of Plumbing and Heating Engineering, containing technical articles, latest industry news and environmental and educational updates. It is published six times a year and sent free to members. Annual subscription for non-member £120 Annual subscription for overseas non-member £145 To join CIPHE, email

ON THE COVER Working towards a truly inclusive industry Page 12 Illustration: Adam Gale

Membership Founded in 1906, the Chartered Institute of Plumbing and Heating Engineering (CIPHE) is the professional body for the UK plumbing and heating industry. Membership is made up of consultants, specifiers, designers, public health engineers, lecturers, trainers, trainees and practitioners. The CIPHE has a membership of 7,500, including over 150 manufacturers and distributors. The majority of members live in the UK, although over 1,000 are residents in Hong Kong. The CIPHE is a member of the Construction Industry Council and a licensed member of the Engineering Council.

Copyright notice and disclaimer P&H Engineering is published bi-monthly by the Chartered Institute of Plumbing and Heating Engineering. All material is copyright of the Chartered Institute of Plumbing and Heating Engineering and may not be reproduced without written permission. The publishers do not accept responsibility for errors or omissions. The views expressed in the magazine are not necessarily those of the Institute and publication of an advertisement or article does not necessarily mean the Institute endorses those products, materials or techniques.

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KEVIN WELLMAN Chief executive officer

We need to find more ways to preserve water supplies With temperatures and populations rising, the industry must work now to identify solutions


he Extinction Rebellion population will need houses, schools, Stay in protests over climate change hospitals, energy, food and places touch were organised to challenge to work, all of which will require Got an opinion on an people in denial that it is happening. more water. According to the industry issue? Join in the conversation on They had plenty of evidence to Consumer Council for Water, a Twitter @CIPHE offer as proof, and we as an industry single-occupancy household uses 149 need to help everyone face the reality. litres of water each day, and the total During the Worshipful Company of consumption for a four-person household Plumbers’ Annual Lecture, Emma Howard is 450 litres per day. However, Waterwise Boyd, chair of the Environment Agency and believes that within 20 years it will be possible UK commissioner to the Global Commission on to reduce the average consumption to 100 Adaptation, gave an insight into her concerns. litres per day. There were more wet-weather records broken But a real concern to me is that ‘escape of between 2010 and 2015 than in any other decade, water’ remains the highest category of loss the 2013/14 winter was the wettest for 250 years. within the residential sector: costing around FIND OUT Storms Desmond and Eva in December 2015 £1.6bn (coincidentally, a similar total to the MORE resulted in 17,600 properties being fl ooded, in economic damage caused by floods). Read more about addition to bridges collapsing. The economic The Environment Agency is keen to water efficiency at damage was estimated at about £1.6bn. support innovative, nature-based solutions In the coming years, the UK will have hotter such as green roofs and walls, natural flood and drier summers. By 2040, it is thought that management to reduce flooding, and also more than half of our schemes to reduce carbon output. Recognising summers will exceed the importance of collaboration, it welcomes the temperatures input from industry organisations. If you have reached in 2003. This information that could be of help in the strive to will inevitably mean save water, please contact me. more water shortages I encourage members to promote water-saving and the possibility technologies to consumers, and to urge a ‘health that by 2050, the check’ of plumbing and heating systems to avert amount of water plumbing disasters. I will be working with the available could be insurance sector to advise how collaboration reduced by 10-15%. with the CIPHE should help reduce the immense Demand is only losses they are currently experiencing. going to increase. The UK’s population is expected to rise A predicted rise in the UK population means from 67m to 75m in we must lower our water consumption 2050. The increased

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KEEP INFORMED Read all the latest news, updates, and member benefits Facebook/CIPHE

All that’s happening in plumbing and heating Fire service leaders call for sprinkler legislation reform



Got a news story? Get in touch with editor Chris Smith using the email address on p3


SPRINKLER DEMAND FOR HIGH-RISE BUILDINGS Fire chiefs have called for sprinkler systems to be made compulsory in all high-rise buildings


he National Fire Chiefs Council (NFCC) has urged the government to revise the planning rules in Approved Document B to cover new high-rise residential structures above 18m. The group also called for the retrofitting of systems to existing high-rise residential buildings over 30m served by a single staircase. Research published by the group to support their demand concluded people are four times safer and less likely to be harmed in a flat fire when sprinklers activate. Currently, in England and Northern Ireland installation is not mandatory.

A change to building regulations in England and Northern Ireland is critical 6 P&H ENGINEERING

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Terry McDermott, NFCC lead for sprinkler systems, said: “A change to building regulations in England and Northern Ireland is critical. The NFCC wants to see an urgent government response to sprinkler regulations as we have seen with dangerous ACM cladding. “I recently met with the government to discuss the findings of our research and the case for changes to be made to building regulations with immediate effect.” The call came as the Welsh government revealed it will replace the Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) Order 2005. Housing and local government minister Julie James said: “The order was not designed for residential buildings and therefore does not address the main risks of fire in such buildings.”

Housebuilding growth has beaten the rest of the construction sector, which has been hit by a slump in new projects. The IHS Markit survey of purchasing managers has revealed that although housebuilding growth was weak, civil engineering and industry projects declined due to continuing Brexit uncertainty. Output and new orders have dropped to the level of early 2018. Tim Moore, associate director at IHS Markit said: “Commercial building remained hardest-hit by Brexit uncertainty, with construction firms reporting the steepest fall in this category of activity since September 2017. House building was the only subcategory of construction output to buck the downward trend in May, but growth remained softer than on average in 2018.”


CHANGE IN RULES FOR TEMPORARY WORKS Industry standards for temporary structures on sites have changed. British Standards Institute (BSI) has updated BS 5975:2019 - Code of practice for temporary works procedures and the permissible stress design of falsework, covering design, specifications, construction and the use and dismantling of falsework. Ant Burd, head of built environment at BSI, said: “This is a significant revision of an important standard. It offers procedural guidance to all organisations and personnel involved, to ensure competence in construction projects.”


DIVERSITY & INCLUSION Work is underway to help move to a barrier-free industry Page 12

NEWS IN BRIEF Sustainability

Unwise about water


New president inaugurated at CIPHE AGM A NEW NATIONAL President was inaugurated at the CIPHE Annual General Meeting on Friday 21 June, held at United Insurance Brokers Limited in London. Tracey Richardson handed over the presidential baton to Chris Northey and Mel Gumbs was elected as Vice President. Chris delivered his first presidential address, covering the importance of working with other bodies to improve the industry, raising standards and petitioning the Government on important issues, as well as improving access to long-term careers in the industry. He said: “Providing excellent plumbing and heating engineering is

Outgoing president Tracey Richardson with new president Chris Northey

our greatest asset and I look forward on behalf of CIPHE to delivering this challenge to industry during my presidential year.” Outgoing president Tracey Richardson said, “I would like to thank all of those who have shown their support and belief in me throughout my year in Office.” CIPHE chief executive officer Kevin Wellman said, “I’d like to thank Tracey for her hard work in her Presidential year. Chris, with his passion for the industry and interest in training is a perfect successor to Tracey, who made education and training pivotal to her year in Office. Read more on the handover, p20


Plumbing pension closes to new members A PLUMBING INDUSTRY’S pension scheme has been closed to new members. The Plumbing & Mechanical Services (UK) Industry Pension Scheme, which mainly provides pensions for small firms, has taken the decision because the increase in contributions

needed from firms was more than most could afford. The scheme, which was set up in 1975, had been working for more than two years to reduce costs. The Joint Industry Board for Plumbing and Mechanical Engineering Services (JIB-PMES), which oversees the scheme,

confirmed that it has enough assets to provide for existing members. The board said: “The JIB-PMES has nominated The Peoples Pension for any participant companies that are not already enrolled in a scheme.” Find out more at

One in four consumers does not know how much water they are using. A survey by the Water Regulation Advisory Scheme (WRAS) found that 57% underestimated the amount of water an average house uses. Just 6% of people would ask a plumber how they can cut consumption. Julie Spinks, WRAS managing director, said: “It’s important that water industry professionals actively offer advice to clients on water saving.”


Promotion at Altecnic Altecnic has strengthened its top UK team with a promotion. Simon Grocott has stepped up to the role of operations director to develop the company’s services and business growth. Prior to his promotion, he was operations manager focused on business efficiency and technology. Gary Perry, managing director of Altecnic, said: “We remain committed to acknowledging the achievements here at Altecnic and therefore are delighted to have offered Simon this promotion in recognition of all his outstanding hard work.”


Triton goes wireless Shower manufacturer Triton has unveiled a digital shower system. The firm has launched the HOST wireless digital mixer shower. The thermostatic mixer offers users the ability to choose one of three pre-set programmes, or select their own custom settings using 16 temperature and 10 flow steps.

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NEWS IN BRIEF Redevelopment

Bradford Council is feeling flush A council is set to open new public toilets in its town centre. Bingley Town Council has given the green light to a planning application to build two new accessible toilet blocks as part of an office development. Previous public toilets on the site had been closed over a year ago. The new block will be included in a new council office on the site. CIPHE chief executive officer, Kevin Wellman, said: “Toilets are vital to local communities and economies. This is great news.”

Read more on water safety standards in our fetaure on p16

Spray from a hosepipe harbouring legionella bacteria could cause harm


Hosepipes harbour killer legionella bug, experts warn


Gas fitter jailed A self-employed gas fitter has been jailed after he carried out unsafe work while falsely pretending to be Gas Safe registered. Defects were found on work by Marc Murrie at two properties in West Yorkshire, including the use of inappropriate gas fittings and defective flue joints. In a hearing at Sheffield Crown Court, Murrie was jailed for 12 months and banned from carrying out gas work unless he completes appropriate qualifications.


Don’t fear smart technology Installers shouldn’t fear smart controls, one of the UK’s biggest plumbing merchants has advised. Wolseley said heating engineers should be well-placed to lead the technology revolution. The firm has launched a smart control guide for installers. Wolseley’s Richard Harvey said: “With the excellent training being offered by manufacturers, installers should lead the revolution when it comes to smart controls.”


Find out more

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HOSEPIPES LEFT IN the sun could be harbouring the legionella bacterium. In a repeat of previous messaging from the CIPHE, WaterSafe has launched a campaign to alert households to the potential risks of using a hosepipe if safety measures aren’t followed (see feature, page 16). Hosepipes that are incorrectly fitted or left submerged in ponds or paddling pools can cause illness

We’re encouraging everyone to follow simple safety measures

because the water can ‘backflow’ into the drinking water supply. Even more concerning is the risk of hosepipes harbouring potentially lethal bacteria. Spray from a hosepipe containing legionella, which thrives in warm or stagnant water, can be inhaled. Julie Spinks, director of WaterSafe, said: “We’re encouraging everyone to follow simple safety measures. Better still, using a watering can instead of a hosepipe is much more water-efficient and won’t pose a risk to your drinking water supply.” Read the recommended safety measures at

SCOTTISH TENANTS AFFECTED BY FUEL POVERTY A quarter of Scotland’s social housing tenants are affected by fuel poverty, according to a report by the Scottish Federation of Housing Associations (SFHA) that found the majority of tenants were disconnecting their own power or heating. The report was part of the SFHA’s work to tackle the problem. It aims to get the Scottish Parliament to set targets to help those most at risk, and to set a deadline for eradicating the issue with financial help. Sally Thomas, the SFHA’s chief executive, said: “It is shocking how many people are struggling to afford to heat their homes.”


CHANGING OF THE GUARD The CIPHE says goodbye to Tracey Richardson and welcomes in Chris Northey Page 20

Installers’ input has helped with development


Trailblazer boosts apprenticeships take-up THE NEW PLUMBING apprenticeship scheme has helped boost the number of people starting training. The Trailblazer scheme, which launched in March, was among the 56 new standards created by the government to increase vocational training. Government figures for March revealed that 25,600 people started the 56 apprenticeships, up 7% on the previous year. Apprenticeships and skills minister Anne Milton said: “We have reformed apprenticeships so they are now longer, higher quality, with more off-thejob training and with proper assessment at the end. New and exciting apprenticeship opportunities are becoming available all the time from baker, carpenter, aerospace engineer or architect.”

CIPHE chief executive officer Kevin Wellman, said: If standards are to improve in the industry then training is vital. With a large number of people set to retire over the coming years, the number of apprentices will have to increase.”

Installers have played a crucial part in the design of a new boiler. Worcester Bosch revealed that, for its first model launch in five years with the Greenstar 8000 Lifestyle range, installers had been directly involved with research and development. As a result, the new models are designed to be easier to install and maintain than the CDi Classic, which they replace.


Energy-saving scheme extended been extended by the Ministry of Housing, Communities & Local Government. The scheme has helped businesses save more than £2m and an estimated 3300 tonnes of greenhouse gases. Initiatives have included upgrading heating systems, possibly due to £2,161,050 of funding




AN ENERGY EFFICIENCY drive that has helped more than 300 businesses has been extended for three years. The Business Energy Efficiency Programme (BEEP) that has worked across Worcestershire, Shropshire, Herefordshire and Telford & Wrekin has


from the England European Regional Development Fund. Programme manager Christopher Atkinson said: “We will be able to provide further advice to businesses across the region and provide grants to make the necessary changes to improve energy efficiency and sustainability.”

Three quarters of UK adults say there are not enough public toilets. Research from the Royal Society for Public Health (RSPH) also found a lack of facilities is preventing a fifth of the population from going out. Public toilets have been hit by local authorities’ spending reductions, but the RSPH said it was time for a rethink. Chief executive Shirley Cramer said: “Our report highlights that the dwindling public toilet numbers in recent years is a threat to health, mobility and equality.”


BE ‘DISABILITY CONFIDENT’ The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) has launched a scheme to help employers support people with a disability. Advice has been created to enable firms to recruit from a wider pool of talent and improve workforce skills by becoming ‘Disability Confident’. A spokesperson said: “Disability Confident organisations are reaping the benefits of inclusive recruitment practices.”

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MEMBERSHIP NEWS The CIPHE is representing its members at the World Plumbing Conference in Australia Page 28




Plumbing start-up seeks installer feedback A start-up is asking 1,000 installers to give their feedback on two new products aimed at preventing water damage while draining systems. The creator of neXgen drain off valve and insert is calling for installers to road-test his products and share their feedback. Martin Sach has devised two products designed to help installers who need to drain off a heating system, which traditionally involves using a jubilee clip to hold a hosepipe. His device acts as a tap and the insert protects the system. Development began nearly three years ago and early samples broke cover at the Installer Show last year. Sach is now in the final stages of component testing with product laboratory KIWA to get the product certified. He plans to sell the products through merchants, but to do this he needs market feedback to show there is demand. The inventor is now taking to social media to reach out to the industry with an offer of samples. To obtain a sample, Tweet NexGen using the handle @newdrainvalve Taking part in the testing? Share your feedback with us at pandhengineering@

Not a member? Contact us to find out how you can sign up today 01708 463116


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New commercial director for Roman A SHOWER DESIGN and manufacturer has promoted one of its longest-serving members of staff. Roman has announced that Graham Speed is its new commercial director who will lead on research and development and market growth. Speed joined Roman 20 years ago and has worked in various positions within the company prior to his new appointment. He started as the fabrication supervisor, where he looked after all the inhouse fabrication. He went on to be a production engineer and a facilities engineer in Roman’s main manufacturing plant for Britishmade shower enclosures, wet room

panels and bath screens. He then rose up through the ranks, becoming a plant manager before joining the commercial department in 2007 as a product manager, then commercial manager and finally to commercial director. David Osborne, managing director of Roman, said: “I am thrilled to announce Graham Speed’s new appointment as commercial director where he will further develop our success within both the retail and project sectors. There is nothing more rewarding than seeing homegrown talent flourish.” Graham Speed

There is nothing more rewarding than seeing homegrown talent flourish


Vaillant ups heat pump sales BOILER AND AIR conditioning firm Vaillant is set to increase its range of heat pumps. The firm is launching a range of heat pump models with environmentfriendly coolant for the first time. The devices will be

suitable for new and retrofit properties with the aim for the firm of building on last year’s 20% sales increase. Norbert Schiedeck, chief executive of Vaillant Group said: “Heat pumps and gas-fired condensing technology will continue to be core

technologies of the market until 2030 and beyond. To continue our growth, we will keep expanding our international leadership in gasfired condensing technology. At the same time, we are aiming for a leading role in heat pumps in Europe.”


Creating a contract As part of our regular advice from CIPHE membership service partner Which? Trusted Traders, we look at why a contract matters


ost of the time, you quote for a job, do it to the best of your ability, the customer is happy and they pay you. However, things can go wrong and we often hear complaints from customers and traders when there has been no quote or contract in writing. This leaves both traders and customers dangerously exposed, because it is Get support one person’s word Get access to an against another if independent alternative dispute resolution service something goes wrong. when you become a And what about when Which? Trusted Trader you’ve got a contract in place, start work but then another problem crops up that requires additional expense? In this situation, it is essential to requote and get the go-ahead in writing.

Remember to requote One of our members is Lynn Vallance, company director of JTM Plumbing and Heating Services. She warns: “Sometimes with bathrooms you get different levels of flooring, walls that aren’t square – it makes tiling difficult when things don’t line up and can add an extra cost.” The danger of not re-quoting is that the customer often doesn’t realise the job is going to be more expensive. When the work is done, they may expect a bill that matches up to the original quote. The best protection for you and your customers is to have all your processes clearly laid out in writing and to stick to them. In Lynn’s case, she found the Which? Trusted Traders assessment checklist

The best protection for you and your customers is to have all your processes clearly laid out

The power of a written contract cannot be underestimated

customer has read these prior to the job starting and get an email confirmation to confirm they have read and understood these fully before signing the contract. Take before and after photos of each job. Email them to the customer at the start and end of the job and get confirmation that they are happy in writing. Remember: it’s all about proof.

helped her business ensure that all the right policies and paperwork were in place. The checklist: Think about the worst-case scenario and have a procedure to deal with it. If the quote changes mid-job, be sure to get a confirmation in writing from the customer that they are happy with the new price before you continue – even if it delays the job. If you use T&Cs, ensure that the

Find out more For more advice for businesses on a range of topics, or to find out more about how to join Which? Trusted Traders and receive your CIPHE member-only 50% off for the first six-months, call us on 0117 456 6061 or visit our website at www.trustedtraders.

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Illustrations: Adam Gale

B ECOMING BARRIE R-FRE E As well as creating a rich, inclusive workforce, focusing on diversity could help end the skills shortage


inding the right person for a job is a challenge for every employer, especially when it is for a longterm project or a piece of work that needs to be done fast. The difficulty in finding a trusted trader has long been a complaint of domestic customers, and that problem has had a major impact on the heating and plumbing industry’s reputation. The challenge of finding good employees is going to get tougher as older workers retire: the number of retirees is


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set to increase as 22% of the workforce are over 50, and 15% are in their 60s. Big firms in the construction sector are already looking at ways to improve, and the danger is that smaller firms in the supply line could be left behind or passed over for work because they don’t fit the new mindset. There’s already a legal penalty for anyone who discriminates in the workplace or in other settings against people with protected characteristics. With society changing, the pool of potential employees is changing. Who’s

out there and what can the industry do to attract them?

Rethinking ability County Enterprises makes plumbing products for firms including John Guest and Worcester Bosch. Founded in 1978, the Worcester-based firm employs 21 people with learning and physical disabilities. Operational manager James Rose says there are rewards for employers who need someone reliable for repetitive jobs. He says: “Everyone learns


The challenge of finding good employees is going to get tougher as older workers retire and Brexit impacts

differently. It might take a bit longer to show someone but it doesn’t mean they can’t be better. Our staff are more than capable. Worcester Bosch are supporting us and they are sure of the benefits.” There are personal and society benefits; most importantly the employees are paid and receive training that adds to their CVs for future roles rather than being trapped at home or in care settings. They live full, independent lives and contribute to their community just like anyone else. They are also creating a business that adds to the local economy, says Rose.

Later-life learning People retraining later in their working life is becoming increasingly common. An average worker experiences six different job roles throughout their working life due to challenges like redundancy. A survey by AAT found that 46% of people had retrained to a completely different career. Tracey Richardson had a career in the RAF as a weapons engineer before retraining as a plumber. She also represented England at clay pigeon shooting and went on to become the CIPHE’s first female president. She has championed older workers and believes they are key to solving the industry’s skills crisis, but they need employers to see them as an asset. “When I first stepped into plumbing, I was 40 years old,” she says. “It was a scary world away from the RAF. The advice I had was from a former colleague who had a company and was happy for me to go

out on site with them. Unless people can sell themselves in the right way, it’s hard for them to show that they can be trusted to do the job.” She adds: “The mature learner has got a lot to offer. For an employer, it is always a gamble when you take someone on. I found three apprentices that I had to let go because they didn’t have the right attitude – they wouldn’t turn up on time. Older workers often bring a dedication with them that is based on their further life experience and commitments.”

Changing faces Melville Gumbs has been a CIPHE member since 1972 and set up his own business in Surrey after completing his apprenticeship. “Everywhere I went, I was the only black person there. It was a time of race riots and all sorts. A lot has changed. That’s not how sites are today – every nationality is there. I meet all kinds of people as my customers: every race, rich and poor. So if sites are diverse and our customers are diverse, we have to be the same. “The great thing is that no-one has ever said anything to me in work about race. We’re a professional body and our members do a professional job – that’s really all that matters. I decided when I started, I would do everything to the best of my abilities. “Everyone in the CIPHE has got to be more visible to draw young people in.


Eight ideas to break the mould Thinking about new employees? These ideas might help:

Make managing skills a priority Change the company culture Invest in diversity Focus on technology and communication opportunities like social media Promote continuous learning and development Create incentives for new employees Help change the sector’s image Collaborate with others in a planned way


Know the law You’re legally protected from discrimination by the Equality Act 2010 at work, in education, in a rented property, as a consumer and more. Protected characteristics include race, age, gender, sexuality, ethnicity and more. Find out more go to: or tinyurl. com/y3gvmqfo

In 2011...




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I was the only woman in a group of 90 at college. I was always a step ahead And we’ve got to tell them about the hard work you need to put in. We’re competing with careers such as IT because they think it’s a tidy job – they fall for the easy money.”

Did you know? Women make up around 14% of construction industry professionals

Golf in expectations Clare King started her company in Northampton, Pink Lady Plumbing, after working in retail, and has been trading for 13 years. She believes that the industry has changed for the better but we can do more. She says: “I was the only woman in a group of 90 at college. I was always a step ahead. I read everything because I didn’t want to feel stupid by not knowing the answer and have people think it was because I was female. I set up working from my car doing toilet repairs. We’ve got to get to the younger generation through schools. There are four female plumbers in my area – and one of them is my daughter. “The events need to get better, like the golf days held by suppliers. You get left out because people presume you don’t play. I play too and have just been invited by an independent supplier. There’s a reputation issue here. If it’s the sort of event where only men can go, is it the sort of thing they would want to go to?” The real challenge is reaching the potential new recruits. Richardson says it is just as important for people who want to join the industry to step up as well, as employers won’t find them if they don’t know they are there. She says: “You’ve got to push for what you want in yourself. Sometimes you’ve got to speak for yourself and step out of


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Who do you think you are? The UK workforce and customers are changing in every way. In 2011, 7.5 million people living in England and Wales (13% of the total population) were born outside the UK. Among the 56 million residents in England and Wales, 86% were white, 8% were Asian/ British Asian and 3% were Black/African/ Caribbean/Black British. Around 18.2% of the UK population were aged 65 years or over at mid-2017. The proportion of people who reported that they did not have a religion reached 14.1m people, a quarter of the population. In 2017, there were an estimated 1.1 million people identifying as LGBT. *Source: ONS

the rut that you find yourself in.” CIPHE membership director Tim Sainty says: “We focus on supporting colleges as a way of improving skills and attracting more young people into the industry. Can we do more to become more diverse? Of course, but this is something where everyone can make a difference. That’s from suppliers and manufacturers to practitioners. The whole industry will benefit from being representative of the society that it serves. ” The last word goes to Richardson, who believes that everyone in the industry can start by challenging attitudes about how the industry is perceived. She says: “If we can change people’s mindsets from an early age, we can make a difference. There is no good reason that the stereotypical member of this industry from years gone by should be the worker of the future too.”

More information Find advice on jobs and training at the career pathways section at

WHAT LIE S B E NE ATH The number of outbreaks of the deadly Legionnaire’s disease are high and poor-quality installations are responsible. Chris Smith looks at what can be done


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long, hot summer means people will be reaching for the hosepipes and, for an increasing number of people, the luxury of a hot tub. Both can have a hidden killer inside. Within pipes and hose reels across the country, stagnant water is an ideal breeding ground for the killer legionella bacteria, which only needs some warmth and nutrients to grow. The first recorded case was in 1976, when 29 people attending a conference in Philadelphia, USA died. The legionella bacteria thrives in sitting water and can lead to a potentially fatal form of pneumonia if someone inhales even the smallest of droplets containing it. Spa baths, pipework and domestic hot tubs not installed by professional plumbers are part of the problem.

The bigger picture The industry’s reputation is at stake unless professionals educate the public to the risks and challenge commercial site managers over quality. All man-made hot and cold water systems are likely to provide an environment where legionella can grow. An ideal breeding ground is anywhere with a temperature of between 20ºC and 40ºC. These can include water and heating pipes, cooling towers, evaporative condensers, hot and cold water tanks and spa pools. Other sources can include humidifiers, ornamental fountains, garden hoses and even aquariums. All the evidence points to a major problem that is leading to dozens of needless deaths every year. According to Public Health England,

The best way to deal with something like legionella is to design it out

there were 25 cases in April 2019 alone and there have been 110 cases since January this year. However, these figures only tell part of the story as cases of legionella leap every summer. During 2018 there were 814 cases with a spike in cases from June to October. This is above trend over recent years, which has been around 500 cases. Approximately 10% of cases – usually older people or those with weak immune systems – are fatal. Nowhere is safe. St George’s University Hospitals Foundation Trust in London confirmed two cases of legionella in October 2017 and April 2018 – most likely caused by bacteria in the water supply. It is spending £3.5m on overhauling its water systems. Failing to safeguard against legionella has a price: earlier this year Tendring District Council was found guilty of negligence and ordered to pay a £27,000 fine after an outbreak at a leisure centre. The judge said the fine would have been higher for a private organisation. So, why is it that despite the dangers being well known and the legislation being clear on the penalties, the number of cases is increasing? David Harper, a public health officer who specialises in water-borne diseases, says poor design and maintenance is a major concern in both public and domestic work. A lack of awareness is adding to the danger. His biggest concern is with major projects such as hotels, schools and hospitals.

Laying the right foundations He says: “A lot of construction work gets put out to tender and too often it goes to the lowest bidder. You have contractors who get the cheapest materials and do a basic job. The best way to deal with something like legionella is to design it out from the beginning rather than going back after an event. “You have to engineer the problem out but try explaining to an architect who is prioritising how aesthetically appealing the design is that you need access to a thermostatic mixing value that’s behind a wall to service it. In places like hospitals,


The signs to look for The symptoms of legionella are similar to having a flu virus and medical advice should be sought straight away:

Inability to breathe properly Severe chest pain A high temperature with hot and shivery feelings Symptoms do not go away


Staying safe this summer The four rules to prevent legionella: keep it hot, keep it cold keep it clean keep it moving Remember to:

ensure the release of water spray is properly controlled avoid water temperatures and conditions that favour the growth of legionella and other microorganisms ensure water cannot stagnate anywhere in the system by keeping pipe lengths short or removing redundant pipework avoid materials that encourage the growth of legionella keep the system and the water in it clean

JUL / AUG 2019



People don’t look after the hot tub properly because of the high maintenance costs we used to have a clerk of works who, if they didn’t like what they saw, wouldn’t sign work off. They don’t appear to exist any more.” On the domestic side, a new problem is emerging as a source for outbreaks. The UK is now the world’s second-biggest market for hot tubs, taking 7.55% of global sales. Prices go from just a few hundred pounds up to £5,000, but new owners forget the ongoing costs that come with them, such as heating bills of around £600 a year, and then servicing costs. If it is for use in a public leisure centre or spa, it has to be professionally installed and maintained. There is no legislation covering domestic sales and use, which concerns Harper.

Domestic dangers He says: “We’ve had quite a lot of problems where people have bought a hot tub and filled it up with a hosepipe. If the hosepipe hasn’t been flushed through, there’s a transfer of sediment. People then don’t look after the hot tub properly because of the high maintenance costs.” He has other concerns about poorly maintained domestic appliances: “The other source of outbreaks are whirlpool baths from high-street retailers. If you take the side panel off, you’ll see plastic pipes that never get set up properly.” Harper says it really is a case of buyer beware: “The system needs to be flushed through with cold water and detergent, particularly the aerators, before it is all drained away.” Maintenance is critical because of the


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Legionella bacteria can thrive in a property that has stood empty for a long period of time

Did you know? The agitation of the water in hot tubs and whirl pools can produce a fine mist of water, which makes it easy to inhale

nature of the bacteria, which is difficult to detect. Harper says: “The incubation time is between two and 10 days. The bacteria is three microns in size; that’s three millionths of a millimetre. People forget that cleaning has to be thorough. You have to let chlorine or whatever cleaning agent you are using have contact time over night. Remember, the higher the pH, the less effective the chlorine is.” A more basic source of the bacteria can be a domestic property that has been empty for several months while a sale is completed or where the property is used as a holiday let for a few months. Harper says: “I had a case where someone had built a ‘granny flat’.

During 2018 there were:



Unfortunately, the water system hadn’t been flushed out while the building wasn’t being used. The person who moved in died after inhaling water vapour containing the bacterium.” What can the industry do to reduce the number of deaths? Business premises and rented properties are covered by law so allocating responsibility to what the law defines as a competent person is the starting point (see box, far right). A spokesman for the Royal Society for the Prevention of Accidents said organisations must ensure a designated person is in charge and knows what to do: “Investing in safety training will help to ensure that the likelihood of an outbreak of Legionnaires’ disease is very low.” Harper says right first-time installation or correcting faults on inspection will also help: “Take all the flexibility out: pipe it properly and don’t allow any spaces for finishes where sediment can build up. Pipe to the shortest route. I see a lot of PVC pipework that is push-fit. That can enable sludge to build up if not closed up properly. And if you don’t deburr you can get biofilm adhere to it and then grow. It can happen very easily.”


an NHS Trust for doctors and nurses to live in. The finance director said they couldn’t afford to do the work. After they were reminded of the reputation risk and the costs of legal claims, I was told the money would be there in five working days.” Domestic properties are a more challenging problem as there is no direct legislation covering private homes. Raising awareness may have to be the first step for the industry. Kevin Wellman, CIPHE chief executive officer, said: “The number of cases is concerning. Changing attitudes to maintaining spa baths, hot tubs and even the garden hose matter. People complaining about the smell of chlorine at a swimming pool don’t realise it might just save their lives. “Making people aware of the risks created by poor installation and maintenance is the best thing we can all do. All the cases we’ve seen had one thing in common; they could have been prevented. It’s time to take this seriously.”

Annual deaths caused by poor plumbing now outnumber those caused by carbon monoxiderelated incidents Penalty kicks Winning the battle with project managers who are focused on cost can be done by highlighting legal duties and the financial penalties if things go wrong. Harper says: “Installers have become the lowest point in the managerial chain on projects. They are often ignored. We need to remind people that a board has a duty of care and with that a legal penalty for failure under Section 37 of the Health and Safety at Work Act 1974. That could include a manslaughter prosecution.” He adds: “I was involved in a case of an accommodation block of 80 flats owned by

All-round education Educating buyers as well as legislators about the risks could tackle the problem and Harper believes the industry could have a role here. He says: “I dealt with a case in Australia where a cooling tower at a restaurant was the source. A government minister’s wife and children contracted the illness. As a result, a nationwide register of cooling towers was set up overnight. I hope it doesn’t come to that but you can see how involving politicians could be effective. “Educating people and raising awareness among the general public is the only way forward. Getting people to be mindful of the risks and responsibilities by things like leaflets at point-of-sale is something merchants could look at.” Wellman says installers can take the lead: “Annual deaths caused by poor plumbing now outnumber those caused by carbon monoxide-related incidents. We strongly advise that all of those in the industry increase their knowledge on managing legionella to help reverse this upward trend.”


Legionella & the law Duties under the Health and Safety at Work etc Act 1974 (HSWA) extend to risks from legionella bacteria, which may arise from work activities. Landlords are also covered by the law and have a duty of care. The law expects there to be a ‘competent person’ who must understand how to:

identify and assess sources of risk manage any risks prevent or control any risks keep and maintain the correct records You, or the person responsible for managing risks, needs to understand your water systems, the equipment associated with the system such as pumps, heat exchangers, showers etc, and its constituent parts. Identify whether they are likely to create a risk from exposure to legionella. The control of legionella and other infectious agents in spa-pool systems is now available to download from the HSE website. Find out more by visiting or

CIPHE advice and help You can buy the CIPHE’s Safe Water Guide: Scald Prevention and Legionella direct from the CIPHE by phoning 01708 472791 or emailing

For more on water safety go to: water-safety/

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PASSING ON THE BATON Our new president Chris Northey and outgoing president Tracey Richardson discuss what it means to be president of the CIPHE


he changing of the guard with a new CIPHE president is an annual tradition that sets the agenda for the coming year. For the past year, Tracey Richardson has been at the helm, with the special honour of being the first female president in the institute’s history. Her priorities were to promote skills and training in the industry, and work with other construction industry organisations to improve standards. During that time, the new Trailblazer apprenticeship has begun, the CIPHE has lobbied the government to end poor-quality building work and membership has increased. Taking over from her is Chris Northey who is an associate director at Urban Systems Design. A public health engineer, he is no stranger to professional bodies, having co-founded the Society of Public Health Engineers. Richardson is confident he will enjoy the coming 12 months.


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“I’ve really enjoyed my time as president,” she says. “Sorting out the competing demands for your time is something I got used to and there have been some great moments.” Having pledged to focus on skills, her favourite event comes as no surprise: “It was visiting Havering College in Essex to award it Approved Training status. Havering is trying to become a centre of vocational excellence. That was a lovely part of the job as we got to talk to the students. It will be interesting to see how they progress and is something I will continue to support. All the other professional bodies have been involved

I’m proud to have been the first female president

and there’s been great interaction [between us].”

An industry first There have been challenges, too. Tracey’s concern for the future is ensuring the plumbing and heating sector has enough skilled people to maintain standards. She says: “We’ve got to safeguard the public and livelihoods and registration has to be the answer. If we had something set up we could show customers that we’ve got commitment. Yes, it’s an extra expense but it can reduce the risk of being passed over for a job by someone who’s only done a few online video tutorials.” Her approach to being the first female president has been to lead by example and she is very confident that she will not be the last. Tracey says: “I’m proud to have been the first female president. I would like to think that in future, a female leading the Institute will be unremarkable.


“I didn’t expect this to happen in a year as it’s about changing mindsets, but we’ve made some progress. It’s not as simple as it seems. There are so many people in the industry with Level Two and there are those with the NVQ Level Two. Some are quite happy because they don’t want to deal with fuel or renewables. City and Guilds have been quite proactive in “I took a conscious decision, asking engaging with them, and I plan to stay myself if I wanted to stand up or take a involved,” she says. back seat. But I didn’t want to alienate Richardson is clearly delighted to be people. I think I got the balance right handing over to Chris Northey, who is and it was my contribution in that role a familiar face among senior figures in that saw me elected; because, first and the industry: “I don’t think he needs foremost, I’m a plumber.” much advice from me as Chris has been The big issue has been getting people a president of other organisations. in the sector to consistently He’s more than aware of the challenge poor-quality work. commitment required. But I will Not a She says: “Getting the industry wish him good luck, as that member? to speak with one voice has always helps.” Email us at been difficult. We must raise Northey started his career to find out how you standards but a lot of the as an apprentice plumber in can sign up processes we have are being 1987 near Truro in Cornwall challenged by unqualified people. where he grew up. He was We have to tackle this in order to persuaded to stay in education move forward.” and got a degree in building services, She warns that there is still more work specialising in public health engineering. to do to get experienced workers’ skills In 2011 he was awarded the City & Guilds formally recognised. Prince Philip Medal for leadership.

We need the young talent and we’ve got to show the range of opportunities

ABOVE LEFT: Outgoing president Tracey Richardson is proud to have been the first woman in the role RIGHT: Chris Northey steps into the role with a determination to help more people develop their careers in our industry

He hopes to promote innovation and finding ways to enable members to adapt to changes in the industry: “I call it resilient collaboration and innovation. Every president has their themes and this is what I want to do. I’ve worked at national level and I hope that will help.” Northey adds: “We’ve got to support young people and bring new talent through. It’s one of the challenges I see for both the CIPHE and broader industry. It’s a big industry with a whole range of roles. “There are many people who started on the tools and stayed, but it doesn’t have to end there. There are jobs like design supervisor and more. We need the young talent and we’ve got to show the range of opportunities. Resilient collaboration is about also giving them the knowledge they need. If standards are to be raised, then competency has to be too. I’m looking forward to the next 12 months.”

The next step Returning to Richardson, what’s next for the former president? She says: “Winning the lottery would be nice… Away from the CIPHE, I’ll be dog walking and there will be weekends in the motorhome. I’m carrying on much as before, as there is still the day job. I hope Chris will recognise the progress made and invite me to continue with the experienced worker initiative in some way. Experienced workers are usually older people with knowledge or informal skills that started in other trades – what I call Grandad’s rights. Their practice may be out of date so helping them gain qualifications helps diversity and raises standards. “You only have a year as president so you can’t achieve everything. We still don’t have compulsory registration after campaigning for over 133 years. That job looks like it’s going to take just a little bit longer.”

Get involved CIPHE Committees, Board of Trustees and Officer vacancies are a great way to support the CIPHE. Find out more from Lesley Church on

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Technical and professional advice from experts on hot water systems, ventilation and more PAUL HARMER Lead technical consultant CIPHE CEng MIET Paul is a chartered engineer who has consulted and led on many high-profile plumbing and heating industry projects

Write to us TT-F-001 Renewables and low carbon

Send your technical questions to

Thinking ahead about cutting carbon With the decarbonisation of heat a top priority for government policy makers, it has never been more important for installers to carry out CPD on a variety of heating technologies. Paul Harmer explains


here are significant changes ahead for the installer as we move to a more technology agnostic industry over the next 10 years. However, we should not ignore the fundamental core theory and skills that are required to successfully install low-carbon technology. Education does not solely fall into the hands of the installer – it is the responsibility of the whole industry to ensure the consumer and the future installer fully understand the benefits and opportunities of low-carbon heating.


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However, without clear, long-term government policy and a collaborative approach between branches of government such as the Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy (BEIS) and the Ministry of Housing, Communities and Local Government (MHCLG), industry will struggle to adapt.

FUTURE-PROOFING With the potential forthcoming amendments to Part L of the building regulations, we hope to see changes such

as the mandating of low-temperature heating systems and hydraulic balancing. However, it is important not to forget the importance of tasks such as pipe sizing, especially when installing a heat pump, as they typically require higher flow rates and low temperature differentials between the flow and return pipework. If we are to future-proof our heating systems to enable a smoother transition towards a low-carbon future, then the system needs a more rigorous assessment from the outset.

WHAT IS LOW-TEMPERATURE HEATING? Low-temperature heating in this article refers to the water leaving the heat generator at a temperature lower than

We should not ignore the core skills needed to install low-carbon technologies




supplied to the radiator, which can result in a radiator being increased in size by a factor of three or more. A more suitable low-temperature heat emitter is warm water underfloor heating, which delivers a more even temperature to the room, typically through a series of pipes embedded into a floor screed.

Source: MCS 031 –MCS Heat Pump System Performance Estimate 4.5

*SCoP Seasonal Coefficient of Performance A SCoP of 3: 1kWh of electricity = 3 kWh of heat

4 3.79 SCoP 3.5

Air Source Heat Pump SCoP

3.17 SCoP 3







0 35





















Air Source Heat Pump flow temperature °C



Full load (1,250 boilers) 98

Part load (1,250 boilers)


As we move towards a low-carbon future, the installer needs to recognise the importance of future-proofing the heating system for a wide variety of low-carbon technologies, such as heat pumps. Figure 1 demonstrates how reducing the flow temperature of the heat pump can significantly increase the heat pump’s efficiency. The same principle applies to condensing boilers whereby reducing the return temperature from 65ºC to 45ºC can significantly improve its efficiency (figure 2). Unfortunately, when designing a system to incorporate lower temperatures, it is inevitable that the cost of the system will increase and impact on the consumer.

Gross efficiency (%)

94 92 90 88 86



84 82 80 20







Return water temperature (°C)

that of a traditional radiator heating system. For example, a heat pump flow temperature may be as low as 40oC, whereas traditional radiator heating systems deliver a typical flow and return temperature of 75ºC to 65ºC. The use of the term ‘low temperature’ in this article does not refer to LST lower surface temperature heat emitters, which are used in areas where vulnerable people are present; however, the use of low

surface temperature radiators can help reduce the risk of burns. When designing low-temperature heating systems, it is imperative that the heat emitter and the associated pipework are sized sufficiently to deliver the same amount of heat as the equivalent high-temperature radiator. The low-temperature heat emitters are generally oversized to accommodate for the lower water temperatures being

Height (mm)

Width (mm)

Heat Outputs @ T 50°C (Watts)











600 mm

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Remember: theory alone is useless; practical alone is dangerous



Air temp

Mean Water Temperature 70°C

DETERMINING EMITTER SIZE Before starting the design of a lowtemperature system, it is important to carry out a room-by-room heat loss assessment to ascertain the correct size of the heat emitter required. Radiator manufacturers supply their products with published heat output data tables based upon the EN 442 test as can be seen in figure 3. This published output data is based upon the following temperature parameters demonstrated in figure 4: Radiator mean water temperature (70ºC) – air temperature (20ºC) = ∆T 50ºC.

Mean water temperature 70°C - air temperature 20°C = 50°C Flow 75°C

Temperature difference between flow and return 10°C



20 °C

Air temp

ADJUSTING RADIATOR OUTPUT FOR A LOWER WATER TEMPERATURE In simple terms, once you have calculated the heat loss for the room, you then need to decide what flow temperature and ∆T that you require. For example, when installing a heat pump with radiators, you may typically install the system to run with a flow temperature of 45ºC (figure 5) with a mean water temperature of 40ºC { (45

Underfloor heating is the perfect low-temperature solution compared to radiators 24 P&H ENGINEERING

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Return 65°C

Mean Water Temperature 40°C

temperature difference between flow and return 10 °C Mean water temperature 40°C - air temperature 20°C = 20°C Flow 45°C

Return 35°C

Temperature difference between flow and return 10°C

+ 35 )/2= 40ºC }; although heat pumps typically run at a lower ∆T of 5ºC . Referring to figure 6, using an example radiator output of 1,200 Watts from a published output table at ∆T 50ºC (line 1) , the equivalent radiator output at a ∆T 20ºC, (line 4) drops to as low as 365 Watts. Therefore you would need to increase the installed radiator surface area almost fourfold in certain circumstances. However, it becomes

increasingly obvious that warm-water underfloor heating is the perfect lowtemperature solution compared to radiators, as it not only frees up wall space, but offers a much greater surface area than radiators with the whole floor becoming the heat emitter. One of the crucial determiners that ensures the efficient operation of a heating system is that it is correctly commissioned and handed over to




Equivalent radiator heat output at varying radiator mean water temperatures (Watts)

Radiator heat outputs at different mean water temperatures (n1.3) 4,200


4,000 3,800


























2,600 2,400 2,200

the customer with full operating instructions. Simple tasks, such as correctly hydraulically balancing the system, are often overlooked at the end of the job when it’s time to put the tools back into the van. Where next? While stakeholders focus on the next steps for low-carbon heating, installers and engineers can start to adapt to the rapid change that our industry faces by seizing the opportunity to carry out CPD in this area.


2,000 1,800 1,600 1,400

1200 Watts

Find out more



For information on a career as a plumbing engineering designer, contact You can get advice on what qualifications and experience are expected to achieve Engineering Council registration for Engineering Technician (Eng Tech), Incorporated Engineer (IEng) and Chartered Engineer (CEng).

1,000 800 600

365 Watts

400 200 0 0


400 600

800 1,000 1,200 1,400 1,600 1,800 2,000 2,200 2,400 2,600 2,800 3,000 3,200 3,400 3,600 3,800 4,000 4,200

Heat loss (Watts)

Your CPD CIPHE members are expected to complete 30 hours of CPD each year. Completion of these assessments can count towards this


Assessment: Heat output and efficiency Complete this assessment and it could count towards your CIPHE CPD requirement.

What to do Circle the correct answers and return by scanning and emailing or posting to: CPD Assessment, CIPHE, 64 Station Lane, Hornchurch, Essex RM12 6NB. Please include your name, CIPHE membership number and email. Email:

Answers will be revealed in the next edition of the magazine Reducing the flow temperature on a heat pump increases the efficiency of a heat pump True or false



Typical manufacturer radiator heat output data is published with a ∆T of what? A 50°C B 30°C C 70°C D 60°C


What is the mean water temperature of a radiator when the flow and return temperatures are 75°C and 65°C A 62°C B 60°C C 70°C D 75°C


What is the adjusted radiator heat output of a 1,200 Watt radiator at a 75°C-65°C flow and return temperature when converted to 45 – 35. A 400 Watts B 365 Watts C 200 Watts D 1,000 Watts

Or visit the members-only area of the website:


What is the adjusted heat output of a 1,600 Watt radiator converted from a 75°C-65°C to 65°C-55°C flow and return temperature. A 1,400 Watts B 1,300 Watts C 1,200 Watts D 800 Watts

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The importance of ventilation In part two of our series on ventilation, Jerry Whiteley explains how to ensure your work complies with Building Regulations


s a plumbing and heating professional, it is important to understand the requirements of ventilation and the need to comply with Part F of the Building Regulations. However, ventilation doesn’t just stop at Part F, it falls in to many other approved documents:

Part B – Fire Safety Part C – Site preparation and resistance to contamination and moisture Part E – Resistance to the passage of sound Part L – Conservation of fuel and power Part J – Combustion appliances and fuel storage systems Part P –Electrical safety

All are freely available via on the web at

WHO IS RESPONSIBLE FOR VENTILATION? It’s important to note that as the installer/designer of a plumbing or heating system, you have the responsibility to ensure that the work complies with all Building Regulations. The person responsible will be the main contractor; for example, a building contractor may have specified a new extension which includes a new bathroom installation involving multiple trades such as a plumber, an electrician, a plasterer or a tiler; however, which trades person is responsible for the ventilation?


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“It is important to remember that if you are the person e.g. designer, builder, installer carrying out building work to Ventilation which any requirement comes at a cost of lower of building regulations heat efficiency applies, you have a responsibility to ensure that the work complies with any such requirement. The building owner may also have a responsibility for ensuring compliance with building regulations requirements and could be served with an enforcement notice in cases of noncompliance.” (Source: Approved document F – means of ventilation 1.10)

VENTILATION: THE GOOD, THE BAD AND THE UGLY? The purpose of ventilation is to limit the accumulation of moisture which could lead to mould growth and pollutants originating within a building becoming a hazard to health. However, there is

The challenge is creating an efficient home with healthy conditions

Could online training entice new recruits?

a disconnect between the minimum required ventilation for health purposes and the effect on the heating system plant size due to excessive heat loss. The challenge is creating an efficient home with healthy climate conditions.

HOW DOES VENTILATION AFFECT THE PLUMBING AND HEATING PROFESSIONAL? The equipment we install impacts upon the buildings provision for ventilation. These factors need to be considered: Airborne pollutants and odours, e.g. in bathrooms and kitchens Control of humidity – bathrooms, kitchens, utility rooms Provision of air for fuel burning – open-flued appliances, ranges Accurate calculation of ventilation heat loss.

HOW TO SELECT THE CORRECT BATHROOM FAN Firstly, you need to measure the total volume of air in the bathroom in m3.


Extractor fans won’t always solve an airflow problem


Extraction ventilation rates Calculating the total combined number of loading units supplied by pipe A Room

Example (see figure 1): A bathroom with a total floor area of 3 m (L) by 3 m (W), that is 2.4m high (H), gives a total air volume of 21.6 m3 in the room.


Calculating volume of air Working out the total volume of a room in m3

Intermittent extract

Continuous extract

Minimum rate

Minimum high rate

Minimum low rate


30 l/s adjacent to hob or 60l/s elsewhere

13 l/s

Utility room

30 l/s

8 l /s

Total extract rate should be at least the whole dwelling ventilation given in table B


15 l/s

8 l/s

Sanitary accommodation

6 l/s

6 l/s

Part F of the building regulations stipulates for intermittent extract ventilation (figure 2), that a minimum requirement of 54 m3/hr (15 litres a second) is required. The amount of air to be extracted using the above example is:

window, an intermittent extract fan should be used with a run-on facility set to a minimum of 15 minutes”. The table above is guidance from Part F for new-build and existing extract ventilation rates.

21.6 m3 (the volume of the bathroom) x 6 air changes an hour = 129.6 m3/hr or 36 l/sec



This is above the minimum recommended extraction rate of 54m3/hr (15 l/s) stated in part F of the building regulations. Most bathroom fan manufacturers publish the fan performance in m3 per hr or litres per second (l/s). Important note — building regulations state that “in a room with no openable

More information Find out more about improving your technical knowledge and skills at the training section of the CIPHE website:

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Your Membership One of the key benefits of being a CIPHE member is being kept informed of industry issues that matter

TIM SAINTY CIPHE Membership Director Tim looks after the growing CIPHE membership, enhancing services for members and improving communications


Talking up Down Under

+44 (0)1708 463102

The CIPHE will be setting out our agenda at the world’s biggest plumbing conference


epresenting you and influencing decision-makers is our core business and we are gearing up to do that at a major event. Kevin Wellman, the CIPHE’s chief executive officer, is attending the World Plumbing Council’s 12th World Plumbing Conference in Melbourne, Australia between 11 – 13 September. This is a fantastic opportunity to discuss the international future of the plumbing industry, including best practices, training and education, challenges and opportunities along with exciting industry innovation. We will also be supporting a speaker, legionella expert David Harper, who you can read about in this edition (page 16). Keynote speakers will be discussing the big issues like climate change and sustainability. Among them will be Mark Pesce, futurist, inventor and host of podcast ‘The Next Billion Seconds’. Mark McManus, general president of the


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United Association (UA) is also on the bill as is Rob Gell, weather expert, academic and executive director of ReThink and keep buildings, hospitals and schools Sustainability. free from threats such as legionella, there They will share their vision for the must be more plumbing professionals. future of the industry which we The event will hone in on the know will include technology, necessary training requirements Any environment, resources and to work in the industry questions? Contact me via the workplace participation. details above if you Practices Ensuring only have anything you would The ‘Four Pillars of Plumbing’ trained people enter the like to see raised will be the structure of the plumbing industry is key to its at the event conference program: success, but setting and enforcing quality standards within the industry Products With an estimated value of is equally important. Analysis of the more than $80bn, the world market for required standards and accountability for plumbing products has never been as big, day-to-day work in the industry will be diverse, fluid or dynamic. The conference presented and debated. will examine features and quality of the materials, fittings and appliances used in Protection Industry needs to have plumbing work. in place the systems, processes and laws


If plumbing is going to be the catalyst for liberating millions of people from a state of water poverty, there must be more plumbers, trained and skilled in the latest techniques, products and installations. To maintain the health of big city water supplies

that adequately protect consumers, the community and practitioners. Attendees will discuss the measures required to minimise risks and provide redress when failures occur. A trip to Australia is a big commitment but these are big themes and sure to generate lively discussion.

FIND OUT MORE about the event at

Solid fuel

Fuel for thought Following our advice on lead soldering, members have asked about the future of wood burners. We’ve asked Mike Harvey, the training and support manager at HETAS, to share his advice


s plumbers and heating engineers we often have to ‘think outside the box’ and adapt to change. My early days as an apprentice were spent removing solid fuel back boilers, sweeping chimneys and dropping flexible gas liners to accommodate a Baxi Bermuda back boiler and fire, making good the fireplace, flushing radiators through with a hosepipe and reinstalling. Ironically many of those boilers have now been removed to be replaced with solid fuel appliances; the majority being ‘dry’ wood-burning appliances used as a secondary heat source. Becoming increasingly popular are ‘wet’ solid fuel/ biomass/pellet burners, integrated with ‘Smart’ technology alongside gas, oil, heat pump, solar, underfloor heating and thermal stores. No doubt you will have all seen some misleading headlines about a possible ban on wood-burning stoves. HETAS, Woodsure and The Stove Industry Alliance have all been consulting with Defra for some time now and Defra has clarified it is not looking to implement a ban. The Clean Air Strategy 2019 summarises actions to reduce emissions from domestic burning. Here are the key points:

Defra has no plans to ban wood-burners

Legislate to prohibit sale of the most polluting fuels. Ensure that only the cleanest stoves are available for sale by 2022. Give new powers to local authorities to take action in areas of high pollution, bringing legislation into the 21st century with more flexible, proportionate enforcement powers. Work with the industry to identify an appropriate test standard for new solid fuels entering the market. Ensure consumers understand what they can do to reduce their impact from burning.

Defra has clarified it is not looking to implement a ban

TRAINING OPPORTUNITIES Plumbers and heating engineers have the transferable skills required and meet the prerequisites to undertake HETAS training. The new City & Guilds Plumbing & Domestic Heating Technician (9189) apprenticeship includes a ‘Solid Fuel’ pathway. For further information visit

‘Ready to Burn’ Wood burning is considered Sustainable and Renewable; burning wood as fuel assists in reducing the amount of carbon dioxide being released into the atmosphere, being almost carbon neutral. The carbon released into the atmosphere when the wood is burned is almost the same as the carbon absorbed by the tree whilst it is growing. Woodland is appropriately managed, maintained and replanted encouraging natural fauna and wildlife whilst maintaining the natural cycle of carbon absorption and release.

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Bradley Ellis MCIPHE RP With a team of 11 to keep him busy, the director of Pleiadian Property also finds time to stay on the tools and run a farm in his spare time





What interests you about the industry?


Where we’re placed in the construction industry, it’s the commercial side of things, but it’s also more intricate. It’s trying to upkeep the traditional ways and applications with modern principles. You have to know a bit of everything: electrics, carpentry, roofing, as well as core plumbing and heating skills.


How did you get into it?


University wasn’t for me. I’ve always been a hands-on person. The family had other trades, but they didn’t have a plumber. At the time, I’d heard people were earning obscene amounts of money. Of course, it never works out that way – the money is a by-product of your own abilities and professionalism.


I became a liveryman of The Worshipful Company of Plumbers in 2018. It was a real honour, like being welcomed into a new family. They’re encouraging young people to come through and the ceremony was brilliant. My first involvement was in achieving my Livery Companies Skills Council Journeyman Plumber Award via the CIPHE and I would advise anyone to go for it. Even as director, Bradley likes to keep on the tools

What’s the best thing that you’ve learned?


If it’s not your skillset, recommend someone else. It’s nice to give them the work and the customer the best


deal possible. You can’t do everything. Always get people with experience to shadow you.


How did you get into your current role?

Seven years ago I started trading for myself. Although I’m the company director, I never see it as working for myself. I see it that the company employs me. I’ve got 11 employees and

everyone brings something. That’s the ethos I’d like to retain. Without them working as hard and as well as they do, we wouldn’t be in the position we are. I don’t want to be some massive entity. We’ve been bigger and I’ve downsized.


If you had the chance, would you do it all over again?


Absolutely. There are so many things that you learn. It’s really rewarding building your own business. You make mistakes but you learn from them. They laugh in the office but I still have to be on the tools.



I’m a farmer at heart. My grandfather used to run it and I am carrying it on. Upkeeping it is one of my hobbies. It relaxes me. And when I’ve got time, I’m a pianist.


JUL / AUG 2019

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P&H Engineering July/August 2019  

P&H Engineering July/August 2019  

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