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TAKING THE HEAT OFF We reveal the hidden scandal of scalding




The Trailblazer scheme has started – now it’s up to you

How connected devices are changing the way you work

Why uninsured staff could cost you thousands of pounds


Welcome Happy New Year! I’m sure 2019 will be full of both opportunities and challenges, and we’ll be exploring them all with you. The theme of problem solving runs right through this edition; it wasn’t planned but has emerged with each idea or issue that has been raised by contributors. The Trailblazer apprenticeship scheme is set to launch and former CIPHE president Kevin McCallister is the first to admit it isn’t perfect, but he sets out what the fixes might be. We’re also looking at connected appliances. At first it sounds like science fiction, but the concept could help to solve a lot of problems. The needless injury of 2,500 people annually from scalding hot water is a scandal. It’s costing the NHS millions of pounds a year and destroying lives. That’s why we’re taking a stand to end bad practice. Much to think about, but thinking is what we’re all about. Enjoy the edition.



21 21 THE FIX 21 Paul Harmer gets technical on how to get pipe sizing right first time 24 Tech Talk Salamander on pumps 27 CPD Test your knowledge

12 Interview Trailblazers lead for the CIPHE Kevin McCallister explains why employers must help make training work

30 Your membership 14 Taking the heat off Thousands are injured every year from scalding. We reveal the scale of the scandal and what can be done to end it

Updates on IAs, the technical group, Hong Kong and more

33 Comment

18 Forward thinking

Insurance expert Chris Bates explains risk and having the right cover

The Internet of Things is revolutionising the industry. We explore how

34 Q&A: Russell Armstrong


The inventor on football coaching, and nearly going on The Apprentice

5 From the CEO


We need to promote the virtues of plumbing and heating engineering

6 Frontline

Editor pandhengineering@

Editor Chris Smith Project manager Lizzie Hufton Head of design Simon Goddard Publisher James Houston Published by James Pembroke Media, 90 Walcot Street, Bath BA1 5BG Tel 01225 337777 Group Advertising Sales Manager Lee Morris, Advertising sales executive Hannah Sarsfield, Chartered Institute of Plumbing and Heating Engineering (CIPHE) 64 Station Lane, Hornchurch, Essex RM12 6NB Tel 01708 472791

Industry news, appointments, regulation updates and more

Subscriptions P&H Engineering is the magazine for the Chartered Institute of Plumbing and Heating Engineering, containing technical articles, latest industry news and environmental and educational updates. It is published six times a year and sent free to members. Annual subscription for non-member £120 Annual subscription for overseas non-member £145 To join CIPHE, email

ON THE COVER Taking the heat off: the scandal of scalding Page 14 Illustration: Adam Gale

Membership Founded in 1906, the Chartered Institute of Plumbing and Heating Engineering (CIPHE) is the professional body for the UK plumbing and heating industry. Membership is made up of consultants, specifiers, designers, public health engineers, lecturers, trainers, trainees and practitioners. The CIPHE has a membership of 7,500, including over 150 manufacturers and distributors. The majority of members live in the UK, although over 1,000 are residents in Hong Kong. The CIPHE is a member of the Construction Industry Council and a licensed member of the Engineering Council.

Copyright notice and disclaimer P&H Engineering is published bi-monthly by the Chartered Institute of Plumbing and Heating Engineering. All material is copyright of the Chartered Institute of Plumbing and Heating Engineering and may not be reproduced without written permission. The publishers do not accept responsibility for errors or omissions. The views expressed in the magazine are not necessarily those of the Institute and publication of an advertisement or article does not necessarily mean the Institute endorses those products, materials or techniques.

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We need to have more people promoting our virtues

KEVIN WELLMAN Chief executive officer

Pioneers in our profession have had a huge impact on public welfare, but we must safeguard that legacy


Photo: Messe Frankfurt GmbH/ Pietro Sutera


11–15 MARCH: ISH, Frankfurt The world’s leading trade fair for HVAC and water 20 MAY: Worshipful Company of Plumbers Annual Lecture 21 JUNE: CIPHE Annual General Meeting and Regional Branch Day.


t never ceases to amaze me when the mains. In 1861 he developed the involved people fail to appreciate or accept unvented hot water system, which Want to help a young person the impact that plumbing and was utilised across the world. In become the next plumbing heating engineering has on society. England such installations were not pioneer? Find education guidance at www.ciphe. As we look forward to another year, recognised until the 1985 Building one which will undoubtedly bring many Regulations and 1989 Water Byelaws. challenges, I want to share a moment from last year – a service of thanksgiving to Masters of invention celebrate the Year of Engineering at Westminster Sir John Harrington was primarily an author Abbey in London. but in 1596 he invented the first flushing toilet, Yewande Akinola, IET Young Woman Engineer called the Ajax. In 1775 Alexander Cumming of the Year 2012, read the following by Varun patented a device similar to Harrington’s Ajax. Narayanan: “What is an engineer? Well, look Cumming also invented the S-bend, which became around: our monuments are everywhere – we known as the U-bend following the introduction will make and speculate, design, create and build. of the U-shaped trap by Thomas Crapper in 1880. To generate the new, the future now, ingenious, John Snow was a British physician considered from backgrounds of all kinds, inventing at all one of the founders of epidemiology for his work ages, for all time, with individual spirit and joined identifying the source of a cholera outbreak minds, to tackle any challenges, far or near – is in 1854. After careful investigation, including what it means to be an engineer.” plotting cases of cholera on a map of the area, There have been many pioneers responsible for Snow was able to identify a water pump in Soho, incredible things that have changed our lives for London as the source of the disease. He had the better, for example… the handle of the pump removed, and cases of Sir Joseph William Bazalgette was a 19thcholera immediately began to diminish. century English civil engineer. As chief engineer Despite the advances referenced, according of London’s Metropolitan Board of Works, his to, there are still 844 million people major achievement was the creation (in response worldwide who live without access to safe water, to the Great Stink of 1858) of a sewer network and 2.3 billion people who live without access to for central London, which was instrumental in acceptable levels of sanitation. relieving the city from cholera epidemics. Hopefully, the world won’t have to wait too long Sir Thomas Hawksley was the British water for the next pioneer to make a difference. engineer who, in the 19th century, was responsible Meanwhile, we need to have more people for upwards of 150 water-supply schemes in the promoting the virtues of plumbing and heating British Isles and overseas. He was working for engineering. Failing to inspire the next generation the Trent Waterworks Company in 1831 when really will be the next Great Stink! he designed the country’s first water system that provided supply at constant high pressure, preventing any contamination from entering

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KEEP INFORMED Read all the latest news, updates, and member benefits Facebook/CIPHE

All that’s happening in plumbing and heating

Skills minister Anne Milton backs the scheme

More information Read our in-depth feature explaining Trailblazer apprenticeships on page 12


EMPLOYERS URGED NOT TO TAKE TRAILBLAZER SHORTCUT Waiting is over for the Trailblazer apprenticeship and former CIPHE president Kevin McCallister has called on employers to step up


fter months of delays, the Trailblazer scheme has just launched. The plumbing and heating apprenticeship is one of 16 government-backed options for people who want to train on the job. The format includes college learning, on-site assessments and a final test. The scheme has been driven by the industry to ensure employers get the staff they need. However, concern has been raised by CIPHE members that some firms will opt for the alternative shorter gas engineering apprenticeship to save money, or that trainees will stop education at the end of a

The shortcut will hurt employers in the long run 6 P&H ENGINEERING

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Level 2 course rather than embark on a Trailblazer apprenticeship programme expected to last for up to 48 months. Former CIPHE president Kevin McCallister, who helped structure the scheme, warned that employees taking this shortcut would limit their future job prospects as well as the prospects for their firms. He told P&H Engineering: “We all have to get the message out to employers not to take the shortcut; it will hurt them in the long run.” The government said the new approach would benefit everyone. Skills minister Anne Milton said: “I want everyone to recognise the change apprenticeships can bring – for employers blazing a trail to new markets, apprentices to new career opportunities and for training providers raising skills levels.”

Health and safety

COUNCIL FINED AFTER LEGIONNAIRE’S OUTBREAK Tendring District Council has been fined after a member of the public contracted Legionnaires’ disease at a leisure centre. The council had pleaded guilty to breaching Section 3(1) of the Health and Safety at Work Act 1974. It was fined £27,000 and ordered to pay costs of £7,500. HSE inspector Tania van Rixtel said: “Controls such as maintaining water temperatures, regular flushing of lowuse outlets and adequate cleaning are all necessary in order to reduce the risk of legionella developing.” Community

FOOTBALL CLUB HELPS ELDERLY PEOPLE TO WARM UP Dozens of vulnerable older people have been given free radiators to protect them against the winter weather. A partnership between the Royal Borough of Greenwich, Charlton Athletic FC’s community trust and Andrews Sykes, which runs a heat for hire scheme, resulted in 60 radiators being donated to people in five London boroughs. Mark Page, southern regional director at Andrews Sykes, said: “We understand that this time of year can be particularly difficult for a significant demographic of society and so it’s only right that we can play our part in improving people’s situations.”


SMART SYSTEMS How smart technology can help the heating and plumbing industry Page 18

NEWS IN BRIEF Customer service

Ofwat makes it plain Clean energy

Low carbon progress needed THE DEPARTMENT FOR Business, Energy & Industrial Strategy admitted more needed to be done if the government is to meet its target to cut greenhouse gas emissions by at least 80% by 2050. The report, called Clean Growth – Transforming Heating, said that there needed to be a better understanding of the different options currently available for decarbonising heating. The report was part of an industry consultation that runs until February. Heat accounts for over a third of the UK’s greenhouse gas emissions. Heating is supplied to nearly 24 million homes and businesses, mainly through the national gas grid. But the department found too many competing views about the

The report highlights the need for consensus

way ahead, making policy decisions difficult on issues such as developing alternatives and market regulation. The BEIS consultation said: “Our review confirmed we need a clearer common agenda across industry, academia and the public sector.” CIPHE CEO Kevin Wellman said: “We liaise with the government on a range of issues including sustainability. We can show our industry’s strength by everyone taking part in this consultation.” Read more: Add your views by emailing: by 22 February

Celebrities target flush theatre fans

Regulations update

Post-Grenfell fire rules change Building regulations are to change as a part of the response to the Grenfell Tower fire. The government has announced a call for evidence seeking views on the future technical guidance contained within Approved Document B (fire safety). The rules, which cover best practice by trade bodies, apply to any type of building. The document was criticised in the Hackitt Review into the fire. The CIPHE is part of the Construction Industry Council and will contribute to its response. See more at

Public toilets

OSCAR-WINNING ACTORS and celebrities have united in a campaign to get better women’s toilets at one of the country’s top theatres.

The water regulator has ordered suppliers to make clear their obligations to customers. Ofwat said water companies’ licence obligations will in future set out in more accessible language what they must do for businesses and communities. The watchdog said: “This will allow stakeholders to more easily understand what it is that Ofwat holds companies to account for.”

Home building guidance

New code for builders

Actors Glenda Jackson and Joanna Lumley joined a host of famous names in a spoof video campaign called More Loos to help The Old Vic in London raise

£100,000 to refurbish its toilets. Jackson said in the video: “Is it that you think that women don’t wee? Or that women don’t like theatre?”

A new consumer code has been launched for home builders. The Chartered Trading Standards Institute has unveiled fresh regulations on the sale of new homes to strengthen consumer rights. The Consumer Code for Home Builders will include a detailed inspection and cover service standards for the new homes market. It will include 90% of all new builds.

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NEWS IN BRIEF Trading places

Travis Perkins eyes sale Travis Perkins Group may sell its heating and plumbing division. The firm announced in its trading update that the sale of a group that includes plumbing merchant City Plumbing Supplies, Direct Heating Spares and National Shower Spares was being considered. Travis Perkins said the move would enable it to focus on its core business of supplying the building trade.

Get in touch with editor Chris Smith using the email address on p3

Ageing populations in rural areas are suffering

Winter deaths

Boiler protection

Baxi extends warranties Boiler firm Baxi is extending its promotional warranties across its product ranges. The offer includes 10-year warranties on the Platinum Combi and EcoBlue Advance Combi and seven-year warranties on the 600 Combi, Duo-tec Combi, Megaflo System and EcoBlue + Combi, System and Advance Heat. To qualify, the boiler must be registered within 30 days on Baxi Works or, the Benchmark Commissioning Checklist completed, and an annual service carried out by a Gas Safe registered professional.

Award winner

Ariston wins YPS Plumbing Supplies Award Ariston has won Supplier of the Year at the YPS Plumbing Supplies Award. Merchant open days, networking events and training were highlighted as reasons for the win, which was achieved in just a year of Ariston working with YPS Plumbing. Area sales manager Peter Lee said: “We are delighted to have won an award recognising our levels of service, especially at such an early stage of our tenure.”


Got a news story?

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Fuel poverty has rural divide, experts warn EXPERTS HAVE CALLED on the government to do more to tackle heat fuel poverty, following a rise in winter deaths of 50,000 last year. Debt and ill-health is being increased by the lack of fuel supply options for people in rural areas, the Rural Services Network warned. The organisation said: “Limited options for fuel in rural localities – many of which lack mains gas – make efficient fuel use and

The cost to the health service is enormous

insulation particularly important for countryside communities. “Rural residents face the challenges of lower average wages, an ageing population and singleskin, solid wall or non-cavity wall properties.” Research by the charity National Energy Action found cold homes were a key factor in winter deaths. Dr Brenda Boardman, emeritus fellow at Oxford University’s Environmental Change Institute, said: “For every death, probably five people had emergency admissions to hospital. The cost to the health service is enormous.”

LANDLORD FINED FOR HOT WATER FAILURE A landlord has been fined after failing to ensure a disabled tenant had hot water in their home. Folkestone Magistrates Court ordered Judith Wilson to pay a fine of £10,000 and legal costs of £14,890 after failing to supply hot water despite an enforcement notice being issued by Ashford Borough Council. A spokesman for Ashford Council, which brought the case, said: “This successful prosecution shows that we have teeth and we are not afraid to fight for the rights of tenants. In this case we did everything we could to resolve the situation.”


TECHNICAL ADVICE Get the lowdown on fixing problems caused by low water pressure Page 24

Jerry Whiteley is the CIPHE ‘s new technical manager


Apprentices graduate in style FIFTY NEWLY QUALIFIED plumbers and gas engineers have celebrated graduating with their apprenticeships. Part of the ceremony, hosted by the Steve Willis Training Centres in Burgess Hill, Sussex, was an awards presentation for top performers. Award sponsors including the CIPHE, who sponsored the Plumbing Apprentice of the Year, Worcester Bosch and Kane were on hand to present the trophies. Steve Willis Training Centres were also celebrating as the company has been awarded Highly Commended in the prestigious City & Guilds Training Centre of the Year Lion Awards. Megann McKinnon from City & Guilds presented the award. Tracey Richardson, president

of the CIPHE, has also visited the centre as part of her work to prioritise further education training in her year in the post. She said: “Many private training providers deliver first-class quality, with trainers who dedicate themselves to the industry, and centres like this are a gold standard.” Managing director Steve Willis said: “Our apprenticeship training is going from strength to strength, and I am delighted to see our highest ever number of apprentices graduating this year. I wish them well as they continue their careers.” He went on to say: “We are proud to be a CIPHE-approved training centre, and are committed to maintaining the highest standards in plumbing training.”

Many private training providers deliver first-class quality, with trainers who dedicate themselves to the industry

MD Steve Willis with special recognition award winners from Burgess Hill training centre: (L-R) Aidan Clay, Connor Allum, Aidan Towner, Joshua Tuck and Michael Poole

New appointment

JERRY JOINS TEAM The CIPHE has appointed a new technical manager, Jerry Whiteley. As part of the institute’s focus on developing its support for members, Whiteley will work across member queries, guidance and publications. CIPHE chief executive Kevin Wellman said: “We are delighted to welcome Jerry to the team. This is a vital step forward in our future development and we look forward to working with him.”


MELBOURNE WELCOMES THE WORLD The global plumbing industry is set to convene in Melbourne, Australia, this autumn for the biggest continuing professional development event of its kind. The triennial World Plumbing Conference will take place from 11-13 September 2019. With critical issues like climate change, water conservation and the UN’s concern that today 4.5 billion people live without a safe toilet, the event is critical to tackling global heath problems as well as raising safety standards. The agenda includes plans to develop frameworks to improve fittings, appliances and standards. The World Plumbing Council, which organises the event, said: “The conference offers opportunities to share knowledge and expertise without borders and at each conference we are inspired to see the spread of ideas across the world.”

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INTERNATIONAL NEWS Why the CIPHE’s profile is growing in Hong Kong Page 31




Baxi on the move Boiler maker Baxi Heating UK is relocating a key production centre. Its foundry in Norwich, which makes cylinders for its Heatrae Sadia and Megaflo ranges, is to close. Production will move to Preston and the Heatrae Sadia residential and commercial sales teams will merge later this year. A company spokesperson says: “Our intention is to grow our market positions across all brands so it is important that the business prepares for the many challenges and opportunities that are presented by the UK’s heating market.” Business growth

Midlands and more for Smith’s Midlands-based supplier Smith Brothers Stores has announced plans for expansion. The plumbing merchant has signed a 10-year lease on a 28,000 sq ft warehouse in West Bromwich as part of plans to increase its UK operations supplying pipework, valves and air conditioning. The company saw turnover pass £100m last year and won a number of industry awards. A statement from the firm said: “In 2019, we already have a few exciting developments scheduled.”

Not a member? Contact us to find out how you can sign up today 01708 463116


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Government adviser to warn on extreme weather ONE OF THE government’s top advisers is set to challenge the industry over tackling the rise of extreme weather. Emma Howard Boyd, Chair of the Environmental Agency, will use the annual lecture of the Worshipful Company of Plumbers (WCP) to warn that changes are needed to deal with the severe snow, flooding and scorching summers that are the new normal for UK weather. At the event in London on 20 May, she will question what the industry and wider society can do to solve the problems caused by these conditions. Dame Fiona Woolf, Master of the WCP, said: “Extreme temperatures impact the quality of life for populations and influence the work that plumbers and

The industry needs to help address extreme weather

heating engineers face worldwide. As an industry, we must do more to question and provide answers to the ongoing issues extreme weather presents.” The Plumbers’ Lecture is open to CIPHE members and counts towards your CPD. Tickets are £25 (lecture only) or £80 (lecture and dinner) Find out more:

Industry support

Regional changes



Consumer rights champion Which? is strengthening its support for the plumbing and heating industry with advice and support for small traders. The group is partnering with P&H Engineering to offer guidance and support campaigns to raise standards as part of its Trusted Traders scheme, which is partnered with the CIPHE. CIPHE membership director Tim Sainty said: “Which? has been the powerful voice of the consumer for more than 60 years. They are trusted by the public and their assistance and profile for CIPHE members will be a very welcome resource.”

Plans to merge two CIPHE regional committees have been given the green light. Members of the Norfolk and Suffolk committees will finalise within the next month how they will work together after agreeing to amalgamate in December. The idea was put forward by the Suffolk committee and the idea was agreed after both groups assessed whether it would be viable for people travelling from both Eastern counties. A joint statement from the two regional committees said: “It became apparent that if this were to happen, the venues for technical evenings would have to vary to make sure travelling distances weren’t too arduous.”


YOU’RE HIRED Employers demanded better training and Trailblazer Apprenticeships are the result. The industry must now step up, explains CIPHE board member Kevin McCallister


fter years of lobbying the government to change the way new recruits are trained, the Trailblazer Apprenticeship scheme is set to launch in early 2019. Britain’s record on resolving its skills needs has been at best patchy over the years; the youth training schemes of the 1980s were widely derided, while the recessions of 1990 and 2008 have also had an impact on training budgets. Another factor was the decision by the Major government to close polytechnics and focus on universities that would produce graduates for the knowledge economy and service industries. This has diverted young people away from careers in the construction industry. The result is a shortfall in the number of skilled professionals in the heating and plumbing industry. The 2016 Farmer Review of the construction industry found “a collective reluctance” to deal with the issue. The “survivalist mentality” means there will be a 25% decline in the industry’s workforce over the next decade. The report also linked it to poor workmanship and project overspends.


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The Trailblazer scheme is central to the response. Kevin McCallister, a CIPHE board member and former president, has worked with the government and training bodies to put the scheme together.

Meeting the need He believes the result is worth the wait: “I’m confident that people can now get a formal apprenticeship that’s fit for purpose.” McCallister had made training his main issue as president, so was the logical choice as the person to get involved with the officials and training bodies tasked with reforming the system. He says: “From the 1960s until the ’90s, young people could do a formal apprenticeship for five years. Then governments pushed them towards universities. This created a shortage of tradespeople in the construction industry that’s still there today.” McCallister adds: “The government recognised that formal apprenticeships were the way forward and wanted them to be employer-led. Scotland introduced them years ago and now the rest of the UK is finally catching up.”


The result is a shortfall in the number of skilled professionals in the heating and plumbing industry

The result is a four-year scheme that is in the 1960s he started his own business and went assessed by City & Guilds, EAL and BPEC. on to become a director in a plumbing and heating Each stage covers core competences and business that employed 1,000 people. there is an exam at the end. When he struggled to find engineers, the One issue has been making sure the company invested £6m in a training centre and scheme is flexible enough to address many of its former trainees have remained in the the different training needs across the industry. Accepting people would leave was part country. He says: “Some apprentices may of the decision as he bargained that in a small area be working in rural areas where there they would come back and others would be eager to may be oil or biomass rather than gas systems. We replace them. The decision paid off. have to reflect that.” He says: “We invested first and the reward came McCallister is the first to admit that the scheme later. Having been an employer, I believe that’s isn’t perfect. The risk is that some employers where the focus should be.” may be tempted to provide the shorter gas-only He is also concerned that cash-strapped colleges apprenticeship or focus simply on bathroom will follow the money rather than the needs of installation. He warns that those firms and the employers. He is pushing the government to ensure employee will be worse-off in the long run. it doesn’t happen but McCallister is realistic. “Employers will make better use of “Because colleges have to get the someone who is fully qualified in all numbers, the grant funding is an issue. Not a aspects of the industry. They can That’s got to be addressed.” member? expand their business into other However, the government is Email us at areas,” he says. listening and has already increased to find out how you “The apprentice would be stuck at the funding from the level that was LEFT: The Trailblazer can sign up that level and if they want to leave that originally allocated. scheme covers all aspects of plumbing and business they would be up against people McCallister warns that if employers heating engineering who are a Stage Three craftsperson.” are to do their duty, the government must also BELOW: Providing the gas-only apprenticeship That warning is based on McCallister’s own promote the scheme properly to distinguish it from would be a mistake, says career experience; having served his apprenticeship the other schemes that are available. McCallister He says: “Retailers don’t need major technical skills but their schemes also have the Trailblazer name. It risks lowering the status of what we do. The wider brand has some challenges; this may Four-year programme with each stage taking a year impact take-up.” STAGE ONE STAGE TWO STAGE THREE STAGE FOUR McCallister is confident that the challenges Health and safety, Workshop phase Site-based Pipe sizing, design facing the scheme can be met. He believes that pipework, water for heating systems, assessments and heat loss plus resource and installing bathrooms and and faultdeciding on career starting a scheme from scratch was always going to water quality plumbing installation finding pathways mean problem solving on the go. Programme finishes with an end point assessment test He says it’s now up to the industry to fully grasp the opportunity: “Employers drive this industry so they have responsibility. We all have to get the message out to employers not to take the short cut; doing so will hurt them in the long run.”


More information Full details on the CIPHE contribution to Trailblazer programmes can be found at

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TAKING THE HE AT OFF Scalding from hot water is killing or injuring people, including a disproportionate number of children and the elderly, and the number of cases is increasing, despite an increase in the availability of safety devices designed to prevent such incidents

magine the outcry if a preventable accident on a train caused lifechanging injuries for a carriage full of people. The public would be appalled when they heard children or vulnerable older people had been particularly affected. Yet despite hundreds of people being seriously injured or dying as a result of scalding injuries, public awareness is low and no government action is being taken to tackle the problem. Shockingly, research carried out by the CIPHE and revealed here for the first time shows the number of cases in the UK is on the rise. According to the Health and Safety

Executive (HSE), around 20 people die from scalding in the UK every year and the number of hospital admissions is rising. The victims are usually the most vulnerable: children or older people. An investigation by the CIPHE reveals 755 people in England were treated at hospital for scalding from taps in 2017/18 – up from 713 the previous year. Of those, 185 were children aged under four. Hot bath water is responsible for the highest number of fatal and severe scalding injuries among young children. NHS Health Scotland revealed 187 children aged under nine were admitted to hospital for scalding last year. RoSPA (Royal Society

Recovery may be long and painful and many are left with permanent scarring for the Prevention of Accidents) estimates the total number of UK cases is around 2,500 a year.

Rising costs

Illustration: Adam Gale

CASE STUDY: COVERS SAVE LIVES In 2017, the Care Quality Commission (CQC) prosecuted a care home provider for “failing to ensure safe care and treatment resulting in avoidable harm to a person using services”. A 79-year-old woman suffered serious burns from prolonged contact with an uncovered radiator. She had been assessed as being at a high risk of falls. When the incident took place, she was found to have a large

burn to her back and skin. This was despite a health and safety consultant having identified uncovered radiators at the home which posed a risk of burns and advising that they needed to be covered. The provider made assumptions about which radiators needed covers and did not consider the radiator in question needed one. The provider was ordered to pay a £20,000 fine and £4,500 costs.

The biggest increase in injuries is from contact with heating appliances, radiators and pipes. Our research reveals 962 people were treated in hospitals in England in 2017/18. The number of cases has been rising for three years; 914 cases in 2016/17 up from 840 in 2015/16. Again, the largest number of cases involve children aged under four: 178 in 2017/18, up from 147 the previous year and that had increased from 139 in 2015/16. Worryingly, 111 older people aged between 85 and 89 were among those treated in 2017/18, which followed a rising trend of 60 in 2015/16 and 72 the year after. That inevitably adds to the pressure

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Scalding is an issue that duty holders should take seriously on NHS budgets. The Child Accident Prevention Trust calculates it costs £250,000 to treat one severe bath water scald. The British Burn Association puts the total annual cost to the NHS at £20m. Typical cases involve older people being lowered into hot water by carers who are unaware of the water temperature. So why is this happening? It’s not because of a shortage of official guidance. The Department of Health recommends the temperature for bathing should be no higher than 43°C and, for showering, 41°C. For babies, the temperature should be no higher than 37°C. According to the HSE the people most at risk, as well as children and older people, are those with reduced mental capacity, mobility or temperature sensitivity.

Catch-22 The leisure industry is another place where injuries occur. A number of recent court cases and inquests have involved hotels where serious injuries have been suffered by guests in bathrooms. The main reason for this comes from a public health concern: hot water is usually kept at a temperature of 50°C or above to prevent legionella. The bacteria that causes it multiplies where temperatures are between 20-45°C. Hot water storage cylinders (calorifiers) have to be kept at higher temperatures to prevent this and pipework should ideally be kept short to ensure the temperature remains high. Kevin Wellman, CIPHE CEO says: “There is a conflict when it comes to hot water storage. It may be ideal to have water heated and stored at high temperatures to control and kill bacteria, but it can


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cause severe scalding injuries in a matter of seconds. Likewise, water that is heated and stored at safe non-scalding temperatures provides the ideal medium and temperatures for bacteria growth. It can feel like a bit of a Catch-22 situation.” However, the painful irony is the solution to this problem is relatively simple, and the number of devices on the market designed to stop scalding incidents has increased. The fix is to install thermostatic mixing valves (TMVs), as close as possible to the tap or shower, which take a hot and cold supply and blend the water to a safe, controlled temperature at the outlet. Most TMVs also

The Child Accident Prevention Trust calculates it costs

£250,000 TO TREAT ONE SEVERE BATH WATER SCALD The British Burn Association puts the total annual cost to the NHS at


have a failsafe mechanism so if there is a failure with either the hot or cold water supplies the valve will close off. This allows virtually no water to pass through, protecting the user and highlighting the fact that there is a problem with the plumbing system at the same time. Lots of homes have manual mixing valves at sinks, washbasins and baths, which help to control temperatures, but it must be remembered that temperatures can still fluctuate, especially if there is a drop in water pressure.

Taking responsibility This means installers have to meet two health and safety demands. So, what is the legal responsibility and what should you do if you are involved in maintenance or installation? Broadly, if a building is used by the public, the owner has a duty of care so they have the ultimate liability. However, TMVs now have to be installed by law. In April 2010, revisions to Approved document G of the Building Regulations (sanitation, hot water safety and water efficiency) for England and Wales, included the requirement that baths (subject to Building Regulations) in new properties are fitted with a protective device (ie a TMV) to limit the temperature of hot water. Similar regulations have been in force in Scotland since 2006. If the general public uses a building, the

FEATURE / SCALDING LEFT: Older people can be injured by leaning on radiators


Helping older people

Did you know?

An increasing number of older people live alone with carers visiting, especially those with early dementia. Some may not have the mental capacity to sign documents or understand instructions. Seek agreement in writing with the person receiving care, or whoever is in control of the premises where care is provided by an outside organisation (eg local authorities, care agencies or community nurses). This must ensure systems for reducing the risk of burns or scalding are in place.

Research by the CIPHE found that 178 children under the age of 4 were treated for scalds in England in 2017/18


Fitting safety devices HSE can prosecute in the event of personal injury. If you follow the HSE guidance you will normally be doing enough to comply with the law “so far as is reasonably practicable”. HSE guidance is that TMVs should be located as close as possible to the outlet. To support the work, an audit trail confirming details of the installation and guidance given to the owner is vital. The key legislation to be mindful of are the Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 (HSWA), Section 3 of the Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations (MHSWR) and Regulation 3 of Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations 1998 (PUWER). A HSE spokesman says: “Scalding is an issue that duty holders should take seriously and our guidance will help them consider what actions they need to take. If you are working for a provider registered with the Care Quality Commission (CQC), and with premises located in England, CQC is the relevant regulatory body for patient safety matters.” The CQC offers advice on the need for radiators and pipework to be covered and includes case studies to explain why. The CQC sums up: “When something

goes wrong in health and social care, the people affected and staff often say, ‘I don’t want this to happen to anyone else.’” All this means scalding is more likely in older residential buildings or where the valves have not been maintained. Best practice can help but raising awareness among the public is also essential to end the suffering of vulnerable groups. Kevin Wellman, CIPHE CEO, says: “The number of scalding incidents in the UK is a grave cause for concern and a significant cost to the NHS. The CIPHE will continue campaigning alongside the Bathroom Manufacturers Association (BMA) and the Children’s Burns Trust to increase awareness of the dangers presented by substandard plumbing and the positive impact the CIPHE and our members can have in changing this.”

More information Find out more about thermostatic mixing valves and regulations at

RoSPA and HSE advice: Fit a TMV to taps HSE: Set the valve at 44°C. Their key document for care home installations is Managing the risks from hot water and surfaces in health and social care. Find it at NHS: Healthcare standard showers, designed to prevent unsafe water temperatures, are required. The document NHS Estates Model Engineering Specification D08 covers single outlet applications and is accepted as best practice for TMV performance. There is a third-party approval scheme to this standard and such valves are designated TMV3. The Water Regulations Advisory Scheme lists all approved TMV3 valves in the Water Products and Materials Directory (see

JAN / FEB 2019



FORWARD THINKING Emerging smart technology can help solve customers’ problems before they set in. Chris Smith finds out more


e’d all like to be able to avert disasters before they happen and one more tool in our armoury to help us achieve that is something called the Internet of Things. The government estimates there will be 25 billion connected devices by 2020. A survey by consultants PwC predicted £10.8bn will be spent on connected devices in 2019. So what are they? Connected devices work in a four-step process: the unit is connected to the internet, sensors gather data such as temperature, software processes it and a communication device such as a smart phone sends or receives the command. There are benefits, such as lower emissions to meet sustainability targets and faster diagnosis of faults, but there are risks, too, such as gaps in security.

Connected industry The technology is already being used in the heating and plumbing industry. Bosch has signed a deal with global wireless network operator Sigfox to connect some of its boilers to the web and British Gas installers are offering the Boiler IQ device to its customers, which monitors boiler use and sends data to British Gas. Hive is a commercial end-user


JAN / FEB 2019

product from a deliverer of gas which learns usage patterns. Stewart Davison is business development director for Gas Tag, a CIPHE Industrial Associate, that has the data, they can make better repair developed a smart device that only an decisions. At the moment, if you turn on authorised engineer can attach to a a boiler and it’s not working, what do you property’s meter. The device logs and do? There’s a fault diagnosis, then sourcing updates details about appliances, a replacement part, its collection and their operation, any leaks and then fitting.” who has worked on them so The alternative uses the Not a people know in real time technology to free up member? that appliances have been time. “Smart systems give Email us at inspected and serviced. you access to the right to find out how you The benefits for heating information before you get on can sign up and plumbing engineering site. The boiler system suggests industry professionals are what the problem is, based on obvious. Imagine not needing to what the unit is saying and data extract information from uninformed from similar units in similar situations. consumers about a boiler fault. Davison “Picture getting an alert saying ‘fault explains: “If the engineer has access to at 23 Acacia Avenue, the part is on order, collect 10:30am’. You can fix it first time. The benefit is cutting diagnosis time so you can fit in more work.” For facilities managers, the gains include being able to halt problems such as water leaks that could destroy goods. Davison says: “If a plant room ventilation system is connected and it detects a gas leak, it won’t just shut down the system, it will close some vents to

The big benefit is cutting out diagnosis time so you can fit in more work


protect staff and open others to get the gas out of the building. That saves lives.” As with any new technology, there are negatives – the biggest being the potential for security flaws. Systems could be manipulated by malware or hackers to damage stock or interrupt service. BT confirmed last year it would not include Chinese device manufacturer Huawei in its updates due to security concerns. The firm responded that it will invest $2bn in IT security to allay concerns of governments and the global insurance industry. But currently there is no security rating scheme for products so, as always, the buyer must beware. A new role for CIPHE members will be advising their customers on the need for appropriate levels of digital security and passwords. Who would have envisaged that just a decade ago? The Home Office has issued guidance for UK installers and suppliers. It warns: “It is important we are aware of the potential risks so we can all take action to ensure our smart devices and systems are secure.” More mundane problems include the delayed rollout of fast broadband, which limits where systems can be installed, and encouraging customers to share data.

Problem solving Davison says most people don’t see data as an issue: “We’ve had sharing for a long time with smart phones

RIGHT Gas Tag’s Stewart Davison believes the benefits of connected devices could be huge


Future-proof your business Decide which connected device to look at first and decide what it would mean for your business. Ask: what can it bring to my business? Is there one defined area of the business where this can deliver a defined benefit? Npower has created a useful online guide about smart products. Go to:


How to protect connected assets Ensure passwords are strong Accept the latest software updates Ask companies installing or offering equipment about their data security *Source: UK Home Office

It is important we are aware of the potential risks sending location data, website browsing data and app usage. We’re also sharing our health data from things like apps measuring how many steps we do each day.” Another issue is the number of unconnected devices still in service. Davison says: “The life of current pumps and boilers means it could be 25 years before smart systems are really effective.” Martin Fahey, head of sustainability at Mitsubishi, explained why the prevalence of unconnected products is the biggest barrier at a recent industry symposium: “We have a lot of old stock in the UK, but we are refreshing it at a low rate.” But he highlighted indoor monitoring as being part of the technological answer to meeting our future needs. Fahey argues connected commercial buildings are vital for not only more efficient energy use but also asset management. Does this mean the industry will have to retrain on a huge scale? No, say manufacturers; most products currently on the market are not that different to a digital thermostat device and simply connect to the Wi-Fi router in a domestic property. Manufacturers such as Vokera are offering training for installers. CIPHE technical manager Jerry Whiteley says professional development is the way to be ready: “More people from across the spectrum need to learn about new technologies.” Davidson advises: “Go and find out about it. Don’t wait for customers to come to you because, by then, their expectations may be higher. You’ve got to be ready.”

More information Find out more about Gas Tag’s products and services for contractors and engineers:

JAN / FEB 2019



Technical and professional advice from experts, including pipe sizing, the digitisation of tax and more PAUL HARMER Lead technical consultant CIPHE CEng MIET Paul is a chartered engineer who has consulted and led on many high-profile plumbing and heating industry projects


Hot and cold water pipework design Ethical principles, especially those expected as a professional engineer, are vital for understanding your limitations when working in multiple storey residential buildings. Paul Harmer explains


s a domestic installer, you may be predominantly installing small hot and cold water systems in single dwellings; however, there may be situations whereby you have been asked to quote for a standard installation in a larger building with multiple residential properties. If you are planning on installing a larger system without the relevant experience and knowledge, it is important to note the statements below from the Engineering Council ethical

keep their knowledge and skills up to date present and review theory, evidence and interpretation honestly, accurately, objectively and without bias, while respecting reasoned alternative views identify, evaluate, quantify, mitigate and manage risks not knowingly mislead or allow others to be misled

A large multi-dwelling project might look like a very profitable prospect at the start. However, if you feel that you may not have the adequate experience principles. Engineering professionals and skills required to design the job, have a duty to acquire and use wisely then it is recommended that you the understanding, knowledge and consult a qualified engineer. It may be skills needed to perform their role. beneficial to seek the services of an They should: Incorporated or Chartered Engineer, whom are registered and verified always act with care – perform by the Engineering Council in this services only in areas in which they field of expertise. are currently competent or under The method in BS EN 806-3 is competent supervision used for calculating the hot and assist the development of Write cold water pipe size in multiple engineering knowledge to us residential buildings, yet if it and skills in others Send your technical questions to JAN / FEB 2019





TABLE 2: BS EN 806-3

Simple schematic

Draw-off flow rates QA, minimum flow-rates at draw-off points Qmin and loading units for draw-off points

Including all of the outlets in the installation (example)

Draw-off point



Loading units



Washbasin, handbasin, bidet, WC-cistern




Domestic kitchen sinka washing machine , dish washing machine, sink, shower head




Urinal flush valve




Bath domestic








Non domestic kitchen sink DN 20, bath non domestic




Flush valve DN 20

















a For non domestic appliances check with manufacturer

is used for single residential dwellings then the pipework is at risk of being oversized. Therefore, in the instance of a single dwelling, it is recommended that the designer or installer carries out a rational assessment of the design flow rate on a case-by-case basis. It is also important to note that the method illustrated within this article is not to be used for commercial buildings. When working in that setting, the LU methods detailed in BS EN 8558 and the CIPHE Plumbing Engineering Services Design Guide should be used. The loading units (LU) within BS EN 806-3 (see figure 1,


above) take into account the flow rates at the draw-off point, the length of time the appliance is in use and the frequency of use. One loading unit (1 LU) equates to a draw-off flow rate QA of 0,1 l/s. BS EN 806-3 is a simplified method and therefore the designer may utilise a series of tables to calculate the correct pipe size for different pipework material types. There are eight different pipe types available within the standard to choose from, but for the purpose of the simple example referred to within this article, the table for copper pipework has been used (see figure 2, below).

Before carrying out any pipe sizing calculations, it is critical to understand the type of installation that you are designing and what the pressure conditions and flow velocities are. The standard states that a static pressure of 500 kPa or 5 Bar is to be present at each outlet with a minimum flow pressure of 100 kPa or 1 bar available also at each outlet. However, if there are valves – such as a thermostatic mixing valve (TMV) – then the manufacturers’ minimum requirements need to be consulted. The pipe sizing figures stated within figure 2 are based upon a maximum flow velocity for header and riser pipes of 2 m/s and for pipes leading to outlets (dead legs) at 4 m/s, nonetheless consideration needs to be applied to ensure maximum flow velocities are used to prevent the effect of water hammer and noise. Draw a simple pipe schematic including all of the outlets (see example in figure 3, above).


Loading units for determination of pipe diameters (copper) Table 3.2 BS EN 806-3






Highest value


da xs


12 x 1,0

15 x 1,0





Max length of pipe




















1050 2100

18 x 1,0 22 x 1,0 28 x 1,5 35 x 1,5 42 x 1,5 54 x 2 76,1 x 2 16,0 7

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If you feel you may not have the adequate skills to design the job, consult a qualified engineer


Before carrying out pipe sizing calculations, [you must] understand the type of installation

Total calculated loading units Using the loading units given in figure 1 and the schematic in figure 3 Type of outlet

Loading units per outlet (LU)

Number of outlets





Wash hand basin











6 24


STEP 2: CALCULATE THE TOTAL NUMBER OF LOADING UNITS Using figure 4 (above right) add up the total number of loading units that will be supplied by the pipe labelled A in figure 3 (above left). Beginning at the last draw-off point, the loading units for each section of the installation have to be determined.

Total Loading units (LU)

number of loading units. In the case of the example, a 28mm copper pipe is chosen. The maximum number of loading units allowable for a 28mm copper pipe is 50 LU according to figure 2.


curve of 4 which corresponds to peak simultaneous demand of 0.73 l/s. Using the example in figure 5 and having established the design flow rate, the water pressure that is required can be established before calculating the pipe diameter. The water pressure is divided into the following:

It is worth noting that within the Annex (a) T he required pressure to operate the B of BS EN 806-3 (figure 5), the user can outlet fitting, eg shower calculate the maximum simultaneous (b) T  he vertical static head pressure STEP 3: design flow rate whereby the user has from the point of supply to the fitting SELECT THE REQUIRED more control over the maximum pressure (c) T he head loss due to the total pipe PIPE SIZE loss per metre of pipe and the length, the number or type of The peak simultaneous demand has maximum velocity. As per Find out valves and fittings already been taken into consideration figure 5, the calculated more (d) T  he available pressure at within the tables in figure 2, therefore loading units of 24 LU has This feature is the second of water main inlet into the you would simply select the correct been plotted against the three looking at the different property pipe size that corresponds to the total highest single value LU loading unit methods in the industry. Read the final part next month The CIPHE is currently creating a digital pipe sizing tool FIGURE 5 for members to use for guidance. Calculating maximum simultaneous design flow rate Using the equations demonstrated Annex B: BS EN 806-3 in CIBSE Guide C with the use of the Haaland equation for pipe pressure loss, KEY 0 I/S the final pipe size applicable to a flow 1 Design flow rate QD 12.0 10.0 2 Total flow rate QT in LU rate of 0.73 l/s equates to a pressure loss 8.0 3 Example of highest single value LU Curve 4 has been per metre of pipe of 835 Pa with a flow 6.0 5.0 chosen due to the 3 4.0 velocity of 1.35 m/s. With this in mind, maximum highest LU 0 I/S 3.0 being 4 for the bath an equivalent length of 50 metres of cold 2.0 2.0 pipework equates to a total pressure loss 15 1.5 1.5 Beyond the dotted in the pipework of 41,750 Pa or 0.42 Bar. line representing 1.0 1.0 8 300 LU, a simple 0.73 l/s 0.8 Therefore it is important to make sure 1 0.8 conversion curve is 0.6 0.6 5 0.5 0.5 the flow pressure (for example 1 Bar) used to calculate the 4 0.4 0.4 simultaneous flow rate 3 is available at each outlet (subject 0.3 0.3 2 300 LU to the outlet type) when calculating 0.2 0.2 24LU 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 15 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 100 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1000 2000 3000 5000 the pressure difference between 2 the inlet to the property and each draw-off outlet. D


JAN / FEB 2019





All you need to know: low pressure and flow complications Ken Vance offers solutions for maintaining water pressure in older properties

H KEN VANCE Training manager at Salamander Pumps


ouses that aren’t new-builds are a challenge when owners want to add modern features like power showers but suffer with low water pressure. The right pump could help. The overall ‘water main’ consists of three separate sections; the water mains pipeline, the communication pipe and the supply pipe. From the main pipeline, a communication pipe carries water to the boundary of a property, where a stop-tap then marks the end of the communication pipe and the water supplier’s responsibility. The supply (service) pipe then runs from the external stop-tap to the property, where it enters from a depth not less than 750mm in order to protect from temperature extremes through a duct into the building. This supply (service) pipe between the external stop-tap and internal stop-tap is the property owner’s responsibility. This section of pipe can be the beginning of problems for

JAN / FEB 2019


Houses that aren’t new builds are a challenge… the right pump could help homeowners where damage has occurred or where the pipe is simply undersized for intended use. Water suppliers must provide water to the top floor of all properties (excluding those that are pumped, such as blocks of flats) and, as the water leaves the communication pipe, it must legally provide a minimum of 0.7 Bar pressure and 9 litres per minute (lpm) natural flow (OFWAT Standards) at this point. Now consider the supply (service) pipe, if the property in question is a terraced house where the external stop-tap is at the front door. The occupier should expect to see around these figures or greater as the


water enters the property. However, if the property is set back from the road with a drive or has a substantial garden, we have a longer length of supply pipe that will suffer pressure and flow loss before it even gets to the internal stop-tap – this is the owner’s responsibility. The majority of older properties were supplied with a 15mm supply (service) pipe, which puts the onus on the coldwater storage tank (cistern), rather than on the actual mains. When changing the system to an unvented hot water cylinder or combination boiler, the demand will be directly on the incoming mains water supply.


PUMPING TO AN UNVENTED CYLINDER Two single negative head pumps: one supplies the unvented cylinder, the other supplies cold to the house

Cold water storage

Min 600mm



CHALLENGING UPGRADES Let’s consider upgrading to a combination boiler, new bathroom and new kitchen with around 1.5 Bar and 11 litres per minute when the plumber checks the flow rates mid-morning. They install a 28kW combination boiler, which could provide up to 11–12 lpm on the hot water. The trouble being, during times of high demand the flow drops to around 8-9 lpm, which isn’t sufficient for a mixer shower 4m above the point of entry. The solution is a Salamander Homeboost fitted directly on the mains where it enters the property. It will step in and uplift the flow rate to 12 lpm – the Water Regulations maximum that can be drawn directly from the mains. A common misconception is that it is ‘illegal’ to pump directly from the mains: you can, provided the pump cannot deliver more than 12 lpm. Homeboost will monitor the flow of water and try to increase the flow up to 12 lpm but will drop into standby mode if the mains naturally increases. The problem of low pressure and flow can be more difficult for unvented hot water cylinders and large combination boilers in properties of higher demand, like a home with an extension. A plumber could recommend an unvented hot water cylinder to meet demand when replacing the traditional cylinder and cold-water tank (cistern) gravity system.

The external stop-tap sits at the bottom of their drive, 7m from the internal stop-tap, with a supply pipe in 15mm copper pipe. They have in the region of 2 Bar and 15-20 lpm at this point and, with the unofficial recommended minimum pressure of 1.5 Bar and 20 lpm for unvented cylinders to function properly, they are already on the limit for performance. When you take into account the pressure and flow losses through the supply pipe and the rise up to the cylinder, the system will suffer pressure and flow loss. This loss will be further increased when fittings are included, especially the combination valve before the unvented cylinder, which include the strainer, check valve, pressure reducing etc. It’s unlikely they would achieve sufficient working pressure for the system to perform as it should.

is simply a cold-water storage cistern fed from the cold-water mains. These can be installed anywhere in the property but need to be of sufficient size to accommodate the highest period of usage. Normally, Salamander suggests 227l of usable water per bathroom and 136l of usable water per en-suite shower room. The tank can then supply a set of two negative head, single impeller pumps, which in turn will supply the cylinder and the cold water around the property. Essentially, this method stores the cold water and then replicates mains water at a higher pressure and flow. Taking an RP120SU into account, you should see a closed head (standing) pressure of 3.6 Bar, 3.4 Bar at a flow of 8 lpm and 3.15 Bar at 16 lpm on each pump.


The problem of low pressure can be more difficult for unvented hot water cylinders

Excavating and increasing the supply pipe size may help, although this could be disruptive. The other solution would be to install a break tank in the house and a set of pumps to increase the pressure and flow (Figure 1, above). A break tank

JAN / FEB 2019



A negative head pump would be used when supplying water to an unvented cylinder or combination boiler due to the high resistances and potentially low flow, especially when pushing through the likes of a flat plate DHW heat exchanger. A negative head pump works in a different way to that of a positive head pump. A positive head pump assists and improves a flow of water, while a negative pump creates a flow of water where one does not naturally occur. A positive head pump has a float and sensor, which together create the flow switch and as water naturally flows through the pump and out of an outlet (over 2 lpm in the case of Salamander) this lifts the float which activates a sensor, switching on the pump. Sometimes it can be difficult to achieve a positive head pump’s minimum flow requirements, such as restrictive outlets, where pipework or outlets run too close to the base of the cold water tank (cistern) such as ‘up and over pipework’ and loft conversions. Here a negative head pump

A sectioned Salamander CT Bathroom pump: the float and sensor can be seen which, when aligned, activates the positive head pump

should be used which, once an outlet is turned off, will run on for a very short period of time, charging up the section of pipe between the pump and the outlet and holding it under pressure. The next time the outlet is used, this releases the built up pressure, causing a pressure sensor to tell the pump to initiate, therefore not requiring a natural flow of water. When the mains water is simply not sufficient, adding pumps can be an excellent solution.

About Salamander Pumps Salamander Pumps is one of the UK’s leading manufacturers of shower and domestic water pumps. Innovation is used throughout the organisation to create higher quality products and offer outstanding customer service.

Career progression


Under the CIPHE Code of Professional Standards, members are required to participate in CPD

Assessment: Low pressure and flow complications Complete this assessment and it could count towards your CIPHE CPD requirement

Your CPD CIPHE members are expected to complete 30 hours of CPD each year. Completion of these assessments can count towards this requirement.

What to do


Name the section of pipe between the water mains and the external stop tap.


.......................................................... .......................................................... ..........................................................

Currently in domestic properties, are there more mains-fed systems or gravity systems being fitted? .................................................................................... .................................................................................... ....................................................................................





Whose responsibility is the supply pipe – the section of pipe between the external stop tap and the internal stop tap? .................................................................................... .................................................................................... ....................................................................................

What pressure should the water supplier endeavour to provide to individual properties? .................................................................................... .................................................................................... ....................................................................................


Does a Positive Head Pump require a flow rate to initiate or a pressure drop? .................................................................................... .................................................................................... ....................................................................................

Give two examples of where a negative head pump would be required. .................................................................................... .................................................................................... .................................................................................... ....................................................................................

Can a pump be fitted directly onto the mains water supply pipe in a property? .................................................................................... .................................................................................... .................................................................................... ....................................................................................



1 0

What is the maximum flow rate that can be pumped from the mains in litres per minute? .................................................................................... .................................................................................... .................................................................................... ....................................................................................

What solution can be used to improve performance of an unvented system or large combination boiler where mains pressure is poor? .................................................................................... .................................................................................... .................................................................................... What product could potentially be used to increase the pressure and flow or the mains up 12 litres per minute into a property? .................................................................................... .................................................................................... ....................................................................................

Answer the questions (using an additional A4 sheet if necessary) and return by scanning and emailing or posting to the address below.

Your details Please complete this form Your name:

CIPHE membership number:


Return to: CPD Assessment, CIPHE, 64 Station Lane, Hornchurch, Essex RM12 6NB Email: Or visit the members-only area of the CIPHE website,

JAN / FEB 2019



IT’S NO MIRAGE, THE INDUSTRY IS CHANGING I FAST… Tony Gittings, managing director of Rinnai, a global leader in the manufacture of hot water heating units and systems, says it is the end user that is emerging as the determining force in making changes to suit today’s demands and expectations


JAN / FEB 2019

n the past several years we have seen some extraordinary changes in our little patch of the wide heating and plumbing arena. Gone are the established supply lines; gone too is the dominance of the ‘traditional’ products in the supply of hot water in commercial and institutional sites. Water is the stuff of life, simple as that. It is a very precious commodity that is the foundation of our entire quality of life. In 2013 the Energy Savings Trust completed and issued a major report titled At Home with Water. The report detailed our domestic use of water. It came up with some stunning figures on the amount of water used domestically. Each person uses approximately 140 litres of water daily with the average household using almost 350 litres per day. Just think of a one litre bottle of water, then multiply it 350 times – it’s a huge amount and it is not decreasing. Another estimate, from a consumption guide produced by one of the biggest water companies, is that just one person will use almost 180 litres of water


Hot water consumption is rising, and provision is getting more driven by the end user

daily. A quick web search also shows the per person consumption of hot water when they are away from home. When someone stays at a hotel or hospital, they consume 160 litres of hot water each day. Offices use a measly 22 litres in comparison! So, there is no doubt that hot water consumption is rising and, given the rapid development of techniques, building energy efficient homes which require less than 10kW heating and hot water provision is getting more and more driven by the end user.

Outside the box

LEFT: Tony Gittings, managing director of Rinnai, believes that the plumbing and heating industry will have to respond to the needs of the end user

At the moment, domestic hot water provision is provided via the boiler, usually a combi type, although those homes with renewables tend to use a water heating appliance as an auxiliary supplement. But the biggest development in the last few years has been the launch of installing companies which are wholly and totally based online. These typically give the consumer a quote, a date for installation and provide finance. The installer is given a date and time to do the installation – no buying of materials – the domestic heating market is now thinking inside the box because of innovations like Boxt.

It really does look like the days of box-shifting are gone. Commercial systems of hot water provision come mainly via the traditional style ‘stored’ system – or the Rinnai continuous flow method where hot water is delivered instantly, economically and efficiently in an engineering sense. But the consumer and the installer – domestic or commercial – are beginning to demand a complete service now. We have seen and even anticipated these changes. Rinnai has made considerable financial investments in the two critical areas of any commercial enterprise: high quality of products and service excellence aimed solely at the installer and their end user. We espouse the concept of complete system efficiency in terms of hot water delivery and we practise that every single working day. Our products are of the highest possible quality, offering long-term, robust performance and giving useable hot water on demand at the turn of a tap, all at an economic and energy efficient level. Coupled with that is our service – we have a dedicated sales force dealing directly with installers, contractors, designers, consultants and facilities and estate managers.

Maintaining standards We have very deliberately aimed the bulk of all marketing communications direct to these sectors, offering instant technical support, design service and comprehensive training courses at either our own tailor-made facility or at a venue of a customer’s choice. We have also initiated five accredited CPD courses. We believe that we offer the best value-formoney units and systems of hot water delivery currently available to the UK commercial and residential market. And we have proof of that in two independent reports from AECOM which show continuous flow as being more economic than any other type of system or unit.

More information For more information on the RINNAI product range visit

JAN / FEB 2019


Your Membership Are you making the most of the services and benefits that you are entitled to as a CIPHE member?

TIM SAINTY CIPHE Membership Director Tim looks after the growing CIPHE membership, enhancing services for members and improving communications


Trade and industry

+44 (0)1708 463102

Keeping up with the big changes in the industry is crucial for both business decisions and technical awareness


he Industrial Associates Development Group (IADG) provides an opportunity to learn more about the CIPHE’s industry strategy and approach to raising the standards of plumbing and heating engineering. It’s also an opportunity to provide thoughts and feedback and to become more involved with the Institute’s work. The group includes leading manufacturers, merchants, publishers, consultants and trade associations. At the end of last year, the group met at the Polypipe Professional Development Centre in Doncaster to look at solutions to issues such as developing a younger workforce. It’s a critical issue if we are to plug the skills gap. Just to put that in perspective for the CIPHE, our membership has increased

The Grenfell Tower disaster has shone a spotlight on safety and standards within the building industry


JAN / FEB 2019

year on year since 2016. The main reason in collaboration with SoPHE. The content for non-renewal of membership is due is going to be utilised by specifiers and to people retiring from or leaving the consultants in the wider industry sector industry. The average age of those leaving and will be reviewed at a SoPHE forum. the Institute is 50, while the average Another big issue for us in 2019 age of people joining the CIPHE is is going to be improving Member 27. So, whilst there is progress, standards in the building and benefits there is more work to do. construction industry. We’re Look out for the complete pushing on despite the delays guide to membership Licence to practise in the public inquiry into the benefits sent with the 2019 During 2019, the Institute Grenfell Tower fire. membership renewals pack will continue its support Dame Judith Hackitt’s for recognised registration Independent Review of Building for plumbing and heating industry Regulations and Fire Safety has professionals in the UK, with a view warned that, without changes to the to installers being required to hold a regulatory system, another tragedy like licence to practise. This message is being Grenfell cannot be ruled out. With 12 shared with and by many of the other competency groups focusing on all aspects organisations that we work for and with, related to the Grenfell incident, the and that is a huge boost for us. CIPHE continues to support the work on The CIPHE water safety technical competencies required by engineers, but it working group is currently collaborating could be many years before the benefits of with SoPHE and manufacturers to the ongoing consultation process are felt. develop a series of tools for members If you haven’t guessed it already, 2019 is to carry out the correct design and going to be a very busy year. selection of pipework for heating and hot water systems. Manufacturers have kindly been offering financial support LICENCE TO LOBBY Want a licence to practise? Write to Minister for Small Business to the development and a really valuable and Consumers, Department for Business, member benefit is now coming to fruition. Energy and Industrial Strategy, 1 Victoria The group is also leading the creation of Street, London SW1H 0ET. a Legionella risk assessment online course

The Water Supplies Department is concerned about the amount of leakages in Hong Kong


Update from Hong Kong The CIPHE’s influence and stature is growing in Hong Kong, as the Institute’s CEO Kevin Wellman observed during a visit to the branch in December


unique link between two very different countries is flourishing, driven by the need to professionalise the industry and solve challenges vital for public health. Hong Kong returned to the control of China in 1997, but its ties with the UK have remained for more than just historical reasons. Housing and office development is needed to support economic and population growth – and with it comes a need for infrastructure and skills. The image of construction industry workers is slowly improving. Full course costs for training in this sector are now covered by government and some extra financial support is given. Students receive mentoring, counselling and assistance in securing full-time employment. Hong Kong CIPHE branch members will explore over the coming year how they can collaborate to develop future training courses, and have even greater CIPHE branding at its training centre. The CIPHE has a growing membership as a result of the need for skilled workers and is also developing a close relationship with the Water Supplies Department (WSD). The WSD is the part of government that not only oversees planning, but regulation and public health too. Ahead of the annual meeting for local

members, I met WSD officials to see how we can work together more closely at both local and international levels. The meeting could not have gone better. The WSD welcomed the suggestion that CPD be mandated and we will explore this further. The officials were also grateful for the CPD courses arranged by the HK Branch.

Wasted water There’s a need driving the interest of officials. The WSD is concerned with the amount of water leakage in Hong Kong and is desperate for support from the UK to help with leakage detection and training provision. The officials welcomed a suggestion that the Branch allocate the WSD space in its communications to promote its work and activities. This was the first time that the WSD stated that it sees the CIPHE as being in a unique position as the only chartered body safeguarding plumbing, heating and drainage. The CIPHE’s assistance in influencing public behaviour was welcomed.

A sign of the CIPHE’s growing influence is that the Hong Kong Institution of Engineers (HKIE) has told us it has great respect for the organisation and is keen to collaborate further. That’s not to say there aren’t challenges. More than 300 people attended the AGM in December 2018, including representatives from the WSD, and it became apparent that the industry is crying out for a higher-level degree course in water engineering. What’s also clear is that the HK membership process is more complicated than that of the UK, especially due to the Licensed Plumber scheme that is currently under review. We are going to work with the HK membership team to enhance the process. Ultimately though, there are bigger issues at stake and they are what we must focus on. As CIPHE Hong Kong Branch Honorary Secretary Derek Chan says: “The government is concerned about water quality and skills issues at craft level. The CIPHE will play an important role in providing the necessary training.”

JAN / FEB 2019





JAN / FEB 2019

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Upscaling in 2019? Employing someone new is a big step and covering your risk with insurance will help. Chris Bates, divisional director of United Insurance Brokers, offers advice


Make sure you have employers’ aking on an apprentice Protecting your business liability insurance in place when is a brave move for your As employers’ liability insurance taking on apprentices business, but also a very is a legal requirement, there’s savvy one. Employing and training also a real financial risk if you someone is a great way to staff neglect your responsibilities. up at low cost and build your You can be fined up to £2,500 legacy with an enthusiastic new for each day you’re not The law generation of workers. covered. Your insurance Your insurance must It’s not without its risks, though. certificate must also cover you for at least For anyone working for you, be easily accessible to £5m and come from an employers’ liability insurance your employees and an authorised insurer: a legal requirement – it’s also inspector. If you don’t liability-insurance a major part of controlling your have it ready to show risk as you grow, safeguarding the when asked, you can be business you’ve built and ensuring fined £1,000. it lasts to pass on in the future. In the long term, getting UK law is clear that every the right employers’ liability business employing staff must insurance is a positive step have employers’ liability insurance towards protecting your in place. The only exceptions business from the costs of are immediate family (including unforeseen circumstances. half-siblings, step-children and If any employee takes legal grandparents) and people who are action against you, you’ll have access volunteering rather than working for to a 24-hour legal helpline, cover for all you. Informal or verbal contracts are health and safety law prosecution costs, no get-out. If they’re subject to your and £250 compensation for each day you supervision and control, they are have to go to court. considered employees for legal purposes. All of this means that you can This absolutely includes apprentices. approach your business goals fearlessly, Once you have employees, including taking on the tasks in hand while safe take care of them, particularly younger, apprentices, you should look at putting in the knowledge that you’re covered less-experienced staff such as apprentices. employers’ liability insurance in place, against future problems. Even under expert guidance, covering a minimum of £5m, provided inexperienced workers can suffer by an authorised insurer. You can check accidents on the job. According to the an insurer’s credentials on the Financial HSE, 97% of all workplace injuries More information Conduct Authority (FCA) register.   involve men. Men aged 16-24 have a UIB provides specialist insurances for the

These people will build your business and you should take care of them

Protecting your apprentice Choosing the right insurance isn’t just about meeting legal requirements, it’s about protecting your team. These are the people who will represent, build and develop your business, and you should

40% higher chance of injury than those aged 45-54. While there’s no substitute for supervision and attention, it’s reassuring to know that an insurance policy will cover the compensation your injured employee is legally entitled to and any associated legal costs.

plumbing and heating industry for CIPHE members. 0330 159 6211 and quote CIPHE

JAN / FEB 2019



Russell Armstrong The inventor of the Hotun dry-trap tundish and CIPHE member since 2005 on being inspired by his love of The Apprentice and the joys of being a football team manager


What interests you about the industry?


The complexity of Concorde’s cockpit


The opportunity for problem solving. I always used to ask if there was a better way of doing a job rather than just doing what we did the last time.



While working at Heathrow airport installing a hot water system for a first-class lounge, I had an airside pass. I walked across a 747 skeleton that was being serviced. You could see all the component parts that had been stripped from the air frame. It was amazing seeing the technical ability contained within it. I also got to see Concorde take off – it set off every alarm in the car park.

How did you get into it?


I came into the industry from school. I wanted to become a draftsman and joined a company that did duct work and steel fabrication. I did a three-year apprenticeship that gave me a good grounding in the practical side of design and manufacture.


How did you get into your current role?


I was watching The Apprentice and thought ‘I want to go on that show’. But I realised I needed a good business plan. I was called out to install a tea

machine with no access to a drain. I realised I needed to fit two products and thought ‘why hasn’t someone designed one component that does the same job?’ That was my lightbulb moment. I did some sketches and it took off from there. Last month we sold just shy of 10,000 products. I still can’t quite believe it.




I was a player-manager for a couple of football teams, Colney Heath FC and London Colney FC. Waking up the lads on a Sunday morning and motivating them to play after a lively Saturday night was always interesting…

What’s the best thing you’ve learned?


To ask ‘is there a better way?’ or ‘what do I need to do to get round the problem?’ I developed a business model for minor works and repairs, such as dripping taps, because I realised there wasn’t anyone doing smaller jobs.



Would you do it all again?


Absolutely. I still do jobs for my old customers. I researched my family tree and on my dad’s side there were builders, plumbers and tradesmen. I wonder if it’s in the blood.

Share your story Would you like to appear on our Q&A page? Drop a line to editor Chris Smith pandhengineering@


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