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ITU A|Z • Vol 16 No 3 • November 2019

Contents Y. Çağatay Seçkin • Editor Editorial


Sinem Gürevin, Yasin Çağatay Seçkin Documentation and mapping of underwater cultural landscapes case study: Ancient Lycia - Kaş


Mehmet Ronael, Gülden Demet Oruç Residents’ experiences of a gentrified neighborhood in Istanbul: The case of Akaretler row houses


Hatice Gökçen Özkaya Case issues and data on houses in the 17th century Istanbul Kadı registers


Imene Selka Oussadit, Chihab Selka, Mohammed Nabil Ouissi, Olivier Bouet Comparative study and analysis of two medieval baths in western Algeria: Sabaghine bath in Tlemcen and El Bali bath in Nedroma


Murat Sönmez, Beyza Nur Batı Poiesis of objects: Theory of making


Natalia Vladimirovna Norina, Veniamin Aleksandrovich Norin, Yuriy Vladimirovich Pukharenko Architectonics as synthesis of architectural and engineering disciplines


Haniye Razavivand Fard, Yüksel Demir, Marco Trisciuoglio The histology atlas of campus form: A framework to explore liveability and sustainability in university campuses


Seniye Banu Garip, Gökçe Evren The effects of interaction and learning styles on children’s experiences in exhibition spaces


Ferro Yudistira, Yandi Andri Yatmo, Paramita Atmodiwirjo From rigidity to ephemerality: Architecture as a socio-spatial assemblage of heterogeneous components


Sema Mumcu, Serap Yılmaz, Duygu Akyol With nature in mind: ‘Green metaphors’ as an approach to reflect environmental concerns and awareness in landscape design




Y. Çağatay SEÇKİN • Editor Once upon a time, a little boy worked at his desk in the bluish bedroom of his childhood home in Istanbul. The boy’s homework assignment was to write one of his dreams. He started to think what he is going to tell. He could tell the girl he is in love with. The first goal scored against Bordeaux in midweek, by Fenerbahçe’s legend striker Selçuk Yula was also like a dream. On the other hand, was it possible to tell his lifelong dream, to become the owner of a Porsche Carrera 911? All of them deserved to tell as a dream. However, he decided to tell the boy who got to be architect. It is the most current research topic for him, especially after the last movie he watched that weekend with his grandma. It was Michelangelo Antonioni’s The Passenger. Maria Schneider was a young student of architecture and the boy still remembers the scenes that Schneider and Nicholson moving around Gaudi’s buildings in Barcelona. Decades later, his dream come true, the boy got many degrees on architecture and design, and finally, in 2013, was offered to write the editorial at A|Z ITU Journal of the Faculty of Architecture, which has for 15 years told both dreams and realities of architecture and design. After 7 years of duty, starting in March 2020, as I step aside as your editor-in-chief, and I slide happily into my new role in the editorial board. My warm appreciations go to both Prof. Mehmet Karaca, PhD., the Rector and Prof. Murat Gül, PhD., the Dean, for their invaluable and excellent sup-

port to A|Z ITU Journal of the Faculty of Architecture. I also express my gratitude to Dr. Koray Gelmez. There are no words to tell his contributions to the Journal, during this time. Without his companionship, everything would be much harder for me and the Journal could not be beautifully designed as it is. Last but not the least let me thank four wonderful ladies, Sinem Becerik, Pelin Elfiti, Ebru Şevkin and Ece Yurtaçan, whose competent, meticulous, and tireless work is absolutely invaluable. They have most of the merit for the present quality of this journal, and I hope that they will continue cooperating with our new editor-in-chief, in the same great way that they did with me. Hereby, I would like to thank all our readers for the support they provide to the Journal, one more time. If we have told both dreams and realities of architecture and design for a long while, it all happened by your help. We really looked forward your comments, contributions, suggestions and criticisms. They all shaped our way. It’s been a privilege to connect with the thousands of you who have reached out to me. Let’s continue to do so, in my new duty as the head of the City Department of Parks, Gardens and Green Areas. I invite you to e-mail me at tr. Please do not hesitate to share your ideas that we could be focusing on, and let’s make Istanbul green. In this issue, there are 10 articles coming from the researcher of different universities and research institutes, typically. Enjoy your reading and meet with us again in next issue on March 2020.

ITU A|Z • Vol 16 No 3 • November 2019 • 1- 15

Documentation and mapping of underwater cultural landscapes case study: Ancient Lycia - Kaş

Sinem GÜREVİN1, Yasin Çağatay SEÇKİN2 1 • Department of Landscape Architecture, Faculty of Architecture, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey 2 • Department of Landscape Architecture, Faculty of Architecture, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey

doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2019.37097

Received: May 2019 • Final Acceptance: July 2019

Abstract The scope of documentation and mapping of underwater landscapes consists of different disciplines, such as, landscape architecture, archeology, history, geometrics and underwater research. Kaş has witnessed ancient civilizations and has countless remains that are waiting to be found and understood. The main objective of this research is to reveal these ancient remains and make them a part of the academic literature. When they have become acknowledged and mapped, a guideline could be provided for preserving and managing our heritages. Since prehistoric times, humans have been using Earth’s water for transportation, nutrition, and trade. Due to the relationship between human and water, people have overcome far distances and cultures become able to interact with each other. Since water covers the seventy-one percent of the world, excluding underwater while studying cultural landscapes, would be ignoring an extensive piece of the whole. Kaş was selected as research area because its culture and interaction with sea dates backs to prehistoric times. The chosen sites include the dive sites located in the central area and nearby islands. First, the history, geography and the importance of Kaş were researched. Preliminary survey maps formed with reference to underwater topography, currents, prevailing winds, and refuge locations for vessels. Thereafter, carefully planned dives were followed through. Within the extent of research, the findings and artifacts are documented and marked with their exact coordinates on an underwater map. Finally, the research is moved forward with studying protection and managing underwater cultural landscapes and conclusions have been made for Kaş. Keywords Cultural landscapes, Underwater, Mapping, Submerged.


1. Introduction This study assesses Kaş in underwater cultural landscape structure. The aim of this research has been, how to research and reveal the submerged underwater cultural landscape areas and to detect underwater cultural heritages, mapping and documenting them with a scientific approach, so that they can be admitted to academic literature and become a part of our culture. When these cultural landscape areas are recognized, the preservation of our heritages would be possible. This documentation can also be used as the substructure for a management plan of underwater cultural landscapes. A detailed literature study was conducted within the scope of the research. During the literature review process, the historical records and the existing data banks about the underwater existence of the region were examined, the people in the region were consulted, the aerial photographs and satellite images were examined, and the underwater examinations with the water surface scans were carried out. Then, underwater research started. Since the researcher has had many previous dives in the area over a decade, pilot areas were appropriately selected. Certain remains were preferred in the pilot areas with convenience sampling method and documented with numerous dives. All obtained data were evaluated and compiled as a whole and mapped. As a result, the present problems have been identified and solutions have been generated. In addition, the conservation and management of cultural landscape areas and its relationship with tourism were evaluated. Cultural landscape, which is one of the main subjects of the landscape architecture discipline, determines the range of this study. Landscape is a complex concept that can contain many different meanings according to time, culture and place. Landscape architecture can include disciplines ranging from geography and tourism to archeology and anthropology. The

distance between cultural resources and nature can only be eliminated by cultural landscape approach. Recognizing the relationship between natural resources such as archeology, geography and history, which constitute cultural resources, helps to understand the complex socio-economic system. Cultural heritages are non-renewable cultural resources and shed light on the cultural landscape with the anthropogenic and natural changes of the past. The cultural heritages are effective in the development of the quality and identity of urban and rural areas, as well as being a source for tourism. The cultural landscapes that cover the seas are formed by the combination of the concept of archeology with sea and land (Westerdahl, 1992). The ships and the crews of the ships shape the culture of the seas. Archeology continues on both water and land. The only thing that distinguishes them is the diving mask. Numerous archaeological remains have been found in the terrestrial areas within the boundaries of Kaş and researches are continuing for more. The history of the region, the interaction of people with the sea and even the fact that some ancient cities in the region are under the water, show that a comprehensive underwater research should be added to the researches on land. The ruins and shipwrecks that divers and fishermen have come across over the years confirm that the region has important submerged cultural heritages. However, these values continue to be eroded by storms and currents in time. They are also exposed to theft in the last hundred years due to the development of diving techniques and diving technologies. In order to be able to protect the underwater cultural heritage in the Kaş District of Lycia and to be able to add those to our cultural values, it is very important to present the artifacts found in this area with the information of the remains on a map. Such a study was never done before in Turkey and reveals the original value of this research.

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The fact that the cultural heritages of the research area underwater are shown on the map with its exact coordinates and current status will help us to protect and recognize our cultural values. Due to the scope of the research, it will be possible to support the ongoing studies of the cultures that have been found so far and to reach new information. This research aims to reveal the historical landscape, development and change of the region. As the findings indicated on the map with their historical information, it helps to understand the whole of the research area in chronological order. 2. Underwater cultural landscape Nowadays, because of climate change, scientists often mention the increasing effect of rising temperatures on sea level. When the world was not exposed to human influence the difference in the sea level, was occurred much more slowly by allowing the adaptation of living things. But now, it is happening at a rapid pace because of human effect. Since our world, which is about 4.5 billion years old, has been constantly changing, it is seen that the sea level increases between 40 and 130 meters together with the change from region to region. Given that people throughout history usually live at the edge of the water, the original traces of many civilizations to altered to underwater today. The historical traces that were buried in the waters, not only give information about the first civilizations and the origins of humanity, but also give information about the climate change and its effects. Marshall Islands that are located near the Equator in the Pacific Ocean stands as a textbook example for climate change effect. Marshallese have adapted to their environment, building a culture on more than 1,200 islands spread across 750,000 square miles of ocean. But today, due to changing climate conditions, tropical cyclones, damaged reefs and fisheries, worsening drought and rising sea level compose a

treat to their lives. People of Marshall Islands are forced to relocate or to construct a new island or raising an existing one. Soon, their culture of thousand years will become a submerged cultural heritage, and their future generations will need to study underwater remains to learn about their culture. As this example shows, with the remains found underwater, people learn about their interaction with environment, lifestyles and cultures. Starting from this point of view, the concept of underwater cultural landscape was fully developed by Christer Westerdhal in 1992. In this concept, Westerdahl tried to understand underwater archeology more in a holistic way with his studies. “The maritime cultural landscape signifies human utilization (economy) of maritime space by boat, settlement, fishing, hunting, shipping, and its attendant subcultures, such as pilotage, lighthouse and seamark maintenance” (Westerdahl, 1992:5-6). Historical monuments on land benefit the understanding of the remains encountered in the seas and vice versa. As a result, more accurate information about history and cultures is reached with the evaluation of all the remains together. “The archaeological concept combining sea and land would be the maritime cultural landscape. It means that the starting point for the subject of maritime archaeology is maritime culture” (Westerdal, 1998). The cultural landscape is the result of the transformation of the natural environment through time, by people living in certain regions for centuries. In underwater cultural landscapes, submerged traces of humans and civilizations are examined. In some cases, these may be objects from wrecks or wrecks themselves; in some cases there may even be flooded cities with the rise of water. There are a lot of cultural traces underwater. These are mostly shipwrecks that sunk because of natural, technical or accident-related reasons. These ruins, which have unique value, not

Documentation and mapping of underwater cultural landscapes case study: Ancient Lycia - Kaş


only give information about the period - civilization they belong to, but also display how that culture spread. More studies need to be done about these cultural traces found underwater. Researches on this issue have begun to progress and has not yet reached their potential. Studying the past is a broad and comprehensive subject, and traces of the past can be found on land or underwater. These traces must have a historical, architectural or scientific value in order for the remains to be important cultural assets. When the found remains can be included in a socio-cultural order based on a discipline, they become ruins with cultural value. In its most basic form, it would be correct to define the remains that carry the historical, scientific or architectural traces of human culture as underwater cultural sources. Within this definition, from the smallest to the largest of the sea vehicles and submerged air vehicles and their cargos, underwater cities and structures, and even human remains may be underwater cultural resource. However, it should be noted that it would be wrong to think that manmade objects with archaeological and cultural values are the only traces of humans under the water. Today, thanks to technological developments, there is countless structural hardware under the water. Underwater materials such as cables and pipelines are not part of the underwater cultural resources. All cultural resources, which are used to define the identities of societies, are regarded as a value belonging to humanity. Cultural heritage is a factor that expresses the shared histories of individuals in a society and strengthens the sense of unity among them. It ensures the continuity of the experiences and traditions that people have accumulated throughout history. Underwater cultural heritages cover all traces of the sea floor as a result of human influence. Thus, the underwater cultural landscape also includes underwater cultural heritage.

The underwater cultural heritage has been formed by the human-marine relationship that has been going on for thousands of years, they have left untouched because the technology was not existed to identify and reach these legacies. In this day and age, with the recent technical developments, human beings are able to examine the underwater environment and its content. Although the relations of societies and individuals with the sea are as old as the history of mankind, the development of marine societies has gained momentum especially since the 1500s. Underwater cultural heritages have spread throughout the world for hundreds of years such as ships, cargo, aircrafts and so on. There are also many sunken ancient cities, such as the ruins of Alexandria in Egypt. Throughout the history of the world, natural disasters caused thousands of ships sinking into the sea and have buried many cities in the coastal areas. Many of these ships, structures and other cultural elements cannot be seen from the water surface, and these remains have been safely preserved under lakes - seas - oceans and have survived to the present day. As mentioned before, cultural landscapes are the areas created by human influence, people have left their traces in these regions and shaped them. As the return of this relationship, the traces left by people from the cultures of the past periods not only helps people understand the past, but also the culture of life. First of all, depending on the geography they are located in, they help the personal development of the individuals who are interested in cultural landscapes and offer them new activities. Consider an area with archaeological heritage found in an area that is not accessible by car, this region directs people who want to reach it to nature sports and this orientation brings with them the desire to respect and protect the nature. The best example of this situation can be considered in Lycia, the main study area of this study. The ancient Lycia Region is one of

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the ten best hiking trails in the world. Along the Lycia Way, which is 535 kilometers long, there are many beautiful natural landscapes accompanied by ancient ruins. As you can reach all the ancient cities of Lycia in this way, many remains from the later periods can be seen along the way. However, while walking a route such as the Lycia Way, it is almost impossible not to admire and respect nature, and this communication with nature makes people who respect and protect the environment and the past. It is also possible talk about the same fascination and respect in the underwater cultural landscape that the relationship underwater has gone one step further. Because, with the help of improving technologies, now people are able to experience underwater that is out of our comfort zone. This kind of involvements can cause enormous changes in the lives of individuals. People who want to observe the underwater cultural landscapes first hand will have to do start with diving training and learn to be safe under the water. Understanding diving as using only certain technical materials to go underwater and return would be making an enormous mistake. Diving is also being a part of the marine culture. Most divers are respectful to the sea and underwater life; in addition they do their best to protect this environment. Obviously, although there are not many people to disrupt the underwater, there are still some individuals who harms under the sea and cultural heritage. The most important of these damages is the stealing of the remains, because of their material value or only to get a souvenir from underwater. People also give the greatest harm to the sea creatures and the remains by touching them or polluting the sea. However, many divers are acting as a community to protect the underwater and organizing activities for protection and cleaning. When the issue of pollution is cited, it will not be right to stay only at the individual point, it is a known fact that

private establishments and parties have polluted the nature and the seas to a great extent. In addition to this situation, the underwater cultural landscape areas have been significantly damaged due to the increasing construction and insufficient infrastructure. Although the waters of Kaş, which owes much of its beauty to its cleanliness, are not like before, these faults are still relatively reversible. Finally, boats and fishermen should be mentioned. The anchors of the boats damage the underwater cultural heritage more if the locations of heritage sites are not known. Anchors on a fish nest or remains give irreversible damage. In the case of fishermen, fishing nets and cages are also added to this situation. These nets and cages damage both the remains and all living things and their habitat without discrimination. 3. Methodology for the underwater cultural landscape research A theoretical resource research was conducted as first step in the methodology. With the help of the resources, a proper way was found to do an underwater documentation. Also main components of the theory were reviewed, such as maritime cultural landscape theory or underwater archeology. The methodology followed in the research after determining the main case area, was a general survey. Many sources were studied thoroughly and the important data collected. After the literature research with books, maps and aerial photographs, many interviews were conducted with local people including fishermen and divers. The main questions that were asked during with interviews were: • Are there any remains or wrecks in the area other than the ones that are known with dive spots? • What are changes that you have observed in the long term? • What are changes that you have observed in the short term? • What do you think about the cause of these changes? • What do you think can be done in order to improve Kaş and underwater?

Documentation and mapping of underwater cultural landscapes case study: Ancient Lycia - Kaş


After all the theory studies, field study was the subsequent step. The archaeological research techniques alone are not enough in researching the cultural heritage that is placed under the water. Although the path followed in underwater archaeological researches contains points that overlap with a normal archeology excavation, it also includes different disciplines due to its environment. The underwater cultural landscape studies occur with the disciplines of archeology, underwater research and diving progress together. Before being able to breath under water, there was not exact way to search beyond the land to the sea. The developments in the research and diving techniques have helped the improvements for exploration and investigation of underwater cultural heritage. The field study part of the research was started with surface sea survey. Since it was not possible to have all requirements, the water surface scanning was carried out just to generate an example. Subsequently, underwater research was initiated by diving. In this process, the sonar devices have helped to determine the areas that have traces for remains. Many dives were executed and the ruin samples were photographed and measured. Afterwards, the data obtained were examined, documented, evaluated and mapped in case areas. 4. Case study Kaş district of Antalya, located in ancient Lycia, is designated as the case study area in the research of the mapping of the underwater cultural landscape. There are many reasons why the Kaş was examined, but the most important one is incontrovertibly underwater cultural values of the area. Many cultures and civilizations lived in Kaş but according to the oldest archaeological remains the first ancient city in the area was Habesos. This area was later called Antiphellos. The reason for this name is the ancient city of Phellos, located above the district of Kaş. Antiphellos is one of the important port cities in the history of Lycia. During the Anatolian campaigns of Alexander the Great, he ruled this region, but after the death of Alexander,

the region experienced a transition between the Seleucids and the Ptolemies. In all historical sources, this city stands out in the Roman Period and refers to the bishopric center in the Byzantine period. In the Byzantine period, area was exposed to Arab raids but later became part of the Anatolian Seljuk’s. After passing to the Anatolian Seljuk’s, the region in which the center of Kaş began to be called with the name Andifli and the name still stands for the central district. According to the information given by the Kaş District Governorate and the Municipality of Kaş, after the collapse of the Anatolian Seljuk, the Tekeoğulları took over the region and joined the territories of the Ottoman Empire during the time of Yıldırım Beyazıt. Antiphellos was a small port settlement established in the 4th century B.C. It was the port of Phellos. Antiphellos came forefront with the decline of Phellos in the Hellenistic Period. This situation also continued in the Roman period. Thanks to the cedar tree and sponge trade, it had become a rich port city, which could be self-sufficient in time. The fortification walls, which built against Meis Island by the shoreline, can be seen in part today since they have become part of today’s buildings. There is an ancient theater in the western part of the city, which overlooks the sea, it has been well preserved so far and it has been restored in recent years. The ancient theater is seen in Figure 1. The King’s Tomb with lions, which can be considered as symbol of Kaş is

Figure 1. Ancient Theater, Kaş (Gürevin,2016).

ITU A|Z • Vol 16 No 3 • November 2019 • S. Gürevin, Y. Ç. Seçkin


located at the end of the Long Bazaar (Uzun Çarşı) Street. This tomb is an elevated sarcophagus consisting of three sections. The lower grave chamber, called Hyposorium, is about one and a half meters high, and the ground is collapsed. It has a flat base with a height of 80 centimeters. At the top of the sarcophagus, there is a stone cover with a Lycia type pointed arch, carved from a separate rock. There are two lion heads standing on their paws on both sides of the cover. The tomb takes its name from these lions. The short side of the cover is divided into four plates. Hyposorium carries a detailed inscription of Lycia tomb on whom the right of burial would be given, but this article cannot be read. The most prominent ruins in Kaş are located in the western part of the present settlement. There are not any existing roads to Kaş in the Limanağzı Region; this location can only be reached by walking or small boats. On the slopes of the Sebeda Castle, the tombs side by side face the sea. The rock tombs can be seen along the north and west slopes of city. There is also a cistern very close to the central port of the district. This cistern is dating back to the 5th century B.C was used to store water in the beginning but then used for wine, olive oil and vegetables. The cistern was made by carving a single block of stone in size of 12x6

meters and the ceiling rests on seven carved columns. It is the only cistern remaining from a series of cisterns in the area extending up to the ancient theater. Various amphorae, plates and vessels were found during the excavations in the cistern. There is also a Hellenistic temple in the central part of Kaş. Overlooking the ancient harbor, this temple is the only Antiphellos temple that has survived. The only seen part is the lower boundary of the walls built using cut stone. The temple, which it belongs not yet known, was repaired during the Roman period and the excavations started in 2012 by Antalya Museum Management. There is a dor type tomb called Akdam that was built in 4th century B.C., it is place to the northeast of the Ancient Theater. The structure was constructed by cutting natural rock. It has a height of 3.5 meters and has 24 female figures dancing by holding hands. On Hastane Street, there is a temple built using regular cut stone. It was determined that the foundation stones of the building were from the Roman Period. (http://www.antalyakulturturizm. In Figure 2 Antiphellos’ settlement plan can be seen. When we examine this plan, the northern necropolis is seen on the slopes of the hill, which is today known, as the Sleeping Giant.

Figure 2. Antiphellos City Plan (Texier, 1862). Documentation and mapping of underwater cultural landscapes case study: Ancient Lycia - Kaş


In the Far East, the eastern necropolis was found, while the settlement of Antiphellos moved from the center of Kaş to the Çukurbağ Peninsula. The acropolis and monumental tombs are located south of the northern necropolis. The church is located to the east of the city center. While the theater overlooks the sea in the west, there are two bathhouses in the south by the sea. These are all foremost cultural heritages of Kaş that are placed on land. As mentioned in the methodology, many interviews were done through the research process. One of these interviews was specifically enlightening. It was with Mehmet Aytuğ, who was a former Lycia Way guide and dive master. He told that there were many more wrecks and remains, but those areas are now prohibited for diving. He also told that some invasive species, which have come from Red Sea, are becoming a great threat to local species. He said that the underwater of Kaş used to be full of life but it is getting worse every year. He thinks that, the change in the people profile also changes Kaş in every aspect. He believes that people are needed more knowledge and caring to get better. This kind of interviews helped us to

evaluate the differences in the last two decades more distinctively and proved that a preservation and management plan is a necessity. After all these studies, underwater surveys had begun. At this stage, it was a necessity to investigate the factors causing underwater heritages. While the majority of the underwater ruins were caused by the sinking of the sea vessels, the remaining part was formed by the submerged structures and the cities. Seafarers have experienced the biggest fears of storms since ancient times. However, storms in the formation of residues are not the only factor, however topography, current and wind in general should be examined. In addition, in recent years people with different reason underwater in the form of conscious remains. These factors are examined in layers below. Kaş’s topography has hard rocky cliffs that are an obstacle development and transportation. The rocky structure of the land continues underwater. All of the dive sites in the study area are composed of rocky areas, sometimes they are the extension of the coasts, but sometimes they are reefs formed by the rocks in the sandy underwater regions.

Figure 3. Topography Map of Kaş Underwater (Gürevin, 2018). ITU A|Z • Vol 16 No 3 • November 2019 • S. Gürevin, Y. Ç. Seçkin


The coasts of Kaş, which are geographically called Dalmatian type, have karstic structure. The relationship between the sea and the land is highly indented - this is why there are many islands and peninsula in the region. As a result of this coastal type, the continental shelf in the Kas region is narrow but the sea depth is extended. When the topography of the seaside of Kaş is examined, it is seen that there are many different sizes of islands as well as hills rising underwater. Although it is not known whether these rock formations were above or below the water surface in the past, the combination of harsh weather conditions and topography still pose a threat to the watercrafts. To summarize it is accurate to notify that topography has constantly influenced the culture of the region since its first settlement. Underwater topography map of the research are can be examined with Figure 3. Base of the maps, which are formed in this research, are prepared with using Navionics Marine maps, Google Earth Maps and Electronic Navigation Charts. Wind, thermohaline and wave currents are usually seen in the research area. Sudden changes in the topogra-

phy affect the streams in the waters of Kaş. These currents change their intensity depending on the storm periods. In addition, İnce Burun, located in the Limanağzı Region, constitutes bursts in the rocky cliffs between Heybeli Islands and Pina Island and in the cliffs to the southwest of Kovan Island. Another factor that affects the sea is wind. The winds from the west, due to the geographic features of Kaş, are frequently seen, including northwest and southwest. Likewise, the winds from the east also has severe disturbs. It is not possible to ignore the effect of winds gusting within the research area on the formation of underwater remains in the region. Even today, it is seen that the extreme winds gusting during the storm periods, the waves in the sea damage the coastal roads and attached boats. When the physical conditions distressing, it is justifiably necessary to question how these situations can be solved. When these conditions of Kaş are examined, it is obvious that sea vessels need to find shelter at different points for different prevailing winds. The most important factor in shelter points will be that when the vehicles

Figure 4. Shelter locations for prevailing winds (Gürevin &Yiğitler, 2018). Documentation and mapping of underwater cultural landscapes case study: Ancient Lycia - Kaş


have any problems in the region where they take shelter, it will not throw to the shore but to the open water without any human interaction. For example, a sail must take the head of the boat to the shore and take the wind from the

head while anchoring in a heavy storm or anchoring in a buoy. Thus, when the anchor or buoy becomes ineffective due to environmental conditions, the boat can drift towards the cliffs on the shoreline and become damaged or

Figure 5. Shelter locations for west winds (Gürevin &Yiğitler, 2018).

Figure 6. Shelter locations for east winds (Gürevin &Yiğitler, 2018). ITU A|Z • Vol 16 No 3 • November 2019 • S. Gürevin, Y. Ç. Seçkin


even sinking into the open sea. Refuge points in the research area for different weather conditions were marked on the maps and the positive and negative aspects of the refuge in these areas were examined. Figure 4 displays shelter locations for every prevailing wind. Figure 5 shows shelter locations for west winds and Figure 6 shows shelter locations for east winds.

Figure 7. Amphora at Neptune Dive Point (Gürevin, 2018).

Figure 8. Amphora at Neptune Dive Point (Gürevin, 2018).

Even in the course of researching cultural landscapes in dry land is challenging, an underwater survey can be faced with much more difficulties. We needed to find a boat with sonar scanners, which would allow us to scan from the surface first. We managed to overcome this challenge by accompanying our different friends when they went to the research areas. Another challenge was to establish the right team. We always took support from Altay Yiğitler on the surface, he is both a technical dive instructor and captain, and since he has been living and working in Kaş for a long time, he helped us with everything, never denied sharing his knowledge and time. On the subject of the diving partner, we had to find volunteers for this study, who can cover the cost of their dives, spend their holidays underwater for our research, and most importantly be a reliable, good diver. Of course, as it can be understood from this point of view, it was not possible to have a great deal of time to do documentation diving. We dived during the dive season and found the remains of the ruins, and then waited for the appropriate time to dive for documenting the remains with a dive partner. In this process, it will not be correct to no mention that there were minor difficulties such as failing underwater cameras, prolonged dive times and missing technical equipment. All of these difficulties sometimes caused to repeat our dives. These times sometimes coincided with very hot days or very heavy storms, but the work was completed thanks to the sacrifice of everyone. Every single factor, data and underwater maps were examined primarily in the selection of pilot areas. With the help of preliminary survey maps, the focus points are relieved. Since all dives were performed in diving points in Kaş, attention was paid to the presence of traces from different cultures in selected regions. As a result of these researches, four diving points were selected as pilot regions. These regions are; • Lighthouse diving point, Limanagzi - Ince Burun • Kovanlı dive site, Kovan Island,

Documentation and mapping of underwater cultural landscapes case study: Ancient Lycia - Kaş


Five Islands • Canyon dive site, Kovan Island, Five Islands • Neptune diving point is the Çukurbag Peninsula. A brief documentation of one of the pilot sites could be about Neptune diving point. Neptune diving point is located in Çondur Cape of the Çukurbağ Peninsula. There is a rocky formation at the top of this dive site, which starts at 8 meters deep. These rocky reef stages continue down to 45 meters in progress. In the southern part of the reef there are many amphorae belonging to the ancient periods. As a dive partner was not available in the study of the remains at Neptune region, it was completed by accompanying recreational group dives in the region. For this reason, six dives were carried out for approximately two months to document the remains and to obtain the coordinates. This dive site also has an artificial reef. In 2011, a 29-meter long TCSG119 coded coast guard boat was sunk to create a new reef to enhance the populations of fauna and flora at the dive site. This shipwreck was left 21 meters depth at first, but due to strong storms it had got loosen and slide to the band of 35 - 40 meters. The first Neptune dive was conducted on 11 June 2018. On 11 June, the

weather was partly cloudy and about 27 °C. The wind started to get more intense when the dive started; it was blowing at about 15 kilometers per hour. The boat was reached the location around 10:45 and we began to get ready for the dive. We started diving at 11:05 by jumping from the boat. In this dive, the main goal was to determine which remains should be documented. The dive lasted for 42 minutes and the water temperature was 21°C on the surface and 19°C in the maximum depth. The maximum depth of dive was 30.8 meters and our average depth was 16.2 meters.

Figure 9. Amphora at Neptune Dive Point (Gürevin, 2018).

Figure 10. Neptune Dive Point Remains with their coordinates (Gürevin, 2018). ITU A|Z • Vol 16 No 3 • November 2019 • S. Gürevin, Y. Ç. Seçkin


After emptying the air in our bouncy control device and going under the water, we started to move south, towards southeast. We encountered the first amphora at 7 meter without getting too far from the boat. After taking note of the approximate location of this amphora, we continued towards the reef in our southeast. We met the second amphora at 19 meters. The reef starts at that point. There were many amphorae in the reef. Some of them were assembled together and fragmented. We encountered a large number of amphorae between 20 and 30 meters. A total of six points were marked to document with the subsequent dives. As we encountered an inverse current on the way back, we moved towards the boat at a depth of about 12-13 meters. When we approached the boat, we came to the surface after finishing our safety stop for 3 minutes at 5 meters. Afterwards, we accompanied 5 more dives and completed the documentation of the remains. Figures 7 – 8 – 9 are photographs of the remains documented during the dives. Figure 10 shows the coordinates for the remains of Neptune diving point on the map. 5. Conclusion This research was an application of a cultural landscape analysis to the submerged cultural landscapes in Kaş. The results have shown that the underwater cultural landscapes have extremely high potential for educating and moving us forward. For the formation of social identity, the awareness of the past is undeniable. Social emotions, together with society, have gained meaning, and the feeling of continuity of society is valuable for each of the individuals who make up the society. The general conclusion, derived from the sources examined within the many researches, reveal that feeling happiness and stability in their lives creates happier societies. Cultural values are parts of a whole that constitute the past of society. For this reason, cultural resources which constitute the social memory and which are based on the general culture of the people living in the region are very important. However, as men-

tioned above, these sources can be located on the land as well as under the waters. The sources of cultural values have been destroyed and emerged throughout history. While the destruction in the wars was one of the reasons for the destruction of the culture, the economic problems, the different political views and the perspective of the religions to the cultures are also important in this regard. Destroying traces of ancient cultures has made it easier for new cultures to dominate. While all these obstacles exist, it is very difficult to maintain cultural resources, especially if they are underwater as in this research. Because these areas are more easily exposed to theft and looting, and those located near the coasts are also threatened by urbanization. Even today, underwater cultural resources cannot be adequately examined or preserved by academics, or by a different institution. Sometimes personal interests are prioritized, but most of the times there is no support for research. In addition, the underwater cultural resources contribute to life. A shipwreck becomes a nest of many fish and provides an ecosystem development around it. Thus, it increases the population by creating a living environment for creatures underwater. At this point the issue that needs to be considered is whether the shipwreck has a polluting effect or not. The wrecks from the previous periods with cultural value, since they did not use energy resources like today, have very few pollutant effects. In order to increase the underwater life, objects that have been intentionally submerged in order to create a reef are first cleaned and their fuel is discharged, thus minimizing the polluting effects. The access to cultural values in the underwater world made them vulnerable to false threats as well as to help us understand history, cultures, and civilizations. For this reason, preservation of underwater cultural heritage means protection of our historical values. The subject of conservation of underwater cultural landscapes includes many variables. Because while keeping

Documentation and mapping of underwater cultural landscapes case study: Ancient Lycia - Kaş


the values under water, some of the threats occurring on the land are decreasing but many different problems can arise. The remains of cultural landscapes underwater are not only threatened by people but also by nature. While these areas are generally less known, they may be more easily exposed to theft and looting in accordance with the intentions of those who know it. The reason for this is that it cannot be safely protected a cultural area under the sea as it is on land. Nevertheless, with the effect of the sea and storms, some remains are condemned to disintegrate or disappear. Beside these mentioned problems, the idea of on-site protection will add value to the region where the cultural heritage is located and will cause the water in the region to be taken under general protection and increase the tourism. It should also be noted that some remains begin to deteriorate as soon as they come into contact with air. The most useful measure to protect the underwater cultural landscape areas is to inform the local people in the region and to ensure that their values are appreciated. Although, there is nothing can be done against the dangers of nature. As seen from the explanations, the present conditions raise a question about whether the remains that are part of the underwater cultural landscape areas should be protected in site or exhibited in a way that they can be brought to the surface suitably and be accessible to more people. The most sensible thing to follow in this case is to implement the process of decision-making in the underwater cultural heritage. We offer on site protection for our research area. Because, the natural structure and the remains constitute a cultural landscape area as a whole. The pilot research zone, Kaş, has an improved protection program from the World Wildlife Foundation to protect living species. Although this program is not prepared to protect the underwater cultural landscapes, the buoys created within the program help to prevent the boats anchoring to the places where the remains are located.

However, a more extensive preservation and management plan should be developed to protect the underwater cultural landscape areas and tourism in the region should not be ignored while this plan is being developed. Whether landscape areas are designed or naturally exist, in order to maintain its continuity, it requires natural resources such as air, water and soil. It is in an indestructible connection within the surrounding natural systems. This connection is the main feature that distinguishes cultural landscapes from other cultural heritages. This is the reason why almost every other cultural heritage cannot be moved. The relationship of cultural landscapes has with environment, sometimes needs it to be repaired but always requires to be managed. Management and planning of cultural landscapes can be achieved by working together of many different disciplines. Strategies can be developed for the management of cultural landscape areas with the cooperation of landscape architects, historians, archaeological landscape experts, forestry, design, architecture, engineering, cultural geography, wildlife, seed – pollen experts, landscape maintenance and management experts. Management of each cultural landscape requires a different method, a different strategy. Because the environment, climate, geographic and historical characteristics may vary. While some cultural landscapes may be a small region in the middle of a metropolis, some may be underwater, others can be a rural area spread over thousands of acres. The management of cultural landscapes begins with the identification of the region, which is regarded as a cultural landscape area. After that, the most important step is to prevent the factors that may have caused damage. In order to ensure continuity of the site, a good management plan should be prepared. These areas generally require ongoing management in the field, and as the outset of this management, a landscape architect, who specializes in landscape protection, is required. If we want to explain the management of cultural landscapes further, the subject can be started with the in-

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terpretation of the cultural values in the landscape. The interpretation of landscape areas includes ideas, meanings, concepts and dynamics that compose the space. For example, while the relic is important for an archaeologist, the aesthetics and beauty of the area is important for a historian, for an artist or for a traveler. Cultural landscapes are a whole and a reflection of the cultures that create them. For this reason, all the components that generate them are important and must be protected. So we have to identify, document and map them to constitute a start point. As a result of all these researches that have been gone through, it is obvious that the culture in Kaş is shaped and developed by topography. It is significant to reveal and understand all the traces of these previous cultures, in order to reveal the values of the region and to share with everyone. To understand existing culture, our setting and ourselves in which we live, we need to understand the growth and history of our culture with its causes and consequences. References Babits, L. E., Van Tilburg, H. (1998). The Plenum Series in Underwater Archaeology – Maritime Archaeology: A Reader of Substantive and Theoretical Contributions. New York: Springer Press. Bowens, A. (2009). Underwater Archaeology The NAS Guide to Principles and Practice, The Nautical Archaeology Society. UK: Blackwell Publishing. Connor, D.W., Hiscock, K. (1996). Data collection methods (with Appendices 5 - 10). In: Marine Nature Conservation Review: rationale and methods, ed. by K. Hiscock, 51-65, 126- 158. Peterborough: Joint Nature Conservation Committee. (Coasts and seas of the United Kingdom. MNCR series.) Çevik, N. (2015). Likya Kitabı. İstanbul: Suna – İnan Kıraç Akdeniz Medeniyetleri Araştırma Enstitüsü. Çevik, N. (2012). Taşların İzinde Likya. İstanbul: Arkeoloji ve Sanat Yayınları. Ford, B. (2011). When the Land Meets the Sea – The Archaeology

of Maritime Landscapes. New York: Springer LLC. Musard, O., Le Du-Blayo, L., Francour, P., Beurier, J., Feunteun, E., Talassinos, L. (2014). Underwater Seascapes From geographical to ecological perspectives. New York: Springer LLC. Pulak, C. (2006). Uluburun Batığı, 3000 Yıl Önce Dünya. İstabul: Ticareti Sergi Kataloğu, 57 vdd. Texier, C. (1849), Description de l’Asie Mineure. Paris: Didot frères. Texier, C. (1862) Asie mineure description geographique, historique et archeologique des provinces et des villes de la Chersonnése d’Asie. Livre 1. Didot. Paris: Didot frères. Thomsen, A. (2002). A. Thomsen, Die lykische Dynastensiedlung auf dem Avşar Tepesi. Bonn: Habelt. Westerdahl, C., 1992, The Maritime Cultural Landscape, The International Journal of Nautical Archaeology, 21(1):5-14. Westerdahl, C., 1998, ‘The Maritime Cultural Landscape On the concept of the traditional zones of transport geography’. Sozialgeschichte der Schifffahrt. UNESCO (2001). Convention on the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage. Authentic text of the Convention by the General Conference of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization during its thirty-first session, Paris. ( ark:/48223/pf0000126065.locale=en) Antalya Municipality ( National Geographic ( Turkish Naval Forces Office of Navigation, Hydrography and Oceanography ( esas/index.php/tr/urunler/haritalar/ elektronik-seyir-haritalari) Navionics (https://webapp. n av i o n i c s . c o m / ? l a n g = e n # b o at ing@6&key=oad%60F%7BkbzD) Google Earth ( com/earth)

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Residents’ experiences of a gentrified neighborhood in Istanbul: The case of Akaretler row houses Mehmet RONAEL1, Gülden Demet ORUÇ2 • Graduate School of Science Engineering and Technology, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey 2 • Urban and Regional Planning Department, Faculty of Architecture, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey 1

doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2019.46547

Received: February 2019 • Final Acceptance: July 2019

Abstract The gentrification process has been examined by sociologists, urban planners, geographers and many other professionals since the 1970s. However, despite a great deal of research into the concept, process, and other dimensions of gentrification, there are few studies which consider the importance of the perspective and experiences of residents and users. This paper focuses on the gentrification process and its impact on the nongentrifier residents of the Akaretler neighborhood of Beşiktaş, an area which was transformed following a major restoration project 10 years ago. In-depth interviews were conducted with long-term residents and business owners to investigate how they evaluate the changes in their neighborhood as well as the positive and negative impacts of gentrification on their lives. According to the findings, while the majority of respondents acknowledged the physical success of the restoration project, some of them also pointed out the negative economic, social, and cultural outcomes it has raised over the past 10 years. The outstanding negative issues are social integration difficulties, the lack of affordable properties, changes to property functions, and cultural contrast. Keywords Akaretler row houses, Commercial gentrification, Istanbul, Neighborhood change, Residents experience.


1. Introduction Many scholars have studied the gentrification concept in depth; however, this issue is still considered to be a hot topic because of the power wielded by the construction sector. Especially in the last decade, the gentrification has become a global approach extending its context from the central core to suburbs, and also slums (Cocola-Gant, 2019); moreover, the fundamental motivations behind this development are the financialization of housing market (August & Walks, 2018), the increasing power of economic actors in the urbanization process (Slater, 2017), the remarkable ascendance of neoliberal economic policies (Smith, 2001), and the increasing role of global gentrifiers such as construction companies and states (Rofe, 2003). Therefore; it is clear that the role of financial capital came into prominence after 2000, not only by encouraging home ownership through home loans but also through the rise of corporate proprietors and platform capitalism (Aalbers, 2019) and this concept has been accepted as a global strategy for reaching maximum land value, and it has occurred in varied types in different parts of cities (Lees et al., 2016). Although it extended its scope and transformed to a method containing the reproduction of capital in urban space, the unchanging consequence of this process is the displacement of existing residents willingly or unwillingly (Lees et al., 2015). While some researchers have attempted to identify gentrification in their perspectives (Hammet, 1984; Smith & Williams, 1986; Ley, 1992; Kempen & Weesep, 1994; Bondi, 1999; Kennedy & Leonard, 2001; Atkinson, 2003; Bostic & Martin, 2003, Cocola-Gant, 2018), others have examined the main reasons, actors, and driving forces behind the concept (Wheaton,1977; Kern, 1981; Lees, 1996; Ley, 1986; 1996; Aalbers, 2019 ). In addition to the investigations into the concepts, processes, and dimensions of gentrification, many scholars have also concentrated on its physical, social, economic, functional, and cultural effects on the existing environment (Sampaio, 2002; Billig & Churchman, 2003; Musterd & Ostendorf, 2005; Cameron &

Coaffee, 2005). However, it must be stated that when evaluating gentrification only a few of them have considered the importance of the perspective and experiences of residents (Freeman, 2004; Slater, 2006; Murdie&Teixeria, 2011). This study is intended to increase the understanding of the impact of gentrification on both residents and business owners living in the areas surrounding Akaretler, the historical row houses located within Beşiktaş, a major population center of Istanbul. In particular, it investigates the effects of the transformation that occurred as a result of the restoration of these houses 10 years ago. The rest of this paper is divided into 3 sections; a conceptual background of the study that summarizes the concept of gentrification, examples of gentrification in Istanbul and a literature review of the positive and negative impacts of gentrification on neighborhoods is given in the second section. The third section contains information regarding the case area of Akaretler that includes a short history of the district, the project, methodology and the findings of the research. The final section is devoted to conclusions. 2. Gentrification and Istanbul Although there are numerous explanations for the notion of gentrification, it can be basically described as investing to encourage high-income white collar settlement in historic and precious sites in urban cores, and the clearing of these valuable sites of their current low-income residents and users (Smith & Williams, 1986; Ley, 1992; Kennedy & Leonard, 2001; Atkinson, 2003). After Glass’ (1964) explanation of gentrification, Smith (1986) expanded the meaning of the concept and introduced a new type of gentrification which became known as “second-wave”. Although there are differences between these two types of gentrification, such as their causes, actors, processes, and scale, (Hackworth & Smith, 2001), the fundamental and unchanging phenomenon for both is the willing or unwilling displacement of existing residents or users (Smith,

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1979). After 2000, researchers started to focus on a third-wave of gentrification derived from a partnership between the state and the private sector (Hackworth & Smith, 2001; Davidson and Lees, 2005; Cameron & Coaffee, 2005; Uitermark, Duyvendak & Kleinhans, 2007; Hackworth, 2007). This third wave gentrification has some distinctive characteristics like the partnership between companies and states, effective anti-gentrification strategies, and the expansion of gentrification to the peripheries (Cameron & Coaffee, 2005; Uitermark, Duyvendak & Kleinhans, 2007; Hackworth, 2007). Lees (2003) identified seven different types of gentrification which are classical, statebased, capital-based, commercial also known as retail gentrification (Hubbard, 2016), mix-use, re-gentrification that was renamed as super-gentrification (Davidson and Lees, 2010), and new-built gentrification. In this scope, many scholars have worked on these types and extended their content; moreover, they also identified new types of gentrification (Cocola-Gant, 2019). These are rural gentrification derived from the increasing attraction of the natural environment for high-middle class occupants (Phillips, 2005), studentification including the development of special regions for students only (Smith & Holt, 2007), and tourism gentrification based on the transformation of residential areas to attractive zones for visitors (Gotham, 2005; Cocola-Gant, 2018). In addition, these different gentrification types can lead to the occurrence of each other in time, and the mutual relationship between tourism and commercial gentrification can be given as an example (Gotham, 2005). While the changing commercial activities increase the interest of visitors for the area, being a touristic destination changes the commercial pattern in depth, and it causes the existence of new functions appealing to visitor’s expectations more (Cocola-Gant, 2015). Although there are several types of gentrification based on different motivations, they can be collected under two main approaches which are defined according to the aims of the implementation and the power of the

main actors (McKinnish, Randall & Kirk, 2010). In brief, these approaches are; gentrification as an urban transformation policy and gentrification as a negative consequence of urban transformation (Hyra, 2016). In Turkey, the gentrification issue gained importance after the 1980s, largely due to the effects of globalization (Islam, 2009). The first wave of gentrification happened organically in Bosphorus neighborhoods during the 1980s, and the first group of new potential residents; artists, writers, poets, and musicians started to arrive, thereby changing both the land values and the local lifestyle. However, that period is characterized by the harmony that was achieved between new and existing inhabitants and few displacement issues were observed (Islam, 2009). While the gentrification process continued in Bosphorus neighborhoods, second wave gentrification started to occur in the historical areas of the city core at the end of the 1990s (Polat, 2016). Historical apartments with views of the Bosporus, easy accessibility, and access to cultural and entertainment activities appeared after the pedestrianization of Istiklal street made Beyoğlu, Cihangir, Galata and Asmalımescit more attractive for new social groups (Polat, 2016). Ergün (2004, also in 2006) concentrated on the first and second wave gentrification process in Istanbul neighborhoods and produced a detailed map of gentrified zones. After a transitional period, third wave gentrification began with the ratification of law no. 5366. In Istanbul, the Tarlabaşı, and Sulukule projects are considered to be the first examples of gentrification as part of an urban transformation policy (Islam, 2009). The same period saw many other projects around the city, including the transformation of Fener and Balat, the development of Galataport, and the Haydarpaşa Port Project (Figure 1). In addition to research that includes the general prospects surrounding the gentrification issue in Turkey, there have been several more recent studies which have evaluated and focused on the consequences of gentrification in-depth through the experiences and thoughts of residents and users (Tuncer & Islam, 2017; Uysal & Sakarya,

Residents’ experiences of a gentrified neighborhood in Istanbul: The case of Akaretler row houses


Figure 1. Gentrification waves in Istanbul.

2018; Uzgören & Türkün, 2018). The restoration project for the Akaretler row houses was started in 1988 and completed in 2008. It is the largest restoration project undertaken in Istanbul, and can be accepted as a critical case of third wave commercial and mixed-use gentrification. Following this project, the local neighborhood underwent a rapid and significant transformation. 2.1. Effects of gentrification The main concept of gentrification can be identified as providing physical, economic, and especially social revitalization, while also including the conservation of the assessable components of a given area, such as its historical buildings. However, this policy has been shown to have deep effects on the existing urban pattern (Sampaio, 2007). When Appleyard (1981) defined gentrification, he emphasized the combination of economic recovery and physical conservation, and stated that this combination is a “solution”. Tiesdell, Oc, and Heath (2008) accepted Appleyard’s definition, and supported the claim that gentrification is a necessity for the conformance of the urban place to a changing economic system. In addition, they also highlighted the

social outcomes and displacement issues as being undesirable elements of the process. Whether it is a solution or necessity, the gentrification process definitely has both positive and negative influences on existing urban structures (Billig & Churchman, 2003). One of the basic consequences of gentrification is the segregation that occurs in both the physical and social environments (Chirstafore & Leguizamon, 2018). In the physical context, gentrified zones of cities are comprised of “prestige” elements such as highquality conditions and facilities, entertainment services, and accessible transportation options that are intended to segregate them (Sampaio, 2002). These zones also arouse the interest of the public sector and the municipal authority, causing them to make upgrades to the urban infrastructure (Billig & Churchman, 2003). In this way, gentrification improves the quality of an area’s physical structure, reverses physical decay, and restores/upgrades individual buildings (Kennedy & Leonard, 2001; Musterd & Ostendorf, 2005; Inzulza-Contardo, 2011). In the social context, Clay (1981) claimed that the gentrification process develops a neighborhood’s profile and contributes to a more positive

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image. Musterd and Ostendorf (2005) described the importance of physical restructuring to solve social difficulties; on the other hand, they also highlighted the displacement issue as an adverse result of gentrification. The social balance that can be identified as a state of harmony between people with different social status is a vital dimension for a healthy neighborhood, and this harmony supports the occurrence of a local identity; however, the organization of interactions between citizens and the integration of newcomers should occur naturally and not be forced (Vance, 1966; Frankenberg, 1994). Thus, gentrification process as an external intervention breaks this balance and causes both displacement and segregation (Sampaio, 2002; Boterman & Gent, 2014; Parekh, 2014; Shaw & Hagesman, 2015; Billingham, 2017). In addition, the existence of newcomers that are highly educated and from high-income groups leads to social pressure on local people, and it is this pressure that complicates the processes of integration and adaptation (Robinson, 1995; Fabula et al., 2017). Table 1. Positive and negative effects of gentrification.

Gentrification intervention can also change the functional characteristics of the neighborhood and contribute to the activity opportunities of citizens (Freeman, 2005; Musterd & Ostendorf, 2005; Ernst & Doucet, 2014). On the contrary sometimes these activity opportunities which aim to attract future gentrifiers, especially in the case of commercial gentrification (Cocola-Gant, 2015), causes displacement of the local shops or businesses even before the residents and at some point this change in the habitual environment of the long term residents might lead to the loss of sense of belonging. For this reason new opportunities should be planned in detail as they play a crucial role in sustaining the balance between social groups and also support the soul of the neighborhood (Billig & Churchman, 2003; Keels et al., 2013). From the cultural perspective, Beauregard (1986) classified cultural needs and aesthetic values as the fundamental demand forces behind the gentrification process. In addition, Ley (1996) highlighted the significance of the relationship between the movement of urban artists and gentrification in the city core, and asserted that artists are the pioneers of gentrification (Lazarević et al., 2016). The creation of a free social atmosphere and bohemian lifestyle invites more artists and helps to sustain the gentrification process in a self-perpetuating system (Caulfield, 1994). Ley (2003) claimed that the existence of the creative class that contains people work in art-based jobs or science-related industries (Florida, 2002), contributes to both the cultural and economic capital of an existing neighborhood (Mccarthy & Wang, 2015). However, this new creative class threatens the local cultural identity because as the existing community is displaced by the newcomers, they take their local values, traditions, and characteristic behaviors away with them (Tiesdell, Oc, & Heath, 2008). In addition to the social and cultural aspects of gentrification, the economy is always one of its major driving forces, and this is reflected in its potential not only to increase property values (Smith, 1979; 1996), but also to maximize the value of living in urban core.

Residents’ experiences of a gentrified neighborhood in Istanbul: The case of Akaretler row houses


Smith (1979) argues that the process of gentrification is more related to the occurrence of capital than the return of people to the central core of cities; moreover, he also stated the contribution of gentrification to reach the highest value of the property. Therefore; gentrification is considered to provide a reliable path to economic recovery because the physical investment attracts high-income groups and increases demand; thus, the market value of the buildings and land increases (Billig & Churchman, 2003; Bardaka et al, 2018). The rise of investment and demand from high-income groups also attract private sector developers, thereby increasing the number of projects in the surrounding areas (Smith, 2001; Bishaw, 2014). In addition, and as mentioned above, gentrification attracts the cultural class and this class develops cultural capital. This circular situation causes the commodification of culture and the consumption of art; and whether the commodification is positive or not, it makes an economic contribution and increases economic capital (Cameron & Coaffee, 2005; Meltzer & Ghorbani, 2017) but also consequently causes a social transformation in the area. As a conclusion, the most commonly mentioned positive and negative effects of gentrification in the literature are summarized in (Table 1), and these effects can only be restricted by concentrated efforts at conservation (Sampaio, 2007). However, Bandarin (1979) claimed that there is no way to provide physical, economic, and social conservation simultaneously. Cities can be affected positively only by systematic organization, an increase in the participation capacity of citizens, and detailed planning (Bandarin, 1979). 3. Case study: Akaretler row houses restoration project 3.1. Location, history and physical characteristics Akaretler is a group of row houses at what is now the intersection of the Şair Nedim and Süleyman Seba streets in the Beşiktaş district of Istanbul (Figure 2). This is one of the most characterful districts within the city due to its central location, historical heritage, local

Figure 2. Location of Akaretler row houses.

shops and markets, and the variety of functions it offers. It is also a critical focal point of the European side of Istanbul with a significant potential for both day and night usage, and until recently, it has managed to preserve much of its local atmosphere. Many different social groups have been attracted to this area, but a majority of its current residents are middle-class families and university students. The Akaretler row houses are con-

Figure 3. Pervititch map (Source: portfolio/portfolio-4/page/22/).

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school, a center of the CHP political party, and Turkey’s first mental health hospital (Batur, Yücel, & Fersan, 1979). In total, the row house group consists of 66 parcels and 133 residential units (Figure 3). The parcel sizes are generally similar, and the plots are divided by vertical lines. There are two main building typologies and only minor variations were applied during their original design (Figure 4-5) (Akbayar, 1998). Figure 4. Akaretler row houses type 1.

Figure 5. Akaretler row houses type 2.

sidered to be the first mass housing project of the Ottoman Empire and are accepted as Istanbul’s most continuous and monumental example of attached houses (Özsoydan, 2007; Batur, Yücel, & Fersan, 1979). The architect of the Akaretler project was Sarkis Bey Balyan, and it was undertaken on the orders of Sultan Abdülaziz in January 1875. The houses were originally intended for the guards and workers of Dolmabahçe Palace to use as lodgings, but some were rented separately by people from middle and low income groups. (Koçu, 1993). During the Republican period, the ownership of the row houses was transferred to the General Directorate of Foundations, and their usage was allocated for public institutions and organizations. In addition to their original purpose, the row houses have been used as an officers’ residence, a district post office, a police station, the Mimar Sinan University campus, a primary

3.2. Akaretler row houses restoration project By the beginning of the 1980s, Akaretler had been confronted by numerous physical and social problems. As a possible solution, the ministry of culture and tourism planned the restoration of the row houses (Milliyet Newspaper, 1980). To further this aim, the existing tenants were evicted by the municipality and the speed of this process caused a great deal of bad feeling (Eğilmez, 1982). In 1982, law no. 2634 was ratified. This law was intended to encourage tourism, and was the first step of a new renovation project. According to this law, the private sector could invest in public properties under the auspices of the regulations covering public land allocation for tourism. In order to initiate the Akaretler Row Houses Restoration Project, Net Holding signed a build-operate-and-transfer contract with the General Directorate of Foundations on October 15, 1987. This contract stipulated that they follow the rules set out by the Ministry of Tourism. At the end of the build and operation period, which was defined as 49 years, the company was required to transfer the buildings to the General Directorate of Foundations. Net Holding developed a proposal which included the Atatürk Museum, offices, an apart hotel, a hotel, stores, and parking functions that all fell within the scope of the Akaretler Development Project. According to the proposal, the project was to be carried out in three stages, but construction did not start until 1996 because of economic and political problems. The long period of inactivity between 1988 and 1996 was regularly in the news and was a

Residents’ experiences of a gentrified neighborhood in Istanbul: The case of Akaretler row houses


Figure 6. Development process of Akaretler.

subject of great debate. Sabah Newspaper had a headline which stated, “History is dying” for Akaretler in 1994. According to the news article that followed, the area had suffered physical and social depression since it fell into disuse (Sabah Newspaper, 1994). However, after a construction license was granted in 1996, the image of Akaretler changed in the print media, as illustrated by subsequent headlines such as: “Heavenly Project for Akaretler” and “Akaretler is Shining” (Radikal Newspaper, 1996; Sabah Newspaper, 1998). The construction of the first and second stages and the carpark unit were completed between 1996 and 2002. In 2003, Garanti Bank Life Tourism Commerce Inc. purchased the shares of the Akaretler Project, and in 2005, Bilgili Holding took control. Between 1987 and 2008, the project changed 13 times because of changes that were made to its requirements (Figure 6) (Sürmegöz, 2010). The new developer intended to transform the area into a luxury-shopping district and so the project included a hotel, 55 residence units, and 34 shops when it was completed in 2008 (Figure 7). In 2009, the Akaretler Row Houses Restoration Project won the first place in the ULI Global Awards of Excellence which included 39 projects from 17 countries. The award was mentioned in magazines and newspapers and was used as an important advertising tool. Despite all the advertisements and developments, the row houses did not attract as much attention as expected. Therefore, the land use policy of the development company underwent a radical change and the area entered a transformation period to convert it into an art and design district. Empty

shops were rented to art galleries and design studios, and many cafes, restaurants, and bars were opened. However, after this process, and like the previous stores, some of these restaurants and art galleries shut down and the units were again left empty. During this period, Akaretler was reintroduced as an investment opportunity that stood in contrast to more instantly profitable properties (Severöz, 2017). Currently, the units previously used by shops and boutiques have become branded restaurants, cafes, bars, and art galleries and still there are empty buildings that remain for rent. The area hosts, except from the new residents of the row houses, mostly upper middle and upper income residents and daily visitors from Istanbul. 3.3. Effects of Akaretler row houses project In this study, both the negative and positive impacts of the project on the

Figure 7. The latest proposal for Akaretler (Source: Bilgili Holding).

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neighborhood is evaluated according to the perspective of local residents. To understand how both non-gentrifier residents and business owners, who might also be the subject of displacement in the future, interpretate the impact of gentrification on their neighborhood, semi structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 28 local people. The in-depth interviewing method allows a primary connection to the knowledge source without the need for mediation and creates a comfortable atmosphere in which the participants are more likely to reveal genuine feelings and opinions (Showkat & Parveen, 2017). While 22 of the respondents were local residents or business owners, there were also 2 academic urban planners, 2 urban planning authorities from the Beşiktaş municipality, and 2 real estate agents. All of the interviewees were over 35 years old and were aware of the past and present situations of the Akaretler row houses and their surroundings. The educational level of the research group ranged from high school graduates to holders of bachelor degrees and Ph.Ds. The majority of the respondents (60%) are self-employed with workplaces located in the surrounding areas of Akaretler. Information was obtained in the summer and fall 2018 and each interview lasted between 20-30 minutes. In this study, the effects of the Akaretler Row Houses Restoration Project have been evaluated according to their physical, economic, functional, cultural, and social aspects.

3.3.1. Physical effects The interviews made with the local people shows that the majority support the changes in the physical conditions arising from the restoration project. All the respondents have lived in the district for more than 30 years, and when they compare the before and after situation of the row houses, they find the restoration to have been successful and are pleased with the new physical environment. In addition, they asserted that their own properties have been positively affected by the project in terms of better above ground facilities and also improvements to underground infrastructure such as the water supply and sewage systems. “The physical atmosphere is definitely more impressive than the former condition.” (Male, 65, Tradesmen) “The row houses were changed from unwanted wrecks to impressive elegant buildings due to the project. Today, when I walk on the street, I feel like I am in a movie scene.” (Female, 45, Resident) “Today, the whole environment is totally unusual and immaculate. Also, the Şair Nedim and Süleyman Saba streets developed with the project and this state has increased the attractiveness and value of our properties.” (Male, 48, Tradesmen) In addition to the local users, academicians and authorities in the local municipality claimed that the improvement and renovation of the physical pattern can be accepted as the most successful part of project (Figure 8). For these historically and architecturally valuable buildings, the conserva-

Figure 8. Akaretler row houses before and after restoration (Source: Bilgili Holding). Residents’ experiences of a gentrified neighborhood in Istanbul: The case of Akaretler row houses


tion and development approaches were combined appropriately. “The whole physical structure, both above ground and underground, was renovated. This new environment has attracted users and investors, especially big brands, and has increased the liveliness and motion in the site.” (Female, Urban Planner for Beşiktaş Municipality) “The balance between the conservation and development approaches is very successful and the restoration proposals are highly suited to the historical pattern.” (Female, 45, Resident, Urban Planner-Academician) Consequently, as Kennedy and Leonard (2001) pointed out, a high quality physical environment that provides prestige for newcomers is one of the authentic outcomes of the gentrification process. In addition, according to the interviews and observations in this study, it can be stated that the Akaretler Row Houses Restoration Project improved the quality of the physical structures while protecting their historical and architectural value. Although Sampaio (2002) emphasized the physical segregation between the inside and outside of a revitalization project, the physical segregation of Akaretler had always existed due to its architectural value. 3.3.2. Economic effects Together with the increase of commercial activities such as services and tourism in the project area, it can be argued that an economic revival and improved employment rates were created in the neighborhood. After the revitalization project, Akaretler became a new focal point like the Taksim and Nişantaşı neighborhoods. However, it could not become as economically developed as hoped, and the concept was changed from that of a luxury shopping district to that of a creative hub. Nevertheless, the imposition of high rents continued to decrease the demand for the buildings, and so the real estate policies underwent a further revision. “After a few years from the completion of the project, the demand for the row houses started to decrease due to their high rent and sale prices; moreover, even the people from high-income groups did

Table 2. Land unit prices (in $) of Akaretler based on revenue administration.

Table 3. Unit prices of Akaretler based on revenue administration.

not prefer these buildings. Many brands started to close their shops and these were transformed into restaurants, coffee shops, and bars. However, the real estate firm of the project kept their prices pegged for a long time.” (Yeşiltaş, Real Estate Agent) “… the big brands began to close their branches because of the high rents… Then, they planned to invite art studios and revised their project visions from finance to art; however, the prices were not affordable, especially for artists and small studios.” (Usluca, Real Estate Agent) In addition to the financial situation of the project itself, its economic effect can also be observed in the property values of its immediate surroundings. According to data from the reports of the Revenue Administration (Table 2), the dollar unit prices of land increased between 2002 and 2014 along the Şair Nedim and Süleyman Seba streets (Table 3). Especially after the completion of the project in 2010, this progress has continued to accelerate. On the other hand, the project drew the attention of the investors to the neighborhood and a new large-scale housing project was planned and completed during the same period. “When the restoration project was completed, the demand for its surroundings developed rapidly. Some large-scale housing projects like Maçka Residence were constructed. Due to the restoration project and large-scale housing estates,

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the square meter unit prices of buildings were at least doubled.” (Yeşiltaş, Real Estate Agent) “It can be clearly said that the restoration project increased the economic power of the district. It also affected property values positively and became a driving power behind the making of new large-scale investments.” (Female, Urban Planner for Beşiktaş Municipality) “The restoration project increased the rents and prices in its surroundings. In particular, students started to complain about high rents because property owners point to the project as a precedent. This situation is the basis of the gentrification concept.” (Female, 77, Resident, Urban Planner-Academician) Physical improvements increase the market demand for an area and increase the highest potential value of the properties within it (Smith, 1979; 1996; Billig & Churchman, 2003). This effect also spreads beyond the project borders and produces similar results in its surroundings (Smith, 2001). In the case of the restoration of the Akaretler row houses, the economic value and activity caused by the project cannot be ignored. The increased land values, unit prices, and employment level, and the overall economic revival in the area can be accepted as positive economic outcomes of the project especially from the point of landowners. On the other hand, serious financial issues arising from the real estate policies surrounding the project and affecting the tenants, some of whom have been living in the area for a long time, must be counted as a major negative consequence. This tendency might lead a residential gentrification in the surrounding area in the long run. 3.3.3. Functional effects According to Batur (1979), and as previously mentioned, the Akaretler row houses have had many different functions. The majority of local users remembered these functions and they emphasized their public nature. They claimed that the row houses were more open to public use before the restoration, but today their commercial functions as cafes, bars, and hotels that appeal to mostly middle and upper-income residents and visitors from

different parts of Istanbul limit user diversity due to the financial constraints of the local people. “The community center where we spent our free time was very important for us. There was a coffeehouse in the center where people used to met each other and discuss daily issues. Also, there were some sport activities like table tennis for young people to spend their time.” (Male, 54, Tradesmen) “There were different functions like a grocery store, shoemaker, ironmonger, and other shops in the row houses. We used them a lot, especially the community center.” (Male, 65, Resident) “The row houses were open to us, it was free, today we have to pay money to do something in there.” (Female, 40, Resident) “When the project opened to the public in 2008, we were shocked because of the big brands, expensive shops, and restaurants. We knew that the restoration would change many things; however, we did not expect such radical changes.” (Male, 50, Tradesmen) After the completion of the project, in order to attract the desired social profile the type of functions totally changed (Figure 9), so the local identity. Today, some of the row houses have residential functions, but the majority are used by service industries such as rented office spaces, art studios, restaurants, bars, cafes, and a hotel. Although local users complain about this change, academicians and authorities support this transformation and the new functions. They emphasize the importance of the row houses and claim that they should be used for more suitable purposes. “The project is in harmony with the touristic aspect of Beşiktaş. There are several different facilities and most of them attract users from different areas. The area also has strong connections with the Nişantaşı, Taksim and Bosporus neighborhoods. In short, it is a very vivacious place in Beşiktaş and the project has allowed this to be possible.” (Female, Urban Planner for Beşiktaş Municipality) “The functional pattern of area totally changed with the project. There is a strong relationship between these new functions and the surrounding areas.

Residents’ experiences of a gentrified neighborhood in Istanbul: The case of Akaretler row houses


Figure 9. Functional change of row houses (Source: Bilgili Holding).

The project has an integrated spatial scenario in terms of its functional systems.” (Female, 45, Resident, Urban Planner-Academician) In brief, it can be said that the project has played an important role in promoting new functions and supporting mixed use. The functional change, occurred in Akaretler, spread and continued along Süleyman Saba and Şair Nedim Streets. The number of coffee shops, restaurants, hotels, art galleries, and specific retail activities like organic food market started to increase in these streets. While this commercial transformation contributes to the demanded urban space quality by the newcomers, the same urban space causes a decrease in the life quality of especially low income residents. Despite the difficulties and concerns regarding public access, these new functions have created a new focal point in Beşiktaş and increased interest in the area and its close surroundings. They play a critical role in sustaining the balance between local users and newcomers, and as new functions are planned, both the needs of existing users and the expectations of outsiders should be evaluated to provide a sustainable social environment (Billig & Churchman, 2003; Freeman, 2005). 3.3.4. Cultural effects In terms of the cultural environment, the first visible result is the Ataturk museum which is open to the public on weekdays. In addition, the exhibition halls, design studios, and art galleries which were converted from retail stores after 2010 along with the transformation of the district into a venue to hold street festivals, celebrations, and shows changed the cultural pattern of the area. The new activities which offer various consumption al-

ternatives and support the trendy life style, made Akaretler more attractive to especially high-income groups and daily tourists. The interviewed academicians evaluated these developments as a contribution to the existing cultural capital of the Beşiktaş district and to the row houses: “Beşiktaş has always had cultural potential; therefore, the project does not affect the area’s cultural perspective too much. It just increased the type of users, such as tourists, and supported a greater variety.” (Female, 45, Resident, Urban Planner-Academician) “Cultural events increase the attraction of the row houses… The row houses have become a popular place with the help of event advertisements in magazines.” (Female, 77, Resident, Urban Planner-Academician) However, the majority of local users asserted that events and festivals do not match their expectations, and believe that they should include more local values or traditions. In addition, they emphasized that there is not a sincere atmosphere that would prompt them to communicate with the newcomers, especially tourists. Therefore, they generally do not attend these organized events. “I have never been to the Ataturk Museum, I do not even know if it is free or not. A few days ago, there was an exhibition but I do not know what exactly it was. I saw the posters when I walked by on the street.” (Male, 54, Tradesmen) “The user profile totally changed after the restoration project. Especially due to the existence of the W Hotel, the number of foreign tourists has increased. Also, people from high-income groups have started to come to Akaretler. But, I have no communication with them.” (Male, 44, Resident) “Many events have taken place there,

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but I never attend. I have no time or money for them, I have to work.” (Male, 42, Tradesmen) “At New Year, they arranged a celebration party in the street. However, this celebration led to traffic problems and noise pollution. We complained to the authorities, but we did not get a result.” (Male, 55, Resident) “How can I go to a shopping festival? Everything is too expensive for me. I prefer the neighborhood bazaar. There should be more local and cheaper events.” (Female, 40, Resident) The restoration project transformed the row houses to a place for cultural events which in turn raised their popularity. However, while these attractions invite the desired new user profile, they exclude local residents due to their economic and social constraints. In response, these residents demand cheaper activities that contain both local and traditional values. 3.3.5. Social effects As mentioned above, there are some positive physical, economic, functional, and cultural effects of the Akaretler Row Houses Restoration Project. However, the social outcomes of the project have proved to be the most wide-ranging. All of the other effects of the project have a direct connection with the social environment, and they have lead to some problematic changes and conflicts. The first issue to result from the project was the forced displacement of the existing tenants, and this is a key memory for many of the participants in this study. “Before the beginning of the construction, I think in the 1980s, my relatives and other people were removed and transferred to other public housing in Beşiktaş. People from the municipality told them that the row houses will be used for tourism. Because of their jobs, my relatives were not affected too badly; however, some of their neighbors had some difficulties due to this sudden eviction.” (Female, 48, Resident) “Many stores in Akaretler closed before the beginning of the construction. Many people had to leave their homes.” (Male, 50, Resident) “My grandparents lived in the row

houses. They did not think that they would be evicted by the government because of the project. However, they suddenly had to find a new house to move to, and this process was very distressing. There were many families like us…” (Female, 45, Resident, Urban Planner-Academician) The second issue is the economic disparity between users. Although the project has provided a recovery in the neighborhood economy, local people could afford and use these row houses before the restoration. Today, they only appeal to incoming highincome groups, and the high rents mean that they are not affordable for local residents. This condition is exemplified by the huge gap between the unit prices of Akaretler and those outside of the project area. “Rents were more affordable before the restoration process. Now, the situation is the total opposite. Rents start from 10000$, and so living in Akaretler is like a dream. Akaretler means money for us. If you don’t have money to spend there, you cannot use anything from there.” (Male, 55, Tradesmen) “I spent my childhood in the row houses, and when I compare the past and present situation, I accept the positive physical effects of the restoration that have increased the aesthetic value of the environment. However, none of the new functions appeal to us. At least the name of the hotel could be Turkish. I miss the neighborhood soul, the honest grocery owner, and the entertaining times in the coffee house.” (Male, 57, Resident) “When the construction started, I read a news item that was like an advertisement for the project. The headline of the news was “Cooking onions or garlic and eating kebabs is forbidden!” Just this news gives an idea about the user profile of the project.” (Male, 48, Resident) The last issue was derived from the functional and physical effects of the project. Although the quality of the physical environment has increased and the projects have provided a new type of mixed-use functions, these opportunities appeal only to the predetermined high and middle-high income user groups. Local residents do not prefer the new facilities due to their

Residents’ experiences of a gentrified neighborhood in Istanbul: The case of Akaretler row houses


high prices and they use the Akaretler row houses as a shortcut. In the past, the row houses had local shops and public facilities and were more open to public use. People could spend their time without spending money, especially in the community center. “The row houses were more open to public use and there were more proper facilities and spaces for us. We could use the school, community center, and other commercial facilities like the grocery store. Now, the row houses appeal to a specific social profile, especially high-income groups.” (Male, 54, Resident) “None of these restaurants and upper-class shops appeal to us. I hope they will not spread to other parts of the Şair Nedim and Süleyman Saba streets.” (Male, 42, Tradesmen) “We can only use the streets of the Akaretler to walk through, they are the only free things in there.” (Female, 47, Resident) “The multi-story parking garage could be very beneficial for us because of the parking problem in Beşiktaş; however, the prices are so high. I have only used it once and I cannot afford regular use.” (Male, 55, Resident) “The new functions and new users do not affect my jobs positively. I never get a job from the people living there. If there is an electrical problem, they will not hire me to fix it.” (Male, 65, Tradesmen) Although academicians and authorities in the municipality support the opinions of the local residents and identify this project as an example of gentrification, they also claim that it is successful because it increases the quality of the physical and social environment, promotes a better vision of Beşiktaş, and also protects the deserved architectural and historical significance of the row houses. “I think that the restoration project is a successful example of gentrification. The social environment changed positively after the project... The other functions have also changed the dominant user profile that is, generally, white collar workers. From the state officials of foundations to high-income white collar workers, that means gentrification.” (Female, 77, Resident, Urban Planner-Academician) “The project invited a new social pro-

file that includes white collar workers, artists, and international tourists.... Also, with the restoration, the property prices in Süleyman Saba and Şair Nedim streets increased rapidly. I can say clearly that the project initiated the current gentrification process in Akaretler, and that the social consequences of the project should be observed and studies should be done in the future.” (Female, Urban Planner for Beşiktaş Municipality) Consequently, as seen in Table 4, Akaretler Row Houses Restoration Project has affected the economic, physical, functional, social and cultural environment both positively and negatively. According to existing residents, these changes have had a negative influence especially on the social environment. Some positive effects such as the economic contribution of the project do not affect local residents and business owners directly; therefore, there is an argument to be made that the majority of the positive effects are valid only within the site, and do not apply to its surroundings. As Shaw & Hagemans (2015) stated, the displacement issue is an adverse result of gentrification. In addition, as the existing community is displaced Table 4. Positive and negative effects of Akaretler project.

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by newcomers, they leave with their local values, traditions, and characteristic behaviors (Tiesdell, Oc, & Heath, 2008). On the other hand, external interventions often break the natural harmony between social status and complicate the integration process (Robinson, 1995). In this context, the interviews and observations show that while the public accessibility of the row houses decreased, the privatization of the public spaces increased. Those responsible for the project have not been able to provide integration between the social groups, and this has lead to segregation. 4. General evaluation and result Gentrification is a physical, economic, social and cultural phenomenon, and commonly involves an invasion “by more affluent users” (Hackworth, 2002) of a previous group’s area and the replacement or displacement of many of the original occupants (Kempen & Weesep, 1994; Bondi, 1999; Bostic & Martin, 2003). From the first wave to the third wave of the process, gentrification has been transformed from an unexpected result of the transformation process to a deliberately applied redevelopment policy tool (Hyra, 2016). In Istanbul, with the third wave, the role of private firms and public-private partnership increased and gentrification became a legitimate redevelopment policy (Çeker and Belge, 2015). In this sense the Akaretler Row Houses Restoration Project can be accepted as an example of third wave gentrification because of the roles of both the state and private sectors. However, even though it started with the aim of conserving the existing pattern and the revitalization of physical conditions, it has lead to the gentrification of the area and has brought some negative social consequences. In terms of the physical impact; Akaratler Row Houses Project provided tangible positive results such as a higher environmental quality, the development of amenities, and a better aesthetic atmosphere. In addition, the success of the project in terms of sustaining a balance between preservation and development is highlighted. However, local residents remarked on the

physical disparities between the project and the surrounding area, which is in-line with the claims of Chirstafore & Leguizamon (2018). In functional terms, high-quality mixed-use functions decreased the public access to the site, despite the fact that new proposals should be open to all groups (Billig & Churchman, 2003). The changes in the physical and functional environment increased the demand for both the site itself and its surrounding area and so increased the value of land and buildings. Even though the Akaretler Row Houses Restoration Project has provided economic recovery, after the project the area transformed into a new focal point like Taksim, Ortaköy, and Nişantaşı and gained a new identity which is far from its previous local identity. In addition, local residents pointed out the lack of affordability and the high prices of the row houses. New economic conditions bring new social profiles (Musterd and Ostendorf, 2005) and these new social groups, namely; white-collar workers, apply social pressure to existing users, leading to social segregation (Boterman & Gent, 2014; Parekh, 2014). Although the responding academicians highlighted the existence of a positive social profile in Akaretler, local respondents dwelled on the economic disparity between the groups, a lack of social balance, and integration difficulties. And also, some respondents still remember the eviction of their relatives from the row houses with a degree of bitterness. The social integration problems have also affected the cultural consequences of the project. In Akaretler, according to the academicians and the municipal authority, the new profile supports the cultural value of the area, and the project has transformed the row houses into an attractive venue for cultural events. On the other hand, the local respondents indicated that they do not attend these events, as they do not appeal to them either socially or economically. In such cases, the perceived lack of respect for the local identity makes social integration more difficult, even impossible as indicated by Tiesdell and his colleagues (2008). Even though the Akaretler Row

Residents’ experiences of a gentrified neighborhood in Istanbul: The case of Akaretler row houses


Houses Restoration Project can be stated as being successful physically, today the district appeals only to the pre-determined high-income groups it was intended to attract, rather than offering its services to all, and it would not be incorrect to predict that this process will spread to most of its surrounding areas as already happened along the Süleyman Seba and Şair Nedim Streets. With an expansion of the effects of gentrification, the negative impacts on the neighborhood can only increase and even these effects might lead to new forms of gentrification in the district. Urban transformation should be a process that protects residents’ rights and place memory, and which also ensures their participation. It is the local authority that can and should prevent capital-oriented transformation, the privatization of public spaces, the displacement of local people during this process, and the destruction of local culture. As a result, there is a need for clearer urban policies regarding the protection of social and cultural patterns while attempting to conserve or repurpose architecturally valuable examples of the physical structure. References Akbayar, N. (1998). Dünden Bugüne Beşiktaş. İstanbul: Beşiktaş Belediyesi. Akaretler’deki Vakıf Evleri Turistlere Kiralanacak. (1980, June 11). Milliyet. Retrieved from http://gazetearsivi. Akaretler Parlıyor. (1998, July 21). Sabah. Retrieved from Appleyard, D. (1981). The conservation of European cities. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Aalbers, M. B. (2019). Introduction To The Forum: From Third To FifthWave Gentrification. Tijds. voor econ. en Soc. Geog., 110, 1-11. doi:10.1111/ tesg.12332 August, M., & Walks, A. (2018). Gentrification, suburban decline, and the financialization of multi-family rental housing: The case of Toronto. Geoforum, 89, 124136. doi:10.1016/j. geoforum.2017.04.011 Atkinson, R. (2003). Introduction: Misunderstood Savior or Vengeful

Wrecker? The Many Meanings and Problems of Gentrification. Urban Studies, 40(12), 2343-2350. Bandarin, F. (1979). The Bolonha Experience: Planning and Historic Renovation in a Communist City. In The conservation of European Cities, 178-202. London: The MIT Press. Bardaka, E., Delgado, M. S., Florax, R. J. (2018). Causal identification of transit induced gentrification and spatial spillover effects: The case of the Denver light rail. Journal of Transport Geography, 71, 15-31. doi:10.1016/j. jtrangeo.2018.06.025 Batur, A. (1960). Akaretler. In İstanbul Ansiklopedisi, 149-150. İstanbul. Batur, A., Yücel, A., Fersan, N. (1979). İstanbul’da Ondokuzuncu Yüzyıl Sıra Evleri “Koruma ve Yeniden Kullanım Bir Monografik Araştırma”. O.D.T.Ü. Mimarlık Fakültesi Dergisi,5(2). Retrieved from http://jfa.arch.metu. sayi_2/185-205.pdf Beauregard, R. (1986). The chaos and complexity of gentrification. In Gentrification of the City, 35–55. Winchester: Allen & Unwin. Beşiktaş’a Cennet Projce. (1996, December 28). Radikal. Retrieved from Billig, M., Churchman, A. (2003). Planned gentrification as a means of urban regeneration. In Culture, Environmental Action, and Sustainability, 171-184. Hogrefe Publishing. Billingham, C. M. (2017). Waiting for Bobos: Displacement and Impeded Gentrification in a Midwestern City. City & Community, 16(2), 145-168. doi:10.1111/cico.12235 Bishaw, A. (2014). Changes in areas with concentrated poverty: 2000 to 2010. American Community Survey Reports ACS, 27. Washington, D.C: U.S Census Bureau. Bondi, L. (1999). Gender, Class, and Gentrification: Enriching the Debate. Environment and Planning D: Society and Space,17(3). Retrieved from abs/10.1068/d170261 Bostic, R. W., Martin, R. W. (2003).

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frontier, and the restructuring of urban space. In Gentrification of the City. London: Allen & Unwin. Smith, N. (1996). The New Urban Frontier: Gentrification and the Revanchist City. London and New York: Routledge. Smith, N. (2001). New globalism, new urbanism: gentrification as global urban strategy. Antipode, 34(3), 427– 50. Smith, N., Williams, P. (1986). Alternatives to orthodoxy: invitation to a debate. In Gentrification of the City, 1–10. London: Allen & Unwin. Smith, D. P., & Holt, L. (2007). Studentification and “apprentice” gentrifiers within Britain’s provincial towns and cities: Extending the meaning of gentrification. Environmental and Planning A, 39(1), 142-161. Sürmegöz, K. (2010). Tarihi çevrelerin yeniden değerlendirilmesine araç olarak kentsel tasarım; Beşiktaş Akaretler Sıraevleri örneği. (Master’s thesis). Mimar Sinan Güzel Sanatlar Üniversitesi, İstanbul. Tarih Can Çekişiyor. (1994, September 01). Sabah. Retrieved from Tiesdell, S., Oc, T., Heath, T. (2008). Revitalizing historic urban quarters. Oxford: Architectural Press. Tuncer, T., İslam, T. (2017). Studentification as a new form of gentrifica-

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ITU A|Z • Vol 16 No 3 • November 2019 • 37-47

Case issues and data on houses in the 17th century Istanbul Kadı registers

Hatice Gökçen ÖZKAYA • Department of Architecture, Faculty of Architecture, Suleyman Demirel University, Isparta, Turkey

doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2019.67044

Received: July 2018 • Final Acceptance: July 2019

Abstract The Kadı registers, like many written sources of Ottoman record-keeping, are important sources for historical research on Ottoman urban and housing history. These records also include research potential in terms of taking into account different cases together. The purpose of this article is to reveal this potential for architects and architectural historians. To do this, for four different regions of Istanbul – Istanbul (Suriçi), Eyüp, Galata and Usküdar – legal matters that arose in four periods in the 17th century have been studied in detail. This study has included many cases involving different housing issues, such as sales, mortgage (rehin) or temporary sales of houses as collateral (bey bi’l vefa/bey bi’l istiğlal), inheritance of property, tenancy of houses, granting ownership rights (hibe), establishment of waqf (charitable) foundations and cost estimation of housing repairs. In turn, discussions about the houses in different contexts that were recorded in the courts during the 17th century have been revealed. Within the scope of the article, these cases about the houses and the data obtained from this material is introduced to researchers. In this way, a substructure is prepared for new discussions, comparative reviews, analyses and research in the field of housing during the Ottoman period in Istanbul. Keywords House, Istanbul, Kadı registers, Ottoman, 17th century.


1. Introduction As in many cities in Ottoman regions, due to the lack of the number of houses dated before the 19th century, “housing in the Ottoman period” is an area that is full of unknowns and waiting to be investigated in the capital city of Istanbul. In order to eliminate gaps in this area, Ottoman written documents provide valuable data. This article deals with cases in Istanbul Kadı1 registers of the 17th century that exemplify the houses of a large urban group in Istanbul and the information about the houses in these cases. The aim is to introduce these cases, which provide important information about the houses and the city, to architectural history researchers and to create a new route for Ottoman housing research. This study was established within the scope of a research project supported by the TUBITAK Career Development Program and also provides information about the material used by the project. The material contains all kinds of court records related to houses in Istanbul in the Kadı registers of the 17th century. Examined registers and the number of cases about houses in them are shown in Table 1. These registers include transactions on many issues, such as sales, mortgages (rehin), inheritance of property, tenancy of houses, granting of ownership rights, establishment of waqf foundations, and the estimated costs of housing repairs. The number of cases in Istanbul (Suriçi), Eyüp, Galata and Usküdar involving these issues has been evaluated and is shown in Figure 1, Figure 2, Figure 3 and Figure 4, respectively. According to these graphics, the most frequently encountered cases are sales transactions. The cases involving this issue are in the percentage segments that vary between 44%– 58% in the registers examined on the basis of regions (Figure 5). In the second order, the transactions where the debtor is providing the house as collateral for a loan are displayed. These transactions include mortgage (rehin) of houses and temporary sales transactions called “Bey Bi’l vefa” or “Bey Bi’l Istiğlal”. The ratio of the number of cases on this issue varies

Table 1. Examined registers and number of cases related to houses.

Figure 1. Number of cases according to issues in Istanbul (Suriçi) for four periods of the 17th century.

between 12%–24% (Figure 5). Other case issues are generally below 10% in the context of the number of cases. These can be arranged in order as cases about a portion of hereditary with the houses divided among the inheritors, cases related to the tenants such as tenancy of houses, transferring tenant rights, granting the residence permit, cases related to granting ownership rights of houses, cases related to the establishment of waqf foundations and cases related to the estimation of the cost of repairing houses. In addition, issues such as the so-called istibdal (exchange of properties between property owners -waqfs and people) and other issues are negligible in terms

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Kadı is a Muslim judge who interpreted and administered the religious law of Islam and settled civil cases about sales of the properties, disputes between the urban dwellers, inheritance, housing and Islamic endowments, etc. 1


obtained from these cases. After the informative section, the article puts forward proposals as to how data from the registers can be used for research about urban texture and the architecture of urban housing.

Figure 2. Number of cases according to issues in Eyub for four periods of the 17th century.

Figure 3. Number of cases according to issues in Galata for four periods of the 17th century. Concerning the studies about the history of Ottoman houses using the cases of sales transactions, see Artan, 1989; Faroqhi, 2009; Gönenç, 2014; Halaç, 2010. 2

3 For further information on these cases, please see Günay, 2012, p.15-24.

of both being very low in proportion to the whole and the very limited information to be obtained from them. In addition, the data obtained from the Kadı registers also vary according to case issues. Figure 6, which shows what kind of data can be accessed in each case, will be enlightening in this sense. These data will be explained in detail with case issues. Following the quantitative evaluation of the cases and data, detailed information will be given on the case issues and the data groups that can be

2. Sales of houses The most common case related to the houses in the Kadı registers concerns the sale of houses. On average, 44% of the cases that could be examined about the houses during the 17th century in Istanbul (Suriçi), 58% of the cases in Eyüp, 52% of the cases in Galata and 57% of the cases in Usküdar (Figure 5) concern property sales. The results show that sales of houses between individuals are the most common practice, and that middle-class city-dwellers frequently put their homes up for sale. Also, these ratios show why sales transactions in the court registers have been frequently applied as data to be used in research about Ottoman houses.2 A house sale was a transaction taking place with the approval of the buyer and seller in the presence of the Kadı, so detailed information about this process and the houses subject to sale is given in the registers.3 First of all, since sales transactions take place between individuals, the case registers contain the title and name of the old and new owners of the houses. Thus, in the light of this information, researchers can determine the socioeconomic status, ethno-religious background and gender of the new and former owners. Also, the location of the houses is indicated with the name of the city and the information about the quarter (mahalle), as also are the names of the owners of the properties surrounding the house. Therefore, it is possible to find out where residents recorded in the registers live in the city. This allows one to see the distribution of different urban groups in the city. In addition, it is also possible to get information about the size and features of the houses being sold. This allows us to access spatial data of the house, such as the rooms, open spaces, as cooking spaces, storage areas, components related to hygiene and some insight into how these spaces are arranged in the house. The other important data about the hous-

Case issues and data on houses in the 17th century Istanbul Kadı registers


es obtained from the sales registers are the sales prices of the houses, namely their financial value. As a result, all information creates a rich database for us to make evaluations about the housing stock in Istanbul. 3. Mortgage (Rehin), temporary sales (Bey Bi’l vefa and Bey Bi’l Istiğlal) of houses Following house sales in frequency are transactions where a debtor provides a house as collateral for a loan (rehin) or a temporary sale (Bey Bi’l vefa or Bey Bi’l Istiğlal). In other words, different practices such as a kind of mortgage or repo are among the most common case issues related to homes.4 On average, these issues affected 17% of registered transactions in Istanbul, 23% in Eyüp, 12% in Galata, and 24% in Usküdar (Figure 5). It is worth explaining that these cases have not been mentioned until now in studies about Ottoman houses, but they are thought to constitute a source of material as rich as sales transactions and create a new discussion route by providing important and interesting contributions to this area. Indeed, these are the methods through which Ottoman people used to try frequently to borrow money. With these ways, for a certain time until the debt is paid, the properties are given as collateral to the money lender or sold temporarily to the lender, on condition that when the debtor/old owner pays his debt, he buys the property from the lender again for the same price.5 As a result of the mortgage (rehin) of the properties for a temporary period, the lender does not gain any profit. The property should only be taken as collateral and the lender cannot utilize it if the real owner of the property does not permit. (Mesci, 2017) However, as a result of the temporary sale of the house (bey bi’l vefa), it is possible for the creditor/ lender to lay down conditions at the beginning, he can use that property during this period. 6 On the other hand, bey bi’l-istiğlal is defined as a type of bey bi’l vefa in which the borrower sells his home to the lender and then rents his home from that lender until he pays his debt.7 Thus, the borrower will be in

Figure 4. Number of cases according to issues in Usküdar for four periods of the 17th century.

Figure 5. Percentage distribution of cases by issues for four regions in the 17th century.

Figure 6. Distribution of types of data obtained from registers by case issues.

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4 Indeed, there are researchers who discuss the similarity of these processes with repos. In his paper, Turan explained in detail the different and similar aspects of Bey Bi’l vefa to repo. See Turan, 2015, p.127-128.

In Netîcetü’lfetâvâ ve Mecmûa-i Atâiyye, the definition of Bey bi’l-vefa is explained as “Bedelini geri getirdiğimde bana satman şartıyla sana sattım, diyerek yapılan akde bey‘u’l-vefa denir. (I sold it to you on condition that you sold it to me when I paid the price.)” This is cited by Kaya from these documents: Dürrîzâde, Mehmed Ârif Efendi, Netîcetü’lfetâvâ, trc. Seyyid Hafız Mehmed elGedûsî, Matbaa-i Âmire, İstanbul h. 1265, s. 496; Atâullah Mehmed Ef., Mecmûa-i Atâiyye, müst. Ali b. Yahya, yazma, İstanbul h. 1140 (Süleymaniye, Esad Ef. 920), vr. 132a. See Kaya, 2010, p.101. 5

6 Bey bi’l vefa is discussed in a wide range of studies in the field of Islamic law. For more detailed information about these discussions that are out of the scope of the article, see the following resources: Yelek, 2016, p.109-119.

this case the tenant of his own house and the creditor will benefit from the rent of the house during the specified period. If the debt is paid at the end of this period, the house will return to its first owner. When examined in detail, it can be seen that these three applications –mortgage (rehin), bey bi’l vefa and bey bi’l istiğlal- are derivatives of each other. Gözübenli (1990) also makes statements supporting this thought. He states that, according to the Hanafi faqih, the transaction which is expressed as a temporary sale for a period of time until the debt is paid, actually means a mortgage. According to this, in all three transactions, it can be said that the debtor used his house as a pledge until he was able to pay his debts to the lender. On the other hand, in the context of the benefits, there are differences between them so that for the lender bey bi’l istiğlal seems to be a much more profitable practice. The rent value of the house sold temporarily with bey bi’l istiğlal is added to the debt at the beginning. When the registers are examined, it is obvious that this application is more attractive for the creditors compared to the mortgage (rehin) and bey bi’l vefa because the amount of rent, with a minimum rate of 10% on average, is paid to the lender as a fixed income during the term of the debt. In the registers, quantitative results among the applications also confirm this situation. Bey bi’l istiğlal (81% of the three methods) is the most preferred method. In other words, the temporary sale and renting of a house to the borrower by the lender at once is a frequently encountered situation in the registers. 8 In addition, when the parties of these transactions are examined, one encounters some interesting findings. The lenders who temporarily become owner of the house in return for the loan are generally either waqf foundations or underage orphans. The reason for them to get involved in these applications is that the cash money is managed and this means that these institutions and orphans obtain income in this way. These findings are consistent with the findings of Kaya (2010) who examines the accounting records. He

says that more than half of the waqfs in Usküdar at the end of the 18th century were using cash capital management methods led by bey bi’l istiğlal and they achieved the most income in these ways.9 In accordance with this information, it can be understood why this material with its rich content is interesting for studies about Ottoman houses. First of all, from these registers, we learn the names and titles of persons/institutions that are the money lenders (new temporary house owner) and also the original house owner who is the debtor – and mostly the temporary tenant of his house after the sale process. Indeed, the original owner of the house generally continues to live in the same house, even as a tenant for a certain period of time, especially for sales transactions made through istiğlal. Therefore, if the residents in the houses are to be examined, this situation of the owner should be taken into account. Besides the borrower’s and lender’s names, detailed information pointing out the quality of the house is given in the registers. Since there is a debt in these applications, the quality of the house provided as collateral for this debt is important. For this reason, as in the sales transactions, the houses are described with their size, features, components and location in the city. Thus, these cases are useful for architectural researchers to evaluate spatial arrangements of Istanbul houses in the 17th century. Another data group that can be reviewed from these cases are the sales prices and the rental prices of the houses for istiğlal cases. However, the situation for these loan cases are different from straight sales transactions. Since the house is sold temporarily as collateral for the debt, it is advisable to have doubts about whether the price of the house given in the registers is the real value or not. As a matter of fact, Mesci (2017) explains this subject in his thesis. He says that it is not necessary to determine the real price of goods sold by the way of bey bi’l vefa; goods can be sold under or above the real value. On the other hand, the real value of the house is not expected to be less than the owner’s debt. Therefore, it is useful

Case issues and data on houses in the 17th century Istanbul Kadı registers


to think that the sale price of the house sold against the debt is more than the debt, and that it may be worth close to it. However, it is certain that the analysis cannot be made on exact sale prices as in the sales registers. The same situation goes for the rental value of the house, unfortunately. As an example of this situation, the sicil numbered 139 of the Rumeli court provides remarkable information about a case of bey bi’l istiğlal. (Rumeli Court sicil no.139) A person named Yorgi owed 160 esedi guruş to a waqf foundation and pledged his house against this debt to the foundation through istiğlal. However, when his debt could not be paid, the house was put on sale at auction by the foundation. During this sale, it was stated that Yorgi’s debt was 216 guruş and the sale price of the house was 250 guruş. The difference and increase of 56 guruş in the debt must be due to accumulated rent. However; due to the lack of information about the elapsed time, it is impossible to find out the monthly or annual value of the rent. But it seems that the house was being sold over 90 guruş of debt through auction, indicating that the prices in these applications do not point to the real values of the houses, as Mesci explained. Also, as we have seen, it is reasonable to assume that the real value is equal to or more than the debt. 4. Inheritance / Portion of the inheritance Cases about inheritance of properties also provide material for studies of the Ottoman houses. However, it should be noted that the number of these cases is very limited because registers related to the houses inherited and shared between the inheritors throughout the century are on average 9% of the registers in Istanbul, 3% of the registers in Eyüp, 13% of the registers in Galata and 4% of the registers in Üsküdar (Figure 5). Since the cases vary in terms of the data available, it is necessary to evaluate them in two groups. First, some of the cases mainly involve a discussion about how to equitably share the portions of the house among the inheritors and disagreements between the share-

holders about this subject. According to the data obtained from this first group, we can find information about the property owners/tenants, location of the house and the residents of neighboring lands as well as sometimes the size of the house. Second, other cases are concerned with estate accounting (tereke). In this group, the amount of data obtained from the registers about the estate accounting is very limited. These registers provide only the data on the location and the real value of the house. Therefore; it is useful to take into account that all these cases, which do not have a large number of registers, have limitations in terms of supplying valuable information about the houses. 5. Tenancy (Tasarruf) of houses On average, 12% in Istanbul, 4% in Eyüp, 6% in Galata and 2% in Usküdar (Figure 5) of the cases are about the tenancy of the houses. Therefore, these issues can be said to have a low proportion of the cases. The transactions related to tenancy are evaluated in three groups: (1) renting houses, (2) transferring dominium utile to another tenant and (3) granting residence permits in waqf houses. In the first group of cases, the terms and conditions of tenancy are very important for understanding the practice. For Ottomans, there were different forms of tenancy10 , but in this article we stated only one form of it. That is because the houses were usually rented to tenants in the form of icareteyn in these registers. In the form of this tenancy, two separate rent moneys are taken from the tenant, namely icare-i muaccele and icare-i müeccele. Rented houses are repaired with the first payment called icare-i muaccele, while houses rented for a long period of time are paid for with the second rent money called icare-i müeccele, which is calculated on a daily, monthly or yearly basis. In this form of tenancy, the tenant may use the rented building and land for almost a lifetime and may leave the dominium utile to his or her children as inheritance or transfer it to someone else. So, when we look at the data obtained from court records on this issue, we will find additional useful data other than the sales price of the

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Kaya, cited the definition of Bey bi’l-istiglal from Mecelle (MD. 118) as “Bayi‘ bir malı istîcar etmek üzere vefâen bey‘ etmektir.” See Kaya, 2010, p.101. 7

Kaya draws attention to the increase in the use of the “bey bi’l istiğlal” method when comparing between the Kanuni’s period and the 18th century. Even if the rate of this increase was not determined during the period in which it was examined, one notices they have a significant percentage of the transactions recorded in the register about the houses. See Kaya, 2010. 8

Kaya states that “Vakıfların, nakit sermaye işletirken doğrudan faiz alma imkânları yoktur. Vakıf mütevellileri de diğer şahıs ve kurumlar gibi faiz yasağını çiğnememek üzere muamele-i şer‘iye veya bey‘ bi’l-istiğlâl gibi yöntemlere başvurmak durumundadırlar. 9


(Foundations do not have the opportunity to get direct interest when operating cash capital. Like other people and institutions, to manage the cash money, trustees of the waqf foundations apply such methods as muamele-i şer’iye or bey bi’l-istiğlal to prevent the prohibition of interest)” and according to the results of his survey, “81 vakıftan 28 tanesi sadece nakit sermaye işleterek gelir elde ederken 11 tanesi sadece kira geliri elde etmiştir. 42 vakıf ise her iki tür gelire de sahiptir. Bu vakıfların toplam geliri yıllık 1.347.017 akçe olup bunun 905.663 akçesi nakit sermaye getirisi iken geri kalan 441.354 akçe kira gelirlerinin toplamıdır. (28 of the 81 foundations were operating only cash capital and 11 were operating only rent income; 42 of the foundations had both types of income. The total income of these foundations was 1.347.017 akçes, while 905.663 akçes of it was income of the cash capital, the remaining 441.354 was the total of rental income)”. See Kaya, 2010, p.97.

house, such as the name and title of the residents (i.e., tenants), the location of the house in the city, spatial configuration in the house and the rental price (Figure 6). The second issue encountered in the records related to tenancy is transferring dominium utile, which refers to the right to use a property even though not owning it. This transfer process, called ferağ in Ottoman Turkish, had to be actualized with the permission of the property owner. The tenant could transfer dominium utile of all or part of the house to another person in exchange for a rental transfer price with approximately the same value as the sales price. So, in these registers, as in the sales transactions, ferağ value, which is approximately the same value as the sales price is a piece of information important for understanding the financial value of the house. The other data obtained from these cases are also the same as what is found in cases of renting. The third issue of this type concerns the granting of residence permits in the houses of waqf foundations to their officers working there. Since these are the houses that are allocated to the foundation workers for free in return for their services, there is no rental cost involved. For this reason, in these registers, we cannot get any information about the financial value of the houses. When the waqf foundation would give residence permission in one of their houses to a worker in return for his services, the data entered in the registers are the name and title of the worker, the location of the house and also information about the neighbors. 6. Granting ownership rights (Hibe) of houses and establishment of waqf foundations The cases for the donation of houses from one person to another or to a waqf foundation provide similar quantitative and qualitative data for the studies of Ottoman houses. Of all cases investigated, those involving hibe and waqf establishment represented just 3% / 3% in Istanbul, 3% / 3% in Eyup, 4% / 3% in Galata and 4% / 3% in Usküdar (Figure 5), respectively. As can be seen, the percentage of the cases in both matters

is very low. In the context of the data obtained from these cases, since there is no data on sales or rental prices and also descriptions of spaces in the house are not included in some registers, the number of cases of useful data will decrease even further for the researcher who wants to study Istanbul housing history. 7. Cost estimation for repairing houses These are cases in which itemized expenses spent for repairing houses by examining on-site records are recorded. This type holds a very limited place among the cases of the houses quantitively. On average, this subject constitutes 3% in Istanbul, 2% in Eyüp, 2% in Galata, and 1% in Üsküdar (Figure 5) of all cases. On the other hand, it should be noted that repair cases are interesting in terms of presenting a different group of data on housing studies. These cases include clues about the expenditures related to the construction work and what is taken into account in valuation of the houses. Because the expenditures for the construction materials and components used for repairing the house are recorded one by one, the data obtained on the construction of a house is very valuable. 8. Potentials of data in Kadı registers for research about architecture of Ottoman houses and urban texture in Istanbul All these cases in the Kadı registers exemplify many houses of a large urban group, namely houses of different socioeconomic and ethno-religious classes, over a large area of Istanbul (Suriçi) and Bilad-ı Selase regions (Eyüb, Galata and Usküdar) in the 17th century. To understand the registers’ area of exemplification and where the mentioned houses are in a city plan, research mapping the city quarters in the 17th century will be very useful. An Istanbul map including four regions prepared in accordance for this purpose shows the extent of the research area and the richness of the registers clearly (Figure 7). After the information about case studies and in the light of this map-

Case issues and data on houses in the 17th century Istanbul Kadı registers


Figure 7. City map showing locations of houses in 17th century Kadı Registers.

ping, it is useful to review the data groups shown in Figure 6 and evaluate the potential of data for research about the architecture of Ottoman houses and urban texture in Istanbul. Indeed, each group of data has the potential to be evaluated in itself. On the other hand, comparative reviews of different data groups will be an interesting and critical approach to open discussion about housing and urban texture. For a discussion of the potential of these data, let us start with sale and rental prices. The prices of houses in Istanbul city and its regions and the trend of the prices through the century give clues to understanding the living and housing conditions of urban-dwellers. Examining the calculation of prices and discussing the factors having an impact on differentiation and changes of them according to the regions during the same period are important facts to consider in terms of the land appraisal and urban density. Discussion can be made on comparative studies according to the regions and also the quarters (mahalle). Indeed, distinguishing the impact of the land value from the impact of the building itself on the sales price is very difficult. But it is possible to open a discussion by comparing these data with the other

data groups. For instance, comparing the prices of houses with the same space components will give an idea about their relative land appraisals. In addition, high- and low-priced houses in the city can be compared and evaluated in terms of their residents and locations in the city. In this way, how the features of land such as area and location in the city have a role in land appraisal and the urban density of regions and the houses located in them can be interpreted. In this respect, Yerasimos (2003) assessed thirteen districts (nahiye) of Istanbul in the 16th century based on waqf houses in the Waqf Tahrir Registers. He explains how different socioeconomic groups of inhabitants are distributed in these districts and also how some of the spaces of houses are differentiated according to the districts based on the quantitative data. And in the context of the 17th century, the houses in the Kadı registers can be studied with a similar approach and quantitative method with the help of a great quantity of data. It is possible to study sale and rental prices of houses showing their economic value for understanding the range throughout the century across the city. Or urban-dwellers in Istanbul’s different

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For more detailed information about tenancy and the different forms of it in the Ottoman Empire, see Beyaztaş, 2001. 10


regions can be evaluated according to their socioeconomic or ethno-religious identities through the information about their name, title and (if available) occupation. Both data groups have the potential to be investigated and classified by quantitative methods and be assessed as groups according to these classifications with their location in the city. As a consequence of this study, the distribution of groups of houses in the city will provide information about urban structural characteristics (homogeneous or heterogeneous) of regions and mahalles. We should now mention the constraints of the Kadı registers. Only houses and mahalles subject to the courts in that period were recorded in these registers. Thus, it is impossible to exemplify all of the houses in the city by means of examination of one or more registers. Nevertheless, they are sources which give important information and clues about the city and Ottoman housing. In fact, all of the Ottoman written sources have limited information as well. However, by means of each source we can see a small detail of the big picture at every turn. So reproduction and re-evaluation of the studies based on different sources together will be significant for understanding Istanbul houses of the Ottoman Period and to see the big picture. After this explanation, continuing to examine the data about the architectural characteristics of the city’s houses is meaningful. In almost all of the cases in the registers, we find descriptions of spaces in houses including information about the number of floors, the different named parts of the house and the space components as in the following examples: “…tabaka-i ulyâsında bir bâb oda ve tabaka-i vustâsında iki bâb oda ve dehliz ve süflâsında bir matbah ve bir kiler ve bir su kuyusu ve cüneyneyi müştemil mülk menzil… [house having one room on the upper floor, two rooms and vestibule on the first floor and one kitchen, one store-room, one water-well and a small garden on the ground floor]” (Bab Kadı Registers Sicil no. 46, 352) or “…muhavvata-i hâriciyesi beş fevkānî ve üç tahtânî odaları ve matbah

ve ahûr ve tahta-pûş ve eşcâr-ı ve muhavvata-i dâhiliyesi beş fevkānî ve üç tahtânî oda ve matbah ve hamam ve eşcâr-ı ve iki çeşmeyi müştemil… [hariciyye having five rooms on the upper floor, three rooms on the first floor and kitchen, barn, tahtapuş, trees and dahiliyye having five rooms on the upper floor, three rooms on the first floor, kitchen, hamam, trees and two fountains]” (İstanbul Kadı Registers Sicil no. 3, 287). As seen in the examples, which space components a house and its floors were composed of are understood clearly from these descriptions. Therefore, these are significant data waiting for discussion about the terminology of household spaces, the interpretation of spatial arrangements on the basis of distribution of these areas over the floors and the different house sections, the structural characteristics of dwellings, open / semi-open / closed spatial relations and living and comfort conditions in the house. On the other hand, to draw a certain plan of a house is not possible with this information, because positions and relations of a space with the others on the same floor are not unambiguous and also forms, sizes and proportions of the spaces are not given and cannot be deduced from the descriptions. In addition, in much research ignoring historicity, the spaces and terms regarding them were defined as they have not changed for centuries and their meanings are always fixed. Yet necessities and functions being in the first place, all of the architectural terms, elements and components have been transformed continually. Şenyurt (2018) has striking arguments about terms used for some interior spaces of Ottoman houses. She explains the meanings of terms and examines transformations of terms and also spaces represented throughout the Ottoman period extensively. For this extensive research, she uses the archival documents and literary works. In this manner, it is possible to discuss the terminology of Istanbul houses and their interior spaces with the help of the information obtained from the Kadı registers as well. In addition, the architectural diver-

Case issues and data on houses in the 17th century Istanbul Kadı registers


sity of the houses has been largely ignored until now. However, in my opinion, the spatial arrangements of houses in the registers do not lend themselves to typological classification. It is not really meaningful to classify and generalize them, if we want to understand housing conditions in the city in all their aspects. Similar to other Ottoman written documents, the Kadı registers have the potential to break the mold about this subject containing numerous examples of houses. Thus, it is possible to investigate the examples individually. On the other hand, not only taken individually but also all together, the houses present information about domestic culture and the standards of the houses. For this, quantitative analysis can be made about space components. Yerasimos (2003) and Tanyeli (2003) investigated Istanbul houses in the 16th century with this method and revealed an Ottoman city of Istanbul contrary to common belief. In a similar manner, the Kadı registers give us the opportunity to evaluate the living conditions in the city with the help of the analysis of the living spaces such as rooms, toilets, bathrooms, kitchens, barns etc. and put forward an idea about ordinary and luxurious spaces and elements in the houses. In addition, comparison of the results of different periods and different regions can be made for interpreting changes and continuities about the living and comfort conditions in the houses. Analysis of the other data groups are supportive of these evaluations. Finally, the data about expenditures for the construction materials and components used for repairing houses are also very interesting and valuable for research about construction and building materials of Ottoman houses. With the help of these data, it is possible to comprehend the use of building materials and construction techniques and to discuss Ottoman terminology of these materials. Also, if the subject is supported with the other archival documents, the records in the Kadı registers will become meaningful and Ottoman housing construction will be clarified.

9. Conclusion In this article, in accordance with the purpose, every case about the houses in the court registers are examined, not remaining limited by the materials we have been accustomed to use. That is because every case and the data obtained from them is worth mentioning. The introduction of this material, which allows a wide urban area to be seen from different angles in the context of housing, will define a very efficient area to open up new discussions. The Kadı registers contain a wide range of material with cases on various issues. As a result, they provide an opportunity to examine the houses of different urban groups that show the existence of a movement in the city exposed through the purchase and sale of houses. Moreover, the registers allow researchers to study the houses of different urban groups through the borrowing of money from people or waqfs by the way of a pledge or temporary sale of their houses. Furthermore, we can study the houses rented to a tenant or transferred to another tenant, those houses granted to someone else or a waqf foundation or the houses inherited and shared by the inheritors. The potential employment of the data obtained from these cases is discussed in detail. In the light of these data, the houses of ordinary city-dwellers who have not been much involved in research about Ottoman houses can be re-examined and evaluated in different contexts. We can now get information about the distribution of houses in different regions of the city according to their financial values (sale and rental price) and by their dwellers’ socioeconomic and ethno-religious identities in the 17th century. Having this information can help us start a discussion about which factors most differentiate the values of houses (location in city or land appraisal, luxurious spatial and construction elements such as bathroom, water supplements etc.), what kind of living and comfort conditions the houses had and whether these conditions had changed in the city throughout the century. All these research possibilities lie within reach thanks to the help of the data obtained from the Kadı registers.

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Acknowledgement This research is funded by TUBITAK (The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey), National Young Researchers Career Development Program (3501) under the grant no: 115K537. The author would like to thank TUBITAK, support is greatly appreciated. Archival documents Istanbul Kadı Registers Sicil no. 3, (TSMA) 213, (TSMA) 225, (TSMA) 246 Rumeli Kadı Registers Sicil No. 35, 80, 116, 139 Bab Kadı Registers Sicil No. 3, 46 Eyüb Kadı Registers Sicil No. 19, 49, 50, 74, 75, 97 Galata Kadı Registers Sicil No. 46, 48, 64, 65, 89, 90,136 Usküdar Kadı Registers Sicil No. 133, 205, 240, 241, 296 References Artan, T. (1989) Architecture As a Theatre of Life: Profile of The Eighteenth Century Bosphorus (Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation Thesis). Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Bektaş, İ. (2017) Muhasebe Kayıtları Işığında 18. Yüzyılın İlk Yarısında Üsküdar Para Vakıfları (Unpublished Master’s Thesis). Sakarya University Institute of Social Sciences Islamics Economics and Finance Program. Beyaztaş, M. (2001) İslam Hukukunda Vakıf Gayrimenkullerin Kiraya Verilmesi Usulleri ve İcareteyn (Unpublished Master’s Thesis). Marmara University, Institute of Social Sciences, Department of Islamic Law. Faroqhi, S. (2009) Orta Halli Osmanlılar 17. yüzyılda Ankara ve Kayseri’de Ev Sahipleri ve Evler. İstanbul: Türkiye İş Bankası Kültür Yayınları. Gönenç, Ö. F. (2014) XIX. yüzyıl Mardin Barınma Kültürü 1837-1866 (Unpublished Master’s Thesis) Mardin Artuklu University, Institute of Sciences, History of Architecture Program.

Gözübenli, B. (1990) Bey’ Bi’l-Vefâ (Vefâen Satış) ve Bey’ Bi’l-İstiğlal. Atatürk Üniversitesi İlahiyat Fakültesi Dergisi, 9, 109-119. Günay, R. (2012) Şer’iye Sicillerinde Mülk Alışverişleri: Kullanılan Usul ve Dil. SDÜ Fen Edebiyat Fakültesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 27, 15-24. Halaç, H. H. (2010) Kütahya Şeriye Sicil Defterlerine Göre Domestik Kültür, Barınma Koşulları ve Ev İç Mekânı Bileşenleri (1695-1902) (Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation Thesis). Anadolu University, Institute of Social Sciences Department of Art History. Kaya, S. (2010) XVIII. Yüzyıl Sonlarında Üsküdar Vakıflarının Gelir Kaynakları. Dîvân Disiplinlerarası Çalışmalar Dergisi, 15(29), 95-132. Mesci, Ç. (2017) İstanbul Kadı Sicilleri Işığında Bey‘ Bi’l İstiğlâl Akidleri, Unpublished Master’s Thesis, Marmara University, Institute of Social Sciences, Economic History Program. Şenyurt, O. (2018) Osmanlı’da Mimari Mekan ve Yaşam Zamanın Mekanları Mekanın Zamanları. İstanbul: Doğu Kitabevi. Tanyeli, U. (2003) Norms of Domestic Comfort and Luxury in Ottoman Metropolises Sixteenth to Eighteenth Centuries. The Illuminated Table, The Prosperous House, (ed. Suraiya Faroqhi, Christoph K. Neumann). Würzburg: Ergon-Verl., 301-316. Turan, M. F. (2015) Bey’ Bi’l-Vefâ ve Bey’u’l-Îne ile Mukayeseli Olarak Günümüz Repo İşlemlerinin Fıkhî Boyutu. Hitit Üniversitesi İlahiyat Fakültesi Dergisi, 14(27), 117-146. Yelek, K. (2016) Bir Finansman Yöntemi Olarak Kullanılan Bey‘ Bi’lVefânın İslam Hukuku Açısından Değerlendirilmesi. İslam Hukuku Araştırmaları Dergisi, 27, 257-286. Yerasimos, S. (2003) Dwellings in sixteenth-century Istanbul, The Illuminated Table, The Prosperous House, (ed. Suraiya Faroqhi, Christoph K. Neumann), Würzburg: Ergon-Verl., 275300.

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Comparative study and analysis of two medieval baths in western Algeria: Sabaghine bath in Tlemcen and El Bali bath in Nedroma Imene SELKA OUSSADIT1, Chihab SELKA2, Mohammed Nabil OUISSI3, Olivier BOUET 4 1 • Faculty of Technology, Department of Architecture, Abu Bekr Belkaid University, Tlemcen, Algeria 2 • Department of Architecture, Faculty of Technology, Abu Bekr Belkaid University, Tlemcen, Algeria 3 • Department of Architecture, Faculty of Technology, Abu Bekr Belkaid University, Tlemcen, Algeria 4 • National School of Architecture of Paris Val De Seine, Paris, France

doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2019.47855

Received: April 2019 • Final Acceptance: August 2019

Abstract The abundance of water and springs has always allowed the presence of quite numerous baths in the ancient medinas. These public buildings have played a major role in the daily lives of the inhabitants, and have continued to evolve to this day. In this place the bathers carried out a hygiene of the body and the mind but also allowed themselves, meetings and discussions between the different social classes. Today, the modernization and degradation of the medinas, that of Tlemcen, Nedroma or other cities, threaten this architectural element, whose traces must be transmitted to future generations as a testimony to a civilization. Given its multifunctionality, the hammam deserves a multiple dimensional reading. In this article, we will present an inventory of two existing baths: the Nedroma one dating from the 11th century, and the one of the dyers whose dating is unknown; before moving on to a comparative study of their architectural and spatial characteristics. Indeed, their comparative study allows us to answer a set of hypotheses relating to their dating, but also to grasp the typology and architectural aspect in which they are part: more modest baths, if we compare them with the monumental baths of Turkey or the Middle East. Keywords Bath, Hammam, Nedroma, Tlemcen, Typology.


1. Introduction The bath, Moorish bath or hammam1, is this space where all social classes, even all families, mix together and today represents a legacy of the collective baths inherited from the Romans; hence their importance in urban fabrics, in social life, but also in economic life (Benaboud, 2005). Each culture has created its own form, but the bath culture in the Maghreb is an event in which the purification of the body remains the main element. In addition, there are other secondary elements, such as wedding and religious rituals, health activities, and entertainment activities (Karatosun and Tuba, 2017). The bath is a concept that has evolved over time and in socio-cultural contexts; Resulting from the fusion of Greek, Roman and Turkish traditions, it has been established by researchers and historians that it was the Greeks and Romans who knew the first public baths of antiquity (El Habashi, 2008). In their conception of cities, the Romans gave great importance to the thermal baths and excelled in its interior and exterior decoration, using the most noble materials and the most advanced techniques (Dumreicher and Kolb, 2008). With the arrival of the Umayyads to authority and Damascus as its capital, bathing quickly became part of the customs of the inhabitants of the Middle East, and quickly found its place among Muslims. In Al Andalus, it is the Umayyad prince Abd al-Rahman Iér, who contributes to the development of the bath, and thus gives it all its architectural splendour (Pauty, 1933); and on the other side of the Mediterranean, it is thanks to the contributions of Andalusian art and Marinid architecture that it has acquired its Maghreb form (Carlier, 2000). According to André Raymond, the attendance or absence of baths would constitute a significant element in the spatial distinction of the city’s neighbourhoods and its importance; for him, the most beautiful and remarkable baths were located near the centre (Raymond, 1985). The bath was also found either near the mosque, and within the religious complex itself, or near important water sources (Benaboud, 2005). Each

ancient medina has a large number of baths; there are 60 baths in Algiers according to D. Haëdo, 57 in Damascus, just over a hundred in the Iberian Peninsula in the 10th century (Castano Blazquez and Jimenez Castiillo, 2004). From the East to the West and Hispania, the public bath with its hygienic, entertaining and social functions was an integral part of the inhabitants’ mores. Today in Algeria, and despite the importance given to historical monuments and heritage, they remain buildings little studied by researchers and scientists. Some Algerian baths have been studied in the context of archaeological excavations or censuses during the colonial period; as is the case of Agadir bath (Bel, 1913), Sabaghine bath in Tlemcen (Marçais and al, 1903), or the Qalaa of the Beni Hammad, but there are probably still some in other cities of the country that remain unknown to researchers. On the other hand, studies on baths in Algiers during the Ottoman period were carried out by the architect and Dr. Nabila Cherif Seffadj, a study published in his magister and doctoral thesis (See The baths of Algiers during the Ottoman period. History, topography and urban study, Doctoral thesis, 2005). 2. General presentation of the site and the two baths 2.1. The site The two baths studied are located in the wilaya of Tlemcen, in northwestern Algeria. The latter consists of 20 daïras, including Tlemcen in the centre, and Nedroma in the northwest of the wilaya. The former medina of Tlemcen, to which Sabaghine bath belongs, is one of the oldest historic cities in the country, it alone contains a heritagea of inestimable value and has qualities specific to the urban structure and architecture of Muslim cities (Ghomari, 2007). As for the old medina of Nedroma, which includes the El Bali bath, the city is located at the foot of Mount Fillaoucene, on an ancient Berber city. (Sari, 1968). Al Bekri first gave it this name in 1068, and there were never any remains or inscriptions found that could attest to the Roman presence in the city, so

ITU A|Z • Vol 16 No 3 • November 2019 • I. S. Oussadit, C. Selka, M. N. Ouissi, O. Bouet

Ibn mandur in his book gives the following definition of the term, Hammam: word of Arabic origin, singular male name of hammamat, derived from the root hamim which means hot water. Hamim also means “Sweat”. 1


he described the city as « at the foot of a great mountain, the Fillaoussène. To the north and west of the city lie fertile plains and cultivated fields. It is ten miles from the sea; it is a considerable city surrounded by walls and having a river bordered by gardens that produce all kinds of fruit ». Another description of Nedroma is provided by Al-Idrissi, around 1164 (559 H): « Nedroma, a considerable city, well populated, surrounded by walls, provided with markets and located on a hill at mid-shore.... Fields sown and watered by a river depend on it. On the eastern side of the hill, there are gardens, orchards, houses and water in abundance » (Grandguillaume, 1976). The city still has a site of inestimable historical and heritage value and a strategic position. It contains a set of historical and cultural values that have contributed to the creation of an identity specific to the region, it is easy to see that without being equal to the great metropolises such as Fez, Kairouan, Constantine or even Tlemcen - its neighbour and rival - Nedroma is part of the medina family (Khattabi, 2017). 2.2. The two baths Sabaghine bath: Located in the northeast part of the medina of Tlemcen, and with a total surface area of 572m², the Sabaghine bath owes its name to the dyers’ alley where it is located. It was also nicknamed the Sidi Bel Hacen bath in memory of the pious Ahmed Bel Hacen El Ghomari who honoured the place with his frequent visits (Marçais, 1911). It is the most quoted bath in the works concerning the city of Tlemcen, probably due to its history and architecture. In 2010, the bath was restored as part of the “Tlemcen Capital of Islamic Culture 2011” project; work began on the shoring of the floors, arches, domes and stairs, as well as the stripping of the various plasters. The work is now at a standstill. The bath is surrounded by dwellings and is difficult to distinguish from the outside except by the treatment of its entrance.

El Bali bath: Also known as the El Mourabitine bath (Almoravid bath), it is located in the heart of the old medina of Nedroma, in the place called Tarbi’aa and is considered as one of the oldest baths in Algeria, hence its name of old bath. The bath, unlike Sabaghine bath, has been a national monument since 1912 and was restored in 2003. Still functional, it is frequented daily by the inhabitants of the district and the city of Nedroma. 3. Comparative study of the two baths A comparative study of the two monuments, based on an analytical reading, is necessary to identify common and similar points, but also points that diverge spatially, conceptually and architecturally. It also allows us to highlight the typological characteristics, if any, of the baths in the region. The choice of common and divergent points was identified and developed on the basis of the methodology of architectural analysis (Boudon, 1975), as well as the work provided by Caroline Fournier on the Al Andalus baths (Fournier, 2016). 4. Historical background First, it is important to review the chronology of the two baths. For both baths there is no official document attesting to their date of construction. Sabaghine bath, was linked to the Almoravid period according to Georges Marçais; in effect, it is difficult to date the construction of the bath, no historical document exists on this subject. However, it can be linked to the first period of the 11th century (Marçais W and al, 1903), on the basis of its architectural style and its similarity to other baths preserved in Spain or Sicily. The El Bali bath, an annex to the Great Almoravid Mosque of Nedroma, was built to allow the faithful to practice their ablutions, hence its dating by researchers to the Almoravid period (1095-1147) (Merouane, 2005). 5. The situation It is clear that the location of the two baths remains dictated and defined by their functions and importance, as

Comparative study and analysis of two medieval baths in western Algeria: Sabaghine bath in Tlemcen and El Bali bath in Nedroma


not only a major site and key element within cities but also as a place of social exchange, gathering and spiritual purification for the inhabitants of the districts (Raftan and Radoine, 2008). Sabaghine bath is located in the heart of the medina of Tlemcen, in the heart of the old Tagrart district founded in the 11th century by the Almoravids. El Bali bath, is also located in the heart of the former medina of Nedroma, but unlike Sabaghine bath, it has an entrance visible from the outside, despite the lower level of its access compared to street level. 6. The architectural character 6.1. Spatial organisation The bath has a number of rooms with a specific purpose and organization: Their arrangement ultimately consists in harnessing the heat, so that there is a gradual graduation of heat between the different spaces. Generally, the bath space is organized according to the multiple needs of the user, ranging from the purification of body and mind, to the commutative or meeting space. It is therefore divided according to these needs into three distinct parts: -the intermediate room or bayt alwastani: used to rest the swimmer during his bath, and for the various massages and treatments provided to the body. -the hot, warm room or bayt alsakhun: space used as a steam bath, equipped with cold and hot water basins. -the cold room or bayt al-barid, or rest rooms. -additional rooms are provided in addition to this basic layout, such as toilets or warehouses (Cherif Seffadj, 2009). Architecturally and in terms of space organisation, the two baths are similar: both contain three large spaces and are arranged around a central space of quadrangular shape: in the past, it was the most important part of the bath: the intermediate or tepid space2 (El Habashi, 2008). The latter is ordered around a central space decorated with a water jet, surmounted by a vault and surrounded by lateral galleries; the intermediate space is delimited by a series of arches and columns. At

Figure 1. Ground floor plan of El Bali bath.

the level of the two baths the intermediate space is no longer and has been converted into a cold room and therefore the transition from the cold room to the hot room is done instantly. On the other hand, for Sabaghine bath, a small space was built between the two rooms to serve as a new tepid room. The spatial design of the two baths remains the same, however, and reflects a unique, centralised mode of operation and articulation, and therefore does not present an in-line sequence of parts. This is what we notice in the El Bali bath, where the intermediate space (currently the cold room) is located in the centre of the bath and occupies a little more than half of the total bath area. The bath has not been modified except for the transfer of a few spaces and the addition of sanitary facilities at the entrance. Nevertheless, we notice the addition of the cold room with the changing rooms due to the reduced surface area of the bath. Also, two water basins for the bath supply are located in the north-eastern part of the building. In the case of Sabaghine, a comparison between an old bath reading published in 1900 by Marçais, and the current form of the latter was necessary, in order to highlight the changes it has undergone. In the book on “The Arab Monuments of Tlemcen”, the authors give a detailed description of the bath and already point out at that time that it had undergone transformations and additions to its spaces. According to William Marçais’ de-

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In almost all the well-preserved baths, where the organisation of the spaces is centralised, it is around the intermediate room that the other spaces are articulated. 2


Figure 2. Ground floor plan of Sabaghine bath established based on that of Marçais in 1900.

Figure 3. Current ground floor plan of the bath.

Figure 4. Hypothetical plan of the bath previously.

scription; from vestibule A, a vaulted room, where a part has been dedicated to the installation of latrines (L), a square space B with 5 m sides is accessed, the frigidarium. A dome resting on twelve monolithic limestone columns with a water jet in its center tops this space, surrounded by four galleries. The part surrounding the central space was raised and provided with benches for bathers to rest, at the time placed on the ground. From the galleries of this central space, access is given to ancillary rooms that are also used for bathers’ rest. A door on the left of the cold room opens directly onto the hot room, the antique caldarium, and isolates the temperature of the oven from the rest room. Oven C, divided into 3 parts of unequal dimensions; the first largest C, contains a hot water tank and distributes for this purpose the steam and humidity necessary for this space. The other two parts limited by stone columns are symmetrical; part C’ has a fairly deep cabinet, and finally the third part C’’ is half occupied on one side of the cold water tank and on the other side of a space for massage. The other rooms present, were used either as a rest area or as a storage area for the bath. However, Marçais points out the absence of the intermediate room or tepid room. According to him, it was probably located at the location of room D. The space G, at the entrance to the bath and adjoining room F, served as a fuel storage space for the bath [Figure 2]. Today the bath seems to have been mutilated with different arrangements from its original layout; however, it is worth noting either the addition of new parts such as the two mezzanines (in the entrance hall and gallery 4), or the separation of rooms by brick walls or wooden partitions, or the drilling of skylights in the vaults and domes. A part has also been designed to act as an intermediate room between the cold room and the hot room, a space that is missing from the plan made by Marçais. The toilets are no longer at the entrance of the bath but have been moved to another space. For the hot room, the location of the cold and hot water pool has been modified. To this end, the following figures

Comparative study and analysis of two medieval baths in western Algeria: Sabaghine bath in Tlemcen and El Bali bath in Nedroma


show all the modifications compared to the initial plan drawn up by Marçais in 1900 [Figures 3]. At the Sabaghine bath, the absence of the cold room or changing rooms is highlighted: have the spaces been merged into a single space or has the changing room area been demolished? Figure 4 shows a hypothetical plan of the bath previously [Figures 4]. For the surface area of the two baths: the total surface area of El Bali bath is 244m², almost half that of Sabaghine bath which is 572m², this difference in surface area is reflected in the relative proportions of the different rooms: Most of the difference in surface area between the two baths is found in the cold room (ex intermediate room) as well as in the hot room; that of El Bali bath is almost half that of Sabaghine bath for both spaces [Table1]. 6.2. Architectural components The vertical elements: The columns In the dyers’ bath, the former intermediate chamber or bayt al-wastani is the centre of the composition. The arches, which rest on the eight monolithic columns, form the octagon and support the dome. As for the other four corner columns, which each have two arches, they form the square of the central space and replace the octagonal plane of the dome. The bath has two other columns at the level of the warm room in a square shape with no decoration, and two others in niches. Apart from the columns of the hot room, the other 12 columns are identical in shape, size, shaft, and capital. The columns are without base, with a cylindrical barrel without fluting, and a square capital inspired by the Corinthian order [Figure 5]. El Bali bath has 4 columns at the level of the former bayt al-wastani that support the dome in the center and 2 columns in the entrance hall. All the columns of the bath are identical and have, like those of Sabaghine bath, a cylindrical barrel without fluting, but they contain a base, with a square capital and without volute or decoration. It also includes 4 other engaged pilasters in the walls at the level of the warm room in a square shape and without

Table 1. Surface comparison of the spaces of the two baths (Authors).

Figure 5. Identification of the columns at the Sabaghine bath.

Figure 6. Identification of the columns at the El Bali bath.

ornamentation [Figure 6]. The columns are made of stone in both baths, and are not only decorative elements but also represent internal supports for the structure of the building. As for the capital, it is an essential element in the column because it allows the thrust of the vaults and arches to be distributed.

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Examples include the 10th century Umayyad Alcazar bath in Córdoba, or the 11th century Villardompardo bath in Jaen. 3

4 Small openings in the vaulted bath roofs for natural light to pass through.

The walls Traditionally, building materials are sought and transported close to the building site, including soil, sand or stone. In both baths, the load-bearing walls are 1m thick and have been made with rammed earth or pisé or tabiya. This technique is very common for this type of building; it is a very solid, hard, compact material that is resistant to strong thermal changes (Chennaoui, 2009). The thickness allows to insulate the spaces and to avoid heat losses, especially in the hot room. One or two coats of lime plaster will strengthen the waterproofing of the parts. The pointing mortar is generally thick and consists of soil and lime. For the recent separations at the two baths, they were made with hollow brick, but solid brick was used at the furnak level. The horizontal elements: Arcs and arcades The arches are elements that are part of the building’s structure but also decorative elements; there are eight horseshoe arches protruding beyond the octagon that forms the dome of Hammam Sebaghine’s cold room, and three others at the entrance vestibule of El Bali bath. On the other hand, it is the semicircular arch that dominates the spaces of El Bali bath and there are twelve of them in the cold room. The horseshoe arch made of brick is very common among Muslims, and is mainly chosen in bath galleries with large changing rooms or a large intermediate room, it is found in the majority of Al Andalus baths dating from the 10th to 11th centuries.3 In terms of the framing of the interior doors, the lowered semicircular arch dominates; and in terms of the exterior door, the horseshoe arch for El Bali bath and the semicircular arch for Sabaghine bath. Roofing: Vaults and domes The two baths are enhanced at the level of the former warm room by a dome supported by columns in the centre, and by a set of barrel vaults around it. The central space of Sabaghine bath is more masterful and larger than that of El Bali bath, and is therefore decorated with an octagonal fluted dome of sixteen arches or panels, with three

lateral openings for the passage of light [Figure 7]. The dome is used to cover the alcoves and the central space of the intermediate room with a square plan. Examples of half-timbered domes have been found in Gracia Jofre’s baths in Seville and in Gibraltar in the intermediate rooms. The one of El Bali bath is a dome on trunks adorned with ten m’dhaouis4, and undecorated [Figure 8]. The passage of natural light through the rest of the baths was done through the circular m’dhaouis at the level of the barrel vaults which covered all the remaining

Figure 7. View of the Sabaghine bath dome from the cold room.

Figure 8. View of the dome that adorns the centre of the El Bali bath.

Comparative study and analysis of two medieval baths in western Algeria: Sabaghine bath in Tlemcen and El Bali bath in Nedroma


spaces (hot and cold room). Cradle vaults are the most commonly used in the baths of Al Andalus, as well as in the Maghreb, they are particularly adapted to the circulation of heat (Azuar ruiz, 2005). Made of brick, from the outside the domes are covered with a layer of plaster with no trace of tile roofing. The terrace of El Bali bath consists of a dome and seven barrel vaults that can be distinguished from the outside and are topped by 3 chimneys for the evacuation of hot air. Unlike Hammam Sabaghine, which is topped by a dome and six barrel vaults, but also has three fireplaces. The barrel vaults that adorn the Sabaghine bath are difficult to distinguish from the outside because they are buried under new illegal buildings (shops and housing). These in column-beam structure, have encroached on a large part of the roof of the bath and cover totally or partially several vaults by endangering the stability of the latter. The bath terrace was once used by dyers to dry skins, wool and fabrics using an outdoor staircase [Figure 9]. The hypocaust furnace system The hypocaust is this underfloor heating system, used since Roman times in the thermal baths and maintained in the Arab baths. The principle of hypocaust is as follows: a powerful chimney or oven directly adjacent to the building produces hot air that circulates under the floor of the rooms to be heated raised by means of small piles or low walls. Air also circulates behind walls, as hypocaust rooms are almost always equipped with heated walls held in front of the walls by stones or, more frequently, by terracotta dowels (Bazzana, 1999). In traditional baths the oven or furnak is located behind the hot room with independent access, it allows to propel the hot air but also to heat the water of the pool at the level of the hot room; as it is the case in the Sabaghine bath. At the El Bali bath, the oven is located under the hot room immediately, near a space for storing wood for combustion. From the viewpoint of the smoke emanating from the space, the walls are almost black. A smoke exhaust duct of square cross-section passes through the walls of the hot

Figure 9. Plan of the terrace of the Sabaghine bath.

room to exit at the level of the terrace in the form of chimneys, a level of 2m above the level of the terrace. In addition, the space requires the most qualified workers. The ornamentation There is a total absence of decoration in the two baths; apart from the interest in the dome of Sabaghine bath and the capitals of the columns, the other areas of the bath are characterised by their simple design and execution. 7. Conclusion The comparisons made in this study provide information on the richness and importance of each bath, both of which are public baths built within cities (medina). We discover that Sabaghine bath, with its surface and interior decoration reflected in its dome and capitals, was probably more imposing and important than El Bali bath. The latter, annexed to the great Almoravid mosque of Nedroma, did not enjoy the same social and economic status as Sabaghine, which was located in the heart of the former medina of Tlemcen. The spatial design of the two baths is identical and therefore belongs to a single family where the layout of the different rooms is centralised; unlike the Merinid baths of El Eubbed

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demonstrate that the management of this type of monument is essential for the safeguarding and enhancement of our cultural capital, which will first result in a national classification of Sabaghine bath. Further studies will allow us to develop all the baths still existing in Tlemcen, or to compare them with similar baths in Spain, in order to highlight similarities and differences.

Figure 10. Spatial organization diagram common to both baths.

5 In her book on Al Andalus’ baths, Caroline Fournier links this type of bath to Jaén’s 11th century model. She cites Naranjo and Villardompardo as similar examples. Another bath, located in Palma de Mallorca, has only its intermediate room with a centralized layout. 6 Return to the general presentation part of the bath.

(Marçais G and al, 1903), Morocco (Terrace, 1950), or other baths in Spain dating from the 10th century, whose shape and layout of the spaces is linear or in a row (Fournier, 2016). The organization of Sabaghine bath and El Bali bath is based on the central quadrangular room, which represents almost half of the total bath area. To this end, this mode of organization reflects a single mode of operation, where the user must follow an elbow circuit and where his privacy is preserved. The rooms are not placed in a row and therefore the hot room is perpendicular to the one before the intermediate room. There is also a recessed space in the warm room for the bathers’ intimate toilet in the two baths [Figure 10]. For this purpose, we can therefore link these two baths to the 11th century baths already reported in Spain5. And by the similarities observed, we can link the construction of Sabaghine bath to the 11th century, thus linking it to the Almoravid dynasty present at the same period in Tlemcen, and confirm Marçais’6 hypothesis. The architectural study of the two baths provides us, in addition to information on the way in which the spaces of this type of monument function and are arranged, with a new material support; which, in addition to its historical richness and use, represents a traditional architectural unit that bears witness to the ingenuity of mankind in the past. An ingenuity that is reflected in the constructive mode, but also in the design of the hypocaust, mainly reserved for the hot room equipped with two basins. Through this study, we want to

References Azuar ruiz, R. (2005). Las tecnicas constructivas en la formation de al-Andalus. Arqueologia de la Arquitectura, 4,149-160. Bazzana, A. (1999). L’architecture de terre au moyen Age. Considérations générales et exemples andalous. L’architecture de terre en Méditerranée, Rabat, Publications de l’université Mohammed V, 169-202. Bel, A. (1913). Fouilles faites sur l’emplacement d’Agadir. Revue Africaine, 57, 27-47. Benaboud, M. (2005). De al andalus a Tetuan. Publicaciones de la Asociacion Marroqui para los Estudios Andalusies. Boudon, F. (1975). Tissu urbain et architecture. L’analyse parcellaire comme base de l’histoire architecturale. Annales, histoire sciences sociales, 30 (4), 773. Carlier, O. (2000). Les enjeux sociaux du corps. Le hammam maghrébin (XIXe-XXe siècle), lieu pérenne, menacé ou recréé. Annales. Histoire, Sciences Sociales. 55 (6), 1303-1333. Castaño blazquez, T., & Jimenez castillo, P. (2004). Los Baños Árabes de San Lorenzo (Murcia). Memorias de Arqueologia 12, 533-544. Chennaoui, Y. (2009). Architectural correlation analysis of the hammams of Cherchel, Algeria: linear vs aggregate space in the traditional bath. Archnet-IJAR, international Journal of Architectural Research, 3 (1), 145-156. Cherif seffadj, N. (2009). The medieval and ottoman hammams of Algerie; elements for a historical study of baths architecture in north africa,. Archnet-IJAR, International Journal of Architectural Research, 3 (1), 157-170. Diego, D. H. (1870). Topographie et histoire générale d’Alger, l’espagnol par MM.Dr Monnereau et A.

Comparative study and analysis of two medieval baths in western Algeria: Sabaghine bath in Tlemcen and El Bali bath in Nedroma


Berbugger. Revue africaine, 14, 384. Dumreicher, H., & Kolb, B. (2008). The Hammam ‐ A Living Cultural Heritage. ArchNet‐ IJAR: International Journal of Architectural Research, 2 (3), 17-28. El-habashi, A. (2008), Historic Hammāms between Protection and Reuse. in the proceedings of “Heritage 2008” conference, 2, 619-629. El habashi, A. (2008). Monuments or functoning buildings : legal protection over five case-study historic hammams in the mediterranean,. Archnet-IJAR, International Journal of Architectural Research, 2 (3), 42-55. Fournier, C. (2016). Les bains d’Al Andalus VIII et XV siècle. Rennes : presses universitaires de Rennes. Ghomari, F. (2007), La médina de Tlemcen, l’héritage de l’histoire, web journal, N°3, Golvin, L. (1962). Recherches archéologiques à la Qal’a des Banu Hammad. Paris : G.P. Maisonneuve. Grandguillaume, G. (1976), Une médina de l’Ouest algérien: Nédroma. Revue des mondes musulmans et de la Méditerranée, 10, 55-80. Ibn mandour. Lissan L’ârab, Dar Sader, Beyrouth, Tome II, article hammam, p.162. Khattabi, L. (2017). The nedromien traditional dwelling persistance and changes. Urbanism architecture construction 8 (2), 163-192.

Marcais, G. (2003). Les villes d’art célèbres TLEMCEN. Alger : Edition du tell. Marçais, W., & Marçais, G. (1903). Les monuments arabes de Tlemcen. Paris : Fontemoing. Müjgan bahtiyar, K., & Tuba nur B. (2017). Turkish Baths as Cultural Heritage in the Context of Tangible and Intangible, Department of Architecture, Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir. Turkey in Architecture Research, 7 (3), 84-91. Mustapha, M. (2005). Etudes des monuments historiques dans la ville de Nedroma, mémoire de magister en culture populaire, Université Abou Bakr Belkaid, Tlemcen. Pauty, E. (1933). Les hammams du Caire. Caire : Institut Français d’Archéologie orientale, 64. Raftani, K., & Hassan, R. (2008). The architecture of the hammāms of fez, morocco. Archnet-IJAR, International Journal of Architectural Research, 2 (3), 56-68. Raymond, A. (1985). Grandes villes arabes à l’époque ottomane, Paris : Sindbad. Sari, D. (1968). L’évolution récente d’une ville précoloniale en Algérie occidentale : Nedroma. Revue tunisienne de sciences sociales, 5 (15), 217-236. Terrasse, H. (1950). Trois bains mérinides du Maroc, Mélanges offerts à William Marçais. Paris : Maisonneuve.

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ITU A|Z • Vol 16 No 3 • November 2019 • 59-70

Poiesis of objects: Theory of making

Murat SÖNMEZ1, Beyza Nur BATI2 • Faculty of Architecture and Design, Department of Architecture, TOBB University of Economics and Technology, Ankara, Turkey 2 • Faculty of Architecture, Department of Architecture, Mimar Sinan Fine Arts University, Istanbul, Turkey 1

doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2019.94547

Received: May 2019 • Final Acceptance: September 2019

Abstract The aim of this study is to discuss the basic state of object production. Essentially, objects exist as a result of the act of making. Making occurs through the processes of cognition, conceptualization, and representation. Cognition and conceptualization are dealt with the notion of noesis, which occurs on the foundation of four concepts: the self, matter, form, and aim. A design is formed by the cohesion of these four components. Some practical acts are required to represent this design. However, these practical acts continue the conceptual state of making because they require the knowledge of making. All stages that create objects are developed depending on mental productions; this features the process of poiesis. Poiesis is an act of creating objects simply as a product of our integrative comprehensions. This study involves the redefinition of the concept of making in the context of the intuitional, undefined, and unlimited states of poiesis. Keywords Artefact, Noesis, Production of objects, Techne, Conceptualization.


1. Introduction Human beings perceive the world and existence based on their natural and created environments. Existence is perceived within the unlimited world of human thought with their matter quality and occurrence form. While humans attempt to express existence verbally or through the act of making, their theories and ideas fall short if they do not contain the potential of their conceptualization. Nowadays, it can be said that, even if the abundance of these expressions does not appear any deficiency on the possibility or variety of the occurrence of objects, the production of an object is based on the literal knowledge that is gained or produced by people. As if all object meanings and all methods of object creation are discovered, object production is repeated with this literal knowledge. Therefore, it can be said that there is a complex perception of object production that is affected by literal knowledge. This situation necessitates the reconstruction of content of making to evaluate all factors that constitute or affect the design thinking of today. The question of how human beings produce objects without the widespread transmission of knowledge and artificial images can be explained by the conceptual origins of mental and practical actions, as well as the relationship between meaning and content of these concepts. Therefore, this study can be considered as a research for the concepts underlying the production of the objects. With this research, it can be reasoned about the starting point of the idea of the conscious person to produce the object and turning this idea into action. Accordingly, inferences can be drawn about the problem that the object is the product of original ideas and that the object is reproduced in a creative way. This method can allow the architect and designer to use the concepts that define their professional actions consciously. Essentially, objects are created by humans as a result of the process of making. It can be said that everything, except for natural objects, is created as a result of the human act of making. Since the impetus of every object’s creation is to reveal something that does

not exist, the act of making requires a reflection on a creature. Plato explains this situation as follows: ‘Poiesis (to make, to create), as you know, is complex and manifold. And all creation or passage of non-being into being is poiesis’ (Symposium and Phaedrus, 1993, p. 28). Thus, human is in a position of creator for each object one makes. The position of creator for humans can be related to the creation of a non-pre-existing thing or abstract notions and comprehensions. The creation of comprehension can be considered as the whole of intellectual and practical acts. This can be understood with the examination of the concept of making. Making is a process of comprehending the self, matter, form, and aim first, and later, representing these comprehensions into products. This process defines an existential gap between the human mind and the physical world. Objects materialize in this gap as a result of the interaction between existence and environment. Therefore, the expressive potential of objects is the sum of comprehensions between the mind and environment. Taking the mind and the interpretive methods of primal humans, which have not yet been captured by artificial imagery, as an example may enable us to make more productive inquiries and to understand how objects are made. It can be said that primitive humans could use the first quality of matter and the utility function of matter, within the first thought system, in which they comprehend natural creations by examining their semantic value. Using this framework, this study develops a fundamental query of the theory and practice of creative acquisitions and expressions, which displays the basic methods of object creation. Thus, sub-concepts and meanings that form the content of the theory of making can be defined. It is recommended that these concepts and meanings also refer to the current content of the concept of making; because the subject, object and the act of making remain fixed even if the requirements, conditions and methods change through time. To discuss the basic state of object production in this study, a concept of making was adopted by trying to un-

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derstand how the state of consciousness of human evolved to create something in the historical process. In this concept, a conceptual typesetting was created, as concepts are the means of seeing human capacity for object production, and typesetting explains the stages of making. Thus, enabling this study to develop its method to clarify these concepts by using the deep and valuable content of philosophy for expressions and approaches to making. With this conceptual inventory, the simple relationship between the object and human being is presented to the vision of making of today’s world. This method is a micro theory experiment, a scientific-inferential scenario that handles a new typesetting to address the design and production of humankind. It can be claimed that understanding the reality of making requires a review of the layers of this scenario. 2. The process of making Making is considered possible as a result of consciousness. Questions of how human cognition and consciousness evolved, including bases, or how and when object creation arose, have long been complex issues. However, it is safe to assume that humans first created objects as a result of comprehending their own existence—thinking, watching, examining, influencing, and even taking inspiration from human existence. It can be thought that human beings are unique creatures in perceiving matter and interacting with the environment. The first step in perceiving existence must be the sensation; as it is inevitable that humans recognize the environment with sight, hearing, or other sensual abilities. However, this knowledge must be explained to oneself. At this point of awareness, it could be said that the senses pass through a perceptual filter and allow one to re-establish the world in one’s minds. This may actually be the first interaction with the environment. The reflection of environmental impacts on consciousness as knowledge, highlights the ability to think conceptually. This ability helps to re-explain and reshape everything humans sense in the environment. It must be a justification Poiesis of objects: Theory of making

to call primitive humans who perform conscious acts Homo habilis, because conscious acts reveal the ability to conceptualize and interpret. Thanks to these new abilities, Homo habilis was the first species to exhibit the capacity for tool making and object production (Haviland, Walrath, Prins, & McBride, 2011). It would not be wrong to think that a human who is aware of the self, environment, and matter through consciousness makes sense of these components, interacts with them and designs them for requirements. Humans require objects; this is the first incentive for reactions to the environment and the development of capabilities and products as a result of these reactions. Humans begin activities of production by developing new meanings for the matter that they have begun to understand. Humans who understand these requirements are likely to turn environmental impacts and qualification to their favour, or reform the matter to meet these objectives. Products of cognitive behaviour types and abilities were created approximately two and half million years ago by the invention of stone tools by a group of diligent explorers. The first stone tools known from regions in Eastern Africa are simple sharp aggregates (Tattersall, 2007). When Homo heidelbergensis developed Acheulean axes or Clactonien flagstones, they met the needs of the mind which was intricately achieved through cognition with a type of stone. The hardness of stone was sensed, and the sharp side was honed to meet their needs, creating a type of product. Making the stone device is the best indirect reflection and expression of cognitive capacity (Tattersall, 2007). Hence, examining these first products illuminates one method of understanding the possibilities of the human mind and its capacity for creation. Humans’ advanced mental strength and abilities can be considered to be the basis for more complex social and technologic developments that encourage creative behavioural improvements. Therefore, new types of life, perception, and production are developed. Humankind began devel-


oping more detailed tools by learning from the natural environment, as well as sharing knowledge and experiences with each other. Humans’ tools evolved to include specially designed prongs, knives, and scrapers (Faulkner, 2014). Tool technology was developed as production techniques were created, transferred, and repeated; so this way the technology by which cultural objects used by communities were created. The occurrence of every new object can be considered as the construction of a cognition state. In this study, it is assumed that these states are developed on the basis of four components as a result of inferences made by primitive humans: the self, matter, aim, and form. It is asserted that all design processes are made by understanding of these four elements and establishing their cohesion. These assumptions make it possible to talk about the occurrence processes by which constructions and designs are created. In other words, some practical acts are carried out in the materialization of designs. These practical acts require knowledge of making. Therefore, the process of making continues with its intellectual content by situations related to conceptualization. According to Aristotle, the occurrence of an object is referred to as “of the comingsto-be and movements, one is called ‘thinking’ (noesis) and the other ‘making’ (poiesis); thinking is the one that proceeds from the starting point and the form, and making is the one proceeding from the completing stage of the thinking” (Metaphysics, 1985, p.15). Since the practical acts of object production deal with the results of thinking and designing, the making processes expressing the occurrence of objects are concluded with the matter formation of humankind’s understanding. It can be said that this process that occurs between thinking and matter formation is also a creation to Aristotle. In this context, making defines the relationship between the object founded by the mind and the object’s matter of existence. While Homo heidelbergensis created Acheulean axes with the ability of cognition and conceptualization,

the object that occurred is an artefact as a way of representing this conceptualization. 2.1. Noesis: Cognition and conceptualization Objects are the products of acts directed by the mind and cognition. The mind has an ability to simultaneously know and think of existing objects (pathetikos nous) and is the place of cognition and conceptualization (poietikos nous) (Aristotle, 1999). Cognition and conceptualization of known objects form the real aspect of the mind and its effective-creative side. To discuss the mind’s perception and process of understanding as a single term, ‘noesis’ may be used, the Greek word for intelligence or understanding. It is derived from noein, meaning to perceive or think, which in turn is derived from nous—mind or intellect (Smith & McIntyre, 1982). In this study, noesis refers to both cognition and conceptualization, including four aspects: the self, matter, aim, and form. Noesis can establish a relation among these four states and provide integrity through their unification. Noesis of the Self: Making primarily requires one’s cognition. In recognizing the structure of the body, its function and rules enables humans to know themselves, because, after humans understand the physical presence of their bodies, they come to discover the circumstances beyond their physical presence are not included in the mechanical position of the body and are internally changing. Physically, existence is not completely mechanic, since the body can be separated into two entities. One being ‘the external body’, perceiving matters as a means of senses and nerves, and the other ‘our body’, discussed on the level of spirit and cognition (Sartre, 2017). In this analysis, humans can understand their inner freedom, independence from their environment and conditions, and will. Thus, humans can direct their inner experiences. It could be thought that there is a comprehension of ‘me’ within the cognition that humans reveal for themselves. This comprehension reveals knowledge that is directly led by the

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mind. The entity referred to as mind consists of knowledge within a human. What Descartes calls the ‘real self ’ is a non-spatial but thinkable substance as well as a mental unit (Churchland, 2012). The mind causally interacts with the body. For example, sensory activities of the body cause visual, audial, or tactual perceptions in the mind. The comprehensions and decisions of the mind cause the conscious behaviours of the body. Therefore, the ‘body which is an object for mobilising objects is an acting centre; [without conceptualizations of mind] a design cannot reproduce’ (Bergson, 1988). In other words, the existence of an object is not a result of physical activity, but a mental production. Human beings, who comprehend or design, collect all connections of the universe in their minds. So, humans must know themselves to understand everything around them. All creatures have a spirit which is ‘the natural shape of [an] object having a substance and life.’ However, the spirit is also the carrier of mind (logos) that separates human beings from other creatures (Aristotle, 1999). Therefore, spirit may be considered to provide all actions for humans including thinking, judgement, and perception. This makes humans creative creatures. When humans explore their creativity, they find the power to change and determine the rules of universe. All the searching, finding, and creation attempts carried out by humans are results of this. Thus, humans create their own existence with conscious acts, differentiating themselves from others in their environment. This differentiation makes humans a kind of creator by means of a consciousness that broadens matter, form, and requirements. Noesis of Matter: The first knowledge about creatures that was acquired by humans is the one gained directly with the senses. It is the simplest method by which humans can recognize matter and the environment. This is enough to create some impressions of matter in the mind. However, according to Plato, such acquires of knowledge seemed to be a sub-type for human beings. Plato divided experiences of existence into two categories: sensible and intelligible. Poiesis of objects: Theory of making

While sensible experiences include understanding facts and objects in world, intelligible experiences are mathematical concepts and ideas (Cevizci, 2015). The knowledge of ideas is the highest form. Therefore, knowledge is natural to the existence of humans alongside ideas. Humans remember these through understanding matter and developing experiences. In this context, humans exhibit a more advanced ability to know than the experiences gained from their senses. According to Aristotle, creatures have sensual abilities; however, while some creatures interiorize these senses by intercepting them ‘spiritually’, others do not (Posterior Analytics, 1999). Experiences are created when perception is interiorised and repeated, allowing humans to develop a knowledge of existence. The mind must be created here; because creatures that turn experiences into knowledge, not by supposing these as instinct and unconsciously repeating them, but by shaping their actions with this knowledge are clever. Perhaps Aristotle’s view of ‘knowing’ is not beyond time and space unlike Plato’s view. The ideas that exhibit the highest type of knowledge are found together with the matter and form. However, senses yield the lowest type of knowledge according to both Aristoteles and Plato and for this reason, knowing is discussed on the level of consciousness. Knowing cannot be observed without any intervention of the mind. As a result, humans find the reality they perceive in the matter and reality they sense. When matter images created in the mind are combined with consciousness and the relations between consciousness and matter are established, the actions of the spirit are encouraged. ‘The brain movements caused by the external objects trigger thinking in the spirit even if they do not give place to the similarities’ (Sartre, 2017, p. 11). In this context, there are two types of knowledge that arouse humans’ creative stimuli. The first is the knowledge of matter that belongs to instinctive notions and is an automatic and code-designated memory system. The second is the knowledge of form that belongs to mental notions and is an ef-


fective-creative memory system (Bergson, 1988). The knowledge of matter is a part of natural order, is in connection with the environment, and is gained by understanding the world. The knowledge of form examines the data of nature and rearranges matter to create fact from new species (Malo, 1992). Therefore, the understanding of creation resulting from the relation and cooperation between mind and matter can be achieved. Matter that could not be found by the mind itself is discovered by the instincts. Since the instincts do not have the ability to search and know, they are nourished by the ability of the mind. This cooperation can be found in the Homo faber who creates tools as a kind of semi-person that overcomes nature incompletely (Gasset, 1941). The mental data required for establishing life independently from matter is created by establishing knowledge about matter. Noesis of Form: Humans begin to understand, conceptualize, and interiorize when they establish a relationship between existence and new circumstances for creation. The perception and experiences of the environment are described with images and notions that are created in the mind. In the pre-mind stage, we attempt to explain the objects which are understood as knowledge in the mind and created by our perception devices in the recognition and interpretation processes. It is related to the conceptualization and the ability to think abstractly. The ability to think abstractly forms a phenomenon that occurs in the mind before physical actions are borne from the body. As stated by Ditfurth: Before delivering the purpose of performing actions directly related to the concrete, external object to a process that is again realized by concreate movements, …, an “interior space” would have been created within the consciousness of the subject, or rather a “space of design”. Within such a designing space, a certain action can be “designed” in terms of all its possible consequences, the subject then acts according to it. (Bilinç Gökten Düşmedi; Bilincimizin Evrimi, 2007, p. 501). This internal designing space is the place in which the senses are concep-

tualized. Matters are discussed over the notions where qualifications are uncertain, and qualities are unlimited. A discussion of physical existence exceeds the scope of this paper, but different forms of existence are discussed because humans are creatures that design the environment and themselves within the environment. The condition of being human substantiates our perception. These substances are indirect and pure advantages of understanding. Therefore, they are the original form of existence. For example, Sartre discusses these substances as images (Sartre, 2017). Images are in the mind and are different from the objects we sense. When images become objects, they are not just in our mind anymore. There is a process of creation that ensures the transformation of matter into images and images into objects with its three steps, perception, imagination, and objection. The ‘external body describes the matters, it knows, in a part of brain by means of senses and nerves and makes an action in our body’ (Sartre, 2017). Through this action, images come to existence. So, the images are created at the stage in which physiology and consciousness integrate. This kind of interaction between matter and mind indicate that form is designed in the mind and is determined from the matter. Therefore, the object is the occurrence of form into matter. Our consciousness which transfers the external to internal and conceptualizes matter for the internal, also regulates matter from images to objects. In this arrangement, making, the creation of objects, always forms the actions of humans and enables them to exist by arising from the backstage (Plato, 1993). Making takes the form of designs that are envisioned by the mind. This situation can be understood from qualification of making by its forename, this way, the making of a ‘thing’ can be mentioned. As making gives pre-knowledge about the object to be created, it also indicates that the object has already been designed in the mind. Noesis of Aim: It can be considered that the intellectual designs, new meanings, and qualifications to be attributed to matter are formed by requirements. Matter is organized and formed to

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present creation in the simplest and purest way to meet the requirements in the best way. For example, the mind conceptualizes the requirements of an object, and creates a form to hold water to meet the need for drinking, which is instinctively known, by linking sensed thought and impermeable matters with this form. Thus, form and matter are decided according to certain requirements. The requirements can be understood with the object’s purpose, as well. Each object is created ‘due to a thing or for a thing’ (Aristotle, 1961). Humans provide the form to matter for certain purposes. This matter-form-aim relation could be examined by the four causality principles of Aristotle: 1. Causa materialis: matter with which an object will be created 2. Causa formalis: form which includes matter, the shape of an object 3. Causa finalis: aim of the object, the reason for which an object is created 4. Causa efficiens: the provision of the object or, in this case, person who makes the object (Heidegger, 2015). In this sense, human thoughts regarding creation can be considered to be developed by forming matter with respect to certain requirements. In this study, the notion of making is analysed as noesis and representation. It is assumed that humans develop cognition and conceptualization that are considered with the term of noesis through processes that include the self, matter, form, and aim. In the context of these four states; human interaction with their body, environment, and matter leads to constructive and transformative speculations on matter in the context of certain requirements. The accumulation of sense and the process of filtering it forms a ‘thing’ in the mind with a substance-free integrity, as all layers of interaction. The concrete responses of the ‘thing’ created in the mind are a kind of representation. Kim Tanzer calls this representation ‘thingifying’ (Tanzer, 1992). Thingifying is the theoretic meaning of idealization and objectivation. In this sense, objects are created in acknowledging findings and forms that the mind develops with a purpose. Therefore, in this study, Poiesis of objects: Theory of making

cognition and conceptualization refer to the theory of making which is approached with the construction of the object in mind. The notion of representation is suggested as a fundamental notion in the materialization of an object, design, and conception that exists in the mind. Representation refers to the meaning and content of an object’s existence and knowledge for its materialization. 3. Representation It can be said that even if object production emphasizes the unlimited concrete experiences within the process of making, all designs are formed through the cohesion of matter’s conceptualization, form, and aim. In order to express this design and make it used and recognized, some practical actions are required. However, it refers to a production in mental content; knowledge of making is necessary for these practical actions to represent this design. In other words, the practical side of making is in the mental actions. The mental content of the actions in practice could be referred to as ‘techne’. Techne is a type of cognition, as in, objects are created from this form of cognition (Heidegger, 2007). It provides knowledge on how a notion is revealed. In this sense, techne is a common origin point in the mental content of technical and technological terms that deal with the answer to the same question. It is thought that the origins of technique and technological terms contemporarily used are based on the notion of techne used in Ancient Greece (Ural, 2015). Technique can be considered to be the knowledge of making and is based on ability and experience. Instead of knowledge based on experience and inferences, the use of scientific knowledge has begun, which means that the practical acts of making are carried out in the technological field. It can be said that, in technology, the practical aim is applying the knowledge of making rather than exploring it. 3.1. Technique Knowledge of Making: Knowledge of making can be referred to by technique. Technique reveals the four noe-


sis components (the self, matter, form, and aim) (Heidegger, 2015). Technique is the integrity of designs and the procedures that help to have a specific result. It is the tool for producing objects in accordance with their fundamental structure and conceptualized form. In fact, for this reason, all possibilities of the concrete experiences of making are mentioned here. However, this form’s representation indicates an action that requires knowledge regarding the object. Plato uses the term technique as the same meaning of knowledge (episteme), because representation already has a certain knowledge. According to him, objects have already been observed as designs in the ideal world before they are created. Therefore, the realization of current potentiality is technique. The knowledge kept secret in the universe is developed by the effects of humans, consciousness, and aim; this is called realization (Plato, 2015). Similarly, Aristotle thinks that the occurrence of an object is the process of occurrence of form. This is the indication of objects being created by a certain knowledge. The practical action of the entire making process is created from knowledge or it creates knowledge, which indicates that this section can be referred to as the ‘knowledge of making’. In other words, the knowledge of making and technique are the bases of all actions which turns designs into objects. Therefore, all human actions for making are related to mind, as well as action. 3.2. Technology Knowledge of Making for Practice: ‘Making’ does not refer to labour as suggested by Marxian analyses of Homo laborans, the worker. The circumstances in which production refers to labour are not related to the intellectual conditions of object creation and uniqueness. Therefore, the processes and products of technology require different discussions regarding object creation. Due to technology being interested in object creation process like other practical sciences whose purposes are actions, it requires a type of information. Since technology uses cumulative and developing knowledge and scientific information, the act of

making involves concrete and physical actions. Therefore, unlike technique, technology does not resort to finding new object-specific knowledge. However, in the case of knowledge not dominating the act of making, it becomes a mediating component that does not destroy the creative process of making. The field of technology that causes the means of production to change suggests a model of production independent from conceptualizations between objects and their production or new knowledge and humans. This field detracts object production from conceptualization, experiment, and variety, while also destroying the relationship between matter and form. Objects are created only to meet certain requirements. Franklin tackles this concept, and refers to it as prescriptive technology (The Real World of Technology, 1990). Prescriptive technology causes the collapse of creativity in the making process and standardizes objects. The best example of this is the factory production, which includes the maker in only a small part of the making process. On the other hand, holistic technology, which is suggested by Franklin, is associated with the kind of making in which the maker is a creator. Although the maker is in cooperation with other disciplines, they are entirely involved in the making process and apply their own experiences to the process. This reveals new content at every turn in the object production. As a result, it can be understood that all processes that create objects are performed intellectually. The object first exists in the conceptualizations of humans toward the self, matter, aim, and form. The design of the object is achieved with the cohesion of these conceptions. Then, since the realization of these concepts requires the knowledge of making, the mental aspect of making is sustained. The knowledge of making is engaged to design. For this reason, in this content, it can be said that each object is a creation. The will that occurs in all processes of making turns into concrete things, a process called poiesis. 4. Making as poiesis The creative acts involved in the cre-

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ation of objects occur in the processes of conceptualizing the holistic nature of an object. The comprehension of this integrity reveals the design of object. Producing a design that did not previously exist is a form of creation. Therefore, the creation of objects is related to poiesis. Poiesis is based on the creation of non-pre-existing objects and the transformation from privacy to full-enlightenment (Heidegger, 2015). Poiesis is the process by which humans reveal the conceptualizations of the mind by affecting matter. It is a representation of an abstract design by processing and transforming matter. Aristotle presents arts and crafts as examples for poiesis, because they transform matter into a different thing, from its original state to specialized objects for each of their purposes. The literal meaning of arts and crafts is techne for Aristotle (Kart, 2015). Techne can be considered as a form of creation since it involves the activities that consist of the knowledge of objects and their making. It can be claimed that objects are created in the continuity of noesis, which refers to ideal and abstract thought and practice, which is the activity of its concrete production. The mental and ideal processes in each stage of this continuity indicate that the production of objects is creation. Therefore, object production should be examined in conjunction with creative action or poiesis, which offers a unique approach that eliminates the analytic dilemma of considering only mental or practical components. Due to form of the object being designed in the mind, the process of making differs from other actions. Aristotle explains the distinction between act and making with the terms praxis and poiesis. Generally, praxis is differentiated by its use with an action word, while poiesis is a term of activity used with a poiein verb in the context of ‘making, producing, and creating’ (Kart, 2015). Therefore, making and creating are different from all other actions because they reveal object designs by producing concrete results. They involve a process that is based on noninstinctive actions, personal conceptualizations and concrete expressions. Poiesis of objects: Theory of making

5. Discussion of theory of the making in design and architecture Making is both a deliberate action and a state of knowing. Since making directly intervene and interfere with the world, it contains more than design. Design describes the activity of architecture [or other disciplines associated with design] with an implicit bias: cognitive modelling is favoured and physical qualities [are] minimized. In contrast, making refers to the realms of mental and physical construction, acknowledging the dialectic quality of the process. (Knesl, 1992, p.6). For this reason, objects can be considered as the physical results of mental work. As the matured ideas are transferred into material realities, they are not forced to change. Ideas are observed in the model and aim of the act, as well as the projection of the processes involved in the realization of act. The understanding of poiesis yields the design of an object that represents the original idea and is pure and unique. Because within this understanding: • Humans reveal their consciousness and have the energy to alter existing states with this consciousness. This energy reveals humans’ capacity for creation. • The object is the product of understanding and creative performances. For this reason, it is created from the individual perception of humans who make objects. • Humans create an intellectual space of their own by questioning existing situations. Thus, everything that they have created is the response of a field of inquiry and thought. • The mind has a wide comprehension capacity. As a result, many possibilities of object creation are discoverable, and the identification of matter is always possible. • Certain decisions are taken, and knowledge is built. Therefore, the discrimination between theory and practice, mind and body, and subject and object becomes blurred and intertwine. As envisaged, objects reveal their meaning and aim. • There are some comprehensions of matter. It is ordinary to reach findings about the statement value of matter


that is produced through interrogation. Therefore, it is possible to discover possibilities beyond the material realities of objects. Furthermore, comprehending matter can reveal contrast sensual experience of objects. • Matters are considered with barriers and obstacles in the design process. Therefore, it is more likely that matters deviate from the original intention. • Images appear as a result of integrative understanding. They appear as pure findings of the mind and exist as a result of experience. This opens the process on a representational level and leads to a new formal vocabulary. • Each component should express something about the integrity of the object when revealing the image. No factor divides the perception of integrity. • A method is discovered for each object. Instead of using the common methods of making, the knowledge of making itself is produced in order to reveal comprehensions and designs. The practical circumstances of making are included in design. • Since object production is practice of design, it has its own strong and appropriate intellectual culture. This is because the design establishes a field of inquiry and discussion on its own without importing from different cultures such as art or science (Cross, 2007). • Although the method shows ontological and epistemological differences in technical and technological situations, it includes the knowledge of making on the basis. However, the knowledge of making gains more meaning in the expansion of the technique towards the consciousness-matter-method, because technology shapes consciousness, and develops more on production rather than creation. The technique emerges as a result of consciousness making discoveries on results. Therefore, it reveals the poetics in the relationship and interaction between idea and method. • Objects are exactly the result of design which is “neither completely predetermined nor universal (as in the notions of ideal form or essence), but specific to individual acts of making” (Childers, 1992, p. 5).

In the context of these expansions that make up the content of poiesis, this study states that poiesis constitutes the intellectual boundaries of the theory of making as a theoretical equivalent of making. The design is observed in the mental content of making and the design object is a product of the knowledge of cognition and conceptualization that occurs uniquely in each human. Therefore, the theory of making and poiesis should be considered as the hypothetic basis of all original productions in the field of design and architecture. 6. Conclusion The act of making indicates a form of human existence, in other words, the mind. The mind is the place of cognition and conceptualization or noesis. It can be said that noesis initiates the creation of objects. In this study, noesis’ development based on four conditions, the self, matter, form, and aim, is asserted. When humans understand their own mental abilities for cognition and conceptualization, they can reveal their creative identity. Noesis of matter explains that matter can bear different qualities apart from the ones sensed by humans and be differentiated from its own (for example, the stone is hard but could be sharp, as well). Noesis of form makes it possible for humans discover new meanings to be attributed to matter and find a way to express an intention. Therefore, it can be said that form is determined by the noesis of aim. For this reason, these four components can be understood holistically and simultaneously. These four fundamental and conceptual components explained in the context of noesis considering the design integrity of noesis as the intellectual backbone of making in our minds. The revelation of this design also refers to noesis and the mental process, since it requires the knowledge of making in its practical process. All the conditions related to making are developed mentally. This emphasizes poiesis, because poiesis is the creation of previously non-existed objects, and the occurrence of noesis in matter as claimed in this study. Since poiesis deals with each act through a mental process, it creates different

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qualities, because conceptualizations of the mind in the mental process are expected to be unique. Therefore, this study proposes to examine original objects as potential results of poiesis. Hence, the act of making that produces objects remains within the limits of the theoretical and practical aspects of poiesis. This study questioned how humans have created objects in order to find creativity of the mind towards the production attitude. This explanation is made by the conceptual typesetting laid out by the theory of making [Figure 1]. This conceptual content of the theory of making will lead to the renewal of the established order in the fields of design and architecture. Instead of the concept of design currently discussed in an epistemological field, it underlines the necessity of reinterpreting the concept of design in an ontological field. The ontological content of the concept of making can manifest itself in technical and tectonic searches. In this content, the actions creating the objects of all design fields arise from conceptions of designers. Thus, this study invites the rediscovery of the concept of making’s ontological origins as a theoretical premise that enables the identification of experimental research areas of how matter and form can be grasped afresh. With the the-

Figure 1. Conceptual schema of making. Poiesis of objects: Theory of making

oretical tools proposed in this study, it can be provided the expansion and deepening of design thought in contemporary design environments. From education to practice, this study can be a basis for the reform and advancement of all fields of design. References Aristotle. (1961). Aristotle’s Physics. (R. Hope, Trans.) Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. Aristotle. (1985). Metaphysic: Books VII-X. (M. Furth, Trans.) Indiana: Hackett Publishing Company. Aristotle. (1999). Posterior Analytics. (J. Barnes, Trans.) Oxford: Oxford University Press. Bergson, H. (1988). Matter and Memory. New York: Zone Books. Cevizci, A. (2015). Felsefe Tarihi. İstanbul: Say Yayınları. Childers, D. (1992). Absence Seeks Contingency: Architecture After Ideology. In On Making, (edited by Z. Bjorgvinsson, D. Childers, A. Cooney, and A. Ioannides) 1-5. New York: Rizzoli. Churchland, P. M. (2012). Madde ve Bilinç. İstanbul: Alfa. Cross, N. (2007). Designerly Ways Of Knowing. Basel, Switzerland: Birkhauser. Ditfurth, H. V. (2007). Bilinç Gökten Düşmedi; Bilincimizin Evrimi. (V. Atayman, Trans.) İstanbul: Cumhuriyet Kitapları. Faulkner, N. (2014). Marksist Dünya Tarihi: Neandertallerden Neoliberallere. (T. Öncel, Trans.) İstanbul: Yordam Kitap. Franklin, U. M. (1990). The Real World of Technology. Canada: CBC Enterprises / Ies Enterprises Radio. Gasset, J. O. (1941). Toward A Philosophy Of History. New York: W.W. Norton & Company. Haviland, W., D. Walrath, H. Prins, and B. McBride. (2011). Evolution and Prehistory: The Human Challenge. Canada: Cengage Learning. Heidegger, Martin. (2007). Sanat Eserinin Kökeni. Ankara: De Ki Basım Yayım. Heidegger, Martin. (2015). Teknik Ve Dönüş & Özdeşlik Ve Ayrım. (N. Aca, Trans.) Ankara: Pharmakon. Kart, B. (2015). Aristoteles ve Heide-


gger’in Sanat Kuramlarında “Poiesis” ve “Phronesis”. Kaygı Uludağ Üniversitesi Fen-Edebiyat Fakültesi Felsefe Dergisi (25), 77-88. Knesl, J. (1992). “Symposium-On Making.” In On Making, (edited by Z. Bjorgvinsson, D. Childers, A. Cooney, and A. Ioannides) 6–17. New York: Rizzoli. Malo, A. (1992). “The Hand: Organ of Knowledge.” In On Making, (edited by Z. Bjorgvinsson, D. Childers, A. Cooney, and A. Ioannides) 46–51. New York: Rizzoli. Plato. (2015). Timaios. (F. Akderin, Çev.) İstanbul: Say Yayınları. Plato. (1993). Symposium and Phaedrus. (B. Jowett, Trans.) New York: Dover Publications. Sartre, Jean Paul. (2017). İmgelem. İstanbul: İthaki Yayınları.

Smith, D. W. and R. McIntyre. (1982). Husserl and Intentionality: A Study of Mind, Meaning, and Language. Dordrecht, Boston, Lancaster: D. Reildel Publishing Company. Tanzer, K. (1992). “Releasing the Form To the Making: Womenswork is Never Done.” In On Making, (edited by Z. Bjorgvinsson, D. Childers, A. Cooney, and A. Ioannides). 33–45. New York: Rizzoli. Tattersall, I. (2007). “How Did Modern Human Cognition Evolve?” in Consciousness and Cognition: Fragments Of Mind And Brain, (edited by Henri Cohen). 3–17. California: Academic Press. Ural, M. N. (2015). Antik Yunan’da “Teknik”: Teknoloji Felsefesi Tarihine Genel Bir Bakış. Mavi Atlas, 136-144.

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ITU A|Z • Vol 16 No 3 • November 2019 • 71-86

Architectonics as synthesis of architectural and engineering disciplines

Natalia Vladimirovna NORİNA1, Veniamin Aleksandrovich NORİN2, Yuriy Vladimirovich PUKHARENKO3 1 • Department of Mechanics, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Saint Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Petersburg, Russia 2 • Department of Technology of Building Materials and Metrology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Saint Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Petersburg, Russia 3 • Department of Technology of Building Materials and Metrology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Saint Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Petersburg, Russia

doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2019.91489

Received: March 2018 • Final Acceptance: July 2019

Abstract The article is dedicated to the solution of some tasks faced when teaching students of architectural departments and related to insufficient knowledge of technical science. The need for introducing a profound study of such technical disciplines as “Structural performance of materials”, “Construction mechanics” into the educational program of architecture students has been proved. Methodological principles for selecting and structuring the contents of the Architetonics discipline have been defined. A project for scientific and methodological support of the Architectonics discipline has been developed. We state that currently there is a wide range of graphical software products allowing students of archi-tectural departments to model various interesting shapes. Along with that, we note that graphic software products do not allow for adequate check of the constructive solution, so educational modeling is frequently limited by solving space-planning and imaginary tasks. A problem of implementing calculation and designing software into the educational architectural designing has been considered. Keywords Architectonics, Design of architectural and engineering structures, Educational program of architecture, Integrated system of strength analysis, Russian engineering education.


1. Introduction A new stage in development of Russian architecture that started with the transition to mixed economy in the context of private property rehabilitation could not help but affect the system of architectural education. First, it affected the style of architectural projects. “Historicism” that had been informally prohibited for 25 years, covered the entire architectural “shop” in the country almost instantly. Projects reflecting the drive to search for new trends in architecture development released from decorative representation began to emerge as an alternative from neohistorism. There were also new design objects like temples, business centers, or elite apartment houses. In the 1990s, computer design was introduced to the training process for the first time. Contacts with foreign colleagues and universities intensified, and people got indeed acquainted with the latest construction technology. The Town Planning Code and related legislative documents set a new sequence of town planning documentation development. As contrasted with the Soviet procedure of “top to bottom” urban planning, it is done from bottom to top. The Town Planning Code cancelled state standards and the original prescription of what needs to be designed and in what amount. Now self-government authorities decide how many schools and kinder-gartens, parking lots and trade places, sports complexes and squares should be built. The population is gradually becoming the main driving force for generating and implementing any town-planning ideas. Today, a city planner should be able to both solve financial, sanitary engineering and transport issues competently and form a beautiful ur-ban environment. Despite some success, we must admit that, in general, Russian architectural universities have not adjusted to new requirements yet. According to corresponding member of the International Academy of Architecture M. G Meerovich: “The teachers engaged in training cannot

do this (with rare exceptions), and to say more, they cannot explain to others how to do this”. (Meerovich 2010). Simultaneously with the development of standards, one should be able to formulate procedures to be implemented in real life. All the above are tasks of a modern architect and planner, or urban planner. These tasks should be solved together with representatives of other academic subjects, but within the scope of their personal professional responsibility. Where can we get these specific knowledge and skills? It is architectural education that initiates development of the new fields of activity and qualification of graduates. In the past, an architect took decisions based on the “objectivity” set by standards, theoretical postulates, and possibilities of the construction industry base. Today, town-planning decisions become increasingly subjective - most often they are taken situationally, based on personal conviction and knowledge but not on general requirements and regulations. To implement such tasks, perhaps, a completely different personality is needed rather than one that the system of higher architectural education provides today. Today, we need people who are more likely to not draw but design and construct. They should know how to use mathematical formulas and calculation methods easily. It means that we need an engineer with skills in architecture, not an artist. Most top managers at factories that produce various building structures have the same opinion. This conclusion was made because we have monitored the opinions of top managers at industrial enterprises in St. Petersburg and Leningrad Oblast during field trips to the sites with students of St. Petersburg State Architectural and Construction University. To date, capacity of production facilities at these enterprises is enough to make real almost any intention of an architect with artistic skills. The problem is lack of qualified personnel to do drawings of proposed structures supported by cor-

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responding calculations and recommendations. Top managers of any certain enterprise within the said territory are interested in creating departments for design and engineering at their enterprises and are very anxious about the issue related to selection of appropriate personnel. The purpose of this study is to develop and substantiate scientific and methodological ground for training the future architects taking into account the engineering component of training. The scope of the study is a special training of architects in the field of engineering. The object of the study is a project of scientific and methodical support for teaching engineering to architects. According to the purpose of the study, the following tasks were set: 1. To study the condition of the investigated issue 2. To identify the place and importance of technical subjects in the framework of architectural education 3. To prove the need to introduce advanced technical subjects like Statics and Dynamics of Buildings and Structures, Building Materials, Performance of Con-struction Materials, and Construction Mechanics into the training course for students of architectural departments. 4. To define methodological principles of selecting and structuring the content of Architectonics. 5. To develop a methodological support project for Architectonics. 2. Theoretical analysis 2.1. Development trends of a ‘technological’ society that define new vectors of mentoring and educating architects Transition to the “technological” society increases requirements for modern up-bringing and education that are formed taking into account current trends in society de-velopment. It contributes to formation of an integral personality – a creative, smart, and educated person who has strong attitude,

democratic views, and a proactive approach to life. The tasks faced by architectural education in the light of the problems in the 21st century leave no doubt as to the need for radical change in education. A real solution to this problem is to achieve the level of professional architectural consciousness that guarantees continuity in the conditions of active introduction to new achievements in science and technology. The solution to such a problem cannot be implemented within the framework of separated scientific and technical subjects and by means of them. It can be implemented only within the framework of “human ecology” (Kaznacheev 1988). Currently, a new direction in architectural science is being considered. It is an interdisciplinary direction that determines relationship between nature and the human being. This means that architects of the future will need new knowledge, new skills, and new ideas. They will have to learn how to team work with engineers, biologists, physicists, and other professionals. Therefore, they will have to master the professional language in order to have at least a little idea about the basic concepts on which they build their reasoning. In any case, architects should stop locking themselves up and start communicating with the world. According to the studies of biologists V. Meyer, F. Kahn, N. Bogolyubov and others conducted at different times (Kahn 1929, Maier 1968, Bogolyubov 1940), architectonics of supporting systems of living organisms is linked to providing a high degree of strength and lightness in elements that are characterized by cost-efficient distribution of material (Temnov 2001). Therefore, in recent years, architects and engineers in Russia (Y. Lebe-dev, S. Voznesensky, V. Temnov, etc.) and in Western countries (P. Nervi, A. Menges, E. Hampe, S. Calatrava, P. Portoghesi, etc.) have actively referred to the experience of living nature. This is due to the fact that structures of living organisms, as well as building struc-tures, are strong,

Architectonics as synthesis of architectural and engineering disciplines


rigid and resistant to gravitational, atmospheric and other force actions. This experience is successfully used in design and construction of buildings and facilities with modern forms and efficient structures. Thanks to this interdisciplinary approach, an architecture that cannot be simply drawn but only created through deep understanding is being developed at the Institute for Computational Design in Stuttgart, Germany. Moreover, consideration and studying of the most unexpected objects is used for this understanding. For example, a shell of a spider (Architecture at your fingertips. Achim Menges develops software codes and makes a revolution in architecture 2014). University of Massachusetts pays great attention to this field of research. In particular, a digitized process of making a cocoon by a mulberry-fed caterpillar was used there to construct various spaces. The Group Director Neri Oxman believes that when studying the natural processes like ability of silkworms to build their cocoons from silk threads, scientists will be able to develop methods of “printing” architectural structures in a more efficient way, which can be achieved by modern 3D-printing technologies. This group investigated the relationship between digital and biological products to be produced in architectural scales. A dome of silk fibers called “Silk Pavilion” was created at the interdisciplinary research laboratory “MIT Media Lab” of Massachusetts Institute of Technology (“Silk Pavilion” - silkworms and a robot weave together 2013). At the same time, a natural object is not simply copied; what is copied is its very essence. On this basis, the Stuttgart Institute develops avant-garde projects. For example, bimetals are used to simulate work of muscles. Alternatively, a living cell is created which is capable to build a given structure by reproducing and then fossilizing like a coral under certain conditions (Dmitrieva 2015). Based on the information above, we can conclude that an architect of the

very near future will need universal knowledge to operate successfully. And they are all the more necessary when it comes to buildings related to adaptive architecture – there is simply no way to do this without well-developed engineering skills (Emmitt S. 2002, Emmitt S. 2004, Wiberg 2011, Schnädelbach 2016, Schnädelbach et al 2012, Fuchs 2013, Kontovourkis et al 2013, Jager et al 2016), since, in a certain sense, objects of adaptive architecture are machines. Therefore, we can assume that it cannot hurt for an architect to know the fundamentals of the basic subjects for mechanical engineers like machine elements and the theory of machines and mechanisms, as well as performance of construction materials. Of course, an architect will not have to independently calculate an assembly unit that ensures intended movements of structures. It is the work of a designer. However, an architect should know which assembly units already exist and which ones can exist in reality based on the laws of physics. However, to acquire enough knowledge in design, an architect actually needs to be trained in design, and it seems almost impossible today. In addition, a good knowledge of behavior of structures is not yet a guarantee that an architect will be able to find expressive tectonic images. Therefore, an issue related to significant correction of study programs of architectural and design schools should be recognized as one of the current problems. At the same time, the current development of architect’s skills in design can be achieved not at the expense of an increase in number of class hours, but im-provement of content quality for special design subjects. 2.2. Problems of developing the syllabus of teaching educational programmes in the major of architecture at Russian universities The problem of arranging the content of educational programs for architects has always been of attention to many researchers. One can definitely

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say that it is a crosscut-ting issue of pedagogy, which is topical at every stage of developing training courses for architects. The following question is important: how the content of education of architects should be projected to the higher school. Let us turn to studying the issue of technology of designing the competence-oriented content of the architects’ training courses. The Russian system of higher education was formed based on paradigm of knowledge. The whole educational process was organized according to “knowledge – skills – abilities” triad where exactly knowledge was the first. It was believed that knowledge digestion process had potential for development by itself letting to form working knowledge and to put it to use. The logic of implementing the competence approach differs fundamentally from the previous knowledge paradigm by the fact that the goal of education in Federal state educational standard of higher education (HE FSES) is specifically formulated competences (general cultural and professional). In this regard, there are some contradictions: • Between specific objectives of education in the form of competencies that shall be mastered because of studying the educational program, on the one hand, and an unclear idea of what the content of education should be in order to form these competencies. • Between the integrative nature of competences, which requires appropriate complex means for their formation, on the one hand, and the disciplinary nature of the curriculum aimed at the formation of subject knowledge and skills, on the other hand. Hence, the following problem arises: what should the projected content of architects’ education be in order to form the needed competencies? As the analysis shows, curricula for training bachelors consist of cycles of subjects and sections (Dreher 2013). The set of subjects in each cycle is determined by the types of professional activities with which undergraduates will deal, and the content of curricula is determined by the task of the most thorough and in-depth study of each

subject. Despite the fact that matrices of the correspondence of the subject and the competences formed within it are compiled in the course programs, this process is often of a formal nature. Teachers conduct this correspondence “by eye”, mainly to accomplish the assignment of the management team. With such a planning system, subjects that do not meet the requirements of formation of assigned competencies are included into the course content, or, conversely, subjects that are necessary to form the assigned competencies are missing. Curricula and course programs are an important prerequisite for professional training. At the same time, the more rationally these documents are compiled, the higher the probability of successful student training. Individual subjects of the curriculum should be harmoniously interconnected; interdisciplinary continuity should be established between subjects and their topics. The logic of the new generation of HE FSES requires movement from goals of results to the content capable of providing these results. Therefore, designing of the scope, level, content of theoretical and empirical knowledge, practical skills, and necessary experience are directly dependent on the results of education expressed in the form of competencies. You can neither “tear off ” competencies from the content of education nor you should expect that you could ensure their acquisition only through the content of education. In the process of teaching, the teacher and the student deal with a certain subject. What should it be in the context of competence approach implementation? The course program should contain information about objectives, structure, scope, content, and other methodological support of the subject (Ogorelkov 2013). Moreover, we proceed from the fact that a student should be introduced to the educational program as a whole from the very beginning of training, so that he/she could immediately understand what competencies should be formed in the course of studying the subject, during the term, year, or the entire period of study; what tasks he/she should per-

Architectonics as synthesis of architectural and engineering disciplines


form in the course of studying, etc. In addition, in our opinion, it is necessary to move on to a different structuring of teaching aids based on the project and technological approach. 2.3. Methodological approaches to the engineering-focused training of architects The study data was collected in the course of analysis of the contemporary training of architects in Russia and abroad. The study data was collected in the course of analysis of the contemporary training of architects at Saint Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (SPbSUACE) (Predmetno-modulnaya matritsa obucheniya arhitektorov [Subject and Module Training Matrix for Architects] 2016), Moscow Architectural Institute (Primernaya osnovnaya professionalnaya obrazovatelnaya programma vysshego obrazovaniya [Model Main Professional Educational Programme of Higher Ed-ucation] 2016), Nizhny Novgorod State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (Annotatsii i rabochiye programmy distsiplin [Abstracts and Steering Documents of Academic Disciplines] 2018), Novosibirsk State Academy of Architecture and Civil Engineer-ing (Osnovnye obrazovatelnye programmy [Main Educational Programmes] 2011), the Institute of Urban Science and Urban Environment, the Karlsruhe University (Germany), the University of Strasbourg (France) (Proekt Rossiya 82. Obrazovaniye 2016 [Project Russia 82. Education 2016]), the Institute for Computational Design and Construction of Stuttgart, University of Massachusetts, and the University of Niš (Study program – Architecture 2011). In the contemporary dynamic international environment of architectural education, the Russian higher school is by no means always showing the signs of progress. Judging by the current state of the Russian architectural school, the question arises if we can expect any interesting and competently drafted projects at the Russian architectural universities, which demonstrate more and more signs of

stagnation. Many problems of teaching the architectural way of thinking in Russian schools are rooted in the predominance of artistic ‘frills’ when interpreting the architecture, wherein a quest for a showy envelopment remains the main issue. From the very beginning of teaching the profession, there have been artistic exercises aimed at creating that showy envelopment instead of designing a form using modern materials and techniques. The disastrously underrated role of the scaled down modelling of modern structures made of the same materials that are sup-posed to be used to build real-life facilities leads to Utopian projects. A failure to provide sufficient new equipment to mockup workshops prevents students from appreciating the sense of structure or from understanding how engineering materials work in real life, and that is what can be experienced during scaled down modelling. In some foreign universities (Karlsruhe University (Germany), the University of Strasbourg (France), Helsinki University of Technology), teaching many engineering cross-disciplines (first of all, design) provides to students a fundamental training in terms of appreciating the sense of how to use materials with different properties. Spatial image of an item in the form of multilayer axonometric projections and sections with no envelopment gives an idea of how competently materials and structures are used to support highly demanded processes. Special attention should be paid to Juhani Pallasmaa’s laboratory of prototype design where students study professional subjects through scaled prototypes that they make with their own hands. The analysis has revealed that the current training of architects is, with rare exceptions, more involved with computers thus distancing the students from reality. Modern teaching methods do not involve manual count of engineering structures either. Numerous recent computer graphics textbooks are primarily focused on simulating the geometry of designed objects and solving the drawing and graphics problems. At the same time, there are almost no textbooks focused on auto-

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mated calculations and applied design assignments. The drawbacks of architects’ training in Europe can also be as follows; for example, the University of Sheffield teaches an operating method not specific skills while independent student activities seem to be too much of a share there; Delft University of Technology seems to pay little attention to design as such; the Institute for Advanced Architecture of Catalonia does not always adapt the engineering aspect of design to real life situations (Proekt Rossiya 82. Obrazovaniye 2016 [Project Russia 82. Education 2016]). However, the bottom line is that contemporary teaching methods provide neither good construction skills nor professional intuition in future architects. 3. A project for methodological support of Architectonics The authors suggest introducing a new subject called Architectonics into the curricula of architectural and designing specialties as an integrated course of the following subjects: Building Materials, Architectural and Building Constructions, Statics and Dynamics of Buildings and Structures, Performance of Construction Materials, and Structural Mechanics. In architectural science, artistic and

Figure 1. An animated demonstration of creating an “open” joint of external wall panels in a technological sequence.

imaginative comprehension of forces invisible to the eye is called Architectonics (from Greek ἀρχιτεκτονική – the art of building) (Weisman 1899). The following national scientists carried out rigorous theoretical studies on the topic of Architectonics: B. Nikolaev, A.I. Nekrasov, V.F. Markuzon, V.P. Zubov, A.G. Gabrichevsky, Y.S. Lebedev, V.G. Barkhin, A.E. Gutnov, M.V. Shubenkov, etc. (Nekrasov 1994, Nikolaev 2006, Shubenkov 2006, Zubov 2001). The project of methodological support of the subject of Architectonics provides a solution of interdisciplinary tasks in architectural design. The objective of the project for the scientific and methodological support of Architectonics is to create the most acceptable from practical point of view methods of visualization of the most frequently encountered elements of building structures subjected to calculations. The need to bring the solution of each problem to a finite numerical result often leads to various simplifications, which validity in each case is confirmed experimentally or by mathematical analysis. During the development of the project for scientific and methodological support of Architectonics, the authors were guided by the fact that one should strive to both apply complex mathematical calculations and receive a deep understanding of the essence of occurring physical phenomena and carry out simplified computational modeling (schematization) of them. Therefore, to successfully master Architectonics, students shall necessarily get skills of both machine and manual calculation for most common elements of building structures along with design skills. The scientific and methodological support of Architectonics should include the following: • The course program (please find it attached) • Methodical recommendations for course studying • Methodical instructions for the practicals • Complex individual tasks for computational and graphic works • Educational, didactic, and reference materials

Architectonics as synthesis of architectural and engineering disciplines


• The method to control the level of mastering the subject based on the rating technology of knowledge assessment 4. Methodical recommendations for the course of Architectonics Methodical recommendations for the course of Architectonics The following actions should be taken for successful implementation of the course program in Architectonics: The first section of the subject - Architectural Constructions (AC) should include lectures and exercises. Presentation of lecture material in Architectonics shall be accompanied by a presentation created, for example, in Power Point (Fig.1). Practicals should be carried out only as field trips: a) Across the university’s academic buildings. b) To existing buildings outside the university, including residential, public and industrial buildings and structures. c) To construction sites. d) To factories of building materials and structures. Presentation of a photo album with situational pictures shall be an indispensable requirement for a student’s report. Architectural Days shall be provided for in the curriculum for the successful mastering of the first part of Architectonics. An Architectural Day is a day within a working week on which students shall only deal with Architectonics. It is reasonable to study by this scheme during two terms of the first year. The second section of the subject is the Basis for Calculation of Architectural Structures (BCAS). It shall include lectures and practicals. Presentation of lecture material shall necessarily be accompanied by a presentation, since theoretical issues related to statics and dynamics of structures are particularly difficult to understand and shall be accompanied by any form of visualization, including electronic presentations. It is expedient to start studying a certain subject with a selection of photo materials from the photo albums with situational shots (for example, Fig. 2, 3, 4, 5).

Therefore, students will not solve related abstract problems (as it is done now) and calculate real structured taken from practice. An example is calculation of a statically definable metal frame required for the restoration of a destroyed building wall (Fig.6). To successfully master the second part of Architectonics, the curriculum shall include 4 academic hours (2 hours of lectures and 2 hours of practicals) every week for three terms of the

Figure 2. Photo of a balcony console for calculations of transverse bending.

Figure 3. Photo of an arch for calculations of transverse bending.

Figure 4. Photo of columns for calculations of stability.

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second and third year. It is reasonable to combine manual and com-puter calculations. Automated calculation involves usage of the calculation extensive features and design software SCAD Оffice that is notable for its high degree of visualizing the calculation results. The architectural form is material and has one very important feature, which has not been sufficiently studied, in our opinion. This feature is associated with the presence of hidden forces that arise in the material because of influence of all kinds of physical load. These forces are studied in detail by various branches of physics, the theory of elasticity, strength of materials, theoretical mechanics, and so on. The specific nature of the topic is that in-

Figure 5. Photo of envelopments and frameworks for calculations of combined strength.

Figure 6. The scheme of calculation of a statically definable metal frame developed by a student on the example of reconstruction of a destroyed building wall.

visibility of internal forces results in the necessity to attract complex engineering calculations or intuition. By covering spheres of logical and imaginative thinking and revealing points of their contact, the topic of Architectonics is among the most difficult ones in architecture. It is considered that a professional architect should be able to cover both these areas of activity; however, such interaction is carried out with great difficulty in the modern educational process and often in practice (Fisher 2006, 2008, 2013). In the vast majority of cases, it is very difficult for students to grasp the relationship between the logic of architectural forms making and precise analytical calculations based on abstract modeling of physical processes (Melodinsky 2004). Now there are new software products that allow working in the mode of complex design getting the result in a quick and accurate way, in a visual and intuitive form, which is important for future architects. Quite a many programs have already been used in architectural and building design: “Lira”, “Monomah”, COSMOS, ANSYS, NASTRAN, etc. (Radzjukevich & Kozlov 2001). Thanks to these programs, architects have a possibility to solve almost all design tasks that can be formalized and algorithmized. Almost all sections of construction physics (heat protection, sound insulation, acoustics, insolation, etc.) and structural mechanics (theory of strength of materials, theory of stability, theory of plasticity), theory of structures (statics, dynamics, stability of structures), building structures, geophysics, etc. can be referred to them. All kinds of dynamic processes are also modeled, and it is important for building design taking into account seismicity. However, despite such a huge variety of software products that can be used to solve different project tasks, in the majority of cases students of architectural institutions develop only drawings and 3D models followed by designed projects visualization. In fact, the computer is used only as a tool for geometric modeling and is a tiny fraction of real capabilities of modern software. The main difficulty of the problem lies in the fact that studying of new products

Architectonics as synthesis of architectural and engineering disciplines


and their adaptation to the learning process are a separate large organizational, scientific, and methodical job that requires participation of a diversified group of specialists. The topicality of this work is related to the fact that many textbooks (the theory of strength of materials, theoretical mechanics, structural mechanics, etc.) run their course, because visualization of conditions and the behavior of a projected object are presented in them in an extremely abstract form. Often such textbooks contain only formulas, graphs, curves, and diagrams that students perceive with some difficulty (Azizyan et al 2002, Beljaev 2001, Bespalov 2011, Stasyuk et al 2004). In this regard, in our opinion, the attempt to study some computational software products for their “integration” into the educational process undertaken at Novosibirsk State Academy of Architecture and Fine Arts (NSAAFA) deserves attention (Radzjukevich & Palchynov 2009). A comparative analysis of software products showed there that SCAD Offis (Structure CAD Office) is most preferable for educational design. If determined accu-rately, it is an integrated system for strength analysis and structural design. A store of NSAAFA experience in this direction makes it possible to identify a number of possibilities of new software products. First, it should be noted that it became possible to visualize the distribution of equivalent stresses both on the surface and inside the analyzed structural element. An object is automatically painted with different colors using the color indication or the so-called von-Mises scale. It is conventionally assumed that the less the stress in the material is, the “colder” the color (dark-blue, blue) is. And vice versa, areas working under high loads are painted with “warm” and “hot” colors (yellow, red). In this case, information about the operation of the element acquires extreme clarity, which is very important for students of architectural and design profile to perceive the material studied. Obviously, to ensure complete design, in addition to creating “beautiful pictures” it is also necessary to do physical modeling, i.e. to turn certain phys-

ical properties to geometrical models for their investigation. Therefore, the material form can be considered a certain derivative of its internal physical properties and given external conditions to which it is adjusted or adapted. Modeling of such a form that coincides with the spatial structure of stresses makes it possible to introduce a new method of form making, which can be conditionally called adaptive-tectonic (Charleson 2005, Charleson & Pirie 2009). It is possible to set conditions to detect a conditionally optimal form for such elements as “support”, “console”, “counterfort”, “beam”, “wall opening”, “shell”, etc. In addition, for more adequate artistic understanding of design, it is promising to create a typology of tectonic units like: 1. Load receipt unit (column cap, counterfort abutment to the wall, etc.); 2. Unit of load transfer by distance (column shaft, pilaster, post, spacer, etc.); 3. Unit of load transfer to the base (base, socle, etc.); 4. Unit of changes in the direction of line of force (counterfort angle). 5. Unit of load transfer from some loaded sites to another quantity of restrained sites (branching in trussed systems). Obviously, it is a far from complete list of situations reflecting the operation of hidden forces in a material. Development of this area of research is only beginning. Carrying out such virtual experiments with material and loads makes it possible to bring out the process of architectural form making and, accordingly, design to a qualitatively new stage. An architect receives a tool that allows looking through the material and it, in turn, can provide the basis for a significant approximation of artistic-intuitive and engineering-design approaches to design and form making. Detailed studying of the program showed that it makes it possible to carry out calculations accompanied by visual graphic presentation of structural layout operation, indicate loads, and allows choosing optimum structural elements. This product interacts seamlessly with many other software prod-

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ucts and allows working correctly with imported geometric models, which is very important when using graphic software products. The results of machine and manual calculations shall represent mutual verification of the correctness of the result received. However, in our opinion, manual calculation shall prevail, since it allows “feeling” the structure, not to mention the fact that in some cases machine calculation cannot even be used. 5. Recommendation The projected methodology of teaching Architectonics can be used to train architects at construction universities and architectural and art academies, because it is an effective way to increase the level of knowledge of students and form their professional activities. It is recommended to: • Include mathematics and physics into the list of entrance examinations for architectural specialties as the basic general subjects. • Equip the park of the educational architectural workshop with any of architectural and construction design programs - “Lira”, “Monomakh”, COSMOS, ANSYS, NASTRAN, etc. - that allow to work in the mode of complex design getting results in a quick and accurate way, in a clear and intuitive

Figure 7. Averaged results of the pass/ fail examinations in Architectonics, Architectural Engineering Structures, and Structural Mechanics.

form, which is important for future architects. • Equip the park of the educational architectural workshop with a laser scanner that allows carrying out high-precision and high-performance measurements of architectural and building structures. • Equip the park of the educational architectural workshop with a 3D printer with the help of which students can get a demonstrable result of their architectural and planning solutions. • Use 3D printer features to print both as mockups of entire construction projects and 3D copies of piece architectural structures, that can be used like Lego elements to “put together” mockups of, for example, skeleton-type structures. • Adhere to the proposed study program of Architectonics. 6. Conclusions 1. The developed project of scientific and methodological support of Architectonics for architects training is an important and relevant material of the theory and practice of general technical subjects teaching. 2. Peculiarities of industry training of students of construction institutions were singled out based on the principles of integration, systematization, polytechnic education, etc. 3. Requirements for the selection of the content of basic technical training of architects in Architectonics were formulated taking into account peculiarities of vocational education. 4. A project for the methodological support of Architectonics at a construction university was developed. 5. The course program in Architectonics was partially tested during the autumn term in 2015-2016 academic year. The results were as follows: a) The interest of students in studied subjects like Architectural and Building Structures, Performance of Construction Materials, Construction Mechanics was heightened, and it is confirmed by an increase in attendance as compared to previous years; b) Summarizing the results of the survey, we can say that students appreciate the innovations, because now they cannot only draw, but also cal-

Architectonics as synthesis of architectural and engineering disciplines


culate architectural constructions, i.e. solve real issues in the field of architecture and construction. c) Having analyzed the current and intermediate knowledge assessment, we can say that students’ performance has improved because of rhythmic work during the term, which, in turn, was due to their interest in the subjects studied (Fig. 7). The comparative analysis data was collected in the course of the winter examination periods 2014/2015 and 2015/2016. In January 2016, the first pass/fail examination was held in Architectonics as an experiment in three groups. The results were compared with those shown by the three student groups at pass/fail examinations in Architectural and Building Structures and in Construction Mechanics. Previously, there had been no Strength of Materials on the cur-riculum for architects. Therefore, the performed exploratory work allows concluding that the application of the proposed scientific and methodological support for Architectonics as an important basic technical subject is bound to improve the quality of teaching of students of architectural universities. The timeliness of introduction of an integrated course of art and basic technical subjects is in full agreement with national priority project “Education” currently being implemented (Prioritetnij national`nij proekt «Obrazovanie» [National Priority Project “Education»] 2016). When creating large educational and research-and-production complexes, it is possible to suggest the organization of a department for Architectonics at architectural faculties of architectural and construction universities. References «Architecture at your fingertips. Achim Menges develops program codes and is revolutionizing architecture» (2014). Retrieved from: https:// Annotatsii i rabochiye programmy distsiplin [Abstracts and Steering Documents of Academic Disciplines] (2018). Retrieved from: http://www.

wprgr/070303.php Azizyan I. A., Dobritsyna I. A., Lebedeva G. S. (2002).Teoriya kompozitsii kak poetika arhitektury [The theory of composition as the poetics of architecture]. Moscow: Progress-Tradition. [In Russian]. Beljaev G. (2001). Opyty arhitekturnogo modelirovanija [Architectural modeling experiments]. Retrieved from: [In Russian]. Bespalov V. (2011). Arhitekturnye konstrukcii [Architectural constructions]. Moscow. Architecture -С. [In Russian]. Bogolyubov N. I. (1940). Energeticheskiy metod funktsionalnogo issledovaniya v biologii [Energy Method of Functional Study in Biology]. Moscow. Publishing House of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR . [In Russian]. Charleson A. W. (2005). Structure as Architecture. Oxford: Elsevier Charleson, A W., & Pirie, S. (2009). An investigation of structural engineer-architect collaboration. Journal of the Structural Engineering Society New Zealand. Vol. 22, No.1. (pp. 97-104). Dmitrieva G. (2015). Novaja staraja professia «architector» [A new old profession of an “architect”]. Siberian forum. Krasnoyarsk. SFU. Retrieved from node/741. [In Russian]. Dreher R. (2013). Application of the principle of project education in the bachelor’s program. Higher education in Russia. No.2. p.46-49 Emmitt S. (2002). Architectural Technology. Oxford: «Blackwell Science Ltd». P. 272. Retrieved from: http:// Emmitt S. (2004). Principles of Architectural Detailing. Oxford «Blackwell Science Ltd». P. 264. Retrieved from: Fisher Thomas R. (2006). Alternative Thinking on the Practice of Architecture. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Fisher Thomas (2008). Architectural Design and Ethics: Tools for Survival. Elsevier/Architectural Press. Fisher Thomas (2013). Designing to Avoid Disaster: The Nature of Frac-

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ture-Critical Design. New York: Routledge. Fuchs, T. (2013). The Phenomenology of Affectivity. Oxford Univ. Press, 2013. topic/business/innovation-technology/architecture-at-your-fingertips Jager N., Schnadelbach H. and Hale J. (2016). Embodied Interactions with Adaptive Architecture. Architecture and Interaction: Human Computer Interaction in Space and Place. Springer International Publishing. 183-202 Kahn F. (1929). Der Mensch. – V. 4. Translated from German Leningrad, Seyatel, 424 p. Kaznacheev V.P. (1988). Ekologija cheloveka. Osnovnie problemi [Human ecology. Key problems.” М.: Nauka, 32 p. [In Russian]. Kontovourkis, O., Phocas, M. & Tryfonos, G., (2013). Prototyping of an adaptive structure based on physical conditions. International Journal of Architectural Computing, 11 (2), pp. 205-226. Maier G. (1968). Quadratic programming and theory of elastic-perfectly plastic structures / Meccanica, №4, p.265--273 Meerovich, M. G. (2010). Architektor doljen ne lepit`I risovat`, а konstruirovat` i masterit` [The architect needs to sculpt and paint and design and make] // the Portal of the German cultural center. Goethe in Russia. Retrieved from: ins/ru/lp/kul/dur/sta/npb/ru6075346. html. [In Russian]. Melodinsky D. L. (2004). Schkola architekturno-dizainerskogo formoobrazovanija [School of architecture and design shaping]. Moscow: Architecture-C. [In Russian]. Nekrasov A. I. (1994). Teorija architekturi [Theory of architecture]. Moscow: Stroyizdat. [In Russian]. Nikolaev B. (2006). Fizicheskie nachala archtekturnich form. Opit issledovanijja chronicheskich deformatsiji zdanij [The physical beginning of the architectural forms. Research experience chronic strain of the buildings]. Retrieved from detalirovka-voprosov-globalnoy-teorii/b-nikolaev-fizicheskie-nachala-arhitekturnih-form-2.html. [In Russian]. Ogorelkov B.I. (2013). Kompetent-

nostnaja model` uchebnoji distsiplini [Competency-based model of an academic discipline]. Quality. Innovations. Education. No.7. p.20-23. [In Russian]. Osnovnye obrazovatelnye programmy [Main Educational Programmes] (2011). Retrieved from: http://www. prog/. [In Russian]. Predmetno-modulnaya matritsa obucheniya arhitektorov [Subject and Module Training Matrix for Architects] (2016). Retrieved from: https:// Jpg. [In Russian]. Primernaya osnovnaya professionalnaya obrazovatelnaya programma vysshego obrazovaniya [Model Main Professional Educational Programme of Higher Education] (2016). Retrieved from: php. [In Russian]. Prioritetnij national`nij proekt «Obrazovanie» [National Priority Project “Education»] (2016) Retrieved from: otrasl/educ/prioritetnyj-nacionalnyj-proekt-obrazovanie/. [In Russian]. Proekt Rossiya 82. Obrazovanie [Project Russia 82. Education] (2016). Retrieved from: [In Russian]. Radzjukevich A., Kozlov G. (2001). Komp’juternoe modelirovanie kak instrument izuchen-ija tektonicheskih osobennostej arhitekturnoj formy [Computer simulation as a tool to study the tectonic features of the architectural forms]. Retrieved from: [In Russian]. Radzjukevich A., Pal’chynov S. (2009). Arhitektonika dlja arhitektorov [Architectonic for Architects]. Retrieved from: AMIT/2009/4kvart09/Radzjukevich/ Article.php. [In Russian]. Schnädelbach H., Irune, A., Kirk, D., Glover, K., and Brundell, P. (2012). “ExoBuilding: Physiologically driven adaptive architecture.” ACM Transactions in Computer Human Interaction 19, 4, pp. 1-22. Schnädelbach H. (2016). Adaptive architecture. Interactions 23, 2. p. 62 Shubenkov M. V. (2006). Strukturnie zakonomernosti architekturnogo for-

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moobrazovanija [Structural patterns of architectural shaping]. Moscow: Architecture-C. [In Russian]. Silk Pavilion - silkworms and robot work together to weave Silk Pavilion (2013). Retrieved from: ttp://futurika. info/shelkovyj-pavilon-obedinyonnye-usiliya-robota-i-zhivyx-gusenic/ Stasyuk N.G., Kiseleva T.Y., Orlova I. G. (2004). Osnovi architekturnoji kompozitsii [Fundamentals of architectural composition]. Moscow: Architecture-C. [In Russian]. Study program - Architecture (2011). Retrieved from: http://www. Temnov V.G. (2001). Konstruktivnie sistemi v prirode I stroitel`noj technike [Structural systems in nature and construction machinery]. St. Petersburg.: Compterburg, 62p. [In Russian]. Weisman, A. D. (1899). Greek-Russian dictionary. St. Petersburg: Publishing author. Wiberg M. (2011). Interactive textures for architecture and landscaping: digital elements and technologies. New York, IGI Global, p.203 (adaptive architecture) Zubov V. I. (2001). Architekturnaja teorija Al`berti [Architectural theory of Alberti]. St. Petersburg: Aletheia. [In Russian]. Appendix Course program suggested for Architectonics: Introduction Part 1. Architectural constructions (AC) 1. General principles of design of bearing and enclosing structures of buildings 1.1. General principles of design of the load-bearing frame and its elements 1.2. Selection of load-bearing frame materials 1.3. Enclosing structures, requirements to them. Methodology of their design solutions. 2. Architectural designs of lowrise residential buildings 2.1. Foundations of low-rise buildings 2.2. Frames of low-rise buildings made of stone

2.3. Frames of low-rise buildings made of wood 2.4. Frames of low-rise buildings with the use of metal and plastic 2.5. Floor slabs and floors 2.6. Roofs and roof coatings of lowand medium-rise buildings 2.7. Elements of low-rise construction (verandas, terraces, vestibules, internal wooden staircases 2.8. Household ovens and fireplaces 3. Architectural designs of singlestorey industrial and civil buildings 3.1. Load-bearing frame systems 3.2. Elements of the load-bearing frame of single-storey industrial buildings (columns, crane girders, bracing, side-framing columns) 3.3. Coverings of single-storey buildings 3.4. Flat roof framing without horizontal thrust. Beams and trusses. 3.5. Spacer flatwork 3.6. Beam-and-girder systems 3.7. Thin-walled space structures 3.8. Suspension structural systems 3.9. Pneumatic and tent coverings 3.10. Wall railings of heated and non-heated buildings 3.11. Skylights 4. Architectural designs of multi-storey buildings 4.1. Load-bearing frames of civic multi-storey buildings 4.2. Load-bearing frames of multi-storey industrial buildings 4.3. Foundations of multi-storey buildings 4.4. Wall enclosing structures of multi-storey buildings 4.5. Structural components of multi-storey buildings (balconies, recessed balconies, window bays, ceiling slabs, staircases, ramps, construction elements of carrying and lifting equipment 4.6. Translucent vertical structures 4.7. Doors and gates 4.8. Partitions 4.9. Prefabricated large-size units of floor and ceiling slabs 4.10. Suspended ceilings 4.11. Floors 5. Construction of buildings in areas with special conditions

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5.1. Construction in seismic areas 5.2. Construction in the Far North and in hot climates 5.3. Construction in areas with collapsing and anthropogenic soils Part 2. Basics of Calculation of Architectural Structures (BCAS) 1. The most important requirement for architectural structures 1.1. Tasks and objective of structural mechanics 1.2. Real structure and design diagrams. Basic assumptions of structural mechanics 1.3. Geometric characteristics of plane sections. Center of gravity of plane figures 1.4. External and internal forces 1.5. The concept of stresses. Normal and shearing stresses. 2. Axial tension and compression 2.1. Stresses and deformations. Hook’s law 2.2. Calculation of statically determinate systems 2.3. Peculiarities of calculation of statically indeterminate systems 2.4. The concept of strength calculation. The method of allowable unit stresses. Calculation using ultimate breaking loads. Calculation using limit states Practicals • Selecting the section of the lower chord of a welded trapezoidal truss of an industrial building • Selecting the section of reinforcing steel of a reinforced concrete column of square cross-section with consoles 2.5. Influence of own weight Practicals • Determination of the required number of concrete end-bearing piles of a grillage • Determination of the volume of brickwork of a stepped brick column loaded with an axial compressive force 2.6. Calculation of ideal cables Practicals - stress-rapture testing of the load cable of an aerial ropeway 3. Shift 3.1. Stresses and deformations 3.2. The concept of shear fracture and bearing stress Practicals

• Determination of the required height of reinforced concrete column consoles based on shear resistance • Determination of the required length of embedding of a round plain reinforcing bar in concrete under pulling loads • Determination of the height of square in the plan of the foundation for the centrally compressed reinforced concrete column based on its strength of punching (shear) by the column 3.3. Calculation of welded joints. Butt joints. Lap joints. Combined joints. Practicals • Testing of welded joint strength • Determination of the stretching stress that a welded joint can withstand 3.4. Calculations of riveted and bolted connections for shear, compression, stretching Practicals • Determination of the required number of rivets • Calculation of fastening of the compressed diagonal of a truss to the gusset plate • Bolted connection calculation • Determination of the ultimate tensile stress that a bolted joint of the lower chord of a truss can withstand 3.5. Calculation of halving joints Practicals - calculation of the heel joint of a skew notch for a truss made of squared beams 3.6. Calculation of glued joints Practicals • Test for simple shear and breaking of the joint of two wooden boards by means of double straps • Determination of the load-bearing ability of a glued joint in units of tubular elements of a fiberglass arch truss 4. Torsion 4.1. The concept of twisting and torque moments 4.2. Stresses and deformations during round bars torsion 4.3. Calculations for strength and stiffness 5. Plane transverse bending 5.1. General concepts of bending. Types of supports and beams. Types of loads. Determination of reactions of support.

Architectonics as synthesis of architectural and engineering disciplines


5.2. Internal force factors in beam cross-sections 5.3. Normal stresses under bending. Strength condition Practicals • Test for the strength of a steel beam freely supported by two supports • Selection of the cross-section of wooden beams across which the inserted floor of the building is arranged • The cross-section of a collar beam over the gateway 5.4. Shearing stresses under bending and their verification in the course of beams calcu-lation Practicals – selection of cross-sectional dimensions of a bridge sleeper made of pinewood 5.5. Main stresses under bending Practicals – selection of the cross-section of a metal console and carrying out of a strength test 5.6. Calculation of the strength of hybrid beams 5.7. Determining displacements under bending. Practicals – determining deflection at the free end of a steel console using the meth-od of initial parameters 5.8. Calculation of stiffness of beams and frames Practicals • Selection of the cross-section of a steel console by strength and stiffness • Calculation of the stiffness of a statically determinate frame 5.9. The concept of calculation of single-span statically indeterminate beams Practicals - selection of the cross-section of a steel statically indeterminate beam 6. Resistance to combined stress 6.1. Skew bending Practicals • Test of the strength and stiffness of wooden girders supporting the roof that rest on upper chords of wooden triangular trusses • Selection of the cross-section of a steel girder supporting roofing slabs that rests on the upper chord of a steel truss at a roof slope of 1:12 • Calculation of a horizontal

three-layer curtain wall panel with aluminum casing and foam filling 6.2. Bending with tension or compression Practicals - selection of the rectangular cross-section of wooden rafter spars of rafters for the roof 6.3. Off-center compression Practicals • Determination of the required size of an industrial building that is square in plan view of the foundation of a reinforced concrete column • Test of the strength of a rigid wooden eccentrically loaded strut of a rectangular cross section • Construction of a kern area for a rectangle, a circle, an I beam 7. Buckling 7.1. The concept of flexible bar stability. Critical force. Critical stress Practicals • Test of a compressed pine strut for strength and stability • Selection of the cross-section of a centrally compressed steel column • Selection of the cross-section of the compressed upper chord of a metal truss • Selection of the cross-section of a bi-stable welded centrally compressed through column • Calculation of a brick column for strength and stability 8. The concept of dynamic loads. Impact strength. Free vibration with one degree of free-dom. Forced vibration of a system with one degree of freedom. Resonance. Practicals • Selection of the cross-section of a steel beam lying on two supports, onto which a weight falls from a certain height • Calculation of the impact strength of a frame 9. Calculation of curved structures • Calculation of an arch bar • Calculation of a triangular arch stiffened on the supports • Calculation of a statically definable arch without stiffening

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The histology atlas of campus form: A framework to explore liveability and sustainability in university campuses Haniye RAZAVIVAND FARD1, Yüksel DEMİR2, Marco TRISCIUOGLIO3 1 • Department of Architecture, Faculty of Architecture, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey 2 • Department of Architecture, Faculty of Architecture, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey 3 • Department of Architecture and Design, Politecnico di Torino, Torino, Italy

doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2019.32650

Received: May 2019 • Final Acceptance: July 2019

Abstract This paper focuses on the concept of university campus form, aiming at exploring the sustainability and liveability parameters in relation to campus form. The research intends to provide a theoretical framework to evaluate physical and morphological dimensions of campus form which affect sustainability and liveability of campus setting and surrounding urban context. The study primarily has conducted an extensive literature review on the subjects of sustainability, liveability, urban form, and university campus physical features. Then, it has done a content analysis of fifty university campus masterplans, selected from throughout the world to identify common strategies, and actions of campus development plans. Afterward, it has identified the principal criteria which influence the sustainability and liveability of campus form. To evaluate the university precincts according to the proposed set of criteria, a Histology Atlas of Campus Form has been developed which provides a model to measure each morphological dimension of campus according to a 3-point Likert scale system. The developed model has been applied to case studies to assess their performance. The ultimate objective of this study is to investigate the campus form attributes on the ability to generate liveability and sustainability. Keywords University campus, Campus form, Sustainability, Liveability, Histology atlas of campus form.


1. Introduction University is a by nature a placebound entity and university’s mission is tightly linked to its physical form. The physical form and mission of universities have largely changed within centuries. Primary universities were mono-functional and isolated entities aiming at nurturing elite citizens. However, the recent global transformations have made a radical shift in mission and consequently on the physical space of universities. The mission of primary universities was focused on education and research while contemporary universities have adopted new roles and new responsibilities. The third mission of universities is dedicated to urban outreach activities and addresses economic, socio-cultural, spatial, and environmental challenges of the societies (Razavivand Fard et al., 2017). Accepting these new roles, universities have become more collaborative and integrated objects in their societies. The mission of a university is the basis of the institution’s strategies and actions and is directly linked to the university’s vision and general philosophy. The educational programs, university’s built-space, the social dimension of the university, and its connection with the broader society is grounded on the institutional values. In this respect, the campus physical environment plays a fundamental role in the realization of the objectives and core values of the institution (Kenney et al., 2005). As Chapman (2006) argues, “the institutional story is told through the campus . . . The campus is an unalloyed account of what the institution is all about.” The physical setting of a university, its physical features, and configuration, has a large impact on the quality of a university and academic life (Caldenby, 2009). Campus physical space is not just the mean to facilitate learning but it has a larger influence on the educational, social, cultural, economic life of the academic community and the broader society. A university campus with a high-quality urban space can attract and nurture high quality human

capital, assure the presence of people and support diversified activities, stimulate the flow of synergy, foster social and economic well-being, and consequently contribute to vibrancy, livability and sustainability of campus space, the hosting neighborhood, city, and region. 2. Sustainability and liveability in relation to urban form University is a microcosm of a city. Considering the large dimension and the diversity of functions, the university campus has many common attributes of an urban space including built space, open space, circulation networks, and their configuration and the relationships between these components. Therefore, the design principles that are applied to urban space can be applicable to a university campus as well. Building on this, the sustainability and liveability factors which are related to an urban form can be referred to the campus form. Urban form sustainability and sustainable development have been lately at the core of academic debates. It is underlined by scholars that the physical form of an urban space influences its sustainability (Jabareen, 2006; Jenks, 2004; Salat, 2006, 2011; Wheeler, 2003). Developing a sustainable urban environment signifies to set a group of morphological strategies and relationships through arranging the components of urban form. These principles intend to diminish the urban sprawl, increase compactness, decrease commuting distances, reduce energy consumption, CO2 emissions and pollutions. Jabareen (2006) in his eminent research on the urban form sustainability has identified seven key factors to achieve urban sustainability. These parameters include compactness, sustainable transport, density, mixed land use, diversity, passive solar design, and greening. These items are very comprehensive and have been mentioned in many other studies. Salat (2006, 2011) have conducted comprehensive researches on the concept of sustainable urban form through analyzing the urban form of various

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cities throughout the globe. They adopt a three-dimensional model including urban form, social and economic, and environmental elements and emphasize on the importance of the urban context. In this model, urban morphology is a key component in achieving sustainable development. Salat (2011) note that “The form of a city is constituted by the spatial and social patterns that compose it and that allows us to describe its networks, its built spaces, and its empty spaces in geometric, topological and hierarchal terms in two, three and even four dimensions, incorporating the temporal depth that every city contains.” (Salat, 2011). They have discussed the importance of connectivity, consistency, diversity, mixed land-use, in various urban contexts. According to Salat (2006), three fundamental factors for sustainable urban development are: protecting the environment, supporting diversity and mix of building types in neighborhoods, and creating a downtown which is compact and walkable. They state a sustainable urban setting should support inhabitants’ walking, biking and using public transportation. It should be compact and support mixed landuse where the social and functional mix decreases travel needs and reduces social segregation. In literature related to urban form, concepts of sustainability and liveability are interrelated. Accordingly, sustainability endorses a better quality of life and a more liveable urban environment. Liveability is a broad concept. Regarding Girardet (2004) liveability and sustainability are correlated though may not always imply the same issue. He defines a liveable urban space as a setting with well-organized neighborhoods with proper facilities within a walking distance, appealing public spaces, with dynamic streets, and well-connected. Livability and the concept of livable urban space are very much related to the notion of quality of life while it is associated with the vitality and congeniality of urban space. Thus, a livable urban space indicates an inspiring quality of life situations with attractive public space, social activities,

sense of community, environmentally resiliency and economic vigor. Lynch (1981) in his renowned book “good city form” has identified five significant features as: vitality (a healthy environment), sense (sense of place or identity), fit (a setting’s adaptability), access (to people, activities, resources, places, and information), and control (responsible control of the environment). The attributes of the urban space including being fit and vital foster safety, satisfaction, and sustainability. Gehl (1987) has investigated the outdoor activities that take place within an urban setting and has defined three different types of activities as necessary activities, optional activities, and social activities. Thus, urban space can encourage social interaction and diverse activities and behaviors. Norbert-Schulz (1979) highlights the significance of identity and genius loci as well as Lynch (1960, 1981) who emphasizes on the importance of image, place identity and components of a good city form. Hillier (1984) describes the prosperity of urban space is relevant to the presence of people and their activities. Thus, permeability, connectivity, and accessibility are key factors of the space in generating activities. Existence of diversified functions enhances the potential of occurring diversifies activities and interactions. In this sense, an urban space with a high level of mixed land uses and diversity contribute to the presence of people and consequently promotes vitality. Jacobs (1961) has underlined the importance of the mixed-use urban environment that can enhance urban diversity and foster the presence of people in the urban fabric. She supports the issue of diversity and vibrancy in urban settings. In this context, universities because of their educational mission, their large size, and impact on their societies are key agents in directing the society, forming its future and the transition towards a liveable sustainable environment. Universities are among chief organizations in the society that comprise infrastructure, facilities, land, human and economic capital, and function as large urban enterprises. So, sustainability initiatives can be

The histology atlas of campus form: A framework to explore liveability and sustainability in university campuses


incorporated into their research and educational agendas and their operations and should be manifested in their physical setting. To do so, universities have concerned that they need strategies that profit students, staff and also a broader community. Today, many universities are attempting to improve their facilities considering the concepts of sustainability and liveability to be more connected, coherent, green and pedestrian friendly (Wheeler, 2004) as well as being an integral part of their surrounding urban context. 3. Physical features of university campus The physical environment is a setting that diverse activities take place within it. This is evident that the quality of space and the physical characteristics of the setting have an impact on the activities (Whyte, 1980), interactions, participation, feelings, and perceptions. Although this fact is not exclusively indicating a campus setting, it is a common sense that can be ascribed to a campus space as well. Therefore, it can be admitted that there is a correlation between the spatial quality of university space and the quality of academic and urban life. The influence of campus space on the academic and social life of university is vastly examined in the literature mainly through a pedagogical and psychological perspective (Boyer, 1987; Griffith, 1994; Strange & Banning, 2001; Temple, 2009), but the subject has not much acknowledged in the academic debates concerning architecture and urban design attributes of the campus space. Whilst, physical features of the campus create a great impact. The scale of this impact can differ from the visual qualities such as micro-scale artifacts to more macro consequences. Strange and Banning (2001) note that “although features of the (campus) physical environment lend themselves theoretically to all possibilities, the layout, location, and arrangement of space and facilities render some behaviors much more likely, and thus more probable, than others.” University setting provides a platform for diversified activities including education, research, informal idea exchange,

socializing, working, and living. Campos Calvo-Sotelo (2014) refers to the university campus as a “Third place” between residential space and workplace where a different range of daily activities take place. Due to its flexibility, this outdoor space provides potentials for communications and social interactions. Kenney et al. (2005) state that more than 50 percent of learning in a university is occurring in the form of informal learning and through out-of-classroom activities. In this respect, the whole campus space act as a learning environment and needs to be designed in a way that enriches the academic and social knowledge experience of students. Based on the literature on the vitality of urban space, it can be argued that within a university campus, the existence of high ratio of mixed uses and diversity of functions can enhance the presence of students for longer hours in the campus setting. Doing so, the presence of students and being involved in diverse activities d generates synergies and enhances vibrancy and vitality of the space. In this sense, residential campuses function more successfully in this regard. The combination of student housing within campus space is a key strategy that many university masterplans follow to promote the liveability of their university precinct. Clearly, a campus setting should provide a platform for diverse optional and social activities (Gehl, 1971) besides academic functions. Creating an urban space that reinforces social activities can contribute to social sustainability (Gehl, 2010). In order to provide the potentials for social functions, it is important that campus space can be accessible and permeable. Ease of access can guarantee the movement of people within the precinct and enhance their willingness to be more engaged in the setting. Thus, designing a well-distributed and connected movement network is a key issue in university campuses. It needs to enable the vehicular access of services to different buildings and meanwhile facilitate the free movement of pedestrians within the setting. A good arrangement of movement network is a fundamental issue in promoting liveability and walkability of a university campus.

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Physical attributes of a campus setting can be well outlined by a comprehensive campus plan. Campus plans outline the institutional objectives of the university including attracting prospective students and faculty, promoting the quality of life, improving the academic atmosphere, contributing to sustainability goals, and enhancing the proximate urban space. A campus plan embraces three main constituents of the setting: buildings, landscape, and circulation. The campus plan defines the configuration of landscape and then the built form is designed to frame the open space. Placemaking and Placemarking are two fundamental aspects of campus design (Dober,1992). Placemaking is describing the arrangement of the campus plan, distribution of campus land-uses, the position of buildings and open spaces, movement (pedestrian and automobile) network and bounding campus borders and its interface with the adjacent urban fabric. This plan set a framework to address functional, programmatic, and visual objectives. A well-designed campus plan can convey university’ situation within the broader society, deal with land-use challenges, and make a decision for site position. Placemarking considers the physical characteristics of the campus for generating a sense of place and visual identity. Landscape components, architectural style, and landmarks are among the elements that assist the university’s placemarking. The main elements of a campus space including the organization of uses, the arrangement of pathways connecting the uses, the layout of open spaces, the density and mix of functions widely affect the vibrancy and vitality of the campus setting. The paths, plazas, courtyards and all open spaces of the campus landscape are the places where planned and unplanned encounters taking place. Campus public space is a platform for informal learning and social interactions. It is the vital component in forming the sense of place that is inevitably associated with the campus experience. Therefore, these spaces need to be vibrant, dynamic, attractive, and memorable in order to enrich the campus experience. Many campus re-

vitalization projects, particularly postwar campuses, are conducted intending to inject vitality and homogeneity to the campus landscape as well as supporting the sustainability issues. One of the good studies which can be fruitful for this research is the research done by Hajrasouliha (2017). He has reviewed 50 American university campus master plans which mainly created after 2000 in the USA and has identified their common objectives and challenges. He has categorized them in 10 categories and 100 recommendations which reveal the most important factors for university campus designers. Regarding these categories, it can be better understood which qualities were at the center of importance for campus designers. These 10 categories are defined as (1) walkability (2) sense of community (3) livability and safety (4) environmental sustainability (5) landscaping (6) town-gown relationship (7) identity (8) imageability (9) partnering (10) learning environment. Then, he has investigated the morphological dimensions of campus planning on the academic success of students. Kenney et al. (2005) identifies a comprehensive campus plan encompassing nine principles: • The priority of total plan to individual buildings and spaces. • Using compact and mixed campus land uses to enhance livability and interactions. • Shaping an identity through landscape elements that convey the campus unity and its relationship with surrounding urban setting. • Forming a mutual physical connection with the surrounding urban space. • Creating placemaking through campus architecture. • Adding meaning and identity to campus urban space. • Considering environmental issues. • Controlling the auto circulation. • Considering technology and innovative approaches. Any campus plan needs to be comprehensive and addresses the vision of the institution, guide the growth and change, and reinforce the strategic plan. The didactic and community vision, history, culture, tradition, and

The histology atlas of campus form: A framework to explore liveability and sustainability in university campuses


the context are bases of a good campus plan (Kenney et al., 2005). 4. Methodology 4.1. Sustainability and liveability criteria of university campus form This paper, as a part of a broader doctorate dissertation on a multi-criteria analysis of sustainability and liveability of university campus from, has intended to develop a model to evaluate university campus form in terms of sustainability and liveability. For this purpose, a literature review was done on the subjects of the university’s third mission and urban outreach activities, urban form, sustainability, liveability, and campus design principles. Then, through an interpretive study, the main issues were conceptualized. Afterwards, a content analysis of fifty masterplans was done. The masterplans were selected randomly throughout the world excluding the American campus masterplans. The content analysis was attempted to identify common goals, strategies, and actions which were identified by campus planners. The findings of masterplan content analysis were merged with the findings of the study done by Hajrasouliha (2017) on American campus masterplans. In the next step, the whole acquired data incorporated to create a set of criteria. The proposed model comprises nine criteria including liveability, legibility, cohesion, compactness, walkability, accessibility, connectivity, integration, and sustainability and twenty-eight sub-criteria. From the whole twenty-eight criteria, twenty-two of them are directly related to campus form.

To assess the performance of campus regarding each sub-criterion the study has developed the “Histology Atlas of Campus Form”. 4.2. Atlas of histology The Histology is a branch of biology that examines the microanatomy of cells, tissues using a microscope. This method aims at identifying and visualizing the microscopic structures of tissues and assess the correlation between structures and function. Thus, “Histology Guide teaches the visual art of recognizing the structure of cells and tissues and understanding how this is determined by their function.” (Url-1). 4.3. Developing a histology atlas of campus form Grounded on the Histology Atlas in biology, A Histology Atlas of Campus Form was developed. The proposed Histology Atlas illustrates the structure of campus form criteria in a schematic way. In this sense, the visual dimension of each criterion and its performance level has been demonstrated in three levels between the best, the average, and the worst performance situation. Developing the Campus Histological Atlas makes it possible to evaluate the campus spatial maps and score them for each criterion in a base of three-point Likert scale. 4.4. Applying the model on a selected university campus 4.4.1. Harvard University Campus development: Harvard University is a private research university and the first American university established in 1636.

Figure 1-3. Histology of human tissues (Source:, Retrieved at May 2019). ITU A|Z • Vol 16 No 3 • November 2019 • H. Razavivand Fard, Y. Demir, M. Trisciuoglio


Figure 4(a). Histology Atlas of Campus Form (Source: Authors).

After the colonization of the United States, there was a strong belief that the New World required educated people for prosperity. So doing, Harvard College was founded on a oneacre piece of land in Newtown village –then changed its name to Cambridge. This piece of land now comprises the core of the campus, the Harvard Yard. The Harvard Hall I was the first purpose-built edifice of the campus located in Harvard Yard with an E-shape form. Indeed, design of the Harvard campus followed the ideals of the English Collegiate system and intended to shape a community for students to study, live and socialize. However, it rejected the inward-looking cloistered structures of English universities and instead outward-looking separated buildings were designed within a park-like landscape. This spatial arrangement was organized in a way that is open and accessible to serve the community. These ideas later became a prototype for American university campuses that continued within the centuries. These early phase buildings were designed in red brick and High Georgian style and this architectural style created unity and harmony within the Harvard Yard. Another major construction phase occurred between 1869 to 1909 that 35 new structures were erected and it was massive construction in comparison to earlier 34 buildings which were built within 233 years since the foundation of Harvard University. The structures of this latter period mainly considered the functionality. They were designed with various architectural styles and were scattered around the Harvard Yard and the North Yard. Thus, there was not a unified architectural style nor an established development plan. In the period of 1909 to 1933, it was noticed that there was a need for a holistic plan for Harvard development to control the physical expansion and the architectural character. So, the Georgian Revival was chosen as the university’s architectural style and a master plan was developed in 1910. The Second World War aftermath put its traces on Harvard University and caused transformations in its physical body. The International Style was practiced in the university’s architecture

The histology atlas of campus form: A framework to explore liveability and sustainability in university campuses


and new materials, forms, scales were introduced into the Harvard campus. In spite of creating new radical transformations, it was intended to create a correlation between Harvard’s historical character and the newly introduced forms. Within the chronology of Harvard development, from a Colonial, Colonial Revival, Georgian, Georgian Revival, Neo-Classical, Romantic Revival to Modernist, New Modernism, Post Modernism, and New Historicism, an arrangement has been created that preserve Harvard’s unique spirit so vital and dynamic and align its physical growth to its academic objectives. The edifices are human-scale and in great harmony with the surrounding neighborhood. The campus is highly integrated into its hosting city through its green areas and open spaces (Coulson, et al. 2011). Indeed, Harvard has had a decentralized planning tradition which has served for centuries. Within this long history, diversified buildings with different morphologies and architectural styles have emerged. Brick is not the only but the common material which has been used in different architectural styles and created a continuity across the campus. Harvard yard has been considered as the “political, academic, and spiritual center of the Harvard”. However, since the foundation of Allston Campus on the southern part of Charles River, the river has become the geographic locus of the university. The Charles River has a significant role in structuring the campus because of its particular vistas and its clear directional quality. It also functions as a natural barrier and defines the edges. At the same time, the river offers potentials for connecting Harvard main campus to Harvard’s other campuses and also adjacent universities. Harvard is a single university composed of various institutes, faculties, and departments which function autonomously. This feature enhances its intellectual vibrancy and increases the diversity of physical environments. Harvard University has a decentralized characteristic. Being developed on a precinct basis, there is not a particular mechanism for sharing recourses and

Figure 4(b). Histology Atlas of Campus Form (Source: Authors).

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growth of shared facilities. In addition, Harvard faces difficulties to be expanded within its dense urban fabric. Harvard University has developed from a single building in a rural area to a large integral campus within a dense urban fabric. Harvard University is in close interaction with its hosting urban space. Its academic prosperity and economic growth have brought a responsibility to contribute to the improvement of its urban space through providing teaching and research facilities, laboratories, offices, and affordable housing. The high level of campus and urban land-use integration is mainly at the edge of campus where most of the residential and commercial uses are situated. diversified land-uses such as lecture halls, services, and residences are scattered around the campus and enhances the informal exchanges and vitality of the space. The diversity and balanced distribution of land-uses and activities increase the nightlife security due to the presence of 24-hour activities on the campus. There are residential areas, retail and commercial buildings, sports facilities, libraries that are active and open during the night hours. This issue increases the perceived safety not only inside the campus but also in the surrounding urban area. Providing housing is one of the core objectives of Harvard as an educational community and a residential college. There are a variety

of residences available for students and faculty members. While the students’ dormitories are mainly in proximity to academic buildings, the affiliates housing are mostly located in campus boundaries. The existence of residential buildings enhances Harvard’s campus liveability, informal interactions and the sense of community. There are several facilities and services provided for Harvard students and faculty to boosts their quality of life. Harvard Square can be considered the locus of many social, commercial and recreational activities. There are other activity zones forming corridors along the streets in campus edges. Considering the greenness, approximately sixty percent of Harvard campus is devoted to open space which defines its structure and expresses its rich spatial quality. It composed of diversified typologies of open spaces including courtyards, quadrangles, gardens, and paths which hierarchically forms a unique spatial experience for the users. The campus edges have various forms of barriers including high and low walls, high and low fences, hedges and gates. Each type of boundary creates a different form of physical character in terms of visibility and pedestrian and vehicular accessibility. In spite of containing various kinds of boundaries, it can be noted that Harvard campus merges with the surrounding

Figure 5. Harvard University Aerial View (Source: Url-2). The histology atlas of campus form: A framework to explore liveability and sustainability in university campuses


Figure 6. Analytical Analysis Maps and Histology Form Scheme of each analyzed criteria (Source: Authors).

urban space. It has a high level of public accessibility in different modes and conserves its public character. Moreover, Harvard University offers a wide range of amenities to its urban context including cultural, athletic, religious facilities, museums, exhibitions spaces. There are plenty of seminars, workshops, educational programs, art, and cultural events, theatre perfor-

mances, sports games that are held in Harvard during the year which are accessible to the public. Harvard University spatial analysis: Discussion Harvard University has been selected as a case study because of its very high academic ranking and high per-

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Figure 6 (Continued). Analytical Analysis Maps and Histology Form Scheme of each analyzed criteria (Source: Authors).

formance in sustainability, and being the best representative of an integrated university campus. Primarily, through literature review and examining campus development maps, masterplans, university annual reports, university website, google maps, and videos of the campus, the campus development process and its spatial features were described. Then using campus masterplans, Google Earth maps, Google

maps and Openstreetmaps, campus analytical maps were reproduced. Each map illustrates one or more of the criteria of the Histology Atlas of Campus Form. Then, the Histology Atlas of Campus Form was used as a benchmark to assess each spatial and morphological criterion. It is noticeable that, in most of the criteria related to spatial and morphological dimensions, Harvard University has scored very

The histology atlas of campus form: A framework to explore liveability and sustainability in university campuses


Figure 6 (Continued). Analytical Analysis Maps and Histology Form Scheme of each analyzed criteria (Source: Authors).

high. The campus has been located at the center of the city of Cambridge, Massachusetts and has been evolved with its surrounding urban context. Thus, there is a high level of spatial homogeneity, connectivity, and integration between the two domains. Campus

shows a low level of compactness and a high level of density considering its urban fabric context. Being constructed within a phase of history, it has several spatial structures but the entire campus is well-organized and demonstrate consistency and unity. The campus

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Figure 6 (Continued). Analytical Analysis Maps and Histology Form Scheme of each analyzed criteria (Source: Authors).

has a unique architectural character with several landmarks and is highly legible. Land uses are mixed with the inclusion of various types of student housing which enhances the liveability and vitality of the setting. Campus boundaries are visually and physically

preamble. There are several types of transportation means that increases campus accessibility. The campus has a high ratio of green space and well-designed open spaces that are accessible to the public. Harvard University also shares many of its amenities with the

The histology atlas of campus form: A framework to explore liveability and sustainability in university campuses


Figure 6 (Continued). Analytical Analysis Maps and Histology Form Scheme of each analyzed criteria (Source: Authors).

general public including museums, exhibition spaces, performance spaces, library, hospitals, and athletic facilities. In this sense, Harvard University itself is a landmark for the region and well integrated with its community. 5. Last remarks Universities are large urban institutions and microcosms of society. They are agents of transformation and contribute to the socio-cultural, environmental, economic, and physical development of their hosting urban space. As place-bound institutions, they are influential entities in liveability and sustainability of their campus space and surrounding urban context. Considering the urban form, concepts of sustainability and liveability are interrelated. Accordingly, sustainability endorses a better quality of life and a more liveable urban environment. The idea is applicable to the campus form but it needs to consider the specific

physical and functional aspects of a university campus setting. To avoid subjective evaluation of liveability and sustainability of university campus form, this research has developed “The Histology Atlas of Campus Form”. The model is grounded on the interpretive study of concepts of university’s outreach activities, liveability, sustainability, campus form, and campus design principles. It also benefits from the findings of campus masterplans content analysis. Campus masterplans address the university’s goals, objectives, and missions. Although there are complexity and diversity considering diversified university masterplans, their defined strategies can be used as a complementary source for the existing academic literature on the subject of university campus physical features. The research has developed a set of criteria composed of nine criteria and twenty-eight sub-criteria to assess the

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sustainability and liveability of campus form. These criteria include liveability, legibility, cohesion, compactness, walkability, accessibility, connectivity, integration, and sustainability. This research attempts to operationalize the spatial and morphological aspects of campus form in terms of liveability and sustainability and provide a theoretical framework that can be applied to various university campuses. The proposed model hopes to provide a comprehensive multi-criteria analysis to assess a university campus form in terms of sustainability and liveability. References Boyer, E.L. (1987). College: The undergraduate experience in America. New York, NY: Harper & Row. Caldenby, C. (2009). “Universitetet Og Byen – To Traditioner / The University and The City – Two Traditions.” In Campus Og Studiemiljø - Fysiske Rammer Til Morgendagens Universiteter | Campus and Study Environment - Physical Framework for Universities of the Future. Copenhagen: The Danish University and Property Agency under the auspices of the Danish Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation. Campos Calvo-Sotelo, P. (2014). From typological analysis to planning: modern strategies for university spatial quality, CIAN-Revista de Historia de las Universidades, 17/1 (2014), 31-58, ISSN: 1988-8503 / Chapman, M. (2006). American Places: In Search of the Twenty-first Century Campus, Westport, CT: American Council on Education/Praeger. Coulson, J., Roberts, P. and Taylor, I. (2011). University Planning and Architecture: The search for perfection. New York: Routledge. Dober, R.P. (1992). Campus Design. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Gehl, J. (1971). Life Between Buildings: Using Public Space. Revisited. Washington, Covelo, London: Island Press. Gehl, J. (2010). Cities for People. Washington D.C.: Island Press. Girardet, H. (2004). Cities people planet: liveable cities for a sustainable world. West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Griffith, J.C. (1994) Open space preservation: An imperative for quality campus environments. The Journal of Higher Education 65: 645–669. Hajrasouliha, A. (2017). Master-planning the American campus: goals, actions, and design strategies. Urban Design International, Vol. 22, 4, 363–381. Hillier, B. and Julienne, H. (1984). The Social Logic of Space. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Jabareen, Y.R. (2006). Sustainable Urban Forms: Their Typologies, Models, and Concepts. Journal of Planning Education and Research. Vol 26, Issue 1. Jacobs, J. (1961). The Death and Life of Great American Cities. New York: Random House. Jenks, M. Burton, E. and Williams, K. (2004). The Compact City: A Sustainable Urban Form? Taylor & Francis. ISBN 0203362373. Kenney, D. R., Dumont, R., & Kenney, G. S. (2005). Mission and place: Strengthening learning and community through campus design. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers. Lynch, K. (1960). The Image of the City. The MIT Press. Lynch, K. (1981). A Theory of Good City Form. MIT Press. Norbert-Schulz. Ch. (1979). Genius Loci, Towards a Phenomenology of Architecture. New York: Rizzoli. Razavivand fard, H., Lombardi, P. and Sonetti, G. (2017). Rethinking University-City Interaction in Urban and Regional Development: The Turin case. In News from the Front of Sustainable University Campuses. Rome: Edizioni Nuova Cultura. ISBN: 9788868128654. Salat, S. (2006). The Sustainable Design Handbook China. France: CSTB Urban Morphology Laboratory. Salat, S. (2011). Cities and Forms: On Sustainable Urbanism. France: CSTB Urban Morphology Laboratory. Strange, C. and Banning, J. (2001) Educating by Design: Creating Campus Learning Environments that Work, San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Temple, P. (2009) ‘From space to place: university performance and its built environment’, Higher Education Policy, 22, 209–23.

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Temple, P. (2014). The physical university: contours of space and place in higher education. New York: Routledge. Wheeler, S. M. (2003). The evolution of urban form in Portland and Toronto: Implications for sustainability planning. Local Environment, 8(3), 317-336. Wheeler, S. M. (2004). Planning forSustainability: Creating Livable, Equitable and Ecological Communities. New

York: Routledge. Whyte, W. H. (1980). The social Life of Small Urban Spaces, Conservation Foundation, Washington D.C. Websites Url-1 <http://www.histologyguide. com, Retrieved at February 2019> Url-2 <, Retrieved at February 2019>

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The effects of interaction and learning styles on children’s experiences in exhibition spaces

Seniye Banu GARİP1, Gökçe EVREN2 1 • Department of Interior Architecture, Faculty of Architecture, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey 2 • Interior Architectural Design Program, Institute of Social Sciences, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey

doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2019.57804

Received: May 2019 • Final Acceptance: August 2019

Abstract The ‘didacticism’ oriented exhibition spaces first seen in 20th Century that begun with the idea of modern museums have led the new design understanding to be influential and also enabled the visitors actively participate in exhibitions. Today, interaction design is used extensively in exhibition spaces and in-depth studies are required to provide interaction most particularly for children. This article examines the contribution of interaction design and methods to spatial experience and learning process of children in exhibition spaces. In this context it is investigated how the processes of learning, experience, communication and interaction can be coordinated by means of emotions, senses, activities and play. A research which includes an exhibition design for primary school children and an experiment which is done with 121 children that experienced the exhibition is conducted. The exhibition is designed to give information about the story of the novel ‘My Sweet Orange Tree’ of Jose Mauro de Vasconcelos to children via generated spatial experiences. Students’ experiences and behaviors are observed, and a questionnaire is done in order to understand the children’s evaluations and to test their understanding of the story. As a result, some clues related with interaction design were highlighted for future applications. Basicly, it is experienced that, in exhibition spaces for children, interactivity can be ensured not only by use of digital technicques, but also various methods as well. Keywords Exhibition design, Interaction design, Learning styles, Play.


1. Introduction The archetypes of exhibition spaces used for preservation and exhibition within the historic process go back to Paleolithic Era (Hein, 2000). However, the exhibition spaces described as the first ones in history are ‘cabinets of curiosities’. These spaces from 16th Century have become the places where the intriguing objects found during geographical explorations are exhibited (Bayar, 2011). The museums which have opened to public in time have become public places for learning, investigating, meeting with people and entertaining (Hooper-Greenhill, 1991). Especially the ‘didacticism’ oriented exhibition spaces first seen in 20th Century that begun with the idea of modern museums have led the new design understanding to be influential and also enabled the visitors actively participate in exhibitions. The ‘Deustches Museum’ (Ahlamo, 2013) which was opened in the early 20th Century in Munich can be qualified as a transition period during which the visitors have become ‘active’. In time, exhibition spaces have become places appealing to senses where the objects are not only exhibited but presented together with different experiences. The physical activities of visitors when they visit an exhibition space such as pressing buttons have gained acceptance as a communication tool for information transfer and a factor arousing the awareness of visitors (Henning, 2006). In 1960s and 1970s learning in museums has become an ‘exploration’ with the theories of professional psychologists like Jean Piaget, LV Vigotsky and Jerome Bruner (Hein, 2000). At the end of the 20th Century, the museums have adopted the idea that all visitors should take an active role in a museum and establish a mutual communication with museums (Hein, 2000). Under the influence of political, economic and social developments in that period, the museums have become places where the public would exchange opinions and the visitors have gained an active role due to these developments. This

active role has become more concrete in time and underlay the interactive exhibitions at the present time. For this reason, it is necessary to study the designs of interactive exhibition spaces extensively and examine the experiences thoroughly. This article examines the contribution of interaction design and methods in exhibition spaces to spatial experience and learning process of children. Within the scope of the study, it is aimed to investigate, reveal and practically test the required methods to provide interaction for children in exhibition spaces. It is investigated how the processes of learning, experience, communication and interaction can be coordinated by means of emotions, senses, activities and play. When studying on the concepts of interaction and communication for children in exhibition spaces, particularly experience and learning processes gain importance. In this context, it is considered that studies investigating learning and behaviors of children such as behavioral, cognitive, social and humanistic theories should be taken as a reference in design of interactive spaces for children. In addition to this, the relationship of play was investigated along with spatial experience and learning activity and it is discussed on the basis of play theories. 2. Learning, playing, and interaction in exhibition spaces for children Exhibition spaces are communication platforms. According to Hooper-Greenhil (1991), communication is a fundamental function of museums which attracts the visitors to exhibition space, satisfy their needs and meets their intellectual needs. Communication in exhibition spaces has been examined and interpreted in terms of different dimensions. According to Witcomb (2003), this multi-dimensional communication between the space and the visitors can be examined in three basic forms; single acting, double acting and multi acting (mass) communications. Single acting com-

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munication is the first and basic form of communication where the exhibition space plays the role of transmitter and visitors are recipients. As stated by Witcomb (2003), visitors are regarded only as recipients in this form of communication and stipulated as the last step of the production process but not as an active element of it. Double acting communication is a form of communication where the visitor mutually interacts with the space and contributes to the space. This definition generally accepts interactive exhibition forms, McKenna-Cress and Kamien (2013) ascribe this property to freedom and unlimitedness of exhibition spaces and even consider the at will back and forth circulation of visitors as a feedback of visitors provided to the space. Multi acting (mass) communication has emerged as the exhibition spaces have become places for social meeting and sharing. With this purpose, exhibition spaces had an important role as social meeting points. Multi acting communication form contributes both to this role and to educational purposes. Hein (2000) states that the exhibition spaces have become places where senses and emotions of visitors are aimed to influence in the process of time, instead of where information are transferred by the exhibited objects. One of the components of experience is physical activity as well as senses and emotions. When considered in terms of learning, interpretation has relationships with senses of sight, hearing, smell, taste and touch, and kinetic movement. When physical activity unites with senses and emotions, the visitor has an experience and the information obtained as a result of this experience is imprinted onto visitor’s brain. The potential of the exhibition space in learning arises from the possibility of educating and actively stimulating the emotions and imagination (Hooper-Greenhill, 1991). The advantage of exhibition spaces compared to books is that they make the visitors, sort of readers, have a role in the activity and

this makes the exhibition spaces more productive (Locker, 2011). In addition, interactivity will encourage the visitors to make other visits as well as presenting an entertaining experience (Digger, 2002). The play factor in interactive activities provides an attractive learning style especially for children (Locker, 2011). Studies have shown that knowledge, thoughts and emotions acquired in interactive exhibitions can be remembered even after 6 months (Allen and Gutwill, 2004). According to a research made by Adams and Moussouri (2002), the visitors classify interactive exhibitions as entertaining, exciting, educating, memorable, appealing to different senses and activating the visitors compared to noninteractive exhibitions. According to Bloom and Powell (1984), it will be appropriate to associate the activities in museums with the notion of ‘learning’ instead of ‘education’. Defining the museums as learning places is a conscious and purposeful act and consequently the role of the museums in education will be understood better. Although very few theoretical studies related to “learning” in exhibition spaces are done and no conventional practices are available, numerous theories have been developed in respect of learning throughout the history. Behavioral theories which incorporate Pavlov’s theory of classical conditioning (Watson, 2013), Skinner’s operant conditioning theory and connectionism theory (Skinner, 1938) are focused on passive quality of learning and argued that learning is realized as a reaction to external stimuli. On the other hand, cognitive theories have emerged against the theories which exclude individuals from act of learning. These theories which are composed of Gestalt theory and constructivist theory dwell on the activities of individual and define the learning process with phases of perception and coding of stimuli, comparing them with the past data, committing them to memory and remembering them. Piaget’s theory of constructivist learning has been

The effects of interaction and learning styles on children’s experiences in exhibition spaces


considerably influential on exhibition spaces. In the proceeded process, some social theories have been suggested. The social theories composed of Bandura’s observational learning theory (Bandura, 1977) and Vygotsky’s social constructivist theory (Vygotsky, 1978) have emphasized that being together in a place and communicating and interacting with each other affects the learning process of individuals. The prominent humanistic theories suggested are Montessori’s experiential theory and Rogers’ emotional learning theory. These theories suggest that children can learn more deeply by gaining experience (Mclnerney, 2007). Acquisition of emotions and experience is of capital importance for the knowledge have a realistic impact on the individual. When the studies in this field are examined, it is revealed that the concept of ‘learning’ is in connection with active acts, social interaction and emotional and kinesthetic activities of the individual. When children’s learning experience is examined, it is seen that ‘playing’ activities includes these processes at the most. Contribution of the concept of play to learning has been presented in time by means of different theories and different definitions. Play concept presents important specification for

designing exhibition spaces for children by providing both social and individual interaction and experience to children. Piaget, Smilansky and Parten introduces three important basic theories of play in this respect. Piaget classifies games in three categories; practice play includes plays that children repeat the actions of simple motor skills and support learning (Piaget, 1962; Ginsburg and Opper, 1987). By contrast with this, symbolic play allows children to symbolize objects and things as different than the intended function. The third group expressed as formal play, defines the games where the roles and tasks specified basing on a certain group of rules are performed. Some plays classified by Smilansky share similarities with Piaget’s classification. In addition to these, constructive plays by which children can reveal their creative and active aspects and dramatic plays in which the children play an active role in games are also determined as two different types of play (Goldman, 1987). Parten has examined the plays in terms of their ways of social communication (Parten, 1932). While unoccupied plays are games that children experience on their own, onlooker plays are games that the children play separately but observe eachother. In parallel plays, children play the

Figure 1. Relations of experience, ınteraction and communication with learning theories and theories of play. ITU A|Z • Vol 16 No 3 • November 2019 • S. B. Garip, G. Evren


same game differently while in associate plays children start to communicate but are not influenced by each other. Finally, cooperative plays are games in which children play by mutual interaction and communication. Comprehension and application of the classifications of play are crucial for reinforcing the experiences of children with different methods in exhibition spaces. In this context, relationships of all titles and notions investigated and discussed are shown in Figure 1 with the aim of establishing a general framework and understanding the relationships. 3. Case study: “My Sweet Orange Tree” exhibition design for children Within the scope of the research, an exhibition is designed and a case study is conducted in order to investigate the contribution of interaction design and methods to spatial experience and learning process of children. The research is supported by Istanbul Technical University, Master Degree Scientific Research Projects Support Programme. Aiming at presenting Jose Mauro de Vasconcelos’ children’s novel named “My Sweet Orange Tree” interactively, Table 1. Analysis of the book “My Sweet Orange Tree” and structure of the exhibition.

an experimental exhibition including different interaction techniques for semantic comprehension of the novel is applied and primary school students have participated in this experimental exhibition. The exhibition was held at the Science Center located on the ITU Faculty of Architecture Campus within the scope of the Science Festival which lasted for four days. A total of 121 school-age children in the age group between 7-13 have experienced the study. As a result of the study, some clues related with interaction design for children were highlighted for future applications. 3.1. Design process and application of the exhibition During the working process, the content of the novel ‘My Sweet Orange Tree’ was analyzed at first stage and an exhibition was created which the events within the book were represented. The novel tells the grow up story of a 5 year old child named Zeze. The story was divided into 7 main parts and each part was exhibited by using a different interactive exhibition technique. At the end of the exhibition, responses, activities and experiences of the children during the exhibition were observed and the impacts of interactivity methods that were used on senses, emotions and memory of the children were examined by survey method after the experimental exhibition. In order for the parts to be experienced interactively, physical activity methods such as touching and joining in an activity were implemented in the light of the notions of sense, emotion and experience along with standard demonstration. The parts of the story, their contents and experience modes are shown in Table 1. The exhibition space has been constructed in the manner to include the sections resulting from the analysis of the book. In each section, experiences related to a different part of the book are presented. These experiences are constructed with different methods in the light of different learning and play theories (Figure 2). The following objectives are planned to be achieved as the basic design criteria:

The effects of interaction and learning styles on children’s experiences in exhibition spaces


Figure 2. Parts of the book “My Sweet Orange Tree” on the plan of exhibition

space. • Providing an experience to children that resembles book reading • Ensuring the children pass through emotional and experiential stages similar to those of the main character of the story, Zeze • Appealing to different senses of the children • Enabling the children to have an experience they can understand and remember • Encouraging children to read the novel named ‘My Sweet Orange Tree’ 450 units of cardboard boxes in size of 30x50x50cm were used to create the exhibition space (Figure 3). The exhibition space as a whole resembles the activity of book reading, it is composed of hidden and consecutive steps to arouse

curiosity. Thus, the only part that children can see from the outside is the entrance, that is the cover, and they will see other stages as they proceed. These progressive stages are arranged in the order determined in accordance with the analysis of the book basing on the important milestones in the oncoming sections of the book. Table 2 contains images related to how all parts of the book are experienced by the children. 3.1.1. Parts of the exhibition: Introducing book through spatial experience The students who visited the exhibition were taken in twos and they were observed one by one at each tour. The decision to enable two children expe-

Figure 3. Application process of the exhibition. ITU A|Z • Vol 16 No 3 • November 2019 • S. B. Garip, G. Evren


Table 2. Images related to how parts of the book are experienced by the children.

Figure 4. Steps that children will follow.

rience the exhibition at the same time was taken to ensure the social interaction to take place. When two children arrive at the exhibition space, they see a wall and two earphones (Table 1a). This represents the moment when the reader first sees a book. The wall that the visitor sees is the equivalent of the book cover. In order to arouse the curiosity of the visitor, it is arranged in the manner so that it is not possible for them to see other spaces, as well as reading a book. Two different guidance are provided with earphones which are in different colors. First the story is briefly summarized as an introduction and later on, the visitor is asked to follow either one of the blue or orange colored steps. Both children will follow the steps in the color they are told to pass to the next part (Figure 4). When they step on the footprints, an illuminated inscription appears on the ground informing them about their first task in the next part. In the first part of the exhibition, a grammatical game where it is intended to give main information about Zeze’s life has been developed. Aim is to motivate children to read the text and at the same time enjoy themselves as they are playing the game of combining the words with the images that represent those words (Table1b). The system on the play wall in this part is operated with electromagnets. These electromagnets close the mechanism when a child moves on and then opens it for the next child. Thus the images fall on the ground and the game will be ready for the following experiences. In Part 2, Zeze meets a sweet orange sapling and makes friends with it. Being a daydreamer, Zeze is friends with dogs and chickens and he also believes that many living creatures around him speak to him. He engages in a similar dialogue with this sweet orange sapling he met. In this part of the exhibition, a three-dimensional physical tree figure faces the visitor. This tree figure is made of MDF material which was produced with CNC cutting technique. There is an inscription on the sweet orange sapling which reads; ‘Trees speak with their whole body. Put your ear on my trunk and listen to my heart beat!’

The effects of interaction and learning styles on children’s experiences in exhibition spaces


There is an odorizer under the tree figure and a wireless speaker on the upper part. A heartbeat is heard from this speaker. The aim in this section is making the children put their ear on the tree like Zeze and listen to the heartbeat of it (Table 1c). In addition orange fragrance is emitted into the space to appeal their sense of smell along with senses of sight and hearing of the children. Part 3 is the section of poverty at Christmas. In this part of the novel, Zeze and his brother Luis dream of a New Year’s Eve gift. A truck full of gifts will come to the neighborhood for poor children but when the children arrive at the square where this truck is parked, all gifts were handed out and nothing was left. As a New Year’s tradition, Zeze puts his shoes in front of his door for Santa Claus to fill them but there was no gift in them, either. Besides, there is nothing much for them to eat at New Year’s Eve. In brief, Zeze has aspired for a gift in this part but his hands were empty. In this part of the exhibition it is aimed that children would share a similar feeling with Zeze. Accordingly the command on the steps tells them ‘Look for your gift in the boxes!’ Two children open the boxes lined up with two tracks on both sides one-by-one but there are no gifts in these boxes both only inscriptions which tell that Zeze didn’t get any gifts. The inscriptions in four boxes are respectively as follows; “Zeze and his brother dream of getting gifts at New Year’s Eve”, “But they don’t receive any gifts and they don’t have money to buy any”, “Zeze’s father is unemployed and his family is very poor”, and “This saddens especially Zeze and his father very much”. The children have eagerly

opened the boxes either in sequence or randomly and faced with the saddening story of Zeze (Table 1d). Part 4 is named as ‘meet with the street singer’. In this part of the novel, Zeze meets with a street singer and starts working with this street singer. In this part of the exhibition, the visitor receives this command: ‘Move on with your friend step-by-step!’ and each visitor should move on following the steps having the same color with him/ her. There are numbers on these steps, thus the visitors will pass over the same numbers in turn (Table 1e). In implementation of this part, the children hear a part of the story of this part when they step on each footprint. Sensors are placed under the footprints. The text being read is accompanied by music. When they come to the last few footprints, they will only hear this music and leave this part. Part 5 is where Zeze and Valaderes from Portugal meet. Zeze and Valaderes are two characters who meet and love each other too much. In this part, the aim is having the children communicate with each other more. The command issued to the children when they pass to this part is as follows; ‘Place your head in the hole!’ Two cardboard figures await the children in this part. There are holes on the heads of these figures that the children can place their heads. The children follow the footprints in their own colors, arrive at their places and place their heads into the holes. When they put their heads into the holes, they will see each other and the inscription in front of them. This inscription says; ‘Read your frıend who you are!’ There are self-presentation texts of Valaderes and Zeze next to each other’s figures. Thus the children

Figure 5. Primary school students visited the exhibition. ITU A|Z • Vol 16 No 3 • November 2019 • S. B. Garip, G. Evren


will have a more intense dialogue with the other visitor they share the space (Table 1f). Part 6 represents the part where Zeze was beaten. Zeze is unjustly beaten by his father and older sister and these beatings leave deep marks in his heart. Zeze becomes seriously sick in bed and decides not to love his father any more because of these beatings. In this part of the exhibition, children diverge and move on separately. An image which is seen differently from two angles is used here (Table 1g). When the children en-

Figure 6. Age profile of the participant students.

Figure 7. Common words that the participants who were in different age groups have used frequently (a.7-10 age group b. 11-13 age group).

Figure 8. Most liked parts of the exhibition by students.

ter the space, they see a smiling child but the child transforms into a beaten and harmed child as they move on. At the end of the story, Part 7, Zeze’s beloved Portuguese friend Valaderes is passed away and Zeze has become a grown child and left his imaginary heroes. The children read the inscriptions on the floor aloud one by one and complete the exhibition and the story. The inscription on the floor is as follows; ‘One day when Zeze is at school, one of his friends hurriedly enters the classroom and tells the class that there was a train accident nearby and Valaderes, whom Zeze loves so much is dead. Thereupon Zeze becomes so sick in bed. When he is recovered, he leaves his dreams and heroes and becomes a grown child’ . In this part where Zeze leaves his dreams, children leave the exhibition. 3.2. Survey method 121 students visited the exhibition in scope of the experiment (Figure 5). Their experiences were observed during their visit, and a questionnaire was applied to the students in order to understand their understandings of the story, the most liked parts, and their enthusiasm on reading the book. Figure 6 represents the age profile of the participant students. 3.3. Results and evaluations In the survey, students were asked to summarize the story of “My Sweet Orange Tree”. Figure 7 shows the graph of common words that the participants of the exhibition who were in different age groups have used frequently. Results show that there are some differences and also similarities between different age groups. According to this, it is seen that the students in the 7-10 age group mostly remember the events while the students in the 11-13 age group remember the whole story and Zeze’s poverty. Figure 8 shows the graph which contains the numerical values related to the parts of the exhibition that the students liked most. While the students in the 7-10 age group loved Part 3 most (33%), the students in the 1113 age group loved Part 5 (33%) most. Smaller children (between 7-10 age)

The effects of interaction and learning styles on children’s experiences in exhibition spaces


liked repetitive and practical activities and they were more effective on their memories; while social activities were more attractive for other children (between11-13 age). The written information was not attractive for the smaller children and they could not remember the information. On the other hand, for both age gropus, comprehensibility ensured pozitive effects. The students who have visited the exhibition were examined in terms of their experiences, emotions, senses and the activities they’ve performed. As a result of the observations, some issues were determined that might be inputs for future designs. The evaluations regarding each part are given below: • At the entry, the earphones handed out to children were found interesting especially by the students of younger ages. The students older than 10 years have listened to the voices from the earphones and immediately left the place but those who were younger than 10 years have listened to the voices for a longer time. It was found out that the 7-10 age group liked this part more than the students in other age groups. • It was observed that all age groups loved Part 1 evenly but the percentage of being liked is not higher than the percentages of other parts. While most of the younger children have chosen to read the inscription from the beginning and aloud, it was observed that the children at the age of 11 and older were tend to see the words quickly and place them in their places. Thus written texts have been perceived by younger children more strongly and in the part of the survey where the story is summarized, especially the children who are in the 7-11 age group have rendered the story by using the exact words in the text. • The second part where the children saw the tree was also interesting for the children. Listening to the heartbeats of the tree and sensing the orange fragrance was an exciting activity for the groups younger than 11 years and their reaction was mostly astonishment. However, some children have identified themselves with the main character of the book, Zeze, in this part and stated that they feel like they are Zeze in this exhibition.

• Part 3 which was about poverty at Christmas is selected as the part the children loved most (28%). They have all got excited and looked for their gifts and were disappointed like Zeze when they couldn’t find them. They have read most of the inscriptions excitedly and eagerly and poverty of Zeze was the most frequently mentioned words within the survey. • None of the students liked Part 4. The interactive experience provided in this part was not understood by the students and the need for extensive guidance was felt. • Part 5 where Zeze met with Valaderes was the second most liked part of the exhibition (26%). This part was appealing for children in younger and older age groups and it has become an activity which strengthens the dialogue between two students in each group. The majority of children have read the text aloud to their friends. However, it was understood that there was a need for flexibility regarding dimension and space since the age range was very wide. Most of the children have mentioned meeting with the old man in the survey. • Regarding Part 6, particularly the students in the 7-11 age group have remembered the beating Zeze got from his father and 47 students (39%) have mentioned this beating. Many children were stunned in this part during the exhibition. Especially the younger children have found the change in the images surprising. However, very few of the children have read the inscription on the wall. As they were got used to interact till this part, they have tried to change the accordion image by playing. • Part 7 where they have left the exhibition was one of the parts where the children have read the inscriptions most but just a few have mentioned the data in this part in their summaries (14%). This was the part of the exhibition that the children have wandered easily and quickly. Reading the word groups beginning from the closest, while they walk it was fun for them and each age group has easily completed this group at a pace specific to that group without the need of any warning. At the end of the exhibition, the novel itself was exhibited together with

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the questionnaire. One of the questions in the questionnaire was whether the children would like to read the book or not. Only two (2%) children have responded negatively to this question. All children except these two have given answers indicating that they are eager to read the book. As it is understood from the reactions of the children after the exhibition and their comments in the survey, it was a new and different experience for most of the children. They were very excited because they couldn’t see inside at the entrance. All age groups have stated that they would like to have this experience again. They have left the exhibition joyfully and happily.

cordingly, when the behaviors and experiences of the students are evaluated, it was seen that audio and visual narratives were more understandable by younger age groups than inscriptions and followed without boring them. • However, it was understood that arrangements where the students are guided by guides or effective directory methods in interactive constructs is of prime importance.

4. Conclusions In exhibition design, various factors are effective such as plan layouts, speculation of space, properties of the exhibited content, concept, information that is planned to be represented to the visitors, time that the visitor will spend, and so on. Design of the exhibitions has to include all the requirements in an optimum balance and also in a flexible way to provide each visitor different experiences in their point of view. As a summary of this research, some important clues are revealed that might be crucial for the design of exhibition spaces for children in the light of experiences and evaluations that were exposed in scope of the study: • It was seen that children of different age groups react differently to interactive constructs in exhibition spaces and these constructs had different effects on children. • “Spatial repetition and sequency” are important during the visits, it helps children to learn the language of the space so they learn the space and interact with the exhibition easier progressively. • Parts where “sensual transmission” is provided were more effective and memorable for children. • Parts that included activities which provided “social interaction”, were amusing and memorable for children. • Transmission style of the information and its understandability was important with respect to be understood by the visitor and memorability. Ac-

References Adams, M. & Moussouri, T. (2002). The Interactive Experience: Linking Research and Practise. V&A conference proceedings: Interactive Learning in Museums of Art and Design. Ahlamo, E.K. (2013). Interactive Exhibitions: The Use of Interactivity in Educational Exhibitions (Unpublished Bachelor’s Thesis). Tampere University of Applied Sciences, Finland. Allen, S. & Gutwill, J. (2004). Designing Science Museum Exhibits with Multiple Interactive Features: Five Common Pitfalls. The Museum Journal. 47(2). 199-212. Bandura, A. (1977). Social Learning Theory. New York: General Learning Press. Bayar, Z. (2011). Sergileme Tasarımında Yeni Yaklaşımlar ve Bir Proje Önerisi (Unpublished Masters Thesis). Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesi Güzel Sanatlar Enstitüsü Grafik Anasanat Dalı, Turkey. Bloom, J.N. & Powell, E.A. (1984). New Museums for a Century. Washington: The American Alliance of Museums. Digger, J. (2002). Interactive Learning in Museums of Art and Design: When Is An Interactive Not An Interactive? When It is An Artwork?. Retrieved from https:// wKHd7wCjoQFjAAegQIARAC&url=http%3A%2F%2Fmedia.

Acknowledgement Research project presented in this article was supported by Istanbul Technical University, Master Degree Scientific Research Projects Support Programme.

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114 upload%2F5751_file.pdf&usg=AOvVaw1gFQ5_XYCUmbBfV39t5a0c Ginsburg, H.P. & Opper, S. (1987). Piaget’s Theory of Intellectual Development. New Jersey:Pearson. Goldman, R. (1999). Looking at Children: Field Experiences in Child Study. Atlanta: Humanics Learning. Hein, H.S. (2000). The Museum in Transition. Washington: Smithsonian Books. Henning, M. (2006). Museums, Media and Cultural Theory. England: Open University Press. Hooper-Greenhill, E. (1991). A New Communication Model for Museums. In G. Kavanagh (Ed.), Museum Languages: Objects and Texts. Leicester: Leicester University Press. Locker, P. (2011). Exhibition Design. Switzerland: AVA Publishing. McKenna-Cress, P. & Kamien, J.A. (2013). Creating Exhibitions. Canada:

Wiley. Mclnerney, D.M. (2007). Educational Psychology – Theory, Research, and Teaching: A 25‐year retrospective. Educational Psychology, Routledge. 25(6), 585-599. Parten, M. (1932). Social Participation Among Preschool Children. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 27, 243-269. Piaget, J. (1962). Play, Dreams, And Imitation In Childhood. New York: W.W. Norton & Co. Skinner, B.F. (1938). The Behavior of organisms: An experimental analysis. New York: Appleton-Century. Vygotsky, L.S. (1978). Mind in Society. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Watson, J.B. (2013). Behaviorisms. UK:Read Book Ltd. Witcomb, A. (2003). Re-Imagining the Museum, Beyond the Mausoleum. London: Roultledge.

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ITU A|Z • Vol 16 No 3 • November 2019 • 115-129

From rigidity to ephemerality: Architecture as a socio-spatial assemblage of heterogeneous components Ferro YUDISTIRA1, Yandi Andri YATMO2, Paramita ATMODIWIRJO3 • Department of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Depok, Indonesia 2 • Department of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Depok, Indonesia 3 • Department of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Depok, Indonesia 1

doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2019.14890

Received: May 2019 • Final Acceptance: August 2019

Abstract This study discusses the idea of ephemeral architecture as an alternative approach to overcoming the rigidity issue of the built environment. Ephemeral architecture is an architectural space that appears and disappears in a short period of time. The ephemerality of such a space indicates that there are components that are not permanently available in the built environment. The question then arises as to what these components are, in what way they are present or available, and how they relate to each other to temporarily form a certain architectural space in the built environment. Using assemblage as the theoretical approach, the study investigates these questions through the case of trader space in the courtyard of the Sunda Kelapa mosque in Jakarta. The research makes three main findings regarding: (1) the heterogeneity of entities that act as architectural components, including everyday items such as clothes, socks and plastic rugs; (2) the process of spatial assemblage in which these entities relate and interact; and (3) social assemblage as the non-physical structure that frames this spatial process. Keywords Assemblage, Ephemeral, Rigidity, Everyday items.


1. Introduction There is growing awareness of the importance of time in architecture, specifically related to the rigidity of the built environment in responding to the “unprecedented population growth, urbanization, social and technological change” (Lifschutz, 2017, p.8). Therefore, instead of a being a rigid and timeless object, it seems necessary to see the built environment as a “mutable subjects much affected by [the] everyday uses and intentional intervention” of its users (Frank, 2016. p.8). Various approaches have been developed to overcome this rigidity issue. However, they tend to focus on the physical structure of the built environment, either by making the elements moveable/changeable, or by making it suitable for reuse after a structure has been dismantled. Some of these efforts originated many years ago. For instance, in 1961, Cedric Price proposed a design called the fun palace, based on an idea about time and uncertainty. Price argued that a built environment should be “enabled rather than determined human activities” (Lifschutz, 2017, p.8). In Japan, “major corporations are pursuing research and development to create systems for moveable partitions, bathrooms, and kitchens to underpin flexible homes” (Lifschutz, 2017, p.12). The approach of Price and the Japanese corporations can be categorized as an example of ‘architecture as a system’, which can respond to the changing demands of users (Murray & Brand, 2017). Another approach considers “what happens to architecture when its time is up”; how its elements can be dismantled, and then reused by a community (Armborst, D’Orca, & Theodore, 2016, p.110). The idea of ephemeral architecture offers an alternative approach in response to this rigidity issue by extending the range of components that form the architectural space. Ephemerality indicates the importance of components which are not part of the physical structure of the built environment; non-static components that are only present or available within a particular time-frame. The question subsequently arises as to what these components are. In addition, in what way they are

present or available in the built environment, and what the process is that temporarily assembles these components into a particular form of architectural space. This study investigates these questions through the case of trader spaces that appear and disappear in the Sunda Kelapa mosque courtyard, in central Jakarta, Indonesia. This kind of occurrence, a cluster of trader space inside or near a mosque area, is a common phenomenon in societies that are dominated by Muslims, such as that of Jakarta. However, there is a disjunctive relationship (Tschumi, 1994) between the trader space and the mosque courtyard, because the courtyard does not have any specific features to accommodate the trader space. However, the cluster of trader spaces still appears in the courtyard, albeit only for a short period. In other words, this case demonstrates the capability of the built environment to accommodate different, or even incompatible, everyday uses. Using an approach based on assemblage theory (DeLanda, 2006; Deleuze & Guattari, 1980/1987), this study aims to explain the ephemerality of trader space as a process of socio-spatial assemblage. Specifically, it investigates the entities that are involved as components of the space, the process of relation-interaction between these entities, and the layer of non-physical structure that frames this process. Understanding this socio-spatial assemblage process, and the wide range of entities involved as resources in this process, can contribute to developing an alternative design approach that can reduce the rigidity of the built environment. 2. Theoretical discussion 2.1. Ephemeral architecture: Event, materiality and compatibility The basic idea of ephemeral architecture is architecture that appears and disappears in a short period of time. The term ‘ephemeral’ is derived from the Greek epi (on) and hemerai (a day), which means ‘lasting only a day’ (Partridge, 1966). To date, there have been two points of view in the discourse on ephemeral architecture: first, the architecture that is related to special events;

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and second, that which is seen through the fleeting materiality of its components. From the first point of view, ephemeral architecture is an architectural space that appears along with special or planned event, and then disappears when the event ends. A special event is an event held or created to achieve specific objectives or to satisfy specific needs (Getz, 2007; Matthews, 2008). These objectives vary, from simple entertainment, urban rituals or festivals (Macy & Bonnemaison, 2008; Monin, 2003); to cultural and state celebrations (Vinsentini, 2008); pilgrimage/religious rituals (Mehrotra & Vera, 2014); and expressions of ideas or political propaganda (Delbeke, 2008). The components that form the architectural space, for instance stages, backdrops, lighting etc., are specifically created to support these objectives. From the second point of view, the ephemerality of architecture is seen through the fleeting characteristics of its components. The focus of related discussion explores the possibility of an architecture formed by non-visual and immaterial elements, such as sound, smell or even electromagnetic waves (Haque, 2004; Karandinou 2013; Pallasmaa, 2014). This exploration aims to increase the utilization of all the human senses, instead of just the senses of vision, in the experience of architecture. Both points of view suggest the involvement of ‘other’ components that affect the ephemerality of an architectural space. In other words, the idea of ephemeral architecture extends the range of components involved in the formation of architecture. However, neither point of view discusses the importance of these other components in relation to the contextuality of ephemeral architecture; the relationship between the ephemerality of the architectural space and the specific circumstances of the built environment, in which ephemerality indicates the importance of components that are not part of its physical structure. This contextual frame is important with regard to the effort to increase the flexibility of the built environment, making it able to respond to changes in everyday use.

Within this contextual frame, this study aims to investigate these ‘other’ components involved in the formation of certain architectural space, and how their availability affects the ephemerality of such space. The following section discusses assemblage theory as an approach to identifying and analyzing the entities that act as the components of architectural space, the peculiar characteristics of the relationship between them, and the phases of the process in which the components relate and interact. 2.2. Architecture as spatial assemblage Assemblage is an idea about a ‘whole’ formed by heterogenous components (Anderson, Kearnes, McFarlane, and Swanton, 2012; DeLanda, 2006; Harris, 2016; Müller, 2015). The idea of assemblage could be considered as a noun (object) or as a verb (process) (Anderson et al., 2012; Dovey & Woods, 2014; McFarlane, 2011). As a noun, assemblage is an entity that emerges through a ‘relation of exteriority’ between its components. This relation means that various entities which act as the assemblage components do not merge into one seamless unity or organism. Instead, they “may be detached from it and then plugged into a different assemblage in which its interactions are different” (DeLanda, 2006. p.10). In this study, this idea is used to analyze architecture as a spatial assemblage that temporarily emerges through the relation between heterogeneous components, rather than as a single seamless entity with permanent characteristics. As a verb, the relation that forms the assemblage is not seen as a static state. Instead, it is a dynamic process with specific phases. It is important to note that the assemblage theory does not specifically mention the phases of the assemblage process. However, we argue that there are two concepts in the theory that can be considered as phases: territorialization and deterritorialization. Territorialization is the phase in which diverse components are temporarily related or connected to each other to define the boundary and identity of the assemblage, while de-

From rigidity to ephemerality: Architecture as a socio-spatial assemblage of heterogeneous components


territorialization is the phase in which the relation-interaction between components destabilizes the boundary and identity of an assemblage, and at some point completely dismantles it (DeLanda, 2006; Deleuze & Guattari, 2004; Kennedy, Bruce, McCann & Zapasnik, 2013; Muller, 2015). This process of ‘appearing and disappearing’ through territorialization-deterritorialization is the link that connects the idea of the assemblage process with the idea of ephemerality in architecture. Therefore, this study uses the idea to analyze the ephemerality of architectural space as a process of appearing and disappearing, involving heterogeneous components and through a particular series of phases. However, we do not use territorialization-deterritorialization as rigid conceptual categories, to which any findings should be confined. Instead, we use both concepts as starting points or guidance to analyze and understand the overall appearing-disappearing process of trader space in the Sunda Kelapa mosque courtyard. Besides territorialization-deterritorialization, other concepts from assemblage theory that we use as guidance in the analysis process are capacities and properties. The role of these concepts will be further discussed in the following section. 3. Research methods 3.1. Data collection This study is a qualitative and employed both field observations and interviews to collect the data. The data from the observations were used to develop semi-structured questions for the interviews (Cohen & Crabtree, 2006), which were held with different parties involved, both directly and indirectly, with the research case phenomenon. This combination of multiple methods and sources of information aims to achieve a “more valid, reliable and diverse construction of realities” (Golafshani, 2003, p.604). The field observation consisted of two stages. The first stage aimed to obtain an overall picture of the presence of clusters of trader space inside the Sunda Kelapa mosque courtyard. The main information obtained from this stage was: 1) the configuration of the

physical structure of the courtyard; 2) the overall time-frame of the market/ bazaar events; 3) the overall variety of entities (particularly goods) involved in the formation of the trader space; and 4) the configuration of the spatial position of the traders’ space in the courtyard. These data then were used as the basis for conducting the second stage of the field observation. In the second stage, more specific observations were made to identify all the entities involved as components of the trader space, and how the relations and interaction between them made the trader space appear or disappear in the courtyard. This stage involved three trader spaces (figure 1), which were selected based on their level of complexity, specifically regarding the quantity and variety of the components that formed the space. The first trader sold men’s clothes, representing a low-complexity space. The second trader sold socks, employing a medium-complexity space, while the third trader sold men’s accessories (for example, wallets and belts) in a high-complexity space. In both stages, the data were recorded using photographs. In the second stage, the photos were taken sequentially in the same position to fully capture the whole appearing-disappearing process of the selected trader space (figure 2). For each selected trader, this photo-taking process was conducted several times, so that the data from each process could be compared to check the consistency of the information. If there were photos from a certain part of the process that were missing, incomplete or seemed to be inadequate (for example, because the image of the process was blocked by a mosque visitor), individual data could complement each other.

Figure 1. From left to right: men’s clothes trader, socks trader, accessories trader.

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Figure 2. Example of data from sequential photos.

The main aims of the interviews were to gather information that could not be obtained from the field observations. For example, from the observations, we can see that every trader will occupy a specific position inside the courtyard as a base to form their space. However, we are unable to ascertain the reasoning behind this action merely through field observation. How is a certain trader able to occupy that specific spatial position? Are there any specific rules or regulations? This kind of information needed to be collected through the interviews. TThe interview is semi-structured, with primary pieces of information collected using an â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;interview-guideâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;, while still open to new ways of seeing and understanding issues relevant to the topic (Cohen & Crabtree, 2006). The interviews were conducted with various different parties. First, they were held with administrative staff of the official mosque management institution (called Pengelola Masjid Agung Sunda Kelapa or PMASK). One of the most important pieces of information from these interviews was the existence of a paguyuban pedagang (trader community). The second party was the leader of the tradersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;

community. The third party was the traders. The final party was the porters, who support the traders in managing the additional resources used in the formation of trader space. The interviews took place on-site(the Sunda Kelapa mosque courtyard), specifically in the time-frame of the bazaar events, namely on Fridays, from approximately 07:00 to 15:30. This decision was based on consideration of the importance of the sites to the research questions and the data possibly generated from the interviews (Edwards & Holland, 2013). For instance, it was easier for the traders to provide information about specific entities (for example, physical features of the built environment, tools and goods) involved in the formation process of the trader space while the event was taking place. The only interviews not conducted on site were those with the administrative staff, which took place in the mosque administrative office. 3.2. Analysis The study used coding as the method to analyze the data. Several concepts from assemblage theory were used as the theoretical lens in the coding process. However, this methodological approach did not intend to deliberately confine the categorization in the coding process to the various theoretical concepts (based on assemblage theory). These theoretical concepts were intended as guidance or a starting point of view to sharpen the focus when analyzing the data. Instead of being restricted to a pre-established theoretical concept, this method opens up the possibility for adjustment when developing a new framework of conceptual categories to explain the research findings. The paper discusses the results of the analysis in three sections: (1) social assemblage as the framework of the spatial process; (2) trader space as a spatial assemblage; and (3) the phases in the appearing-disappearing process of trader space. Each section contains several conceptual categories as a base to develop understanding from the findings. Three concepts from assemblage theory underlie the analysis in the first and second sections, namely

From rigidity to ephemerality: Architecture as a socio-spatial assemblage of heterogeneous components


(1) heterogenous components; (2) capacities; and (3) properties (Anderson et al., 2012; DeLanda, 2006; Harris, 2016). The concept of heterogenous components suggests analysis of the wide range of entities that are possibly involved as components of the assemblage, while the concept of capacities and properties is necessary to analyze the relationship and interaction between these components (McFarlane, 2011). Capacities are related to the capabilities of certain entities that emerge when they form a relationship and interaction with others (DeLanda, 2006). Property can be seen as a peculiarity (for example shape, quality or social position) or characteristic that is possessed by a certain entity (Partridge, 1966), which can affect its capacities (DeLanda, 2006). The third section aims to explain the ephemerality of trader space as a spatial assemblage process with specific phases. Territorialization and deterritorialization are concepts that represent a phase in the assemblage process. The concept of territorialization suggests analysis of the phase in which the relation-interaction between entities temporarily defines and stabilizes the boundaries and identity of the architectural space (DeLanda, 2006; Kennedy et al., 2013; Müller, 2015). On the other hand, the concept of deterritorialization suggests analysis of the phase in which the relation-interaction between entities destabilizes the identity and blurs (and then disassembles) the boundaries of the space (DeLanda, 2006; Kennedy et al., 2013; Muller, 2015). 4. Brief description of the research case The case examined in this study is trader spaces at a weekly event called pasar (market or bazaar) that take places inside a mosque called Sunda Kelapa in central Jakarta, Indonesia. It occurs every Friday, along with the routine religious gathering called Shalat Jumat (Friday prayer). Most of the traders that participate in the event sell commodities such as clothes, shoes, accessories (belts, wallets, small sling bags) and electronics.

Figure 3. Courtyard position as a transition area.

This trader space occupies the courtyard of the mosque. In terms of physical features, the courtyard does not have any specific feature to support or accommodate the presence of this space; for example, no dedicated kiosks or stalls for the traders. The courtyard has no specific element or area to properly display (and store) the goods. Hence, each trader needs to bring additional objects and utilize them as resources to form their own space during the bazaar. However, albeit physically simple, the courtyard is a transition area that is passed through by many mosque visitors (when they arrive and leave the mosque area) (Figure 3). This fact plays

Figure 4. Difference between empty (top image) and peak time (bottom image) of the courtyard.

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a crucial role during the peak times of the bazaar, which occur directly after the Friday prayers end (around 12:30 – 13:30), when there is a large stream of visitors, most of whom have just finished their Friday rituals, who walk through the courtyard and observe the goods sold by the traders. Figure 4 show the different condition of the courtyard when it is empty and during the peak time of the bazaar. Even though this time only exists for approximately 45 minutes to an hour, preparations to assemble each trader’s space starts early in the morning (at around 06:00 – 10:30). After the peak time has ended, the traders need to disassemble their spaces, which happens around 13:30 – 14:30. 5. Results and discussion 5.1. Social assemblage: Framework of the spatial process The findings reveal the existence of social-assemblage in the form of paguyuban pedagang (trader community), as a layer of non-physical structure that frames the spatial assemblage process of the trader space. The component of this social assemblage is human actors with particular social positions. In this case there are three social positions, namely permanent trader (PT), additional trader (AT) and porter (Pr). A PT is a member of the trader community, while an AT is not a member of the

community, but is still occasionally involved in the bazaar. A Pr plays a supporting role that helps the traders in the spatial assemblage process. Social position is a non-physical property of the actors that affects three capacities that play a crucial role in the spatial assemblage process (Figure 5), namely: 1) the right to occupy a particular spatial position inside the courtyard; 2) the right to bring and use objects as (additional) resources that are required to form the trader space; and 3) the capability to utilize the resources and develop a set of relation-interactions to form the trader space. Each actor is only able to actualize these capacities in a specific timeframe, which is during the bazaar that takes place along with the Friday prayer ritual in the mosque. For example, regarding the first capacity, PTs have the right to ‘own’ a particular spatial position, which they can use to form a trader space inside the courtyard. However, they can only occupy this position during the bazaar on Fridays. They cannot randomly come (for instance in a Monday morning) and then occupy a certain position to form a trader space inside the courtyard. The first capacity is crucial because it allows certain actors to occupy a spatial position that acts as a base to form the trader space. Actors need to follow two ‘goods-based’ rules to acquire a social position as a PT who owns a specific

Figure 5. Relation between social and spatial assemblage. From rigidity to ephemerality: Architecture as a socio-spatial assemblage of heterogeneous components


spatial position in the courtyard. First, the trader community has a regulation regarding a limit on the number of similar goods that can be sold. ‘Common goods’, such as clothes, are limited to five traders, while ‘rare goods’, such as traditional medicine, are limited to three traders. Second, traders with similar goods are strongly suggested not to form their space in adjacent positions. There is usually a gap of around two or three traders between traders of similar goods. ATs do not own a specific spatial position in the courtyard, so they need to search for an ‘empty position’ every time they want to form their space. There are two types of empty position in the courtyard. First, one that is not owned by any PT. Second, the position is empty because the PT who owns it is absent. When the AT finds an empty position, they cannot directly occupy it, but need to ask for permission from the PTs in the area surrounding the empty position. The first capacity is closely related to the other two. When traders are able to occupy a position inside the courtyard, then they are also allowed to bring (and utilize) various objects as resources to form a certain set of relations-interactions that are required to form the trader space. 5.2. Spatial assemblage: The importance of everyday items and the idea of the spatial role This study argues that the ephemerality of architectural space is affected by the heterogeneity of its components. The findings show that there is wide range of entities that are involved as components that form the trader space, including everyday items such as clothes, socks, plastic rugs and umbrellas. The availability of these everyday items plays an important role in the ephemerality of the trader space. This importance is based on two factors. First, the traders have limited time to actualize their capacities, specifically those that allowed them to bring and utilize these everyday items in the courtyard. Second, the traders can easily move or mobilize these items to another location, even though the variety and number of these can increase the

difficulty of this process. However, the importance of these everyday items does not reside in the items themselves; instead, it should be seen through their spatial role when they form a relation-interaction with other entities. Based on the concept of capacities from assemblage theory, this study develops the idea of the spatial role to fully explain the relation-interaction between the components of spatial assemblage. This role can be divided into three parts: the role itself, the function of the role, and the actual realization of the role. The idea was developed to demonstrates the variety of entities that act as components of architectural space. Different entities can act as components with the same spatial role, even though the realization of the role is different (which also affects the qualities provided by the entities). For example, in trader space, there is a component with a spatial role as a ‘boundary’. The function of a ‘boundary’ in trader space is to mark out the courtyard area that can be used by traders, especially to display their goods. In Case 1 (men’s clothes trader), the entity that acts as a ‘boundary’ is a plastic rug, which actualizes the role by directly covering the surface of the courtyard floor. In Case 2 (sock trader), beside a plastic rug, the entity which also does this is an umbrella, which actualizes the role by forming a shaded area that indirectly covers the courtyard floor. The plastic rug and umbrella therefore play the same spatial role (as a boundary), even though the properties of each lead to different actualizations of the role. The spatial role is also specifically related to the components involved in the (de) territorialization phase, which is when the architectural space appears and disappears (the phase will be explained in the following section). In other phases, the role of each assemblage component Table 1. List of abbreviation for the sub-phases (each sub-phase will be explained in the following section).

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will be explained with the concept of capacities and properties. 5.3. Spatial assemblage: The appearing and disappearing process with specific phases This section explains how trader space appears and disappears in the courtyard through a spatial assemblage process with three phases: preparation, (de)territorialization, and withdrawal. Each phase is divided into several sub-

phases to further specify their significance in the appearing-disappearing process of trader space. Tables 2 show information about the overall phases (and sub-phases) of the spatial assemblage for each selected case, along with the entities that are involved, and the time-frame of the process. In the time-frame bar, there is a specific block labeled â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;FPBâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; (Friday Prayer Break). This is the time when the main part of the Friday Prayer ritual takes

Table 2. Overall phases of the spatial assemblage process.

From rigidity to ephemerality: Architecture as a socio-spatial assemblage of heterogeneous components


place. In this specific time-frame, none of the bazaar activities is allowed to be performed in the courtyard. This stipulation perfectly demonstrates the importance of rules as a part of social assemblage in limiting the formation of architectural space in a built environment. Even though all the resources are available and ready to use, they are useless if the actors are unable to utilize them. In each phase, there are entities with significant and insignificant roles. Significant means that the entities play an important role in forming the required relation-interaction related to the peculiarity of each phase in the spatial assemblage process. Insignificant means that the entities are merely present and involved in the process, but have yet to make any meaningful contribution to it. For example, in the men’s clothes’ trader space, the entities with a significant role in the ‘defining boundary’ sub-phase are ‘trader’, ‘plastic rug’ and ‘courtyard’. The relation between these entities defines the boundaries that specify the trader space area. Meanwhile, the role of ‘clothes’ in this subphase is insignificant, because they are merely involved as a resource (which will have a significant role in the next sub-phase). The following sections will further discuss the role and importance of each phase and sub-phase in the appearing-disappearing process of trader space in the mosque courtyard. 5.3.1. Preparation: Setting-up process The aim of the preparation phase is to set up two basic requirements that are crucial to executing the following phase ((de)territorialization), namely (1) the availability of resources, and (2) the availability of spatial position. This phase is then divided into two subphases, supplying resources and occupying a position. The aim of the ‘supplying resources’ sub-phase is to condition the availability of a certain set of entities as (additional) resources to form the trader space. This sub-phase can be performed by the traders themselves, or with help of a porter. If the traders

execute this sub-phase by themselves, then they also simultaneously occupy a specific spatial position. If they utilize the support of a porter, then the resources that are placed by the porter in a specific location will act as tags or placeholders that prevent other traders from occupying the position (figure 6-top image). ‘Occupying a position’ is the subphase in which the trader occupies a particular spatial position as a base to form the trader space inside the court-

Figure 6. Supplying resources (top image) and occupying a position (bottom image) sub-phases of socks trader.

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yard. This sub-phase, as previously stated, can be performed simultaneously with the process of supplying resources. However, if in the previous sub-phase trader utilizes the support of a porter to tag or put a placeholder down for his/her spatial-position, then that trader will occupy the tagged-position in this sub-phase (figure 6-bottom image). 5.3.2. (De)Territorialization: The appearing-disappearing process (De)territorialization is the phase in which the trader space appears through the process of territorialization, and then disappears through the

Figure 7. Defining boundaries sub-phase of men’s clothes trader (top image) and socks trader (bottom image).

process of deterritorialization. This phase is divided into four sub-phases: defining boundaries, the emergence of identity, the disappearance of identity, and disassembling boundaries. The ‘defining boundaries’ sub-phase aims to form a relation between supporting components, which differentiate the area of trader space from the others. The supporting component is one that defines the quality of the space (figure 7). For instance, a component with a spatial role as a ‘boundary’ provides quality in the form of ‘clarity’ regarding the area of the trader space. Different entities can act as supporting components with the same spatial role, albeit with different levels of quality (depending on the properties of the entities). Beside components with spatial roles as ‘boundaries’, there are also components with other spatial roles such as ‘place to display’ or ‘sitting place’, but all play a role in ‘defining’ the trader space and differentiating it from its surroundings. ‘Emergence of identity’ is a subphase in which the identity of space (as a trader space) emerges through relation-interaction between the main components of the space. The main component is one whose presence, and relation-interaction with other main components, plays a crucial role in the emergence of the identity of certain architectural space. This space can temporarily appear, even in an incompatible built environment, if the relation-interaction between the main components can be formed in the environment. For instance, trader space can appear in the courtyard through the relation-interaction between ‘seller’, ‘goods’, and ‘(potential) buyer’ (figure 8). However, unlike supporting components, these main components require specific entities that cannot be easily replaced. For example, all traders has specific entities that they can use as goods to sell. These entities cannot be easily replaced by others because they are tied to the social and spatial position of the trader. ‘Disappearance of identity’ is a subphase in which the identity of the space disappears because there is a change in the relation-interaction between the main components. For example,

From rigidity to ephemerality: Architecture as a socio-spatial assemblage of heterogeneous components


when the peak time of the bazaar is over, the traders need to disassemble their space. This disassembling process starts by dismantling the arrangement of the goods and then storing them in a certain place or parcel/package. In other words, there is a change in the relation-interaction that involves particular entities changing from ‘being displayed’ (as goods) to ‘being stored’ (as resources in a parcel/package). Traders disassemble their space by dismantling the relation between the goods and the place of display, and then gathering and storing the goods in a certain package. The process that takes place in the ‘disassembling boundaries’ sub-phase is similar to the ‘disappearance of identity’ sub-phase, in the sense that there is a change that leads to a relation-interaction that accumulates a group of items/entities into the form of package. This relation between entities in the form of a package makes them easier for the actors to move or mobilize from the courtyard. 5.3.3. Withdrawal: Cleaning-up process The withdrawal phase is the opposite of the preparation phase. The main aim of this phase is to ‘clean up’ the built environment and return it to its default condition. Therefore, this phase strengthens the argument about the temporal availability of resources that are required to form the architectural space. The withdrawal phase is divided into two sub-phases, positional withdrawal and resources withdrawal. ‘Positional withdrawal’ is the subphase in which the traders, who initiate the formation of trader space in the courtyard, leave their spatial position. Some traders perform the positional and resources withdrawal simultaneously, which means that they take all the resources with them when they leave their position. Other traders, who utilize the support of a porter in the preparation phase, only take some of the resources and leave the rest in the built environment. ‘Resources withdrawal’, on the other hand, is the sub-phase in which the porters move/ mobilize the remaining resources to another location (inside the mosque

Figure 8. Emergence of identity sub-phase of men’s clothes trader (top image) and accessories trader (bottom image).

area), to return the built environment completely to its default condition. 6. Conclusion and recommendation This study has addressed the heterogeneity of entities involved as components of architectural space, and how they affect the ephemerality of the space. An architectural space becomes ephemeral when some of the entities that act as its components are only, and should be, available/present in a particular time-frame. This means it is necessary to extend the recognition of the components that form an architectural space beyond the permanent physical

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structure of the built environment. This recognition indeed suggests a limitation of this physical structure, but it also provides an idea about the variety and wider range of entities that could act as architectural components. The findings of the study reveal the importance of everyday items, such as clothes, plastic carpets and umbrellas, in the formation of architectural space. This argument does not try to negate or eliminate the importance of permanent physical structures in the built environment. Instead, both types of entity (the physical structure of the built environment and everyday items) are resources that are required to form certain architectural space. The difference is that physical structure is permanently available, while everyday items are only available temporarily, and there is process that involves a certain group of actors that needs to be performed to condition the availability of these items. However, the importance of these entities cannot be seen through their being separate individual entities. Instead, it needs to be seen through their spatial role as architectural components, whether as a main component (which determines the identity of the space) or supporting component (which determines the quality of the space). A combination of the ideas of resources, main components and supporting components can be used to develop an alternative approach to overcoming the rigidity issue of the built environment. This issue is primarily related to the inability or limitation of the built environment to respond to change in everyday uses. This limitation is related to the fact that the features or elements of the built environment are only part of the resources that are required to form the architectural space. It is therefore necessary to fully recognize this limitation and open it up to an alternative approach, one that suggests that architects act more as ‘resources managers’ than as ‘form makers’. As a resources manager, an architect can explore the resources that need to be permanently available, and those that are only available in a specific condition (in which their availability depends on other parties). This explo-

ration should be based on the contextual situation of the design, specifically related to: (1) the variety of everyday uses or activities (that require a certain set of main components); and (2) the level of spatial quality to support these activities (which is affected by the supporting components). This approach opens the possibility to simplify the physical structure of the built environment, without reducing the complexity of architectural space. The physical structure of the built environment can be simpler because the availability of other resources has been ‘distributed’ to other parties. However, the availability of these resources is useless if the actors are unable to utilize them through a process of spatial assemblage. The findings reveal the importance of social assemblage as non-physical structure that frames this spatial assemblage process. Therefore, social assemblage plays a crucial role in the ephemerality of an architectural space, because it frames the actualization of actors’ capacities that are required to perform the spatial assemblage process, but only in a specific time-frame. This social assemblage adds a non-physical layer that can affect the flexibility/rigidity of the built environment without changing its physical features. This finding therefore suggests the necessity for architects to become involved in the formulation of rules and regulations (as the elements of this social assemblage). Similar to the previous argument about the recognition of the importance of everyday items, this involvement opens up wider options in the design approach of architects, rather than a mere focus on the physical structure of the built environment. This research is limited to the context of a certain event in a particular type of public area, specifically a market/bazaar event in the courtyard of Sunda Kelapa mosque. Investigation in different cases is needed to further explore and develop the conceptual arguments that have been made in this study. Research in different contexts with a more diverse set of activities is required to develop a framework to understand the ephemerality of architectural space in everyday life. Such

From rigidity to ephemerality: Architecture as a socio-spatial assemblage of heterogeneous components


knowledge will be valuable to further develop an alternative design approach to overcoming the rigidity issue of the built environment. References Amborst, T., D’Orca, D., & Theodore, G. (2016). Architecture takes time. In H. Castle & K. A. Frank (Eds.), Architecture timed: designing with time in mind (pp. 108-113). London: John Wiley & Sons. Anderson, B., Kearnes, M., McFarlane, C., & Swanton, D. (2012). On Assemblages and Geography. Dialogues in Human Geography, 2(2) 171-189, https://doi. org/10.1177/2043820612449261 Bonnemaison, S., & Macy, C., eds. (2008). Festival Architecture. London, England: Routledge. Cohen, D., & Crabtree, B. (2006, July). Qualitative Research Guidelines Project. Retrieved from http://www. DeLanda, M. (2006). A New Philosophy of Society: Assemblage Theory and Social Complexity. London, England: Continuum. Delbeke, M. (2008). Framing history: The Jubilee of 1625, the dedication of new Saint Peter’s and the Baldacchino. In S. Bonnemaison & C. Macy (Eds.), Festival Architecture (pp. 129154). London, England: Routledge. Deleuze, G., & Guattari, F. (1987). A Thousand Plateaus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia (B. Massumi, Trans). Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press. (Original work published 1980). Dovey, K., Wood, S. (2015). Public/ private urban interfaces: type, adaptation, assemblage. Journal of Urbanism: International Research on Placemaking and Urban Sustainability, 8(1) 1-16. 4.891151 Edwards, R., & Holland, J. (2013). What is qualitative interviewing? London, England: Bloomsbury. Frank, K. A. (2016). Designing with Time in Mind [Introduction]. In H. Castle & K. A. Frank (Eds.), Architecture timed: designing with time in mind (pp. 8-17). West Sussex, England: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Getz, D. (2007). Event Studies: The-

ory, Research and Policy for Planned Events. Oxford: Butterworth‐Heinemann. Golafshani, N. (2003). Understanding Reliability and Validity in Qualitative Research. The Qualitative Report, 8(4), 597-606. Retrieved from http:// Harris, O. J.T. (2016). Affective architecture in Ardnamurchan: assemblages at three scales. In M. Bille & T. F. Sørensen (Eds.), Elements of architecture: assembling archaeology, atmosphere and the performance of building spaces (pp. 195-212). London, England: Routledge. Haque, U. (2004). The Choreography of Sensations: Three Case Studies of Responsive Environment Interface. Retrieved from https://www.haque. Karandinou, A. (2013). No Matter: Theories and Practices of the Ephemeral in Architecture. (C. Eamonn, Ed.). Farnham, Surrey: Ashgate. Kennedy, R., Zapasnik, J., McCann, H., & Bruce, M. (2013). All those little machines: Assemblage as transformative theory. Australian Humanities Review, (55) 45-66. Lifschutz, A. (2017). Long Life, Loose Fit, Low Energy [Introduction]. In A. Lifschutz (Ed.), Loose-fit architecture: designing buildings for change (pp. 6-17). West Sussex, England: John Wiley & Sons. Matthews, D. (2008). Special Event Production: The Process. Oxford, England: Butterworth–Heinemann. Mcfarlane, C. (2011). The city as assemblage: Dwelling and urban space. Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 29(4) 649-671. https://doi. org/10.1068/d4710 Mehrotra, R., & Vera, F. (2015). Reversibility: Disassembling the biggest ephemeral mega city. ARQ (Santiago), (90) 14-25. S0717-69962015000200003 Müller, M. (2015). Assemblages and Actor–networks: Rethinking Socio-material Power, Politics and Space. Geography Compass, 9, 27-41. https:// Murray, P., & Brand, S. (2017). Learning from the West Coast: Long-Termism and Change. In A. Lif-

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schutz (Ed.), Loose-fit architecture: designing buildings for change (pp. 24-29). West Sussex, England: John Wiley & Sons. Monin, E. (2003). The Construction of Fantasy: Ephemeral Structures and Urban Celebrations in France during The Eighteenth Century. In F. S. Huerta (eds.), Proceedings of the First International Congress on Construction History: Madrid, 20th-24th January 2003, (3) 1475-1487, ISBN: 84-9728-073-3.

ticulo?codigo=4186498 Pallasmaa, J. (2014). Space, place and atmosphere. Emotion and peripherical perception in architectural experience. Lebenswelt: Aesthetics and Philosophy of Experience, (4) 230-245. https://doi. org/10.13130/2240-9599/4202 Partridge, E. (1966). Origins: An Etymological Dictionary of Modern English. London, England: Routledge. Tschumi, B. (1994). Architecture and Disjunction. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

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With nature in mind: ‘Green metaphors’ as an approach to reflect environmental concerns and awareness in landscape design Sema MUMCU1, Serap YILMAZ2, Duygu AKYOL3 • Landscape Architecture Department, Faculty of Forestry, Karadeniz Technical Universiy, Trabzon, Turkey 2 • Landscape Architecture Department, Faculty of Forestry, Karadeniz Technical Universiy, Trabzon, Turkey 3 • Landscape Architecture Department, Faculty of Forestry, Karadeniz Technical Universiy, Trabzon, Turkey 1

doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2019.00236

Received: December 2018 • Final Acceptance: September 2019

Abstract The human-environment relationship forms the philosophical foundation of landscape architecture. To move beyond the common dualistic humanenvironment thinking in environmental design education, exploring and highlighting new ideas is important and necessary. A caring sensitivity and a change in awareness of our responsibilities are preconditions to creating these new ideas that will result in deeply responsive environmental designs. Here, responsibility includes ecological awareness and understanding interconnectedness. “Green metaphors” are results of such an awareness and understanding. Green metaphors in environmental design are accepted as an approach for reflecting environmental concern. This study aims to understand how green metaphors are being used by landscape architecture students in design studio. One hundred and three poster presentations of senior students that explain the metaphorical thinking behind their design concept for a residential landscape design were analyzed in order to determine the frequency of green metaphors. Twenty-seven projects with green metaphors were analyzed in depth to understand the most emphasized issues in their approaches to the human-environment relationship. Keywords Environmental awareness, Green metaphors, Human-environment relationship, Landscape architecture, Landscape design.


1. Introduction The human-environment relationship forms the philosophical foundation of landscape architecture. As a profession intervening in the environment, shaping and modifying it in order to create more affordable environments that satisfy users’ needs and enhance human experience, where do we place nature in the spectrum of our professional responsibilities? Since design always affects ecological processes, it has a necessary relationship with ecological science (Nassauer, 2002). Wenk (2002) criticizes design and planning professions for ignoring the possibility of creating landscapes as living instruments that address urban environmental issues. Landscape architects must understand nature and environmental issues, but the topics and the methods for how they should learn these topics is much less clear (Nassauer, 2002). Another issue is the common dualistic human-environment thinking in environmental design education: there remains a need to move beyond this dualistic thinking by exploring and highlighting new ideas. There is a tendency in environmental education to insist that every institution of higher education should make the cultivation of ecological intelligence an essential part of every student’s learning experience (Heffernan, 2012). Our era, in which the demand for solutions to environmental problems is increasing, witnesses the endeavors of humans who strive to develop alternative views and approaches that will alleviate, rather than compound, the environmental crisis. Along with many other professional disciplines, landscape architecture has a part in meeting these demands and joining these endeavors. Users are in demand of highly responsive environments, but are landscape architecture students being educated and instilled with the needed responsibility and knowledge to meet these demands? This paper aims to investigate, through design studio outcomes, what students learn in terms of knowledge, awareness, and applicability regarding the human-nature relationship and environmental issues during their education. Design studio is accepted as one

of the most important learning areas where environmental issues such as awareness, sustainability, conservation, eco-design, etc., can be discussed and practiced. For example, sustainability is a common environmental term that is used in design studios (Keumala et al., 2016; Kjøllesdal et al., 2014). However, this is a limited term that is considered with limited approaches in design studios; are design studios really qualified to create and develop essential awareness and sensitivity in students? Are there any alternative approaches? In this study, we focused on using metaphors in design studio and providing a new way for designers to gain a deep understand of environmental issues. Metaphors are common means for environmental designers to provide meaningful grounding for complex design undertakings. They are especially invaluable when the designer confronts novel situations and strives to share unfamiliar ideas. Metaphors can help designers displace old meanings, generate new patterns of enunciation, and bridge ideas that were formerly unrelated (Muller and Knudson, 2009). Muller (2006, p. 186) asks: “How might an architect’s articulation of the design task evolve by borrowing from ecological understandings? What new sorts of architectural ecologies -of benefit to humans and non-humans- might result?” Casakin (2012) defines metaphorical reasoning as an educational approach that can play an important role in the design studio; metaphors are valuable problem-solving strategies and are suitable for improving design education. In this study with a similar approach, we analyzed landscape architecture students’ ecology and nature-grounded metaphors that is “green metaphors” and, through these metaphors, we sought to understand students’ approaches to environmental problems and their level of awareness. The concept of metaphors was used in a broader sense in the study in order to include design concepts with weak metaphorical thinking in the evaluation process in order to create a deeper understanding of the ecological approaches used by the students. Instead of design concepts, the emphasis on metaphor aims to highlight the inno-

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vative and creative contributions of metaphors to design studios and to encourage their use in design education. 2. Landscape architecture design studio The design studio is defined by Casakin (2012) as an educational environment where students are expected to acquire and integrate theoretical and practical knowledge; enhance their level of expertise and competence; grasp, present, and defend design ideas; acquire new techniques and skills; and form their own ideas and judgments through being exposed to a variety of views from their instructors, mostly in the form of the master-apprentice system. Classes such as environmental/ landscape/architectural design project based on design studio practice have been accepted as the most important part of the educational curriculum in schools of design (Casakin, 2004) and design studio has been seen as essential for design education (Johnson and Hill, 2002). The studio is based upon the educational philosophy of “learning by doing” and has developed both as a venue and as a pedagogical medium (Alon-Mozes, 2006). It is a dynamic and generative framework, in which faculty members guide students through the processes of discovery, analysis, idea generation, and proposal development (Johnson and Hill, 2002). Project classes are mainly based on and conducted as design studios; in this context, landscape architecture curricula do not significantly differ from architectural studios, and therefore both disciplines share the same design methodologies (Gazvoda, 2002; Alon-Mozes, 2006). In most schools, as the student moves through the studio curriculum, the project types and scope increase in complexity. The level of performance in the studio is accepted as an indicator of mastery of specific skills, competencies, and domain knowledge at certain stages of the students’ development (Curry, 2014). Within the scope of (Karadeniz Technical) University‘s Landscape Architecture Department curricula, the same approach (increases in complexity) mentioned above has been ef-

fective in structuring the design studio classes. In this context, first-semester design studio classes begin with the Basic Design Principles and Project class and the curriculum includes the Environmental Design Project (EDP) I, II, III, IV, V, and VI classes in the following semesters. The studio classes proceed from the abstract to the concrete, from less complexity to greater complexity in terms of the design subject, area, and user types. The studio classes are preconditioned, that is, if a student fails any of the EDP classes, they will not be able to take the next EDP class. Students receive one-onone criticism from the project tutors in the studio environment for two days a week. Students can also criticize each other during presentations and discussions in which the whole class participates. With the increased complexity in the scope of projects, students are confronted with the task of transferring the knowledge gained from service classes to their projects. Thus, students are expected to reflect their studio experiences in the next project class and synthesize their theoretical knowledge from other classes in their projects (Mumcu et al., 2018). 3. Combining ecology and design: Green metaphors Design studio, according to Johnson and Hill (2002), is a prime vehicle for students to strategically engage ecological knowledge within the context of a cultural problem. Nassauer (2002) advises that a landscape architecture curriculum that builds a clearer relationship with ecology should sharpen – not blur – students’ understanding of design as cultural action. Johnson and Hill (2002) state that established design professions have increasingly recognized the need for ecological awareness and responsibility, and have begun to adopt ecological guidelines for professional practice. Since design excellence must be judged by both aesthetic and ecological criteria, concerning design with art but not ecological criteria is ethically unacceptable in the fields of design. The decision to pursue ecological sustainability without art is also flawed, because art may be uniquely capable to reach human hearts and

With nature in mind: ‘Green metaphors’ as an approach to reflect environmental concerns and awareness in landscape design


minds (Johnson and Hill, 2002). In this context, the place of ecological approaches in design studio is important in terms of instilling these priorities in students. But are ecological approaches being applied relevantly, and how much are they being understood? For example, do ecological approaches in professional practices really reflect a deep respect for the beauty of life as Orr’s work put forth who calls for responsible design in space and time, and in human and nonhuman terms (Johnson and Hill, 2002)? Referring to a transformation that is needed to move from design with nature to a design that includes humans in nature, Johnson and Hill (2002) ask: “How can we envision new relationships between science and art and ecology and design?” Based on the idea that metaphors are essential to imagining a future in which design and ecology enjoy a closer relationship, Johnson and Hill (2002) accept the role of metaphors in the language of landscape architecture. According to Muller and Knudson (2009), in efforts to make projects that address ecology effectively and that help to “improve our relationship with nature,” architects must recognize the inherent predisposition toward metaphors in ecology. With such an approach, the efforts of designers can be viewed as both conceptualizing architecture in a more ecologically-oriented way and opportunistically thinking about ecological systems as an important part of the palette out of which designers construct and reconstruct the world. Architectures and ecologies become co-creative, overlapping, and enmeshed (Muller and Knudson, 2009). In this sense, metaphors can be useful tools at establishing innovative ideas for invoking responsibility and gaining awareness. They can assist in formulating problems afresh, allowing designers to solve them with greater sensitivity, intensity and effectiveness (Muller and Knudson, 2009). Kopnina (2016) defines metaphors as one of the crucial dimensions of environmental education and education for sustainable development. Also, Casakin (2006) suggests that training students in the use of metaphors can be considered particularly helpful in the design studio, as

they will contribute to an enhancement of design thinking capabilities and will yield a better understanding of the design process. Metaphors are defined as cognitive strategies that are used to deal with design problems in order to define, restructure, and resolve them (Casakin, 2004; Hey et al., 2008). Using metaphors facilitates the generation of innovative solutions (Casakin, 2012) by allowing the designer to think unconventionally and encourage the application of novel ideas to design problems (Casakin, 2007). By juxtaposing the known with the unknown in an unusual way and creating comparisons with another concept or situation, metaphors help in understanding a design situation in terms of a remote concept not normally associated with design, and so enables the understanding of the design problem from different perspectives (Goncalves et al., 2014) and enhances design problem-solving (Casakin, 2012). Generally speaking, it can be said that the use of metaphors played a more significant role in the definition of a concept, (Casakin, 2004), they provide the designer with a starting point in the earlier stages of the design process, in which initial decisions are often difficult to make (Casakin, 2006). Metaphors have a powerful effect on changing and transforming a design ethos into a more ecologically sensitive one. This happens, Casakin (2004) explains, because when a metaphor becomes a part of a conceptual system it may modify it, change the designer’s perception of a particular situation, and trigger new insights. Muller (2009) states that as environmental design develops new metaphors, it also modifies its own culture; the emerging identity formation of architectural culture results in new designs. According to Muller (2009), in order to meet the need for the development of life-enhancing and ecologically sustainable living spaces, the idea of developing better-performing, less wasteful, and less toxic building assemblies is insufficient. Instead, designers must engage in a more fundamental reflection as to how design problems are to be expressed and to what extent the potential for environmental change

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can be molded to new design expressions (Muller, 2009). In the contemporary world, which is characterized by daily reminders of the degradation of our natural surroundings, such awareness of metaphors as productive agents of change would seem to encourage the seeking of notions that lead to greater environmental atonement (Muller, 2009). Similarly, Nerlich (2012) defines metaphors as some of the most potent framing devices available in human language with reference to environmental discourse and politics. Since metaphors carry with them values, assumptions, visions and ideologies which shape thinking and acting, one has to be aware of their implications for social and economic policy (Nerlich, 2012). A caring sensitivity and a change in awareness of our responsibilities are preconditions for creating these new ideas that will result in deeply responsive environmental designs. Here, responsibility includes ecological awareness and understanding interconnectedness. “Green metaphors” are results of such an awareness and understanding. Green metaphors in environmental design are accepted as an approach for reflecting environmental concern and believed to be productive agents of change in contemporary environmental design culture that encourage the seeking of notions that lead to greater human-environment harmony (Muller, 2009). As a kind of green metaphor, landscape-oriented metaphors reflect a larger cultural paradigm shift from human-centeredness to human-situatedness and can address the degradation of natural systems and the effacing of singular ecologies that characterize current development practices (Muller and Knudson, 2009). Successful landscape metaphors invoke environmental qualities and the goals of design undertakings, sensitize designers to their work and to the world, and prompt a manner of thought that seeks solutions to architectural problems in environmental settings and solutions to environmental problems in architectural configurations (Muller and Knudson, 2009). In particular, certain kinds of landscape metaphors are believed to be more likely to result in projects that

are truly sustainable and ecologically responsive and enable “deeply green” architectural innovations to occur. “Dynamically emulative” and “specifically interactive” landscape metaphors are of this kind, which will lead designers to a path of deeply green design thinking. While “dynamically emulative” landscape metaphors refer to the “infinitely variable and non-static” attributes of the landscape that inform design, a metaphor that depends upon an understanding of the ecological and climatic subtleties of a given place to engage a building with the landscape can be called “specifically interactive.” Built landscapes that emulate those found in nature might be event-laden, dynamic yet supportive, and characterized by coherent complexity and luminous, ambient, and thermal richness (Muller and Knudson, 2009). According to Dobrin (2010), the metaphor “green” has been adopted as a way of indicating environmentally conscious political positions. To “go green” implies active participation in environmentally or ecologically sound practices—it is to advocate environmental protection, to be attuned to nature. Green has been naturalized as a metaphoric representation of nature and environment (Dobrin, 2010). Examples of green metaphors can be found in literature: as the metaphor of ecologist G. E. Hutchinson for the landscape as an “ecological theatre, the living stage” (Johnson and Hill, 2002); environmental problems as “ozone hole” and “acid rain”; biodiversity as “the library of life”; forests as “the lungs of the Earth” (Väliverronen and Hellsten, 2002); architecture as “ecological niche”, “organism” (Muller, 2009), minimal output of greenhouse gas emissions as “low carbon” or “clean energy” (Nerlich, 2012). Most environmental problems are not immediately apparent to the human observer—for example, the detection of ozone depletion or global climate change requires highly sensitive and sophisticated technical machinery, scientific theories, and mathematical models. Green metaphors help to make these terms become more imaginable and also evoke strong emotions (Väliverronen and Hellsten, 2002). For example, in the context of

With nature in mind: ‘Green metaphors’ as an approach to reflect environmental concerns and awareness in landscape design


climate change, the metaphor “low carbon diet” opens up the frame of losing weight and counting calories, and then transfers its connotations, values and expectations onto the issue of reducing carbon dioxide emissions. As in this example green metaphors can be used to shape expectations and visions of the future in an effort to affect social and political actions in the present (Nerlich, 2012). In environmental design, by using green metaphors, architecture becomes a dynamic process rather than a fixed object, responsive to the environment, and an event to be activated (Muller, 2009). The IBN (Dutch) Institute for Nature Research in Wageningen, designed by the German firm Behnisch & Partner, is conceptualized as a complex organism and can be given as an example of a green metaphor. The building’s design was aimed at creating a functional, user-friendly research facility that worked in harmony with nature, i.e., versatile and ecologically sound. The design does not dominate its rural setting, but embraces the landscape; all the workplaces are in direct contact with indoor and outdoor gardens. Two indoor gardens provide the focus for daily activities and function as informal meeting areas. Beyond this, they are an integral component of the building’s energy concept in that they improve the performance of the external envelope (URL1). Each of the three office wings is situated between two of the gardens and is said to “grow between the gardens.” The atria that are created serve as the offices’ “lungs,” providing warmth in winter and coolness in summer, thus enabling a dramatic downsizing of the heating system and obviating the need for air conditioning altogether. Because the greenhouse roofs provide a first layer of protection against the elements, the office facades become light and “porous” centers of sensation, a skin that actively and selectively absorbs and transmits (the wanted) and refracts and transforms (the unwanted). With offices that are facing and open to gardens, the atria become the Institute’s social “heart,” where scientists gather, conduct research, and confer (Fig. 1) (Muller, 2006). Through its incomplete, “weak formed” spatial

configuration, the IBN is ever-adaptable to changing needs, to the disquiet of persistent animation within. Therefore, the IBN reflects a contemporary understanding of both “the unity of the organism, and the dynamic, interactive relationship that organisms have with their environments.” The goal of this essay is to provide an explanation for green metaphors in use by landscape architecture students in design studio, and relate this to the question of our relationship to nature that is at the heart of professional practice of landscape architecture. We ask whether using green metaphors is likely to result in projects that are truly sustainable and ecologically responsive. With a goal toward environmental sensitivity and awareness, landscape architecture students’ use of green metaphors would seem inherently advantageous. 4. A case study: Green metaphors in students’ residential landscape design projects This study aims to understand how green metaphors are being used by landscape architecture students in

Figure 1. IBN Nature Research Institute, Wageningen, the Netherlands (Behnisch & Partner, 1996) (URL1).

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design studio. Through these metaphors a deep insight into students’ human-environment relationship conceptualizations can be gained and new approaches to strengthen their conceptualizations can be developed. One hundred and three poster presentations of landscape architecture senior students that explain the metaphorical thinking of their design concepts for a residential landscape design were analyzed in order to determine the frequency of green metaphors. The study was conducted in (Karadeniz Technical) University, Landscape Architecture Department. The student projects were all housing estate environmental designs from three different years and five different sites. The students’ projects belonged to the EDP-VI class in the 7th semester, that is, the last of the design studios that are accompanied by a tutor within the scope of the curriculum. Although the design sites in the projects are from different locations, they are all gated communities that include 7-9 high-rise residential buildings and all are located in the Trabzon city centre. Therefore, they exhibit similar physical, ecological, and social characteristics. The projects included in this study were all conducted with the same studio approach, each of which consisted of 6-7 groups

Figure 2. The phases and results of content analyses; students’ conceptual approaches and green metaphors.

of different tutors with 9-11 students in each group. While giving the design subject and the site, the students were not limited to adopting an ecological approach and the tutors also did not limit the conceptual approaches to a specific area. The students determined their conceptual approaches based on various findings as a result of their research and analysis within the scope of the design site and subject. In this latest project, students are expected to develop an advanced, creative, and powerful conceptual approach to the design problem. Advanced analysis of the site and users (with techniques such as GIS, SWOT, etc.), synthesis presentation, original scenario design, concept presentation, land use, sketches, plans, sections, views, planting design, general and technical detail solutions, CAD presentations, 3D modeling, models, and technical report stages are carried out in a 15-week period. However, in this study, the materials submitted in the project class were not used; instead, the poster presentations, which contained written and visual narratives prepared by the students as part of their homework, about their projects were used (Mumcu et al., 2018). In context of Spatial Behavior class students were asked to prepare homework about their environmental design studio project (EDP-VI) of that term. The students were requested to explain their approaches in conceptual, formal and pragmatic dimensions and informed that the score from homework will comprise 50% of their final score thus encouraged to pay strict attention. There was no restriction that the students use written and visual materials related to their projects. They were free to prepare their projects as they wished in line with the titles given. They were not informed about the content of this research in order to prevent any influence on their representation. By doing so the number of students who considered and discussed environmental issues without prejudice was determined. Content analysis method was adopted in the study. The written texts in the poster presentation that explained the conceptual approaches were analyzed in this context. Content analysis is a

With nature in mind: ‘Green metaphors’ as an approach to reflect environmental concerns and awareness in landscape design


technique for systematically describing the form and content of a written or spoken material. This technique is described as suitable for any kind of material including publications, recorded interviews, and reports and so on. Content refers to the specific topic or themes in the material and quantification (expressing data in numbers) of these forms the basis of a content analysis (Sommer and Sommer, 2002). The explanations in presentations were evaluated and 27 of them that reflect a concern for environment were categorized in terms of their problem definition and approaches to landscape design. The others who used concepts unrelated to environmental issues or did not make any clear problem statements were excluded. The classification was carried out by a team of 5 landscape architects, all of whom were experienced in landscape design education, including the authors of this study. As a preliminary study, the authors read all the texts in the conceptual approach presentations and made preliminary assessments and identified the main conceptual topics. In the next stage, all the landscape architects in the team evaluated the same texts and classified them into predetermined groups. Each student’s approach was separated into a specific group based on the majority vote of the evaluators. Then, for those who had an environmental approach, the first two stages were repeated; the authors determined the sub-conceptual topics and, through the evaluations of the team, the conceptual approaches with environmental concerns were classified (Fig. 2). 5. Results Twenty-seven projects with green metaphors were analyzed in depth to understand the most emphasized issues in their approaches to the human-environment relationship. The categorization of 103 projects revealed five groups: (psychological-physical) well-being of users (35.9%), green metaphors (26.2%), landscape design principles (16.5%), natural attributes (12.6%), and cultural activities (8.7%) (χ2=25,010, 4 df, p<0.00) (Table 1). The statistical significance of the distribution indicated that the students’ con-

Table 1.Classification and frequencies of students’ design concepts.

ceptual approaches were not random; especially reflects the priority given to the health of users and environmental problems by students. Green/ecological approaches are common in student works, which reveals the significance level of such approaches for students. Furthermore, despite the fact that the natural attributes group reflects the attribution of the physical features (e.g., the sound of water, a leaf pattern, a rainbow) to spatial components, which are therefore treated as different from green metaphors, the frequency of natural attributes can also reflect the importance of nature with respect to students. Twenty-seven green metaphors found in this study were listed in Figure 2. These metaphors can be dealt with as two groups; metaphors that emphasize harmony with nature and

Figure 3. Sustainability grounded design concepts and poster presentation samples.

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metaphors that emphasize the need for change. These two groups, which complete each other in essence, show parallelism with the discussions of current environmental issues. The most cited metaphors (green, nature, and sustainability) were discussed in detail. 5.1 Sustainability grounded metaphors One of the most frequent concepts among the green metaphors was sustainability (N=11). The written explanations in the students’ presentations that focused on this concept were generally more extensive than other groups Table 2. Sustainability grounded metaphors; students’ explanations of conceptual approaches presented in Figure 3.

and tended to include ecology-related terminology, such as relationships and cycles in the ecosystem. This may be an indication that the students are transferring information from their other classes on this subject. Sustainability grounded metaphors heavily emphasized environmental problems, depicting a humanity that recedes from natural life day by day, and set goals such as environmental restoration, conservation, and improving the quality of life. In addition, the approaches underlying the environmental problems, such as modernism and positivism, and alternative approaches, such as post-modernism, can be mentioned. Some students highlighted the social pillar of the sustainability term with an emphasis on neighborhood relations. Although the emphasis was on the degradation of nature, students used the term “sustainability” mainly in terms of nature’s instrumental value and a force for humanity’s good. These human-centred approaches have led students to explain the functional benefits that are often directed to users in residential design solutions (Fig. 3). 5.2. Green grounded metaphors In this group, decreasing green areas, the peace that green and nature provide to humans and harmony with nature were heavily mentioned (N=5). Green is sometimes considered as a color and sometimes as nature itself; in particular, the peace effect of green color was emphasized. The problems caused by decreasing green spaces in human beings (and parallel to this, the need for more green spaces and peace) and the necessity of increasing green spaces were frequently mentioned. However, in general, the use of the green and nature concepts, alternately and equivalent with each other, is salient. Therefore, it can be said that students accepted “green” as referring to nature and used them interchangeably (Fig. 4). While the approaches focusing on the physical and spatial features such as the increase or predominance of green spaces in their designs were classified as green, design approaches that state human-nature relationship / harmony, the contribution of nature / natural features to human health were

With nature in mind: ‘Green metaphors’ as an approach to reflect environmental concerns and awareness in landscape design


classified into the title of nature. 5.3. Nature grounded metaphors In this conceptual approach group, various features of current human-nature relationships, such as humanity distanced from natural life, disturbed human-nature harmony, new lifestyles away from a relationship with nature, or positive features of nature, such as renewal, metamorphosis, and flexibility, are discussed (N=11). The term “nature” was used in varied approaches; in some cases, feelings such as peace, comfort, and joy that nature provides to humans were mentioned, while others mentioned harmony, education, or natural forms such as valleys that point to the human-nature relationship. As in the case with green metaphors, the term “green” was frequently used with the term “nature”; green and nature were used alternately. Mainly, the instrumental value of nature was mentioned (Fig. 5). And design decisions about using color, smell, natural forms, different textures, using natural elements such as water, rock, creating topography in a natural way or mimicking morphological formations such as valleys in nature are discussed. In this context, the conceptual approaches in this group are generally distinguished from the green approaches mainly dealing with green spaces with their emphasis on natural characteristics (perceptual, emotional or physical). 6. Discussion This study aims to understand the awareness and sensitivity levels of landscape architecture students that used green metaphors in their environmental design projects. In total, 27 housing estate landscape designs were analyzed in detail. The terms/words mainly used for naming metaphors were “green”, “nature”, and “sustainability”. Especially, students used green and nature terms alternately and frequently; this reflects the fact that they accept these terms as interchangeable. Furthermore, green and sustainability terms more frequently dealt with their relationship with ecosystems and ecology. The analyses showed that the green metaphors were used with an anthropocentric approach that privileges users’ needs and

Figure 4. Green grounded design concepts and poster presentation samples.

benefits, and focuses on improving life quality for them. The same tendency of university students was also found by Kopnina (2016), who determined that before taking an environmental ethics class, students discussed nature in economic terms, supporting the instrumental view of the environment. In this study, we found that even though students mentioned the wholeness of ecosystems and humans’ harmony with

Figure 5. Nature grounded design concepts and poster presentation samples.

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Table 3. Green grounded metaphors; students’ explanations of conceptual approaches presented in Figure 4.

nature, they did not consider the processes and cycles in nature, and they did not consider ecosystems as webs of interactions between animate-inanimate and human-nonhuman beings. In fact, human cultures and ecosystems exist in a reciprocal relationship. To ignore this reciprocal relationship of human culture and ecosystems – or to ignore the fact that every landscape place, no matter how large or small, includes multiple species and biophysical processes that will be affected by human actions – turns away from a fundamental reality of the landscapes we share with other people and other species (Johnson and Hill, 2002).

Unfortunately, no design metaphors were found that were grounded in ecological analyses of the site and mentioned the benefits to nonhuman beings. This finding reveals the difficulty that students have, while reflecting the knowledge they gain in ecology and related classes onto design studio practices. Also, the need for interventions in design studio emerges. Johnson and Hill (2002) believe that landscape architects must collaborate more deeply with applied ecologists and find ways to interpret and apply new understandings from ecological science in physical planning and landscape design. Moreover, we must understand the implications of our work in order to consider both social equity and ecological sustainability. Briefly, while the definitions and emphases of green metaphors referred to environmental problems, the suggested solutions and determined goals were shallow in terms of environmental responsibility, awareness, or sensitivity. The need for students to learn and think more deeply about environmental ethics is apparent. This finding encouraged researchers to analyze the proportion of environmental ethics-related classes in the curriculum. The curriculum of the department consists of 33 compulsory and 15 elective courses (URL-2). It was determined that there were no classes under the name of “environmental ethics” or simply “ethics.” The content of the classes was also controlled based on the idea that the classes could indirectly indicate the subject. In the Landscape Ecology (2nd semester, compulsory) class, the relationship between landscape and ecology is taught; in the Spatial Behavior (4th semester, compulsory) class, changes in the human-environment (nature) relationship in the historical process, the Enlightenment Era, the effect of modernism-positivism, and alternative approaches (such as post-modernism and romanticism) are taught. The Sustainable Recreational Use Planning (5th semester, elective) class includes sustainability and the relationship between conservation and use, the Greenways (6th semester, elective) class teaches the concept of a greenway, why such a concept has emerged, and a

With nature in mind: ‘Green metaphors’ as an approach to reflect environmental concerns and awareness in landscape design


greenway’s functions, whereas the National Park Management (7th semester, elective) class describes protected area management and planning. There is no class on the concepts of environmental ethics and the role of landscape architects in the context of environmental ethics, and the information given is quite fragmented, unrelated, and incomplete. This demonstrates the reason why the students had such a fragmented understanding of environmental ethics in the context of the design studio, their human-centered understanding, and their lack of theoretical knowledge. Furthermore, a need is also revealed for innovative approaches in design studios that teach ways to reflect this knowledge in design decisions. Hough (2002) declares that the time has come for a shift in the definition of design: from an academic discipline that teaches students to impose their ideologies on the rest of society to the idea of the interdependence of life processes. However, most important is not teaching students how to consider ecological knowledge in the design process, providing students awareness and responsibility in terms of the environment and nature. It’s especially important that they don’t see humans as superior to nonhuman beings in nature, that they don’t privilege humans in environmental design, and that they accept the intrinsic value of nonhuman beings and processes in nature prior to more deeply reflecting ecological knowledge in landscape design. As Paul et al. (2014, p.376) state, “Arguably perhaps, green sells well. But just by adding more green colors in an urban development master plan may not necessarily guarantee in achieving a sustainable green outcome”.

Table 4. Nature grounded metaphors; students’ explanations of conceptual approaches presented in Figure 5.

7. Conclusion As a profession intervening in the environment, shaping and modifying it in order to create more affordable environments that satisfy users’ needs and enhance human experience, where do we place nature in the spectrum of our professional responsibilities? A caring sensitivity and a change in awareness of our responsibilities are preconditions to create new ideas, which will result in deeply responsive environmental ITU A|Z • Vol 16 No 3 • November 2019 • S. Mumcu, S. Yılmaz, D. Akyol


designs. Here, responsibility includes ecological awareness and understanding interconnectedness. “Green metaphors” are results of such an awareness and understanding. This study, which aimed to understand ecological awareness and interconnectedness through green metaphors used by students, revealed that student approaches are shallow and need to be improved. This situation may result from both the lack of reflecting ecological knowledge in the design process (since the methods for this are not well defined and this kind of knowledge is generally accepted as limiting design creativity) and lack of an environmental ethics class in the curriculum. Classes on environmental ethics are needed in the landscape architecture curriculum to provide a deep understanding of the intrinsic value of nonhuman beings and the place of humans as not superior to other beings in nature, to make students question themselves and their professional practices, and to challenge the privileged situation of humans in landscape design practices. Furthermore, the integration of these new insights into design classes is needed, and students must be encouraged to question their approaches in terms of reflecting their responsibilities. Introducing design examples based on green metaphors, discussing the design process in light of the approach that green metaphors guide design, and describing the spatial features that come about as a result of applying green metaphors will help students to understand how to structure metaphorical relations between a design concept and solution and encourage them to use this in their design approaches. Design studio practices and homework based on metaphorical thinking, especially that focused on green metaphors, will promote the students’ design experiences. Also, additional field practices about ecological features / processes / relations that include both the design site of environmental design project classes and specific ecological areas will help to teach students how to include ecological cycles and dynamics in their design decisions and how to be sensitive to them.

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ITU A|Z • Vol 16 No 3 • November 2019 • S. Mumcu, S. Yılmaz, D. Akyol

Contributors Duygu AKYOL Received her B.LA in Landscape Architecture from Ege University Faculty of Agriculture and MSc. in City and Regional Planning from Dokuz Eylül University Faculty of Architecture. She is currently a PhD student and works as a Research Assistant at Karadeniz Technical University. Her major research interests are urban planning and design, landscape planning, environmental management. Paramita ATMODIWIRJO Paramita Atmodiwirjo is a professor of architecture at Universitas Indonesia. She obtained her PhD and Master’s degrees from the School of Architecture, University of Sheffield. Her research interest is on the relationship between architecture, interior and well-being. Beyza Nur BATI Received her B. Arch in Interior Architecture and Environmental Design from Bilkent University, Faculty of Art, Design and Architecture (2015). Earned her MSc. degree in Architecture from TOBB University (2017). Currently studies as a PhD. student at Mimar Sinan Fine Arts University, Faculty of Architecture. Olivier BOUET Doctor of Physics, university Lecturer, Co-Director of the EVCAU laboratory, Head of the Master 2 Research course “City, Architecture and Heritage” Paris7/École d’Architecture de Paris Val de Seine. My research involves the acquisition of 2D and 3D data and their processing in order to obtain structured 3D models as an aid to the diagnosis, analysis, restitution, understanding and presentation of heritage ensembles. Gökçe EVREN Gökçe Evren is graduated (2013) from Industrial and Product Design Department, METU and, she got her masters degree (2003) in “Interior Architectural Design” from ITU IMIAD Program. She studied (2014)

at Hochschule für Technik Stuttgart, University of Applied Sciences, Department of Interior Architecture. Yüksel DEMİR Assoc. Prof. Dr. Yüksel DEMIR Faculty at ITU Department of Architecture, Served as a guest professor in Politecnico Di Milano, Anadolu University, Auburn University. Founder director of ITU MardINT R&D Center. Working on Architectural Design, ICT in Design, Art [theory & practice]. Coordinates Turkish Antarctic Research Station Working Group. S. Banu GARİP S. Banu Garip got her B.Sc degree in “Architecture” (2000), M.Sc degree (2003) and PhD degree (2010) in “Architectural Design” from Istanbul Technical University. She studied at NC State University College of Design, USA (2009). Her studies focuse on interior design, urban design, exhibition design, environmental psychology and housing studies. Sinem GÜREVIN Achieved Bachelor Degree of Landscape Architecture from Yeditepe University at 2004. Graduated from Istanbul Technical University with M.Sc. Degree in Landscape Architecture at 2012. Still a student at Istanbul Technical University for Ph.D. Degree in Landscape Architecture. Have been working as a landscape architect for 15 years. Sema MUMCU Received her B.LA, MSc. and PhD. in Landscape Architecture from Karadeniz Technical University Faculty of Forestry. Currently works as an Assistant Professor at Karadeniz Technical University. Her major research interests are environmentbehavior relationship, spatial behavior in urban open spaces, landscape design and design education. Veniamin Aleksandrovcih NORIN PhD Eng., Associated Professor of the Department of Technology of Building Materials and Metrology at Saint-Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering.

Author of more than 100 research papers and learning guides, 5 inventions. Research interests: architectural education, engineering education, 3D technologies, metrology. Natalia Vladimirovna NORINA PhD Eng., Associated Professor of the Department of Mechanics Saint-Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering. Author of more than 40 research papers and learning guides, 2 inventions. Research interests: architectural education, engineering education. Gulden Demet ORUÇ Assist.Prof.Dr. Gulden Demet Oruç is currently working at Istanbul Technical University, Faculty of Architecture, Urban and Regional Planning Department. Her research topics mainly focus on urban design and planning. Mohammed Nabil OUISSI Doctor of mechanical engineering, I am currently a professor in the Department of Architecture in Tlemcen, but also at the National School of Engineers of the City of Tlemcen. I am also a member of the MECACOMP laboratory and continue my research and publications in this field. Gökçen ÖZKAYA Received her bachelor’s degree in architecture from Middle East Technical University, Faculty of Architecture (2003) and M.Sc. degree in architecture from Suleyman Demirel University, Faculty of Architecture and Engineering (2006). Earned her PhD. degree from History and Theory of Architecture Programme at Yıldız Technical University in 2011. Major research interests include history of Ottoman architecture and Ottoman houses. Yury Vladimirovich PUKHARENKO D.Sc. in Eng., Professor of the Department of Technology of Building Materials and Metrology at Saint-Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering. Author of more than 200 research papers and learning guides, 22 inventions. Research interests:

continuously reinforced (fibrous) concrete study, engineering education. Haniye RAZAVIVAND FARD Dr. Haniye Razavivand Fard, a Researcher, Lecturer, and Architect with more than 10 years of crossfunctional work experience in international contexts of Italy, Turkey and Iran. The holder of a DoubleDegree PhD in “Architectural Design” Program at Istanbul Technical University and in “Architecture. History and Project” Program at Politecnico di Torino. The current researches focus on architectural design, socio-spatial aspects of urban design, sustainability, morphology and university-city interaction. Mehmet RONAEL Mehmet Ronael graduated from the Urban and Regional Planning Department of Istanbul Technical University in 2016, and he studied his master in Urban Design Program. He is currently doctorate student in Urban and Regional Planning. His research topics are generally creative economy, quality of place, site selection models, and gentrification. Yasin Çağatay SEÇKİN Achieved Bachelor Degree of Architecture from Mimar Sinan University at 1998. Graduated from Istanbul Technical University with M.Sc. Degree in History of Architecture at 2000 and Ph.D. Degree in Urban Design at 2005. Working as a professor and administrator at Istanbul Technical University. Chihab SELKA Chihab Selka, an architect by training, teacher and doctor in the Department of Architecture in Tlemcen. Having worked in a design office, I have acquired a lot of experience in the field of construction in general but also in heritage. As a researcher, I am now pursuing my career in the university field. Imene SELKA OUSSADIT Having worked in many heritage sites in my hometown “Tlemcen”, I have always been passionate about the

subject. Trained as an architect, I had my magister in 2010 on caravanserais. I am currently teaching in the Department of Architecture in Tlemcen where I am pursuing my doctorate on the theme of baths. Murat SÖNMEZ Received his B. Arch in Architecture from ESOGU, Faculty of Architecture (1998). Earned his MSc. and PhD. degree in Architecture from Gazi University (2003-2011). Currently working as an Associate Professor at TOBB University. Major research interests include design theories in contemporary architecture: surface architecture and construction theories Marco TRISCIUOGLIO Prof. Dr. Marco TRISCIUOGLIO, architect, is the Director of the PhD Program “Architecture. History and Project” at Politecnico di Torino Department of Architecture and Design, where he is Contact Person for International Relationships with Asia and Oceania. He is Member of the Scientific Committee of the European network EURAU and Guest Professor at Southeast University Nanjing (School of Architecture). The main topics of his books and papers are architectural theories, urban morphologies and

landscape and urban design. Yandi Andri YATMO Yandi Andri Yatmo is a professor of architecture at Universitas Indonesia. He obtained his PhD, Master’s and Postgraduate Diploma from the School of Architecture, University of Sheffield. His research interest is on the development of design theories and methods and their relevance to design practice. Serap YILMAZ Received her B.LA, MSc. and PhD. in Landscape Architecture from Karadeniz Technical University Faculty of Forestry. Currently works as an Associate Professor at Karadeniz Technical University. Her major research interests are perception of urban green spaces, planting design, zoo design, and landscape design. Ferro YUDISTIRA Ferro Yudistira is a PhD student at the Department of Architecture, Universitas Indonesia. He obtained his undergraduate degree from Universitas Sriwijaya, and Master of Architecture from Universitas Indonesia. His research interest is on the temporality of architecture and its elements.

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