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ITU A|Z • Vol 14 No 3 • November 2017

Contents Y. Çağatay Seçkin • Editor Editorial Bilge Armatlı Köroğlu Export capacity to integrate global networks and its impacts on regional economic success: A provincial analysis in Turkey



Ayşen Etlacakuş, Mine Hamamcıoğlu Turan Historical development of Darkale rural settlement in Soma, Manisa


Hasan Engin Duran, Umut Erdem Regional inequality and international trade in Turkey: A dynamic spatial panel approach


Orçun Kepez, Selin Üst Post occupancy evaluation of a transformed design studio


Alper Bodur, Yurdanur Dülgeroğlu Yüksel Assessing change in quality of life following rehousing from slum settlements to social housing


Harun Ekinoğlu, Ayşe Sema Kubat, Richard Plunz Modeling spatial wholeness in cities using information entropy theory


Amar Akbar Ali, Lukman Nadjamuddin in Indonesia


Kemal Ferit Çetintaş, Zerrin Yılmaz Optimization of thermal insulation material and thickness for building Tuba Sarı, Yurdanur Dülgeroğlu Yüksel making in high-rise housing architecture


Ayşe Durukan Kopuz Spatial evaluation of primary sugar factories in early republican period in Turkey


Meriç Demir Kahraman, Özge Çelik, Christine Fuhrmann Learning from the ‘Re-PUBLIC’: Remaking the public space as a medium of knowledge transfer in design education


Rafael Francesconi Latorre, William Blain López Landscape in architecture: A place between culture and civilization


Arulmalar Ramaraj, Jothilakshmy Nagammal environments: A qualitative study


Efe Duyan Le Corbusier’s exhibition pavilion: The heterogeneous character of his modernism between representation and functionalism



Editorial Y. Çağatay SEÇKİN t&EJUPS

It’s already December. Can you believe it? Personally, 2017 felt like it just flew by. At the same time, I’m feeling really fulfilled and grounded. Because despite my failures, I learned a lot and I know they will help me in following years. I hope, you all are in agreement with me about that. Anyway, as the year fades away, let’s leave aside our personal feelings about 2017, and look back at some of the memorable architectural and design events of 2017. There is no doubt, the Elbphilharmonie in Hamburg is the architectural highlight of the year, which was opened in January 2017. Hamburg’s long-awaited and hugely expensive building has opened after 16 years of planning and construction. The Elbphilharmonie is the first concert hall designed by the Swiss architectural firm Herzog & de Meuron. Initial plans were priced at 186 million Euros, with the opening scheduled for 2010. After a succession of delays, revisions and legal disputes, the final bill for the city came to 798 million Euros, leading to political debates and public protests. After all these debates and protests, much of the initial curiosity is directed at the architecture by all means. The building is Hamburg’s new landmark, visible from far down the river and an icon of contemporary architecture. With its contemporary glass crystal, the Elbphilharmonie dynamically contrasts with its historical brick plinth, Kaispeicher A. The Kaispeicher A, designed by Werner Kallmorgen and constructed between 1963 and 1966, was originally used as a warehouse for cocoa beans until the end of the last century. The new building has been extruded from the shape of the Kaispeicher A and is perfectly compatible with the brick block. In contrast to the stoic brick facade of the Kaispeicher A, the glass facade of the new building transforms the new building into a gigantic crystal that catches the reflections of the sky, the water and the city

and transforms them into a complex puzzle on its facade. Actually, Hamburg, as an old trading city, is Germany’s principal port and its second-biggest city. But despite its fame, its soccer team lags near the bottom of the Bundesliga, and few international tourists visit. In recent decades, Hamburg has marketed itself as Germany’s capital of musicals. But the city’s robust classical-music scene is still overshadowed by Berlin and Munich. The new hall is expected to change that by raising the standards of the ensembles that will play in its inspiring and acoustically excellent interiors. The building is sufficiently spectacular and it can create a Bilbao Effect a reference to the Spanish city that became a major tourist destination, thanks to its Frank Gehry’s Guggenheim. With its waterfront position and optimistic thrust, the Elbphilharmonie also brings to mind Sydney’s Opera House, another landmark building that was criticized during its construction for overrunning budgets and missing deadlines. As well as critiques about Herzog & de Meuron’s Elbphilharmonie, Kengo Kuma’s self-criticism was also a remembered event from 2017. Kuma is particularly well-known for his use of wood which he incorporated into multiple buildings. He is even using wood to construct the stadium for the 2020 Tokyo Olympics where he won the competition. However, his early career was dominated by projects that were more experimental in style and form. In an exclusive interview, Kuma said he now avoids that type of architecture all together: “To be honest, sometimes I feel a bit embarrassed by some of my buildings. I studied the history of architecture and discovered that the basis for the European and American architecture tradition was in fact Ancient Greek and Roman architecture. Later, when I studied at Columbia University in New York City, I realized through discussions with my Americans friends that I should study Japanese architecture because I’m Japanese. In America, they have great knowledge of European architecture, but as I studied Japanese architectural history, I found depth


that one could view as equal to that of the European and American history of architecture. I realized that traditional Japanese wooden architecture is as great as Ancient Roman architecture. And that’s actually the result of my American experience.” As understood from this dialogue, Kuma is not a typical arrogant star architect. In fact, he is not quite fond of his old experimental-style buildings, such the M2 building in Tokyo which showcases an eclectic mix of styles and received a wave of negative publicity and criticism. He openly states that: “My method is to avoid heroic gestures, because you get to a point where the heroics kill the beauty of the material. I want to find a balance expressing form and material. The form of the building should be as subtle as possible, because then the material’s character can reveal itself. If the balance is there, it’s beautiful.” After this excerpt from the interview with Kenzo Kuma, let me talk about two architecture books in English that stuck in my mind from 2017. Four Walls and a Roof by Reinier de Graaf and Architecture and the Turkish City: An Urban History of Istanbul since the Ottomans by Murat Gül. Reinier de Graaf, in his book, talks about the rise and fall of Marzahn, a colossal East German housing development, built of factory-made standardized components. He recounts his own practice’s entanglements with the politics of Putin’s court, when trying to build something in Russia. One chapter consists entirely of quotations by famous architects, justifying their decisions to work for the Chinese government and other tyrannies. In brief, it is sharp, revealing, funny and strongly recommended. Murat Gül’s book was also another interesting book that I read in 2017. By exploring Istanbul’s modern architectural and urban history, Gül highlights

the dynamics of political and social change in Turkey from the late-Ottoman period until today. Looking beyond pure architectural styles or the physical manifestations of Istanbul’s cultural landscape, he offers critical insight into how Turkish attempts to modernize have affected both the city and its population. I really enjoyed this book where Gül laid out his argument on how architecture tells the city’s history as well as creates its fabric. Actually, in 2017, there are more memorable, confusing or spectacular topics for sure. But, not the pages reserved for this editorial nor the time of readers will be enough to tell all of them. So, I would like to put an end with a quote said by Babette Porcelijn in 2017. Porcelijn trained as an industrial designer, but recently authored a book titled Hidden Impact, which reveals the full extent to which human actions affect the planet. According to Porcelijn, the biggest human impact on the planet is the manufacture of new products. She advices designers to completely rethink their approach. She believes designers are better equipped than any other profession to offer solutions to issues such as pollution, climate change and depletion of resources. She says; “Scientists can show us what we should not do, but we need designers, not scientists, to show us what we should do and how to change the World.” As it always has been, I would like to thank all our readers for the support they provide to the Journal. We really look forward your comments, contributions, suggestions and criticisms. Please do not hesitate to share with us your feelings and especially, let us know if you have ideas or topics that we could be focusing on. Enjoy your reading and meet with us again in next issue on March 2018. Happy new year!


Export capacity to integrate global networks and its impacts on regional economic success: A provincial analysis in Turkey Bilge ARMATLI KĂ–ROÄžLU BSNBUMJ!HB[JFEVUSt%FQBSUNFOUPG$JUZBOE3FHJPOBM1MBOOJOH 'BDVMUZPG Architecture, Gazi University, Ankara, Turkey

doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2017.56933

3FDFJWFE+BOVBSZt Final Acceptance: November 2017

Abstract Export capacity can be used to integrate global networks in order to facilitate and enhance regional economic development. This tactic has been especially prevalent since the 1990s. This study focuses on the relationship between export capacity and regional economic success based on case study findings in 81 Turkish provinces. The findings of the case study are first discussed in terms of Turkish geography. Modeling results show that although there is a positive and significant relationship between regional income and industrial development in terms of export capacity, a region’s centrality in national networks is not related to its export capacity. Accordingly, the positive relationship between a border effect and export capacity is likely to yield economic development strategies for border regions. Keywords Border regions, Export capacity, Global networks, Regional economic success, Provinces in Turkey.

1. Introduction Export capacity has been an effective way of integrating global networks, and has frequently been used in scientific articles as an unambiguous measurement of global networks (Rodrigue,   ÂąBWVĘ°HJM  ,OJHIU    *Ocreasing exports in high value-added products is an important regional economic development strategy. In the regional development literature, there is a number of studies highlighting the positive relationship between regional export capacity and economic regional success (Storper and Harrison, 1991, 4BMBJ.BSUJO    ćFSFGPSF  JU IBT become increasingly important to accurately and comprehensively measure regional economic success. Here, regional income data is primarily used in addition to other related economic variables. The main objective of the paper is to demonstrate to what extent a high export capacity as an effective way of integrating global networks at the provincial level positively interacts with the economic success and, by extension border effect. Specifically, we JOWFTUJHBUF  /654 QSPWJODFT JO Turkey. In this context, sub-hypotheses determine which indicators are to be used to measure economic success and the relation of these indicators to the export capacity. Accordingly, this research contributes to the evaluation and reexamination of regional economic framework. The paper is organized as follows. Section two describes the theoretical framework of finding relationships between export capacity and economic success. Section three introduces the methodological design used to evaluate the case study. The fourth section fully explains the case study findings. 'JOBMMZ  UIF DPODMVTJPOT GSPN UIJT QBper follow in Section five. 2.Theoretical framework: Export capacity as a means of integration with global networks and subsequent economic success The impact of foreign trade on economic growth has been a topic of debate for many years, in different disciQMJOFT #FMMPVNJ  ćFTFEFCBUFT JODSFBTFE BÄ™FS UIF T  FTQFDJBMMZ

when countries abandoned protectionist policies and adapted free trade policies. Regional growth discussions regarding exports were based on the expectation that exports would bring economic success and income increases. To a large extent, this has come to fruition with globalization (Hirst, GraIBNFBOE#SPNMFZ   In particular, the role of foreign trade in regional growth models has developed in parallel with the development of free-trade policies and the emergence of the internal growth modFM3PNFS  BSHVFTUIBUUIFMJCFSalization of foreign trade will create positive effects on economic conditions and lead to economic growth. EconoNJTUT TVDI BT ,SVHNBO    (SPTTNBOBOE)FMQNBO   BOE3PNFS  IBWFDPOEVDUed important studies on this subject. 'PS FYBNQMF  JO DPNQFUJUJWF OFUworks, producers and consumers in distant regions can share information through foreign trade activities. (SPTTNBO BOE )FMQNBO   MJOL long-term regional economic success to knowledge spillover through international trade, arguing that global competitiveness affects regional development. Specifically, regional integration into the global economy is one of the most important factors determining regional development and potential development. In general, a region’s competitive advantage is measured by its integration into global networks. In this vein, a region’s industrial production plays an important role in its economic success. Industrial clustering approaches, which emerged in tandem with internal growth approaches, are indicative of how important industry is for economic success. These approaches focus on the spatial and organizational structure of particular JOEVTUSJFT %FMHBEP FUBM $PPLF  .PSHBO   4DIJNJU[    "Mthough studies on clustering primarily emphasize emerging local networks of related industries, various studies have shown that the capacity of local clusters to connect with global networks contributes to the economic success of UIFJSSFHJPOT "SNBUM‘FUBM &SBZE‘O  "SNBUM‘   #BQUJTUB   Such geographically disparate interre-


latedness on both the local and global scales is also redefining our concepts of space and distance. Because of this, the means of production can range from local to global networks. This distribution can vary depending on the nature of an industry, company, production structure, and technological novelty. As local networks prohibit growth for many emerging and existing compaOJFT $SFTQP  FUBM   (MBTNFJFS    UIF JNQPSUBODF PG HMPCBM SFMBtionships and the combination of different network types is becoming more FWJEFOU &SBZE‘O  "SNBUM‘    "TIFJN  *TBLTFO   'SFFM   1BUSVDDP    (JWFO UIFTF OFUXPSL types, access to a national market and centrality within national networks has been especially prominent factors in cluster discussions. However, the power of such integration into national networks has not been clearly defined as for integration with global networks "SNBUM‘ )FNFSU FUBM‍ ڀ‏ In addition, the concept of a regional economic success within global networks has brought about terms such as “world citiesâ€? and “global citJFTw 'SJFENBOO  4BTTFO  "MEFSTPO  #FDLÄ•FME   " HMPCBM city’s economic success is not defined JOUFSNTPGBMMPGJUTJOEVTUSJFTSBUIFS  its information-based services are critically important. In transaction networks between cities, migration, tourism, and business travel, among other migratory activities, enable quick and widespread development. Accordingly, the mobility of capital and information define urban networks. People, capital, and information networks play an important role in the power and centrality of cities within larger networks. Interestingly, economic success in global urban approaches is formulated through global networks, while being centralized in national networks is not directly linked to economic success. This is directly related to export capacity, which is the main indicator of integration into global networks, regardless of whether or not there are advantages in spatial proximity and spatial continuity (borEFSSFHJPOT  Border regions are crucial case studies through which to understand the

contradictions and dynamics of globalization that the whole world faces (Her[PH  4JODFCPSEFSSFHJPOTBSFBO administrative boundary, both sides depend on different administrative SFHVMBUJPOT DPVOUSJFT  BOE JOUFSOBtional agreements to regulate interregional trade. However, as threats, such as terrorism, increase with globalization, governments’ security demands make borders more important, thereby reducing a city’s commerce from their QFSNFBCJMJUZ )FS[PH   Therefore, the availability of infrastructure, such as transport, is also determined by this permeability. Between neighboring countries, a speDJBM TFU PG BHSFFNFOUT QSPNPUF USBEF however, in extreme cases such as war, border crossing is heavily regulated. %FTQJUF UIF FYJTUFODF PG JOUFSOBUJPOBM commercial agreements, the attractiveness of border regions is not as high as that of regions connected to national and global networks. Thus, this geographical and political reality must be utilized to gain competitiveness for regional economic success. 3. Methodological aspects of the case study; Export capacity and regional economic success This study investigates how provincial economic success influences export capacity, which is considered to be an effective way of connecting with global networks. Important metrics of provincial economic success are employment in the manufacturing sector, regional income, integration into the national network, and the border effect. In response, the following research questions have been posed: t Is there a relationship between export capacity and income level in a region? t How does a regionally clustered manufacturing industry affect regional export capacity? t How does integration into a national market affect regional export capacity? t What is the relationship between border regions and regional export capacity? Level databases for all 81 provinces /654  JO 5VSLFZ XFSF TFBSDIFE JO response to these research questions. A

Export capacity to integrate global networks and its impacts on regional economic success: A provincial analysis in Turkey

regression analysis was then utilized to assess the data. Here, provincial export capacity was the dependent variable, while income, employment within the manufacturing industry, level of integration into the national network, and border conditions served as independent variables. 563,45"5  FYQPSU EBUB XBT used to assess the export capacity of all provinces. Table 1 shows the definition and data source for the four independent variables. The assumption in including income in the model based on the case study data is that high-income regions will have greater export capacity. In order to capture regional income data, accrued income tax data has been used. In cases where there is no proWJODJBM(%1EBUB TVDIBT5VSLFZ UIJT metric is an acceptable approximation of income distribution. 'VSUIFSNPSF  JU XBT QSFEJDUFE UIBU manufacturing production would be highest in areas densely populated with manufacturing facilities, and the resulting comparative increase in production would result in more exports. Accordingly, manufacturing industry employment was measured by the number of employees registered in the manufacturing industry in a given province according to SSI records

  *O UIF NPEFM  QSPWJODJBM DFOtrality values within the national network analysis were used as proxy for national networks. An Eigenvector centrality value derived from a statistical network analysis of provincial airway, railway, and road data has been used to represent the national network. Here, the weight of the nodal points in the cluster/neighboring unit and the distance between the points were calculated using GEPHI TPęXBSF /FXNBO  .D4XFFOFZ   'PSBJSMJOFTBOESBJMXBZT &JHFOvector centrality values were calculated TFQBSBUFMZ$POWFSTFMZ JUXBTOPUQPTsible to carry out a network analysis for highway data using GEPHI because there were no definite exit and destination data. 'PSUIJTSFBTPO UIFIJHIXBZ&JHFOvector centralization value was determined to be the sum of traffic flow from other provinces to the provincial center, and from the provincial center to other provinces. After determining the total number of vehicles for each province, a centrality value between 0 and 1 was produced by setting the valVF PG UIF IJHIFTU QSPWJODF *TUBOCVM  at 1. Ultimately, a single centrality was obtained from three centrality values acquired by weighting airway, railway,

Table 1. The variables used in the model.


and highway data equally and deriving a single Eigenvector centrality value for each province. The last variable addressed in the model was the border effect, with the expectation that spatial proximity to exporting countries will increase export capacity. In previous studies, both regional development and economic success were lower in border provinces. However, if the regional success metrics are low in border regions, the regions are expected to stand out in export capacity. In the model, border regions are considered dummy variables. 4. Findings from the case study The dependent and independent variables used in the model were examined spatially, for Turkish provincFT  CFGPSF SFHSFTTJPO BOBMZTFT 0-4  Specifically, export capacity, the dependent variable, was analyzed spatially, followed by income tax, employment in the manufacturing sector, and centrality within the national network. 4.1. Export capacity of Turkish provinces Provincial share of total exports, total imports, and the value of exports minus imports were geographically evaluated for each Turkish province. 4.1.1. Export capacity of provinces The national distribution of provincial export shares revealed that exporting provinces are located in the West and South. The following four main export regions were identified: the Izmir region, Ankara region, Istanbul region, and Adana-Gaziantep region, each with its own surrounding prov-

JODFT 'JHVSF   *TUBOCVM BDDPVOUFE GPSPGUPUBMFYQPSUTNBEFJO5VSLFZJOćFUPQQSPWJODFT FBDI XJUIPSNPSFTIBSFPGUPUBMOBUJPOBM exports, accounted for an aggregate of PG5VSLFZTFYQPSUT The remaining 69 provinces shared  PG 5VSLFZT FYQPSUT ,PDBFMJ  Bursa, and Sakarya formed a dominant region near Ä°stanbul that was responsiCMFGPS PG5VSLFZTFYQPSUTćF QSPWJODF PG ,PDBFMJ DBNF JO TFDPOE  after Istanbul, in total share of national exports, while the Bursa province SBOLFEUIJSE,PDBFMJTTIBSFPGFYQPSUT XBT BOE#VSTBTTIBSFXBT 5PHFUIFS *TUBOCVMSFHJPOXJUIUIF,Pcaeli, Bursa, and Sakarya provinces acDPVOUFEGPSPG5VSLFZTFYQPSUT $MFBSMZ  *TUBOCVM BOE UIF TVSSPVOEJOH provinces were the most important exQPSUFSTJO5VSLFZJO /FBS É—[NJS  .BOJTB BOE %FOJ[MJ stood out as an important export zone 'JHVSF É—[NJSSBOLFEUI XJUI of Turkey’s exports. The total national export share of Ä°zmir, Manisa, and %FOJ[MJ XBT  ćJT WBMVF XBT GBS lower than that of the region defined by Istanbul and its surrounding provJODFT .FBOXIJMF  "OLBSB SBOLFE UI in export share, following Ä°zmir, with TIBSF ćF UPUBM TIBSF PG "OLBSB  ,POZB  BOE &TLJÊ°FIJS XBT   XIJMF (B[JBOUFQ  "EBOB  )BUBZ  BOE ,BZTFSJ IBE B TIBSF PG  ćF ,BISBNBONBSBÊ° BOE .FSTJO QSPWJODFT BSF BMTP located on the periphery of this region 'JHVSF ćF(B[JBOUFQ "EBOB )BUBZ  BOE ,BZTFSJ SFHJPO IBE B IJHIFS share than that of Ankara and its surrounding cities.

Export capacity to integrate global networks and its impacts on regional economic success: A provincial analysis in Turkey


The eastern border provinces comprising Mardin, Şırnak, and Hakkari also had a higher share than that of othFSFBTUFSOQSPWJODFT 'JHVSF )PXFWer, political international problems with Southeastern neighbors that emerged in last years, arose questions whether there has been any changes in exports at the border provinces in the region. Therefore, the changes in exports beUXFFOBOEIBTCFFOTDSVUJnizes to see the outcomes of these political international changes. With recent changes in export regulations between  BOE   ɮ‘SOBLT BOE )BLLBSJT individual shares, and those of total national exports, have decreased by apQSPYJNBUFMZ IBMG 563,45"5    However, Mardin has maintained its export volume and its share within the country during this period. %FTQJUFUIJTEFDSFBTFJOFYQPSUWPMume, the Mardin, Şırnak, and Hakkari regions have maintained their critical positions as important exporters in  BOEBSFBNPOHUIFUPQQSPWinces in Turkey in terms of export volume. Moreover, this region’s isolation from all eastern provinces has made it an interesting border region. As border provinces, Gaziantep and Hatay have maintained a higher export value than developed provinces in West Anatolia. 4.1.2. Import capacity of provinces In Turkey, the distribution of provincial imports has followed a similar pattern as that in the exports map 'JHVSF   *NQPSUT PG XFTUFSO BOE southern provinces are most volumiOPVT 'JHVSF   ćF ɗ[NJS  "OLBSB  Istanbul, and Adana-Gaziantep-Ha-



Other than the four main import [POFT EFĕOFE BCPWF 'JHVSF   UIFSF is no other region that stood out in terms of import quantity. The border area containing Mardin, ŞĹrnak, and Hakkari was highly ranked in exports, CVU OPU JO JNQPSUT 'JHVSF   "MUFSnatively, the border region containing Gaziantep and Hatay stood out in imports, but was still more successful in terms of exports. 4.1.3. Provincial exports minus imports Overall, Istanbul, Ankara, and İzmir -the three leading metropolitan areas in Turkey – were much more reliant PO FYQPSUT UIBO JNQPSUT $POWFSTFMZ  the Hatay province can be evaluated in the same group as Ankara and İzmir, wherein the export capacity was far CFIJOEUIBUGPSJNQPSUT 'JHVSF ćF top eight provinces in which there were NPSF FYQPSUT UIBO JNQPSUT JO  XFSF ,PDBFMJ  #VSTB  4BLBSZB  .BOJTB  Gaziantep, Trabzon, Mardin, and ŞĹrOBL 'JHVSF 

The value of provincial exports minus imports in a given region is defined by its spatial integrity, consisting of 11 provinces located in Southwestern TurLFZ 'JHVSF *OQBSUJDVMBS UIFTPVUIern border region, extending from Gaziantep to Hakkari, stood out as a region consisting of border provinces, where exports outnumbered imports. 4.2. Indicators of regional economic success in Turkish provinces In this section, income level, employment in the manufacturing industry and provincial centrality in the national network are analyzed in terms of economic stability. 4.2.1. Total provincial income tax Istanbul and Ankara were first in JODPNF UBY  GPMMPXFE CZ ,PDBFMJ  #VSTB ɗ[NJS BOE"OUBMZB 'JHVSF ćF group with the third highest income tax consisted mostly of provinces located in western regions. Istanbul’s share of UPUBMJODPNFUBYXBT BOE"OLBSBTTIBSFXBT 5BCMF #FZPOE

Export capacity to integrate global networks and its impacts on regional economic success: A provincial analysis in Turkey


UIF UPQ UXP  É—[NJST TIBSF XBT   #VSTBT XBT   BOE ,PDBFMJT TIBSF XBT .JOJTUSZPG'JOBODF   Although the three metropolitan areas were leading at all the economic development indicators, Istanbul was clear ahead of all metropolitan regions . 'VSUIFSNPSF  JODPNF UBY BDDSVFE in the region consisting of Bartın, ,BSBCà L  ±BOL‘S‘  ,‘S‘LLBMF  ,‘SÊ°FIJS  /FWÊ°FIJS  "LTBSBZ  BOE /JÊ“EF  XIJDI EFTDFOET GSPN #BSU‘O JO UIF /PSUI UP /JÊ“EF  XBT DPOTJEFSBCMZ MPXFS UIBO that of surrounding areas. In the West, #JMFDJL 6Ê°BL *TQBSUB BOE#VSEVSBMTP had a lower income tax rate than the TVSSPVOEJOHBSFBT 'JHVSF  This income tax map differs from the foreign trade maps according to its spatial pattern. Specifically, the provinces in the East, including Hatay, Ga[JBOUFQ É®BOM‘VSGB 7BO ,‘S‘LLBMF BOE Edirne, also stood out in terms of inDPNFUBY 'JHVSF  4.2.2. Employment in the manufacturing industry Provincial employment in the manufacturing industry has been indicaUJWF PG FDPOPNJD TVDDFTT 'JHVSF   The manufacturing industry in IstanCVM XBT BU UIF UPQ PG UIF MJTU JO   with a very concentrated workforce. Industrialization has also developed in provinces where income tax was high. ,PDBFMJ  #VSTB  "OLBSB  BOE É—[NJS were the four leading manufacturing provinces, following Istanbul. While Istanbul’s manufacturing labor force DPNQSJTFE  PG UIF OBUJPOBM UPUBM JO #VSTBTTIBSF UIFTFDPOEIJHIFTUJO5VSLFZ XBTÉ—[NJSGPMMPXFE

XJUIBTIBSFPGUIFOBUJPOBMXPSLforce, while Ankara ranked fourth, XJUIBTIBSF 44*   *TUBOCVM  ,PDBFMJ BOE #VSTB DPOTUJtute a region that is spatially integrated, has a concentrated manufacturing industry, and influences its surrounding provinces. Ä°zmir and Ankara were other agglomeration regions of manufacturing industry. Sakarya and 5FLJSEBÊ“DPNQSJTFBSFHJPOBDDPVOUJOH GPSPGUPUBMOBUJPOBMFNQMPZNFOU JO UIF NBOVGBDUVSJOH TFDUPS JO  %FOJ[MJBOE.BOJTB MPDBUFEPOUIFQFSJQIFSZ PG É—[NJS  BDDPVOUFE GPS  of national employment in the manuGBDUVSJOH TFDUPS  XIJMF &TLJÊ°FIJS BOE ,POZB  OFJHICPSJOH DJUJFT PG "OLBSB  IBE  PG UPUBM JOEVTUSJBM FNQMPZment. ,BZTFSJ  "EBOB  ,BISBNBONBSBÊ°  and Gaziantep are co-located in an inEVTUSJBM[POFUIBUBDDPVOUTGPSPG the total industrial employment in this region. In addition, Istanbul, Ä°zmir, and Ankara were industrial centers in  'JHVSF 8JUIJOUIFGPVSJEFOUJfied industrial regions, Istanbul and its neighbors were, and continue to be, at the forefront, while the employment in the other three industrial regions does not significantly differ from each other. Most of the eastern and southeastern provinces had low levels of manVGBDUVSJOH FNQMPZNFOU 'JHVSF   ±BOL‘S‘  ,‘S‘LLBMF  ,‘SÊ°FIJS  /FWÊ°FIJS  BOE:P[HBUJOUIF$FOUSBM"OBUPMJBSFgion were also emerging as their own region that was spatially integrated with the surrounding regions, and national manufacturing industry emQMPZNFOU TIBSFT XFSF MPX 'JHVSF  



'JHVSF  TIPXT UIBU BTJEF GSPN (Bziantep, the manufacturing industry in border provinces were less developed JO 4.2.3. Centrality of provinces in national networks In evaluating integration with the national network according to a cenUSBMJUZWBMVF *TUBOCVM "OLBSB ,PDBFMJ  and İzmir emerged as a clear top-tier HSPVQ JO  ćF TFDPOE HSPVQ JODMVEFE4BLBSZB #VSTB ,POZB "OUBMZB  Mersin, Adana, Hatay, and Gaziantep 'JHVSF  'JHVSFTIPXTUIBU*TUBOCVMBOEJUT surroundings, the Izmir, Ankara, and "EBOBSFHJPO )BUBZ (B[JBOUFQ ,BZTFSJ BOE"OUBMZBXFSFBUUIFGPSFGSPOU Border regions east of ŞanlĹurfa had a low level of integration into the nationBMOFUXPSLJO 'JHVSF "QPTTJble reason for this is that they had very few international air transport connections, nor were there any major railway connections. However, the provinces with railroad connections were not central and decisive in the network. In other words border provinces east of ŞanlĹurfa were not centralized in national networks. 4.3. Modeling results In the model, the dependent variable was provincial export capacity, while the independent variables were regional income, manufacturing industry employment, integration into the national network, and border conditions. The preferred regression method was the ordinary least squares method. By taking the logarithms of variables with

QPTJUJWFWBMVFT  PWFSBXJEFSBOHF  the variance can be softened and the range of variables reduced, so that the estimators would not be significantly affected by extreme values. The independent variables accountFE GPS  PG UIF DIBOHF JO UIF EFQFOEFOUWBSJBCMFćFDPSSFDUFE3XBT  BOEUIFJOEFQFOEFOUWBSJBCMFT BDDPVOUFE GPS  PG UIF DIBOHF JO export capacity dependence. The model established in this study was at a statistically significant level of 0.01 (f-test:   BOE QWBMVF JT    5BCMF  The income tax of the region had a positive effect on the variance, and had B TJHOJÄ•DBODF PG  ćF  DIBOHF in the log-transformed income of the SFHJPO MFE UP BO JODSFBTF PG  in the log-transformed regional exports. The results of the analysis support previous literature, which asserts that foreign trade creates positive effect POFDPOPNJDDPOEJUJPO 3PNFS   ,SVHNBO   Manufacturing employment accounted for the growth of the industrial sector and production, with a sigOJÄ•DBODF PG  "  DIBOHF JO UIF workforce labor force in the log-transformed manufacturing industry creBUFE B  JODSFBTF JO SFHJPOBM exports. The analysis revealed that the manufacturing industry workforce had a positive effect on exports. This result can be evaluated as an expected result in accordance with the previous findings. The dependent variable, export capacity, was considered as the main mode of integration into a global network. Thus the third independent vari-

Export capacity to integrate global networks and its impacts on regional economic success: A provincial analysis in Turkey


Table 2. The findings of the model.

able was provincial centrality in the national network. This variable ended up being negative and, thus, was not statistically significant. At first glance, a significant relation between export capacity and network centrality in national networks would be expected. However, the current literature does not emphasize national netXPSLTSBUIFS NPTUTUVEJFTFNQIBTJ[F local and global networks in assessing regional economic success (Hemert et BM  ÂąBWVĘ°HJM BOE ,OJHIU    Therefore, results of the case study do not contradict this literature. In this vein, if a region is integrated into global networks, it may prefer not to engage in competition in the national market. The last variable in the model, the border effect, had a positive effect on export capacity and a significance level of 0.01. This variable also had the highest coefficient of variation. While the other variables were consistent with and reflected regional development, the border effect required the analysis of less developed border regions. The analysis showed that in the economic development of the border regions, increasing export capacity was an important regional development strategy. 5.Conclusion Export analysis at the provincial level reveals that exporting provinces are located in the West and South of Turkey. There are four main export

zones: the Istanbul, Izmir, Ankara, and Adana-Gaziantep regions. Without considering neighboring provinces, Istanbul alone accounted for more than IBMG PG UIF DPVOUSZT FYQPSUT JO  Including neighboring provinces further increased Istanbul’s share of national exports. Almost half of Turkey’s exports originated in a large geographJDBMSFHJPOJO XIJDIFOHFOEFSFE dramatic developmental differences between Istanbul and other regions. Istanbul’s export total was followed by that of metropolitan areas and their surrounding provinces. In addition to metropolitan settlements with high export and import values, there were provinces with conDFOUSBUFE NBOVGBDUVSJOH BT %FOJ[MJ  ,BZTFSJ  BOE (B[JBOUFQ  BOE QSPWJODes at Southeast border where border trade was intense. Especially compared to their economic success, the exports of provinces at Southeastern provinces border were above Turkey’s average. These findings suggest that export capacity plays an important role in the economic success of Turkish regions. In particular, there is a positive relationship between regional income level, export capacity, and regional economic success. Moreover, the modeling results show that there is a meaningful relationship between the clustering of manufacturing industry and regional export capacity. The four prominent regions in Turkey are the four main



metropolitan areas (Istanbul, Ankara, *[NJSBOE"EBOB XJUIUIFJSTVSSPVOEing provinces. Here, exports, income, and manufacturing are concentrated. The results also indicate that playing a central role in national networks has no significant effect on export capacity. Accordingly, it can be concluded that national networks are not as important for regional economic success as local and global networks, which is in accordance with current literature (Hemert FU BM   'VSUIFSNPSF  UIFSF JT B positive significant relationship between border regions and export capacity. Although foreign trade is expected to be relatively more developed in border provinces, where it is difficult to reach a national market, commercial agreements with neighboring countries determine the development of border trade. In addition, political and economic integration of territories separated by national borders can enable border regions to take advantage of their spatial proximity to external NBSLFUT /JFCVIS BOE 4UJMMFS    Therefore, it will be important to develop international trade opportunities in the eastern and southeastern Anatolian and Thracian provinces. %FWFMPQJOH USBOTQPSU MJOLT BOE MPgistics centers to improve trade relations with neighboring countries, as well as improving public services in customs and free trade, will stimulate economic development by facilitating foreign trade activities within developmental nodes stated in the ‘proposals for spatial organization of settlements’. Acknowledgement This paper is based on the “The $POOFDUJOH $BQBDJUZ PG -PDBM UP /Btional and Global Market: The Impact PG "DDFTTJCJMJUZ BOE $POOFDUJWJUZ PO Regional Inequalities and the Role of 3FHJPOBM %FWFMPQNFOU 1PMJDJFTw 3FTFBSDI1SPKFDUTVQQPSUFECZ56#*5", 40#"(DPEF,  References "MEFSTPO "4#FDLÄ•FME +   Power and position in the world city system, American Journal of Sociology,  o "SNBUMJ ,ÚSPÊ“MV  #  ½[FMÃŽJ &DFSBM 

5  7BSPM  ±   4BOBZJ ,à NFMFSJOEF "Ê“MBS‘O .FLBOTBM ½SàOUàTà É—TUBOCVM ,VZVNDVMVL 4FLUÚSà ÃSFUJN "Ê“MBS‘ METU Journal of Architecture,    "SNBUM‘,ÚSPÊ“MV  #   4.& /FUXPSLTBT/FX&OHJOFTPG&DPOPNJD %FWFMPQNFOU BOE *OOPWBUJWFOFTT  6OQVCMJTIFE EPDUPSBM EJTTFSUBUJPO  METU, Ankara. "TIFJN  #+  *TBLTFO  "  “Regional Innovation Systems: The Integration of Local ‘Sticky’ and Global A6CJRVJUPVT ,OPXMFEHFw  +PVSOBM PG 5FDIOPMPHZ5SBOTGFS   #BQUJTUB 3*OEVTUSJBM$MVTUFST and Technological Innovation, Business Strategy Review    #FMMPVNJ .   ćF SFMBUJPOTIJQCFUXFFOUSBEF '%*BOEFDPOPNJD growth in Tunisia: An application of the autoregressive distributed lag model, Economic systems    ±BWVÊ°HJM 5,OJHIU (  ćF born global firm: An entrepreneurial and capabilities perspective on early and rapid internationalisation, Journal of International Business Studies     $PPLF  1  , .PSHBO   Growth Regions Under Duress: Renewal Strategies in Baden Wurttemberg and Emilia-Romagna, in Globalization, InTUJUVUJPOT BOE 3FHJPOBM %FWFMPQNFOU in Europe. Oxford University Press: 0YGPSE  $SFTQP + 4VJSF 37JDF +   Lock-in or lock-out? How structural properties of knowledge networks affect regional resilience, Journal of Economic Geography    %FMHBEP  .  1PSUFS  .  4UFSO  4   $MVTUFST  $POWFSHFODF BOE economic performance, Research Policy    &SBZEJO  "  "SNBUMJ ,ÚSPÊ“MV  #   *OOPWBUJPO  /FUXPSLJOH "OE ćF /FX *OEVTUSJBM %JTUSJDUT ćF $IBSBDUFSJTUJDT 0G /FUXPSLT "OE -PDBM *OOPWBUJPO $BQBCJMJUJFT *O ćF 5VSLJTI *OEVTUSJBM $MVTUFST  Entrepreneurship and Regional Development,   'SFFM .4  4FDUPSBM1BUUFSOT PG 4NBMM 'JSN *OOPWBUJPO  /FUXPSLing And Proximity. Research Policy  o 'SJFENBOO  +   ćF 8PSME

Export capacity to integrate global networks and its impacts on regional economic success: A provincial analysis in Turkey

$JUZ )ZQPUIFTJT  Development and Change  o (MBTNFJFS  "   5FSSJUPSZ #BTFE 3FHJPOBM %FWFMPQNFOU 1PMJDZ and Planning in a Learning Economy: ćF $BTF PG A3FB* 4FSWJDF $FOUFST JO *OEVTUSJBM %JTUSJDUT  European Urban and Regional Studies    (SPTTNBO  ( .  )FMQNBO  &  2VBMJUZ-BEEFSTJOUIFćFPSZ of Growth, Review of Economic Studies,  (SPTTNBO  ( .  )FMQNBO  &  .BOBHFSJBM*ODFOUJWFTBOEUIF International Organization of Production, CEPR Discussion Papers   $&13 )FNFSU 1‫ڀ‬/JKLBNQ 1.BTVSFM &‫'   ڀ‬SPN JOOPWBUJPO UP DPNmercialization through networks and agglomerations: analysis of sources of innovation, innovation capabilities and QFSGPSNBODFPG%VUDI4.&T The Annals of Regional Science    )FS[PH  -"   (MPCMJTBUJPO  place and twenty-first century international border regions: An introduction to the spatial issue, Global Society,    )JSTU 1 (SBIBNF 5#SPNMFZ 4  (MPCBMJTBUJPOJO2VFTUJPO 1PMicy Press. ,SVHNBO 1  (FPHSBQIZBOE 5SBEF ćF.*51SFTT $BNCSJEHF ,SVHNBO  1   %FWFMPQNFOU  Geography, and Economic Theory. $BNCSJEHF .BTT.*51SFTT .D4XFFOFZ 1+  (FQIJ/FUwork Statistics, Google Summer of $PEF1SPKFDU1SPQPTBM .JOJTUSZPG'JOBODF    /FXNBO .&+  .PEFMTPG the Small World: A review, Journal of Statistical Physics  o /JFCVIS " 4UJMMFS 4  *Otegration effects in border regions: A

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Historical development of Darkale rural settlement in Soma, Manisa


doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2017.83788  

3FDFJWFE+VOFt Final Acceptance: November 2017

Abstract Darkale rural settlement is a village of Soma, Manisa. The main intention of this study is to make conservation aimed evaluation of the historical development of Darkale by questioning the physical characteristics of the present historical settlement with emphasis on its housing units. The way followed is literature review, archive research in the official website of the state archives; field survey, analysis and evaluation of Darkale with the tools of the discipline of architectural restoration; and interpretation of historical data together with physical data. The archive documents, monumental buildings and the settlement pattern, especially the organization of the housing units have provided a framework for interpreting Turkish period. Nevertheless, for the historical evaluation of the pre-Turkish period, further geo-prospection and archeological research are necessary. In all periods, the brook-valley system has been the gathering, production and commercial area of the settlement. The elevated plateau at the east of Darkale brook with full vista of the surroundings is evaluated as the earliest settlement area in Turkish period. It is relatively safe in terms of its elevated position and has preserved its authenticity. The latter settlement area, circumscribing the plateau at its north, west and south presents various solutions to cope with the high inclination: stone retaining walls, increase in number of stories, passages over streets, and increase in the amount of relations with neighbors including vertical interaction of housing units. Keywords Darkale village, Rural architecture, Rural settlement, Settlement history.

1. Introduction Darkale, which is a village of Soma, Manisa, is located in BakÄąrçay river basin. It is three km from Soma to the TPVUIFBTU 'JHVSF   %BSLBMF 3VSBM settlement is composed of historical residential area on terraced, western hill skirt of KĂśsedaÄ&#x; Mountain at the southeast and the brook valley system at the west with the public gathering, commercial and production area (EtMBDBLVĘ°   ćF TFUUMFNFOU JT OPU independent from its surroundings labored by man throughout centuries, composed of archaeological sites at the OPSUIFSOBOEXFTUFSOQMBJOT "TBSLBMF located at the southeast, and Ottoman graveyards at the north east and west representing the historical roots of the QMBDF 'JHVSF  &UMBDBLVĘ°   The housing units were interwoven to each other very tightly in all three dimensions and carved into the rocky terrain like a sculpture so that each unit benefit from the opportunities of vista, warm western sunshine, capable of viewing the BakÄąrçay plain and the roads at the hill skirt just like a castle. They are characterized by living floors in piano nobile character, and service floors on the lower level, all hayats are oriented to the vista, while side and rear façades are blind. They are constructed

with local building material: rough cut and rubble stone blocks of various sizes MJNF BOE TMBUF TUPOF  QJFDFT PG CSJDL and timber. There are studies providing basic information on characteristics of Soma and Darkale. Majority of these are interpretations of non-professionals based on observations; providing information on; history, physical and social characteristics of Soma district "MU‘OFS   ,VUMVTPZ   &SHĂ O    ćF PUIFS TUVEJFT BSF SFTFBSDI on the geographical and/or historical characteristics of the settlement. These studies discuss the history of Manisa, Soma and Darkale in different periods; UIF BODJFOU QFSJPE 4FWJO    UIF Beyliks period (Uluçay and GĂśkçen,  UIFUIDFOUVSZ (Ă OBZ   BOEBÄ™FSUIFUIDFOUVSZ "SFM     'JOBMMZ  UIFSF JT B DPOTFSWBUJPO aimed research on physical characteristics of Darkale (KarayazÄąlÄą, et BMM    GPDVTJOH PO MPXFS QBSU PG Darkale, and another one (EtlacakuĹ&#x;,   NBLJOH TZTUFNBUJD JEFOUJÄ•DBtion of the physical characteristics of Darkale settlement with its cultural landscape, monuments, and housing units as a whole. The main intention of this study is to make conservation aimed evalu-

Figure 1. View of Darkale and Soma from Asarkale. *56"];t7PM/Pt/PWFNCFSt"&UMBDBLVʰ .)BNBND‘PʓMV5VSBO

ation of the historic development of Darkale by questioning the physical characteristics of the present historical settlement with emphasis on its housing units. The method of this study is comprised of literature review, archive research in the official website of the state archives; field survey, analysis and evaluation. The site survey was carried out with conventional techniques PG BSDIJUFDUVSBM SFTUPSBUJPO JO "VHVTU   4FQUFNCFS   +VOF  BOE .BZ4VSWFZPGUIFQVCMJDCVJMEings were limited with observations, while housing units were documented JOTDBMFPGIPVTFTXFSF surveyed at their interiors, and all were surveyed from their exteriors. 2. Historical development of the rural settlement The social, cultural, economic and physical characteristics of Darkale are analyzed for each historical period in the below. 2.1. Before Turkish Period Darkale is the historic settlement unit which is located at the historic region named Mysia. Darkale was called 5SBLIPVMB "SFM   4FWJO    PS5SBLPVMBBUUI#$ 3BNTBZ  6NBS    .ZTJB SFHJPO XBT FOMBSHFE UPXBSET UIF "QPMMJB "TBSLBMF  BU UIF TPVUI CZ ** &VNFOFT  #$  JO  #$ EVSJOH UIF ,JOHEPN of Pergamon Period. Then, Trakhoula %BSLBMF (FSNF 4PNB BOE(BNCSJBO ,‘O‘L CFDBNFCPSEFSUPXOTUPUIF TPVUI 4FWJO   It is thought that Trakhoula was used as a summer place and the terminal headquarters of Kingdom of Pergamon in time of II Eumenes approxJNBUFMZJO#$ćFTFUUMFNFOUXBT an important station to defend against attack coming from the east. It was OPU POMZ MPDBUFE GBS BXBZ GSPN "LIisar-Bergama road to the north, but also it had enough height to control the road. Moreover, location of KösedaÄ&#x; Mountain supported these features ,VUMVTPZ   The archeological remains such as columns belonging to the Kingdom of Pergamon Period are observed at ,BSʰ‘ZBLB #BÊ“BSBT‘  BU UIF XFTU PG %BSLBMFCSPPL 'JHVSF . 

Trakhoula was a densely occupied area in time of the Kingdom of Pergamon owing to its strategic position and productive lands fed by Kaikos #BL‘SÃŽBZ  *U XBT UIF NPTU JNQPSUBOU grain yard of the Kingdom of PergamPO 4USBCPO DJUFEJO4FWJO   The major natural richness of Mysia region was based on wood and mining 4FWJO  "U UIF #Z[BOUJOF 1FSJPE 8. Ramsay identified the former Byzantine Trakoula and Gandia, as a two town bishopry. In addition, the first record about this settlement was the participation of Trakoula bishop to the TFDPOE É—[OJL $PVODJM BU  5SBLPVla seems to have retained its name as Trakhala, a village and mountain near Soma which is near the site of Germe. The ancient Germe which probably struck no coins was a small settlement unit of Trakoula during the late ByzanUJOF 1FSJPE 3BNTBZ    ćVT  UIF first settlement of Soma was located at today’s Darkale and its surrounding ,VUMVTPZ  *UJTUIPVHIUUIBU the first settlement area was located at the western hillside of the KöseadaÄ&#x; .PVOUBJO 'JHVSF 4  There is carved marble slap thought to belong to the Byzantine Period which is detected in a garden wall on the north side of the Darkale-Soma road. Such reused material may be the remains of the ancient settlement of 5SBLIPVMB 6NBS     4JNJMBSMZ 5FYJFSWJTJUJOHUPUIFSFHJPOJOUI century, had made observations with an eye on its Byzantine background 5FYJFS   There are also architectural remains which are thought to be watchtowers and water cistern of the village in "TBSLBMF )JMM XIJDI JT UIF MPDBUFE BU "TBSUFQF MPDBUFE BU UIF TPVUIFBTU PG UIFQSFTFOUTFUUMFNFOU 'JHVSF .  In addition, there is an ancient road thought to provide access between %BSLBMF BOE "TBSLBMF *U JT BCPVU  NFUFST JO MFOHUI 'JHVSF   .  'JOBMMZ ,VUMVTPZ  NFOUJPOTB Byzantine gate leading to the courtyard of today’s Minareli Mosque on the plaUFBVBUUIFFBTUFSOIJMM 'JHVSF .  It is no more present. These architectural remains are thought to belong to the Byzantine Period.

Historical development of Darkale rural settlement in Soma, Manisa

Before Turkish period, it is thought that the hill skirt of KösedaÄ&#x; Mountain was used for agricultural production 'JHVSF   /FWFSUIFMFTT  UIFSF JT OP archaeological research started yet in Darkale and its surroundings. 2.2. Turkish Period The Turkish period is evaluated under the following headings; early Turkish period, Ottoman Period and after UIF 2.2.1. Early Turkish Period (12th – 15th centuries) There are two views on the first habitation of Turks in Tarhala which was the old name of Darkale. The first, 5VSLTVOEFSUIFBVTQJDFTPG,BMFMJ)PDB ,BMFMJPÊ“MV  NJHSBUFE GSPN )PSF[FN because they were suffering of famine, UIFO  UIFZ DBQUVSFE 5BSIBMB "MU‘OFS     ćF TFDPOE  UIF TFUUMFNFOU XBT DPORVFSFE CZ USJCFT PG )PSF[FN Darkale became one of the centers of the Beyliks of Sarukhan (Uluçay and (ÚLÃŽFO    4VJUBCJMJUZ JO UFSN of defense and health were primary criteria in localizing settlements. Those living in Bakırçay plain suffered from malaria. So, people had to move away from the river. Tarhala was positioned between Beyliks of Karesi whose center was Bursa and Beyliks of Sarukhan whose DFOUFSXBT.BOJTB )BNNFS DJUFEJO"SFM  )PXFWFS "SFM   DMBJNT UIBU  )‘[‘S É®BI .PTRVF   XBTCVJMUJO4PNB)‘[‘SÉ®BIXBT an emir of Beyliks of Sarukhan. This should be taken as the proof of Tarhala belonging to Beyliks of Sarukhan JO UIF UI DFOUVSZ "SFM     Nevertheless, this settlement was listed as belonging to the Beylik of Karesi )BNNFS DJUFEJO"SFM   It is thought that the first residential area was located in the vicinity of MinBSFMJ.PTRVF 'JHVSF 4 ćFNPTU remarkable feature of the mosque is its short, independent minaret tower which is located at the north west of UIFDPVSUZBSE 'JHVSF . ćFCBTF out of brick and stone in alternating order is rich in terms of spolia. There is a fountain reached from the street on the courtyard wall. The present mosque itself is relatively new with its

Figure 2. The map of Darkale before Turkish Period.

masonry prayer hall entered through a timber frame portico, all crowned with a hipped roof. It is known that the minarets of UIF th BOE th centuries were independent structures and they could be added to the composition during conversion of zaviyes EFSWJTI MPEHF  UP NBTKJETNPTRVFT ,VCBO       ćF FYJTUFODF PG 5PQSBL Baba and Yakibaba Zaviyes were mentioned in the archive documents of the 18th century (General Directorate of 4UBUF "SDIJWFT    ćFSF JT OP SFmain of a zaviye observed at present. Zaviye, as an antecedent building type, constituted the core of a Turkish settleNFOU #BSLBO  ćFQMBDFPG Minareli Mosque may belong to a zaviye. In another historical document XIJDIJTUIF"DDPVOUPGUIFVilayet of "OBUPMJB  OVNCFSFE   Liva of Hüdavendigar EBUFE  %FQBSUNFOU PG UIF 0UUPNBO "SDIJWFT    POF mosque and one bath were listed. This record for the mosque is questioned for the present mosques in Darkale. Orta Masjid is converted from a house. "MUIPVHIUIFSFJTOPQSFDJTFJOGPSNB-


Figure 3. The map of Darkale early Turkish Period.

Figure 4. The section of Darkale early Turkish Period.

tion on the construction date of the ,‘SLPMVL.PTRVF 'JHVSF . "SFM interprets the mosque as a monument PG 4BSVLIBO QFSJPE "SFM     8IFOUIFCVJMEJOHXBTÄ•STUDPOTUSVDUFE JUIBEOPNJOBSFU ,VUMVTPZ    *U JT FYQFDUFE UIBU UIFSF TIPVME be a mosque in the gathering and comNFSDJBMBSFB)FODF ,‘SLPMVL.PTRVF is interpreted as the mosque in the historical document mentioned in the above. So, Minareli Mosque either had continued its dervish lodge function in UIFFBSMZth century or it was a relatively small and less significant mosque compared to the one in the commercial center. The settlement of Darkale started to expand from the hill skirt to the brook valley system. The bath was constructed near the bank of the Tarhala stream, and gathering and commercial BSFBTUBSUFEUPEFWFMPQ 'JHVSF .  The existence of this bath in Tarhala is pointed out in the above mentioned historical document. It is hard to define of the plan organization exactly because of the ruined condition of the building. Based on observation on the current remains, it is thought that, the bath had elongated rectangular sıcaklık DBMEBSJVN  XJUI EPNFE DFOUSBM VOJU and two halvets IPUSPPN QMBOUZQF ćJTJTGSFRVFOUMZPCTFSWFEJOUIFththDFOUVSJFT &ZJDF  *OUIF light of this information, Darkale Bath may be thought to be constructed in UIFthth century. The houses around Minareli Mosque 4 BSFPOBQMBUFBVDSPXOJOHUIFIJMM BUUIFFBTUPGUIFCSPPL 'JHVSF ćF total number of housing units here is  ćF MPU TJ[FT BSF CFUXFFO  BOE N2, and frequently consist of only a NBJONBTT  4PNFIPVTFTBSF surrounded by others on their three TJEFT  BOETPNFPOUXPTJEFT   4PIPVTFTKVYUBQPTFECZBTJOHMF OFJHICPS     DPVSUZBSET     BOEBOOFYFT  BSFQPTTJCMF1SFTence of a house with earth roof in front of the Minareli Mosque emphasizes the PMEOFTT PG UIF OFJHICPSIPPE "U UIF center of the zone, three storied houses are preferred in accordance with UIF WJTUB OFDFTTJUZ     3FMBUJWFMZ IJHI OVNCFS PG GPVOUBJOT  QFS IPVTF  BOE PWFOT  QFS IPVTF  JO

Historical development of Darkale rural settlement in Soma, Manisa


the public space, and presence of origJOBMTUPOFTUSFFUDPWFSJOH  BSFFZF catching. The buildings are frequently JOQPPSTUBUFPGQSFTFSWBUJPO   BOENPTUMZBCBOEPOFE   In this period, the agricultural areas are thought to be along the brook, and pastures for livestock farming and shrub lands between residential area and agricultural lands. Mediterranean woodlands should had been located at the eastern hill side at inclined rocky hillside surfaces behind the residential BSFB 'JHVSF  2.2.2. Ottoman Period (16th century-1922) 'PS B TFUUMFNFOU UP CF OBNFE BT B kasaba or small city; it must have some components and activities as well as population. These are mahalles (resiEFOUJBMEJTUSJDUT BTRVBSF BHSJDVMUVSBM areas, a mosque, a zaviye, in addition, educational buildings; school, sibyan mektebi DIJMESFO TDIPPM  NBESBsah; open bazaar area, arasta (row of TIPQT LIBOPSbedesten (covered ba[BBS BOEIFBMUIGBDJMJUJFTCBUIPSUIFSNBMTQSJOH 4FMFO DJUFEJO(à OBZ   8IFOUIFTFBDUJWJUJFTBOEDPNponents are considered, it can be said that Tarhala, Soma and KırkaÄ&#x;aç were kasabas JO UIF TFDPOE IBMG PG UIF th DFOUVSZ (àOBZ   Under the Ottoman rule, Tarhala was one of the twenty eight administrative centers of Hüdavendigar Liva, the administrative unit whose cenUFS XBT #VSTB CFUXFFO UI BOE UI DFOUVSJFT &NFDFO    ćF FMFWBUed position of Tarhala was the reason for its choice as the center of the kaza EVSJOHUIFQFSJPEPG#FZB[‘U**    5VODFM   DJUFE JO (àOBZ   "DDPSEJOHUPUIF"DDPVOUPGUIF Vilayet PG "OBUPMJB  EBUFE   OVNCFSFE  %FQBSUNFOU PG UIF 0UUPNBO "SDIJWFT    UIF QPQVMBUJPO PG 5BSIBMB XBT BQQSPYJNBUFMZ   which consisted of two mahalles, Soma BOE )JTBSBMU‘   WJMMBHFT   IBNMFUT  nine farms and four communities. In UIFÄ•STUIBMGPGUIFUIDFOUVSZ QPQVlation of Tarhala had grown because of the political manners of the Ottoman Empire on the region. In the second IBMG PG UIF UI DFOUVSZ  5BSIBMB CFcame the center of kaza composed of

three nefs DJUZDFOUFS OBNFMZNefs-i Tarhala, Nefs-i Soma, Nefs-i KırkaÄ&#x;aç. Surface area of Tarhala reached its MBSHFTUMJNJUTBQQSPYJNBUFMZN (à OBZ   Tarhala was famous for its sumach, oat, barley, wheat, rice and cotton. It became the center of cotton agriculture JOUIFUIDFOUVSZBOEBQQSPYJNBUFMZ whole agricultural areas surrounding UIFTFUUMFNFOUXFSFVTFE 'JHVSF *O addition, it is known that, Tahunhane (a factory in which oil is extracted GSPNTFTBNFCZNJMMJOH XBTTFUVQCZ .VSBU***BU5BSIBMBJOUIFth centuSZ (ÚLÃŽFO     "DDPSEJOH UP a record; there were derbentçis (guards for places with geopolitical signifiDBODF FNQMPZFEJO5BSIBMBBOE4PNB (àOBZ   "MUIPVHI 5BSIBMB IBE CFFO BO JNportant settlement because of its strategic location, in the second half of the th century, criteria for determining positioning a settlement changed based POFDPOPNJDSFBTPOT"DDFTTJCJMJUZCFcame more important than safety and health requirements. The importance PG UIF TFUUMFNFOU EFDMJOFE JO UIF th century and the center of kaza shifted from Tarhala to Soma. Its plain terrain and proximity to the trade route made Soma preferable in terms of economic SFBTPOT (àOBZ   The cities located at the inner part of UIF"FHFBO3FHJPOXFSFNPSFJNQPSUant than the coast one in terms of economy and demography in the classical BHFPG0UUPNBOSVMF 5FLFMJ   )PXFWFS UIFTFDJSDVNTUBODFTDIBOHFE with the increasing foreign trade startJOH XJUI UIF th and 18th centuries. Ä°zmir became a significant trade cenUFS 5FLFMJ  BOEUIFAyans (Local /PUBCMFT UPPLBEWBOUBHFPGUIFJOUFSnal weaknesses and decentralization of the Ottoman central government withJOUIFQSPWJODFT (àOBZ   In this period, the residential area at the eastern hill skirt of Tarhala integrated with the public spaces in the brook valley system. In addition to the bath and mosque; a bedesten, an open bazaar, an olive oil mill, a laundry, fountains and tanneries were reDPSEFE BSPVOE UIF CSPPL "MUIPVHI there is not any remain observed today, "SFM TUBUFT UIBU UIFSF XBT B Bedesten


Figure 5. The map of Darkale during Ottoman Period.

Figure 6. The section of Darkale during Ottoman Period.

'JHVSF   .  PO UIF 4PNB%BSLale road near the bank of the Tarhala TUSFBNBOEUIF#BUI "SFM   ćFSF XBT BMTP BO PQFO CB[BBS 'JHVSF . JOUIFTFUUMFNFOU "MU‘OFS     *O UIF IJTUPSJDBM EPDVNFOU EBUFE   JU JT TUBSUFE UIBU UIF DPOstruction of an olive oil mill had started in Tarhala (General Directorate of State "SDIJWFT    ćFSF JT BO PMJWF PJM mill positioned at the west of the road CFUXFFO%BSLBMFBOE4PNB 'JHVSF  . BOEJOGSPOUPGUIFCBUIćFBSchitectural characteristics of the presFOUPMJWFPJMNJMMBSFJOMJOFXJUIUIFth DFOUVSZ )FODF  UIF QSFTFOU CVJMEJOH may be a reconstruction in the same or nearby location. The present Kırkoluk Mosque is located at the Kırkoluk Square, center of Darkale rural settlement. It is elevated from ground level. The stone masonry ground walls are spanned with vaults. This ground space could had been used as a shop and the terrace in front of the mosque was used as a bazaar area "SFM  )PXFWFS UIFGVODUJPO of the basement is storage space today. Three sides of the mosque are surrounded with series of ablution spouts continuously running since they are fed by spring water. They give its name to the building: forty gouges. The minaret and the spouts were added, when the mosque was renewed in the late 18thPSUIFFBSMZth century (Kutlusoy,   In addition, a laundry is positioned adjacent to the wall of Kırkoluk Mosque 'JHVSF   .  ćF IJTUPSJD MBVOESZ was used by women until a few years ago. There is a natural spring water in the middle of the laundry which is fed by Tarhala stream. The construction technique and material usage are in line with the houses, which are thought UPCFDPOTUSVDUFEJOUIFth century. Leatherworking was the main source of income and it is stated that there were three major and nine minor tanneries located near the Kırkoluk 4RVBSF 'JHVSF .  "MU‘OFS  "SFM    ćF QSPEVDUT TVDI BT shoes, boots, cases and clothing produced in the major tanneries were sold in Ä°zmir and its vicinity. On the other hand, products produced in the small scale ones were sold in Soma and its

Historical development of Darkale rural settlement in Soma, Manisa

vicinity and also used for daily needs "MU‘OFS  ćFTFCVJMEJOHTBSF not present today. In addition, ice cream was made in Darkale village. During winters, snow was stored in the snow wells. It was covered with the raw pine cones which prevent melting, and it is the only natural way of making ice cream. In summers, the snow in the well was cut and taken out by saws and brought out in large pieces. These snow pieces were used making ice cream. It is difficult to date these wells. The settlement area, which is thought to have developed in this period, inDMVEFTIPVTJOHVOJUT 'JHVSF 4  It is characterized with its steep inclinaUJPO _  'JHVSF QSFTFODFPGQBTTBHFTPWFSUIFTUSFFUT  SFMBUJWFMZMBSHF MPU TJ[FT  N2   m2N2 QPTTJCJMity of vertical interaction between housJOHVOJUT  JOBEEJUJPOUPDMPTF IPSJ[POUBMJOUFSBDUJPO  BOE relatively high number of three stories     *OEFQFOEFOU IPVTFT    BSFPOMZTFFOBUUIFCPSEFSTBDSPTT streets which are sometimes supported with stone retaining walls. These are evaluated as the latest elements of the BSFBćFSFBSFBGFXGPVOUBJOT QFS IPVTF ćFIPVTFTBSFJOCFUUFSTUBUFPG QSFTFSWBUJPO     BOE SFMBUJWFMZ NPSFJOVTF   Pastures for livestock farming and shrub lands and olive yards are located at the outer ring of the site. These are rocky hillsides behind the residential BSFB )FSF  CBSOT BSF PCTFSWFE XJUIJO the pastures. Mediterranean woodland and rocky terrains are on the steepest hill side of the KösedaÄ&#x; Mountain to the south. Mediterranean woodland and rocky terrains constitute the border PG%BSLBMFSVSBMTFUUMFNFOU 'JHVSF  2.2.3. After 1922 "Ä™FS UIF QSPDMBNBUJPO PG UIF 3Fpublic, Tarhala became a village of Soma province of Manisa. Its name XBTDIBOHFEBT"MU‘OM‘JO É—ÃŽJÊ°MFSJ #BLBOM‘ʓ‘     BOE %BSLBMF JO  ,VUMVTPZ     &BSMZ 3Fpublican Period is represented with Darkale Primary School positioned close to the northern entrance of the WJMMBHFXBTEFTJHOFECZ)BNEJ0/"5

Figure 7. The map of Darkale after 1922.

JO BTMFBSOFEGSPNJUTJOTDSJQUJPO QBOFM 'JHVSF   .  $POWFSTJPO PG one of the housing unit into a masjid to should have taken place also in this QFSJPE 0SUB .BTKJE 'JHVSF   .  presents similarities with the housing units with its site relations, mass and façade characteristics. The promotion of coal mining in UIFSFHJPOCFHJOOJOHXJUI 5ÚSFO BOE ÃOBM    BOE FTUBCMJTINFOU of a thermal power station close to %BSLBMF JO T QSFTFOUFE KPC PQportunities for the locals of Darkale. "MUIPVHIUIFXPSLJOHDPOEJUJPOTIBWF CFFOPQFOUPBDDJEFOUT %à [HàO   5..0#  QSFGFSFODFPGNJOJOH to traditional agriculture and animal husbandry has given way to abandonment of the village. The population of villages has decreased year after year:  BDDPSEJOH UP DFOTVT EBUFE  This gave way to lack of maintenance followed by demolishment; gaps in the silhouette occurred; some of them were fill in with unqualified new construction. The abandoned agricultural land turned into Mediterranean woodlands and meadows.



The construction of unqualified mass additions, unqualified repair and further alteration of housing units to meet contemporary necessities threat the integrity of the cultural landscape of Darkale. The other threat is the construction of a large scale, multipurpose activity area in the woodland at the OPSUIFBTU 'JHVSF  On the other hand, the conservation decision of the settlement are hopeful in terms of integrity of the settlement. The earliest listing decision at site scale JT EBUFE  OVNCFSFE   EBUFE   UIF 4VQSFNF $PVODJM PG Conservation of Cultural and Natural &OUJUJFTEFDJTJPO *O UIFCPSEFST of the listed urban site were redefined OVNCFSFE   EBUFE   Ä°zmir No 2 Regional Conservation Council of Cultural and Natural EnUJUJFT EFDJTJPO  5PEBZ  UIFSF BSF TFWFO listed monuments, five fountains and 82 residential buildings, whose of two have been demolished. The areas at the north, southeast and southwest of the urban site were declared as first degree archeological site, and the site at the south of the settlement was declared as second degree archeological site (numCFSFE EBUFE É—[NJS/P 2 Regional Conservation Council of $VMUVSBMBOE/BUVSBM&OUJUJFTEFDJTJPO  .PSFPWFS TUBSUJOH XJUI   Âą&,Ăƒ- and OPET have been working together

on a project named “Protection of the $VMUVSBM)FSJUBHFPG4PNBBOE%BSLBMF and Provision of Local Development�. 'VSUIFSNPSF %BSLBMFWJMMBHFUBLFTBUtention with its unique and picturesque features from universities in the recent years. The village and its natural setting has become attractive for tourists (Gezi %FęFSJ   3. Discussion and conclusion The archive documents, present monumental buildings and the settlement pattern, especially the organization of the housing units, have provided a framework for interpreting 5VSLJTI QFSJPE 'PS UIF EFUBJMFE FWBMVBUJPOPGUIFQSF5VSLJTIQFSJPE 4  further geo-prospection and archeological research are necessary. In all periods, the brook-valley system has been the gathering, production and commercial area of the settlement as revealed in the mosque, laundry, bath, olive oil mill, tannery, tahunhane, and bedesten. The elevated plateau at the east of the Darkale brook with full vista of the surroundings is evaluated as the earliest settlement area in Turkish peSJPE 4 ćF.JOBSFMJ.PTRVFEBUJOH FBSMJFTUUPUIFth century is the focal point of this portion. In time, the settlement should have expanded down UIFIJMMTLJSUJOXFTUFSOEJSFDUJPO 4  5BCMF 

Table 1. The characteristics of houses units in the two residential areas.

Historical development of Darkale rural settlement in Soma, Manisa


The earliest settlement area is relatively safer in terms of its elevated position and more comfortable in terms of its flatness giving way to the possibility of small courtyards. The settlement pattern has preserved its authenticity in terms of its fountains, ovens, small lot sizes, open hayat façades, blind side and rear facades, stone street covering and earthen roof, but in poor state of preservation. The latter settlement area presents solutions to cope with the high inclination such as stone retaining walls, increase in number of stories, passages over streets, and increase in the amount of relations with neighbors including vertical interaction of housing units. References "MU‘OFS  # "   5BSIBMB ObasÄąnÄą TanÄąyalÄąm. Gediz Dergisi  *7 Manisa: Dereli BasÄąmevi. "SFM  "   &HF #ĂšMHFTJ "ZBOM‘L %ĂšOFNJ .JNBSJTJ  %ĂšOFNJ :Ă [FZ "SBĘ°U‘SNBMBS‘ IIIV. AraĹ&#x;tÄąrma SonuçlarÄą ToplantÄąsÄą. "OLBSB ,Ă MUĂ S #BLBOM‘ʓ‘:BZ‘OMBS‘ QQ "SFM  "   4PNB :BL‘OMBS‘OEB &TLJ#JS%BĘ“:FSMFĘ°NFTJ5‘SIBMB,ĂšZĂ  IX. AraĹ&#x;tÄąrma SonuçlarÄą ToplantÄąsÄą. "OLBSB ,Ă MUĂ S #BLBOM‘ʓ‘ :BZ‘OMBS‘  QQ  #BSLBO ½-  É—TUJMB%FWJSMFSJOJO,PMPOJ[BUĂšS5Ă SL%FSWJĘ°MFSJWF;Bviyeler. VakÄąflar Dergisi,7PM"OLBSB %Ă [HĂ O )ÉŽ  .BZ‘T 5BSJIJOEF 4PNB &ZOF[ :FSBMU‘ ,ĂšNĂ S 0DBʓ‘OEB.FZEBOB(FMFO'BDJBJMFÉ—Mgili DeÄ&#x;erlendirmeler. TMMOB Jeoloji MĂźhendisleri OdasÄą Haber BĂźlteni 7PM "OLBSB &NFDFO  '   HĂźdavendigar. 5%7 É—TMBN "SBĘ°U‘SNBMBS‘ .FSLF[J  $JMU BDDFTTFE%FDFNCFS  &UMBDBLVĘ°  "   ićF $POTFSWBUJPO "JNFE &WBMVBUJPO PG %BSLBMF Rural Settlement in Soma, Manisaâ€?. (Unpublished MSc. Thesis, Ä°zmir Institute Technology University, DepartNFOU PG "SDIJUFDUVSBM 3FTUPSBUJPO É—[NJS

&SHĂ O  É—   Soma I-II. Ä°zmir: Soma Belediyesi YayÄąnlarÄą. &ZJDF  4   Ä°znik’de BĂźyĂźk Hamam ve OsmanlÄą Devri HamamlarÄą HakkÄąnda Bir Deneme, Ä°stanbul

ĂƒOJWFSTJUFTJ5BSJI%FSHJTJ7PM É—TUBOCVM (FOFSBM %JSFDUPSBUF PG 4UBUF "Schives, Department of the Ottoman "SDIJWFT   166 numaralÄą Muhasebe-i Vilayet-i Anadolu Defteri, HĂźdavendigar LivasÄą, 1530, (Ottoman tax census register of the kaza of Tarhala PG MJWB PG )Ă EBWFOEJHBS EPDVNFOUT  OVNCFSFE "OLBSB Gezidefteri, ([BLZBZMBTJUVSV  

(ĂšLĂŽFO  É— BOE 6MVĂŽBZ  Âą   Manisa Tarihine Genel Bir BakÄąĹ&#x;. Ä°stanCVM3FTJNMJ"Z.BUCBBT‘ QQ  (ĂšLĂŽFO É—  .BOJTB5BSJIJOEF 7BL‘ĘBSWF)BZ‘SMBS*É—TUBOCVM (Ă OBZ 7  97*:Ă [Z‘MEB5BSIBMB½SOFĘ“JOEF#BU‘"OBEVMVEB*TLBO DeÄ&#x;iĹ&#x;imi. Tarih Ä°nceleme Dergisi 7PM 21, Number: 1. Ä°zmir: Ege Ăœniversitesi #BT‘NFWJ QQ (Ă OBZ  7   #BU‘ "OBEPMVEB "ZBOM‘L .Ă DBEFMFMFSJ WF #FSHBNB 7PZWPEBT‘ 4BĘ“BOD‘M‘ 7FMJ Tarih Ä°nceleme Dergisi7PM /VNCFSÉ—[NJS &HFĂƒOJWFSTJUFTJ#BT‘NFWJ QQ )BNNFS +7  OsmanlÄą Devleti Tarihi, Translated into English CZ . ÂąFWJL  & ,‘M‘Î É—TUBOCVM ĂƒĂŽEBM YayÄąnevi. İçiĹ&#x;leri BakanlÄąÄ&#x;Äą, Ä°ller Ä°daresi Genel .Ă EĂ SMĂ Ę“Ă    KĂśylerimiz"OLBra: BaĹ&#x;bakanlÄąk BasÄąmevi DSÄ°. ,BSBZB[‘M‘ ;.‘T‘SM‘ "#P[UFQF Âą BOE ,BSBZ‘MNB[  )   Conservation Project of Darkale, Soma, Manisa. Studio Course: Preservation and DeWFMPQNFOU .FUIPET PG )JTUPSJD &OWJSPONFOU  4VQFSWJTPS "TTU 1SPG%S 'JHFO"LQ‘OBS ćF(SBEVBUF1SPHSBN PG"SDIJUFDUVSBM3FTUPSBUJPO É—[NJS*Ostitute of Technology, Ä°zmir. ,VCBO %  OsmanlÄą Mimarisi: 75-76. YEM YayÄąnlarÄą: Ä°stanbul, QQ ,VUMVTPZ  É—   Soma. ĂœĂ§dal /FĘ°SJZBU,PMÉŽUJÉ—TUBOCVM 3BNTBZ  8 .   ćF )JTUPSJDBM (FPHSBQIZ PG "TJB .JOPS Royal Geographical Society, The edition pubMJTIFEJOCZ+PIO.VSSBZ -POEPO 4FMFO )4  WFZĂ [Z‘MMBSEB"OBEPMVOVO,ĂšZWF,Ă ĂŽĂ LÉŽFIJS )BZBU‘III5Ă SLTarih Kurumu Kongresi Ankara 15-20 KasÄąm 1943. "OLBSB Q


4FWJO 7  Anadolu’nun Tarihi CoÄ&#x;rafyası I."OLBSB5à SL5BSJI,VSVmu Yayınları. 4USBCPO    Antik Anadolu CoÄ&#x;rafyası – Geographika XII, XIII, XIV. É—TUBOCVM "SLFPMPKJ WF 4BOBU Yayınları. 5$ #BÊ°CBLBOM‘L %FWMFU "SÊ°JWMFSJ (FOFM .àEàSMàʓà    Osmanlı ArÅ&#x;iv Katalogları. (General DirectorBUFPG4UBUF"SDIJWFT0UUPNBO"SDIJWF $BUBMPHVFT osmanli/arsiv.aspx, accessed DecemCFS  5FLFMJ  É—   &HF #ÚMHFTJEF :FSMFÊ°NF 4JTUFNJOJO  Zà[Z‘MEBLJ %ÚOàʰàNà Üç Ä°zmir. Ä°stanbul: YKY. 5FYJFS  $   Küçük Asya: CoÄ&#x;rafyası Tarihi ve Arkeolojisi II, Translated into English by Suat "MJ    "OLBSB &OGPSNBTZPO WF %PLàNBOUBTZPO)J[7BLG‘ 5ÚSFO 5BOEÃ/"- &  "T-

sessment of Open Pit Coal Mining ImQBDUT 6TJOH 3FNPUF 4FOTJOH " $BTF Study from Turkey. 17th International Mining Congress and Exhibition of Turkey "OLBSB 5VODFM  .   5à SLJZFEF :FS %FÊ“JÊ°UJSFO É®FIJSMFS )BLL‘OEB #JS É—ML Not. Ä°stanbul Ãœniversitesi CoÄ&#x;rafya Enstitüsü Dergisi  É—TUBOCVM Turkish Republic Prime Ministry (FOFSBM %JSFDUPSBUF PG 4UBUF "SDIJWFT %FQBSUNFOU PG 0UUPNBO "SDIJWFT 8FCTJUF, BDDFTTFE"QSJM  5àSL .àIFOEJT WF .JNBS 0EBMBS‘ #JSMJÊ“J   Soma Maden Faciası TMMOB Raporu. "OLBSB .BUUFL #BT‘O:BZ‘O5BO‘U‘N5JD4BO-UEÉ®UJ 6NBS  #   Mysia  ,àMUàS ,JUBQMBS‘4FSJTJÉ—TUBOCVM"L:BZ‘OMBS‘ 6NBS #  Türkiye’deki Tarihsel Adlar. Ä°stanbul: Ä°nkılap Kitapevi.

Historical development of Darkale rural settlement in Soma, Manisa


Regional inequality and international trade in Turkey: A dynamic spatial panel approach

Hasan Engin DURAN1, Umut ERDEM2 FOHJOEVSBO!JZUFFEVUSt%FQBSUNFOUPG$JUZBOE3FHJPOBM1MBOOJOH 'BDVMUZPG Architecture, Izmir Institute of Technology, Ä°zmir, Turkey 2 t%FQBSUNFOUPG$JUZBOE3FHJPOBM1MBOOJOH 'BDVMUZ of Architecture, Dokuz EylĂźl University, Ä°zmir, Turkey


doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2017.24633

3FDFJWFE.BSDIt Final Acceptanzce: November 2017

Abstract Aim of the present article1 is to investigate the impact of trade liberalization on the evolution of regional income inequalities in Turkey between 2004-2011. Despite the large body of literature on this subject, there exists several directions which needs to be further explored. i. so far in the literature, the concept of trade openness is too broadly defined. However, it is not only ‘trade’ per se that can affect the regional economies but the composition of trade is also of great importance (Rodriquez-Pose and Gill, 2006). Indeed, it can be partitioned into two components, such as exports and imports. We analyze separately the impact of each component on the evolution of regional inequalities. ii. in most of the empirical studies dealing with this issue, neighboring regions are assumed to have no spatial economic interconnection between each other. We, therefore, incorporate spatial spillovers of trade and growth into our analysis. Our results are summarized in two groups: First, regional inequalities in Turkey are quite sizable but tend to decline over the period of analyses. Second, initially poorer regions that experience an export-based liberalization tend to grow faster than richer ones. Imports, on the other hand, have an opposite effect. Keywords Regional inequality, Trade liberalization.


1. Introduction 4JODF UIF T  JOUFSOBUJPOBM GSFF trade has widely been recognized as promoting the economic growth in a variety of theoretical and empirical models (Dollar and Kraay, 2004; 'SBOLFM BOE 3PNFS    .PTU JOfluential, Hecksher-Ohlin-Samuelson theory suggests that trade liberalization is likely to bring about substantial productivity gains by pushing countries to specialize according to their comparative advantage and relocating the production factors between tradable and non-tradable sectors (Daumal and Ă–zyurt, 2011; Ă–zyurt and Daumal 2011). In a similar vein, it is expected to induce the productivity by easenning the transmission of know-how and technology spillovers among tradJOHQBSUOFST $PFBOE)FMQNBO  (SPTTNBOBOE)FMQNBO  0QFOning up the markets may also increase the internal competition that, possibly, forces local firms to improve their operational and managerial efficiency and upgrade their production systems (Daumal and Ă–zyurt, 2011; Fu, 2004). Although merits of trade are well known at the country level, its varying impact on regional economies remain largely ambiguous (Rodriquez-Pose, 2012). In other words, not all regions within a country can equally benefit the trade liberalization. In contrast, some of them are likely to generate greater benefits that constributes to the widenning or reduction of interregional disparities (Elveren, 2010). Despite its importance, the debate on the link between trade openess and regional inequality has not yet been conclusive in the literature (BrĂźlhart, 2011). 0O UIF POF IBOE  B DMBTT PG /&( /FX &DPOPNJD (FPHSBQIZ  NPEFMT argue that trade liberalization is likely to contribute to the reduction of disparJUJFT ,SVHNBO BOE &MJ[POEP    Accoring to this claim, as a country opens its markets to trade, core regions tend to become less attractive for firms (Ă–zyurt and Daumal, 2011). Since land costs, internal competition, congestion and labor costs are high in large metropoliten areas, advantages created by locational concentration can not exceed these costs (Ă–zyurt and Daumal,

2011). Hence, firms prefer to relocate and move towards peripheral regions in search of a higher profit margin and Ä•OFS FDPOPNJD DMJNBUF 'BO BOE $BTFUUJ   3PESJRVF[1PTF BOE (JMM  2006). Such a diffusion process is likely to foster the economic growth in backward regions and contribute to the reduction of income disparities. On the other hand, a group of scholars adopt a counter view by arguing that trade liberalization provides additional benefits to developed regions $SP[FUBOE,PFOJH .ZSEBM 3JWBT  ćFSBUJPOBMFCFIJOEUIJT claim is attributed to the advantages of agglomeration and centripetal effects of trade openess (in accordance with .ZSEBM 

 4VDI UIBU  EFWFMPQFE regions which have low cost access to foreign markets, competitive advantages and highly mobile work force benefits the increasing returns to scale created by agglomeration. Indeed, during the liberalization process firms tend to move towards metropoliten areas that promotes cumulative growth process. In contrast, peripheral places can hardly benefit this ever-growing QSPDFTT ćVT  JOFRVBMJUJFT CFUXFFO rich and poor regions tend to widen over time (Aghion, Burgess, Redding and Zilibotti, 2004; Henderson and ,VODPSP   On empirical grounds, the findings are also far from a clear cut. A class PG TDIPMBST JODMVEJOH #SĂ MIBSU  $BSSFre and Trionfetti (2010) and Daumal   GPDVT PO SFHJPOBM EJTQBSJUJFT respectively within Austria and Brasil and report evidence in favor of reductive effect of trade on regional inequalJUJFT $POUSPWFSTJBMMZ   TFWFSBM PUIFST  including Daumal and Ozyurt (2011), %BVNBM    3JWBT   0LUBZ BOE(Ăš[HĂšS  ,BOCVSBOE;IBOH  1FSOJBBOE2VJTJOH  BSF the authors who find a positive impact of trade liberalization on spatial disparJUJFTSFTQFDUJWFMZGPS#SBTJM *OEJB .FYJDP 5VSLFZ $IJOBBOE1IJMJQIJOFT Despite the large body of literature on this subject, there exists several directions which needs to be further explored. First, although researchers mainly focused on emerging economies like #SBTJM *OEJBBOE.FYJDP UIFMJUFSBUVSF

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This article is a product of Umut Erdem’s master thesis supervised by Assoc. Prof. Dr. Hasan Engin Duran.

focusing on Turkey is rather scarce. In fact, Turkey is a country that includes large socio-economic and territorial imbalances as well as diverse economic structure and labor force across regions (Erkut and BaypÄąnar, #BZQ‘OBSBOE&SLVU (F[JDJ BOE)FXJOHT :‘ME‘S‘N ½DBMBOE ½[Z‘ME‘S‘N  )FODF UBDLMJOHUIF spatial disparities and maintaining the economic and social cohesion is one of the major political concerns. In addition, Turkey has experienced a period of rapid liberalization over the MBTUGFXEFDBEFT'SPNTUPT  policies favouring the economic liberalization have been implemented. Such that the main growth startegy has switched from an import substitution approach to an export-led growth. Hence, we think it is crucial to identify the winners and loosers of this process to be able to provide relevant insights to policy makers which is one of the major targets of the present study. Second, so far in the literature, the consept of trade openess is too broadly defined. In reality, trade can be partitioned into several components, such as exports and imports In fact, each component can have far different effect on regional economies. In support of this argument, Rodriquez-Pose and Gill (2006) suggests that it is not only ‘trade’ per se that affect the regional inequality but the composition of trade is also of great importance. As trade shifts from from exports to imports (or manufacturing to agriculture) or vice verse, the implications on regional growth patterns can significantly change (Leichenko and Silvia, 2004). For these reasons, we intend to analyze separately the impact of each component on the evolution of regional inequalities. ćJSE JONPTUPGUIFFNQJSJDBMTUVEies dealing with this issue, regions are assumed to have no economic interconnection between each other. In contrast, the importance of spatial spillovers of trade and income among the economic systems are well documented in the literature (Ertur and ,PDI    ćVT  XF Ä•OE JU VTFGVM to incorporate spatial factors into our analysis. Failing to do so, might in fact lead to distorted results due to a neglected spatial dependence.

Overall, the aim of the present article is to investigate the impact of trade liberalization on the evolution of regional inequalities in Turkey by adopting the perpectives above. In terms of TQBUJBMVOJUT XFGPDVTPOUIF/654 /PNFODMBUVSF PG UFSSJUPSJBM VOJUT GPS statistics) level regions for a period between 2004 and 2011. Data used in this paper is mostly obtained from TUIK (Turkish Statistical Institute). ćF PSHBOJ[BUJPO PG UIF QBQFS JT BT follows: In section 2, we provide an overview of the related literature. SecUJPOJTEFWPUFEUPUIFFNQJSJDBMBOBMysis which is implemented in three TUFQT*OTFDUJPOBOE XFSFTQFDtively explore the evolution of regional inequalities and trade liberalization JO5VSLFZ*OTFDUJPO XFTFUPVUPVS econometric model and estimate the impact of trade openess on regional disparities and, finally, we conclude our study in section 4. 2. Literature review As anticipated, there has been a clear distinction between studies’ empirical findings and theoretical argumentations. To be able to provide a brief account of the debate, we partition the studies into two groups; i. those of which report negative impact of trade openness and ii. those of which find, instead, a positive relationship. 2.1. Literature supporting the negative impact Some examples of the empirical studies in this class are BrĂźlhart et al. (2010) who find that poorer border regions in Austria experience higher liberalization and greater employNFOU HSPXUI CFUXFFO  BOE   %BVNBM  XIPSFQPSUTUIBUUSBEF openness reduces the regional income JOFRVBMJUJFT JO #SB[JM CFUXFFO  2004, Paluzie, Pons and Tirado (2004) XIP TIPX UIBU GSPN T POXBSET regional imbalances and industrial concentration has decreased in Spain, and, lastly, Rodriquez-Pose (2012) who analyses the intra-national disparities within various countries between  BOE SFQPSUT B OFHBUJWF BTsociation between liberalization process and income disparities for relatively wealthier states i.e. US, France,

Regional inequality and international trade in Turkey: A dynamic spatial panel approach

#FMHJVN  4XFEFO  +BQBO  /FUIFSMBOET  "VTUSJB $BOBEBBOE'JOMBOE From a theoretical point of view, the interpretations of authors mostly refer to the explanations of Krugman and &MJ[POEP  BDDPSEJOHUPXIPUSBEF liberalization is likely to favour the unEFSEFWFMPQFESFHJPOTćFNFDIBOJTN is likely to work in a following way; as the regions opens up their markets to trade, firms choose to re-locate and move from core regions, where land, labour and congestions costs are high, to the peripheral locations where the costs are lower and, thus, greater incentives for profits are available (Fan BOE$BTFUUJ ½[ZVSUBOE%BVNBM  2011; Rodriquez-Pose and Gill, 2006). If this happens to be the case, it would actually mean that the advantages of metropolitan areas, such as agglomeration and positive externalities created by lower information costs and highly productive labour force, do not offset UIFDPTUTPGQSPEVDUJPOGBDUPSTćFSFfore, it becomes an appropriate choice for firms to search for new places with MPXFS DPTU CBTF $POTFRVFOUMZ  UIJT mechanism is likely to foster the economic growth in lagging regions and contribute to the reduction of interregional disparities. In support of this argument, Rodriquez-Pose and Gill (2006) provides similar explanations. Such that if capital and investment look for the places with lowest costs, spread of firms towards backward regions becomes more likely that, in turn, stimulates the economic growth in underdeveloped regions and enhance the convergence process (Rodriquez-Pose and Gill, 2006). 2.2. Literature supporting the positive impact /PUBMMTDIPMBST IPXFWFS BHSFFXJUI the literature above. Some examples of controversial studies are Jian Sachs BOE8BSOFS  ,BOCVSBOE;IBOH (2005) and Fu (2004) who conclude UIBU USBEF PQFOOFTT JO $IJOB IBT MFE to the widening of spatial disparities as investment and human capital drain from underdeveloped inland areas to coastal regions, Loayza, Fajnzylber and $BMEFSPO   XIP Ä•OE B QPTJUJWF impact of trade on the evolution of reHJPOBMEJTQBSJUJFTJOBQBOFMPGDPVO-

tries. Similarly, Daumal and Ozyurt (2011) investigate the same issue for #SB[JMJBOTUBUFTCFUXFFOBOE conclude that trade openness is likely to encourage the developed regions with higher stock of human capital. For the DBTFPG.FYJDP 3JWBT  $IJRVJBS (2005), Rodriquez-Pose and Sanchez-Reaza (2005) reach similar results which indicate the fact that disparities BDSPTT.FYJDBOTUBUFTUFOEUPJODSFBTF during the process of trade liberalizaUJPO )FOEFSTPO BOE ,VODPSP   find that Indonesian trade openness is associated with the concentration of firms around metropolitan regions that intensifies the regional polarization of income. Similarly, Perinia and QuisJOH  DPODMVEFUIBUGPSFJHOUSBEF benefits, primarily, the metropolitan .BOJMBBSFBJO1IJMJQIJOFT-BTUMZ 0LUBZBOE(Ăš[HĂšS  BOBMZTFUIFSFgional development differentials across 5VSLJTICFUXFFOBOEBOE conclude that foreign trade widens the economic gap between the provinces. In theoretical terms, several argumentations have been put forward in the literature. For instance, Rivas   JOUFSQSFU UIF QPTJUJWF SFMBUJPOTIJQCZSFGFSSJOHUPUIFWJFXTPG.ZSEBM  BDDPSEJOHUPXIPNUSBEFMJCFSalization primarily benefits the developed regions as these places provide several advantages to firms. For instance, increasing returns to scale created by agglomeration, low cost access to foreign markets, availability of highly qualified labour force, low information costs and better infrastructure attract firms to metropolitan areas. Indeed, liberalization process reinforces the relocation of firms and intensifies UIFDFOUSJGVHBMFÄŒFDUTćVT JUMFBETUP an increase in the income gap between poor and rich regions. Another interpretation is provided by Daumal and Ă–zyurt (2011) and :PVOH   XIP DMBJN UIBU USBEF openness promotes the specialization of developed regions in knowledge intensive high-tech activities and push, on the other hand, other regions to specialize more in non-dynamic traditional sectors such as agriculture and NJOJOH/BUVSBMMZ UIFJODPNFHBQXJEens between technology base regions and agricultural zones.

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-BTUMZ  #FO%BWJE   BOE Daumal and Ă–zyurt (2011) argue that only regions with large stock of human capital can benefit the trade liberalization. Hence, underdeveloped regions that lack a substantial stock of human capital can hardly adopt the technological advancements which have detrimental effects on economic growth. Having reviewed the existing literature, next, we start our empirical investigation.


The GVA data has been obtained from TUIK (Turkish Statistical Institute), where regional price indices used for deflating the GVA have been obtained from Central Bank of Turkey.

3. Empirical analysis 3.1. Regional inequalities and convergence in Turkey An initial step in our empirical analysis is to understand the extent of the spatial disparities within Turkey and its evolution over time. In terms of methodology, two main types of techniques have been used to measure the level of inequalities and speed of converHFODFJOUIFMJUFSBUVSFćFÄ•STUPOFJT sigma-convergence that calculates for FBDI ZFBS B UJNF TFSJFT JOEFY JF$PFÄ?DJFOUPG7BSJBUJPO UIBUTVNNBSJ[FT the level of spatial inequalities withJO B DPVOUSZ #BSSP BOE 4BMBJ .BSUJO   *U TQFDJÄ•DBMMZ VTFT UIF cross-sectional variance of regional incomes from mean and compares the DBMDVMBUFEJOEFYJOEJÄŒFSFOUZFBSTćF second approach is the cross-sectional regression approach (beta-convergence) that estimates the relationship between initial income of regions and their growth rates over time (Barro BOE 4BMBJ .BSUJO   ćJT approach is divided into two sub-techniques; absolute and conditional convergence. In absolute convergence, the speed of convergence to steady state is not conditioned on structural factors hence, it directly estimates whether poorer regions are growing faster than the richer ones. In conditional convergence, by contrast, regional convergence process is conditioned upon several control variables (such as human DBQJUBM QVCMJDJOWFTUNFOUT ćSPVHIout the paper, we use both sigma and beta convergence methods in our empirical analyses. A number of studies has investigated this issue for Turkey and obtained mixed results. On the one hand, a group of re-

searchers conclude that regional inequalities tend to persist over time and no evidence of convergence is reported. Some examples of these studies are Ĺženesen (2002) who examines interregional income disparities in Turkey and reports that polarization process rather than a convergence trend is present, %PĘ“SVFM'BOE%PĘ“SVFM4  XIP conclude that convergence is achieved only across developed regions between  BOE 'JMJ[UFLJO   XIP reports an increase in disparities across QSPWJODFTCFUXFFO On the other hand, fewer authors report evidence in favour of income convergence. Some examples are :‘ME‘S‘N  ½DBM BOE ½[Z‘ME‘S‘N   who analyse the evolution of income inequalities across Turkish provinces BOE SFHJPOT CFUXFFO  BOE  and report that disparities tend to decline over time. In the same vein, GeziDJ BOE )FXJOHT   JOWFTUJHBUF UIF evolution of income disparities across QSPWJODFTCFUXFFOBOEBOE find evidence of declining disparities, ,‘M‘ÎBTMBOBOE½[BUBĘ“BO  SFQPSU income convergence across 64 Turkish QSPWJODFTCFUXFFOBOE'Jnally, BaypÄąnar and Erkut (2011) analyse the convergence of productivity among Turkish provinces over a period BOESFQPSUDPOEJUJPOBMDPOWFSHFODF ćFZ FNQIBTJ[F UIF JNQPStance of human capital in productivity formation (Erdem, 2016; KerimoÄ&#x;lu and Karahasan, 2012). It seems that obtained results vary according to the time period analysed. ćBUT XIZ XF Ä•OE JU WBMVBCMF UP DPOcentrate on the most recently available dataset. We calculate three types of inequality indices for the period between 2004 and 2011. In terms of income data, we VTFSFHJPOBMQFSDBQJUBSFBM(7" (SPTT 7BMVF "EEFE  BU  QSJDFT 2 ćF first inequality index that we consider JTUIF$PFÄ?DJFOUPG7BSJBUJPO $7 

where yi,t JT UIF QFS DBQJUB (7" JO region i at time t and Čłt is its cross sectional mean. n is the number of

Regional inequality and international trade in Turkey: A dynamic spatial panel approach

SFHJPOT(SFBUFSWBMVFTPG$7JOEJDBUF larger inequalities and more dispersed distribution of income across regions. "MUIPVHI$7JTDPNNPOMZBDDFQUed in the literature, it has been criticized by researchers since it does not take into account the differences in population sizes of regions. In other words, it treats all observations equally. (Duran, 2014; Petrakos and ArtelarJT 1FUSBLPT 3PESJRVF[1PTF " BOE 3PWPMJT    ćJT DSFBUFT B DBveat also for our study since the population of regions is greatly heterogeneous. Such that population of Istanbul SFHJPO 53 XIJDIJTBCPVUNJMMJPO  JT  UJNFT CJHHFS UIBO UIF QPQVMBUJPOPG53 ,BTUBNPOV ÂąBOL‘S‘  Sinop) region which has population BCPVU  JOIBCJUBOUT 'PS UIFTF reasons, we find it useful to calculate also a population weighted coefficient PGWBSJBUJPO 8$7 

where pi,t represents the population share of region i in national population at time t. Lastly, we calculate an inequality inEFYEFWFMPQFECZćFJM  XIJDIJT VTFECZ:JMEJSJN ½DBMBOE½[Z‘ME‘S‘N   JO UIFJS BQQMJDBUJPO UP 5VSLJTI regions:

where si,t denotes region i’s share in OBUJPOBM JODPNF (7"  BOE n is the number of regions. We present the calculated indices in Figure 1. At a glance, two important results appear to emerge: First, a clear pattern of declining inequalities is present from 2004 to 2011. In other words, visual inspection of indices suggests a convergence pattern among regions and, therefore, homogenization of economic prosperity. Second, although the inequalities tend to decline, its level JT TUJMM RVJUF IJHI ćF FDPOPNJD SFBsons behind the observed inequalities should be interpreted together with all results. So, we will pursue such a detailed interpretation in the further parts of the paper. However, it is also worth spending few words from now

Figure 1. Evolution of regional inequality indices, Source: Authors’own analyses.

PO ćF FDPOPNJD SFBTPOT CFIJOE UIF observed inequalities are mostly attributed in the literature to the social, geographical and demographic characteristics of regions. For instance, the most prosperous regions are the placFT BSPVOE.BSNBSBBOE"FHFBO4FB  in which geographically concentrated and dynamic industries are present. .PSFPWFS  SFMBUJWFMZ IJHI MFWFM PG IVman capital and educated workforce in these regions is the most important factor that contributes to the productivity. To support these arguments with the official figures, first, we provide in the map (Figure 2) the distribution of human capital of within the regions which shows the number of people who are university graduates divided into population (Erdem, 2015). It is clearly seen in the map that high human capital and educated population concentrate in/around high inDPNFQMBDFTTVDIBT.BSNBSBBOE"Fgean regions. Second, to support our interpretation with another official figure, XF QSPWJEF JO UIF NBQ 'JHVSF   UIF distribution of industrial density of regions (in terms of industrial electricity consumption per capita. (Erdem, 2015)). It is clearly seen in the map that industrialization and electricity consumption is mostly located in/around IJHI JODPNF QMBDFT TVDI BT .BSNBSB and Aegean regions. With regard to the geographical pattern of inequalities, Figure 4 presents a map illustrating the distribution of

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Figure 2. Geographical distribution of human capital (number of university graduates/ population), Source: Authors’own analyses.

Figure 3. Geographical distribution of electricity consumption in industry (per capita) Source: Authors’own analyses.

Figure 4. Relative per capita GVA of NUTS-2 regions, Average=1, Source: Authors’own analyses.



 Hence, the income gap seems quite high as the richest region has about 4 times more real income than the poorest region. It can be observed that reHJPOT BSPVOE .BSNBSB 4FB  8FTUFSO Black Sea coast and the coastal regions along the Aegean Sea (Izmir) are the

most developed places, while middle Anatolian regions are the second and Eastern regions appear to be the least prosperous ones. .PSFPWFS  GSPN UIF NBQT XF DBO observe that income seems to follow a spatially correlated pattern where low income and high income places are geographically clustered. Indeed, this should be taken into account in further empirical analyses.

Regional inequality and international trade in Turkey: A dynamic spatial panel approach

3.2. Trade liberalization process in Turkey 'SPNTUPT 5VSLFZIBTFYperienced several milestones in the liberalization process. First, deregulation policies and economic program folMPXJOHUIFDSJTJTJOXBTEFTJHOFE to promote export-led growth and trade openness. Import-substitution approach, which took place until that time, was instead abandoned (Boratav, :FMEBO BOE ,ĂšTF    )FODF  JOUFgration to global commodity markets was achieved via trade liberalization. Exports were particularly important as the main strategy for economic growth and stability. *O   5VSLJTI MJSB CFDBNF DPOvertible in foreign markets which contributed to the acceleration of libFSBMJ[BUJPO T JT BMTP LOPXO BT B remarkable period of transition during which several international agreeNFOUT XFSF TJHOFE *O   5VSLFZ IBTKPJOFEUIF$VTUPNT6OJPO 8PSME 5SBEF 0SHBOJ[BUJPO BOE .VMUJMBUFSBM Agreement on Investment. Finally, in 2005 negotiations for European Union membership was initiated. As a consequence of these developments, volume of external trade has significantly risen. To illustrate this, we depict the evolution of export, import and total trade volumes (in dolMBST JO'JHVSFćFSFMBUFEEBUBIBT been obtained from Turkish Statistical Institute. ćFUSBEFWPMVNFTTFFNUPGPMMPXBO exponential evolution that increased TIBSQMZEVSJOHTBOE QBSUJDVMBSMZ  after 2000. While in 2000, the total exUFSOBMUSBEFXBTBSPVOE#JMMJPO%PMMBST JOJUIBTSJTFOUP#JMMJPO dollars. It can also be observed that imports were always greater than exports, creating a current account deficit which has grown over time. From a regional perspective, trade volumes have recently been increasing BT XFMM ćF FWPMVUJPO PG SFHJPOBM FYport and import volumes over time are depicted in Figure 6. It is clearly seen that trade deficit problem is even more acute at the regional level. Such that in all regions, export volumes have been increasing but the import volumes have been rising more rapidly. Overall, liberal policies and de-reg-

Figure 5. Trade liberalization of Turkish economy, Source: Authors’own analyses.

Figure 6(a). Evolution of regional import volumes, Source: Authors’ own analyses.

Figure 6(b). Evolution of regional export volumes, Source: Authors’ own analyses.

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ulation process in Turkey has resulted in rapidly increasing trade openness which might have large and heterogeneous impact on regional economies which is an issue to be investigated in the next section. 3.3. Impact of trade openness on regional inequalities In this section, we construct our empirical model by employing a range of trade, spatial and control variables. ReHJPOBMEBUBPOGPSFJHOUSBEFBOE(7" is, however, available only for the peSJPE PG  ćBUT XIZ XF BSF bound to analyse only this period. 3.3.1. Empirical Model and Data Our econometric model is based on the following spatial panel converHFODFSFHSFTTJPOXIJDIDPOTJTUTPG PCTFSWBUJPOT SFHJPOTYZFBST  Table 1 documents the definition PG WBSJBCMFT ćF EFQFOEFOU WBSJBCMF JTUIFBOOVBMHSPXUISBUFPGSFBM(7" per capita in region i at year t. ćFÄ•STU independent variable is the initial real (7" QFS DBQJUB  yi,t . Đą1 captures the convergence/divegence trend. Such that a negative and significant Đą1 would indicate an evidence of convergence pattern along which poorer regions grow faster than the richer ones. (Barro BOE4BMBJ.BSUJO   In trade variable represent the TIBSFTPGGPSFJHOUSBEFJOUPUBM(7"PG SFHJPOJBUZFBSUćFSFBSFUXPNPSF sub-versions of the trade variable; In_ export and In_import which indicate respectively the share of regional ex-

QPSUBOEJNQPSUJOSFHJPOBMUPUBM(7" Ä&#x2021;FJNQBDUPGFBDIWBSJBCMFJTFYQFDUed to be different. As indicated by, Rodriquez-Pose and Gill (2006), export firms can largely contribute to employment growth and wage patterns, which is likely to promote the local development. Similarly, enlargement of market size due to an export orientation enhances economies of scale, internal competition and productivity growth (Daumal and Ozyurt, 2011; Fu, 2004; ,SVFHFS *NQPSUT POUIFPUIFS hand, are expected to have a controWFSTJBM JNQBDU PO HSPXUI Ä&#x2021;JT NBZ also depend on the type of goods imported. If they are mostly intermediate capital goods, especially inputs for high-tech commodities, it might well stimulate the domestic production by creating supply-chain and knowledge transfers. (Grossman and Helpman,  0UIFSXJTF JNQPSUTBSFMJLFMZUP have a detrimental impact on regional growth. Ä&#x2021;F JOUFSBDUJPO UFSN CFUXFFO JOJtial income and foreign trade has been added so to understand the impact of trade on regional inequalities. Such that if Đą<0 and significant, it means that as poorer regions opens up their markets to trade, they will grow faster than the richer ones. Or, if Đą>0, for instance, poorer regions that experience an import-based liberalization, will tend to grow slower than the richer SFHJPOT  Ä&#x2021;F PUIFS UXP WBSJBCMFT BSF referred to as control variables which are commonly used in the literature.

Table 1. Definition of variables in regression equation.

Regional inequality and international trade in Turkey: A dynamic spatial panel approach

Bachelor represents the education level and human capital stock of the regions which is measured by the number of university graduates in total regional population. ln_pop is the population of regions used to capture the impact of different economic sizes of regions. Finally, Îźi,t is the error term which is assumed to follow, iid(0,Ď&#x192;), an identical and independent normal distribution with zero mean and constant variance. With regard to the estimation method, one of the most important shortcomings of simple OLS is the problem of neglected endogeneity and spatial dependence. Indeed, in our case, these problems might be even more acute since each region is likely to have a specific fixed effect and well-interconnected with each other in a spatial sense. Ä&#x2021;JT JT MJLFMZ UP DSFBUF BO VOPCTFSWFE heterogeneity across regions and bias in estimations. To be able to cope with this, we prefer to estimate the regression equation with random effects estimator and also capture the regional fixed effects by adding dummies for each region (Baltagi, 2014). (except POMZPOFPGUIFN 53$ UPBWPJEUIF dummy trap).

.PSFPWFS TQBUJBMQBSBNFUFSTBSFJOcluded so to capture the geographical spillover across regions in dependent variable (Ď ) and error terms (Îť). From a technical point of view, OLS estimation might have a severe defect that spatial economic interactions among the regions are ignored. Among the variety of spatial models introduced in the litFSBUVSF "OTFMJO  UIFNPTUDPNprehensive ones seem to be the ones that incorporate both spatial dependence in the dependent variable and JOFSSPSUFSNTÄ&#x2021;FSFGPSF XFQSFGFSUP estimate the model in this way. Hence, Ď captures the externality created by neighbouring regions on the growth SBUFTPGSFHJPOJ &SUVSBOE,PDI   and Îť captures, instead, the spatial dependence in the error terms of regions i and j. W is the spatial weight matrix which is in the form of inverse-distance and raw standardized. Ä&#x2021;F SFHSFTTJPO SFTVMUT BSF TVNNBSJ[FE JO 5BCMF  $PMVNO  JODMVEFT only initial income and control variables (bachelor and pop). In models 2-4, we add separately the trade variables one-by-one. At a glance, three important results appear to be evident from the analysis.

Table 2. Panel regression results, source: authorsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; own analyses.


The distance data between the main cities of NUTS-2 regions have been ontained from General Directorate of Highways of Turkey. The data for bachelor, population, and GVA variables, and for regional and national trade data are obtained from TUIK. The exchange rate data used to convert the currency values of trade was obtained from USDA (United States Department of Agriculture). The analyses are implemented using Eviews and R SPLM packages.

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First, initial income has a negative and significant coefficient at 1 % in all regressions. In other words, declining inequalities across regions are found to be present since is Đą1 negative and TJHOJÄ&#x2022;DBOU Ä&#x2021;JT JOEJDBUFT B TUSPOH TFU of evidence for regional income convergence. Second, as for the spatial components, spatial dependence among the error terms is found significant and positive (Îť>0) while spatial correlation in dependent variable is insignificant (Ď ). It therefore suggests that unanticipated growth (shocks) of the neighbouring regions are correlated in a sense that unexpected growth in one of them spill over to the nearby places. Ä&#x2021;JSE JONPEFM ln_trade variable IBT BO JOTJHOJÄ&#x2022;DBOU DPFÄ?DJFOU Ä&#x2021;JT actually means that aggregate trade openness has an ambiguous effect on SFHJPOBMHSPXUIQBUUFSOT$PNQPOFOUT of trade, however, are investigated in NPEFMT  BOE  UIF JNQBDU PG FYQPSU and import intensity has been examJOFE TFQBSBUFMZ *O NPEFM   ln_export has a positive and significant coeffiDJFOUÄ&#x2021;VT JUJOEJDBUFTUIFGBDUUIBUUIF regions which are more export oriented tend to grow more. .PSF JNQPSUBOUMZ  UIF JOUFSBDUJPO term between ln_export and initial income has a negative and significant DPFÄ?DJFOUÄ&#x2021;VT JUNFBOTUIBUJOJUJBMMZ poorer regions that experience an export-based liberalization tend to grow GBTUFS UIBO UIF SJDIFS POFT Ä&#x2021;VT  FY-

port â&#x20AC;&#x201C;oriented liberalization is found to be helpful in stimulating the economic convergence and narrowing the income gap. Ä&#x2021;FJNQBDUPGJNQPSUMFEMJCFSBMJ[Btion is, however, controversial. Such that it has an insignificant effect on the growth rate of regions (in model 4). With regard to the importance of control variables, their impacts are found to be insignificant. Ä&#x2021;F FDPOPNJD JOUFSQSFUBUJPO PG BMM our analysis results is important (Figure 1 and Table 2) First of all, in the first (Figure 1) and second analysis, we have found a declining pattern of regional income inequalities which means that income gap between regions tend to decrease. Second, we have found that export base economic development strategy help the underdeveloped regions grow faster and exhibit a convergence pattern to other regions. Indeed, JO 'JHVSF  XF IBWF TIPXO UIBU MFTT developed areas show a greater performance increase in export volume. To support this argument, we docuNFOUJO'JHVSF BBOEC UIFBOOVBM growth rate of regional export volumes over the 2011-2004 period. Ä&#x2021;FÄ&#x2022;HVSFTMPPLUPUBMMZTVQQPSUJWFPG PVS BSHVNFOU Ä&#x2021;F MPXJODPNF &BTUern regions exhibit a much better export performance compared to WestFSOBOEIJHIJODPNFQMBDFTÄ&#x2021;FNBQ JO'JHVSFTIPXTUIFFYQPSUHSPXUIPG regions. Pink-coloured places are the ones which have export growth above

Figure 7(a). Regional export growth rates (bar chart). Regional inequality and international trade in Turkey: A dynamic spatial panel approach

Figure 7(b). Regional export growth rates (geographical distribution).

UIFDSPTTTFDUJPOBMNFEJBO  BOE grey areas represent the places which have below-median export growth. So, one may easily observe that Eastern and South Eastern Anatolian regions BOE.JEEMF"OBUPMJBO3FHJPOT XIJDI are known to be relatively poorer, show a superior export performance that, in turn, contribute to the narrowing process of income gap. To interpret further our regression results, we should refer to Turkeyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s dynamics. Export orientation of underdeveloped regions enhances economic HSPXUIBOEDPOWFSHFODFQSPDFTTÄ&#x2021;JT TPVOETQMBVTJCMFBTÄ&#x2022;SNTBSPVOE.BSmara and Aegean regions exhibit recently a tendency to move inner Anatolia, East and Southern regions. Firms prefer these regions as the labour and land cost is less in South and Eastern regions. So, as firms invest more in export based production in these regions, employment and production will increase which will promote the local development in Eastern/Southern regions and reduction of regional inequalities will occur. All the results that we have so far obtained provide several implications to policy makers. In Turkey, South and Eastern regions have a big potential for manufacturing production since land and labour costs are relatively lower. So, policy makers should be active in diverting the investments to these areas. Specifically, they can subsidize export based companies in these regions through direct subsidies or tax exempUJPOT  Ä&#x2021;FZ TIPVME EFWFMPQ XFMM UIF JOGSBTUSVDUVSFBOEMPHJTUJDSPVUFTÄ&#x2021;FZ can develop more free international trade zones in South/Eastern regions.

/PU POMZ NBOVGBDUVSJOH CVU BMTP BHriculture is important. Hence, agricultural exports should be very well supported in these regions. Because there are valuable local products (agricultural products and food) in these places, these products should be very well marketed. 4. Conclusion Ä&#x2021;JTQBQFSIBTJOWFTUJHBUFEUIFDPOsequences of trade liberalization on the evolution of regional inequalities within Turkey. Having implemented various econometric and spatial analyses, we obtained several remarkable conclusions. First, over the period of analysis, 2004-2011, spatial inequalities, although quite sizable, tend to decline which is associated with economic and trade liberalization process. Second, aggregate trade per se fall short from explaining the evolution of inequalities but the composition of trade provides relevant insights. Such that initially poorer regions which opens up their markets with an export orientation tend to catch up the richer regions and reduce the income gap. Import liberalization has, in contrast, a controverTJBMJNQBDUÄ&#x2021;JSE TQBUJBMQSPYJNJUZJT found to matter in regional growth pattern in a way that unexpected growth in one region is spilled over to the neighbouring ones. To sum up, trade liberalization seems to have favoured the regional convergence in Turkey. Export-orientation and diffusion of manufacturing activities from developed to underdeveloped regions is likely to have reinforced this process. Overall, from a political point

*56"];t7PM/Pt/PWFNCFSt)&%VSBO 6&SEFN

of view, this mechanism should be supported more to maintain fully the territorial and social cohesion. To be able to achieve this, the export orientation should be subsidized more in less developed regions either via direct or inEJSFDUJOTUSVNFOUTÄ&#x2021;FEJSFDUTVQQPSU can be provided through tax exemption, direct financial assistance and/ or rental aid to exporter firms whereas indirect support can be given by establishing physical infrastructure, such as airports, roads, or by enhancing social infrastructure and human capital stock by promoting education and establishing universities. Finally, another important policy suggestion drawn from our analyses is to promote the bilateral trade agreements and eliminating the barriers against the free international trade, especially with those countries to which the country can export well the goods and services. References Aghion, P., Burgess, R., Redding, S., BOE ;JMJCPUUJ  '   Ä&#x2021;F 6OFRVBM &Ä&#x152;FDUT PG -JCFSBMJ[BUJPO Ä&#x2021;FPSZ BOE Evidence from India. Society for Economic Dynamics, Discussion Paper /P "OTFMJO  -   4QBUJBM &DPOPNFUSJDT.FUIPETBOE.PEFMT 4UVEJFT JO 0QFSBUJPOBM 3FHJPOBM 4DJFODF  7PMume 4, Springer #BZQÂ&#x2018;OBS .#  &SLVU (    Ekonomik KüreselleÅ&#x;me ve Türkiyeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;de Bölgesel Ã&#x153;retkenlik DüzeylerindF:BLÂ&#x2018;OTBNBÉ&#x2014;5Ã&#x192;%FSHJTJ".JNBSMÂ&#x2018;L  1MBOMBNB 5BTBSÂ&#x2018;N    #BMUBHJ  )   &DPOPNFUSJD Analysis of Panel Data. 5th Edition, Wiley Blackwell #BSSP  3 +  4BMBJ.BSUJO  9   $POWFSHFODF+PVSOBMPG1PMJUJDBM&DPOPNZ    #BSSP3+ 4BMBJ.BSUJO9    $POWFSHFODF BDSPTT 4UBUFT BOE 3Fgions. Brookings Papers on Economic "DUJWJUZ    #Sà MIBSU  .   Ä&#x2021;F TQBUJBM FGfects of trade openness: a survey. ReWJFXPG8PSME&DPOPNJDT  o #SàMIBSU . $BSSFSF $ 5SJPOGFUUJ  F., (2010). How wages and employment adjust to trade liberalisation: Quasi-experimental evidence from Austria, .JNFP 6OJWFSTJUZPG-BVTBOOF

#FO%BWJE  %   5FBDI ZPVS $IJMESFO 8FMM 1MBOUJOH UIF 4FFET PG Education and Harvesting the Benefits of Trade. Paper 2000-5, Tel-Aviv University. #PSBUBW   ,  :FMEBO  &  ,Ã&#x161;TF  "    (MPCBMJ[BUJPO  %JTUSJCVUJPO BOE 4PDJBM 1PMJDZ 5VSLFZ   $&1"8PSLJOH1BQFS4FSJFT* $IJRVJBS  %   8IZ .FYJDPT regional income convergence broke down. Journal of Development EcoOPNJDT  o $PF  %5  )FMQNBO  &    *Oternational R&D Spillovers. European &DPOPNJD3FWJFX    $SP[FU  .  ,PFOJH4PVCFZSBO 1  (2004). Trade liberalization and the internal geography of countries. In: .BZFS 5  .VDDIJFMMJ +- FET  .VMUJnational firmsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; location and economic HFPHSBQIZ&EXBSE&MHBS $IFMUFOIBN %BVNBM  .   Ä&#x2021;F *NQBDU PG Trade Openness on Regional InequaliUZÄ&#x2021;F$BTFTPG*OEJBBOE#SB[JM*OUFSOBUJPOBM5SBEF+PVSOBM   o %BVNBM . 0[ZVSU 4   Ä&#x2021;F Impact of International Trade Flows on Economic Growth in Brazilian States. Review of Economics and Institutions, 2(1), 1-25. %PHSVFM ' %PHSVFM4   5VSkiyeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;de bolgesel gelir farkliliklari ve Cà ZàNF *LUJTBUÃ&#x192;[FSJOF:B[Â&#x2018;MBS ,PSLVU #PSBUBWB"SNBHBO *MFUJTJN:BZÂ&#x2018;OMBSÂ&#x2018; Dollar, D., Kraay, A., (2004). Trade, (SPXUI BOE 1PWFSUZ  Ä&#x2021;F &DPOPNJD +PVSOBM    Duran E. H. (2014). Short run dynamics of income disparities and regional cycle synchronization in the U.S. (SPXUIBOE$IBOHF    &MWFSFO ":  8BHFJOFRVBMJUZ in Turkey: Decomposition by statistical SFHJPOT  o 3FWJFX PG 6SCBO and Regional Development Studies,  o Erdem, U. (2016). Regional Human $BQJUBM%JTUSJCVUJPOBOE%JTQBSJUJFTJO Turkey. Review of Urban and Regional Development Studies. doi: 10.1111/ SVSE Erdem U. (2015). Spatial effects of trade openness: Regional inequality, trade openness and liberal trade poliDJFTJO5VSLFZ .BTUFSÄ&#x2021;FTJT *[NJS*OTUJUVUFPG5FDIOPMPHZ $JUZBOE3FHJPOal Planning Department.

Regional inequality and international trade in Turkey: A dynamic spatial panel approach

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and Regional Development Studies,    ,SVFHFS "0  'PSFJHO5SBEF Regimes and Economic Development: -JCFSBMJ[BUJPO "UUFNQUT BOE $POTFRVFODFT$BNCSJEHF ."#BMMJOHFSGPS UIF/#&3 ,SVHNBO1 &MJ[POEP-3    5SBEFQPMJDZBOEÄ&#x2021;JSE8PSMENFUSPQolis. Journal of Development EconomJDT   o Leichenko, R., Silva, J., (2004). International trade, employment, and earnings: Evidence from rural counties. ReHJPOBM4UVEJFT   o -PBZ[B / 'BKO[ZMCFS 1 $BMEFSPO  $   &DPOPNJD(SPXUIJO-BUJO "NFSJDB BOE Ä&#x2021;F $BSJCCFBO 4UZMJ[FE Facts, Explanations, and Forecasts. 8PSLJOH1BQFST$FOUSBM#BOLPG$IJMF  $FOUSBM#BOLPG$IJMF .ZSEBM (  &DPOPNJDUIFPSZ and underdeveloped regions. Harper & 3PX /FX:PSL +JBO  5 4BDIT  +%  8BSOFS  " .    5SFOET JO SFHJPOBM JOFRVBMJUZ JO $IJOB $IJOB &DPOPNJD 3FWJFX    1â&#x20AC;&#x201C;21. 0LUBZ &  (P[HPS (    5SBEF and Regional Development in a DeWFMPQJOH$PVOUSZÄ&#x2021;FDBTFPG5VSLFZ Review of Urban and Regional DevelPQNFOU4UVEJFT    0[ZVSU  4   %BVNBM  .     Trade openness and regional income spillovers in Brazil: A spatial econometric approach. Papers in Regional 4DJFODF    Paluzie, E., Pons, J., Tirado, D.A.,   Ä&#x2021;F (FPHSBQIJDBM $PODFOtration ofIndustry across Spanish ReHJPOT o3FWJFXPG3FHJPOBM 3FTFBSDI   o 1FSOJB  &.  2VJTJOH  1'    Trade openness and regional development in a developing country. Annals PG3FHJPOBM4DJFODF   o Petrakos G., Rodriquez-Pose, A., Rovolis A., (2005). Growth, integration, and regional disparities in the European Union. Environment and PlanOJOH   1FUSBLPT( "SUFMBSJT1   3Fgional convergence revisited: A WLS "QQSPBDI(SPXUIBOE$IBOHF     3JWBT  (.   Ä&#x2021;F &Ä&#x152;FDU PG Trade Openness on Regional Inequal-

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JUZJO.FYJDPÄ&#x2021;F"OOBMTPG3FHJPOBM 4DJFODF    Rodriquez-Pose, A. (2012). Trade and Regional Inequality. Economic (FPHSBQIZ    3PESJRVF[1PTF " (JMM /    How Does Trade Affect Regional DisQBSJUJFT  8PSME %FWFMPQNFOU     1201â&#x20AC;&#x201C;1222. Rodriguezâ&#x20AC;?Pose, A., Sanchezâ&#x20AC;?Reaza, J., (2005). Economic polarization through trade: Trade liberalization and SFHJPOBMHSPXUIJO.FYJDP*O,BOCVS  R. et al. (ed). Spatial Inequality and Development. Oxford University Press, 0YGPSEQQo Senesen, U. (2002). Turkiyeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;de Bolgesel Gelir Dagiliminda Son Gelismeler. 10. Ulusal Bolge Bilimi/Bolge 1MBOMBNB,POHSFTJ o&LJN 

*56.JNBSMÂ&#x2018;L'BLVMUFTJ *TUBOCVM Ä&#x2021;FJM )  &DPOPNJDTBOE*OGPSNBUJPOÄ&#x2021;FPSZ"NTUFSEBN/PSUIHolland :JMEJSJN  +  0DBM  /  0[ZJMEJSJN 4   *ODPNFJOFRVBMJUZBOEFDPnomic convergence in Turkey: A spatial effect analysis. International ReHJPOBM4DJFODF3FWJFX    :PVOH "  -FBSOJOHCZEPJOH and the dynamics effects of international trade. Quarterly Journal of EcoOPNJDT  o

Regional inequality and international trade in Turkey: A dynamic spatial panel approach


Post occupancy evaluation of a transformed design studio


doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2017.15807

3FDFJWFE.BSDIt Final Acceptance: December 2017

Abstract The decision-makersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; choices regarding the design and construction of educational spaces have a direct impact on the academic culture. With regard to the design studios, the physical conditions of the studio spaces specifically act as the main element that creates the studio culture. The present study aims at understanding the relationship between the spatial transformation and the expectations of the students. Following a post occupancy approach, we asked, â&#x20AC;&#x153;What can we learn from collection of individual evaluations of studentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; on transformed studio environment?â&#x20AC;? and â&#x20AC;&#x153;Where does this knowledge fit in the readily available literature on built environment and learning spaces?â&#x20AC;? Twenty-five students are asked to write texts on their expectations related to a transformed studio in which they were receiving education at the time of the study. The texts are first examined for the frequency of the words used via cloud analysis. Following that analysis, two independent evaluators identified the phenomena in the texts and conducted a content analysis. The student expectations are classified into two main groups: Learning Experiences and Spatial Experiences. Learning experience involves three subgroups namely variation in work practices, creativity and social interactions and spatial experience is made up of physical comfort and furniture subgroups. Although during the spatial transformation, some improvement have been made, they did not completely fulfill the studentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; expectations. The present study proposes that in such spatial transformations, it would be possible to attain user satisfaction when decision-makers follow participatory processes in which all groups that would be effected can participate. Keywords Studio education, Post occupancy evaluation, Content analysis, Learning experience, Interior.

1. Introduction 6OJWFSTJUZ DBNQVTFT  UIF CVJMEJOHT that make up the campuses, the interior and exterior spaces of these buildings are all integral components that shape the academic culture that will warrant the university to fulfill its misTJPO 'VHB[[BUUP     8IJMF making decisions regarding these resources, beyond providing physical infrastructure that serves certain functions, the university administrators set the quality of life for the occupants of the campus spaces as well. Today, we cannot avoid facing the reality that the learning expectations of the new generation of students are different and responding to these in design of campus environments is more crucial than ever 3VÄ&#x152;P   The present study seeks to understand the evaluations of the students regarding the spatial transformation carried out in the studios after the change in the studio pedagogy followed by the institutions. In order to frame the study we asked â&#x20AC;&#x153;What can we learn from collection of individual evaluations of studentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; about a transformed studio environment?â&#x20AC;? and â&#x20AC;&#x153;Where does this knowledge fit in the readily available literature on built environment and learning spaces?â&#x20AC;? The literature review of this study is threefold. First, the literature on built environment and learning spaces will be discussed, and second review of literature on the design studio will be presented. Finally, similar studies conducted by incorporating Post Occupancy Evaluation approach will be shared. 2. Built environment and learning space Earlier research indicates the features of built environment impacts the eagerness and interest for learning and in turn the learning process, social participation and academic achieveNFOU %VSBO/BSVDLJ &BSUNBO   ,VNBS FU BM   4DIOFJEFS  :BOHFUBM %FWMJO   Many design decisions that will have a direct impact on the education experience such as the perception of the education building, the functions that will take place in the spaces, the relations between interior and exterior spaces,

elements of exterior space, the form of the class and the configurations of the furniture, are decisions everybody can contribute to when -through suitable instruments- participation is warrantFE 4BOPÄ&#x152;   In the research they conducted at UISFF64IJHIFSFEVDBUJPOJOTUJUVUJPOT  4DPUU8FCCFS FU BM   DPODMVEed that in classes that support active learning, the rates of participation, co-working and in-class interaction (between academician-student and beUXFFOTUVEFOUT BSFIJHIFSUIBOJUJTJO traditional classrooms. 3. Design studio The studio spaces where students spend a great deal of their time form the heart of the design education. Researchers describe the design studio through the learning experience at the studio, referring to it as the space where the uncertainty and uniqueness in design education is foregrounded, where the students focus on solving the problems that emerge, develop new ways of understanding and reflect what they sense into knowledge (SchĂśn, 4DIĂ&#x161;O 4DIĂ&#x161;OBOE8JHHJOT  4BMBNB   The learning experience at the design studio is among the design research topics that has attracted the attention of researchers in our country. The relationship between the students verbal and written expression skills and their QFSGPSNBODF BU UIF TUVEJP 6MVTPZ   UIFJNQPSUBODFPGUIFDSJUJRVFT JO TIBSJOH EFTJHO LOPXMFEHF 6MVPĘ&#x201C;MV  BOEUIFDPOOFDUJPOCFUXFFO varied learning skills of design students BOEBDBEFNJDBDIJFWFNFOU %FNJSLBO BOE %FNJSCBĘ°    BSF BNPOH UIF studies carried out in Turkey. %VF UP UIF GFBUVSFT NFOUJPOFE above, studio education provide a source to be used for the learning experience in other disciplines (Brandt et BM  4IBÄ&#x152;FS  XIPPCTFSWFE the design studios at MIT, adopted the components of studio for mathematiDBM FEVDBUJPO #SBOU FU BM   DSFated a theoretical framework for the application of studio-based learning in the human computer interaction field. Since the design studios are used not only during class hours but also at other

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times, it is very crucial for the students to embrace the space and enjoy spendJOHUJNFBUUIFTUVEJP$VÄ&#x152;  BSgues that design studios are not just â&#x20AC;&#x153;work spacesâ&#x20AC;? but a combination of home and workspace thus bear a similarity with a â&#x20AC;&#x153;home-officeâ&#x20AC;? approach. %VF UP UIF OBUVSF PG UIF DPNNVnication tools used and the nature of learning experience, design studios are different from standard classrooms. This difference requires a specialization in the physical specifications of the studio space in accordance with the design education. Several research focused on the impact of the physical specifications of the studios on design and education and correlate spatial comfort components with student performance. 4. Post occupancy evaluation Post Occupancy Evaluation approach can be defined as a process that is proposed for determining and solving problems which were not noticed during the design process, overlooked during construction but noticed at the UJNFPGPDDVQBODZUIVTJUJTBQSPDFTT that is oriented towards increasing the performance of the environment (PreiTFSFUBM  "DDPSEJOHUP1SFJTFSFU BM  QPTUPDDVQBODZFWBMVBUJPOJT a systematic and practical method for the evaluation of buildings where the construction is completed and occupancy process started. Post occupancy evaluation approach focuses on occupants of the buildings and their needs through the results of the design decisions made in the past and thus shedding light on the resulting performance PGUIFCVJMEJOH 1SFJTFSFUBM   "DDPSEJOHUP%Ă MHFSPĘ&#x201C;MVFUBM   the method of evaluation during occupancy impacted the role of the architect in the design process. The architectâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s task no longer ends when the designed QSPEVDU JT DPOTUSVDUFE UIF DBVTF BOE effect relationship between the design and the application becomes continuous through being combined with the evaluation of the occupancy process %Ă MHFSPĘ&#x201C;MVFUBM  "DDPSEJOHUP ;JNSJOH   QPTU PDDVQBODZ FWBMuation research provide a great opporUVOJUZ GPS DPSQPSBUF MFBSOJOH %VSTVO BOE½[TPZ  DPOTJEFSUIFQPTUPD-

cupancy evaluation approach as a tool that is useful for designers to re-scrutinized the human being-built environment relation and learn from their own experience. Post occupancy evaluation approach, brings together research and design and provides a knowledge base GPS UIF GVUVSF QSPKFDUT %VSTVO BOE ½[TPZ   The post occupancy evaluation reTFBSDI4BOPÄ&#x152;  DBSSJFEPVUBUUIF architecture school of six universities by using a walk through instrument, in which an evaluation of six components, namely context, massing, interface, wayfinding, social-spatial and comfort is studied, is one of the first such work in the field. The results of this work indicates that the wayfinding and comfort were the least successful components at all of the universities FWBMVBUFE 4BOPÄ&#x152;   The results of another study evaluating sixteen architecture schools, thirUFFOPGXIJDIBSFJOUIF6OJUFE4UBUFT  indicates that the occupants complain about the physical conditions of the space that are poor acoustics, lighting, inequality in air-conditioning, insufÄ&#x2022;DJFOU WFOUJMBUJPO /BTBS FU BM    The main reason for the observation of these common complaints at several different faculties is that the studios, which are essential for architecture education, are actually spaces constructed using large and hard, durable materials which render providing comfort quite tough. The existence of a small number of faculty buildings where the studio space is divided into smaller sections, with dedicated areas for critique and juries, and anti-glare sun-light control, adequate task lighting, sound absorbing materials and comfortable seating indicates there are in fact solutions to UIJTQSPCMFN /BTBSFUBM   In our country, the studies carried out on the exterior spaces of university campuses which were conducted through collaboration of several different universities indicates a knowledge network is emerging in this area Ă&#x192;OMĂ FUBMÂąVCVLĂ&#x17D;VBOE*Ę°Â&#x2018;UBO    )PXFWFS  UIF QPTU PDDVQBODZ evaluation research in Turkey is mainly focused on urban spaces (Ă&#x2013;zsoy et BM ,PSLNB[BOE5Ă SLPĘ&#x201C;MV  :Â&#x2018;MEÂ&#x2018;[ BOE ÉŽFOFS    BOE UIF OVN-

Post occupancy evaluation of a transformed design studio

Figure 1. The spatial transformation that took in place in 2010. Note the second floor installed and wall divisions made for studios in right.

Figure 2. The transformation of the studios from four small studios to one big one.

ber of studies on interior spaces in this research area is quite limited. The studies on the personal space needs of UIF TUVEFOUT JO UIF TUVEJP %FNJSCBÊ° BOE%FNJSLBO BOEPOUIFSFMBtionship between the studentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; choices of location in the studio and their BDIJFWFNFOU &EHà    BSF XPSLT on single components of interior space. ,BSTMÂ&#x2018;   FWBMVBUFE PQFO BOE cell-type studios used for traditional architectural education through a post occupancy evaluation and after determining the strong and weak aspects of the existing studios, she suggested a combi-design which will fulfill the spatial requirements of new learning styles. Combi-design studio is defined as a single space where in-group presentations and critiques are allowed through flexible separators but where the social interaction and communication is also strong. In her article on the design studios PGÉ&#x2014;TUBOCVM5FDIOJDBM6OJWFSTJUZT'BDVMUZPG"SDIJUFDUVSF (àS  QPJOUT out to the different spatial features of

open and cell type design studios and dwells on the impact of these features on the student-to-student and the student-academician interactions. 6MUJNBUFMZ  Ä&#x2022;OEJOHT PG QPTU PDDVpancy evaluations provide a knowledge base for the future design activities with similar challenges to overcome some â&#x20AC;&#x201C;if not all- future problems. )PXFWFSGPMMPXJOHBQBSUJDJQBUPSZEFsign approach will not only ensure that the implemented design fulfills the expectations but it will also enable people to develop sense of belonging in early TUFQTPGJNQMFNFOUBUJPO 4BOPÄ&#x152;   5. The scope and aim of the study This study is about the studentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; post occupancy evaluations on the spatial changes that took place in some of the TUVEJPTBUUIF$JCBMJ$BNQVTPG,BEJS )BT 6OJWFSTJUZ  Ä&#x2021;F CVJMEJOH XIFSF UIF,BEJS)BT6OJWFSTJUZT$JCBMJ$BNpus is situated at was constructed in  EVSJOH UIF SFJHO PG "CEVMIBNJE II as the Cibali Tobacco and Cigarette 'BDUPSZ-PDBUFEPOBNMBOE

*56"];t7PM/Pt/PWFNCFSt0,FQF[ 4Ã&#x192;TU

Figure 3. Photographs of the old studio where each studio instructor was given a separate room to conduct studios.

Figure 4. Panoramic photo of the new studio. Hall area where all studio doors were opened is now used for circulation.

XJUI B  N JOUFSJPS TQBDF  JU JT among the significant buildings of our early industrial era cultural heritage "MQFS  *O UIFGBDUPSZXBT FWBDVBUFE BOE BMMPUUFE UP ,BEJS )BT 6OJWFSTJUZ UP CF VTFE GPS FEVDBUJPOBM QVSQPTFT GPS  ZFBST "MQFS    The project for converting the Cibali Tobacco and Cigarette Factory into ,BEJS)BT6OJWFSTJUZSFDFJWFEUIF&VSPQF/PTUSBBXBSEEVFUPJUTFMBCPSBUF and comprehensive restoration and its contribution to the improvement of UIFSFHJPOJUJTMPDBUFEBU "MQFS   The interior space that is the focus PG UIF TUVEZ XBT DSFBUFE JO  CZ dividing the space used as an indoor sports facility within the Faculty of "SUBOE%FTJHOJOUPUXPTUPSJFT"UJUT foundation, the university set up an aim for education focused on a small number of students. The spatial reflection of this aim was studios which were separated from each other with a wall, opening up to a common hallway and FBDIPGXIJDITFSWFEBNBYJNVNPG TUVEFOUT 'JHVSF  As a part of this transformation, small-scale studios that were situated at the ground level of the university and that could accommodate a maxiNVNPGTUVEFOUT BQSPKFDUHSPVQ  were recreated at both of the newly acquired levels and a total of eight studios were attained. After the vertical educa-

tion model where students at different studio levels are taught by a single instructor was abandoned for a new educational model, these spaces, which XFSF VTFE BDUJWFMZ CFUXFFO  BOE   GBJMFE UP GVMÄ&#x2022;MM UIF DPPSEJOBUJPO needs of different group coordinators and communication needs among students who were in different groups. It is observed that to solve this problem, all of the studio instructors initially taught classes by keeping the studio doors open and used the halls for notices and joint critiques, encouraging the students to visit other studios. Eventually, a decision to tear down the walls to transform this space, which was closed up by building walls four years ago, into BTJOHMFCPEZBHBJOJTNBEF 'JHVSF  The aim of the transformation is to create a single, large area that will reQMBDFGPVSTNBMMTUVEJPTTFSWJOHTUVdents with one big space that supports UIF HSPVQ XPSL PG  TUVEFOUT "Mthough by the removal of the walls, the visibility within the space increased, the project classes are hold with the same spatial organization using the same furniture and following the same organizational pattern. This transformation, that took place only four years after the initial intervention, does not involve any improvement suggestions other than the removal of the walls 'JHVSFBOE 

Post occupancy evaluation of a transformed design studio

In the first project class that was held at the new studio, a post occupancy evaluation was carried out to understand which aspects of the student expectations are fulfilled by this new space. Another aim was to have this study act as a source in the form of a case study on the given studio topic that is focused on education spaces. With post occupancy evaluation of this studio, a research-focused approach is followed with a goal of making students question the use/occupancy of the buildings, which are assigned to them as the project topic, via different techniques. Within this framework, the students had the opportunity to experience the post occupancy evaluation approach initially as a participant and later as an implementer. An approach that considers research to be an integral part of undergraduate education as well as acknowledging research-focused education to be scientific are now XJEFMZ BDDFQUFE #PZFS   #PZFS BOE .JUHBOH   ,FQF[    *O this context, the design studio is not an environment that is merely designed upon debatable tastes and personal approaches, where the instructors are the â&#x20AC;&#x153;mastersâ&#x20AC;? and the students are the â&#x20AC;&#x153;apprenticesâ&#x20AC;?. On the contrary, the studio is an environment of interaction and sharing where the provision of education is considered within the framework of â&#x20AC;&#x153;scholarship of teachingâ&#x20AC;?. This, in turn, makes the studio a research space which is nourished by knowledge from other disciplines, where accepted research findings are shared and where the students and instructors investigate their questions and several phenomena together. This definition also pertains to the studio where the present research is undertaken and the work discussed in the article is also among the studio components. 6. Methodology Post occupancy evaluation is an approach that incorporates various action SFTFBSDINFUIPET ;FJTFM  Ä&#x2021;FTF methods may involve short visits by the experts of the field to the building that will be evaluated, and reports of a certain pre-determined format they prepare on the observations and views CBTFEPOUIFTFWJTJUT ;JNSJOH  

.BOBIBTB BOE ½[TPZ   XIP conducted a post occupancy evaluation of a campus building in Istanbul, sought to understand the impact of the new building on the student behavior and student satisfaction through the use of mixed techniques such as surveys, interviews, observations and behavior mapping. %BJMZ VTFS TBUJTGBDUJPO TVSWFZT  VUJlized for systematic data collection from various occupants impacted by the design decisions, may also be the main source for post occupancy evaluation. In addition to that, other post occupancy evaluation methods such as focus groups and new generation post occupancy evaluations that use mobile technologies for data collection are BWBJMBCMF 6MUJNBUFMZ  QPTU PDDVQBODZ evaluation techniques form a rich scale and they are field techniques that are designed in line with the goal, time and budget. When preliminary criteria are set for post occupancy evaluation, this in turn, leads to a reduction of the occupant feedback into only these preset criteria. When the pedagogical approach at the project studio is considered, it becomes obvious that evaluating complex phenomena with a reductionist method will not help students build awareness on the issue. Based on this premise, no preset criteria were determined, instead students were asked to write texts accounting their experiences in this new studio. This way, rather than being given predetermined criteria, which may be leading, the students focused on their own experiences. In fact, each text has the characteristic of an open ended question they answered regarding their spatial experience. Through these texts, the students are expected to build the act of designing the studio space over their own learning practices, making use of their own experiences. With the texts the students are asked to write, the aim was to make them criticize the learning space, system and style and thus re-think on the studio space, face the problems and evaluate them. 'PS UIJT SFTFBSDI   XPSET UIBU are obtained from the texts produced JOEFQFOEFOUMZCZTUVEFOUTBSFFWBMuated through a methodology which utilized both quantitative and quali-

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tative research methods, namely tag clouding analysis and content analysis. 7. Analysis At the pre-evaluation stage, the XPSET XJUIJO UIF  XPSE UFYU BSF listed according to their frequency and weight through tag clouding method which is a quantitative analysis method. While the cloud that lists the words according to their frequency is created, words that occur often in Turkish text hence have a high frequency (such as CVU B BDDPSEJOHUP BOE PS UIJT UIBU  yet should not be included in the analysis are eliminated. An open source online tag cloud software was used to DPOEVDUUIFBOBMZTJT 4UFJOCPDL OE  In the â&#x20AC;&#x153;tag cloudâ&#x20AC;? illustration, the sizes and the shades of the words change in line with their degree of importance. As can be seen in the cloud, the words most often used by the students are â&#x20AC;&#x153;designâ&#x20AC;?, â&#x20AC;&#x153;studentâ&#x20AC;?, â&#x20AC;&#x153;human beingâ&#x20AC;?, â&#x20AC;&#x153;areaâ&#x20AC;?, â&#x20AC;&#x153;spaceâ&#x20AC;? and â&#x20AC;&#x153;educationâ&#x20AC;?. Other words that stand out are â&#x20AC;&#x153;differentâ&#x20AC;?, â&#x20AC;&#x153;freeâ&#x20AC;?, â&#x20AC;&#x153;workâ&#x20AC;? and â&#x20AC;&#x153;studioâ&#x20AC;?. Tag cloud is a preliminary analysis that is carried out in order to obtain the sub-headings to be used in the content

Figure 5. Tag Cloud analysis that included all written text about studios.

Figure 6. Emerging phenomena from the content analysis.

analysis, which is the following step 'JHVSF  The aim of content analysis is to study the data obtained from the texts and discover the main concepts and reMBUJPOT $SFTXFMM  Ä&#x2021;FUFYUT collected from the students are examined by two independent researchers and grouped according to the observed phenomena. Later on, these phenomena are compared and each group is givFOBDFSUBJODPEF IFBEJOH Ä&#x2021;SPVHIB deeper analysis of the texts, which are categorized according to the common codes that are determined, the aim was to reveal concepts and relations which were not noticed earlier. According to the results of the content analysis, the student texts contain two main phenomena, namely the features regarding the spatial experience and the learning experience8IFOUIFDPMMFDUFEUFYUT BSFFYBNJOFE TVCUFYUTPOUIFGFBUVSFT PG UIF TQBUJBM FYQFSJFODF BOE  sub-texts on the features of learning FYQFSJFODFBSFEJTDPWFSFE 'JHVSF  7.1. Features of the spatial experience The content analysis results show that in the studio environment, fulfilling occupantsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; needs related to spatial experience is the initial step in increasing the productivity. This analysis indicates that the texts on the needs related to spatial experience involves UXP TVCIFBEJOHT UIF DPNQPOFOUT of physical environment comfort and components of furniture. An overview PGUIFUFYUTTIPXTUIBUUFYUTNFOUJPO components of physical environment DPNGPSU BOE  UFYUT NFOUJPO DPNQPnents of furniture. Physical environment comfort components can be considered as the first spatial comfort components that impact the productivity of the education process at the studio. The physical environment comfort components impact the learning process of the student by providing auditory, visual and therNBMDPNGPSUPGUIFTQBDF,SĂ HFSBOE ;BOOJO  TVHHFTUUIBUBMMQIZTJDBM environment parameters are related to each other and the comfort of the occupant is based on the perception of all these factors as a whole. Students frequently mention that physical environment factors impact

Post occupancy evaluation of a transformed design studio

the quality of life of the occupants and need to be considered at the design QIBTF "O PWFSWJFX PG UIF  UFYUT JO which physical environment comfort component are mentioned, we see that 11 texts comment on visual comfort FMFNFOUT UFYUDPNNFOUPOBDPVTUJD DPNGPSU DPNQPOFOUT BOE  UFYU DPNment on thermal comfort components. In the sections where they make a remark on the visual comfort in their texts on the design of the studio, the students mentioned the importance of daylight, the quality and quantity of the artificial lighting that is used and the DPOUSPMPGHMBSFBOETIBEFT 5BCMF  In their texts, students mentioned that the design studios are not only a co-working environment but also a space for interaction. The earlier research indicates that a class with poor acoustics can become a distracting and CPSJOH TQBDF PG MFBSOJOH :BOH FU BM   %PDLSFMM BOE 4IJFME    Ä&#x2021;F student views support these research and emphasizes the significance of auditory comfort due to the communication and flow of knowledge at the TUVEJP 5BCMF  Students emphasized the importance of indoor air quality through examples, such as insufficient ventilation, polluted air, ambient temperature that is too hot or too cold and humidity that is below the comfort level, which cause the air to become uncomfortable and VOIFBMUIZ 5BCMF  One reason why the component of the physical environment is dominant in the post occupancy evaluation of the new classroom is the failure to provide any improvements on this issue during the transformation. Students who experienced similar issues in the previous studios have a particular sensitivity towards this issue. The other spatial comfort component the students consider important is the variety of furniture and ergonomy. It is known that ergonomic thus more comfortable furniture allow students to focus better and to participate more activeMZJOUIFMFTTPO ,OJHIUBOE/PZFT  &TQFZ )BSWFZBOE,FOZPO   "DDPSEJOH UP 5BZMPS   XIJDI focuses on the impact of studios on learning and teaching, the flexibility provided to the students and the acade-

Table 1. Selected examples of student views on visual comfort.

Table 2. Selected examples of student views on acoustic comfort.

Table 3. Selected examples of student views on thermal comfort.

Table 4. Selected examples of student views on features of furniture.

micians through the transformation of a traditional classroom into a studio with mobile furniture and chairs has a positive impact on the experience of both groups. In the texts collected, we see that the students make remarks on the feaUVSFTPGUIFGVSOJUVSFBTXFMM 5BCMF  The results of the content analysis indicate that problems related to spatial comfort appear frequently in the texts. It is concluded that in comparison to the other phenomena, spatial comfort is more dominant and so long as the problems on this issue are prevailing, suggestions regarding the learning experience would remain of secondary importance. 7.2. Features of the learning experience When the studentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; expectations on the learning experience are examined, it can be concluded that studios must

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Table 5. Selected examples of student views on creativity.

Table 6. Selected examples of student views on work styles.

Table 7. Selected examples of student views on communication.

be spaces which enable individual and group work, support creativity by motivating working for long periods, providing opportunities for not only interaction and communication among students but also between students and academicians and allowing interdisciplinary collaborations.

When we examine the texts, we see that students want studios that will increase their motivation to work and that XJMMTVQQPSUUIFJSDSFBUJWJUZ 5BCMF  The students stated that besides the individual work spaces, where they will seek answers to their own design questions, there should be settings that allow the flow of knowledge and critiques through debates and thus enDPVSBHFHSPVQXPSL 5BCMF  Studios are learning spaces where everyone can interact with others and where sharing of knowledge is possible. In the texts collected from the students, they suggest sharing of knowledge should not be limited to interior architecture students and academicians but it should involve students and academicians from different disciplines and an environment that would support interdisciplinary work thorough common work spaces should be DSFBUFE 5BCMF  8. Conclusion Presented study carried out content analyses of individual texts written about a transformed studio by students and reported multiple aspects of environment that played role in studentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; learning and spatial experiences in the studio environment. There are a few limitations of the study. The first one is related to the fact that the research focused only on the area where the spatial transformation in the building is carried out without considering its relationship to the other related spaces. Moreover, the research was done at a time when the students have experienced the studio for just two weeks. Additionally, due to the fact that the research is carried out as an integrated part of the project taught at the studio, it was not possible to keep the identity PG UIF TUVEFOUT BOPOZNPVT )PXFWFS  through the democratic and participatory execution of the classes, the students are reassured to freely express their thoughts at every phase of the studio. Studios must be spaces students frequently use and enjoy spending time in. Beyond being merely physical spaces where education is provided, they should be spaces where each student has control over his/her own â&#x20AC;&#x153;learningâ&#x20AC;?

Post occupancy evaluation of a transformed design studio

experience. This control entails being able to modify both physical comfort components and spatial components according to personal preferences and even having a say in the activities that take place as a part of the studio education. The present work reveals that the students highlight the necessity of a studio environment which goes beyond being a space that fulfills the studentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; expectations regarding physical environment and furniture components. They seek a space where they can work individually and in groups, be inspired to work for long stretches of time, interacting and communicating not only with their own classmates but also with academicians from their own discipline as well as from other disciplines. The present research indicates the modifications detached from the views of the occupants will not yield satisfaction. The studio spaces, which are the focus of this work, are turned into large and spacious spaces from constricted, tight places, however this is not enough to fulfill the expectations of the students completely. As a result, we see that the studentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; expectations regarding studio space and the views of decision-makers, who consider studios merely as physical environments where classes are held, do not match. It is important to handle the processes related to creation of spaces through participatory design workshops where all user groups that will be affected by these decisions are involved in the process. The buildings and studio spaces, where design education is provided, should be exemplary living environments by offering humanistic standards for future designers and architects. It is not a coincidence that the context of this research and the research that are carried out at universities with very prominent design schools report similar complaints, even when the spaces are high-budgeted designs created by well-known architects. The buildings that look pleasant and nice and that are impressive at first glance can be embraced only as much as the quality they add to the lives of their daily occupants. On the other hand, it is also an issue of debate how much an occu-

pant-focused, participatory approach is pursued in studio education. In other words, the design studio also has the responsibility to be the space where the students learn to include the occupants in the design process. Within that context, the studio where this study is carried out followed a research based approach by employing a user-oriented design knowledge. Applying textual content analysis as a post occupancy evaluation method is a novel approach as well as the original findings of this study. The study is replicable, and it would be interesting to conduct study in different learning environments in different cultures. From a more general perspective, as we witness an era when the universities redefining their own existence when most of the knowledge and educational training can be freely accessed online, quality of physical environments and their outcomes become even more crucial. At a time the competition in higher education is globally on the rise, the frequently used concept of â&#x20AC;&#x153;being student focusedâ&#x20AC;? undoubtedly necessitates spaces developed with a focus on students. References "MQFS  .   %Ă OĂ  WF CĂ HĂ OĂ  JMF $JCBMJ UĂ UĂ O GBCSJLBTÂ&#x2018; *O 4 ' (Ă&#x161;ODĂ PĘ&#x201C;MV &E  Sempozyum bildirileri QQ o  É&#x2014;TUBOCVM ,BEJS )BT Ă&#x192;OJWFSTJUFTJ:BZÂ&#x2018;OMBSÂ&#x2018; #PZFS  & -   4DIPMBSTIJQ reconsidered: Priorities of the professoriate. Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Retrieved from com/scholar?q=Scholarship Reconsidered: Priorities of the ProfessoriBUFCUO(IMFOOVNBT@ TEU$ #PZFS &- .JUHBOH -%   Building community: A new future for architecture education and practice: a special report.1SJODFUPO /+$BSOFHJF Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. #SBOEU $# $FOOBNP , %PVHMBT  4 7FSOPO . .D(SBUI . 3FJNFS  :  "UIFPSFUJDBMGSBNFXPSLGPS the studio as a learning environment. International Journal of Technology and Design Education, 23(2) o

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Assessing change in quality of life following rehousing from slum settlements to social housing

Alper BODUR1, Yurdanur DĂ&#x153;LGEROÄ&#x17E;LU YĂ&#x153;KSEL2 1 CPEVSBMQFS!ZBOEFYDPNt%FQBSUNFOUPG"SDIJUFDUVSF 'BDVMUZPG Architecture, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey 2 t%FQBSUNFOUPG"SDIJUFDUVSF 'BDVMUZPG"SDIJUFDUVSF  Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey

doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2018.36002  

3FDFJWFE+BOVBSZt Final Acceptance: July 2017

Abstract This article is the result of a study which aimed to evaluate how a group of resettled residents have adapted to their new houses in Istanbul. The removal of squatter dwellers and their relocation to social housing units affect their quality of life after the removal. To assess the quality of life of residents who have now been living for a long time in social housing after their slums were demolished by the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality, interviews were conducted with the aid of a questionnaire. A total of 506 interviews was completed in the districts of Eyup, Kartal and Sisli. The results of this research shall serve to provide valuable information, from which improvements in future social housing projects can be made. In the analyses of interview and questionnaire data, seven areas were identified: (1) living conditions, (2) physical factors, (3) environmental factors, (4) comparisons for social relationships, (5) access to services, (6) economic factors, (7) general satisfaction. At the completion of the research, it was found that the users seemed to be more satisfied with the physical factors than the social factors following the demolition of the slums. This study is important insofar as it helps to show that some methods are essential to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of social housing produced by the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality. In addition, the study may enable practitioners and policy makers to identify ways of improving the quality of life for social housing residents and the sustainability of new social housing developments. Keywords Life quality, Slum, Slum demolition, Social housing.


1. Introduction To cope with the problem of housing, a basic human necessity, in Turkey, people resort to constructing unauthorized buildings, or gecekondus in Turkish (Bodur, 2012). The gecekondu, which is known by different names (squatter house, slums, shanty, ghetto, rancho, favelas, gourbeville, and bidonville) in various countries, has emerged in Turkey as unauthorized and illegal buildings erected in plots that do not belong to the person(s) building on them. An example of a gecekondu in the district of KâÄ&#x;Äąthane is shown in 'JHVSF*OUIJTTUVEZ XFFYBNJOFIPX gecekondu owners have experienced the change in their living conditions after moving to social housing in Istanbul. As part of the study, a clear analysis of the relationship between quality of life and social housing policies are explained in order to arrive at indicators and measures for the determination of quality of life. The primary limitation of this study is that it involved a very specific target group, namely, residents who live in social housing units develPQFE CZ UIF )PVTJOH %FQBSUNFOU PG the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality after the demolition of gecekondus. Theoretical studies based on quality of life were examined once the problem, aim, assumptions, limitations, methods and steps of the present study had been determined and the studyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s contribution to the relevant literature had been confirmed. Additionally, quality of life studies conducted in developed and developing countries which involved the indicators used in this study were reviewed. The quality of life of families can be strongly influenced by various needs, challenges and obstacles (Soliman et al., 2015). Throughout the world, especially in the developed countries, it has been observed that starting towards the end of the 1970s, housing environments have created an atmosphere of discomfort and dissatisfaction for people (Zainal et al., 2012). The mass migration and urbanization actions that resulted from intensification of industrial productivity, especially after the Second World War, have increased the need for housing and thereby has generated a housing crisis of sorts (Gur,

Figure 1. A gecekondu in KâÄ&#x;Äąthane district.

2009). Today, the rapidly changing living conditions have fundamentally altered expectations and priorities in life. In this post-modern globalized era, where economic growth and disparities co-exist, studies on human welfare and quality of life take on even greater significance (Jha and Tripathi, 2014). "DDPSEJOH UP 6/)BCJUBU  B 6/ program devoted to promoting a quality, sustainable urban future, a housing residence and its immediate surroundings should be of sufficient quality, such that an individual and his / her family can meet their physical and psyDIPTPDJBM OFFET BOE CF TBUJTÄ&#x2022;FE 6/ Habitat, 2016). Slum clearance and resettlement schemes have become an increasingly common feature of life in the world. However, resettlement in new homes is not easy for residents (Camargo-Cavalheiro and Abiko, 2015). Improving the lives of slum dwellers has been recognized as one of the essential means to ending poverty worldwide 6/ )BCJUBU    4PDJBM QSPCMFNT  disparities, well-being and quality of life are the new domains of geographic study in this post-modern era. Quality of life studies are becoming more relevant in the pursuit of the inclusive development of society and country (Jha and Tripathi, 2014). Starting from the beginning of the twentieth century, rapid and often uncontrolled urban development has not only had a negative impact on nature, but has also led to the deterioration of quality of life for individuals (Oren and Yuksel, 2013). Since the 1960s, the social housing projects being undertaken in developing countries have focused on relocating people from the slums surrounding the largest cities, (Pulat, 1992). In recent years, certain government agen-



cies have been involved in this effort of relocating the urban poor (Booth and Camp, 2007). The rapid, malformed development and growth of cities has led to a decline in the quality of life of the cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s inhabitants (Oren and Yuksel, 2013). Moreover, although a review of the international literature shows that studies on quality of life have been conducted regularly over a long period of time, in Turkey, quality of life research is relatively new (Seker, 2011). The quality of urban life is negatively affected when there is an increase in the peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s demand for city services. In Turkey, this is a particularly serious problem, in the sense that services are not able to be presented effectively and efficiently by municipalities (Ucer, 2009; Karasu, 2005). States and local municipalities have, however, begun to focus on social housing in an effort to find solutions to low-income housing problems and to prevent gecekondus, the effects of which shall serve to improve the quality of life in Istanbul, Turkey. Within the context of this study, a general evaluation is made on the relocation process of residents who were forced to relocate to social housJOHVOJUT'VSUIFSNPSF UIFDIBOHFTJO the quality of life of former slum dwellers who had been forced to move to these units are discussed and proposals are made based on the results of the study. 2. Studies on life quality Quality of life is a subject that has been being investigated for more than forty years. Research on the quality of life in todayâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s sense is based on the movement of social indicators in the United States in the 1960s (Yavuzcehre and Torlak, 2006). It has been stated that the concept of quality of life emerged in part in order to investigate the differences and inequalities in social conditions and living conditions (Koramaz, 2010). The quality of life research agenda gained particular importance at the end of the restructuring process following World War II in order to achieve a better living standard and improve the welfare of the people (Ersin, 2012). Because of various life demands, challenges, and barriers, families are faced

with conditions that influence their quality of life (Soliman et al, 2015). In recent years, research on quality of life has been developing towards analyzing the components of quality of life and understanding the affecting factors (Jha and Tripathi, 2014). Investigations today focus on multiple dimensions, such as affordable and quality housing, comprehensive quality services and access to them, and the quality of life in urban areas (Ucer, 2009). The concept of quality of life has numerous definitions, yet no single agreed upon definition has emerged over time (Ucer, 2009; Koramaz, 2010; Atik, 2014; Ulengin et al., 2001). In the literature, there are more than a hundred definitions for quality of life (El Ariane, 2012). Quality of life is a complex, multi-dimensional concept, requiring multiple approaches from different theoretical perspectives (Seker, 2011). According to Andrews (2001), in bad conditions, descriptions focus on basic needs, such as business, food, shelter and security facilities. In contrast, the definition of quality of life in good conditions is expanding to include a successful personal and professional life, access to entertainment and recreation facilities, a happy society, and a clean environment (Andrews, 2001). On the other hand, the quality of life in research is measured by different methods, in line with different goals and objectives. Research scales also differ from each other in this respect 1BDJPOF   8JTI   'FMDF BOE Perry, 1995; Cummins, 1999). Quality of life research carried out on a local scale, that is, in a city or neighborhood unit, aims to redirect local policies to identify local problems (Koramaz, 2010). Although there are different definitions of quality of life, Marans (2007) argues that the definitions generally fall under one of two different aspects, namely those that are related to the individual himself/herself and those that are more environmental in character and subjectively shaped by individuals (Marans, 2007). -BOE  %JFOFSBOE4VI   and Rogerson (1999) point out that it is possible to speak of three main apQSPBDIFT 'JSTU  B OPSNBUJWF JEFBM BQ-

Assessing change in quality of life following rehousing from slum settlements to social housing


proach, which is based on the basic value of the good life, health, education, urban framework, ethical values; second, a satisfaction approach, which focuses on quality of life in terms of emotions, preferences and expectations; and finally, a social indicators approach, which is based on individual experience as it relates to social conEJUJPOT -BOE   %JFOFS BOE 4VI  1997; Rogerson, 1999). 'FMDFBOE1FSSZ  QPTJUFEGPVS different indicators: objective indicators of living conditions; subjective indicators of individual satisfaction; indicators involving a combination of living conditions and personal satisfaction; and indicators involving a combination of individual values and personBMTBUJTGBDUJPO 'FMDFBOE1FSSZ   Hagerty et al. (2001) developed three approaches: (1) input (environment, public policy); (2) throughput (individual choices); and (3) output (happiness, survival, contribution) (Hagerty et al, 2001). The satisfaction model developed by Campbell is used to analyze how objective indicators, such as housing, recreation, social environment, income, and health status, affect the level of overall life satisfacUJPO  5VSLPHMV FU BM    'VSUIFSmore, Ozsoy et al. (1995), in their work titled â&#x20AC;&#x153;Quality Assessment of #FIBWJPSBM7BSJBCMFTJO.BTT)PVTJOHw  aimed to develop criteria related to the psycho-social characteristics of quality of life (Ozsoy et al., 1995). *O UIF TUVEZ CZ %VMHFSPHMV:VLTFM et al. (1996), titled â&#x20AC;&#x153;The Purpose of the Research on the Environmental "OBMZTJT PG UIF 2VBMJUBUJWF 7BMVFT JO .BTT )PVTJOHw  UIF IPVTJOH RVBMJUJFT related to the existing residential environments of the users and the qualities which are preferred by the residents were identified and discussed within the framework of a quality model integrating three parameters; physical, visual, and social interactive. Results from the research showed that there was a common characteristic shared by the households in all the regions covered in the research; that is, the users seem to be affected more by the physical factors of the houses than by the visual or psychological and social factors %VMHFSPHMV:VLTFMFUBM  

1BDJPOF   %JTTBSU BOE %FMMFS   'FSSJT   BOE $VNNJOT (2000) all concluded that there was an unlimited number of factors associated with the inner (subjective indicators) and external indicators (objective indicators) of quality of life. The answer to the question of which indicators should be used to measure quality of life remains unclear. There is no consensus on the criteria for the indicator types used to measure quality PG MJGF 7BO $BNQ FU BM   ,PZVODV   "UJL    'BDUPST SFMBUed to quality of life can change over time, depending on the circumstances (Yavuzcehre and Torlak, 2006). In recent years, there has been a rapid growth in quality of life research in developing countries, while research on this subject in developed countries has been advancing at a slower pace. Quality of life studies in Turkey did not begin simultaneously with the conduct of these studies in Western countries nor did they move forward at the same speed. Studies conducted by various government agencies are intended to develop an understanding of quality of life (Koyuncu, 2011). In Turkey, the quality of life studies done at the corporate level can be divided into two groups, one which focuses on measuring quality of life, and the other which focuses on identifying the quality of life indicators (Ucer, 2009). Although the number of studies conducted in Turkey on quality of life has been on the rise, this number is still insufficient (Koyuncu, 2011; Aktas, 2007). Efforts are also being made to improve the quality of life for conventional and underprivileged households and to measure the quality of life satisfaction of people. The concept of quality of life in Turkey is included in the five-year development plans, the latest PG XIJDI JT UIF UI 'JWF:FBS %FWFMopment Plan (2014-2018), in which it is mentioned that priority will be given to transformation projects that generate high utility and value in production and common use areas, especially areas bearing a disaster risk, and that contribute to growth and development and widespread increase in space and qualJUZ PG MJGF .JOJTUSZ PG %FWFMPQNFOU  2013). However, the principles, policies



and measures introduced by the development plans to address the housing problem have not been sufficiently implemented, and the problems related to the speed of urbanization have even gradually increased (Bodur, 2012). A number of studies have been carried out in Turkey to improve the quality of life in the social housing area. In the next section, information on the studies related to improving the quality of life in social housing is discussed. A review of the literature showed that approaches to the concept of quality of life that have been used in different studies vary according to purpose, method and scale. Given the nature of this subject, it is not possible to make a generalization about the scale on which the quality of life indicators will be assessed. 3. Social housing and recent studies After the housing shortage problem first began to emerge following World War I, western governments were forced to start thinking about solutions to this issue. Since then, national governments in the West have played an active role in the generation of social housing policies, as well as in the solutions to this problem, by supporting local governments (Kara, 2012). %FWFMPQFE DPVOUSJFT IBWF CFFO BCMF to successfully address the problem of housing with the social housing policies they put into effect after World War II (Bayraktar, 2009). As a result, the thirty year period after World War II can be called the golden age for social housing, as it was during this time that many of the social housing policies had been implemented (Reinprecht et al., 2008). However, the number of houses generated for the low income groups continues to be one of the major problems affecting both developed and developing countries (Soliman et al, 2015). In the literature, social housing is referred to alternatively as state dwellings, public housing, and affordable housing. Social housing is affordable for the poorest or lowest-income families and is standardized to meet the needs of housing (Akdemir, 1998). Officially, the definition can vary according to each country (Whitehead and Scan-

lon, 2007). Priemus (2010) proposed a definition of social housing that described it as housing that is aimed to house predominantly households with a weak negotiation position on the housing market, such as low-income households, physically and/or mentally handicapped persons, ethnic minorities, immigrants and asylum seekers (Priemus, 2010). While social housing practices in developed countries have commonalities, there is no standard social housing practice and policy applicable to every country (Whitehead and Scanlon, 2007). Social housing emerged in the form of cheap rental housing for citizens constituting middle and low income groups in the western developed countries. In developing countries, however, social housing involves the sale of low-interest housing and longterm housing loans (KunduracÄą, 2013). In some countries, only the poorest segment of the population can benefit from these residences, while in others, low-wage segments or middle-income segments can benefit from them (KunduracÄą, 2013; Blanc, 2010). Starting in the 1980s, social housing activities were gradually incorporated into the social policies of developing DPVOUSJFT %JÄ&#x152;FSFOU EFWFMPQNFOUBM trends have been observed for each country. Yet, the number of developing countries active in this area and the prominence of social housing in housing policies is continuously rising (Bodur, 2012). In Europe, the construction of social housing is carried out by many different institutions, including central and local governments, non-profit public or private organizations, volunteer organizations or foundations, and cooperatives (Kutsal, 2012). It is very difficult to discern whether or not there is standard social housing in Europe (Tutin, 2008). On the other hand, in the United States, as a result of the economic crisis of 1929, social housing projects were, and continue to be, specifically implemented as a need (KunduracÄą, 2013). However, these social housing areas, once inhabited by the poor, have been transformed into places where there is a dominant culture of poverty and social exclusion (Keith, 1973). The evolution of the planning approaches

Assessing change in quality of life following rehousing from slum settlements to social housing


and methods applied in Europe and the United States has not been positively reflected in Turkey (Mutlu, 2007). Urban renewal activities in Turkey are implemented as slum transformation processes (Bayraktar, 2009). It is impossible, therefore, in Turkey to speak of a systematic public policy of social housing, as applied in European countries and the USA (AlkÄąser and Yurekli, 2004; Tasar and Cevik, 2009). At the end of the 1980s, with the local governments as the main actors, urban renewal projects in Turkey were implemented in high rentable areas and served as an alternative to the improvement plans .VUMV  'SPNUPUIFQSFTent, significant changes have been seen in housing policy, particularly in terms of the main actors in the industry. As BSFTVMU UPEBZ 50,* XIJDIJTUIF/BUJPOBM)PVTJOH%FWFMPQNFOU"ENJOJTtration of Turkey, has become the most authoritative institution in the nation XIFOJUDPNFTUPIPVTJOH'PSJUTNBTT housing projects developed on its own lands, TOKIâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s target group is low and middle-income families who are not able to own a housing unit within the existing market conditions in Turkey w 6SM  Metropolitan municipalities have recently also become very important players in the housing production in Turkey (Kara, 2012). As a role model to other municipalities and a leader in the field, the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality states its mission for the production of housing as â&#x20AC;&#x153;â&#x20AC;Śto offer local services to all residents with the understanding of providing efficient and effective governance...â&#x20AC;? and its vision as â&#x20AC;&#x153;â&#x20AC;Śto make the city a sustainable world city which has a high quality of life for its citizens...â&#x20AC;?(Url-2). The Istanbul MetSPQPMJUBO .VOJDJQBMJUZ %JSFDUPSBUF PG Housing has continued its activities within this context. These activities are reported on each year on a regular baTJT UP TFOJPS BVUIPSJUJFT 'PS FYBNQMF  in the 2013 annual report, one of the GPVSCBTJDFMFNFOUTPGUIF%JSFDUPSBUFT vision is to improve the quality of life of TMVNEXFMMFST %JSFDUPSBUFPG)PVTJOH  2013). Ä&#x2021;F )PVTJOH %JSFDUPSBUF BMMPDBUFT the social housing that is available and ready to be acquired to the gecekon-

Figure 2. Social housing areas in Istanbul.

Figure 3. Completed social houses in Eyup district.

du owners. In this allocation process, gecekondu owners can be given social housing in a different district. Accordingly, between 1988 and 2013, 4606 gecekondus serving as apartments or individual dwellings were demolished, and 10,638 residential units were produced. Social housing areas in Istanbul BSF TIPXO JO 'JHVSF   BOE UIF DPNpleted social housing units in the disUSJDUPG&ZVQBSFTIPXO'JHVSF These relocations involved moves from slums to social housing, and all of these moves were to existing, readyto-use social housing. Approximately 3,381 housing units were allocated to gecekondu owners while the remaining were sold under the gecekondu law UPMPXJODPNFGBNJMJFT'JHVSFTIPXT the migration to social housing present in the district of Eyup between 1988 and 2013. As a result of this housing liquidation, displaced households from different districts are now residing on the same block. According to the Istanbul MetroQPMJUBO.VOJDJQBMJUZ UIF)PVTJOH%J-



Figure 4. Eyup district moving plan.

rectorate was tasked with constructing social housing throughout the city in order to prevent slums from threatening Istanbul, to prevent the construction of new slums, to transform the slums into healthy urban areas, and to provide settlements in healthy neighborhoods for the low income population living in the city. However, recently, mass housing projects have been increasingly viewed to be a social, economic, technical and aesthetic failure %VMHFSPHMV:VLTFMFUBM  *OUIF present study, a survey was performed to determine the quality of life of the slum owners who were transported to municipality-generated social housing in Istanbul, followed by an in-depth assessment of the subject. 4. Methodology The principal aim of this research was to evaluate how gecekondu owners have experienced the change in the lives after moving to social housing in *TUBOCVM %VSJOH JOUFSWJFX TFTTJPOT conducted in March of 2016, residents were asked about their housing situation and quality of life before and since their arrival to social housing. The universe of the research included slum dwellers who moved to the social housing units developed by the IstanCVM .FUSPQPMJUBO .VOJDJQBMJUZ %JSFDtorate of Housing. In this study, research on the concept of the quality of life, which is defined by different perspectives and different approaches in the literature, was reviewed for the purpose of identifying and applying the terminology commonly employed for this subject, as well as for the purpose of establishing proper indicators for social housing.

The studies that have been carried out show that the concept of the quality of life involves more than one dimension, as it covers a wide area, emerges with different purposes and has been explained by different indicators and different variables, depending on the specific aims and targets. The indicators presented in this study were prepared on the basis of the pilot survey questionnaire and the relevant literature. The questionnaire created for the evaluation included the following items: (1) living conditions, (2) physical factors, (3) environmental factors, (4) comparisons for social relationships, (5) access to services, (6) economic factors, (7) general satisfaction. The research sample was created on the basis of the data obtained from the universe. Social housing units in Eyup, Sisli and Kartal were designated as pilot areas on account of the fact they include people whose living quarters in another district or remote areas had been demolished and who, as a result, have had to adapt to different cultures, even within the same city. The questionnaire was created as part of the research model, which included completion of a pilot survey to determine the questions for the questionnaire. With the project support of Istanbul Technical University Scientific Research Center and the help of a research company, a total of 506 face-to-face interviews (378 in Eyup, 93 in Kartal and 35 in Sisli district) were completed. Before the research, a 1-day training program was administered to the pollsters. As part of the training program, information was given to them about the research and they were introduced to the documents to be used in the field survey. On January 29, 2016, some parts of the pilot survey, including questions, were removed, while some notes were added. By the end of the pilot survey, a total of 21 revisions had been made to the TVSWFZ 0O 'FCSVBSZ     NJOPS changes were shared with the company, and the survey took on its final shape PO'FCSVBSZ Ä&#x2021;FTVSWFZXBT conducted between 02-14 March 2016. The SPSS program was used to conduct BOBMZTFT'BDUPS DSPTTBOENFBOBOBMysis were used to describe the general

Assessing change in quality of life following rehousing from slum settlements to social housing


information of the respondents and the level of satisfaction. A reliability test was done to check the internal consistency of the measurement items. Reliability of the variables was tested by using The Cronbachâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s alpha value calculated in the reliability test of the variables was 0.958, which is â&#x20AC;&#x153;highly reliable according to KalaycÄąâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s 4-Reliability scale (KalaycÄą, 2005). 'PMMPXJOHUIFDPNQMFUJPOPGUIFEFtermination of the sampling area and development of the survey, the field TUVEZXBTTUBSUFE'JFMEXPSLXBTDBSried out with a questionnaire survey, and field studies on the spatial properties of a sample were completed. According to the results obtained from the survey questions, the questionnaire study for the implementation of the preparatory phase was updated before being completed and the goal was considered to be within the scope of the information gathered. 5. Findings and evaluation In the survey, socio-demographic information, such as the age of the participants, gender, marital status, educational status, place of birth, profession, social security status, and the average monthly income, was gathered. According to the result of this survey, nearly half of the respondents were between the ages of 36 and 55, and almost half had emigrated from the Black Sea Region of Turkey. The sample included 204 males and 302 females. More than half of the participants were elementary and junior high school graduates, and the majority were married, with almost half of the respondents being housewives. The majority of the participants had social security, and more than half of the households living in social housing were supported by the work of one person. Most of the families were living on a monthly income of between 1,000 TL and 1500 TL (equivalent to US$282.25- US$423.38) (Url-3). To continue, almost all the participants had a washing machine (98.8%) and a dishwasher (84.4%), while 52.4% of them had a computer and 44.7% had internet access. The percentage of the participants who had a car (29.1%) or owned a credit card (35.8%) was low. 21.5% of the participants had lived in

gecekondus for 6 to 10 years at most, while 46.4% had been living in social housing for 6 to 10 years at most. The participants who had lived in the slums for 10 years or less were found to be more satisfied with their quality of life in their new homes according to this survey. Similarly, findings in the study showed that the longer the period the participants had been living in social housing, the higher the satisfaction they had. Yavuzcehre and Torlak (2006) pointed out in their study that long-term residents in social housing can improve their living conditions over time. According to the majority of respondents, an ideal house should have a single-storey and a garden, it should have a good view (28.3%), be close to the city center (35.2%) and be located in an area that has potential for increasing property value (27.5%). The participants also stated that the idea of quality of life involved living in a secure city (22.3%), free of livelihood difficulties (20.9%) and with good health facilities (14.7%). More than half of the participants (61.5%) did not want to move out of their social housing, and 37.3% expressed that the larger and more comfortable home was the main reason for their move. Education and the learning process have positive effects on the development of urban quality of life for the people (Yavuzcehre and Torlak, 2006). 'SPNUIFTVSWFZ JUXBTGPVOEUIBUUIF participantsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; level of education was low and then when the level of education increased, the level of satisfaction in social housing decreased. *OHFOFSBM BTTFFOJO'JHVSF QIZTical and environmental factors play an important role, the former to a lesser degree, in quality of life as it relates to social housing. The availability of municipal services tends to have strong significance for the people living in social housJOH  BT TIPXO JO 'JHVSF  4BWF GPS the factors of proximity to hospitals, entertainment and cultural areas, and shopping facilities, service factors were found to be the most prominent factor for quality of life as it relates to social housing. Improvement has been seen in some of the service factors, while in



Figure 5. Housing preferences by physical factors.

Figure 6. Housing preferences by economic factors.

Figure 7. Housing preferences by social factors.

other service factors related to social housing there has been little to no improvements. In terms of the economic factors, it was found that other factors, besides that of the economic aid provided by the state, were better when the people had lived in the slums. In other words, the economic factors generally do not improve in social housing. Studies in slum areas have generally been carried out with the aim of developing social housing with a better functioning system (Kintrea, 2007). The destruction of a neighborhood is a serious consequence of the changing landscape of cities (Eke, 2000). The number of relatives and friends

on the periphery is an objective indicator for the existence of social relations (TĂźrkoglu et al., 2008; Salleh and Badarulzaman, 2012). Being from the same region is very important in the slum areas. In the course of conducting this study, it was found that no preliminary work has been done by the municipality on the impact the demolition of the slums and the peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s relocation to social housing will have on the existing relationship between the citizens. It was also discovered in the course of the study that the demographic characteristics of the households undergoing this transformation process have not been evaluated by the municipality. Bolt et al. (2010), and Phillips and Harrison (2010) stated that the state agencies demolished not only the houses but also the social relations existing within the slum dwellings. In the work of Clampet-Lundquist (2004), it was shown that many people in America wish to move closer UP UIFJS GPSNFS IPNF 'VSUIFSNPSF  studies by Kleinhans (2003), Gaumer et al. (2014), Cavalheiro (2015) and Icli (2011) have shown that the social interaction between neighbors was lower in the social housing as compared to the interaction in their former living arrangements. When the perceptions of the factors related to social relations were examined in this research, similar to other studies, the results revealed that the social relations were much better in the slum life, having deteriorated after moving to the social housing areas. The participantsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; perceptions of TPDJBMSFMBUJPOTBSFTIPXOJO'JHVSF 'SPNUIFSFTVMUT JUDBOTBJEUIBUSBUIFS than being constructive, moving from the slums to social housing is a rather shattering affair insofar as it relates to the deterioration of social relations. %JTQMBDFNFOU BMPOHXJUIUIJTEFUFSJPration of social relations, has played a role in maintaining the peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s loyalty to the past as opposed to increasing their sense of belonging to the social housing that they have been moved into. In general, the results of this research have revealed that significant positive change took place in the physical, environmental, access to services, and general satisfaction dimensions of

Assessing change in quality of life following rehousing from slum settlements to social housing


the lives of those who had been relocated to social housing; but in social relations and economic factors, the participants valued these more so in the slums than in social housing, and expressed that social relations were better in the slums. These findings suggest that the municipality-generated social housing in Istanbul has not been successful enough in improving the gecekondu ownersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; quality of life BÄ&#x2122;FSUIFJSEJTQMBDFNFOUT'PSUIJTSFBson, the municipality should do more to strengthen these displaced peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s sense of belonging in order to reduce the acclimatization period in social housing and to increase satisfaction in social housing. 6. Conclusion The increasing world population, inefficient consumption of resources, destruction of natural habitats and the diminishment in quality of life for individuals are issues that are gaining increasingly more importance with each QBTTJOHEBZ%FTQJUFUIFTFBEWFSTFDPOditions, serious works are being done to ease the burdens of life and thereby improve the quality of life on a global, national and local scale. The aim of this study has been to determine the characteristics that contribute to the quality of life of slum dwellers who have been relocated to social housing. To achieve this aim, the relationship between upgrading the quality of life and social housing allocation was analyzed. With the results, recommendations can be made for future improvements to the quality of life of social housing dwellers. The benefits of providing good quality social housing to urban dwellers will be reflected on the entire city, but this issue needs to be addressed in a holistic manner. In Istanbul, the social housing provided by the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality is satisfactory from the physical point of view. However, according to this research, greater effort needs to be directed towards building better social relationships between social housing dwellers. If the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality does not work on building social relationships, the solution of â&#x20AC;&#x153;improving life quality PGTPDJBMIPVTJOHEXFMMFSTwXJMMOPUCF fully realized, and the targets related to

social objectives will fail to be achieved. The general perception of households is positive, in terms of living in social housing. However, lack of knowledge of the demographics of the families living in social housing adversely affects perceptions of quality of life. Social and demographic features of the family should be taken into account, as well as the wishes and needs of the people, in social housing allocations. Local governments have very important roles according to quality of life studies. In order to improve the quality of life in social housing developed by the local administrations to replace slum dwellings, indicators should be determined. By collaborating with other organizations, such as universities and trade unions, a more holistic approach can be applied in identifying these indicators, so as to improve living conditions in every sense. To date, there are no life quality indicators set by the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality regarding social housing developed in Istanbul. Particularly in the gecekondu areas to be demolished, it is necessary to carry out repetitive studies with a view to determining the demographic structure. Serving as a model for Turkey, the life quality studies in developed countries have dynamic processes. Municipalities in Turkey should likewise demonstrate greater dynamism in their approach by regularly conducting studies for the purpose of improving the life quality of social housing dwellers. The municipalities must make result-oriented practices and evaluate these every year. Similar studies should be repeated at regular intervals, as done in developed countries, and an information system should be established whereby all data can be entered into one system. In this way, changes in life quality of social housing dwellers can be monitored and evaluated. To help motivate local governments to be successful in their development of social housing projects, strategic objectives of municipalities should be directed towards these studies. If the municipalities want to achieve their strategic goals, they must understand the significance of problems related to social housing.



Central and local governments have initiated many activities to prevent certain problems, such as unemployment, economic problems, housing, infrastructure deficiencies, and uneven urbanization, which have arisen due to rapid urbanization in Turkey. These studies, where housing demand is one of the first targets, show that quantitative qualification is at the foreground in discourses carried out for improving activities related to environment and quality of life. As of recently, it has been observed that the solution to the problem is expressed in numbers and different ways at arriving at a solution are regularly being investigated. As one of the limited number of studies that have been conducted in Turkey on the quality of life, this study can serve as a guide to improving the quality of life in the social housing settlements that have been built to replace the slums that have been demolished. The number of gecekondu in Turkey is still an important issue, considering how many of them constitute part of the total number of housing units. As one of the consequences of rapid urbanization, the issue of what how to transform the slum areas is now on the agenda. Along with this transformation, it has become a priority to improve the living conditions of the slum areas and to ensure that they have a healthy structure. One of the aims of social housing production should be to reduce unemployment by increasing the workforce and thereby improve the living conditions. In Istanbul, the social housing developed by the municipality with the aim of improving the quality of life seems to have not reached its target in this sense. Accordingly, it is necessary for the municipality to take greater measures from here on out to increase the income of those living in social housing units. One of the most important contributions of the study to theory and practice is that the social services offered by municipalities should be reflected in social housing practices according to the characteristics of the target population. The demographic characteristics of the target population are as important as the characteristics of the

house they lived in previously. Considering that the aim of social housing production is to produce a happy life in a healthier and higher quality environment, it is impossible to achieve this aim without knowing the characteristics of the target group. The solutions and applications related to the housing problem which have emerged with the increasing rate of urbanization will continue long into the future. Sustainable solutions to these problems and the success of the municipalities go hand in hand with the participants and actors coming together and taking into consideration the current conditions. Lastly, in looking at the study results from a broad perspective, it can be seen that the issue of quality of life remains the most multifaceted, practical problems that needs to be solved in order for Turkey to achieve sustainable social housing production. References "LUBT  & %   5he quality of life the cities sustainable development in comprehension of current approaches â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Kocaeli example, Masterâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Thesis, GYTE Institute of Science and Technology, Gebze. AlkÄąser, Y., and Yurekli, H. (2004). The past, the present and the future of UIFi4UBUF)PVTJOHwJO5VSLFZ JUĂ EFSgisi/a, 3 (1), 63-74. Andrews, C.J. (2001). Analyzing Quality of Place, Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 28 (2),201-217. Atik, M. (2014). In the context of urban quality of life and urban Äądentity, urban renewal practices in Äąstanbul: Sulukule case, Masterâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Thesis, Bahcesehir University, Institute of Science and Technology, Istanbul. Bayraktar, E. (2009). The impact of urban transformation applications on social policy, Ă&#x2021;erçeve Magazine, 49, 16-22. Blanc, M. (2010). The Impact of SoDJBM .JY 1PMJDJFT JO 'SBODF  Housing Studies, 25 (2), 257-272. Bodur, A., 2012. Householdâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s new housing satisfaction after demolition of their gecekondus in Kagithane, Masterâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Thesis, Bahcesehir University, (SBEVBUF 4DIPPM PG /BUVSBM BOE "Qplied Sciences, Istanbul. $BNBSHP$BWBMIFJSP  %   "CJLP 

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Assessing change in quality of life following rehousing from slum settlements to social housing


Modeling spatial wholeness in cities using information entropy theory



doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2018.83703  

3FDFJWFE.BZt Final Acceptance: September 2017

Abstract Descartes states â&#x20AC;&#x153;Divide each difficulty into as many parts as possible and necessary to resolve it.â&#x20AC;? Deconstruction is not a new idea as demonstrated by Descartes quote but a compelling one for understanding the issues behind complex systems especially as vast as cities. Built form is a relational process and the overall spatial form emerges with a sense of wholeness, a certain degree of completeness, in its topologic embodiment. Using Alexanderâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s â&#x20AC;&#x153;levels of scaleâ&#x20AC;? property of wholeness as a morphologic translation interface, the method developed in this research allows questioning various relative spatial formations. Shannonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s entropy theory has been employed for measuring the state of uncertainty, and disorderliness conveyed through the multivariate context of morpho-information across varying scales. This study aims to cross-evaluate mean Entropy-IQR values generated for ten cities using proposed method with the survey results that ten experts, architects, urban planners, and landscape architects have rated for ten cities urban layouts in three aspects of the wholeness. Experts do not have an agreement among each other about the wholeness of case study, inter-raters reliability (KÎą) is 0,14 and the correlation coefficient between normalized median expert views and mean Entropy-IQR values is 25%. The results indicate that definition and sense of wholeness even for place making experts is not as intuitive as Alexander claims. These findings help to point out the need for evidence-informed analytical methods that measure the relative degree of wholeness in constantly changing cities. Keywords Wholeness, Completeness, Multi-scalar, Information entropy, Measuring.

1. Introduction Urban design is an interdisciplinary approach to urban space. Critical role of urban design, between planning and architecture, is to set an order, a feeling of wholeness and a scaling harmony in urban space (Konuk, 1992). The urban design approach in this definition is about concepts of order, hierarchy, and harmony in the process of making robust urban spaces. According to Hanson, the order in its most largely approved definition is a notion of sameness, harmony, repetition, geometry, rhythm, symmetry and grid (HanTPO    Ä&#x2021;F JOUFSQMBZ BNPOH CVJMU elements in various orders, in different size and scales, create the morphology. The order that emerges through such multiplicity of morphologic interplay comes to the front as a measurable notion. Shannonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s information entropy, in this study, is being used as a method to measure the â&#x20AC;&#x153;relationship between PSEFS BOE EJTPSEFSw "SOIFJN    Morphologic interplay at various scale levels is a form of information conveyed through the units of a grid system. Measuring such information using Shannonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s entropy is hypothesized to correlate with the degree of the wholeness of the morphologic system. The raw data used in this research is the open street map data land cover vector data in equivalent scale and pixel resolutions belonging to 10 cities, -POEPO  /FX %FMIJ  /FX :PSL $JUZ  1BSJT 3PNF 4BOUB.POJDB 4BO'SBOcisco, Siena, Tokyo and Washington DC, showing their two-dimensional urban layouts. Cities are about functions that are perfectly integrated into agglomerated layers of built environment. Layers of different forms of spatial entities are seemingly complex but logically simple ways of scaling (Jiang B., 2012). Cities have their very own scaling patterns embedded in the multivariate NPSQIPMPHJDGPSNBUJPOT'PSTPNBOZ reasons, scaling hierarchy in cities can be deformed through the time. Salingaros states that lively and vibrant cities accommodate unique scaling regimes in touch with all their living systems (Salingaros, 2005). An emergent need for automobile-led 20th-century urbanization and uncontrolled popula-

tion growth in cities caused a disregard for the scaling-laws in cities and imposed piecemeal lay outs and typological forms. This brought an inevitable change on scaling patterns of spatial formations and thus on the wholeness. Cities are made of built entities that make the morphologic and symbolic character of spaces, and they create the evaluative and measurable qualities /BTBS  -BSHFPSTNBMM CVJMUFOtities that create the morphologic character in cities are measurable. According to Jiang geographic space is made of far more small things than large ones and the scaling pattern can evoke a certain sense of wholeness (Jiang & Sui, 2014). This kind of wholeness and beauty was initially defined by C. Alexander and compiled in his master XPSLiÄ&#x2021;F/BUVSFPG0SEFSw "MFYBOder, 2002-2005). The concept of wholeness for a spatial context is a relational OPUJPO*UJTBGSBHJMFSFMBUJPOBMJUZ0ODF a single entity that belongs to a built context changes, the configuration and the distribution of the information and thus the entropy, of the system changes. This happens across different scales. Therefore, measuring the entropy of a particular built context requires a multi-scalar approach. Major raw data used for this study is open street map sourced land cover vector data. The multi-scalar approach in this research is being methodized through superimposing a grid with equivalent units upon the raw data. The grid units simply frame equivalent amounts of pixels and generate units of equal size. Each grid unit in each particular grid scale bounds a certain type of morphologic interplay. Changing the grid scale allows creating different size of grid units scanning different built formations exponentially and recursively. The interplay between the built elements and their overall spatial content is in a continuous process of change. This kind of change in real space is a space compromise ending up in a gradual adaptation. Undoubtedly, if not a natural disaster, this is foremost a human-led process. The human factor, as the decision-maker, builds up the causality about the degree and intensity of the spatial change. Although it mostly occurs in micro scale, the pro-

*56"];t7PM/Pt/PWFNCFSt)&LĹ&#x201D;OPĘ&#x201C;MV "4,VCBU 31MVO[


cess of change and adaptation gradually remakes the overall urban built context. According to Baynes and Heckber (2009), understanding and modeling the dynamics of spatial change may lead to better understanding and management of the human process that leads to change. Cullen in â&#x20AC;&#x153;Townscapeâ&#x20AC;? (Cullen, 1961) states that space is a meaningful context in its in-situ relationality. The spatial change also embodies and is perceived within such contextual relationality. This kind of relationality requires a site-specific approach considering near and related things that form a geographic context. Tobler, in IJT JOÄ&#x2DC;VFOUJBM i'JSTU -BX PG (FPHSBphy,â&#x20AC;? states that everything is related to each other; yet, the things that are close to each other are more related than the EJTUBOU POFT 5PCMFS    .JMMFS PO this issue notes that measuring the space does not just generate simple metric or geometric findings, but also develops new spatial attributes considering the nearness and relatedness of various spatial issues. It allows measuring the geographic space through the interplay between diverse urban and environmental phenomena in different scales. Mathematical models in urban planning and design studies can give precise and accurate results by measuring the inputs that embody urban space JOBOPCKFDUJWFXBZ /BTBS   This study hypothesizes that morphologic formation in cities is a significant element of spatial signature. Regarding the causation between disorder and law of entropy, an entropy value might define a degree of wholeness for spatial formations. The data used for the case areas in this paper comprises the top view images for 1/5000 scale urban areasâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; land cover vector data with 1024x1024 pixels resolution. Using the analysis tool developed in this study, case study areasâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; source data are overlaid by a grid system. In each case area, as seen in 'JHVSF BOFOUSPQZWBMVFJTHFOFSBUFE for each unit that has maximum adjacency, connected to eight surrounding units, throughout the grid. The units by the edges of the grid lack of maximum adjacency and thus they are exempted in the calculation of entropy.

The number of units that a grid owns varies depending on the scale of the grid selected for the analysis. Afterward, a statistical method of data measuring â&#x20AC;&#x201C;inter quartile range (IQR)- is employed to eliminate the extremes of the generated data set to measure and reduce it to a single value for each case analysis area. The analysis can be applied either for a single particular grid scale or different grid scales for the same analysis. Either case, total sum of entropy-IQR values as a cumulative value implies a degree of wholeness specific for the selected grid scale levels. This study asks whether or not the degree of wholeness in morphologic systems can be mathematically measured. The results of the method are compared with survey results that spatial design experts intuitively rated the case study cities from the strongest to the weakest through their morphologic layouts. This kind of an approach to urban conservation may have significant implications for the built environments that are facing a possible change in different scales. 2. Wholeness of the spatial formations Alexander (2002-2005) states that natural or human-made, every single identifiable piece of a system is a center and it is unique in its way. The wholeness or life imposed through a system is its very own kind of order. This is an order that arranges a special and adequate mix of decisively nested structures, which both locally and globally interact and reinforce each other. Wholeness, in this respect, is a matter of a vital interrelationship among the elements of any size, shape, and scale in a system. In his own words, Alexander describes this situation as: â&#x20AC;&#x153;I propose a view of physical reality which is dominated by the existence of this one particular structure, W, the wholeness. In any given region of space, some sub-regions have higher intensity as centers; others have less. Many sub-regions have weak intensity or none at all. The overall configurations of the nested centers, together with their relative intensities, comprise a single structure. I define this structure as â&#x20AC;&#x153;theâ&#x20AC;? wholeness of that regionâ&#x20AC;? (Alexander C. , 2002-2005, p. 96)

Modeling spatial wholeness in cities using information entropy theory

0OF PG UIF DSJUJDBM QPJOUT JO "Mexanderâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s definition of wholeness is about understanding what a center is and why it is vital in creating life and XIPMFOFTT GPS UIJOHT PS QMBDFT 0ODF it is grasped, then the entire Theory of Wholeness and the way in which it is employed in the method used in this study get comprehensible. A center is simply a smallest, identifiable piece, PCKFDUPSQBSUJOBTZTUFN'PSJOTUBODF  the head of the body is a center. At the same time, each of the eyes, nose, forehead, and mouth is a center too. At a subtle level, eyebrows, eyelashes or even the iris of the eye are all centers in their very own way. When the context is a built environment, each single building is an object that can be categorized as a center. Two things are essential to understanding it better: first, a center does not have to be a separate part of the context that it belongs to. A mouth, for instance, is properly located as the continuum of a face itself. Second, centers can exist at different levels of scale. Starting from the globe, the continents, countries, regions, cities, districts, neighborhoods, streets, buildings, apartments, rooms, and even the furniture are all centers in different scales. The way in which centers interact with each other is the most critical matter in understanding Alexanderâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s overall idea of wholeness. The centers in a system may empower or weaken each other through the way that they exist and interact. The position, size, and shape of each constituent gradually affect the overall degree of the wholeness of the system. At the end of his extensive studies, Alexander defined fifteen properties where the centers exist in diverse morphologic relationships with each other in forming a degree of wholeness. A â&#x20AC;&#x153;property,â&#x20AC;? as a geometric quality, in Alexanderâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s texts, is a fundamentally informative characteristic for â&#x20AC;&#x153;wholenessâ&#x20AC;? (Waguespack, 2010). Either used in a single way or a context of a multitude of patterns, property as Alexander asserts, is critical in forming â&#x20AC;&#x153;lifeâ&#x20AC;? and generating some level of wholeness. The concept of wholeness and the life for a spatial setting is a broad notion, and the connection between two

concepts is controversial. Building definitive and conclusive analogical bridges between wholeness and life is not always as tangible as Alexander claims in several ways. The entire question of wholeness is a large, flexible and not so clear phenomenon and there is a loose relationship between wholeness BOE MJGF &LJOPHMV  ,VCBU    *O other words, beyond strict definitions of â&#x20AC;&#x153;deadâ&#x20AC;? and â&#x20AC;&#x153;aliveâ&#x20AC;? life can exist in various degrees in-between for space. /FWFSUIFMFTT  JU JT IBSE UP DPOTUSVDU B direct and determinant relationship between two concepts since different levels of life can exist in space with various degrees of wholeness. The idea of wholeness and life in space requires a profound and site-specific investigation considering its various cultural, social, symbolic ingredients and architectural attachments. Therefore, reducing the concept of wholeness merely to the relationships of the sub-constituents of a built systemâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s layout might be highly limiting. To avoid this shortfall, in this study, the concept of wholeness that Alexander depicts is being referred as a spatial quality of â&#x20AC;&#x153;completenessâ&#x20AC;? that emerges through the relationships among the sub-constituents of the system across scales. Moreover, Alexanderâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s overall idea of wholeness and life also stands on a firm basis of completeness (EkJOPHMV,VCBU   Alexander proposed fifteen figurative qualities, which he found similar in things that have a life. These features are â&#x20AC;&#x153;(1) levels of scale, (2) strong centers, (3) boundaries, (4) alternating repetition, (5) positive space,   HPPE TIBQF    MPDBM TZNNFUSJFT    EFFQ JOUFSMPDL BOE BNCJHVJUZ    contrast, (10) gradients, (11) roughness, (12) echoes, (13) the void, (14) simplicity and inner calm, and finally (15) non-separatenessâ&#x20AC;? (Alexander C., 2002-2005). The properties can be described as the syntax rules for spatial translations in examining how centers of an existing built space get together and help each other for evoking life. This kind of process of spatial translation can also be algorithmically coded for each of the properties mentioned above. In this study, the property that has been

*56"];t7PM/Pt/PWFNCFSt)&LĹ&#x201D;OPĘ&#x201C;MV "4,VCBU 31MVO[

selected for the spatial translation is â&#x20AC;&#x153;Levels of Scaleâ&#x20AC;? since syntactically it is the most general and base property in explaining the most of the other remaining properties. 3. Shannonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s entropy approach The entropy concept was first used as part of thermodynamic systems in the nineteenth century. The second rule of thermodynamics says that every living or non-living system has an amount of free energy, and it always moves towards equilibrium (Bailey, 2015), and the entropy increases towards this realization. In other words, a system spontaneously evolves toXBSETBMFTTPSEFSFETUBUF/BUVSFUFOET to disorderliness more than order. The probability of a disordered or irregular occasion is higher than an ordered BOESFHVMBSPOF 4IBOOPO  Ä&#x2021;JT is an act of seeking equilibrium, and maximum entropy is thus what leads to disorderliness. Since the probability of a disordered state is higher than an ordered state, entropy always increases but never decreases. Maximum entropy takes a system to the death. Briefly, energy or substance in nature cannot vanish but evolve from one state to another. Entropy is the measure of this evolution or transformation. In addition to thermodynamic entropy, statistical entropy was first inUSPEVDFECZ4IBOOPO    BT a â&#x20AC;&#x153;basic concept in information theory, measuring the average missing information on a random sourceâ&#x20AC;? (Jat, Garg,  ,IBSF    i4IBOOPOT FOUSPQZ originated from information theory as a measure of uncertainty of conveyed information over a noisy channelâ&#x20AC;? #BJMFZ    +BU FU BM   Ä&#x2021;F larger the value of Shannonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s entropy, the higher is the uncertainty of information conveyed. Shannon developed the mathematical explanation of the information theory. He focused on how to minimize the loss of information in revealing a message in another point. Entropy (H), in this sense, is a measure of information. H is dependent on the number of information categories, K. Higher, a number of data types, conveyed by a piece of information, lower the probability of the same type of data to gather. It is also the least predictable

state (Bailey, 2015). Hence in such a case, the entropy is always towards most probable or most likely state. When the entropy is maximum, the categories of information get to their most random state where the most uncertainty occurs. The high amount of information with diverse information categories is most likely to emerge as high entropy and thus high uncertainty. Bailey (2015), states that Shannonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s entropy is content-free and can be applied to measure any information with a multiplicity of data types. Shannon entropy is a quantity measuring the relations in a data category. Use of logarithm, see Equation 3, makes this quantity growing linearly with system size and â&#x20AC;&#x153;behaving like information.â&#x20AC;? Shannon in his original paper states that the logarithmic measure is more convenient since it is mathematically suitable in measuring the number of possible states in which a system can be found (Ekinoglu & KuCBU  Ä&#x2021;FVOJUPGFOUSPQZJTBiCJUw (Wang, 2016). The information entropy as a method with a rising trend has been employed in diverse design-reMBUFEEJTDJQMJOFT,SBNQFO  BOE Stamps (2003) used Shannonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s entropy in measuring the data belonging to the façade elements to measure and evaluate their behavior. BostancÄą (2009) employed entropy approach in assessing the unique urban skylines from their design quality standpoint. Thanks to the developments in data storing & processing technology, measuring the information is more and more getting one of the central topics in architecture, art, and urban studies that are dealing with multivariate nature of big data and data-intense technologies 0Ä&#x152;FOIVCFS  3BUUJ    &OUSPQZ approach in this sense serves as a device for measuring the visually-diversified information. 4. Method: Measuring the multiscalar and relational entropy levels â&#x20AC;&#x153;Wholeness and Theory of Centersâ&#x20AC;? (Alexander, 2002-2005) explains that every possible center in a system may empower or weaken another through the way in which they exist and interact in many scales. The way in which built entities exist in a system reveals a high

Modeling spatial wholeness in cities using information entropy theory

or a weak degree of wholeness. This paper, in the spirit of Alexanderâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s definition of wholeness and life through centers, considers buildings as the fundamental centers in built environment. In brief, the method is simply based on questioning various morphologic formations that the buildings come together to form the built environment. A dynamic grid, as a data-mining interface, acts to translate a particular built context into a digitized equivalent. In other words, grid serves as an instrument that reads the levels of scale blueprint of the built area through the specified grid units. This study, using Shannonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s information entropy theory, develops an alternative quantifiable approach that can measure the contextual nature of completeness for a built environment from the scale levels point of view. To achieve it, a spatial analysis tool has been developed by using two major programming languages; â&#x20AC;&#x153;C#â&#x20AC;? and i1SPDFTTJOHw Ä&#x2021;F UPPM IBT UXP NBjor functions: 1) Data-mining and 2) Data-visualization. The data-mining function has been developed by compiling different image processing algorithms to develop a hybrid feature extraction algorithm, compiling inrange â&#x20AC;&#x201C; edge - canny â&#x20AC;&#x201C; color filter algorithms, 0QFODW  PO$UPSFUSJFWFEBUB out of land cover vector data. Data-visualization function visualizes the retrieved data sets and illustrates the outcomes of the analysis. Levels of scale as a parameter in data-mining enables running this investigation reiteratively in a multi-scalar way. This investigation is done at different grid scale levels, so the way each single grid unit interacts with its adjacent units mathematically matters in the calculation of entropy of each max adjacent unit throughout a grid system. As a formulation of the wholeness through the method of this study, it is possible to say that low entropy implies a relatively higher degree of wholeness as it is also theoretically taken both from the definition of entropy -FJCPWJDJ   4IBOOPO  BOE Alexanderâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s thoughts on wholeness in i/BUVSF PG 0SEFSw "MFYBOEFS     T               145, 146).

Figure 1. Changing grid scale levels and the way each unit corresponds to different morphologic interplay in each scale level.

'PS UIF BOBMZTJT  EFQFOEJOH PO UIF selected scale level, the grid gets partitioned into equivalent units of various TJ[FT BTTFFOJO'JHVSF$POTJEFSJOH that built entities may exist in a large variety of shapes and sizes in built environment, grid units help to recognize the interplay among the built bodies from an individual scale level. The units allow recognition and translation of corresponding built fabric, see Equation 1, into a numerical scale as JO'JHVSFÄ&#x2021;FBMHPSJUINHFOFSBUFTB G value for each unit. Built probability framed by each grid unit is termed as G. G, and H by definition are two co-dependent spatial measures. G is referred to specific gravity in physics, and it is termed to be the measure of relative scale-based built probability for each grid unit, while entropy(H) is termed to be the measure of uncertainty that each unit holds considering its adjacent unitsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; built probabilities (see Equations 1,2 and 3). G, in this sense, is unit-specific and represents the scale-dependent built probability while H is relational and system-specific and represents the level of uncertainty for a unit considering the eight surrounding-units G values. 1SJODJQBMMZBDDPSEJOHUPJOGPSNBUJPO entropy a more organized complexity contains less amount of information

*56"];t7PM/Pt/PWFNCFSt)&LĹ&#x201D;OPĘ&#x201C;MV "4,VCBU 31MVO[

Figure 2. Generating the IQR values.

and hence less potential of different probabilities. A somewhat organized but still more random one contains the higher potential of new probabilities and references while a very randomly and diversely organized one contains the most amount of information types and thus the greatest potential for new possibilities. This is no different for built environments. The higher possibility of spatial references in a unit of built area leads to a bigger tendency for new occurrences and a growing potential for change. In brief, the higher the spatial entropy, the more is the uncertainty, and hence a bigger potential of change is there. Higher entropy suggests a lower degree of wholeness. Depending on the scale of the grid, the analysis tool may generate highly diversified datasets with the different type of deviations along the data depending on the analyzed area. The multivariate nature of the entropy datasets requires discretization to eliminate the extremes and the deviations that exist across the data. IQR (Interquartile Range) statistical data measuring method does the discretization process. It arranges the values GSPN UIF TNBMMFTU UP UIF CJHHFTU 'PS discretization of the deviations in the EBUBTFU  *23  BT JMMVTUSBUFE JO 'JHVSF 2, plays a role in extracting the â&#x20AC;&#x153;middle fiftyâ&#x20AC;? where it draws a new dataset.

It is where the bulk of the values falls into, and in statistics is preferred over many other measures of spread (i.e. the average or median) when reporting multivariate data sets e.g. school performances based on the scores of the various tests. Each dataset generated by this analysis tool is scale-dependent, so the ranges of the quartiles change as the scale of the analysis change. In other words, any change in the IQR value for a data set is either about the changing morphologic state of the analyzed area or the changing grid scale. Leibovici (2009) notes that the integration of specific spatial aspects or adjacency properties into the entropy generation is essential when considering the spatial distributions of geographic entities. In other words, entropy among the interactions of geographic entities requires consideration of multi-scalar proximities and adjacencies systematically. Application of â&#x20AC;&#x153;Levels of Scaleâ&#x20AC;? as data-collecting/ classifying rule in data-mining process entails the definition of certain proportions between pixels and scale levels, i.e. corresponding metric distances. Scaling via pixels for an image is similar to changing the levels of the camera objective while looking at a particular area from the top view. This kind of changeability sets equilibrium between pixels on an image and metric distances in real space. Any particular change in scale of the grid refers to a certain proportional change for the pixel-area GSBNFECZFBDIHSJEVOJUBTTFFOJO'JHure 3. In each scaling level, a grid unit frames a different morphologic occurrence, and thus a new value set for both, G and H states. The scaling levels that have been applied to the case ar-

Figure 3. Scaling the grid via changing number of the pixels framed each time by each grid unit. Modeling spatial wholeness in cities using information entropy theory

eas in this study range from 1/100 to 1/1000 with 100 intervals of increase. Before initiating the analysis, the user picks a case area and selects a particular scale for the grid. The scale in this study varies from 100 to 1000 by regular intervals of 100 for the selected ten different case urban areas. A grid system, based on the selected scale level, is superimposed throughout the case area. Referring to Shannonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s entropy and using it for built environNFOU BT FYQMBJOFE JO 'JHVSF   JO UIF ith unit of an n units grid system, Gi is the proportionate of built density, of the ith unit where Pi is the proportion of occurrence considering the G values of the adjacent l, nine in the proposed method, units. Hi is the Entropy for the ithVOJU.FUIPEPMPHJDBMMZ 1BOEUIVT) is generated as long as the unit is maximum adjacent, meaning it has eight connected units.

&BDI HSJE VOJU BT TFFO JO 'JHVSF   matches a particular built density represented by a (G) value. The algorithm assigns G=0 when the unit is entirely unbuilt, and G=1 when it is completely built up. The units located on the edges of the grid are exempted since they do not have the maximum adjacency. Entropy (H) for the remaining units is calDVMBUFEBTJOCFMPX'JHVSF6OJUOVNCFS JO'JHVSF JTCFJOHTVSSPVOEFE by eight adjacent units. The entropy for

Figure 4. Unit positions and interactions among the adjacent units in calculation of H.

the unit with G5 value is calculated by considering the G5 with G1, G2, G3, ( ( ( (BOE(WBMVFT In the first round of the study, ten case study urban areas have been specifically selected from densely built areas that reflect the morphologic character of case study cities to analyze using the proposed method. The cities that have been scrutinized in UIJT TUVEZ BSF -POEPO -  /FX %FMIJ /%  /FX :PSL $JUZ /:$  1BSJT 1 3PNF 3 4BOUB.POJDB 4. 4BO 'SBODJTDP 4'  4JFOB 4  5PLZP 5  and Washington DC (WDC). The cities are diversified regarding being old and organically developed vs. being new and geometrically developed and those in-between cities. As raw data, open street map data, up to date 1/5000 scale, 1024 x 1024 pixels resolution, land cover vector data have been used for the analysis. The case study urban areas have been selected as

Figure 5. 10 1/5000 scaled case study urban areas: London, New Delhi, New York City, Paris, Rome, Santa Monica, San Francisco, Siena, Tokyo, Washington DC. *56"];t7PM/Pt/PWFNCFSt)&LĹ&#x201D;OPĘ&#x201C;MV "4,VCBU 31MVO[

Figure 6. London 1/5000 scaled urban area G-IQR (red curve) and H-IQR (blue curve) values for ten different scales from 1/100 to 1/1000 with regular increases of 100. Bottom; grid-scale dependent G realizations (unit-specific built probability).

Figure 7. New Delhi 1/5000 scaled urban area G-IQR (red curve) and H-IQR (blue curve) values for ten different scales from 1/100 to 1/1000 with regular increases of 100. Bottom; grid-scale dependent G realizations (unit-specific built probability).

densely built areas showing the unique characteristic and signature-like morphologic lay outs of selected cities. The analyses have been performed using ten types of grid scale, from 1/100 to 1/1000 with regular increases of 100, GPS UIF DBTF TUVEZ DJUJFT  JO 'JHVSF   and the results have been created as in 'JHVSFT        BOE The H-IQR values generated by the analyses are shown in the multi-scalar analysis graphs in above figures. Each graph shows how each morphologic formation relatively creates its entropy values through varying size & amount of grid units, and varying adjacencies, which gradually redefine a relative state of wholeness. Each H-IQR data is an interval data. Interval data is a numeric data that we know the exact difference between two so that they are equally important. Hence, we can take

the mean value of ten H-IQR values as seen in Table below. 5. Getting the expertsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; views on wholeness for the case study urban layouts In the second round, in order to compare â&#x20AC;&#x153;measured-wholenessâ&#x20AC;? with â&#x20AC;&#x153;perceived-wholenessâ&#x20AC;? ten experts, consisting of four architects, four urban planners, and two landscape architects & urban designers with minimum ten years of professional experience, have been asked to share their views, a number on a scale of 1 to 10, for ten case study urban layouts. The strongest city takes 10 while the poorest one takes 1 based on the view of the surveyor. The surveyors have not been directed on how to perceive the wholeness and evaluate the case citiesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; layouts accordingly but fully rely on their own profes-

Modeling spatial wholeness in cities using information entropy theory

Figure 8. New York City 1/5000 scaled urban area G-IQR (red curve) and H-IQR (blue curve) values for ten different scales from 1/100 to 1/1000 with regular increases of 100. Bottom; grid-scale dependent G realizations (unit-specific built probability).

Figure 9. Paris 1/5000 scaled urban area G-IQR (red curve) and H-IQR (blue curve) values for ten different scales from 1/100 to 1/1000 with regular increases of 100. Bottom; grid-scale dependent G realizations (unit-specific built probability).

sional and personal understanding and intuitions. The surveyors have been given 1 hour for rating the ten case study layouts through replying each question in Table 1 below. Briefly, the questions have been asked to see how the sense of wholeness gets shaped in understanding and intuitions of professional place makers. All the case study cities have potentials to trigger a different sense of wholeness in different aspects. This study does not have an aim to understand the reasoning behind the expertsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; dissenting views about each parameter of wholeness but the dominant tendency in their understanding of wholeness when compared to the findings of the analytical method developed in this study. The experts have been asked to rate the cities in terms of three aspects of wholeness, in Table 1.

6. Results The diversity of ratings among the expertsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; views, in Table 2, make generating of Krippendorff â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Îą (alpha) (10 experts and 10 cities) a consistent approach. â&#x20AC;&#x153;Krippendorff â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Îą (KÎą) is a general statistical measure of agreement among observers designed to inEJDBUFUIFJSSFMJBCJMJUZw 4BMLJOE 

KÎą for 10 experts and 10 cities is  Ä&#x2021;F CFTU BMQIB WBMVF CFUXFFO UXP FYQFSUT JT  Ä&#x2021;FTF BSF XFMM CFMPX XIBU XF FYQFDU UP TFF   These findings show that there is no Table 1: Survey questions.

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Figure 10. Rome 1/5000 scaled urban area G-IQR (red curve) and H-IQR (blue curve) values for ten different scales from 1/100 to 1/1000 with regular increases of 100. Bottom; grid-scale dependent G realizations (unit-specific built probability).

Figure 11. Santa Monica1/5000 scaled urban area G-IQR (red curve) and H-IQR (blue curve) values for ten different scales from 1/100 to 1/1000 with regular increases of 100. Bottom; grid-scale dependent G realizations (unit-specific built probability).

agreement among the surveyors about which case study layout creates a stronger sense of wholeness and which one creates a weaker and weakest. The concept of wholeness in this

study is a measure defined by three spatial parameters: i) solid-void relationships ii) road hierarchy iii) harmony among the adjacent masses. The expertsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; ratings for the analyzed cities show that, even when asked through its three specific aspects, there is no agreement about wholeness. Expertsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; views indicate that this kind of survey to measure wholeness through three given parameters still shapes a highly subjective assessment and ad hoc definition of wholeness and its components with varying evaluations. The finding implies that spatial orders in varying size and scales require an evidence-informed and data-driven analytical method to measure built environment, especially for spatiotemporal investigations. Scores by the normalized expertsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; WJFXT /&7  PO XIPMFOFTT GPS FBDI

Table 2. 10 normalized (3 parameters merged) expertsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; reviews for the case Study 10 cities.

Modeling spatial wholeness in cities using information entropy theory

Figure 12. San Francisco 1/5000 scaled urban area G-IQR (red curve) and H-IQR (blue curve) values for ten different scales from 1/100 to 1/1000 with regular increases of 100. Bottom; grid-scale dependent G realizations (unit-specific built probability).

Figure 13. Siena 1/5000 scaled urban area G-IQR (red curve) and H-IQR (blue curve) values for ten different scales from 1/100 to 1/1000 with regular increases of 100. Bottom; grid-scale dependent G realizations (unit-specific built probability).

city is a median value since it is an orEJOBMTDBMF0SEJOBMTDBMFTBSFUZQJDBMly measures of non-numeric concepts like the intensity of a sense for a given situation. We cannot know the difference in the understanding between â&#x20AC;&#x153;very strongâ&#x20AC;? and â&#x20AC;&#x153;strong.â&#x20AC;? Therefore values on the scale are not equal. Thus, we cannot get the mean value of it but the median. However, the situation in H-IQR value data set is different. H-IQR value is an interval scale that are numeric scales in which we know not only the order but also the exact differences between the values. Thatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s why we can get the mean value for the H-IQR data set generated by the analysis of ten different grid scale levels applied for each city. Two outcomes in this study help UP BSUJDVMBUF UIF DPODMVTJPO 'JSTU  UIF KÎą for the 10 experts and 10 cities, is  Ä&#x2021;JT Ä&#x2022;OEJOH TIPXT UIBU UIFSF

is no agreement among the experts on the wholeness degrees of the case study cities upon the given parameters. Second; Correlation coefficient between /&7 NFEJBOT BOE NFBO )*23 WBMues is 25%. Expert views and H-IQRs are supposed to be inversely correlated to verify each other since high expert Table 3. Normalized expertsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; views (N-EV) and median H-IQR values for the analyzed cities.

*56"];t7PM/Pt/PWFNCFSt)&LĹ&#x201D;OPĘ&#x201C;MV "4,VCBU 31MVO[

Figure 14. Tokyo 1/5000 scaled urban area G-IQR (red curve) and H-IQR (blue curve) values for ten different scales from 1/100 to 1/1000 with regular increases of 100. Bottom; grid-scale dependent G realizations (unit-specific built probability).

Figure 15. Washington DC 1/5000 scaled urban area G-IQR (red curve) and H-IQR (blue curve) values for ten different scales from 1/100 to 1/1000 with regular increases of 100. Bottom; grid-scale dependent G realizations (unit-specific built probability).

rating implies high wholeness which, in entropic scale, is supposed to be low H-IQR and vice-versa. Although 25% is a low enough correlation coefficient and would imply a high consistency with a high Kα, the low Kα value- high disagreement among the surveyorsblocks the way to articulate that the results between two methods are consistent. Dramatic disagreement, on the idea of wholeness, among the surveyors trigger another significant issue. The idea and sense of wholeness even for place making experts is not as intuitive as Alexander claims but a loose and controversial quality. This finding helps to point out the need for data-driven and evidence-informed analytical methods that measure the relative degree of wholeness in constantly changing urban environments. Such as the method developed in this study.

Results also prove that idea of wholeness, more than perceivable, is a measurable concept. It is neither purely a quantifiable nor an intuitive notion but both of them. This is mostly because the wholeness of the spatial layout is just one of the several other significant factors that trigger an overall sense of wholeness. Results, using the proposed analytical method indicate that the quality of wholeness embedded in the morphologic layout is a measurable concept more than perceivable. It is not a purely intuitive notion. This might be because the human-eye cognitively tends to the catch simple legible layouts in the most complex systems. Human-eye may neglect many pieces that an algorithm will not. Results also prove that wholeness, being used for “completeness” in this study, does not necessarily rely on the

Modeling spatial wholeness in cities using information entropy theory

organic or geometric order of the analyzed layout but the order that reveals a particular scaling hierarchy across scales. The quality of the order is about the success of constituents in making a greater whole and the legibility of morphologic signature that the system reveals at various scale levels. This study suggests that Shannonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s entropy is a convenient theory for measuring the entropy of various morphologic occurrences in built settings from the relationality of scale levels point of view. The results of this study show that urban built layout can be measured. The design is a multi-scalar wholeness-seeking task among various spatial and functional parameters. Design as a wholeness-seeking and life-extending process in built environment requires inspecting and questioning the relational nature of spatial context across scales. Wholeness in this sense is not merely a spatial notion relying on the Euclidian geometric thinking but instead a product of living geometric and fractal thinking. It is, in this study, suggested that wholeness as a qualitative concept can be a measurable spatial quality through the proposed method. The results indicate that wholeness as a space term is not an only an abstract, subjective and intuitive term, but rather a measurable and visualize-able concept. Briefly; Information entropy approach allows measuring the multi-scalar behavior of the spatial and geographic entities so that it is convenient to assess the morphologic occurrences. Information entropy approach gives meaningful and verified findings for the comparative spatiotemporal analysis about the cities (Ekinoglu & Kubat,    6TJOH UIF QSPQPTFE NFUIPE  different parts of the city can be measured by different time periods and grid scales which may have significant implications on the site-specific reasons that alter the degree of the wholeness of the space. Using the entropy approach, synchronizing GIS datasets, e.g. heat island effect maps can give an alternative way of measuring and better monitoring the consequences of the changing nature of built environment and its

irreversible effects on environmental sustainability and urban energy consumption issues. Acknowledgement This research was supported by TUBITAK under the grant programme of Bideb-2214 to be developed at Columbia University Earth Institute â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Urban %FTJHO-BCVOEFSUIFBEWJTPSZPG1SPG 3JDIBSE1MVO[GSPN4FQUFNCFSUP September 2015. References Alexander, C. (2002-2005). The Nature of Order: An Essay on the Art of Building and The Nature of the Universe, Book I, the Phenomenon of Life. 4BO 'SBODJTDP #FSLFMFZ  $BMJGPSOJB Center for Environmental Structure. "MMFO  4   'SPN 0CKFDU UP 'JFMEPractice: Architecture, Technique, and Presentation (reversed and expanded edition), Routledge (London/New York), 251. "SOIFJN  3   Entropy and Art: An essay on disorder and order. 6OJWFSTJUZPG$BMJGPSOJB1SFTT Bailey, K. D. (2015, May). Entropy Systems Theory. Encyclopedia of Life 4VQQPSU 4ZTUFNT &0-44  SFUSJFWFE from Sample%20Chapters/C02/E6-46-0104.pdf Baynes, T., & Heckbert, S. (2009). Micro-Scale Simulation of the Macro 6SCBO'PSN0QQPSUVOJUJFTGPS&YQMPSing Urban Change and Adaptation. InTJEF(%J5PTUP )%1BSVOBL FET  Multi-Agent-Based Simulation X International Workshop, MABS 2009 (pp. 14-23). Budapest. #PTUBODÂ&#x2018;  4   0DBLDÂ&#x2018;  .   Evaluating of city skylines from their design quality standpoint by the entropy approach. itĂźdergisi/a 8/2  Cullen, G. (1961). Townscape. LonEPO"SDIJUFDUVSBM1SFTT &LJOPHMV  )   ,VCBU  "   How did the wholeness of Beyazit Square change in the last sixty years? P. Janssen, P. Loh, A. Raonic and M. A. Schnabel (eds.), Protocols, Flows and Glitches; Proceedings of the 22nd International Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia (CAADRIA 2017). Suzhou, China

*56"];t7PM/Pt/PWFNCFSt)&LĹ&#x201D;OPĘ&#x201C;MV "4,VCBU 31MVO[

&LJOPHMV  )   ,VCBU  4   Measuring and visualization of spatial change using information entropy theory: Beyazit Square case area in Istanbul. 11th International Space Syntax Symposium (SSS11) Proceedings (s.  -JTCPO5FDOJDP-JTCPB )BOTPO +  Order and Structure in Urban Space: A Morphological History of City of London. Unpublished PhD Thesis . London. +BU  . ,  (BSH  1 ,   ,IBSF  %   .POJUPSJOH BOE .PEFMMJOH PG Urban Sprawl Using Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, 26-43. Retrieved from Jiang, B. (2012). Why Can the Image PG UIF $JUZ #F 'PSNFE  0O .BZ   2012, retrieved from Ä&#x2122;QBSYJWQBQFSTQEG Jiang, B., & Sui, D. (2014). A new kind of beauty out of the underlying scaling of geographic space. The Professional Geographer, DOI: 10.1080/00330124.2013.852037. retrieved from Konuk, G. (1992). Zaman ve mekanın bir sentezi olarak kentsel tasarım, 1. Kentsel Tasarım ve Uygulamalar Sempozyumu T É&#x2014;TUBObul: MSÃ&#x153;. ,SBNQFO  .   Meaning in the Urban Environment. London1JPO Limited. Leibovici, G. D. (2009). Defining Spatial Entropy from Multivariate Distributions of Co-occurences. inside K. S. Hornsby, & e. a. (eds), Spatial Information Theory (s. 392-404). aber 8SBDI 4QSJOHFS7FSMBH #FSMJO )FJdelberg. .JMMFS  ) +   5PCMFST 'JSTU Law and Spatial Analysis. Annals of the Association of American Geographers,

 /BTBS  + -   6SCBO EFTJHO aesthetics: The evaluative qualities of building exteriors. Environment and Behaviour  /BTBS  + -   The Evaluative Image of the City4BHF1VCMJDBUJPOT 0Ä&#x152;FOIVCFS  %   3BUUJ  $   Decoding the City: Urbanism in the Age of Big Data. Basel: Birkhauser. 0QFODW   +VOF   Open CV: Open source computer vision. Retrieved GSPN 0QFODWPSH IUUQEPDTPQFODW org/trunk/index.html 4BMJOHBSPT  " /   Principles Of Urban Structure Chapter 6. AmsterEBN )PMMBOE5FDIOF1SFTT 4BMLJOE  / +   +VMZ   Krippendorff â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Alpha. Sage Research Methods: Encyclopedia of Research Design: Retrieved from http://methods. 4IBOOPO $&  ".BUIFNBUical Theory of Communication. Bell System Technical Journal 27: 3  Shannon, C. E. (2001). A Mathematical Theory of Communication. ACM SIGMOBILE Mobile Computing and Communications Review V.5/1, 3-55. Stapms, A. E. (2003). Advances in visual diversity and entropy. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 30, 449-463. 5PCMFS 8  "DPNQVUFSNPWie simulating urban growth in the Detroit region. Economic Geography, 46(2), 234-240. Waguespack, L. (2010). Thriving Systems Theory and Metaphor-Driven Modeling. Springer. Wang, T. (2016). Information & Entropy (Comp 595 DM). retrieved from http://www.csun. edu/~twang/595DM/Slides/Information%20&%20Entropy.pdf

Modeling spatial wholeness in cities using information entropy theory


The integrated approach for identity establishment of Donggala city in Indonesia

Amar Akbar ALI1, Lukman NADJAMUDDIN2 1 BNBSBLCBSBMJ!HNBJMDPNt%FQBSUNFOUPG"SDIJUFDUVSF 'BDVMUZPG Engineering, Tadulako University, Palu, Indonesia 2 t%FQBSUNFOUPG)JTUPSZ&EVDBUJPO 'BDVMUZ of Teacher Training and Education, Tadulako University, Palu, Indonesia

doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2017.88598  

3FDFJWFE"QSJMt Final Acceptance: November 2017

Abstract The identity of the city is formed of understanding and meaning (image) of something that exists or ever existed/attached in the city or the introduction of physical and non-physical objects that are formed in time to time. The cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s identity is one of an essential goal to improve the environmental conditions in the future. This study aims to reveal the identity of the Donggala city based on aspects of forming integrated urban identity as a uniqueness overview and its hallmark. The study emphasizes on the descriptive and explanation design through qualitative and quantitative approach conducted by using survey methods. The results showed that there are five aspects of identity-forming of the integrated city: the geographical aspects, historical aspects, accessories aspects, humanist aspects, and the strategic aspects. The best identity in representing Donggala city based on those five aspects is dominated by the disclosure of the identity as the city tourism which emphasis on marine and historical tourism. Keywords City identity, Donggala, Tourism.

1. Introduction City is the result of the history of human civilization which experienced the growth and development history. " DJUZ JT B QMBDF XIFSF QFPQMF JEFOUJfy themselves with the location and FOWJSPONFOU -ZODI    "MTP JU JT a collection of places that have a variety of markers and memories respecUJWFMZ 5SBODJL    4PNF TPVSDFT suggested that a review of the cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s identity is emphasized on the physically forms from the urban environment and it can be observed from physically appearance of the city as reflected in attributes of the city, open spaces that exist, areas of cultural heritage, monuNFOUBMBOEJOEJWJEVBMCVJMEJOHT )FSCFSU  8IJMF8JLBOUJZPTP   suggested that the Identity of a city can be formed by elements of the physical city which also includes the detailed aspects such as building, circulation, open space and urban infrastructure, especially the aspects of urban form spatial patterns and composition of the built environment on the pattern form around the study area, as well as regulatory aspects (the totality of the plan and design of the city that show the dynamics of urban areas) an organic unity is formed. The identity of a city is not only related to the terms of physical and geometric forms, furthermore, it explains the QIFOPNFOB UIBU PDDVS "DDPSEJOH UP .POFP  UPTFFUIFQIFOPNFOPO about identity of a city, then not only be assessed in terms of his physical, but it must be linked to the function, status and socio-cultural values. Meanwhile, BDDPSEJOH UP 3PTF   UP MFBSO UIF identity of the city not only look at the physical form, but also must associate it with ideas or phenomena that is behind the identity formation as the identity and specific character, as well as the factors influence the formation PG JU (PMETUFFO BOE &MMJPU   BMTP illustrate that the identity of the city is a combination of very unique characUFSJTUJDT EJÄ&#x152;FSFODFTBOENZTUFSZ4JNJMBSMZ QSPQPTFECZ+PLPOZB  UIBU the presence of an identity is very possible struggling of various factors such as fashion trends, building materials in common, natural behavior, unity of language, or to replicate projects that

have been successful or well-known from various cities as conducted by the 4IBOHIBJ DJUZ XIJDI JNQPSUJOH BSDIJtectural styles from different countries +PLPOZB   $BTUFMMT  BMTPBSHVFEUIBUUIF construction of identities uses building materials from history, from geography, from biology, from productive and reproductive institutions, from collective memory and from personal fantasies, from power apparatuses and religious revelations. I propose a distinction between three forms and origins of identity building: a) Legitimizing identity: introduced by the dominant institutions of society to extend and rationalize their domination vis a` vis social actors, a theme UIBUJTBUUIFIFBSUPG4FOOFUUTUIFPSZ PGBVUIPSJUZBOEEPNJOBUJPO 4FOOFUU    CVU BMTP Ä&#x2022;UT XJUI WBSJPVT UIFPSJFT PG OBUJPOBMJTN "OEFSTPO    b) Resistance identity: generated by those actors who are in positions/conditions devalued and/or stigmatized by the logic of domination, thus building trenches of resistance and survival on the basis of principles different from, or opposed to, those permeating the institutions of society, as Calhoun proposes when explaining the emergence PG JEFOUJUZ QPMJUJDT $BMIPVO    c) Project identity: when social actors, on the basis of whatever cultural materials are available to them, build a new identity that redefines their position in society and, by so doing, seek the transformation of overall social structure. Disclosure of the cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s identity, especially the cities in Indonesia, more focused on the disclosure of objects or elements of physical (tangible) and as though forgetting psychic elements (intangible) which is as the spirit and soul PGUIFDJUZ #VEJIBSEKP  5PBOUJDipate that the tendency of the disclosure of the phenomenon is not continuing, it would need to be studied and traced the identity of a city based on the structures and functions of city life more integrated manner in which an accumulation of values of socio-cultural residents of the city as the spirit and identity of the city, as long as elements of the physical environment as a container (Lynch, 4BMJZB .BEBOJQPVS   It is intended that the identity of a city

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cannot really be inspired and benefit the citizens of the city nor the immigrant population in a sensible and sustainable, also make it as a pride and sense of belonging to the city (sense of QMBDF  /PCFSH4DIVM[   Research on the formation of the cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s identity is one way to look at the phenomenon of a city, which can be explained by the development of the functions of city life since the beginning of formation until now in revealing the character and identity (Oktay,  Ä&#x2021;JTTUVEZJTJNQPSUBOU CFDBVTF through each stage of the development city life function, then the factual description of a city with its uniqueness and its characteristics can be explained in a more structured corresponding historical values and socio-cultural life of society based on the needs of citizens and the quality of the enviSPONFOU &MLJO .D-BSFO )JMMNBO   )BVHIUPO  )VOUFS    Thus, it will be disclosed the meaning of the cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s identity is more rooted in the culture of the people and not just the identity that is both symbolic artiGBDUTBOETIFFS "NBS B  Based on the statement, in relation to the disclosure of the identity of Donggala city will be searchable on the various elements forming the identity of the city or the factors that influence it, both physical and non-physical, because through the study of various



aspects of identity-forming city, then it will further clarify the disclosure of JUTJEFOUJUZ8JUIPVUBXFMMVOEFSTUPPE aspects of forming the cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s identity by all citizens of the city will increasingly obscure the meaning and the disclosure of itself as a form characteristic, uniqueness, identity and character of UIFDJUZ "NBS C  2. Research methodology 2.1. Methodology The study emphasizes on the descriptive design and explanative through qualitative and quantitative research analysis conducted by using survey methods. The research is located in Donggala city. The term â&#x20AC;&#x153;Donggala Cityâ&#x20AC;? connoted to the region â&#x20AC;&#x153;Old Donggalaâ&#x20AC;? includes six villages namely: Boya village, Maleni village, Ganti village, Labuan Bajo village, Gunung Bale village, and the village of Tanjung Batu, which is as part of subdistrict Banawa. It because the existence of the sixth villages are linked closely to the formation of Donggala city development, especially during the reign of the Banawa kingdom and Dutch Colonial, and the existence of Donggala port as a node and triggers the development of Donggala DJUZ "NBS    'PS NPSF EFUBJMT  Donggala city boundary delineation in the implementation of this research DBOCFTFFOJO 'JHVSF 


Figure 1. Map of the delineation study area: (a) Map of the District Banawa Donggala, (b) Map of the Donggala city as Old Donggala include: Boya village, Maleni village, Ganti village, Labuan Bajo village, Gunung Bale village, and the village of Tanjung Batu, and (c) The view of Ikonos Satellite Imagery acquisition of Donggala city in 2009. The integrated approach for identity establishment of Donggala city in Indonesia

2.2. Analysis unit The unit of analysis was a citizen of %POHHBMBBTNBOZBTSFTQPOEFOUT who have a good understanding and knowledge of Donggala city, especially residents who have long or heredJUBSZ EPNJDJMFE JO UIF DJUZ "T GPS UIF characteristics of the respondents were grouped into four groups as shown in (Table 1), namely: the age of the respondent, respondent education, employment respondent and respondentâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s domicile with the following description: t The age of the respondents is based on the level of maturity of thinking and life experiences of the respondents while residing in Donggala city with the assumption that the higher the age of a person, the more life experiences it has which also contributes to his/her thinking maturity. Other than that, the age maturity of the respondents is a reflection of their life experience in making decisions and taking actions to the choices offered.

t The education level of the respondents highly contributes to the decision making on the disclosure of Donggalaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s city identity. Education level also reflects the extent of respondentâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s understandings toward the research instrument presented, thus, the answers given by the respondents are valid and reliable as the respondents. t Through the discovery of variety employment of the respondents, it is expected that their responds would also be diverse especially in discovering Donggalaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s city identity. In other words, respondents donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t only give answers influenced by their working background but can see it as a whole according to the potentials and characteristics of Donggala city and its benefits for the future. t The description of domicile profile and the residence of the respondents in this research can be classified by three categories includ-

Table 1. Characteristic of respondents.

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ing: the period of domicile which shows how long the respondents have been living in Donggala city, domicile status which shows the domicile type in Donggala and finally the respondentâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s resident status which shows the previous origin of the respondents.This condition will be very helpful in exposing the Donggalaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s city identity, so in giving the responds, respondents have a relatively broad insight according to the experience they have. 2.3. Validity and reliability of the questionnaire The data were collected by using a questionnaire research instruments in qualitative data is being quantitative, therefore before analyzing it, test the validity and reliability of the questionnaire first to see the validity and reliability of the research instruments. Based on the validity of the results XIJDI QFSGPSNFE CZ VTJOH 4144 WFSTJPO  GPS 8JOEPXT  UIFO B RVFTTable 2. The validity questionnaire test for disclosure of the city identity.

Table 3. The reliability questionnaire of statistics for disclosure of the city identity.

tionnaire on City Identity Disclosure consisting of 22 items declared valid statement. To determine the validity of the numbers, look at column rcount as the correlation between the scores of items with a total score of items JO 4144 QSPHSBN DBMMFE $PSSFDUFE Item-Total Correlation) in comparison with the value of rtable. If the value of rcount is greater than the value of rtable (rcount > rtable), then the item is valid, as shown in [Table 2]. Reliability test oriented in the sense that the questionnaire used in this study can be trusted to be used as a data collector. Reliability test using CronCBDI "MQIB DPFÄ?DJFOUT XJUI 4144 " questionnaire said to be reliable if the resulting value of rcount is positive and greater than rtabel (alpha). 7BMJEJUZ BOE 3FMJBCJMJUZ UFTUJOH DBO CFTFFOJO<5BCMF>BOE<5BCMF>Ä&#x2021;F DPSSFMBUJPO WBMVF (VUNBO 4QMJU)BMG $PFÄ?DJFO    UIF DPSSFMBUJPO PG UIFDBUFHPSZJTWFSZTUSPOH8IFODPNpared with rtable  UIFOScount larger than rtable. It can be concluded that the questionnaire is reliable. 3. Result and discussion 3.1. The characteristics of Donggala City Donggala as one of the oldest cities JO$FOUSBM4VMBXFTJ1SPWJODFCVSHFPOing city of forerunner to the royal town and colonial Dutch with historical values, social values and cultural formations physical architecture (environmental planning and building) that can be evidence of the ever popular a form of order and function of city life with a particular branch of Islam that can be raised as a specific identity of the DJUZ %POHHBMB +VOJBSUJ   *O HFOeral, it can be argued that some of the phenomena associated with the factual conditions on the function and structure of Donggala city life as a unique and characteristic in forming identity as the focus of the research, among others. Donggala as a royal city and colonial Dutch who once served as a port city and the oldest famous in the cruise world, having a very important development in travel and existence, and still leaves many various old buildJOHT BSUJGBDUT BOE IJTUPSJD 'JHVSF   giving nuance to order visualization

The integrated approach for identity establishment of Donggala city in Indonesia


TQBDFBOEGBDFTPGUIFDJUZJUIBTTQFcific characteristics to the landscape of the mountainous topography and the coastline which are located around the Donggala city, and the river flow EJWJEFT UIF %POHHBMB DJUZ 'JHVSF   This physical condition played a role in the formation of the cityand the enviSPONFOU 4PDJPFDPOPNJD DPOEJUJPOT and cultural diverse society also gives the values and norms of its own against the appreciation and aspirations of citizens in the implementation of development in Donggala. The existence and BDUJWJUJFT PG %POHHBMB QPSU 'JHVSF   provides its own style on the pattern of UIFDJUZMJGF 'JHVSF BTPOFPGUIFQPtential and uniqueness in the face and JEFOUJUZGPSNJOH%POHHBMBDJUZ "NBS    Despite the changes in Donggala, but traces the development of his past can still be found. Living habits, the shape and structure of the city in the downtown area, much influenced by concept of the Banawa government and the Dutch colonial that has emerged since the beginning of the establishment of the city in the middle of th century. Dualistic condition face of the city (colonial empire) and the formation of formal and informal sector, a transformation of the past rooted in the dialectic between the penetration of colonial and indigenous resistance "NBS   In addition, the social system, cultural and political influence, such as the social organization and culture of the community that are based on Customary Law of Pitunggota city in the countryside, in providing treasury development of Donggala city life, although it has been modified in the coastal areas after the development of UIFQPSU +VOBSUJ   This phenomenon is more interesting to be studied by looking at the historical development of Donggala strands as the Banawa Kingdom cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s rule and Dutch which once served as the Port city ever famous on the world NBQ"DDVNVMBUJPOPGUIFUSBOTGPSNBtion of the spatial fabric in the past to the present is exactly shape and give a distinctive character to the functions of city life in the process of signification PG%POHHBMBJEFOUJUZ "NBS  

Figure 2. Various artifacts of historic building of the kingdom and Dutch colonial form: lighthouse along with his watch-house facilities, traditional buildings, the kingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s house, official house resident, a Chinese school, office buildings and warehouses HET Koprafonds.

Figure 3. The condition of natural landscape mountains blend of Donggala city, white sand beaches and rivers in one city.

Figure 4. Donggala port conditions with a variety of facilities and buildings in the form of building artifacts Doane (customs duty), port warehouses and docks Dutch colonial heritage, and the faces of Old Donggala city around the port.

Figure 5. Socio-economic conditions and cultural city of Donggala which tend to be based on travel support activities, among others: the manufacture of woven fabrics of silk Donggala using loom machines, traditional fishermen, and the provision of facilities such as marine tourism resort and diving.

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3.2. The descriptive analysis for disclosure of the Donggala cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s identity Descriptive analysis referred in this discussion is a description of the uniqueness and characteristics of various dimensions and indicators that can explain the disclosure of the Donggala cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Identity or in the view of respondentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; statements from the results of questionnaire that has been deployed at the sites. The questionnaire sheets distributed with 5 (five) preferred or alternative answers using a Likert scale. The most important thing in this study is translating, the result of the respondentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; answers in the form of Likert scale into quantitative values in the scoring form can be interpreted descriptively to determine the role of each dimension in explaining the disclosure of the cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s identity. It should be mentioned that POMZTDPSFXJUIPSUIFJOterpretation of scores are very strong ones that can be used to explain the disclosure of the cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s identity from each aspect/dimension. 'VSUIFSNPSF JUDBOCFEFTDSJCFEBO overview of each aspect/dimension, indicators and items of the statement can explain the disclosure of the Donggala cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s identity according to the results of research and the calculation of the score that has been formulated. 3.3. Geographical aspects overview The uniqueness and characteristic of Donggala city geographically explaining the disclosure of the cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s identity seems to be dominated or based on the location and characteristics of landscape and the physical condition of the region that has a blend naturally, such as the coast, mountains and rivers with the specific equatorial climate. Based on respondentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; answers seem that there are four items of statements selected by the group of respondents who have a greater score (>) than 81% or interpretation of the score to four items of the statement is believed having a very strong category in explaining the disclosure of the Donggala cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s identity, namely: Donggala city is MPDBUFEEFBMJOHEJSFDUMZXJUIUIF4USBJU of Makassar and Palu Bay as a marine transportation cruise lines provide

ease of achievement and movement of people, goods and services with a TDPSFPG%POHHBMBDJUZJTMPDBUed between the two regions of Central 4VMBXFTJBOE8FTU4VMBXFTJUIBUHJWJOH opportunity to the city in order to be able to develop more rapidly with a TDPSF PG  %POHHBMB DJUZ IBT B mix of natural conditions such as the coast, the mountains and the river dividing the city with beautiful natural scenery and interesting which giving an opportunity to be arranged either in the formation of the face and feel of the DJUZXJUIBTDPSFPG%POHHBMB city crossed by the equator with sunny and comfortable weather and supporting the activities of local residents with BTDPSFPG%POHHBMBDJUZQPUFOtially fertile land and abundant marine QSPEVDUT XJUI B TDPSF PG  BOE Donggala city has a mineral content of the potential soil conditions to serve as a material mining and quarrying with a TDPSFPG The respondents answer choices is more due to the conditions of the real city of Donggala which has a unique and characteristic with the advantages of geographical location and potential of natural resources, in the form of the mountains landscape, the river dividing the city as a source of life, also the shoreline and underwater panorama of exotic, integrated into a single unit in UIF %POHHBMB DJUZ )PXFWFS  UIJT QIFnomenon has not fully meaning touch yet or we can say that it is forgotten, even it has been popularized previously in the Dutch colonial which is characterized by the presence of Donggala port as a gateway to trade because of the geographical location of the Donggala city highly strategic for the cruise world, and the presence of the Cape Reefs tourist area become a place of recreation for the families of Dutch and foreign guests, as described previously. Meanwhile, the two other statement items are: Donggala city potentially fertile land and abundant marine prodVDUTBOEJUIBWFTPJMTXJUINJOFSBMQPtential to be used as material mining and quarrying. The score greater (>) UIBO  BOE TNBMMFS   UIBO  or interpretation of the score to both items of the statement by the respondent believed to be relatively strong in

The integrated approach for identity establishment of Donggala city in Indonesia

explaining the disclosure of the Donggala cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s identity, but not as strong as the fourth item previous statements. Despite all these two statements cannot be relied upon in explaining the disclosure of it, but this potential need attention to be developed in support of the cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s identity purport forward. )BWJOHQVUGPSXBSETPNFTUBUFNFOUT about the image of the geographical aspects in explaining the disclosure of Donggala cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s identity, respondents were also asked their opinions about some of the most appropriate choice to represent the shape of the cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s identity based on the the geographical aspects. The answer given by the respondents are varied, but the most accurately representing the cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s identity based on the unique and distinguishing features of the geographical aspect according to the respondents can be ranked as follows: Donggala city as the Tourism city TFMFDUFECZSFTQPOEFOUT  JU is as a city Beach/Coastal selected by 12 respondents (11.88%), also as the Port city was selected by 8 respondents   BOE CFDPNF 5SBEF BOE 4FSvices city was chosen by 5 respondents   Donggala as a Tourism City more dominant chosen by the respondent due to several reasons, among others: the city now more synonymous with marine tourism that is Tanjung Karang area and some tourist areas in the vicinity, the construction of ring road beach with various infrastructure and recreational facilities that support tourist activity in the city, the Tua town and Port Donggala, also buildings or sites of historical relics that are still exist, even though the conditions were quite alarming, is the appeal of properties are available for the city to CFOPTUBMHJDGPSUIFQBTU "NBS   The existence of the Donggala sarong silk weaving is very famous since their Passages Chinese silk to Donggala port as souvenirs of Donggala. 3.4. Historical aspects The uniqueness and characteristic of historical Donggala city seems have not entered the category of very powerful in explaining the disclosure of the identity according to respondentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; preferences. It can be seen based on

the percentage score responder group TIPXFEGFXFSUIBO  BOEHSFBUFS UIBO  GPSUIFGPVSUITUBUFNFOU items related to the image of the historical aspects of dimensions. It means that all items are statements portray the historical of the uniqueness and characteristic based on the interpretation score only the relatively strong and none of them entered in the category of very strong or dominant in explaining the disclosure of Donggala cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s identity. The four statements on the historical aspect of the question BSF BT GPMMPXT %POHHBMB DJUZ PXO PCjects and buildings of heritage Banawa kingdom that still well preserved and IJHIWBMVFXJUIBTDPSFPGÄ&#x2021;F city own objects and legacy of Dutch colonial buildings which still well preserved and high value with a score of %POHHBMBIBTDVTUPNTUIBUBSF still used and often were held in the orEFSPGVSCBOMJGFXJUIBTDPSFPG and it has stories of famous people with BTDPSFPG 8IFO ZPV MPPL BU UIF EFTDSJQUJPO of the development of the city started from pre-colonial or the empire of Banawa until the time of the post-colonial seen that Donggala has a history of city development which very attractive same with other cities in Indonesia. Based on the threads of history are certainly Donggala have many memories or sites of historical relics, either in the form of objects or buildings also the procedures for customs or folklore, the famous and high-value according to the criteria of historical objects and ancient required by government regulations. The buildings view or the historical district relics of the Banawa kingdom and Dutch Colonial remaining among others: Donggala port region with various supplementary structure such as DVTUPNT EVUZ PÄ?D  XBSFIPVTF ,PQSB )FU,PQSBGPOET -JHIUIPVTF BOEGBDJMJUJFT PÄ?DF TVDI BT UIF BTTJTUBOU SFTJEFOU PÄ?DF OPX CFDPNF UIF PÄ?DJBM residence of the district), and building military barracks located in the Ganti village is still functioning (now become Penitentiary Donggala). There is also a Chinese school (formerly is used as UFNQPSBSZ %POHHBMB 3FHFODZ 0Ä?DF  7PMLTDIPPMPSB/BUJWF1SJNBSZ4DIPPM

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(now become elementary, junior high, and the University of Muhammadiyah CSBODI PG %POHHBMB  7FSWPMHTDIPPM OPX CFDPNF DPNQMFY +VOJPS )JHI 4DIPPMSFDPHOJTFEBT4.1%POHHBMB  'SPN UIF DPSOFS PG %POHHBMB  there are some buildings that still following the shape of colonial heritage buildings. This form is still prevalent around Donggala port (now as storage warehouse copra Chinese traders). The shape of the building resembles a building the city of Batavia in the colonial period. The design and ornaments are used together with colonial era buildings. The existence of historical sites is physically able to be used as elements of the cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s identity as a sign or a symbol and the identities of which are owned by other cities that make it faNPVT )PXFWFS  JU JT SFHSFUUBCMF JNportant sites is like left and did not get a touch as well as ongoing intensive care, so there are sites gradually being lost or destroyed swallowed by the progress of time or changing with modern CVJMEJOHT 4JNJMBSMZ  UIF QSPDFEVSF PG customs and folklore held increasingly marginalized due to modern social and globalization. That was several reasons why respondents feel less confident in making a unique and characteristic historical aspect as a basis for explaining the discloTVSFPGUIF%POHHBMBDJUZTJEFOUJUZ/FWertheless, the existence of heritage sites can be used as one of the attractions that are specific to Donggala city can introduce better and more sustainable. 4BNF BT UIF HFPHSBQIJDBM BTQFDUT  the description of the historical aspect in explaining the disclosure of the Donggala cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s identity, respondents were also asked their opinions about some of the most appropriate choice to represent the shape of it based on the historical aspect. The answer given by respondents were also quite varied, but the most accurately representing the cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s identity based on the unique and distinguishing features of the historical aspect according to the respondents can be ranked as follows: Donggala City as the TourJTN $JUZ TFMFDUFE CZ  SFTQPOEFOUT   JU JT BT UIF 1PSU $JUZ XBT TFMFDUFE CZ  SFTQPOEFOUT  

as the Government City selected by 8 SFTQPOEFOUT   &EVDBUJPO $JUZ XBTTFMFDUFECZSFTQPOEFOUT   and as the Donggala city struggle been SFTQPOEFOUT   The identity as Tourism City is more dominant chosen by respondents were also due to some reasons as pointed out in the description above about geographical aspects. It is also quite interesting that it is chosen as the Port $JUZ CZ BQQSPYJNBUFMZ  PG SFspondents are still expecting that the function of Donggala port back excited, because historically the existence of Donggala port is already well known, even in some areas the name of Donggala port is immortalized by name a street. In addition, Donggala port is also one of the harbors that once passed CZ UIF $IJOFTF 4JML 1BTTBHFT XIJDI very famous in the world of shipping. Donggala City known as the Port City, according to some respondents may be the identity of the city that is hard to forget historically, despite the presence of the current port activity decreased quite dramatically, so no longer can be relied upon to support the lives of local residents. 3.5. Accessories aspect "DDFTTPSJFT BTQFDU JT VTFE UP FYplain the disclosure of the Donggala cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s identity stresses the advantages of a city, good things are related to the existence of infrastructure, facilities or attributes of cities and commodity nature or commodities artificial that has a unique and characteristic compared with regions other. Based on the fifth item on the statement of excellence askesoris aspect of Donggala seen that the presence of artificial commodities such as handJDSBÄ&#x2122;T 4JML 8FBWJOH 4BSPOH %POHHBla be unique and characteristic of it is very strong in the disclosure of the cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s identity. The five statements on accessories aspects can be described BT GPMMPXT  %POHHBMB DJUZ PXO VSCBO infrastructure (such as roads, bridges, terminals, ports, etc.) that have a shape and a more sophisticated technology and beautiful than any other region XJUI B TDPSF PG  JU IBT NFBOT BOEBUUSJCVUFTPGUIFDJUZ TVDIBTPÄ?DF areas, markets, hospitals, shops, etc.)

The integrated approach for identity establishment of Donggala city in Indonesia

with a function and more attractive appearance than in other regions with a TDPSFPGÄ&#x2021;FDJUZIBWFOBUVSBM commodities such as copra and cattle Donggala which have characteristics and advantages compared to other SFHJPOTXJUIBTDPSFPG%POHHBMB IBT B UZQJDBM DSBÄ&#x2122; 4JML 8FBWJOH 4BSPOH %POHHBMB XJUI TUZMF BOE RVBMity that is superior compared to other woven sarongs handicraft products in *OEPOFTJBXJUIBTDPSFPGBOE also, it has typical food that is called kaledo (Donggala ox feet) which has a high taste compared to other traditional foods in Indonesia with a score PG 4JML 8FBWJOH 4BSPOH %POHHBMB PS CFUUFSLOPXOBTBUZQJDBMDSBÄ&#x2122;4BSVOH Donggala hereditary still acted by a minority people in Donggala, especially those live around the city. The process in making it is by using the /PU8FBWJOH.BDIJOF IBOEMPPN PS 5SBEJUJPOBM 8FBWJOH  TP DPNNPEJUZ Gloves Donggala are an outcome of handicrafts (handicrafts) typical and original of the city. The existence of these commodities can serve as a symCPM PG UIF DJUZT JEFOUJUZ VOJRVF BOE specific, and can provide value for the livelihood of its people. Besides having a commodity handicrafts Gloves Donggala, it also has a series of infrastructure, facilities and attributes of cities such as sea ports, markets, terminals, hospitals, regionBM PÄ?DFT BOE EFQBSUNFOU TUPSFT  BOE the commodity of natural resources such as copra and cow or ox Donggala also serve as a special food known as iLBMFEPw 'PPU 0Y %POHHBMB  )PXever, according to respondents where accessories this city cannot be seeded in explaining the disclosure of the cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s identity, because of the appeal and resale value is still not comparable to the presence of accessories in other areas and surrounding areas, although locally the accessories of this city strongly supports the activities of local communities meeting their needs. Public opinion on the most appropriate choice to represent the shape of the cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s identity to the accessories aspect in explaining disclosure of identity is also asked of all respondents. The answer given by respondents were also

quite varied, but the most accurately representing the cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s identity based on the uniqueness and distinguishing features of the aspects of the accessories can be described as follows: Donggala City as the Tourism City selected CZSFTQPOEFOUT  JUJTBTUIF $JUZ DSBÄ&#x2122;T TFMFDUFE CZ  SFTQPOEFOUT   BT UIF (PWFSONFOU DJUZ TFMFDUFE CZ  SFTQPOEFOUT   1PSU $JUZ TFMFDUFE CZ  SFTQPOEFOUT  BOEBTUIF$JUZPG$PNNFSDF BOETFSWJDFTTFMFDUFECZSFTQPOEFOUT   It just like the two previous aspects, accessories aspect is dominant chosen by the respondent to represent the identity of Donggala as the Tourism city with several advantages of tourist commodities, such as handicrafts Gloves Donggala and potential natural landscapes, also sites and buildings historic-building, as pointed out earlier. "MUIPVHIJUJTCFMJFWFECZUIFSFTQPOdent that the disclosure of the identity as the Tourism city for now cannot fully lift the image of the city, but when the potential of these characteristics and continue to be developed and be priorities in builds the city in the future, then the city will return ogled by tourists and foreign as the state of tourist destination with a variety of their unique and characteristic. 3.6. Aspects of humanist Dimensional aspect of humanist in explaining the disclosure of the cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s identity translated into a four-item questionnaire statement of research XJUI UIF GPMMPXJOH SFTVMUT Ä&#x2021;F TPDJBM  cultural and political life of citizens of the city has norms or local customary law (such as the Customary Law of Pitunggota City) is still adhered to in addressing the livelihood of todayâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s NPEFSOTPDJFUZXJUIBTDPSFPG Donggala city own style and pattern of life that is still guided by the spirit of mutual cooperation and support in the community as a form of social life and local culture is preserved until toEBZ XJUI B TDPSF PG  Ä&#x2021;F $JUZ has a polite personality, respectful, and holds a firm stand unwavering principles in addressing everyday social life XJUIBTDPSFPGBOE*UBMTPIBT attractions local culture, such as dance/

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movement and martial arts, which often presented as a form of preservation PGBSUBOEDVMUVSFXJUIBTDPSFPG Based on the respondents to the description of the humanist aspect in explaining the disclosure of the identity of the city, it appears that all items on the questionnaire statement of the humanist aspect only in the range of percentage figure score of the group of SFTQPOEFOUT CFUXFFO    "Mthough the interpretation of scores expressed this aspect will be in the strong category to explain the disclosure of its identity, but these results cannot be used to explain the disclosure of the cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s identity as required that only the criteria of percentage figures between PSUIFSFTVMUTPGJOUFSQSFtation score very hardy can be used as the basis for it. The interviews result with respondents to the condition of humanists aspects in Donggala, associated with the values of social, political, values of personality, style and lifestyle, and the values of local arts and culture community, obtained a description that most of the humanist aspect values began to fade and shift value for the swift currents of globalization is the case today. Therefore, the traces of these values needs to be cultivated and developed in order to be able to provide its own style and color of the order of a society in defining identity of Donggala city. Therefore, although the condition of the values has not been entered in the category of very powerful in explaining the disclosure of the identity of the city, but it does not mean a picture of this aspect should be ignored in defining the cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s identity. It is precisely the presence of values humanist can be a supporter and motivation in the disclosure of the cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s identity related to attitudes and behavior as part of the culture of the society which is the soul and character of the city, and the physical environment of the city became his CPEZBTOPUFECZ)BSJZPOP   'VSUIFSNPSF  UIF PQJOJPO BMTP OFUting and respondentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; opinions about the most appropriate choice to represent the shape of the cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s identity to the humanist aspect in explaining the disclosure of his identity. The answer given by respondents were also quite

varied, but the most accurately representing the cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s identity and uniqueness based on the characteristic of the humanist aspect can be described as follows: Donggala City as the TourJTN DJUZ TFMFDUFE CZ  SFTQPOEFOUT  BTUIFDSBÄ&#x2122;TDJUZTFMFDUFECZ SFTQPOEFOUT  1PSUDJUZTFMFDUFECZSFTQPOEFOUT  BOE the as Education City/Culture chosen CZSFTQPOEFOUT   It seems like the previous aspects, selection of Donggala City as the Tourism city of the dominant aspect of humanist also selected by respondents to represent the identity of Donggala City. Respondents believe that the cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s identity had seemed to fade expected to be resurfaced and famous. In addition, through the identity of this tourism city will be visited by the tourists with different needs, so it will embrace other sectors of potential by itself and can simultaneously support the citizenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s economic activity of the city and surrounding area. 3.7. Strategic aspects 4USBUFHJD BTQFDUT BSF BTLFE SFTQPOdents to respond in this study focuses more on the availability of planning documents and the rules/policies to guide development, and the city council in giving consideration to local municipalities in formulating measures structuring and development of the city when the future as appropriate to community needs. In addition, respondents were also asked about the availability of programs steady cooperation between the public, private and government in supporting the potential and uniqueness of the city held in response to the demands of the city. The responses of respondents to the statement of the strategic aspects can be described as GPMMPXT %POHHBMB DJUZ JT BMSFBEZ IBWF a clear documents planning and rules/ policies, structured and sustainable in addressing the future direction of development of the city with a score PGUIFDJUZJTBMTPIBWFUIFDJUZ council give consideration to local government in formulating measures city BSSBOHFNFOU XJUI B TDPSF PG  and local governments have a steady cooperation programs between the public, private and government in sup-

The integrated approach for identity establishment of Donggala city in Indonesia

porting the potential and uniqueness of the city held in response to the demands PGUIFDJUZXJUIBTDPSFPG Respondents to the description of strategic aspect in explaining the disclosure of the cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s identity also be in the range of digit percentage score reTQPOEFSHSPVQCFUXFFOPS interpretation score for strategic aspect of this will be in the strong category, so it cannot be used as a basis for explaining disclosure the cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s identity as the previous criteria required the percentage points. Based on interviews with some respondents about the response to the strategic aspect, obtained the input that the current city of Donggala is not yet have a planning document and a set of rules/policies are evident in organizing and directing the pattern of development in the city as the kota tua with many potential and characteristics exotic city environment, ad sites of historical relics are of high value, resulting in environmental regulation and to see his city faces increasingly uncertain orientation. Respondents expect Donggala city should have more specific city planning document and clear orientation to anticipate the degradation of environmental quality and the humanity city process that can result in loss of identity and increasingly foreign to the lives of its citizens as feared by previPVT 5SBODJL   Ä&#x2021;FSFGPSF  DMFBSMZ the existence of plans with different set of rules and application programs will make a strong footing and structured in the disclosure of the identity of sustainable cities. "T TPNF QSFWJPVT BTQFDUT  JU JT BMTP done strategic aspects of respondentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; opinions and the most appropriate choice to represent the shape of the cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s identity of Donggala. The answer given by respondents were also quite varied, but the most accurately representing the cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s identity and uniqueness based on the characteristic of humanist aspect can be described as follows: Donggala City as the TourJTN DJUZ TFMFDUFE CZ  SFTQPOEFOUT  BTUIFQPSUDJUZTFMFDUFECZ respondents (18.81%) and as the GovFSONFOU DJUZ TFMFDUFE CZ  SFTQPOEFOUT  

Donggala City is chosen as a Tourism city on the strategic aspects is still the most dominant chosen by the respondent to represent the identity of Donggala City. The amount of the respondent interest to make the cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s identity as Tourism city is quite reasonable, because most of them expect that this identity will provide a clear orientation towards planning and forward planning, especially the need to provide treatment arrangement exclusively to the existence of the city as Kota Tua with the buildings and historic area ought to be preserved as a legacy of the past. "Ä&#x2122;FS MPPLJOH BU WBSJPVT BTQFDUT which play a role in explaining the disclosure of the identity of Donggala city, it can be argued that the description of the aspects of the cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s identity on a case study in the city of Donggala should be seen as a whole dimension or aspect of a comprehensive and integrated, although there are aspects that stand out the disclosure of her identity does not mean that other aspects of the picture and then ignored its role as the basis for the disclosure of the its identity. It is because all of dimensions forming the cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s identity have a relationship of mutual support to each other and which distinguishes only perceptions of respondents in understanding the unique and characteristic of Donggala owned by the city as a location for research. 4. Conclusion The existence of the cities in Indonesia should support the growth of local cultural values actually stuck in the mass culture. Because it is recognized or not cultural values is what will ultimately shape the character and identity as a nation. This is caused by the neglect of historical aspects of the city formation so that the continuity of the historical area of the city as disconnected as a result of lack attention to control the development of life and area of functionality aspects .The reality shows that cities have launched the cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s identity based on the uniqueness and characteristics which owned by one of the city life functions continues to maintain the environmental quality of the city with the revamping and restructuring in order to continue to be occu-

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pied and enjoyed in a comfortable, safe and sustainable, either by city residents and the newcomers who just traveled PS XBOUFE UP JOWFTU JO UIF DJUZ "CJZPTP   ,SJTUBOUJ    Ä&#x2021;FSFGPSF  disclosure of the cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s identity should be carefully examined by the reflection of the values of the local environment, in order to control the environment in accordance surrogate character and its JEFOUJUZ 8JOÄ&#x2022;FME1GFÄ&#x152;FSLPSO   The concept of identity deployed here is therefore not an essentialist, but a strategic and positional one. That is to say, directly contrary to what appears to be its settled semantic career, this concept of identity does not signal that stable core of the self, unfolding from beginning to end through all the vicisTJUVEFT PG IJTUPSZ XJUIPVU DIBOHF UIF bit of the self which remains always-already â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;the sameâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;, identical to itself BDSPTT UJNF /PS  JG XF USBOTMBUF UIJT essentializing conception to the stage of cultural identity - is it that â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;collective or true self hiding inside the many other, more superficial or artificially imposed â&#x20AC;&#x153;selvesâ&#x20AC;? which a people with a shared history and ancestry hold in DPNNPO )BMM    BOE XIJDI DBO stabilize, fix or guarantee an unchanging â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;onenessâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; or cultural belongingness underlying all the other superficial differences. It accepts that identities are never unified and, in late modern times, increasingly fragmented and GSBDUVSFE OFWFS TJOHVMBS CVU NVMUJQMZ constructed across different, often intersecting and antagonistic, discourses, practices and positions. They are subject to a radical historicization, and are constantly in the process of change and USBOTGPSNBUJPO )BMM   To avoid the tendency of the city development as it does not continue, it should be understood and explained the factual condition of the urban development through search order of life of the city is based on the appreciation, aspirations, policies, values, historical and socio-cultural community as meaning the cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s identity, so the rediscovery of identity as part of community life in order to fulfill the needs of the citizens and the level of quality improvement can be done in a sustainable environment on the basis of traditional wisdoms (indigenous

LOPXMFEHF  5KBIZPLP  Ä&#x2021;VTUIF development of the city which is expected not the construction of a futile, but the construction of the city that can meet the criteria for the development of the city described by Bob Cowherd JO1FLJL  EPFTUIF'PSN 'VODUJPO BOE .FBOJOH PG UIF $JUZ 'PTUFS (SFBUFS 4PDJBM %JWJTJPO PS B (SFBUFS Common Good. "T B DJUZ UIBU FWFS SFOPXOFE BOE world-famous harbor cruises with the presence of activity, now Donggala experiencing degradation and the crisis of identity as a city. This phenomenon was born after the removal of Donggala port activity to the Port Pantoloan now status as a major port, while the Donggala port now only existed as a port of supporting (feeder ports). Before Port Pantoloan is utilized and functionalJ[FEJO BMMBDUJWJUJFTBSFTUJMMDBOUFSFEPO%POHHBMBQPSU "NBS   "TBSFTVMUPGTVDIUSBOTGFS UIFVSCBO Donggala memorandum life of port activity was a very shocking order of social, cultural and economic, in terms of both physical and psychological, which gradually this condition continued to decline, thus contributing impact on efforts to comply with the level needs of city residents who had experienced hard times because it was losing grip in living the life and livelihood activities. This condition must be anticipated by local residents which try to do business diversification and employment in order to survive for their life, especially after the enactment of Donggala City as the centre of government activity BOE $BQJUBM PÄ?DFT PG %POHHBMB /FWertheless, there are some people who stick with the field of business related UPUIFQPSUBDUJWJUJFT "NBS   Besides impact on efforts to comply with the level of citizenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s needs, the transfer of the activity of port are slowly too much changed the order of the urban environment, primarily related to the conversion of land and buildings are irregular and uncontrolled thus causing environmental degradation town, although these conditions are not fully change the order of the environment and the city faces as it still remains functionalized the Donggala port as a port of trade between the isMBOE :BLJO  

The integrated approach for identity establishment of Donggala city in Indonesia

The changing of the order of the city environment occurs as a consequence of the changing social, economic and cultural communities to make adjustments to the forms of development of the existing city, although sometimes these changes are no longer considering the aspects of legality and the condition is exacerbated by lack of a device rules and policies of the local government to the orientation of development based on the potential, uniqueness and characteristics of the city as a form of JEFOUJUZ ;BIOE   #VEJIBSEKP  4VEKBSUP   " TZTUFNBUJD FÄ&#x152;PSU TIPVME CF EPOF after build the environmental awareness (environmental awareness) through the introduction of the identity of the city is to build positive habits townspeople indeed a representation of their environmental awareness. This case can be realized in a variety of concrete actions are actually very effective for preventing degradation of the quality of the urban environment (InoguDIJ /FXNBO 1BPMFUUP   Based on the analysis and discussion on the disclosure of the identity of an integrated Donggala City, it can be formulated that there are five dimensions of identity-forming aspects in an integrated city, namely: geographical aspects, historical aspects, aspects accessories, humanist aspect, and strategic aspects. Overview of all five aspects will give a characteristic and unique, especially for Donggala city, to be able to reveal the identity or character as a cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s identity based on the values of local wisdom (local genius). The responder to the cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s identity that represents the Donggala cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s identity based on the five aspects, dominated by the disclosure of the Donggalaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s identity as the Tourism city. It is as a tourism city with more emphasis on forms of marine tourism and travel history (costal and historical tourism) which can be enjoyed simultaneously by the tourists, because in addition to having a panoramic beach and underwater exotic city of Donggala also have sites or buildings and artifacts of historical and cultural heritage in the Banawa kingdom and Dutch colonial high value, including the existence of â&#x20AC;&#x153;Donggala portâ&#x20AC;?, and the craft â&#x20AC;&#x153;Gloves

Donggalaâ&#x20AC;? that very specific and exists only in Donggala as a unique and characteristic of its. Acknowledgements The authors appreciated and thank UPBMMSFTQPOEFOUDPNNVOJUZBU%POHgala, local government, and the ReTFBSDI *OTUJUVUF BOE $PNNVOJUZ 4FSvices (LPPM) of Tadulako University for their sincere help in this study. References "CJZPTP  )   4FOJ .FOKVBM ,PUB EBO 8JMBZBI 3FUSJFWFE GSPN!ZBIPPHSPVQTDPNNTH html. "NBS   Studi Peningkatan Fungsi Pelabuhan Donggala Dalam Mendukung Pengembangan Wilayah Di Kabupaten Donggala. Institut Teknologi Bandung. "NBS B  *EFOUJUBT ,PUB  'FOPNFOB%BO1FSNBTBMBIBOOZBRuang   o "NBS C  ,PUB EBO 1FNBLnaan Identitasnya. Metropilar, 7   o "OEFSTPO  # 3 0   Imagined communities : reflections on the origin and spread of nationalism: reflections on the origin and spread of nationalism 7FSTP IUUQTEPJ PSH@*NBHJOFE@DPNNVOJUJFT #VEJIBSEKP  &   Jatidiri Arsitektur Indonesia#BOEVOH"MVNOJ #VEJIBSEKP & 4VKBSUP %   Kota Berkelanjutan#BOEVOH"MVNOJ $BMIPVO  $   4PDJBM UIFPSZ and the politics of identity. In Social theory and the politics of identity (pp. o 0YGPSE#MBDLXFMM $BTUFMMT  .   The power of identity. The Information Age Economy Society and Culture 7PM   6OJUFE ,JOHEPN 8JMFZ#MBDLwell Publishing Ltd. https://doi. PSH &MLJO  5  .D-BSFO  %   )JMMNBO  .   3FWJWJOH UIF DJUZ UPXBSET sustainable urban development. Reviving the city: towards sustainable urban development. Michigan University: 'SJFOETPGUIF&BSUI5SVTU Goldsteen, J. B., & Elliot, D. C.   Designing America: Creating

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Urban Identity /FX :PSL 7BO /PTtrand Reinhold. )BMM 4  $VMUVSBMJEFOUJUZBOE diaspora. In J. Rutherford (Ed.), Identity-POEPO-BXSFODF8JTIBSU )BMM  4   8IP /FFET i*EFOUJUZw  *O 4UVBSU )BMM BOE 1BVM EV (BZ (Ed.), Questions of Cultural Identity QQ o  -POEPO 4"(& 1VCMJDBtions Ltd. )BSJZPOP  1   Sosiologi Kota Untuk Arsitek+BLBSUB#VNJ"LTBSB )BVHIUPO ( )VOUFS $   Sustainable Cities (Regional Policy & Development). London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers. )FSCFSU  % 5   Urban Geography: A Social Perspective. London: Longman. *EJE 4;"  6SCBO*EFOUJUZ $SJTJT"SDIJUFDUVSBM4UZMFTWT*OGPSNBM )VNBO "DUJWJUJFT  " $BTF GPS .BMBZTJBO5PXOTBOE$JUJFT.FUSPQPMJT *OPHVDIJ 5 /FXNBO & 1BPMFUUP  (   1FOEFLBUBO #BSV .BTyarakat Berwawasan Ekologi. In Kota dan Lingkungan. Jakarta: Pustaka -1&4*OEPOFTJB +PLPOZB  5 +   Ä&#x2021;F %FWFMPQNFOU PG 6SCBO *EFOUJUZ JO 4PVUIFSO $JUZ6SCBO%FWFMPQNFOUPG4IBOHIBJ Retrieved from +VOBSUJ   Elite dan Konflik Politik di Kerajaan Banawa Sulawesi Tengah Periode 1888-1942. Universitas Gajah Mada. Yogyakarta. ,SJTUBOUJ  % 1   ,PUB *EFBM 6OUVL4FLBSBOHJurnal Arsitektur (onLine), 2(1). Retrieved from http://www. -ZODI  ,   The Image of The City. London: The M.I.T. Press. .BEBOJQPVS "  Design of Urban Space. An Inquiry into a Socio-Spatial Process$IJDIFTUFS+PIO8JMFZ4POT .POFP 3  On Typology. OPPOSITIONS 7PM   -POEPO .*5 Press.

/PSCFSH4DIVM[  $   (FOJVT Loci. Genius Loci: Towards a Phenomenology of Architecture. https://doi. PSH 0LUBZ  %   Ä&#x2021;F RVFTU GPS VSban identity in the changing context of UIFDJUZ/PSUIFSO$ZQSVTCities    o IUUQTEPJPSH 4   1FLJL ( 1SBUJEJOP  3   0UPOPNJ %BFSBI 4FCVBI 5BOUBOHBO UFShadap Morfologi dan Perkembangan Kota di Luar Jawa. Retrieved from 3PTF 3  .PSQIPMPHZJO"Schitecture, Etymology and Commentary, Urbanity and Morphology. The Milwaukee Journal, Deaths Elsewhere. 4BMJZB :  /PUFTPO"SDIJUFDtural Identity in the Cultural Context. Mimar  o 4FOOFUU 3  The Fall of Public Man/FX:PSL7JOUBHF#PPLT 5KBIZPLP  3   *EFOUJUBT ,PUB di Kabupaten Bone Bolango. Retrieved from HPSPOUBMPNBKV 5SBODJL  3   Finding Lost Space, Theories of Urban Design /FX :PSL7BO/PTUSBOE3FJOIPME$P 8JLBOUJZPTP  3   ,PUB,PUB di Indonesia Kehilangan Jatidiri. Retrieved from http://www.antaranews. com 8JOÄ&#x2022;FME1GFÄ&#x152;FSLPSO  +   The branding of cities: Exploring city branding and the importance of brand image. New York  "VHVTU  :BLJO  "   Ekonomi Sumberdaya dan Lingkungan Teori dan Kebijaksanaan Pembangunan Berkelanjutan * +BLBSUB"LBEFNJLB1SFTJOEP ;BIOE  .   Perancangan Kota Secara Terpadu : Teori Perancangan Kota dan Penerapannya. Yogyakarta: Kanisius.

The integrated approach for identity establishment of Donggala city in Indonesia

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Optimization of thermal insulation material and thickness for building energy efficiency in Mediterranean climates based on life cycle perspective Kemal Ferit Ă&#x2021;ETÄ°NTAĹ&#x17E; 1, Zerrin YILMAZ 2 1 GFSJUDFUJOUBT!HNBJMDPNt%FQBSUNFOUPG"SDIJUFDUVSF 'BDVMUZPG&OHJOFFSJOH And Architecture, Ä°stanbul Arel University, Ä°stanbul, Turkey 2 t%FQBSUNFOUPG"SDIJUFDUVSF 'BDVMUZPG"SDIJUFDUVSF  Ä°stanbul Technical University, Ä°stanbul, Turkey

doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2018.46338  

3FDFJWFE+VMZt Final Acceptance: September 2017

Abstract Optimizing thermal insulation thickness to save energy and reduce carbon emissions in Mediterranean climates is important. Many standards and regulations on energy efficiency or thermal insulation focus insulation thickness without considering life cycle energy efficiency or environmental impacts. This may lead to unexpected and undesirable results. A new approach for identifying the optimal insulation material and thickness has been applied to a multi-storey residential building in a Mediterranean climate in Turkey. The approach considers life cycle energy consumption, carbon emissions and cost. Energy performance is calculated with details of occupancy, lighting system and internal gains. Results are compared with those of the same building in a cold climate region to show how climate affects life cycle energy and carbon performance. The results of the study show that if insulation thickness is not optimized for a materialâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s entire life cycle, it may end up being less efficient, more expensive, and have greater carbon emissions than expected, especially in Mediterranean climates. Keywords Thermal insulation thickness, Life cycle energy analysis, Life cycle carbon emission analysis, Life cycle cost analysis.

1. Introduction 1.1. Background information and literature overview The International Energy Agency reports that â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;buildings are responsible for  PG UPUBM FOFSHZ DPOTVNQUJPO BOE  PG HSFFOIPVTF HBTTFT FNJTTJPOT 6/&1  )FODFFOFSHZFÄ?DJFODZ in buildings is a relevant topic for many countries due to factors related to the environment, economy and energy consumption. Each country has determined its own future targets about energy efficiency and carbon emissions of buildings. The European Union &6 IBTJTTVFEUIFAÄ&#x2021;FQBDLBHF  XIJDI UBSHFUT B  DBSCPO FNJTTJPO SFEVDUJPO   JNQSPWFNFOU JO FOFSHZFÄ?DJFODZBOETVQQMZJOHPGFOFSHZ GSPN SFOFXBCMF TPVSDFT CZ  $MJNBUF "DUJPO    *O BEEJUJPO  the EU has made â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;the recast of EnerHZ1FSGPSNBODFPG#VJMEJOHT%JSFDUJWF &6 &1#% UPFTUBCMJTINJOimum requirements for buildingsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; enFSHZ QFSGPSNBODF &6    &OFSHZ efficient retrofitting is as important as energy efficient design because many existing buildings do not meet energy performance standards. Energy consumption of buildings affect buildingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s carbon emission and energy cost significantly. Therefore, energy efficient building is an important issue for energy saving, carbon emission and cost reduction. Energy efficient building design depends on some criteria such as climate, buildingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s orientation, distance between buildings, window-wall ratio and building envelopeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s thermo physical properties. As it is known, most of the energy efficient building design criteria such as orientation and distance between buildings couldnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t be consider in built environment. Thus, building envelope design has important role in energy efficient building design. Increasing thermal mass and reduction heat loss from building envelope are major issues for energy efficiency in envelope design. Increasing thermal insulation is most common strategy for reducing heat losses especially in cold climates but thermal mass is an important approach for hot climates. ManioÄ&#x;lu and YÄąlmaz compare traditional house and modern house envelope from point of

thermal massâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; effect on comfort condiUJPO .BOJPĘ&#x201C;MV  :Â&#x2018;MNB[   5SBEJtional house envelope, which is made with 1,2m. stone, have better surface temperature performance according to comfort zone than modern house enveMPQF XIJDIJTNBEFXJUI NCSJDL Increasing thermal mass related with solar gain but, increasing thermal mass couldnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t be apply in built environment because of distance between buildings. Moreover, increasing thermal mass couldnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t be done because of architectural restrictions such as constructing thick walls in high rise new buildings PSFYJTUJOHCVJMEJOHT1SFWJPVTTUVEJFT showed that adding or increasing thermal insulation thickness are most common or well-known strategy for energy FÄ?DJFODZ JO CVJMEJOHT #PFDL    Therefore, reduction heat loss from building become one of major strategy for energy efficient building design in built environment and retrofitting. Thick thermal insulation on building envelope reduce energy consumption and carbon emission in cold climate but it performs differently in MediterSBOFBODMJNBUF)FODF UIJTTUVEZGPDVT on thermal insulation in Mediterranean climate because of reasons as it is stated above. Optimum insulation thickness has been studied using the number of heating and cooling days in different cliNBUFT ,Ă SFLĂ&#x17D;J #PMBUUĂ SL   and with respect to fuel type, glazing area and achieving low energy targets #PMBUUĂ SL 6Ă&#x17D;BS #BMP ½[LBO  0OBO   ½[FM   ,PMBJUJT   ½[FM  1Â&#x2018;IUÂ&#x2018;MÂ&#x2018;   #PKJD   "M4BOFB ;FEBO  0QUJNVNQPsition and material vary by climate, with different results based on thickness and GVFM UZQF 6Ă&#x17D;BS  #BMP   ÂąPNBLMÂ&#x2018;  :Ă LTFM  ½[FM 4FWFSBMTUVEies have addressed the effect of thermal insulation on cooling and total energy DPOTVNQUJPOJOCVJMEJOHT ½[FM  :V   %BPVBT    4QFDJÄ&#x2022;DBMly, energy performance standards in /PSUIFSO &VSPQFBO DPVOUSJFT IBWF low U values for building envelopes, towards increasing energy efficiency. )PXFWFS  UIJDL JOTVMBUJPO MBZFST JO warm climates increase primary energy consumption. Cooling set points and internal gains from equipment sig-

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nificantly increase cooling energy consumption in warm climates. Therefore .BTPTPBOE(SPCMFS  DPODMVEFE that instead of â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;the lower U value the betterâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; it should be â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;the higher U value UIF CFUUFS 1SFWJPVT TUVEJFT TIPX UIBU optimum thermal insulation thickness varies by climate. Optimization studies have generally focused on heating and cooling energy consumption but have not considered lighting and domestic water heating. Optimum cost is another relevant GBDUPS BOEJTOPXPCMJHBUPSZJO&1#%T declaration on energy efficiency in CVJMEJOHT &6  0QUJNVNDPTUPG thermal insulation materials has been TUVEJFE JO EJÄ&#x152;FSFOU DMJNBUFT /FNBUDIPVB   ,BZOBLMÂ&#x2018;   )BTBO   /ZFST    +BGBSJ BOE 7BMFOUJOF   QSPQPTFE BO PQUJNJ[BUJPO framework decision making focused on energy efficient measures. Optimal cost depends on climate, building typology, user behaviour and efficiency. Environmental effects of different thermal insulation materials have also been studied throughout their life cycles with cradle to grave approach based on environmental, energy and cost performance in different climates 1BSHBOB   4V   4ISFTUIB FU BM   4PIO  FU BM   -PMMJOJ  FU BM   1BQBEPQPVMPT BOE (JBNB   %ZMFXTLJ BOE "EBND[ZL   ½[FM  BOBTUBTFMPT  FU BM   ½[FM   7JMDIFT  FU BM   5JOHMFZ  FU BM    Ä&#x2021;FTF GBDUPST XFSF UIFCBTJTGPS"OBTUBTFMPTFUBMT   decision system for selecting thermal JOTVMBUJPO NBUFSJBMT %JÄ&#x152;FSFOU FYUFSJor wall types and insulation materials XFSF DPNQBSFE )FBUJOH BOE DPPMJOH energy consumption were included but not lighting, but lighting appliances can have a significant effect on a buildingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s operational primary energy consumption and heat gain. Likewise, occupancy schedule, activity level and household appliancesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; schedule were OPUEFUBJMFE#BSSBVFUBM  BÄ?SN that insulation material life cycle performance, energy performance calculation methodology and assumptions affect optimum insulation thickness. Generally, optimum thermal insulation thickness is calculated without considering buildingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s life cycle energy,

environmental and cost performance. )PXFWFS  TFWFSBM TUVEJFT DPOTJEFS MJGF cycle energy, environmental and cost performance of the building with undetailed calculations while determination UIFSNBM JOTVMBUJPO UIJDLOFTT #VU BT JU is known energy consumption level in operational period during buildingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s life cycle affect energy consumption, environmental and cost performance TJHOJÄ&#x2022;DBOUMZ 'PS JOTUBODF  PDDVQBODZ and activity level, heat gains from lighting system and household equipment are not taken into account in the energy performance calculations. Therefore, energy performance in operational period should calculate with detailed assumptions. Occupancy, activity level and gains from lighting equipment significantly affect energy consumption of building. These factorsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; effect on buildingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s energy consumption are noted CZTFWFSBMTUVEJFT 3VFMMBO FUBM  #BSUIFMNFT FUBM #FDDIJP FUBM   Ä&#x2021;FSFGPSFBOVQEBUFEPQUJNJ[Btion approach is required that includes detailed energy performance calculations for a buildingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s entire life cycle. 1.2. Aim of the study Thermal insulation have significant effect on buildingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s life cycle energy consumption, carbon emission and cost performance according to climate [POF BOE CVJMEJOH UZQPMPHZ )FODF  primary aim of this study is to determine thermal insulation thickness and material from life cycle energy, carbon emission and cost perspective. As it is known operational stage in buildingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s MJGFDZDMFDBVTFOFBSMZFOFSHZDPOsumption of entire life cycle. Therefore, energy performance calculations are done with detailed assumptions on occupancy, activity level, and gains from lighting system and household equipment. Comprehensive calculations were done for a multi-storey residential building in Ä°zmir, Turkey, which IBTB.FEJUFSSBOFBODMJNBUF%JÄ&#x152;FSFOU insulation materials and thickness are compared towards optimum solutions based on life cycle energy consumption, carbon emission, and cost in a Mediterranean climate. Energy performance and thermal insulation stanEBSETJO/PSUIFSO&VSPQFGPDVTPOMPX U values for building envelopes to save

Optimization of thermal insulation material and thickness for building energy efficiency in Mediterranean climates based on life cycle perspective

FOFSHZ #VU UIFSNBM JOTVMBUJPOT FÄ&#x152;FDU on energy saving and carbon emission reduction change according to climate and building type. Therefore, results compared with cold climate (Erzurum, 5VSLFZ TIPXUIFFÄ&#x152;FDUPGMPX6WBMVFT on energy consumption and carbon emission in Mediterranean climate. The secondary aim of the study is to demonstrate the need to revise standards on energy efficiency to include life cycle energy and environmental performance while considering climate and building typology. 2. Approach The approach, which determine optimum thermal insulation thickness and material, are formed of six steps as follows, 1. determining thermal insulation material alternatives, 2. selecting a case study building and getting architectural data, making life cycle energy analysis -$&" DBMDVMBUJPOT making life cycle carbon emission BOBMZTJT -$$" DBMDVMBUJPOT NBLJOHMJGFDZDMFDPTU -$$ DBMDVlations and getting results and optimum solutions. 2.1. Determining thermal insulation material alternatives Thermal insulation materials alternatives were selected based on usage intensity and application possibilities in the construction sector. Expanded QPMZTUZSFOF &14  FYUSVEFE QPMZTUZSFOF 914  SPDLXPPM 38 BOEHMBTT XPPM (8 XFSFDIPTFOBOEDPNQBSFE GPSUIJDLOFTTFTPG OPJOTVMBUJPO     BOEDN*OTVMBUJPOUIJDLOFTT are chosen from marketâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s most used thickness. 2.2. Selecting a case study building and getting architectural data A multi-storey residential building was selected, which is a typical housJOHCMPDLCVJMUCZUIF5VSLJTI)PVTJOH %FWFMPQNFOU "ENJOJTUSBUJPO 50,É&#x2014;   Ä&#x2021;FCVJMEJOHIBTPOFCBTFNFOU   Ä&#x2DC;PPST BOE  JOEJWJEVBM IPVTJOH units. Architectural plans and meaTVSFNFOUT BSF QSFTFOUFE JO 'JHVSF  and Tables 1â&#x20AC;&#x201C;2.

Table 1. Architectural measures o f the case study building.

Table 2. Construction details of the case study building (TOKI, 2016).

Figure 1. Architectural plan and thermal zones of the case study building.

2.3. Making life cycle energy analysis (LCEA) calculations LCEA is derived from the life cycle assessment approach, which considers energy consumption of products or services for their entire life cycle. Life cycle has two different approach which are cradle to grave and cradle to cradle. Cradle to grave approach identified as the entire life of a material or product up to the point of disposal, is used in this study. According to the European $PNNJUUFFGPS4UBOEBSEJ[BUJPO $&/  5$    TUBOEBSET  UIF MJGF DZcle of a building comprises the production, construction, use and end of building life stages. Life cycle energy consumption of the case study building were calculated with the method deWFMPQFE CZ "EBMCFSUI   &OFSHZ consumption is calculated as primary energy in all stages. Limitations on life cycle stage of the case study building DBO CF TFFO JO 5BCMF  $POTUSVDUJPO and demolition were not included be-

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Table 3. Limitations on buildingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s life cycle.

Transportation stage: Energy consumption in the transportation stage was calculated with equation 2 "EBMCFSUI    *U JT BTTVNFE UIBU all thermal insulation materials are supplied from nearest factory to the case study building. 

Table 4. Assumptions for case study building (TS 825, 2008; Ã&#x2021;Å&#x17E;BBEP, 2010; Yılmaz, Z. et al. ,2016).

cause of lack of information and their negligible effects on the overall life cyDMF 4BSUPSJBOE)FTUOFT   Production stage: Energy consumption at the production stage is calculated by multiplying the material quantity and embodied energy of material (equation   "EBMCFSUI    /FDFTTBSZ EBUB for embodied energy calculations are from a well-known database (ICE,  (SFFO4QFD   ("#*    Embodied energy consumption of all thermal insulation materials were calculated but the embodied energy consumption of other building elements were not included. 

Qproduct: Energy requirement for producing all the building materials L8I

O/VNCFSPGCVJMEJOHNBUFSJBMT i: Material of concern mi: Amount of the building material UPOT


Qtransportation: energy requirement for transportation of the building materials L8I

O/VNCFSPGCVJMEJOHNBUFSJBM i: Material of concern mi: Amount of the building material UPOT


Use stage: Energy consumption during the use stage includes the amount of energy consumed by the mechanical systems in order to provide comfort conditions in the building. Energy consumption by equipments for heating, cooling, lighting and domestic hot water were included in primary energy consumption in this study. Energy consumption was calculated with a dynamic calculation method, BT TVHHFTUFE CZ UIF &1#%  VTJOH UIF %FTJHO #VJMEFS FOFSHZ QFSGPSNBODF TJNVMBUJPO TPÄ&#x2122;XBSF &1#%   %FTJHO #VJMEFS   Ä&#x2021;F DBTF TUVEZ building was assumed to have five JOEJWJEVBM UIFSNBM [POFT 'JHVSF   Ä&#x2021;FSNBM DPOEJUJPOFE [POFT o BSF SFTJEFOUJBM BOE [POF  JT UIF CVJMEJOH core used for circulating, which is VODPOEJUJPOFE CZ BO )7"$ TZTUFN and is lighted with an automatic control system. %FUBJMFE VTBHF BTTVNQUJPOT BCPVU the case study building can be seen JO 5BCMFT o Ä&#x2021;FTF BTTVNQUJPOT BSF from based on national standards, regulations and previous studies (TS    ±ɮ##&1   :Â&#x2018;MNB[ BU BM    "DUJWJUZ WBMVFT BSF GSPN UIF "4)3"&  TUBOEBSE "4)3"&   0DDVQBODZBOEBDUJWJUZMFWFMBTsumptions for each individual housing VOJUBSFJO5BCMF ±ɮ##&1 :Â&#x2018;M-

Optimization of thermal insulation material and thickness for building energy efficiency in Mediterranean climates based on life cycle perspective


Table 5. Occupancy and activity level schedules (Yılmaz, Z. et al., 2016; ASHRAE 55, 2010).

2.4. Making life cycle carbon emission analysis (LCCA) calculations Life cycle carbon emissions are the accumulated carbon emission in all building stages. Carbon emissions are calculated with the Tier-2 methodoloHZEFWFMPQFECZUIF*OUFSOBUJPOBM1BOFM PO $MJNBUF $IBOHF *1$$  *1$$   Ä&#x2021;FBNPVOUPGDBSCPOFNJTTJPO JT DBMDVMBUFE XJUI FRVBUJPO  /BUJPOal carbon emission conversion factors XFSF  GPS OBUVSBM HBT BOE  GPS FMFDUSJDJUZ ±ɮ##&1   

C: Carbon emission during a life cycle stage (CO2UPOT

n: life cycle stage J/VNCFSPGMJGFDZDMFTUBHFT Ei fuel: Energy consumption per fuel UZQFEVSJOHMJGFDZDMFTUBHF L8I

Æ&#x2019;CO2: Carbon emission conversion factor per fuel type 2.5. Making life cycle cost calculations (LCC) LCC is a cost analysis tool that includes all building stages. Global cost calculation methodology, which is TVHHFTUFECZ&1#%BOEUIF&/ standard, was used in this study (EC,  $&/    (MPCBM DPTU DBMDVMBUJPOT XFSF CBTFE PO UIF A/FU 1SFTFOU 7BMVF /17  NFUIPEPMPHZ  VTJOH FRVBUJPO

XIFSFÏ°JTUIFDBMDVMBUJPOQFSJPE$H Ï°  is global cost (referred to starting year Ï&#x201E;  PWFS UIF DBMDVMBUJPO QFSJPE $l is initial investment cost for a measure or TFUPGNFBTVSFTK$a J K JTUIFBOOVBM

Table 6. Power and operating time of the electrical equipment (Yılmaz, Z. et al. ,2016).

cost during year i for measure or set of NFBTVSFTK7f, Ï&#x201E; K JTUIFSFTJEVBMWBMVF of a measure or set of measures j at the end of the calculation period. Rd J  JT the discount factor for year i based on discount rate r, calculated as follows:

where p is the number of years from the starting period and r is the real discount rate. Global cost calculations

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Table 7. Lighting power densities (Yılmaz, Z. et al. ,2016).

Table 8. Case study buildingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s primary energy consumption (kWh/m2 per year).

Table 9. Case study building life cycle energy consumption and carbon emission for 50 year life span.

XFSF NBEF GPS  ZFBST  BT TVHHFTUFE CZ UIF &1#% &$   Ä&#x2021;FSFGPSF the case study building lifeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s span is BTTVNFE UP CF  ZFBST GPS MJGF DZDMF cost calculations. Costs that have effects on energy consumption were included and other costs were ignored. Macroeconomic data, which are necessary for global cost calculation, are GSPNUIF$FOUSBM#BOLPGUIF3FQVCMJD PG5VSLFZ 5$.#  Ä&#x2021;FDPTUTPG insulation materials and construction are from the annual unit price book, published by the Turkish Ministry of 1VCMJD 8PSLT BOE 4FUUMFNFOU ±ɮ#    &OFSHZ QSJDFT CZ GVFM UZQF GPS energy costs were provided by local energy supply companies (Gediz, *[HB[ 1BMFO "SBTFEBT 

2.6. Getting results and optimum solutions 'PMMPXJOH UIF BQQSPBDI EFTDSJCFE above and the energy consumption calculations, the case study building was divided into end use energy and priNBSZFOFSHZ UBCMF $PPMJOHFOFSHZ consumption accounts for nearly half of primary energy consumption and end VTFFOFSHZDPOTVNQUJPOJTOFBSMZ lower than primary energy consumpUJPOJOUIF.FEJUFSSBOFBODMJNBUF1SJmary energy conversion factors are 1 GPSOBUVSBMHBTBOEGPSFMFDUSJDJUZ ±ɮ##&1    Ä&#x2021;FSFGPSF  DPPMJOH energy consumption dominates annual primary energy consumption in the .FEJUFSSBOFBODMJNBUFSFHJPO É&#x2014;[NJS  Energy performance analysis should be done as primary energy consumption to obtain accurate results. Table 9 compares the case study buildingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s life cycle energy consumption and carbon emission performance JO .FEJUFSSBOFBO É&#x2014;[NJS  BOE DPME DMJNBUFT &S[VSVN  "T TFFO JO UIF table, there is a remarkable difference in life cycle energy and carbon emission performance. Although life cycle energy performance in the Mediterranean climate is better than in the cold DMJNBUF DBSCPOFNJTTJPOJTOFBSMZ IJHIFS )JHI MFWFMT PG DPPMJOH FOFSHZ consumption in the Mediterranean climate significantly affect life cycle energy consumption and carbon emission. Cooling provided by electricity causes a large amount of carbon emission, due to carbon emission conversion factors PG  GPS OBUVSBM HBT BOE  GPS FMFDUSJDJUZ ±ɮ##&1  Ä&#x2021;FSFGPSF  cooling energy consumption in hot or hot and humid climate regions such as Mediterranean climates is important for reducing primary energy consumption saving and carbon emissions. Embodied energy consumption and carbon emissions of different insulation materials with different thicknessFTDBOCFTFFOJO'JHVSFÄ&#x2021;SFFDFOtimetre thick glass wool has the lowest FNCPEJFE FOFSHZ DPOTVNQUJPO   L8IN2, while the same thickness of 914 IBT UIF IJHIFTU   L8IN2. There is a linear relationship between insulation thickness and embodied enFSHZ'PSJOTUBODF UIFFNCPEJFEFOFSHZPGHMBTTXPPMJODSFBTFTGSPNUP

Optimization of thermal insulation material and thickness for building energy efficiency in Mediterranean climates based on life cycle perspective

Figure 2. Comparison of thermal insulation materialsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; embodied energy and carbon emissions.

 L8IN2 as its thickness increasFTGSPNUPDN&NCPEJFEDBSCPO emissions also vary by material and thickness such as glass woolâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s carbon FNJTTJPO JODSFBTF PG  LH $02N2 XJUIBOJODSFBTFGSPNUPDNUIJDLOFTT Ä&#x2021;FSF JT B  L8IN2 energy saving potential, which is nearly equal to annual end use energy consumption GPSMJHIUJOH BOEBLH$02N2 carbon emission reduction from thermal insulation material selection. Most of the thermal insulation standards and regulations focus on the U value of the CVJMEJOHFOWFMPQF)PXFWFS BTTFFOJO 'JHVSF JOTVMBUJPONBUFSJBMBOEUIJDLness affect life cycle energy consumption and carbon emissions. Thus, insulation thickness should be determined according to a materialâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s life cycle performance. 'JHVSF  TIPXT UIF FÄ&#x152;FDU PG UIFSmal insulation thickness on primary energy consumption during the case study buildingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s use stage for Mediterranean and cold climates. Increasing JOTVMBUJPOGSPNUPDNTBWFT L8IN2 energy in the Mediterranean DMJNBUFBOEL8IN2 in the cold climate. Thick insulation prevents night cooling, which is important for reducing cooling energy consumption in the Mediterranean climate. Moreover, cooling equipment powered by electricity increases cooling energy consumption due to its high converTJPOGBDUPSPGÄ&#x2021;FSNBMJOTVMBUJPO standards focus on U value and heating energy consumption, so they suggest low U values for building envelopes for greater energy efficiency, especially in /PSUIFSO &VSPQFBO DPVOUSJFT #VU BT 'JHVSFTIPXT JODSFBTJOHUIFSNBMJOsulation thickness provides less energy

savings in the Mediterranean climate than the cold climate. Therefore, determining insulation thickness should consider cooling, lighting, heating, building type and climate. Otherwise, energy savings expected from increasing thermal insulation thickness could be unexpectedly low, for example in Mediterranean climates. 'JHVSF  TIPXT UIF FÄ&#x152;FDU PG EJÄ&#x152;FSent thermal insulation thicknesses on carbon emissions during the use TUBHF Ä&#x2021;FSF JT B  LH $02N2ZFBS carbon emission reduction potential JOUIF.FEJUFSSBOFBODMJNBUFBOE kg CO2N2ZFBS JO UIF DPME DMJNBUF Cooling with electricity significantly increases carbon emission because of electricityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s carbon emission converTJPO GBDUPS WBMVF PG  4USBUFHJFT UP decrease cooling energy consumption and carbon emission should focus on energy efficiency in the Mediterranean climate. Therefore, optimization of thermal insulation thickness based on multiple factors primary energy saving and carbon emission are important for countries with Mediterranean climates in order to save energy and meet carbon emission targets. 'JHVSFTBOETIPXUIFFÄ&#x152;FDUTPG increasing insulation thickness on life cycle energy consumption and carbon emissions. As it is stated before buildJOH MJGF TQBO BTTVNFE BT  ZFBST CVU in LCEA and LCC cost results comparison building life span assumed as  ZFBST CFDBVTF PG MJGF TQBO TVHHFTUJPOJO-$$NFUIPEPMPHZJO&1#%*O the Mediterranean climate, increasing UIFSNBMJOTVMBUJPOPWFSDNGPS&14 insulation increases carbon emissions while life cycle energy consumption decreases. On the other hand, life cy-

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Figure 3. The effect of thermal insulation thickness on heating and cooling energy consumption for the case study building.

Figure 4. The effect of thermal insulation thickness on carbon emissions.

Figure 5. The effects of EPS with different thicknesses on life cycle energy consumption and carbon emissions in the Mediterranean climate region.

Figure 6. The effects of EPS of different thicknesses on life cycle energy consumption and carbon emissions in the cold climate.

cle energy consumption and carbon emissions decrease with increasing insulation thickness in the cold climate. The energy performance of buildings during the use stage dominates life cyDMFFOFSHZQFSGPSNBODF)JHIDPPMJOH energy consumption in the Mediterranean climate affects primary energy consumption and carbon emission. Therefore, determining optimum insulation thickness based on life cycle performance is important for saving energy and reducing carbon emissions, especially in Mediterranean DMJNBUFT)PXFWFS TUBOEBSETBOESFHVMBUJPOT TVDI BT &1#% BOE #VJMEJOH &OFSHZ 1FSGPSNBODF SFHVMBUJPO GPS 5VSLFZ #&1 EPOPUDPOTJEFSMJGFDZcle energy consumption and carbon emissions. LCC is an important tool for making decisions about energy efficiency measures in buildings. Life cycle enFSHZBOEDPTUQFSGPSNBODFPG&14JOsulation material for Mediterranean BOEDPMEDMJNBUFTBSFTIPXOJO'JHVSFT  BOE  $MJNBUF BÄ&#x152;FDUT FOFSHZ DPOsumption, which is affected by enerHZQSJDFT1SJDFTGPSFOFSHZBSFħ L8I GPS FMFDUSJDJUZ BOE ħL8I GPSOBUVSBMHBTJOÉ&#x2014;[NJS)JHIMFWFMTPG cooling energy consumption, which is done with electricity, increase global cost significantly. Increasing thermal insulation thickness decreases global cost and energy consumption in all thickness in the cold climate, but in the Mediterranean climate, global cost increases for increasing insulation thickOFTTGSPNUPDN$PPMJOHFOFSHZ consumption in the Mediterranean climate is important for energy efficiency and cost. Therefore, energy efficiency measures should be optimized with multiple criteria such as energy, carCPO FNJTTJPO BOE DPTU %FUFSNJOJOH insulation thickness without considering annual energy consumption and cost would give ineffective results for Mediterranean climates. In addition to global cost, lighting energy consumption, which increases cooling energy consumption by heat gain from lighting instruments, should be considered in energy performance and global cost calculations. After getting life cycle energy, carbon emission and cost performance

Optimization of thermal insulation material and thickness for building energy efficiency in Mediterranean climates based on life cycle perspective

from life cycle perspective optimum solutions are given in this section. Optimum solutions are getting with comparison of all results. Optimum solutions present alternatives with low energy consumption, carbon emission and cost in life cycle period. Thermal insulation material alternativeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s life cycle energy consumption and carbon emission performance can be seen in figure 9. According to alternativesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; performance, optimum life cycle energy DPOTVNQUJPO JT CFUXFFO  BOE  L8IN2ZFBS BOE MJGF DZDMF DBSCPO FNJTTJPOT SBOHF GSPN  UP  LH $02N2ZFBS &14  914 BOEHMBTTXPPMXJUIPSDNUIJDLOFTT alternatives provide optimum solutions for the Mediterranean climate. 'JHVSF  TIPXT BMM BMUFSOBUJWFT MJGF cycle energy consumption and costs. Optimum solutions for life cycle enerHZ DPOTVNQUJPO BSF CFUXFFO  BOEL8IN2PWFSZFBSTBOE DPTUCFUXFFOħBOEN2 over ZFBSTÄ&#x2021;FSNBMJOTVMBUJPONBUFSJBMT XJUI PQUJNVN QFSGPSNBODF BSF &14  914BOEHMBTTXPPMXJUIUIJDLOFTTFTPG  BOEDN "TJUJTTFFOGSPNÄ&#x2022;HVSFBOEPQtimum insulation thickness change according to life cycle energy, carbon and cost performance. Optimum thickness GPSCPUI-$&"BOE-$$"JTPSDN BOE NBUFSJBMT BSF &14  914 BOE HMBTT wool for the Mediterranean climate. )PXFWFS GPS-$&"BOE-$$ UIFPQUJNVNNBUFSJBMTBSF&14 914BOEHMBTT XPPMXJUI PSDNUIJDLOFTT&14 BOE914XJUIDNUIJDLOFTTIBWFPQUJmum performance from LCEA, LCCA and LCC points for the Mediterranean DMJNBUF É&#x2014;[NJS 3PDL XPPM BOE HMBTT XPPM XJUI  PS  DN UIJDLOFTT IBWF optimum solutions from LCEA, LCCA and LCC point of view for the cold DMJNBUF &S[VSVN  "T TFFO GSPN UIF findings, even if insulation thickness and thermal conductivity are the same life cycle energy, carbon emissions and cost performance are significantly different. Therefore choosing the optimal material and thickness should consider UIFFOUJSFMJGFDZDMF%FUFSNJOJOHPQUJmum insulation thickness based on a single criterion or without considering life cycle performance gives ineffective results.

Figure 7. Life cycle energy consumption and cost of EPS with different thicknesses in the Mediterranean climateregion (Ä°zmir).

Figure 8. Life cycle energy consumption and cost of EPS with different thicknesses in the Mediterranean climateregion (Ä°zmir).

Figure 9. Life cycle energy consumption and carbon emission performance of all alternatives in the Mediterranean climate region (Ä°zmir).

Figure 10. Life cycle energy consumption and cost performance of all alternatives for the Mediterranean climate region (Ä°zmir).

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3. Conclusion This study has presented and demonstrated a new approach to selecting insulation material and thickness though a case study of a multi-storey residential building that optimizes energy efficiency, carbon emission reduction and cost over the buildingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s MJGFDZDMF%FUBJMFEFOFSHZQFSGPSNBODF calculations included occupancy, activity level, equipment and lighting system. The results were compared to the same building in a cold climate to highlight the effect of climate on energy efficiency and carbon emissions. Using a life cycle perspective is important for countries working toward reduced energy consumption, carbon emission targets and cost in buildings. Energy efficiency in buildings depends on some parameters such as building form, orientation, distance between buildings, but most of these parameters couldnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t be consider while building design in built environment. Therefore design of building envelope is a key factor for energy efficiency and carbon emission reduction. Thermal mass and using thermal insulation are important strategies for energy efÄ&#x2022;DJFODZ JO CVJMEJOHT #VU QSPWJEJOH thermal mass in building envelope couldnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t be apply in built environment because of getting solar gain and architectural restrictions such as constructing thick walls. Therefore, adding thermal insulation to building envelope or increasing thermal insulation thickness become most common energy efficiency strategy in envelope for buildings. Adding a thick insulation layer has a significantly different impact on carbon emissions and energy consumption in Mediterranean and cold climates. Cooling energy consumption in Mediterranean climates significantly increases energy consumption, carbon emission and cost because of the electricity conversion factor. Therefore, reducing cooling energy consumption is an important strategy for saving energy and reducing carbon emissions in Mediterranean climate. Other strategies include using thermal mass, natural ventilation, effective central cooling systems, shading devices and renewBCMF FOFSHZ TPVSDFT )PXFWFS  BQQMZing these strategies can be inefficiency,

expensive or limiting to architectural EFTJHO 'PS JOTUBODF  VTJOH UIFSNBM mass couldnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t be applied in built environment because of solar gain amount and architectural restrictions, using an efficient central cooling system decreases cooling energy consumption but investment and maintenance DPTUT BSF IJHI JU DBO BMTP CF EJÄ?DVMU to integrate into the architectural design. Thermal insulation material and various thicknessâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; performance could change according to climate and building typology significantly. Thus, as seen from results of this study, optimum thermal insulation material and thickness should be determined according to multiple criteria such as energy, carbon emission and cost from life cycle perspective. Many standards and regulations on energy efficiency or thermal insulation focus energy consumption, carbon emission and cost without considering materialâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s life cycle performance. This studyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s results show that determining insulation thickness without considering life cycle performance results in unexpected performance, especially in Mediterranean climates. Therefore optimization with multiple criteria such as LCEA, LCCA and LCC should be done to determine insulation material and thickness. Many standards and regulations generally focus on heating energy consumption or energy performance for end use. This studyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s results show that energy consumption of buildingsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; primary energy consumption should be calculated to determine optimum efficiency measures. Occupancy, activity level, heat gain from house appliances and lighting systems should be taken into account in calculations because these parameters directly affect energy consumption. Standards and regulation should be revised to include life cycle calculations, including the details of different building types. Such a revision would be significant for countries targeting energy efficiency and carbon emission reduction. In sum, multiple criteria are required to optimize insulation thickness and material based on life cycle energy, DBSCPO FNJTTJPO BOE DPTU %FUFSNJOing insulation thickness from a single

Optimization of thermal insulation material and thickness for building energy efficiency in Mediterranean climates based on life cycle perspective

criterion or without considering insulation materialâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s life cycle performance may result in unexpected results. The study focuses on life cycle energy consumption, carbon emission and cost. 'VUVSFSFTFBSDINBZJODPSQPSBUFPUIFS parameters such as fire resistance, duSBCJMJUZBOEFÄ&#x152;FDUPOBJSRVBMJUZ'VUVSF research may also consider details of specific cooling systems, operational schedules and different building types, which may modify and improve the results of this study. References "EBMCFSUI  ,   &OFSHZ VTF EVSJOH UIF -JGF $ZDMF PG #VJMEJOHT B .FUIPE #VJMEJOH BOE &OWJSPONFOU   "M4BOFB  4  ;FEBO  .  '   Improving thermal performance of building walls by optimizing insulation layer distribution and thickness for same thermal mass. Applied Energy   "OBTUBTFMPT % FUBM  "OBTsessment tool for the energy, economic and environmental evaluation of thermal insulation solutions. Energy and #VJMEJOHT  "3"4&%"4  IUUQXXXBSBTFEBT DPN  BDDFTTFE'FCSVBSZ  "4)3"& 45"/%"3%    Ä&#x2021;FSNBM &OWJSPONFOUBM $POEJUJPOT GPS )VNBO 0DDVQBODZ  *44/ "NFSJDBO4PDJFUZPG)FBUing, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. #BSSBV + FUBM  *NQBDUPGUIF optimization criteria on the determination of the insulation thickness, EnFSHZBOE#VJMEJOHT  #BSUIFMNFT  7  .  #FDDIJP  $  $PSHOBUJ  4  1   0DDVQBOU #Fhavior Lifestyles in a residential nearly zero energy building: Effect on energy use and thermal comfort, Science and 5FDIOPMPHZGPSUIF#VJMU&OWJSPONFOU    #FDDIJP  $  $PSHOBUJ  4  1  %FMNBTUSP  $  'BCJ  7  -PNCBSEJ  1   Ä&#x2021;F SPMF PG OFBSMZ[FSP FOFSgy buildings in the transition towards 1PTU$BSCPO $JUJFT 4VTUBJOBCMF $JUJFT BOE4PDJFUZ  #PFDL  -  FU BM   *NQSPWJOH the energy performance of residential buildings: A literature review. Renew-

able and Sustainable Energy Reviews   #PKJD . FUBM  0QUJNJ[BUJPO of thermal insulation to achieve energy savings in low energy house (refurCJTINFOU  &OFSHZ $POWFSTBUJPO BOE .BOBHFNFOU   #PMBUUà SL "  %FUFSNJOBUJPO of optimum insulation thickness for building walls with respect to various fuels and climate zones in Turkey. ApQMJFE Ä&#x2021;FSNBM &OHJOFFSJOH     #PMBUUàSL  "   0QUJNVN JOsulation thicknesses for building walls with respect to cooling and heating degree-hours in the warmest zone of 5VSLFZ#VJMEJOHBOE&OWJSPONFOU   $&/ <&VSPQFBO $PNNJUUFF GPS Standardization]. Energy performance of buildings â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Economic evaluation procedure for energy systems in buildJOHT 4UBOEBSE &/   #SVTTFMT$&/ $&/5$  4VTUBJOBCJMJUZ PG $POTUSVDUJPO 8PSLTBTTFTTNFOU PG #VJMEJOHT oQBSU  'SBNFXPSL GPS UIF "TTFTTNFOU PG &OWJSPONFOUBM 1FSGPSNBODF QS&/  "'/03 $MJNBUF "DUJPO    IUUQT FDFVSPQBFVDMJNBQPMJDJFTTUSBUFHJFT@FO BDDFTTFE+VOF  ±PNBLMÂ&#x2018; , :àLTFM #  0Qtimum insulation thickness of external walls for energy saving. Applied TherNBM&OHJOFFSJOH  ±ɮ#  5VSLJTI .JOJTUSZ PG 1VCMJD 8PSLTBOE4FUUMFNFOU :Â&#x2018;MÂ&#x2018;*OTBBU WF 5FTJTBU #JSJN 'JZBUMBSÂ&#x2018; < 6OJU 1SJDFT PG $POTUSVDUJPO BOE *OTUBMMBUJPOT> "OLBSB<JO5VSLJTI> ±ɮ##&1  .JOJTUSZPG1VCMJD 8PSLTBOE4FUUMFNFOUT #JOBMBSEB&OFSKJ 1FSGPSNBOTÂ&#x2018; :Ã&#x161;OFUNFMJHÉ&#x2014; <&OFSHZ 1FSGPSNBODFPG#VJMEJOHT3FHVMBUJPO>  .JOJTUSZ PG 1VCMJD 8PSLT BOE 4FUUMFments, Republic of Turkey Official Ga[FUUF  "OLBSB<JO5VSLJTI> %BPVBT /  "TUVEZPOPQUJmum insulation thickness in walls and energy savings in Tunisian buildings based on analytical calculation of cooling and heating transmission loads. "QQMJFE&OFSHZ  %FTJHO #VJMEFS 4PÄ&#x2122;XBSF  IUUQ XXXEFTJHOCVJMEFSDPVL BDDFTTFE NBSDI 

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Optimization of thermal insulation material and thickness for building energy efficiency in Mediterranean climates based on life cycle perspective


optimum insulation thickness based on cooling transmission load for building walls in a hot climate. Energy ConWFSTJPOBOE.BOBHFNFOU  ½[FM .  Ä&#x2021;FSNBM FDPOPNical and environmental analysis of insulated building walls in a cold climate. Energy Conversion and Management   ½[FM  .   &Ä&#x152;FDU PG JOTVMBtion location on dynamic heat-transfer characteristics of building external walls and optimization of insulation UIJDLOFTT &OFSHZ BOE #VJMEJOHT     ½[FM  .  1Â&#x2018;IUÂ&#x2018;MÂ&#x2018;  ,   0QUJmum location and distribution of insulation layers on building walls with WBSJPVTPSJFOUBUJPOT#VJMEJOHBOE&OWJSPONFOU  ½[LBO % # 0OBO $  0Qtimization of insulation thickness for different glazing areas in buildings for various climatic regions in Turkey. ApQMJFE&OFSHZ  1"-&/  IUUQXXXQBMFODPNUS  BDDFTTFE'FCSVBSZ  1BQBEPQPVMPT  "  .  (JBNB  &   &OWJSPONFOUBM QFSGPSNBODF evaluation of thermal insulation materials and its impact on the building. #VJMEJOH BOE &OWJSPONFOU     1BSHBOB  O  FU BM   $PNQBSative environmental life cycle assessment of thermal insulation materials PGCVJMEJOHT&OFSHZBOE#VJMEJOHT   3VFMMBO  .  FU BM   3FTJEFOtial building energy demand and thermal comfort: Thermal dynamics of electrical appliances and their impact. &OFSHZBOE#VJMEJOHT  4BSUPSJ  *  )FTUOFT  "  (   Energy use in the life cycle of conventional and low-energy buildings: a reWJFXBSUJDMF &OFSHZ#VJME o 4ISFTUIB 4 4 FUBM  "QSPtocol for lifetime energy and environmental impact assessment of building insulation materials. Environmental *NQBDU"TTFTTNFOU3FWJFX  4PIO +- FUBM  -JGFDZDMF


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Istanbul: The characteristics of vertical dense structuring and image making in high-rise housing architecture Tuba SARI1, Yurdanur DĂ&#x153;LGEROÄ&#x17E;LU YĂ&#x153;KSEL2 1 UVHTBS!HNBJMDPNt%FQBSUNFOUPG"SDIJUFDUVSF 'BDVMUZPG"SDIJUFDUVSF  Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey 2 t%FQBSUNFOUPG"SDIJUFDUVSF 'BDVMUZPG"SDIJUFDUVSF  Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey

doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2018.44827  

Received: Januaryt Final Acceptance: July 2017

Abstract Urbanization acceleration, land shortage, the prominence of the service sector due to globalization, the development of high technology and information systems, the expansion of multinational companies as well as changing types of users have been the factors that trigger the design of high-rise buildings. The scope of research deals with five different urban centers in Istanbul where high rise housing is increasing dramatically after 2000â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s. Therefore, the research regards multi centered urban residential model being created by high rise housing structures in the urban area. In the framework of research hypothesis, it is aimed to prove that the character of vertical dense structuring in Istanbul is based on differentiation, form and image making in the expressive quality, considering the production of existing high rise buildings in residential areas in recent years. As the methodology of research, it is benefited from convenience sampling method while determining high-rises according to some criteria supported by thesis scope. The site analysis is realized by the help of the Sign model of Charles Sanders Peirce. The high rise buildings have been analysed in the context of icon-index-symbol sign parameters, questioning the search for differentiation, form and image. Keywords High-rise, Housing, Image, Multi-centered, Urban.

1.The development of high-rise housing in Istanbul: Concepts and structures 1.1. Global-local The concept of global, which is relating to entire world rather than a specific region or country, should be considered together with the concept of local. According to the first definitions of global city, it is said that the capital is global and its spatial organization is hierarchical. Globally, the cities that provide the capitalâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s control functions, producer services and labour world-wide are seen as reflections PG UIJT IJFSBSDIZ ,FZEFS    .Ftropolises are, on the one hand, part of the network of international goods, money, people, information and indicative flow on the other hand under the geographical dominance and laws of their own countries. This results in distinctive approaches relating to different acceptation of global flows in world DPVOUSJFT%VFUPUIBU*TUBOCVMSFNBJOT in between discourses of globalization and locality, it displays a hybrid image consisting of the concepts of confusion, contradiction and uncertainty (GĂśnen ½[FS   The cultural identity and the image created by the city play a key role in the competitive environment that other cities enter. Especially in cities with diverse and multi-layered history such as Istanbul, which parts of the past are to be preserved or marketed become serious political problems. The conflict between the global and the local not only affects the cities but also the language of BSDIJUFDUVSF BOE EFTJHO  'SPN %VCBJ to Kuala Lumpur, skyscrapers inspired by regionalism are being built in many metropolises around the world. The major problems are how high-rise buildings affect the local identity and whether they have a local identity specific to their surroundings in residential areas to global-local relation. 1.2. Metropolis-city The word of mĂŠtropole, its origin DPNFTGSPN'SFODI NFBOTCJH DFOUSBM city and capital. While metropolises were previously bordered settlements governed with the concept of locality, they have opened up to the world and governed at the global scale with glo-

balization. In the period of globalization, parameters such as change in the concept of border, the phenomena of global and whole world are attracting among the determinative indicators of metropolis concept. In this period, meUSPQPMJTFTTVDIBT/FX:PSL -POEPO  5PLZPBOE4BO'SBODJTDPJTOPMPOHFS referred to as the world cities not with UIFJSDPVOUSJFT #BCB  $JUJFTBSF transforming into metropolises competing on a global scale from the settlements in the nation-state structure, which in turn pushes the governments of the country to work and interventions in the world city competition. Within this framework, one of the studies carried out for Istanbul to become a global world city is the need for the presence of mega projects that will speed up the transformation of the city in this context. 1.3. Skyscraper-tall building The skyscraper, called as grate-ciel JO'SFODI JTEFÄ&#x2022;OFEBTPSNPSF storey building in literature. Charles +FODLT  EFTDSJCFTUIFTLZTDSBQFS as a multi-storey building with lifts operating at high speed, steel frames used in the construction. According to one BQQSPBDI  CVJMEJOHT IJHIFS UIBO  GPPU NFUFST BSFEFTDSJCFEBTTLZTDSBQFS 'PSE  "MUBO½LF   emphasized that it would be appropriate to use the concept of skyscraper for 25-storey and higher buildings in the UBMLPG*TUBOCVMT'VUVSFBOE4LZTDSBQers panel. Within the scope of the research, 25-storey and higher housing buildings are examined using Altan Ă&#x2013;keâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s criteria for skyscrapers in Istanbul and Turkey as basis. As understood from these definitions, there are many different definitions of skyscraper, but the most important point to be emphasized is that the definition of skyscraper and tall building can change according to country, city and environmental conditions. According to CTBUH (Council PO 5BMM #VJMEJOHT BOE 6SCBO )BCJUBU  height criteria, the tall building does not have certain definition and conUFOU )FJHIU JT SFMBUFE UP DPOUFYU 'PS cities such as Chicago or Hong Kong, LOPXO BT IJHISJTF DJUJFT  B TUPSFZ building may not be perceived as high-

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rise, but may be perceived as higher than normal for European cities and TPNFTVCVSCBODJUJFT 8PPE   1.4. Multi centered-single centered Urban decentralization derives from the multitude and variety of central functions gathered in a city and is based on a system of one or more transport networks aggregated in that location. In the process of globalization, due to the lack of center in the metropolises, secondary centers, new structures outside the city, new settlements areas called neo-city has appeared in the periphery PG NFUSPQPMJT /FX DPOTUSVDUJPOT UIBU are seen in the metropolitan area are changing the concepts of urban density, scale and function. On the other hand, metropolitan boundaries are merging with the walls and the periphery, clear CPVOEBSJFTEJTBQQFBS #BCB   Based on Peter Marcuseâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Polycentrism, Concentrated Decentralization theory, the forms of cities are constantly changing, physical and spatial changes are explained by the concepts of polycentrism and urban fragmentation .BSDVTF  "TUIFDJUZDPOUJOVFT to grow towards the border settlements and rural areas, a multi-centered structure emerges in the form. The evolutionary process leading to the creation of multi centered city from the single centered city seen in recent years in Istanbul overlaps with the theory of Marcuse. While high-rise buildings are concentrated only on the BĂźyĂźkdere-Maslak axis, where the business centers are located, it is seen that different urban foci such as Maltepe-Kartal, KozyataÄ&#x;Äą-AtaĹ&#x;ehir and BaĹ&#x;akĹ&#x;ehir-BeylikdĂźzĂź have been created with the increasing tendency especially in the high-rise housing area. This can be seen as a micro-scale reflection of the multi-global network, as the shift of global economy based UK and United States to urban peripheries such as China and India. 2. The development parameters of high-rise housing in Istanbul: Policies 2.1. Globalization The globalization policy is one of the policies that trigger the development of high-rise housing, and many develop-

ing countries determine the targets of development and structuring in this direction. The global urban discourse is based on the World City hypothesis, XIJDI XBT EFWFMPQFE CZ 'SJFENBOO BOE 8PMÄ&#x152;   BOE MBUFS CZ 4BTTFO   BOE B OVNCFS PG TDIPMBST *O many countries of the world, the arguments of this hypothesis have become an effective policy instrument. Many central and local governments have produced similar policies for the past twenty years to make their cities a HMPCBMDJUZ ½LUFN   "DDPSEJOHUP'SJFENBOO UIFXPSME city is the place where the international capital concentrates and accumulates. Regional, national and international economies are articulated in these cities. World cities where global transportation, communication, news, information and culture are produced and spread, carry out important ideoMPHJDBM BOE DPOUSPM GVODUJPOT 'SJFENBOO    4BTTFO   EFÄ&#x2022;OFE the cities of the world not only as centers of control and management but also as the cities where the production of trade and service sector and financial innovations took place and gave a new dimension to the concept of world city. The world city rhetoric explains the emergence of global cities with the emergence of a new global economy. %FWFMPQNFOUT JO UIF XPSME BOE in Turkey have led Istanbul to a new structuring process after 1980. Istanbul feels the impacts of globalization as a place where global money, capital, people, ideas, indicators and information flows are concentrated. The processes that determine the urban form have also changed with the beginning of globalization. Until this period, investments in the city have been of interest to local entrepreneurs, but have since become of interest to global capital. Between 1980 and 1998, especially foreign companies serving worldwide took place in Istanbul with the banking and finance sectors. While the ratio of foreign banks to the national banks in *TUBOCVMJOXBT JUXBTEFUFSNJOFEBTJOÄ&#x2021;JTSBUFJTIJHIer today. The first examples of high-rise structuring in Turkey have been built in Istanbul and Ankara since 1985. A rapid increase has been observed in the

Istanbul: The characteristics of vertical dense structuring and image making in high-rise housing architecture

high-rise initiatives in Istanbul since UIFT #BCB   Considering the boom of high-rise housing constructions in Istanbul on the theory of global city, these structures can be regarded as a few spatial results in the process of reaching the hierarchical structure created by the global economy on the macro scale. As a result of the global capital has become widespread since 2000, international capital groups and local governments that support these groups have entered a competition to built edifice and ambitious structures in Istanbul. With the rise of mega projects, high office and residence towers, mixed-use complexes and foreign investments developed in this context, Istanbul becomes prominent as a world city in the global economy. 2.2. Economic liberalization /FPMJCFSBMJTUQPMJDJFT XIJDIBSFFYpressed as opening to foreign countries in the economy, are another parameter that is effective in the development of vertical dense housing. Since the mid1980s, the process of economic liberalization and integration with the world markets have brought also strong architectural manifestos and physical realities. These manifestos, emerging as a global phenomenon from Sao Paulo to Shanghai, depict new scales, new typologies, new diffusion policies of DJUJFT #P[EPĘ&#x201C;BO"LDBO  Ä&#x2021;F ongoing spatial transformation process in Istanbul is developing as dependent on economic policies as it is in many metropolitan areas of the world. Largescale urban projects have begun to be produced rapidly in order to attract international capital within the competitive environment determined by the free market economy on a global scale. 'PSUIFMBTUUIJSUZZFBST UIFPQFOJOHPG Istanbul, the economic capital of Turkey, to the world markets with the slogan of world city has been tried to be achieved by the neoliberalist policies of the countryâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s administrators and by the MBSHFDBQJUBMHSPVQT #JSTFM   These policies, which have been dominant since the 1980s, have caused some fundamental changes in the physical structure of cities. International financial capitals, big banks,

construction companies, real estate developers, international investors, units in the construction market are among the actors of this change. The opening of new areas for agricultural land or forest land for construction and the sale of public lands in major urban areas to private real estate development firms are among the developments observed in this period. On the contrary to economic policy before 1980, Turkey has adopted outward-oriented growth, sought to develop new economic institutions and to focus on the telecommunication investments that the global economy needs (TekeMJ  *TUBOCVMJTUSBOTGPSNFEBDJUZ where the industry is moving out of the city and where creative industries, producer services, finance and real estate sectors are strengthened due to new economic structure. 2.3. Urbanization One of the most important factors that initiate vertical dense construction in the housing is the acceleration process of the urbanization. Gottmann   EFÄ&#x2022;OFT OFX NFHBMPQPMJT XJUI the increase of urbanization rates in the world. Sao Paolo, Rio de Jenerio, 4IBOHIBJ%JTUSJDU FUDDJUJFTBSFDJUFEBT leading examples. According to TherCPSO  NFHBMPQPMJTJTQJPOFFSJOH the organization of urban life. Skyscrapers, building elevators, city and suburban train networks, traffic lights and one-way roads have been adapted to the world at large, as part of this organization. As the Keynesian economy left its place in the global economy, urbanization policies also changed. Global cities have become an investment object since the 1980s. Mumbai, for example, is part of the global movement for the real estate development sector, involving investors from London to #PHPUB 4BTTFO  #ZT DJUJFT have turned their faces, their meanings and functions into almost completely changing places with neoliberal urbanization. Within this literature, the close and complex relationships of neoliberalism have been debated by the processes of urban transformation from Istanbul to Cairo, from London to Mumbai all over the world (Kollu-

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PĘ&#x201C;MV  8IJMFUPXFSTBSFDPNQFUing in new development zones of metropolises, selected centers in the city are subject to urban transformation. It is now possible to see such operations JO*TUBOCVMPQFSBUFEJO/FX:PSL 1BSJT BOE-POEPOTJODFUIFT ,BSBCFZ    Another factor affecting urban development has been giant infrastructural investments. A large number of mega-projects that are entrepreneurial for Istanbul since the 1980s are relatFE UP NPCJMJUZ '4. CSJEHF  4BCJIB GĂśkçen Airport, Marmaray and metro constructions, the third Bosporus bridge, the third airport, tunnel of wheeled vehicles under the Bosporus, high speed train line for connection of Istanbul to Ankara, Ä°zmit gulf bridge and highway for facilitation and acceleration of Istanbul Bursa connection, a sea channel which is required to be opened to the west of the Bosporus, a hotel in HaydarpaĹ&#x;a area and a desire to transform the harbour to a passenHFS DSVJTF QPSUBSFTPNFPGUIFNFHB projects related to mobility. Accordingly, today, cities are seen as potential areas of investment for mega projects mobility-based as part of a great competition of global scale. In this respect, projecting the third airport with a target of 100 million passengers indicates that Istanbul is desired to be a global hub of a much bigger city today (Ă&#x2013;zCBZ    Ä&#x2021;FSFGPSF  UIF EJSFDUJPO PG development the city and land value change depending on the transportation networks. 2.4. Housing and settlement Besides urbanization policy, housing and settlement policies have a very important role in shaping the city. The growing city needs modern working and living spaces and the construction of the transportation network to serve these structures encourages the development of new sub-centers in the city. Modern residential areas built around these sub-centers for upper and middle income groups also appear as spatial results of this change and transformation. As part of the search for a quality life after 1980, gated communities represent housing areas based on ideal living and ideal home that are

shaped around a concept, and offer leisure facilities and high-level security. Some large companies moving to the suburban of the city have occasionally attempted to make housing for their staff in residential areas close to new businesses. These settlements are similar to the rings surrounding the city, each of which is about one hour away from the center of the city, with the potential to become a center for itself on time. Basaksehir-BeylikdĂźzĂź region, which is about forty kilometers southwest of the center of Istanbul, is a good example. Besides the spread of the urban topography of Istanbul, the leading elites who started to return to the city center in recent years prefer mostly multi storey residences which are vertical UPXOT 1Ă?SPVTF%BOÂ&#x2018;Ę°  8IFO we look at the transformation geography of the city, residences are mostly located considering central areas of the city with offices and large business centers. The peak residence constructions are located in Besiktas-Sisli-Maslak and BeylikdĂźzĂź districts in the European side, as to Anatolian side located in AtaĹ&#x;ehir district which is projected to be a financial center. It reveals that the residences have a strong relationship with the subway lines in addition to the office blocks. In the near future, it is predicted that residences will be increased in BaÄ&#x;cÄąlar-BaĹ&#x;akĹ&#x;ehir corridor, KozyataÄ&#x;Äą-BaÄ&#x;dat street and Maltepe-Kartal lines with the opening of the third bridge link and the foreseen airport. By examining the distribution of office areas and major business centers, BeĹ&#x;iktaĹ&#x;-Ĺ&#x17E;iĹ&#x;li-Maslak, Bagcilar-BaĹ&#x;akĹ&#x;ehir-GaziosmanpaĹ&#x;a, KozyataÄ&#x;Äą-AtaĹ&#x;ehir and KavacÄąk regions have become the priority places for these investments. These regions, which are closely related to both bridge routes, have access and location adWBOUBHF :BMĂ&#x17D;Â&#x2018;OUBO ÂąBMÂ&#x2018;Ę°LBO ÂąÂ&#x2018;MHÂ&#x2018;O  %Ă OEBS   The important element of change in Istanbulâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s urban development after the 2000s is the newly formed spatial development axes, depending on the development of the Central Business Area. The constructions on these axes are high office blocks and high residential constructions, which are separated

Istanbul: The characteristics of vertical dense structuring and image making in high-rise housing architecture


from traditional centers in the urban integrity of Istanbul. The development of the gigantic shopping and office centers that started with hyper marketing and the process that continues with skyscrapers appear as reflection places of globalization. 3. Site analysis: Reading the image of high-rise housing in Istanbul after 2000â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s The method of convenience samQMJOH  EFWFMPQFE CZ .VHP 'SJEBI   XBT VTFE XIJMF FYBNJOJOH high-rise housing structures depending on the boundaries and scope of the field work. In this context, five different urban foci were determined in Istanbul based on the vertical dense structuring in the house, and several projects were selected according to the change and transformation criteria in UIFTFÄ&#x2022;FMET'PSUIJTBSUJDMFPOFQSPKFDU in each area was examined. High-rise housing structures are studied in two dimensions in the context of the effect of metropolitan city Istanbul on urban fabric and architectural design-meaning relations. As part of urban settlement decisions, it is considered to evaluate the distant and close environment interactions, the transformations on urban silhouette. In the context of architectural design-semantic relations, the use of the Semantic Method and Sign model constitutes the main methodology of the study. Within the frame of Sign model, developed by Charles Sanders Peirce   UIF TUSVDUVSFT BSF EFUBJMFE BDDPSEJOH UP *DPO 'PSN  *OEFY 'VODUJPO BOE4ZNCPM 'PSN'VODUJPO3FMBUJPOTIJQ QBSBNFUFSTJOUIFTDPQFPG basic analysis questions. In the light of these semiotic parameters, it is planned to refer to the search for difference, form and image seen in vertical dense residential structures in recent years. 3.1. Metrocity Towers (1997-2003) Until the end of 1980s, Maslak was mainly used for small industry. Especially since 1990s, Maslak has been transformed into a central business area as a result of giving the highest Ä&#x2DC;PPS BSFB SBUJP JO *TUBOCVM %Ă&#x161;LNFDJ5FS[J  #ZJUTBEWBOUBHFTPG being located between the Bosporus

Figure 1. The image of Metrocity Towers, site plan and section drawing.

Figure 2. The image showing the location of Metrocity Towers in urban silhouette.

bridges and the surrounding road connections and having large parcels of old industrial facilities, having the highest floor area ratio of Istanbul, being close to other sub-centers such as BeĹ&#x;iktaĹ&#x;, MecidiyekĂśy and Zincirlikuyu, this area where high-rise office buildings have been developed is preferred by multi-national companies and holdings. In addition, the Ĺ&#x17E;iĹ&#x;li-Maslak region has shown a building tendency to the needs of high-quality residential structures according to the changing user type. Metrocity Tower is a mixeduse high-rise project developed in this direction. This project, designed CZ %PĘ&#x201C;BO 5FLFMJ BOE 4BNJ 4JTB  NBLF difference to the high-rise housing structuring in the 2000â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s. The building is a late modern structure that reflects the final stages of rationalization as architectural line in terms of icon-inEFYTZNCPMSFMBUJPOT 'JHVSF

Icon analyses the structure with different parameters such as geometry, form-facade relation and architectural expression. The geometry parameter will be examined under two headings, defined or undefined. In this context, Metrocity displays defined geometries such as square prism, rectangular

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prism and sphere. These geometrical relationships give static, linear and rational lines to the façade. Given the main expressions emphasized in the architectural design concept, modern, universal language and local technology become prominent. Index analyses the structure with building type, function and secondary functions loaded into structure. Metrocity is a mixed-use complex that houses shopping, office and residential functions within the project. There are also social and sports areas that serve the main functions of the building. With a variety of functions and possibilities, the building refers to the image of modern housing that offers contemporary living and comfort in the era when it was built. Symbol analyses the structure with several parameters such as form-image, order, rhythm and silhouette examining form-function relations. In the context of form-image relations, Metrocity towers reflect finished form image as well as rational, static and linear façade lines. The parameter of order analyses the structure in respect to use of symmetry, asymmetry, axes and façade-mass relations. In this respect, Metrocity residential towers are located using the symmetry and axial arrangement in the site plan. There are two twin residential towers reflecting the same architectural form and character in the project. Considering facade-mass relations, Metrocity residential towers can be read as three difGFSFOUQBSUT"UUIFFOUSBODF JUBQQFBST that the building is sitting on a linear shopping center. The main body consists of the residential units, which is one of the primary functions of the architectural structure. In the roof part, elevator tower, ventilating and installation are hidden in a dome roof. The dome roof is seen as a differentiating element considering form-image relations of the structure. In addition to that, the structure has a mass rhythm determined by static and repetitive twin towers. The parameter of silhouette, apart from questioning the urban fabric the structure is located, assesses the reflection of building appearance in urban silhouette and aerial photographs.

There are many high-rise offices and residential towers due to the reconstruction permit for high-rises in Ĺ&#x17E;iĹ&#x;li-Maslak axis, the central business area of Istanbul. Also, there are many low-rise neighbourhoods around of the high-rise buildings. Although Metrocity residential towers are not completely integrated to urban fabric, the project is approved for the silhouette of Istanbul as height and proportion. 'JHVSF

3.2. BatÄąĹ&#x;ehir (2011-2015) BaĹ&#x;akĹ&#x;ehir-BeylikdĂźzĂź area is one of the sub-centers in Istanbul with new developing projects, such as high-rise offices, residential buildings as well as gated communities. BaÄ&#x;cÄąlar, GĂźneĹ&#x;li, BasÄąn-Ekpress line, Basaksehir and BeylikdĂźzĂź are the main points in this sub-center vertical residential development is seen. BatÄąĹ&#x;ehir is a mixed-use project that takes an important role in developing a new center for the city, BOBMZTFEJOUIFTDPQFPGSFTFBSDI%FTJHOFECZ#Ă OZBNJO%FSNBO UIFQSPKect brings recognisability around the structural environment and displays expressionist lines in terms of icon-inEFYTZNCPMSFMBUJPOT 'JHVSF

Icon BatÄąĹ&#x;ehir displays undefined, combined geometries in form of the towers. A curvilinear, dynamic and fluid movement has been created by functional units which are not separated by sharp boundaries on the façade. Looking at the architectural expression that makes an iconic impact on the project, the skyline relationship established with the northern forests is one of the main ideas that give direction to its design. Index BatiĹ&#x;ehir is a mixed-use project with residential, office, hotel, educational and commercial functions. Social and sports areas, green recreation areas, urban gardens, cafes, restaurants and playgrounds are secondary functions that serve the main functions. The functional image of the structure exhibiting a distinct urban image in the city is shaped on multiple functions and their integration, and it suggests a quite high density for the area. Symbol The BatiĹ&#x;ehir displays an unfinished form image in the context of form-image relations. The design rela-

Istanbul: The characteristics of vertical dense structuring and image making in high-rise housing architecture


tionship established with the metaphor of the mountain creates a fluid and dynamic image effect on the form. The order parameter indicates that the settlement of the project uses defined axles on the site plan while having asymmetrical order in design. BatiĹ&#x;ehir consists of different height blocks which rise in accordance with the silhouette in terms of façade-mass relations. The order of the functions is aimed at a multi-layered design. The project, which includes trade, office and residential blocks on the southern border overlooking the highway, transforms into housing blocks, which form their own courtyard and interior on the northern side. The building units that constitute the massive rhythm give the facade dynamism with the influence of functions that are not separated from each other by sharp boundaries. The silhouette is used as a design idea in this project. It creates its own silhouette based on the skyline relationship established with the northern forests. The fluctuations in the topography have been reflected as a metaphor to the structure and the heights of blocks are determined by protecting this silhouette. BatiĹ&#x;ehir does not directly affect the existing silhouette of Istanbul, however the silhouette relation with the northern forests gives direction to the architectural design and the structure constitutes its PXOTJMIPVFUUF 'JHVSF

3.3. Safi Espadon (2011-2014) In the Anatolian side of Istanbul, a new center is needed for trade, tourism, finance, housing, culture, management and recreation areas and uses, which revitalizes of central business area and provides both workforce and transport link between two sides of the city. In this context, Maltepe-Kartal and KozyataÄ&#x;Äą-AtaĹ&#x;ehir are defined as primary centers. It is foreseen that the center of Maltepe-Kartal will develop as a center with a high level of service sector due to the reasons such as the proximity to Sabiha GĂśkçen Airport, the industrial areas in the transformation period, the existence of transport projects supporting this region, and so on. In this respect, Safi Espadon is examined as a residential high-rise project that contribute to development of

Figure 3. The image of BatÄąĹ&#x;ehir, site plan and section drawing.

Figure 4. The image showing the location of BatÄąĹ&#x;ehir in urban silhouette.

this new urban center. %FTJHOFECZ%PNF 1BSUOFST"SDIJtecture, Safi Espadon displays the formalist lines of postmodern period in terms of icon-index-symbol relations. The building is designed with a unique form of flow. This developed sculptural architectural skyline carries a crustal character, which is breaking the form-function relation in architecture. It has also an expressionist attitude as a symbolic structure that brings recogniUJPOBSPVOE 'JHVSF

Icon There is a single form which is obtained by interposition of segments in three different dimensions. The facade created by the combined geometries displays defined geometries. In the façade, a single iconic form was reached from the combination of sail blocks in three different sizes. Index Safi Espadon is designed as a residential high-rise project. The building consists of secondary functions such as commercial units, sports facilities, recreation areas and parking in addition to the residential function. The flashy and teatral form of the structure leads to the function, and a deductive, form-oriented design understanding is being developed. Symbol As part of form-image rela-

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Figure 5. The image of Safi Espadon, site plan and section drawing.

Figure 6. The image showing the location of Safi Espadon in urban area.

tions, Safi Espadon reflects sculptural and dynamic lines with finished form image in the design of residential tower. The building has an architectural image that displays itself as a symbol high-rise. In the context of the order parameter, the housing blocks appear to be sitting on a symmetrical and axial plane. In addition, the order of residential blocks provides different facade views and landscapes. The architectural structure has been analysed in three parts in terms of facade-mass relations. It is observed that the triple housing tower is sitting on a basement where secondary functions and social areas are located in the entrance section of the building. It is designed with the same planimetric form of segments for residential functions. The main body consists of three residential blocks, each having different sizes. The pointed ends that give the structure sail form are the roof part of the structure made of steel construction in triangular prism shape. In the massive rhythm, three different size of blocks come together to create a single form, which

gives movement to the façade and the mass. When the silhouette and its position within the urban texture are examined, the structure is located on the E5 main transport artery in Kartal which is the focus of urban development and transformation of Istanbul on the Anatolian side. The urban fabric around the building is mainly industrial and residential. Therefore, it is considered as a symbolic structure that is expected to contribute to the urban transformation PGUIFTVSSPVOEJOHBSFB 'JHVSF

3.4. Dumankaya Ä°kon (2007-2012) KozyataÄ&#x;Äą-AtaĹ&#x;ehir is defined as a high-level service center with an international financial center in line with the potential and current trends of the SFHJPO%VNBOLBZB*LPO JTBIJHISJTF residential project in the area, leads to urban transformation in the center with new residential settlements and gives a new silhouette to the city. %FTJHOFECZ5BHP"SDIJUFDUT UIFSFTJdential tower displays the expressionist lines in terms of icon-index-symbol relations. The idea of creating a new icon and landmark with a triple skyscraper design in Istanbul supports the concept of imagery. Therefore, the architectural language reflects an expressionist approach of image quest on the urban GBCSJD 'JHVSF

IconÄ&#x2021;F%VNBOLBZBÉ&#x2014;LPOQSPKFDUJT simulated to the three-leaf clover form in the site plan. Three elliptical towers and floor gardens linking these towers are the first perceived elements on the facade, and the façade displays defined geometries. The project is designed to be one of the new icons of the city according to its architectural concept. In addition to that, it seems that the height image of the structure is emphasized in the urban tissue. Index %VNBOLBZB É&#x2014;LPO JT B SFTidential high-rise project involving residence and home-office functions. The majority of the secondary functions serving the residential functions are separated to social facilities such as swimming pools, playgrounds, landscape terraces, walking and running track, fitness center some other residential services. With the choice of such living spaces offering residence

Istanbul: The characteristics of vertical dense structuring and image making in high-rise housing architecture


comfort, the functional image of the housing turns into a multifunctional structure beyond just being a living space. Symbol Ä&#x2021;F GPSN PG %VNBOLBZB Ä°kon has sculptural and dynamic lines as part of form-image relations. The building has an architectural image that shows itself as a symbol. In the context of the order parameter, the structure is placed in site plan with respect to a certain symmetry and axial plane. In addition, the layout of the residential towers provides different views to the apartments. The structure has been analysed in three parts in terms of facade-mass relations. It is observed that the triple housing tower is sitting on a basement in the entrance section of the structure. The secondary functions and social life areas are designed for these three towers as a base with curvilinear form. The main body includes three residential towers and floor gardens that connect these towers on every ten floors. The roof of the residential towers is highlighted by the pediment line, with the same architectural language of main body structure. The massive rhythm displays a dynamic and variable rhythm as the result of connecting of the triple housing UPXFS XJUI Ä&#x2DC;PPS HBSEFOT  'MPPS HBSdens, imaginatively and functionally, soften the monoblock-individual image perception, opening interspaces to the structure apart from connecting UIF UPXFST UP FBDI PUIFS %VNBOLBZB Ä°kon has an important role in the urban area in terms of the proportion and height of towers as seen in Ĺ&#x17E;iĹ&#x;li-Maslak axis of Istanbul, which supports the decentralization of vertical dense housing in KozyataÄ&#x;Äą-AtaĹ&#x;ehir area. In terms of silhouette, the structure, differing from the urban context by its height and architectural image, completely changes the urban image and silhouette as a mega-structure that triggers the urban transformation of the surrounding neighborhoods and residential areas. 'JHVSF

3.5. Ottomare Suites (2009-2014) Historical peninsula and walls development area represents the old center and its periphery in Istanbul. The high-rises are built with residence, ho-

Figure 7. The image of Dumankaya Ä°kon, site plan and mass perspective.

Figure 8. The image showing the location of Dumankaya Ä°kon in urban area.

tel and office buildings in recent years due to the need of luxury living in the city center. Ottomare Suites is a mixeduse high-rise project in Zeytinburnu, which transforms the silhouette of the city. The project, designed by Evrenol Architecture, displays the lines of postmodern period in terms of icon-index-symbol relations. In respect to design, the structure makes symbolic reference with a lighthouse concept which indicates the passage to the Black Sea for vessels and cars driving along the coast road. The building offers interesting building facades, visible both by sea and by land. The use of colour on the facade, expressing of the structure, the movement and the dynamic lines provided by the horizontal and vertical elements, are read as a critique of rationalist and egalitarian deTJHOPGNPEFSOJTN 'JHVSF

Icon The Ottomare Suites project has a curvilinear and free form in the planimetric plane. The residential tower formed by the main block emphasizing the tower with the terraces extending in wave form presents the DPNCJOFE EFÄ&#x2022;OFE VOEFÄ&#x2022;OFE  geometries. In this context, the form of the building displays dynamic and variable lines on the facade. As part of the architectural expression, it is pointed out that the project will contribute to the urban renewal of the city. Index Ottomare Suites is a mixeduse project that involves residential and apart hotel functions. Also commercial

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Figure 9. The image of Ottomare Suites, site plan and section drawing.

Figure 10. The image showing the location of Ottomare suites in urban area.

areas, social facilities and sports facilities, professional hotel services are other functions in the project. Social facilities and services accompanying the function of the residence in the building possessing many of the specialized residence services are reflected as the signs of high standart life image. Symbol The Ottomare suites has sculptural and dynamic lines in the context of form-image relations. It is known that the design of the project is inspired by the lighthouse. The reflection of the lighthouse image to structure design has caused the residential tower to acquire a monumental and sculptural character. The order parameter displays that the structure sits a symmetric and axial order with the use of certain axes in site plan, parallel placement to the road and dominating façade to the silhouette. As facade-mass order, the podium of the residential tower is located in the entrance section, where secondary functions such as sports and social areas are located in terms. At the main body, it is known that there are suites which are specially designed for users according to different concepts (Terrace suites, Blue TVJUFT  %VCMFY TVJUFT  6OJRVF TVJUFT  -JNJUFE TVJUFT  1BOPSBNJD TVJUFT  *O this context, the differentiation of the

apartments in the residential tower in a design sense reflects a variable order. 'JOBMMZ  UIF SPPG PG UIF UPXFS XBT Ä&#x2022;Oished in a sculptural form, reflecting the concept of a lighthouse. The apartments located in here are named as Captainâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s suite and Sky suite. The massive rhythm is formed with a combination of a monoblock mass and moving terraces. Apart from massive rhythm, curvilinear surface plates and glass surfaces supporting it are desired to make some movements in vertical and horizontal direction by the expression of variable rhythmic terraces on the facade. In terms of silhouette, the urban fabric around the structure directly affects the silhouette of the Istanbul in respect to its closely relationship to the historical peninsula and the Sea of Marmara. As a result, this situation has led to controversy and has been tried to reduce the height and number PGÄ&#x2DC;PPSTPGUIFCVJMEJOH 'JHVSF

4. Discussion Housing design acquires new images and meanings on a global scale with strong, symbolic and massive images of high-rise buildings due to the fact that the height criteria is preferred not only in office and otel structures but also in residential structures. The reflections of the recent architecture on the urban image and silhouette, as differentiation, form and image quests have increased in parallel with the height case, have become the main debate issue of architects and urbanists and civil society organizations. The local, historical character and silhouette of the city of Istanbul is in a constant struggle with the global iconic image that urban authorities have been trying to construct. Urban image and silhouette are clearly changing and creating a multi-layered structure, with the integrity of global and local patterns. A spontaneous urban image and silhouette is emerging as a result of the construction of high-rise buildings, contrary to the current development plans, by obtaining privileged development rights and by carrying out plan renovations. According to Baykan (Ă OBZ  GSPNUIFVSCBOBOESFgional planning discipline, contrary to the comprehensive public-focused

Istanbul: The characteristics of vertical dense structuring and image making in high-rise housing architecture

planning of the most developed cities in the world, the absolute return of the landed property was brought to the forefront along with the property law. Some skyscraper projects planned or in the construction process in Istanbul have been the subject of some public cases opened by the Chamber of Architects related to the plans and licensing decisions, yet the expected steps have not been realized. While it is discussed as a primary issue how these skyscraper projects will affect the city skyline, it turns out that the main concern is not only the building but also the urban fabric. If the relationship between high-rise building, architecture and urbanism is not correctly assessed, these structures will continue to be perceived as a barrier that distorts the silhouette of the city. 5. Conclusion 7FSUJDBMEFOTFSFTJEFOUJBMCVJMEJOHT have increased based on the reasons such as the rise of urbanization, land shortage, the development of high technology and information systems, the expansion of service sector with multinational companies as well as the change of user and lifestyle in Istanbul. High-rise residential development in Istanbul depends on several policies of globalization, economic liberalization, urbanization and housing. With the rise of mega projects, high office and residence towers, mixed-use complexes and foreign investments developed in this context, Istanbul becomes prominent as a world city in the global economy. In the process of globalization, due to the lack of city center, sub-centers and new residential development areas has appeared in the periphery of Istanbul. In the past, highrise buildings were located densely on the Ĺ&#x17E;iĹ&#x;li-Maslak axis being the central business area of the city. However, Maltepe-Kartal, KozyataÄ&#x;Äą-AtaĹ&#x;ehir and BaĹ&#x;akĹ&#x;ehir-BeylikdĂźzĂź have appeared as new developing sub-centers in the city, which is in line with the multi-centered urban development model in Istanbul. There are five different urban foci where vertical dense housing has been concentrated, which led to the urban transformation of the area with new developing projects,

uses and functions. One high-rise project from each residential development area is selected for the site analysis and examined according to Semantic method and its sign model. Within the frame of Sign model, the projects which were analysed according to Icon, Index and Symbol sign parameters are Metrocity towers in Ĺ&#x17E;iĹ&#x;li-Maslak area, BatÄąĹ&#x;ehir in BaĹ&#x;akĹ&#x;ehir-BeylikdĂźzĂź area, Safi Espadon towFSJO.BMUFQF,BSUBMBSFB %VNBOLBZB Ä°kon in KozyataÄ&#x;Äą-AtaĹ&#x;ehir area and finally Ottomare Suites in Historical Peninsula and Walls area. All of these high-rise projects reflects multiple images according to icon-index-symbol sign analysis. Although they use mostly a rational order based on geometric form relations on site plan and floor plans, the facades can be differentiated as form and image. In terms of geometry, they display usually combined geometries consisting of defined and undefined geometries as seen in the projects such as BatÄąĹ&#x;ehir, Safi EspaEPO 0UUPNBSF4VJUFTBOE%VNBOLBZB Ä°kon. Being one of the early examples of high-rises of Istanbul, Metrocity towers is a late modern structure that reflects the final stages of rationalization as an architectural image. It uses defined and rational geometries both on site plan and façade apart from other projects. As part of façade-form relations the geometry brings iconic form image to the structures with dynamic and sculptural lines as seen in Safi EsQBEPOBOE%VNBOLBZBÉ&#x2014;LPOQSPKFDUT There is also disconnection between the form and function relationship in some high-rise residential buildings such as Safi Espadon. The form is used generally as a shell covering the functions in the building, which is the attitude of expressionist and post modern architecture. The façade, the form and the plan are not integrated with each other in most high-rise residential buildings. While the plan uses a rational order, the façade and the form show dynamic and changeable images in line with icon-index-sign relationships. In this respect, it cannot be talked about an integrative approach on the basis of architectural image and design. On the contrary, the image is used just as

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formalist attitude on high-rise housing projects. In addition, the main problem of high-rises in Istanbul, the buildings are not integrated with urban fabric, BT TFFO JO .FUSPDJUZ  0UUPNBSF  %Vmankaya Ä°kon and Safi Espadon projects. All of these high-rises give a new silhouette to the city of Istanbul, but they indicate the lack of integrated urban design at macro scale. The issue of polarization and integration in the global metropolis is a major problem in terms of developing world cities. The new urban structure caused by globalization consists of irregular crosses of differentiated textures, which prevents integration at macro scale. In this respect, Istanbul is similar to the examples of world cities such as Mumbai, Mexico City, Sao Paulo in the context of both social and physical problems. References #BCB & $  TasarÄąm Demokrasisi ve Ä°stanbul: KĂźreselleĹ&#x;me SĂźrecinde YĂźksek YapÄąlaĹ&#x;ma. É&#x2014;TUBOCVM 4PTZBM:BZÂ&#x2018;OMBS #JSTFM $  ,FOUTFM%Ă&#x161;OĂ Ę°Ă N  ÂąĂ&#x161;[Ă MFO ,FOUMFS WF 1BSĂ&#x17D;BMBOBO Kamusal Alan. MimarlÄąk    25. #P[EPĘ&#x201C;BO  4   "LDBO  &   Turkey: Modern Architectures in History.-POEPO3FBLUJPO#PPLT %Ă&#x161;LNFDJ  7   5FS[J  '   Ä°stanbulâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;da Gayrimenkul PazarÄą. Ä°stanCVMÉ&#x2014;50:BZÂ&#x2018;OMBSÂ&#x2018; %VSV  #   (Ă&#x161;LEFMFOMFS WF ,FOU 1SPG %S $FWBU (FSBZ B "SNBĘ&#x201C;BO  3FUSJFWFE  "SBMÂ&#x2018;L   GSPN .Ă MLJZFMJMFS #JSMJĘ&#x201C;J :BZÂ&#x2018;OMBSÂ&#x2018; IUUQLFOUDFWSFQPMJUJDTBOLBSBFEVUS durugokdelen.pdf 'PSE -3  3FBEJOHUIFTLZlines of American cities. Geographical Review    'SJEBI  .   4BNQMJOH JO SFTFBSDI  3FUSJFWFE  "SBMÂ&#x2018;L  IUUQTKPVSOBMTVPOCJBDLFGSJEBI@ NVHPQVCMJDBUJPOTTBNQMJOHSFTFBSDI 'SJFENBOO  +   8IFSF XF TUBOEBEFDBEFPGXPSMEDJUZSFTFBSDI *O1-,OPY1+5BZMPS &ET World Cities in a World System $BNCSJEHF Cambridge University Press. 'SJFENBOO  +   8PMÄ&#x152;  (  

World City Information an Agenda for Research and Action. International Journal of Urban and Regional     Gottmann, J., & Harper, R. A.   Since Megalopolis: The Urban Writings of Jean Gottmann.#BMUJNPSF John Hopkins University Press. (Ă&#x161;OFO & ½[FS '  ÂąBĘ&#x201C;EBĘ° Ä°stanbul Post-Modern mimarisinde /FPLMĂ&#x2030;TJTJ[N É&#x2014;TĂ&#x153;DERGÄ°SÄ°/a, 8    (Ă OBZ #  ,FOUTFMEĂ&#x161;OĂ Ę°Ă N  ÂąĂ&#x161;[Ă MFO ,FOUMFS WF 1BSĂ&#x17D;BMBOBO Kamusal Alan. MimarlÄąk     +FODLT $  Skyscrapers-skycities-POEPO"DBEFNZ&EJUJPOT ,BSBCFZ )  ,Ă SFTFMMFĘ°FOÉ&#x2014;Ttanbul. MimarlÄąk    ,FZEFS  Âą   Ä°stanbul Yerel Ä°le KĂźresel ArasÄąnda É&#x2014;TUBOCVM .FUJT :BZÂ&#x2018;OMBSÂ&#x2018; ,PMMVPĘ&#x201C;MV  #   ÉŽFISF (Ă&#x161;SFO GĂśzlerle Bakmak. In A. B. Candan & $½[CBZ &ET Yeni Ä°stanbul Ă&#x2021;alÄąĹ&#x;malarÄą, SÄąnÄąrlar, MĂźcadeleler, AçĹlÄąmlar. Ä°sUBOCVM.FUJT,JUBQ .BSDVTF  1   (MPCBMJ[BUJPO BOEUIFGPSNTPGDJUJFT*O.+FOLT % ,P[BL15BLLBOPO &ET World cities and urban form. Fragmented, polycentric, sustainable. /FX :PSL 3PVUledge. ½LUFN  #   ,Ă SFTFM ,FOU 4Ă&#x161;ZMFNJOJO,FOUTFM.FLBOÂ&#x2018;%Ă&#x161;OĂ Ę°UĂ SNFEFLJ 3PMĂ  *O ) ,VSUVMVĘ° &E  Ä°stanbulâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;da kentsel ayrÄąĹ&#x;ma: mekansal dĂśnĂźĹ&#x;Ăźmde farklÄą boyutlar *TUBOCVM #BĘ&#x201C;MBN:BZÂ&#x2018;OMBSÂ&#x2018; ½[CBZ  $   :JSNJ .JMZPOMVL 5VSJ[N #BĘ°LFOUJ É&#x2014;TUBOCVMEB )BSFketliliklerin Politik Ekonomisi. In A. B. $BOEBO$½[CBZ &ET Yeni Ä°stanbul Ă&#x2021;alÄąĹ&#x;malarÄą, SÄąnÄąrlar, MĂźcadeleler, AçĹlÄąmlar. Ä°stanbul Metis Kitap. 1FJSDF  $ 4   8SJUJOHT PG $IBSMFT41FJSDF"$ISPOPMPHJDBM&EJtion. 8. 1Ă?SPVTF +' %BOÂ&#x2018;Ę° %"   ;FOHJOMJĘ&#x201C;JONFLĂ&#x2030;OEBZFOJZBOTÂ&#x2018;NBMBSÂ&#x2018; Ä°stanbulâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;da gĂźvenlikli siteler. Toplum ve Bilim   4BTTFO  4   The Global City: New York, London, Tokyo./FX+FSTFZ Princeton University Press. 4BTTFO  4   Cities in a World Economy$BMJGPSOJB4BHF1VCMJDBUJPOT

Istanbul: The characteristics of vertical dense structuring and image making in high-rise housing architecture

5FLFMJ  É&#x2014;   Konut Sorununu Konut Sunum Biçimleriyle DüÅ&#x;ünmek. É&#x2014;TUBOCVM5BSJI7BLGÂ&#x2018;:VSU:BZÂ&#x2018;OMBSÂ&#x2018; Ä&#x2021;FSCPSO  ( &E    Global Cities, World Power, and the G20 Capital Cities ,VOJLP 'VKJUB FE  *OEJB Sage Publications. 8PPE  " &E    Best tall buildings 2008: CTBUH internation

al award winning projects. /FX :PSL Routledge. :BMÃ&#x17D;Â&#x2018;OUBO  . $  ±BMÂ&#x2018;Ê°LBO  ± 0  ±Â&#x2018;MHÂ&#x2018;O  ,   %à OEBS  6   É&#x2014;TUBOCVM %Ã&#x161;OàʰàN $PÊ&#x201C;SBGZBTÂ&#x2018; *O " # $BOEBO$½[CBZ &ET Yeni Ä°stanbul Ã&#x2021;alıÅ&#x;maları: Sınırlar, Mücadeleler, AçılımlarÉ&#x2014;TUBOCVM.FUJT:BZÂ&#x2018;OMBSÂ&#x2018;

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Spatial evaluation of primary sugar factories in early republican period in Turkey


doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2018.96158  

3FDFJWFE+VMZt Final Acceptance: November 2017

Abstract During the early republican period of Turkey, new industrial complexes were emerged through modernity project and modern architecture. One of this industrial complexes were the sugar factories with their production and residential buildings, which were particularly significant, both as quintessential modern buildings and as built manifestations of modernity project in Turkey. This study is focused on the architectural findings of the primary sugar factories built in early republican period in Turkey. As a case study, the primary/main four sugar factories, which were established at the first ten years of Republic; Alpullu, UĹ&#x;ak, EskiĹ&#x;ehir and Turhal factories were selected. These factories have been the subject of limited studies separately so far. Therefore the present study investigates the role of primary sugar factories in the industrialization period, as a new architectural planning reflecting industrial city idea of modernism and their effects on the community of the cities. The research methods include field study procedures to identify and analyze them, with their site complexes, building materials and architectural elements that characterize the continuity of settlement identity. As a result, primary sugar factories in Turkey have characteristically simple form, small, variable in squares and well-designed buildings and their architectural complexes actually serve as symbols of social and cultural identities of their time. Keywords Early republican period, EskiĹ&#x;ehir Sugar Factory, Industrial buildings, Sugar factories, UĹ&#x;ak Sugar Factory.

1. Introduction â&#x20AC;&#x153;Each factories are unique castleâ&#x20AC;? Mustafa Kemal AtatĂźrk â&#x20AC;&#x153;It is called that after First World War, the world was divided into three parts. The defeated, the vanquished BOE 3VTTJBw "SNBPĘ&#x201C;MV    "Mthough Turkey was on vanquished part, its recovery efforts has in progress as soon as the war has finished. Along with the heavy economic burdens of the war, new government put into practice many innovative revolutions in many areas, especially for the economic field which has brought an original approach to the industry. As Tekeli  TUBUFTUIFHPWFSONFOUIBTUBLFO three important goals, first one is the declare of Ankara as a capital city, second one is the construction of country XJUI JSPO DPOOFDUJPOT SBJMXBZT  BOE the last one is to establish new-fangled industrial areas all over the Anatolian cities. During this period, construction of industrial buildings which is the subject of this paper has formed not only a new physical environment in many cities around the country but also an imagined community. This edifice has shown itself with the concept of the term of modernity project which were effective in periods of social life and administrative management. While modernity project includes versatile and different components, industrial appliances has gained more importance as well as social, cultural and poMJUJDBMÄ&#x2022;FMET É&#x2014;NBNPĘ&#x201C;MV  &WFO more, industrial structures established in the first years of the Republic were not only product of modernity project process, but the central component of this database confidently. In the case of industrialization period of Turkish Republic, this process imposes upon the formation of industrial buildings such as â&#x20AC;&#x153;sugar factoriesâ&#x20AC;?, insofar as urban images reflect and the shared narrative of imagined communities. In this sense, one of the most important early republican industrial complexes as being sugar factories established in the mentioned period by new government, provide an interesting urban settlement with all of its architectural/urban designs in rural parts of Anatolia.

As a case study, the primary/main four sugar factories in these rural parts, which were established at the first ten years of Republic; Alpullu, UĹ&#x;ak, EskiĹ&#x;ehir and Turhal factories were selected. These factories have been the subject of limited studies separately so far. Therefore the present study investigates the role of primary sugar factories in the industrialization period, as a new architectural planning reflecting industrial city idea of modernism and their effects on the community of the cities. The research methods include field study procedures to identify and analyze them, also the building materials and architectural elements that characterize the continuity of settlement identity. Not only their common aspects such as, proximity to the railway lines, water and beat cultivation areas were considered but also site plans, locations, architectural expressions of them were analyzed separately. Besides them, each factories with their unique architectural designs and site plans were identified and reported. Their sites include not only factory buildings but also social, educational, recreational spaces and residential dwellings for employees and their family. However, despite the lively neighborhoods BSPVOEUIFNJOT UIFJSTJUFJTDVSrently in the process of abandonment to their fate due to the closure of factoSZPQFSBUJPOTEVSJOHT Moreover, modern expression of factories as a significant factor that shape the identity of regions is discussed. It was the first large-scale mobilization of architecture for identity construction, which accommodate modern functions for the imagined communities and also the first systematic engagement of Turkish public and architects with new building types, construction techniques and design principles. 2. Industrialization period of early republican era The Industrialization of modern Turkey is a critical yet often neglected FQJTPEF JO UIF IJTUPSZ PG th century urbanism. While the evaluation and development of this program is an important milestone for the establishNFOUPGOFX5VSLFZ%VSJOH years, there was almost no econom-



â&#x20AC;&#x153;Her fabrika bir kaledirâ&#x20AC;? is an aphorism of AtatĂźrk.

ic existence due to the results of First World War and War of Independence in Turkey. However, with the tangible effect of innovative decisions of Republic, development on agriculture production was grounded rapidly (Batur,   %PNFTUJD QSPEVDUJPO XIJDI is scheduled abundant raw materials such as â&#x20AC;&#x153;three whiteâ&#x20AC;? (flavor, sugar and DPUUPO IBECFFOUPQQSPNJOFODF0O the other hand, the sugar industry had been important because it should have developed both industry and agriculture at the same time. For this reason it was preferred in developing countries MJLF5VSLFZ #BODÂ&#x2018;   After all, the economical conjuncture of that time was based on nationalism and new arrangements were constituted to form a national integration and economic independence in proEVDUJPO TFDUPS JO  Ä&#x2021;F BSSBOHFments and preventions which were taken to develop industry have been VOEFSMJOFEBU*[NJS$POHSFTTPG&DPOomy and soon after the congress Industrial Encouragement Law and Bank of Industry were established (Keskinok,   Even more strikingly, Asiliskender   BMTP QPJOUT UP UIF JNQPSUBODF of industrialization in early republican era closely. After the proclamation of Republic, the state has taken a leading role in the industrialization movement particularly. As the continuity of political revolutions, industrial investment has been approached as a sine qua non to achieve economic and social development goals for modernization project. The state has not only established factories at various points in Anatolia but also stimulated the economy, by interpreting them as a part of this project. These new settlements were an example of spatial and social environment of the revolution which desired to be established. So, new urban models were produced with regard to their factory schools with cooperative housing, hospital, health, culture and social spaces including sports fields. In this regard, in the Early Republican era architecture movement, industrialization has a special significance (Asiliskender,   Therefore, a comprehensive industrialization program was developed for

countryside especially in rural areas. One of the first attempts of national production and the most significant spatial strategy was the establishment PGTVHBSGBDUPSJFT 7FMEFU  *O other words, quintessentially republican industrial spaces for the display of industrial and economic progress in a modernist architectural setting this time in an economically prosperous, historically significant Anatolian cities. These factories were thought not only for sugar production, but also as an area of education, research and development for the individuals. In this DPOUFYU  #P[EPĘ&#x201C;BO   TUBUFT UIBU these factories were such important, both as modern buildings and built manifestations of republican success in catching up with modern civilizaUJPO #P[EPĘ&#x201C;BO     4P UIFTF industrial complexes were considered as a social project and were built as a settlement that include units such as lodgings, guest houses, movies, theaters, restaurants, sports fields, primary schools, agricultural farms and etc. As a matter of fact, it was the unique case of the Republic to form industrialized cities because of their reflection on architectural designs and community. Since they were designed as an integrated complex to provide the formation of â&#x20AC;&#x153;new farmerâ&#x20AC;?, â&#x20AC;&#x153;new engineerâ&#x20AC;?, â&#x20AC;&#x153;new workerâ&#x20AC;? and â&#x20AC;&#x153;new citizenâ&#x20AC;?. So, in this study, Sugar factories were covered not only in the single structure but also in industrial areas, housing, mechanical units, cinema, casino and recreation areas, covering the periphery of buildings. For this purpose, the social life in the industrial complexes including the history of socio-economic activity and living spaces such as production processes, usage systems (dwellings, cinema, schools and recreBUJPOBSFBT BSFBMTPFYBNJOFE In fact, during the industrialization period of England and Germany, modernist principles such as rationalism, functionalism and simplicity approaches which were gathered in those countries, come across with the ideas PGOFX3FQVCMJDJO5VSLFZ #P[EPĘ&#x201C;BO   Ä&#x2021;FTFJEFBTXFSFBMTPUIFNBJO ideas for the establishment of sugar factories. Indeed, these sugar factories have the aim of providing better living

Spatial evaluation of primary sugar factories in early republican period in Turkey

conditions for its workers, administrators and employees. They are thought of as settlements where families can live for a long time. Their residents explain it well, because one of this long term residents of factory tells these words; â&#x20AC;&#x153;Sugar factories were home, heart, homeland for us. We know nowhere except there. We do not need to know. Because there were all facilities and social service areas such as schools, kindergartens, shopping markets, cinemas, swimming pools, mosque, restaurants, sport areas, camps and farms. We have grown up in dublex villas which has hot water every time.â&#x20AC;? 5BOSÂ&#x2018;WFSEJ 

When we talk about the architectural discourse of factories we see a common sense of Modernism traces. The explanation of modern movement by )VCFSU+BO)FOLFU  FYFNQMJÄ&#x2022;FT the architecture of sugar factories in somehow. He says; â&#x20AC;&#x153;The Industrial Revolution had changed the society at the turn of the century, social and technical. Apart from the changing concept of time, the building also demonstrates the increasing tendency to experiment and innovate in social technical and aesthetic matters. For many architects the modern movement was not so much an aesthetic principle or a style, but rather a method of working, a way of thinking about people and their environment. These buildings should primarily be constructed as a utility. They were to be designed as economically as possible and should express the openness, transparency and accountability of the new culture, they should fulfil the ambitions of the emancipating masses, be hygienic and healthy, and they should be produced and assembled as efficiently as possible, making use of as little material as possible by employing the latest technological innovations.â&#x20AC;? )FOLFU   3. The establishment of sugar factories The first attempts in order to establish sugar factories has been put into effect in Ottoman Empire period beUXFFOZFBST)PXFWFS OPOF of these undertakings have been put into practice and have not been able to HPGPSXBSE 7FMEFU  

But during republican period, the first serious attempts in this direction was initiated by a farmer named Nuri ÉŽFLFS  .PMMB ½NFSPĘ&#x201C;MV GSPN 6Ę°BL By the participation of many willingly local people, â&#x20AC;&#x153;UĹ&#x;ak Progressive AgriDVMUVSF 5"$w i6Ę°BL 5FSBLLJ ;JSBBU 5"ÉŽw XBTFTUBCMJTIFEJO6Ę°BL XJUI B DBQJUBM PG  5- JO th April  0O th /PWFNCFS  UIF foundation of the first sugar factory was laid and the factory was opened BU th %FDFNCFS  *O UIF TBNF year, while UĹ&#x;ak sugar factory was being constructed, â&#x20AC;&#x153;Istanbul and Trakya Ĺ&#x17E;eker FabrikalarÄą T.A.Ĺ&#x17E;.â&#x20AC;? which had a DBQJUBMPG5-XJUIUIFQBSUJDJpation of private individuals and some OBUJPOBM CBOLT CFHBO UP CVJME JO th +VOF  *U XBT "MQVMMV TVHBS GBDUPSZ XIJDI XFSF GPVOEFE BOE UIF JUT assembly completed in eleven months BOE XFSF PQFOFE PO th November  BOE UIF Ä&#x2022;STU 5VSLJTI TVHBS XBT QSPEVDFE VSM  -BUFS 0OthPG"QSJMEBZBOE  OVNCFSFE i1SJWJMFHF BOE &YFNQtion Law on Sugar Factoriesâ&#x20AC;? has been put into effect, aiming to direct private sector to industrial investments. Fortunately, the private sector has provided considerable opportunities by this law; such as; t In the regions where Ministry of Trade determined, they have the right to establish and operate sugBSGBDUPSJFTGPSZFBSTBOEJUXBT granted, in order to cover not only the five provinces of neighboring provinces but also the area of a large enough size for the continuous growth of sugar beet to meet UIFSFHJPOTOFFE t 1SPEVDFUBYXJMMOPUCFUBLFOGPS years from the sugar produced, beet cultivation areas will be immunized from the land tax provided that the beet that is produced would be sold to sugar factories. t Ä&#x2021;F QMBOUT XJMM CF BMMPDBUFE  hectares from the treasury land free of charge, the raw materials coming from the factory or produced products will be transported at a EJTDPVOU SBUF PG  PG UIF QVCMJD vehicles, Dividend tax would not be taken. t People and organizations wish-


Figure 1. New factories in Turkey which will provide new working areas (Source: Belediyeler Journal, 1935, Kanunievvel 1935M, year.1 no.7-12, p.96).

2 A Pioneer in the use of reinforced concrete mushroom columns , British architect-engineer Sir Owen Williams designed a cottoncrushing mill in Adana in 1926 and prominent French modernist architect, Rob Mallet-Stevens designed a distillery in Ä°stanbul in 1930. (BozdoÄ&#x;an, 2001, 124)

ing to benefit from this ban alone would have to prove that it was the capital and staff that could build BOEPQFSBUFTVHBSGBDUPSJFT 7FMEFU    6OUJM UIFTVHBSSFRVJSFNFOUPG our country was partially covered by the production of these two factories. Since these two factories have gained considerable experience in sugar beet farming and the operation of sugar factories, it has been deemed necessary to establish new sugar factories. For this reason, two more factories were established. One is EskiĹ&#x;ehir factory which was formed with the partnership of national banks and â&#x20AC;&#x153;AnatoMJBO 4VHBS 'BDUPSJFT 5"$w "OBEPMV ÉŽFLFS'BCSJLBMBSÂ&#x2018;5"ÉŽ wBUth DecemCFSBOEUIFPUIFSPOFJTi5VSIBM Sugar Factory T.A.Ĺ&#x17E;.â&#x20AC;? which has been TUBSUFEUPPQFSBUFJOth0DUPCFS )PXFWFS JO T  5VSLFZ TVHBS industry was suffering by the effects of economic crisis in the world and limited possibilities of private sector. Therefore, Economical Ministry had GPSNFEBi4VHBS3BUJPOBMJTN$PNNJUteeâ&#x20AC;? that was commissioned to solve this problem. Due to the proposal of UIJT DPNNJUUFF PO th +VMZ   5VSLFZ 4VHBS 'BDUPSJFT +PJOU 4UPDL $PNQBOZ  5Ă SLJZF ÉŽFLFS 'BCSJLBMBSÂ&#x2018; "ÉŽ  was established with an equal share of 4VNFSCBOL  5VSLFZ *Ę° #BOL BOE 5$ Ziraat Bank. So, four primary-existing factories (Alpullu, UĹ&#x;ak, EskiĹ&#x;ehir BOE5VSIBM XFSFDPNCJOFEVOEFSPOF company duty in order to provide more

rational operation possibilities like the PUIFS GBDUPSJFT CVJMU JO T 7FMEFU    'JHVSF  However the construction period of these factories and their complexFT EJÄ&#x152;FS GSPN FBDI PUIFS *O th century, designing/building of factories had been ordered by foreign architects and engineers in Ottoman Turkey. At republican period, this practice is exUFOEFE BOE TZTUFNBUJ[FE #P[EPĘ&#x201C;BO    TPEVSJOHUIFÄ&#x2022;STUEFDBEFPG the republican period, some European based companies were ordered to set up of the machines and architecture of industrial complexes. From this point, Alpullu, EskiĹ&#x;ehir and Turhal factories were ordered by the same German-based â&#x20AC;&#x153;Maschinenfabrik Buckau 3 8PMG $PNQBOZw XIJMF 6Ę°BL JT PSEFSFE CZ i$[FDIPTMPWBL 4LPEB $PNpanyâ&#x20AC;? which will be told in separately topics in next part. â&#x20AC;&#x153;Maschinenfabrik Buckauâ&#x20AC;? company has been established to build steam engines, excavator, conveying systems for German coal and mining industries JOXIFOUIFJOEVTUSJBMJ[BUJPOCFHBOJOUIFFBSMZth century in GermaOZ*O JUJTNFSHFEXJUIGPVOEFS of the engineering works of Magdeburg named as R. Wolf and formed well-known â&#x20AC;&#x153;Maschinenfabrik Buckau 38PMG"(w VSM 0OFPGUIFJSEFsign is â&#x20AC;&#x153;steam enginesâ&#x20AC;? in Buckau MaDIJOFSZ'BDUPSZJO.BHEFCVSHJO which has been preserved and changed to â&#x20AC;&#x153;Technical Museum of Magdeburgâ&#x20AC;? JO VSM 

Spatial evaluation of primary sugar factories in early republican period in Turkey

3.1. Alpullu Sugar Factory While UĹ&#x;ak Sugar factory was establishing, private individuals and â&#x20AC;&#x153;TĂźrkiye Ä°Ĺ&#x; BankasÄą, Ziraat BankasÄą, Trakya É&#x2014;MMFSJ½[FMÉ&#x2014;EBSFMFSJwCBOLTQBSUJDJQBUFE and created â&#x20AC;&#x153;Istanbul ve Trakya Ĺ&#x17E;eker FabrikalarÄą TĂźrk Anonim Ĺ&#x17E;irketiâ&#x20AC;? with BDBQJUBMPGMJSBTÄ&#x2021;JTDPNQBny established the Alpullu Sugar Factory which produced the first sugar JO 5VSLFZ PO th /PWFNCFS  *O FMFWFO NPOUIT UJNF UIF DPOTUSVDUJPO has finished before UĹ&#x;ak sugar factory that were ordered to German-based .BTDIJOFOGBCSJL#VDLBV38PMG$PNpany (Alpullu Sugar Factory Archieve,  XIPNIBWFUIFSFTQPOTJCJMJUZGPS setting up of the machines and architecture as well. As a matter of fact, Alpullu Sugar Factory which is mainly producing sugar, did not only help the people to meet the sugar needs in the whole country but also contributed to the modernization of Thrace region with its spatial characteristics. This settlement; both in terms of architecture and space qualities as well as in the context of bringing these places together in the urban planning system, consists of modern and simple buildings as the first examples of modern architectural DPOTUSVDUJPOT 'JHVSF  The factory was located near to Ergene River and Alpullu train station which connects Istanbul, Edirne Babaeski and KÄąrklareli lines. The boundary is limited on the south, Ergene River and the west, Alpullu River. The water-slam and pulp pools are located on the edge of the river. The main factory, turbine-boiler-lime circles, beet-coal-coke and limestone silos, where the entrance of sugar beet was made, were dissolved near the train station. As a general settlement principle, a highly functional solution is perceived. The introduction of the hammer, the processing and subsequent shipping of the product is designed to be as rational as possible to send it to various places. Thus, spatial fiction is formed by the use of buildings and the production buildings were completed with steel construction with brick filled. In addition to the buildings and related units in the factory, there are

Figure 2. Alpullu Sugar Factory in 1930â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s (Alpullu Sugar Factory Archieve, 2015).

Figure 3. Alpullu Sugar Factory workerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s houses, 2015 (writer archieve, 2015).

Figure 4. Workerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s houses in 1930â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s (Alpullu Sugar Factory Archieve, 2015).

important places that support social transformation through industrializaUJPO 'JSTU PG BMM  XPSLFST SFTJEFODFT 'JHVSF  TQPSUTBOETPDJBMGBDJMJUJFT were built in the factory settlement such as; cinema and restaurant, hospital, infirmary, pharmacy store, sales shop, school, mosque, dormitory and bath. There is also a guest house, â&#x20AC;&#x153;Ergene Pavilionâ&#x20AC;? which is hosted by the elders of the state, and the â&#x20AC;&#x153;Great Pavilionâ&#x20AC;? where the ceremonies are held. Sports facilities include; a stadium, basketball-football field, swimming


necessity of the sugar need of the country in this way must be recognized among our important goals. â&#x20AC;&#x153; Gazi Mustafa Kemal (Alpullu Sugar Factory Archive,  

Figure 5. UĹ&#x;ak Sugar Factory beet silos (Alpullu Sugar Factory Archieve, 2015).

Figure 6. UĹ&#x;ak Sugar Factory worker houses (Veldet, 1958:211).

Figure 7. Guest house in UĹ&#x;ak Factory (Veldet, 1956: 212).

pool and a mini golf course. The mini golf course in the factory complex is important because it is the first mini golf course in Turkey. What is striking that all these sports activities are effective in transforming the Turkish peasant, who is foreign to them, into an industrial worker. 0Oth%FDFNCFS "UBUĂ SLWJTited this factory with a great pleasure and pride and wrote this words in the NFNPSZCPPLPG"MQVMMVBTGPMMPXT â&#x20AC;&#x153;I visited the Alpullu Sugar Factory. I was very pleased with what I saw. I wish the establishment to be more expansive and more successful than it is now. The proliferation of sugar factories in every possible region of our country and the

3.2. UĹ&#x;ak Sugar Factory The first attempts for establishing sugar factory were started by the HSFBU FÄ&#x152;PSUT PG .PMMB ½NFSPĘ&#x201C;MV /VSJ ÉŽFLFS BGBSNFSJO6Ę°BL)FIJNTFMG  private individuals and â&#x20AC;&#x153;Industry and Maadin Bankâ&#x20AC;? have formed the â&#x20AC;&#x153;UĹ&#x;ak Terakki Ziraat TĂźrk Anonim Ĺ&#x17E;irkeUJw DPNQBOZ XJUI B DBQJUBM PG  TL. This company have the responsibility of construction of factory and other buildings, obtaining machines and construction materials. But the architectural and construction plans IBWF CFFO PSEFSFE UP i$[FDIPTMPWBL 4LPEB$PNQBOZw XIPNIBWFTFOUFYperienced engineers/architects during the construction period. So, the base of first sugar factory construction has CFFOTFUUMFEEPXOJO6Ę°BLPOth NoWFNCFS BOEUIFÄ&#x2022;STUQSPEVDUJPO UPPL QMBDF PO th %FDFNCFS  7FMEFU   "UBZ   IBT XSJUUFO JO 6MVT Newspaper, the inaugural of UĹ&#x;ak Sugar factory enthusiastically with these words; â&#x20AC;&#x153;This factory is a national awakening achievement like the other one "MQVMMV'BDUPSZ yw "UBZ   The factory was located near to Ä°zmir-AydÄąn railway station and to Gediz river. On the north part of the area, main factory services and silos XFSFQSFTFOUFE 'JHVSF "HSJDVMUVSBM TFSWJDFT BOE XPSLFST IPVTFT XFSF PO the south part apart from the management area. There were new buildings which the people has seen for the first time like; cinema, infirmary, casino, TUBEJVN UXPBOEGPVSTUPSFZXPSLFST IPVTFBOEHVFTUIPVTF 'JHVSF   3.3. EskiĹ&#x;ehir Sugar Factory On the medieval times EskiĹ&#x;ehir is located at the crossroads of important roads and it was known as Doryleaum which was in the middle part of Turkey. Doryleaum was an important place because of being rich of agriculture and having the railway connection from Anatolia to Europe (Ertin,  

Spatial evaluation of primary sugar factories in early republican period in Turkey

0O UIF Ä&#x2022;STU IBMG PG UIF th century, because of these suitable conditions for the development of industry, various industrial organizations were built in this fertile city. Sugar FactoSZ XBT EFDJEFE UP CF CVJMU PO th DeDFNCFS   BOE JSPODPOTUSVDUJPO materials with machines have been ordered to German Institution named as â&#x20AC;&#x153;Maschinen fabrik Buckau R. Molf Aktien Gesellschaft Magdeburgâ&#x20AC;? at the TBNFUJNFÄ&#x2021;FGBDUPSZJTPQFOFEPOth PG%FDFNCFS XBTDFMFCSBUFEXJUI the speeches of President Ä°nĂśnĂź in the official daily Ulus as; â&#x20AC;&#x153;..This fabric was established in six monthsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; time. We have gone under a big test to build such a big factory from its basic.â&#x20AC;? 7FMEFU   EskiĹ&#x;ehir Sugar Factory have a modern architectural traces and recreational significance in another substantially republican city for the display of industrial and economic progress in a modernist architectural setting. Again with other sugar factories (UĹ&#x;ak and AlpulMV  FDPOPNJDBMMZ QSPTQFSPVT  TVJUBCMF to railway, fertile of agriculturally and watery. It was built for the production of sugar and spirit by the participaUJPOPG5Ă SLJZFÉ&#x2014;Ę°#BOLBTÂ&#x2018;  5$ ;JSBBU #BOLBTÂ&#x2018;    BOE 4BOBZJ WF .BEFO #BOLBTÂ&#x2018; 4Ă NFSCBOL     by â&#x20AC;&#x153;Anadolu Ĺ&#x17E;eker FabrikalarÄą TĂźrk "OPOJN ÉŽJSLFUJw  7FMEFU     'JHVSF 

Ä&#x2021;FGBDUPSZJTUPUBMMZNFUSF TRVBSF  POF TJEF PG  NFUSF 1PSTVL SJWFS   NFUFS UP &TLJĘ°FIJS QMBOF GBDUPSZ BOE  NFUSF UP &TLJĘ°FIJS"OLBSBSBJMXBZBOENFUSFUP&TLJĘ°FIJSDJUZ 7FMEFU   The site plan of EskiĹ&#x;ehir sugar Factory presents a functionalist approach by the usage of the buildings. The settlement is located on two sides of EskiĹ&#x;ehir-Ankara highway named as Sivrihisar Street when it was built. On the North part of this Street, production buildings, pools (slam and pulp QPPMT UBOLT GVFMPJM NPMBTTFT HBTPMJOF UBOLT  BOE PJM XBSFIPVTFT BSF MPcated near to railway. Just cross these reduction places, fabric facilities are present. On the south part of highway social places, administrative buildings, houses for workers, sport areas, school and hospital buildings were established

Figure 8. The appearance of EskiĹ&#x;ehir Sugar Factory from the farm (Alpullu Sugar Factory Archieve, 2015).

Figure 9. The general view from EskiĹ&#x;ehir Sugar Factory (Alpullu Sugar Factory Archieve, 2015).

Figure 10. EskiĹ&#x;ehir Factory and office building (Alpullu Sugar Factory Archieve, 2015).

Figure 11. The plans of EskiĹ&#x;ehir workersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; house (Sugar Factories general directorate, 2014).

in a very vast and green district (FigVSF    )PVTJOHGPSXPSLFST are separated with a green area from administrative ones while the beet production farm is near to Porsuk river. The facade of the factory buildings shows a modernist style with its small windows with mansard and lighted roof at the top.


works and wish you more development for the future. (30/09/1937) Die nationalzialistischen wirtschaftsschriftleiter Dr. Oeltze von Lobentha. 7FMEFU    The German architect Fritz August Breuhaus designed development plan for this industrial district with sugar refineries, infrastructure and housing FTUBUFT JO  )F BMTP EFTJHOFE UIF villa for managing-director, hospital, staff canteen and administration buildJOH VSM 

Figure 12. EskiĹ&#x;ehir sugar factory building (Ece Ceren Ă&#x2013;nder, 2016).

Figure 13. EskiĹ&#x;ehir workerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s houses (Ece Ceren Ă&#x2013;nder archieve, 2016).


He designed development plan of an urban extension in Turhal in 1935 also.

"MTP "ZIBO  FYQMBJOTUIFBSchitectural content of this factory, as being made up with new technology and material, functional and rational solutions, plain and geometrical formations as well as the territory deciTJPOT "ZIBO    *O GBDU UIFTF approaches are all valid for the other sugar factories also. On the diary of EskiĹ&#x;ehir Sugar Factory, the National Socialist Economic Writer has written as follow; â&#x20AC;&#x153;..In Germany, industry and science have been encounter with request. However EskiĹ&#x;ehir modern sugar factory of Turkey is equal with European ones. Being a German, we thank you for your

3.4. Turhal Sugar Factory Turhal Sugar Factory has been setUMFEEPXO CZ&DPOPNJDTEFQVUZ$FMBM #BZBSBTi5VSIBM4VHBS'BDUPSZ5"$w PO UIF EBUF PG UI 0DUPCFS  XJUI UIFUMDBQJUBM)BMGPGUIFDBQital belongs to â&#x20AC;&#x153;Ä°Ĺ&#x; Bankâ&#x20AC;? and the other half is â&#x20AC;&#x153;Ziraat Bankâ&#x20AC;?. The production IBT CFFO TUBSUFE PO th of October  BT UIF GPVSUI TVHBS GBDUPSZ PG Turkey. The transformation of Turhal city to an industrial city and the establishment of school and hospital of the factory, has been met with enthusiasm by the MPDBMQFPQMF 7FMEFU  Ä&#x2021;FVTage and order of machines of the factory was the same with EskiĹ&#x;ehir factory. Turhal sugar factory, like EskiĹ&#x;ehir and Alpullu, built by German Buckau R. 8PMG$PNQBOZÄ&#x2021;FSFJTB4BNTVO4Jvas main road in the middle of the buildings on site. On the left part of the road, east side; fabric production-storage building, operating building, warehouse building and other buildings related with production are exist. On the right part, west side is, school, hospital, sport clubs and labor houses are locatFE Ä&#x2021;FSF BSF  MBCPS IPVTFT UPUBMMZ which are built like a rule near each PUIFS 'JHVSF    

This factory shows architectural similarities with EskiĹ&#x;ehir in certain ways. Because both of them were established in close years, the same company were ordered to build both factories and the same architect designed the buildings. Legendary architect Fritz August Breuhaus de Groot designed factory building, administration building, villa for managing-director, housing estate with hospital and sports field and school in  VSM 4PUIFGBDUPSZCVJMEJOHT 

Spatial evaluation of primary sugar factories in early republican period in Turkey

administration buildings, housing and social services in two of them were designed by the same architect. 4. The analysis of four sugar factories The four factories which were mentioned above, although they were established at different years, shows similar design principles from architectural perspective. Territory decisions and architectural construction techniques and design of settlements were surprisingly resemble to each other. At this point, the modernity project of Republican government would be effective. Since, the state has given significant roles to spatial strategies, in order to achieve modernist approach, their architectural approaches were similar to each other, like sugar factories. In four of the sugar factories mentioned above, the criteria for location have some common roles such as; t Near to water supply/river (Alpullu-Ergene river, EskiĹ&#x;ehir- Porsuk SJWFS 6Ę°BL(FEJ[SJWFS t Possession of the workable soil, t Near to the edge of the railway connection. t The architectural evaluation of them is; t Modern architectural style is seen on the plan and façade decorations. t They have simple architecture and functionalism is the main role. t Simplicity and being economic are main concerns, besides focusing on mass production. t The factories have enlarged in horizontal line to meet the future needs. t The cover systems are mansard or crib roof. t Modern structural systems as, molten iron and steel is used as a structural element of buildings. t Architectural spaces suitable for production technology and equipment are designed in the main headquarters of the factory. The production is made in single storey buildings with wide span, metal structure. t There are also important places in four factories that support social change through industrialization as well as factory buildings and associated units. t In all four factories, it is observed

Figure 14. The general view from Turhal Sugar Factory (Alpullu Sugar Factory Archieve, 2015).

Figure 15. Turhal Sugar Factory, 1934 (Alpullu Sugar Factory Archieve, 2015).

Figure 16. Turhal Sugar Factory construction period, 1934 (Alpullu Sugar Factory Archieve, 2015).

Figure 17. Turhal Sugar Factory guest house (Alpullu Sugar Factory Archieve, 2015).

that this rational planning fiction JTNBJOUBJOFEJOXPSLFSTBOEDJWJM TFSWBOUT MPEHJOHT BOE TPDJBM GBDJMities, where the settlement plan is designed in a very rationalist apQSPBDI 5BCMF  


Administrative buildings of sugar factories, even the most paradigmatic examples of modern architecture, were presented as not being contextual and responsive to local conditions. For example, four buildings built in different places but shows a common modern style which were responsible to light nature and context. In four of the buildings, production related services, there are significant spatial signs that support social DIBOHF 8PSLFST IPVTF XIJDI XFSF one of the most important buildings, not only a house but also is a part of social change. These Sugar factories also show architectural resemblances with the ones built in Europe and America. Because BUUIFCFHJOOJOHPGUIDFOUVSZi4VHar factoriesâ&#x20AC;? which were established especially in South America and Europe shows architectural similarities with the ones in Turkey. For example, FlorJEB4VHBS$BOFGBDUPSZCVJMEJOHXIJDI XBTCVJMUJO IBWFCJHÄ&#x2DC;PPST SFDUangular shaped windows, mansard BOE MJHIUFE SPPG VSM   "MQVMMV GBDtory have similar in floors with lighted Figure 18. The facades of Turhal Sugar Factory (Sugar Factories General Directorate Archieve, 2014). Table 1. Primary sugar factories of Turkey, Alpullu, UĹ&#x;ak, EskiĹ&#x;ehir and Turhal. CITY A L P U L L U





Maschinen Fabrik Buckau R. Molf Aktien Gesellschaft Magdeburg

Istanbul and Trakya Sugar Factories Turkish Joint Stock Company


Czechoslovak, Skoda Company

8ĂşDNTurkish Progress Ziraat Joint Stock Company


Maschinen Fabrik Buckau R. Molf Aktien Gesellschaft Magdeburg

Anatolian Sugar Factories Turkish Joint Stock Company


Maschinen Fabrik Buckau R. Molf Aktien Gesellschaft Magdeburg

Turhal Sugar Factory Joint Stock Company

U Ăš A K

E S K ø Ú E H ø R T U R H A L

Spatial evaluation of primary sugar factories in early republican period in Turkey

Table 2. Site plans of sugar factories, Alpullu, UÅ&#x;ak, EskiÅ&#x;ehir and Turhal. FACTORY NAME A L P U L L U


NEAREST RAILWAY Istanbul.Ã&#x2022;UNODUHOL Railway Station


Gediz River

ø]PLU-$\GÃ&#x2022;Q Railway Station


Porsuk River

(VNLúHKLUAnkara Railway Station



SamsunSivas Road


roofs and chimneys. Also proximity to railway is valid for both factories. (FigVSF "OPUIFSPOFJO"NFSJDB -BZUPO4VHBS$P 6UBI   VSM IBWF similar window arrangement on the

façade decoration and with a high eyepiece roof with Turhal factory. (Figure  Ä&#x2021;FEFTJHOPGXJOEPXTXFSFSFDUangular in Turhal while ıt has a light bomb in Layton.


Figure 19. Florida Sugar Cane factory ( history/).

Figure 20. Layton Sugar Co.,Utah (1915) (http://www.standard. net/Local/2015/10/12/Monday-Memories-Early-agriculture-inLayton).

Also, soon after these four sugar factories were built, many new factoSJFT XFSF QVU JOUP QSPHSFTT JO T *OUIF'JWFZFBSJOEVTUSJBMQMBOPG  4à NFSCBOLT QVCMJDBUJPO SFQPSUFE UIF construction of fifteen factories such as; #BLÂ&#x2018;SLÃ&#x161;ZUFYUJMFGBDUPSZ  ,BZTFSJ TàNFSCBOL GBDUPSZ   #VSTB TJML GBDUPSZ  &SFÊ&#x201C;MJJSPOTUFFMGBDUPSZ  /B[JMMJDPUUPOGBDUPSZBOEÉ&#x2014;[NJU QBQFS NJMMT GBDUPSZ   "OPO    "MUIPVHI /B[JMMJ BOE ,BZTFSJ cotton mill factories were built by SoWJFUBSDIJUFDUT UIFJSTJUFQMBOOJOHTBOE spaces of the buildings resembles with TVHBS GBDUPSJFT "TJMJTLFOEFS    %PÊ&#x201C;BO    #FDBVTF  CPUI PG UIFN JODMVEFXPSLFSTIPVTFT TPDJBMQMBDFT  cinema, swimming pool, school, hospital and sports facilities in addition to main factory buildings. Also the plans of single pavilions and officer apartments of Nazilli, Kayseri and Alpullu is almost the same. Another, Zonguldak XPSLFSTIPVTFTGPSNJOFXPSLFSTUIBU was designed by Turkish architect Seyfi

Arkan, were built in modern architecture style having small garden houses MJLF&TLJÊ°FIJS "SLBO   Even the four sugar factories were CVJMU JO  UP  ZFBST  UIF PUIFS factories built after them were built in a similar planning principles and program, under modern industrialization NPEFSOJUZQSPKFDUJOT Also, architectural style of the buildings of sugar factory complexes remind the architectural style of Bauhaus movement bridging the gap between art and industry founded in Weimar  #FDBVTF FWFO JU JT DIBSBDUFSJ[FE by economical sensibility, simplicity and focus on mass production, are the concerns of sugar factories also (url   Ä&#x2021;F QSFDPOEJUJPO PG NBDIJOF QSPduction, functional and aesthetically pleasing objects for society rather than JOEJWJEVBMTJO#BVIBVT VSM JTWBMJE for sugar factories also. Because machines and steel usage were affective in factory buildings and houses for workers were built both in functional and aesthetically designs. 5. Conclusion During the early republican period of Turkey, new industrial complexes were emerged through modernity project and modern architecture. One of this industrial complexes were the sugar factories with their production and residential buildings, which were particularly significant, both as quintessential modern buildings and as built manifestations of modernity project in Turkey. "UUIFCFHJOOJOHPGth century, as $FOHJ[LBO TUBUFT $FOHJ[LBO     TFFJOH UIF VUPQJBO QMBOOJOH BQQSPBDIFTPGi(BSEFO$JUZwPG&CFOF[FS )PXBSEBOEi$JMF*OEVTUSJFMMFw *OEVTUSZ$JUZ PG(BSOJFS XFSFOPUTVSQSJTJOHJOPVSDPVOUSZ&TQFDJBMMZXPSLFST houses were the first examples of these in Turkey. Even more, not only their XPSLFSTIPVTFTCVUOFXQMBDFTGPSTPcial life of its inhabitants were also concrete images for reflecting industrial city approach during the first quarter PGth century in Turkey. Moreover, they are symbolic reminders of Turkish industrial past acting as a warehouse for collective memories of many people as these

Spatial evaluation of primary sugar factories in early republican period in Turkey

complexes were the main sites for daily life of its inhabitants. They represent not only industrial history but also social past of a nation since sugar factory community plays an important role for the collective memory of the time they lived in these buildings. Therefore preserving and reusing these buildings have importance for protecting of these social memories and transferring them to next generations. Furthermore, their success is also emphasized by Gez. Prof. Spenglerand Gez. Fr. Wilh. Meyer, Wiesmar, I.Mckglbg as he states in his diary found in EskiĹ&#x;ehir factory archieve ; â&#x20AC;&#x153;â&#x20AC;ŚSince three weeks we have visited all sugar factories in Turkey and witnessed that young industry is on a very high valuable level and the sugar factories are equally level with European ones.. Also sugar industry works with chancery beets is an important point. We can say that the factory works very well...   7FMEFU 

These complexes also present an ideal ground for their reuse as they are characteristically simple form, small, variable in squares and well-designed buildings. In addition to their modern architectural properties, they also represent strong social and cultural values as the concept of intangible heritage. When we speak with the people lived there in the past, we see a strong link between its community, buildings and their past. In this context, sugar factories provide the people who has lived in, with a sense belonging and connecting and defining the character of a community by sustaining a strong connection with the past, present and GVUVSF $POTFRVFOUMZ  JO BMM QSJNBSZ sugar factories in Turkey, these architectural complexes actually serve as symbols of social and cultural identities of their time and therefore preserving and reusing of these sites is essential for transferring social identity memory to the next generation. Acknowledgement This article is the product of project called â&#x20AC;&#x153; Architectural Investigation of Alpullu Sugar Factory in Trakia ReHJPOwXJUIOP/,6#"1(" of the writer together with Research "TTU5VĘ&#x201C;Ă&#x17D;F5&5É&#x2014;,

References Alpullu Sugar Factory Archieve, 

"SLBO  4    Houses for Coal Workers, Zonguldak-Kozlu, Arkitekt, +BOVBSZ  "SNBPĘ&#x201C;MV  '  )    Political History 1789-1960  "OLBSB "OLBSB University Political Science PublicaUJPOT/P Q "OPOZNPVT    &DPOPNJDBM 4JUVBUJPOPG5VSLFZJO 4Ă NFSCBOL OP "OLBSB "TJMJTLFOEFS  #    To Establish A â&#x20AC;&#x153;Modern â&#x20AC;&#x153; Living in Anatolia: SĂźmerbank Kayseri Cotton Fabric and Lodgings, Shelter in Factory edited by "MJ $FOHJ[LBO  "SLBEBĘ° QVCMJDBUJPOT  Ankara "ZIBO  & %    Workersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; Health and Architecture: A Reading on EskiĹ&#x;ehir Sugar Factory within Turkish Modernization, Metu Master Thesis, Ankara "UBZ '3    6MVT /FXTQBQFS  

#BODJ  4    Sugar Company and Ankara Sugar Factory Settlement, 5..0# "SDIJUFDUVSF $IBNCFS  "OLBSB#SBODI+PVSOBM  Q #BUVS  "    A Concise History: Architecture in Turkey During the 20th Century  $IBNCFS PG "SDIJUFDUT PG5VSLFZ1VCMJDBUJPOT É&#x2014;TUBOCVMÂąJ[HJ 1VCMJDBUJPO+PVSOBM Q Belediyeler Journal (Municipality +PVSOBMT   ,BOVOJFWWFM.  :FBS/P Q #P[EPĘ&#x201C;BO  4    Modernism and Nation Building: Turkish Architectural Culture in the Early Republic, UniWFSTJUZPG8BTIJOHUPO1SFTT  $FOHJ[LBO  "    Ä°stanbul SilahtaraÄ&#x;a Electric Central, Fabric and Workersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s House in Turkey, TMMOB "SDIJUFDUVSF$IBNCFS "OLBSB#SBODI +PVSOBM  Q $FOHJ[LBO  .    Reinventing in Industrial Plants: â&#x20AC;&#x153;Workâ&#x20AC;? Finished Industry Proposal Benefit to â&#x20AC;&#x153;Workâ&#x20AC;? / EndĂźstri YapÄąlarÄąnda Yeniden Ä°Ĺ&#x;levMFOEJSNFiÉ&#x2014;Ę°wJ#JUFO&OEĂ TUSJ:BQÂ&#x2018;MBSÂ&#x2018; /FiÉ&#x2014;Ę°wF:BSBS 5..0#"SDIJUFDUVSF $IBNCFS  "OLBSB #SBODI +PVSOBM    Q %PĘ&#x201C;BO  Âą  &    The settlement of Nazilli Cotton Factory, History and Living, Shelter in Factory edited by Ali


$FOHJ[LBO  "SLBEBÊ° QVCMJDBUJPOT  "Okara &SUJO  (    The Evolution of Settlement in Eskisehir City, Anadolu University Publications, EskiÅ&#x;ehir )FOLFU )+   Has the Modern Movement any Meaning for Tomorrow? Conference proceedings. For the conference on the conservation of modern architecture: â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Konservierung der moderne? Ã&#x153;ber den umgang met den Zeugnssen der Architekturgeschichte des 20. Jahrhunderts (FSNBO OBUJPOBM *$0.04 DPNNJUUFF 0DUPCFS /PWFNCFS  -FJQ[JH (FSNBOZQ É&#x2014;NBNPÊ&#x201C;MV #   Republican Period Industrial Heritage Aviation Industry Constructions, TMMOB ArchitecUVSF$IBNCFS "OLBSB#SBODI+PVSOBM   Q ,FTLJOPL  ±  )    6SCBO Planning Experience of Turkey In The T .&56+PVSOBMPGUIF'BDVMUZPG "SDIJUFDUVSF  7PMVNF  OP  "OLBSB Q 7FMEFU  5    30th Anniversary of Turkey Sugar Industry, Turkey SugBS 'BDUPSJFT "É® 1VCMJDBUJPO  /P   %PÊ&#x201C;VÊ° 5BOSJWFSEJ &   4VHBSPG5VSLFZ JT -PXFS  :FOJ 4PMVL +PVSOBM   KVOF



Spatial evaluation of primary sugar factories in early republican period in Turkey

*56"];t7PM/Pt/PWFNCFSt 143-163

Learning from the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Re-PUBLICâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;: Remaking the public space as a medium of knowledge transfer in design education Zeynep GÃ&#x153;NAY1, Handan TÃ&#x153;RKOÄ&#x17E;LU2, Burak PAK3, Thomas KNORRSIEDOW4, Meriç DEMÄ°R KAHRAMAN5, Ã&#x2013;zge Ã&#x2021;ELÄ°K6, Christine FUHRMANN7 1 HVOBZ[!JUVFEVUSt%FQBSUNFOUPG6SCBOBOE3FHJPOBM1MBOOJOH 'BDVMUZPG Architecture, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey 2 UVSLPHMV!JUVFEVUSt%FQBSUNFOUPG6SCBOBOE3FHJPOBM1MBOOJOH 'BDVMUZPG Architecture, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey 3 CVSBLQBL!LVMFVWFOCFt%FQBSUNFOUPG"SDIJUFDUVSF 'BDVMUZPG"SDIJUFDUVSF  KU Leuven, Brussels, Belgium 4 LOPSSTJF!UVDPUUCVTEFt%FQBSUNFOUPG-BOETDBQF"SDIJUFDUVSF 'BDVMUZ of Architecture, Civil Engineering and Planning, Brandenburg University of Technology, Cottbus, Germany 5 NFSJDEFNJS!HNBJMDPNt%FQBSUNFOUPG6SCBOBOE3FHJPOBM1MBOOJOH  'BDVMUZPG"SDIJUFDUVSF *TUBOCVM5FDIOJDBM6OJWFSTJUZ *TUBOCVM 5VSLFZ 6 P[HFDFMJL!HNBJMDPNt%FQBSUNFOUPG6SCBOBOE3FHJPOBM1MBOOJOH  'BDVMUZPG"SDIJUFDUVSF *TUBOCVM5FDIOJDBM6OJWFSTJUZ *TUBOCVM 5VSLFZ 7 GVISNBOO!UVDPUUCVTEFt%FQBSUNFOUPG-BOETDBQF"SDIJUFDUVSF 'BDVMUZ of Architecture, Civil Engineering and Planning, Brandenburg University of Technology, Cottbus, Germany

doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2017.07108  

3FDFJWFE.BZt Final Acceptance: November 2017

Abstract This paper presents the learning outcomes of the international project, â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;RE-PUBLIC: Remaking the Public Spaceâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;, funded by European Union Life Long Learning - Erasmus Intensive Programme. It focused on complex and diversified layers of public space within the context of the place-making logic. Istanbulâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Taksim region including the Taksim Square, Gezi Park and Istiklal Street acted as the core problem area with its disintegrated and segregated physical and cultural territorial borders. The participants were invited to develop their own understanding of public space and jointly produce their own place-making strategies on possible alternatives for the process of planning, designing and implementing change in public spaces in accordance to their scope, use and meaning. As a result, the Re-PUBLIC Programme tested a number of innovative research and planning methods to improve teaching in planning and design studies. A major impact was expected from the cross-country approach and joint-learning. It is hoped that the experience of Re-PUBLIC will provide a critical medium of knowledge transfer in design education. Keywords Public space, Urban design, Place-making, Design education.


1. Introduction Throughout the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s cities, public space is playing an ever more important role in the production of places. At the same time, it has become the core of contradicting demand. Commodification, commercialisation and even militarisation of public space are indicators of its declining quality as a factor of urban identity, culture and the freedom of communication. While neglect and deterioration are among the factors for this withering; the transformation into pseudo-public spaces is also effective in conjunction with privatisation and an extension of market principles to the provision of QVCMJD TQBDF TFF 1VOUFS   $SBXford, 1995; Defilippis, 1997). On the one hand, they have come under the influence of a neo-liberal commercialisation of the cities, while on the other; they have increasingly been adopted by civil society as a space of self-definition and cultural action. The old role of public space as a set format of the state and the governmentâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s self-representation is obsolete and new approaches for a co-production of public space are needed to turn contested public space into an element of inclusive urbanity. The relations are manifold and reciprocal: Public space is designed and made by people and at the same time, public space by its design and form influences people in their everyday and political life. Citizens contribute to the identity of the places and places are influencing the spatial reality and the social life of the cities. In this sense, we should develop a thinking of space with reference to the different levels of collectivity as EFÄ&#x2022;OFE CZ .PSBMFT   EFNPDSBDZCZ'SBTFS  1BSLJOTPO   social integration (or disintegration) and borders as described by MadaOJQPVS  BOEUFSSJUPSJBMPSHBOJTBtion including physical, territorial and cultural order by Habraken (1998). Place-making is therefore of major importance in re-creating interrelations between buildings, time and space, institutions and people. Regarding the TPDJPTQBUJBM MJUFSBUVSF #VUMFS   #BVNBOO   4OPX   <>  we, today, aware that people (and communities) are making place and people (and communities) are made by space.

Regarding this conceptualisation, â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;The Re-PUBLIC: Remaking the Public Spaceâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; focused on complex and diversified layers of public space within the context of the place-making logic. The Workshop, which took place JO*TUBOCVMGSPNUP+VMZJO Taskisla â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Istanbul Technical UniversiUZ *56 'BDVMUZPG"SDIJUFDUVSFBTQBSU of European Union Life Long Learning Erasmus Intensive Programme, was a joint undertaking between four higher education institutions including ITU (coordinator), Brandenburg Technical 6OJWFSTJUZ  ,6 -FVWFO 'BDVMUZ PG "Schitecture and Politecnico di Torino with 12 tutors1 and 31 participants2. The participants of the workshop were 3rd or 4th year students of the undergraduate programmes and the students of graduate programmes in partner institutions. The core idea was to respond to the above mentioned issues regarding Istanbulâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Taksim region including the Taksim Square, Gezi Park and Istiklal Street as a core problem area that has been disintegrated and segregated with specific physical and cultural territorial borders (Adanali, 6[VNLFTJDJ &SLVU   The participants were invited to develop their own understanding of public space and jointly produce their own place-making strategies on possible alternatives for the process of planning, designing and implementing change in public spaces in accordance to their scope, use and meaning. Among the key questions the intensive programme intends to respond to are: What role does public space play in defining the urban cultural, social and spatial identity of cities in rapidly transforming societies? How is public space transforming cities and citizens in the interplay of the public and the private in cities at a time of increasing marketisation? What is the role of the citizens in the using and making of the public space? How to research and map the various actors and influences shaping public spaces? What are the meaning and role of public space in building democracy, cultural identity and in reviving cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s image, economy and liveability? How can public space be qualified to build a bridge between the past, the present and the future?

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ITU Department of Urban and Regional Planning (Coordinator): Handan Turkoglu (Project Coordinator), Zeynep Gunay, Meric Demir Kahraman, Ozge Celik; Brandenburg Technical University, Department of Landscape Planning and Urban Design: Carlo Wolfgang Becker, Christine Fuhrmann, Thomas KnorrSiedow; KU Leuven Department of Architecture: Johan Verbeke, Burak Pak, Livia de Bethune; Politecnico di Torino, Department of Urban and Regional Studies & Planning: Alessandro Fubini, Emanuela Saporito as tutors.



ITU: Huma Sahin, Sezen TurkoÄ&#x;lu, Eda Uraz, Merve Kadaifci, Gorsev Argin, Zeynep Ozdemir, Tugce Tezer; BTU: Florian Hotzkow, Daniel Phillip Krause, SebastianAlexander Grunwald, Alina Swana Wilkending, Daniel Skrobol, Ammar Horia, Nicole Torres Mailleux, Ozge Yuzbasli, Leonie Vanessa Hagen; KU Leuven: Alexander Davey Thompson, Alexandru Ivan Greceniuc, Anca Paninopol, Andreea Mocan, Daniela SchuchmannovĂĄ, Stefana Laschevichi, Roberta Zvirblyte; PoliT: Marco Nicastro, Eleonora Bonino, Stefano Franco, Giacomo Rio, Annalisa Rossi, Marco Orsello as the participants.

What are the driving and restraining forces in remaking public space? What are the characteristics of good quality public space? How should design, planning process and maintenance of public space respond to the changes in society and to the current financial crisis of the public sector? How can the theories and concepts of place-making be utilised to improve the relations in the triangle between urban politics and planning administration, the economic realm, and the citizens as owners? By responding to these questions, the Re-PUBLIC tested a number of innovative research and planning methods to improve teaching in planning studies. A major impact was expected from the cross-country approach and the joint learning of students and teachers with the partly diverse background of the professions and experiences in the various countries taking part. Knowledge transfer and management played an important role and the experience of the Re-PUBLIC filtered into the teaching and learning methodologies of the universities taking part. This paper presents the outcome of this intensive workshop. 2. Re-PUBLIC methodology The methodological approach of the Re-PUBLIC was based in a cross-disciplinary collaboration of researches and planners, as it is characteristic of place-making based projects. The Workshop incorporated qualitative as well as quantitative methods, and had a strong analytic and design-oriented basis grounded on various scientific foundations of socio-spatial research. Taksim region was analysed according to the agreed research strategy with a student empirical research programme and hands-on design practice, including developing various pathways of implementation. The student empirical research phase of the workshop was a â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;pre-preparationâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; phase with empirical research on the subject and on the spot prior to the starting date of Workshop. Local meetings were provided before the workshop in each partner university. The teaching materials were made available through the website. The hands-on practice part of the workshop XBT B EBZ KPJOU XPSLJOH QIBTF *U

was structured through empirical research and analysis, seminar series, mapping-oriented field studies, discussion sessions, studio work, frequent presentation of the findings and the preparation of design boards and power-point presentations. An intensive programme of seminars was provided by the tutors of the four participating higher education institutions who are highly involved with public space and place-making. They were thematic and methodology-oriented with the target of finding evidence and success oriented methodological innovations in teaching and research, especially with regards to a cross-cultural environment of an international collaboration. Panel was organised with the contributions of Ipek Akpinar and Murat Guvenc to help students to gain acknowledgement on recent developments in the Taksim square, Gezi events and their relation to general idea of place-making, in contrast to the lectures aiming at providing thematic and methodology-oriented discussion on place-making. The main component of the workshop was Field studies. This helped participants to observe, analyse and assess the meaning and role of public space as well as the current challenges in the remaking of these spaces. Design workshop was conducted in 3 stages: (i) analysis, (ii) evaluation/ synthesis and (iii) place-making. (i) There is a long tradition of analysing public spaces from various research perspectives, theoretically grounded and empirically performed. The realm is wide, from understanding the psychological impact of various spaces on the user and on looker to finding out about the pedagogic meaning of certain place patterns. Descriptive analyses of the use of various spaces are also well-known and used in teaching and designing of open spaces, as in the literature on public space as it was developed with regards to the iconic as well as the everyday places and gardens TJODFUIFTFDPOEIBMGPGUIFUIDFOtury a broad body of knowledge has been built up (e.g. Gehl, 1987; Carr, 1992; Sachs Pfeiffer, 1995; Kayden,  BOE NBOZ PUIFST  GSPN XIJDI a process of theory-based, and at the same time, practice-oriented learning

Learning from the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Re-PUBLICâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;: Remaking the public space as a medium of knowledge transfer in design education


can be facilitated. The approaches to analysing public spaces are based upon a variety of observations. Sounds, the boundaries towards other sorts of use and between public and private, the embeddedness in the surrounding built environment, the observation of how the places are used, sigh-lines, the textures and materials, including greenery (flora and fauna), and their meaning for the usability and image, are of as much importance as the typologies of use from representation to pleasure and (often) undesired uses by homeless or other people. The genealogy and history of the places are as much of importance for the analysis as the history of decisions, management and maintenance and who takes up the responsibility of place-keeping for the present and the future. As it is claimed JO .BEBOJQPVS FU BM   BOBMZTing the public space is a crossroad in which different stakeholders interact within the context of economic, political, social, environmental, and cultural challenges. (ii) The approaches to evaluating public spaces are social science based (evaluation theory and research) as well as founded in the analysis of concrete places and the effect they have internally and externally. Procedures of decision making and design, public participation and residentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; and civil-societyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s interests and responsibilities are playing a role as does the itemised check of usability on the regional, urban and neighbourhood level (the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;meaning of placeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;). (iii) Theories and practices of place-making are the final turn from analysis and evaluation to finding out about the planning methodology that can lead to better places based upon professional planning knowledge and the participation of residents, users, economic actors and politics. Planning in this sense is not a finalised piece of work, but a process oriented form of action, which continues during the use-period of spaces and includes collaborative running and maintenance of public places. The studio work was supported by Discussion â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Forum and Knowledge Cafe sessions to evaluate up-to-date progress. The method of â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;knowledge cafĂŠâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; was used to introduce a focused form of cross-disciplinary learning

aiming at providing an open and creative conversation on a topic of mutual interest to utilise their collective knowledge, share ideas and insights, and gain a deeper understanding of the subject and the issues involved. The dialogue between students and staff was mediated in various ways using social software, mapping and information aggregation services; and brought to a level where the web environment supports, augments and enriches the reflective learning processes. As part of â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;web-based social geographic platformâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; TFF 1BL BOE 7FSCFLF     participants were required to prepare blog diaries to ease the follow-up of the progress and make them judge the relevance and contribution of the subject 4FF IUUQSFQVCMJDJQXPSEQSFTT com and http://www.archtheory- 3. Re-PUBLIC scope: Taksim BeyoÄ&#x;lu has been the cultural and economic heart of Istanbul since the 19th century through its European/Levantine population, architecture, and everyday life facilities including hotels, theatres, cafes. It was within those circumstances that the proposal to create a public square as the symbol of new republic was appeared in Henri Prost Plan in Lutfi Kirdar Period of 1939. The plan proposed the demolition of 5BLTJN "SUJMMFSZ #BSSBDLT   UP build the Inonu Esplanade â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Gezi Parkâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; and new Republican Square around Monument of Independence (1928) (for an overview of history of square, TFF :JMEJSJN   %FNJS ,BISBNBO    )F EFTJHOFE 5BLTJN 4RVBSF with Inonu Esplanade over Topcu Barracks to be integrated with a grand park stretching through the valley between Dolmabahce, Macka and Harbiye. It was considered as the lungs of surrounding residential area. Another attempt towards the spatialisation of this semantic accumulation of republican ideology became visible in the selection of Taksim as the location for the Republic Monument that was opened in 1928 in dedication to the foundation of the Republic designed by Italian sculptor Pietro Canonica. As a part of this secular life scenario, three of the other surrounding military

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barracks in the region were then allocated to Istanbul Technical University (Macka, Gumussuyu and Taskisla) and the one in Harbiye was converted into a military museum during this period %FNJS ,BISBNBO    1SPTU BMTP proposed another representative and iconic implementation project at Taksim, which was the Grand Theatre or Palace of Culture (Ataturk Cultural Centre) built between 1946 and 1969 by Hayati Tabanlioglu. Besides its power in symbolizing Republican era and Independence War, Taksim Square and Gezi Park had also become the symbol of new society, a new secular and European society through geometric architecture, sculptures, trees, pools, and of course women next to men as a response to 19th century characteristics of Beyoglu - but this time redefined through the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Turkishâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; identity (Gunay,   /PU POMZ UIF OBNF (SBOE 3VF de Pera was replaced by the name â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Istiklal Avenueâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; (Independence Avenue), the surrounding region as a whole with its new public buildings, neighbourhoods, avenues, parks acquired the names from the vocabulary of Republican Period in time, reflecting the semantic accumulation there such as Ataturk Cultural Centre, Ataturk Library, Cumhuriyet (Republic) Avenue, Inonu Stadium, Democracy Park, and Kurtulus (Independence) and Harbiye .JMJUBSZ  /FJHICPVSIPPET %FNJS ,BISBNBO   The next reidentification occurred in 1955 (September 6-7) after the ethnic tensions between Turkish and Greek populations, resulting in abandonment, displacement, in-flow of the poor. The socio-spatial decay had continued unUJMUIFTÄ&#x2021;FOJUCFDBNFUIFTZNbol of public, the middle class, and the workers class. It was the symbol of democracy - the power of public especially after the 1st May Massacre of 1977. These made this unique public space an expression space for political movements. Through its intangible heritage, it became the space of â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;toleranceâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;. It was for that reason the public space was closed for public protests until today. In UIFT UIFVTFPGQPXFSIBTDIBOHFE pace through the increasing privatisation â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Istiklal became the ideal public space for cultural production and con-

sumption as accompanying this role since the 19th century. The pedestrianisation of Istiklal Street in 1988 was a major attempt to give strength to that role. Regarding being an area of tolerance, an expression space for political actions, today, over two million people walk up and down Istiklal Street, which is about two kilometres long, every day. This massive human flow is accompanied by a massive capital flow and its transformative effects. However, radical changes have being observed in the SFHJPOTJODFUIFT 4FF(VOBZ  for more information) - everything that gives identity to the space -including the announcement of the construction of a mosque, the commercialisation via shopping malls replacing historic cinemas, theatres, independent bookstores or cafes (such as DemirĂśren, historic Cercle Dâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;Orient building hosting Emek Cinema, Ä°nci Patisserie), the gentrification in the near surrounding (Cihangir, Tophane), the amalgamation of real-estate projects (such as Tarlabasi, 'SFODI4USFFUPS5BMJNIBOF BOEMBTUMZ the pedestrianisation of Taksim Square and the reconstruction decision for the Topcu Military Barrack, together with the destruction decision for the AtatVSL$VMUVSBM$FOUSFCZ XIJDIJO total have recalled a significant ideological intervention to transform this unique landscape in accordance with the increasingly authoritarian and neoliberal formations of urban power (GuOBZ   4. Re-PUBLIC thematic projects 'PVSUFBNTHBUIFSFEBSPVOEUIFGPMlowing themes: (i) Urban interface; (ii) Defining connections; (iii) Green Istanbul; and (iv) See the memory / look into the square. 4.1. Urban interface â&#x20AC;&#x153;At the present moment, Taksim Square is not a square; but instead, it is an urban platform, containing different spaces with their own character and different uses. By identifying the existent and potential edges, we create a strategy of activating Taksim as â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;oneâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; square. Being aware that the edges of Taksim Square are in peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s memories, we have the intention to materialize them. Edges are not obstacles, but

Learning from the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Re-PUBLICâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;: Remaking the public space as a medium of knowledge transfer in design education


rather spaces to generate life. Besides the physical and social ones, in Taksimâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s undefined perimeter, the sensorial edges played an important role. They are the tools to analyze the perception of space, intuition within orientation, smell, as well as textures. The physical edges are treated in two ways: sharpening or blurring them. They become interfaces! By restructuring the traffic around the northern entrance in the tunnel, the pedestrian surface adjacent to the park increases. By inserting wooden structures for resting on the western slope of Gezi, the parkâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s edge becomes an opportunity for introducing new functions. The problematic South-West corner of the park initiates the participation process in Taksim and this concept extends from the park to the square. This is achieved with furniture modules, which can be placed by the users according to their wish anywhere in the square, thus appropriating the space. The participation through design is considered to be embedded in the (young) square due to the ironic way it was born: a plate of cement created byte apparatus of control, after the Gezi protests to facilitate their access, has been taken over by the daily move of the Istanbul citizens. In the spirit of giving back to the citizen the city, Taksim is the place where to initiate the process of participation in decision-making. The tramline is extended towards the north following the historical route, linking visually Istiklal to the newly formed promenade alongside Gezi. By uncovering the historical layer, the relationship with water is accentuated. A line of water flows through the tramline, passing by Maksem to Istiklal. The Maksem becomes more visible after clearing the facade from street vendors. The surface ending on the Tarlabasi Street hosts new water works, strengthening the importance of water in Taksimâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s history and at its present. An important part of our design is that it has no borders and it doesnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t end with the urban platform. We include the surrounding streets, Istiklal being one of them, which in the past was separated from the Taksim area, having certain physical and cultural territorial CPSEFST'PSUIJT XFGPSNBWJTVBMDPOnection in the pavement by extending

Figure 1. Proposed plan by Team 1 on urban interfaces.

the tramline on the historical route instead of keeping the current loop. In Taksim Square, we try to highlight the empty urban platform by underlining the quality of the polyvalent space. We create a stage where different kind of activities can be accommodated â&#x20AC;&#x201C; forums, open-air cinema, concert, press conference, sports. While designing we also question ourselves - How to redistribute the place in order to invite different users? We want it to be a space of self-expression. In this sense, the proposal contains changeable modules, which people can transform and build up according to their perception. These modules consist of wooden cubes and movable platforms on rails with different textures suitable for resting. We were inspired by one of the statements forwarded in discussion sessions: â&#x20AC;&#x153;If people can build houses themselves, what can they do if you let them build in Taksim square?â&#x20AC;? Our project is not a finalized work, where everything is defined, it is a process, a background for further development. â&#x20AC;&#x153;Times are a changingâ&#x20AC;? as Bob Dylan saysâ&#x20AC;Śâ&#x20AC;?3 Making an explorative analysis of the social, physical, sensorial and perceptual edges around the Taksim Square, team 1 based their design on the idea of developing â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;urban interfacesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;. They

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By Huma Sahin, Anca Paninopol, Daniela Schuchmannova, Roberta Zvirblyle, Florian Hotzkow, Daniel Krause, Marco Nicastro, Eleonora Bonino


Figure 2. Process design by Team 1 on urban interfaces.

Figure 3. Proposed model by Team 1 on Urban interfaces.

have recognized numerous types of surfaces on the site and identified their users, which came from various social groups, ages and gender backgrounds. The main aim of the design was to create urban interfaces to (re)activate Taksim in a holistic manner. In order to accomplish this, team 1 successfully employed several design strategies. Among those were: (i) Connecting the park with the undefined promenade emerged after the tunnel construction, (ii) Creating a gathering and communication space opposite and around the Taksim monument, (iii) Reframing the center of Gezi Park using the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;artistic backstageâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; as a metaphor, (iv) Reconfiguring the square in front of AKM Ataturk Cultural Centre as an open

participatory front stage. Overall, the treatment of the currently undefined space around the Gezi Park was effecUJWFBUTFWFSBMMFWFMT'JSTU UIFDSFBUJPO of intervention zones with blurred edges enabled a meaningful combination of spaces with various dynamic functions. Second, the design solutions offered by the team effectively addressed multiple scales, ranging from topographical interventions to the urban furniture. Some of the inspiring intervention proposed by this team was to use dynamic â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;flying carpetâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; platforms, portable walls and cubical seating elements in front the AKM, which can potentially enable the users configure space according to their needs. The team purposefully designed these as a response to the existing problems of self-expression in the area. They skillfully illustrated several scenarios of use such as an open-air concert hall, cinema, demonstrations and small-scale group interactions. These ideas were perceived as quite applicable in real MJGF 'VSUIFSNPSF  CZ SFTQFDUGVMMZ SF

appropriating the existing elements of the square such as the stairs leading to the park, the area around the Taksim monument and the Maksem was (re) activated as space for alternative forms of participatory urban life. Another positive aspect of the team was the careful incorporation of ideas introduced during the lectures provided at the beginning of the workshop. 4.2. Defining connections â&#x20AC;&#x153;Istanbul is a city with a very diverse and intense population growth JO UIF MBTU EFDBEFT 'SPN BMNPTU POF NJMMJPOJOIBCJUBOUTJOUIFT *TUBObulâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC;s population increased to 15 million people without informal residents. Beside the historical city core, another city centre developed at the heart of city, which was influenced by western cultures and ideologies. During the last centuries, Taksim Square became one of the most meaningful places in Istanbul. At the top of one of the seven hills, it served for water distribution and was a relevant component of physical city growth. The Gezi Park with its historical meaning on the area of the old castle has also changed in the field of social aspects, especially during

Learning from the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Re-PUBLICâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;: Remaking the public space as a medium of knowledge transfer in design education

the riots in the last years against political actions. Located at the north end of the Istiklal- Shopping-Street, which was closed for motorized traffic since UIFTFYDMVEFEUIFIJTUPSJDBMUSBN which brings people from Taksim to Galata, it is the spatial connection between any kind of city functions and XFMM DPOOFDUFE CZ .FUSP  'VOJDVMBS  Tram, Bus and Dolmus. Taksim was in the firing line of different actors of EJWFSTF JOUFSFTUT DPOTJTUFOUMZ *O   the Turkish government realized its project to keep the traffic out of Taksim Square and constructed a tunnel for motorized vehicles beneath the Taksim. Since that intervention, Taksim Square became a concrete flat unstructured space with no kind of qualities and got the risk of losing its very special character and meaning. Accessibility from each side is needed, according to the pedestrian flow and the major merging points. Barriers as roads are reduced in our design. The square will be divided into three main areas with imperceptible boundaries, but it will still be consistent throughout its surface. Weâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ve noticed that some areas suffer from exclusion, so we will try to ensure an inclusive design. Our goal is to enhance connections in the square creating paths and defining directions and new meeting points. Connectivity is crucial and will lead the design for the whole square. Physical connections between Gezi Park, AKM Ataturk Cultural Center, the northern Metro entrance, Taksim Square Monument, old water distribution building - Maksem and Istiklal Street must be reinforced. The aim is to create interactivity between the fragments of the Taksim area. Multifunctional use in the sections of our design is our purpose and also including all types of interests with recreational space and event space and moreover keeping the function as a transition area between different functions and uses. Street-vendors and informal use are integrated in our vision in order to get a balanced design.â&#x20AC;?4 The analytic studies of Team 2 led to the recognition of mobility issues and connectivity around the project TJUF 'PDVTJOH PO UIFTF NBUUFST  UIFZ aimed at reinforcing the physical connections between Gezi Park, AKM

Figure 4. Proposed plan by Team 2 on defining connections.

Figure 5. Proposed design by Team 2 on defining connections.

Figure 6. Section from the proposed design by Team 2 on defining connections.

Ataturk Cultural Center, the northern underground entrance, Taksim Square Monument, Maksem and the Istiklal Street. They suggested a supporting â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;backboneâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; along the new promenade, which emerged as a result of the tunnel construction. This backbone starts

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By Daniel Skrobol, Alex Greceniuc, Stefana Iaschevici, Nicole Torres, Eda Uraz, Merve Kadaifci, Marco Orsello, Sezen Turkoglu


al/event space, (iii) Along the aforementioned space, an inspiring â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;virtual water wallâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; was proposed to separate it from the busy road while creating an interaction opportunity in hot summer days. As a result of the design interventions above, Team 2 demonstrated the potentials of making multi-dimensional connections along, around and through the project site. Jury members noted that the design proposal could be improved through a better integration of the underground transportation points and stops. Moreover, the clear-cut definition of functional zones could be improved to enable a more flexible use of space.

Figure 7. Proposed design by Team 3 on green Istanbul.

across the Gezi Park along a new bridge which joins the two sides; extends further towards the Istiklal street, serving as a collector, connector and distributor of the pedestrian flow. The potentials of this intervention were numerous. On one hand it channeled the flow towards the Gezi Park, on the other hand it created interactivity between the fragments of Taksim, thus connectJOHUIFNJOBMUFSOBUJWFXBZT'VSUIFSmore, various other design solutions were developed for connection and interaction: (i) Through the Integration of street vendors and informal uses into their proposal, the team intended to break the monotonous character of the existing promenade, (ii) Using several interventions they have differentiated the space in front of the AKM as a multifunctional recreation-

4.3. Green Istanbul â&#x20AC;&#x153;When you arrive Taksim for the first time, you notice that itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s one of the busiest places in the Beyoglu district both for tourists and locals. Taksim is also a gigantic public transportation hub. What you perceive first is that itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s a really crowded undefined public space both from pedestrians and cars. It is impossible to find your way, to understand where you are going to, and also Gezi Park is not well-connected with the lower level. The AKM Ataturk Cultural Centre facing the square is not used nowadays. Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s a pity, because itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s the cultural centre, and without it the place lose its identity. After this first visit to the area, we decided to call our project â&#x20AC;&#x153;Taksim Square is everywhereâ&#x20AC;? in relationship with our idea of the green loop. The green area analysis shows us that there is a great potential in this part of Istanbul city because there are lots of green areas around Taksim Square that weâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;d like to connect to each other to create a big green loop that could finish on the seaside. The neighbourhood analysis shows us different type of activities around the square: On the north, mostly offices and hotels are located, conversely on the south, there are residential uses, offices and important landmarks such as Maksem and the Monument of the Republic. According to our SWOT analysis, we found out that the square is not exactly a good example of wellused public space. There is a huge empty space, which is not appropriate to be a meeting point. Accordingly,

Learning from the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Re-PUBLICâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;: Remaking the public space as a medium of knowledge transfer in design education


we determine our vision with three keywords: â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;reconnectionâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;, â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;define the entrancesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; and â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;reactivateâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;. We particularly focused on reconnection because of the lack of green relations. In order to improve this aspect, we designed a vast green loop, which collects the European part of Istanbul city. The main point of this loop is Gezi Park, which nowadays is not related with Macka Park because of the break down bridge. As a result of our loop, pedestrian ways will be created to connect seaside with the square. In order to make the loop accessible, entrances will be designed and Gezi Park will become the main green entrance. Our project will define how a good public space should be: (i) Attractive and more interactive (ii) Safe in a greener city (iii) Cleaner, better-maintained. To respect this purpose, the square is divided in different functions for different users according to our vision about how people move inside the square. The four zones to define the needs of the different users are: (i) Long stay zone (ii) Short stay zone (iii) Event space (iv) Gezi Park. As a last step, Taksim Square was designed to equalize the level of Gezi Park with the level of the rest of the square through a path. As a result it formed a green trail that connect the entire green ring to the rest of the city.â&#x20AC;?5 Team 3 made a large-scale analysis of the green areas and different type of activities around the project site. They found that Gezi Park was not well connected with the larger and â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;lowerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; scale. Accordingly, the team has focused on three main themes: reconnection, defining entrances and reactivation. Based on these themes and inspired by the urban plan proposed by Henri 1SPTUJO UIFZIBWFEFWFMPQFETPMid strategies regarding Gezi Parkâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s relation to the city. Among those were: (i) Making a new ecological system which can be connected to other parks, (ii) Connecting all parks together to make one green system, (iii) Giving an individual character to each park. The focal point of this system would be Gezi Park. It was suggested to be reconnected with the Macka Park, creating pedestrian routes linking the BospoSVT XJUI UIF TRVBSF 'VSUIFSNPSF  UIF team identified key connection points

and reframed them as â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;entrancesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;. In this context, Gezi Park was proposed as the main green entrance. The design suggestions were not only limited to large-scale strategies. According to the project, the square was divided into different functions for different uses and users: long stay and short stay zones, event space and the Gezi Park (as a special category). Specific urban interventions were chosen to facilitate these functions: sitting, lighting elements, floor material, canopies for creating shadow. The team also developed more detailed plan drawings regarding the square, but these were conceived as underdeveloped by the jury members. However, the aforementioned suggestions were welcome. 4.4. See the memory / Look into the square â&#x20AC;&#x153;Our investigation into Taksim square was guided by the following founding principle: â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;See the Memory, Look into the Squareâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;. In its current form, Taksim exists as a palimpsest of deconstructed historical elements. The intention of our project, therefore, is to re-appropriate the layers of historical identity, which exist around the public space so as to define a more structured and identifiable public space. Two categories of historical interventions have been identified: The ancient history of Taksim is one of large scale underground infrastructures, a water distribution centre along with subterranean public transport connections, which allowed for an open flat space in the centre of the cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s difficult topography. The contemporary history, on the other hand, is informed by the Gezi Park protests where the symbolism of open space in Istanbul was inverted from a militaristic space for control to a democratic space for bottom up representation. Our intervention, therefore, had to respond on these two levels. 'JSTUMZ UIFCFMPXHSPVOEBTQFDUPGUIF space, the access to the metro and bus links, was to be revealed and celebrated as the founding forms of Taksim. Secondly, our project had to provide a new kind of urban space, which allowed for a bottom up form of appropriation, which could counteract the chaotic neo-liberal interventions cur-

*56 "]; t 7PM  /P  t /PWFNCFS  t  ; (Ă OBZ  ) 5Ă SLPĘ&#x201C;MV  # 1BL  5 ,OPSS4Ĺ&#x201D;FEPX  .%FNĹ&#x201D;S,BISBNBO ½ÂąFMĹ&#x201D;L $'VISNBOO


By Zeynep Ozdemir, Annalisa Rossi, Leonie Hagen, Stefano Franco, Nese Cakir Ozturk, Ozge Yuzbasli, Ammar Horia


Figure 8. Proposed plan by Team 4 on see the memory, look into the square.

Figure 9. A view from the proposed design by Team 4 on see the memory, look into the square.


By Gorsev Argin, Sebastian A. Grunwald, Lorena Andreea Mocan, Giacomo Rio, Tugce Tezer, Alex Davey Thomson, Alina Wilkending

rently defining Istanbul development. We concretized these aspects into a singular line that could define space in and around Taksim Square with a more manageable scale. The line would remain entirely permeable so as to define without dividing, and active interface, which would bring commercial, design friendly, zones to Cumhuriyet Avenue and the two zones of Taksim Square. The square in front of the AKM Ataturk Cultural Centre is now redefined as a space for repose, with a softer groundscape intervention connecting it to the Cultural Centre and, importantly, the disused zone to the north of the AKM where a great view over the city can be found. The pavilion bookending the south of our Line is an interface between the square and the monument where market stalls are moved from wall of the Maksem - Water Distribution Centre (thereby returning it to its symbolic importance) and entrances to the underground are

congregated. The northern pavilion serves the same function whilst reclaiming pedestrian space from the street and acting as an entrance to the QBSL 'JOBMMZ  PVS TUSVDUVSF GPS BQQSPpriation has been designed as a hierarchy between enclosed, defined space, which supports a forest of columns, which may be overtaken by the public as they see fit. This forms a new kind of public space, which has extended Gezi Park and activated Cumhuriyet Avenue. The columns are given a series of corbels, which can be used to define programmatic relations unforeseen by any top-down intervention.â&#x20AC;?6 Team 4 focused on the historical aspects of Taksim Square and created a conceptual discourse on the accumulation of these elements. In this sense, the square was interpreted as a â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;palimpsestâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; made of two layers: (i) ancient archaeological remains and (ii) contemporary events in the memories of the people. In relation to these, the proposed design suggested interventions at the level of two layers: below ground and the social space for bottom up appropriation while extending the Gezi Park and activating the Cumhuriyet Avenue. 'JSTU .BLTFNXBTDPVQMFEXJUIXBUFS features and underground entrances. In this way the team aimed at returning its symbolic meaning back. Second -and the most important- layer of the proposal involved the development of a novel social urban space for bottom up appropriation as a means to counteracting the existing gridlock situation. In order to serve this purpose, the team established an interaction-axis along the Gezi Park, next to the Cumhuriyet Avenue. This axis was enforced by a flexible structure facilitating various functions emerged before and after the manifestations. The potentials of this structure were recognized by several Jury members but the decisions regarding its implementation were found underdeveloped in general. Another interesting aspect of the proposal was rescaling and redefinition of square in front of AKM Ataturk Cultural Centre as a space for â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;reposeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;. It successfully connected the underutilized area at the back of the center with the rest of the square, demonstrating a significant potential as a vista point.

Learning from the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Re-PUBLICâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;: Remaking the public space as a medium of knowledge transfer in design education


5. Re-PUBLIC evaluation and impact Re-PUBLIC constructed an inter-active research and hands-on practice platform to understand the complex and diversified relations in the triangle between city, citizens and planners, and the logics of place-making. It explored the cultural, historical, economical, ecological and political spheres of remaking the public space. While it questioned the way in which the public space is transforming the cities, it identified the diversified, multi-layered and complex meaning and role of public space including the revival of citiesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; image, improvement of quality of life and liveability, influencing economic value, building inter-cultural dialogue and democracy etc. Taksim Square was used as a platform to discuss the future of public spaces. By doing so, it tested a number of innovative research and planning methods to improve teaching in planning studies. A major impact was rooted from the cross-country approach and the joint-learning of students and tutors with the partly diverse background of the professions in the various countries taking part. Knowledge transfer and management played an important role and the experience of the Re-PUBLIC hoped to filter into the teaching and learning methodologies of the universities taking part. Expanding upon the collaborative relationship between ITU, Brandenburg Technical University, KU Leuven 'BDVMUZ PG "SDIJUFDUVSF BOE 1PMJUFDOJco di Torino, the Re-PUBLIC enabled cultural and academic exchange as an everyday experience through studying the multi-contextual spheres in the remaking the public space. The intensive ten-day studies increased insights, perspectives and experiences of participants in terms of culture â&#x20AC;&#x201C; society â&#x20AC;&#x201C; everyday life and public space providing an innovative approach through which public space was observed as a place of society and cultural experience. Both the fundamental aspects of urban planning and design and personal perception of public space were central to the Workshop as the critical dimensions. To improve the quality and to increase the volume of student and teaching staff mobility throughout Europe, the hosting of participants from different coun-

tries allowed to examine and to discuss different types and uses of public spaces and culture while experiencing them as the real users. The workshop used necessary ICT tools not only in teaching programme but also in conducting systematic dissemination and exploitation of results. Project website and blog diaries helped to disseminate the results throughout the planned process with the active participation of students and tutors. Website introduced all the materials on the workshop to increase the e-learning capacity. A web-based social geographic platform was utilized for the enhancement of design-learning before, during and after the IP workshop. The platform provided various opportunities for enhanced integration and improving the learning processes. In the erasmus IP context, the dialogue between the design students and studio tutors were mediated in various ways using social software, mapping and information aggregation services; and brought to a level where the web environment supports, augments and enriches the reflective learning processes. Increasing the quality and quantity of multilateral co-operation between the IP partners, interdisciplinary aspects of urban design was reinforced and the importance of collaborative communication processes within city planning, urban design, architecture, civil engineering, landscape architecture was emphasized. Re-PUBLIC was a call for rethinking the public space as a bridge between the past, present and future, while emphasizing the current economic-political processes and socio-spatial challenges. The outputs included a geographic web platform as a knowledge-base with an integrated learning/mapping tool reflecting different stages of the workshop, a thematic workshop report providing guidelines for future development, an exhibition during the World 1MBOOJOH%BZ /PWFNCFS IPTUFE by ITU). The intensive programme has contributed to the cohesion of the academic realm concerned with the analysis and planning/development of public space in the societies of the 21st century (study, teaching, research). Sharing the outputs of this intensive programme that include the examining process of the use and making of public spaces in

*56 "]; t 7PM  /P  t /PWFNCFS  t  ; (Ă OBZ  ) 5Ă SLPĘ&#x201C;MV  # 1BL  5 ,OPSS4Ĺ&#x201D;FEPX  .%FNĹ&#x201D;S,BISBNBO ½ÂąFMĹ&#x201D;L $'VISNBOO


terms of everyday life as a design value, both the higher education institutions and enterprises gained and will gain an improved perspective on this subject as a development theme within urban design, city planning, and landscape architecture. Thus, â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;RE-PUBLIC: Remaking the Public Spaceâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; provided a critical medium of knowledge transfer in design education. Acknowledgement This paper is based on the international project, â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;RE-PUBLIC: Remaking the Public Spaceâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;, funded by European Union Life Long Learning - Erasmus Intensive Programme, Contract no. 53&3" Ä&#x2021;F QSPgramme took place in Istanbul from UP+VMZJO*TUBOCVMBTBKPJOU undertaking between four higher education institutions including Istanbul Technical University (coordinator), Brandenburg Technical University, KU -FVWFO 'BDVMUZ PG "SDIJUFDUVSF BOE Politecnico di Torino. We would like to thank to Ipek Akpinar and Murat Guvenc for their time and contribution in our programme. Sadly, our friend +PIBO 7FSCFLF EFDFBTFE JO "VHVTU    8F XJMM OFWFS GPSHFU IJT DPOUSJbution to this unique project. References "EBOBMJ  :  "   %FTQBUJBMJ[FE4QBDFBT/FPMJCFSBM6UPQJB(FOtrified Ä°stiklal Street and Commercialized Urban Spaces, Red Threat, 3. Altman, I., Zube, E.H. (1989), Public Places and Spaces /:1MFOVN1SFTT #BVNBOO ;  Liquid Modernity. Cambridge: Polity. #VUMFS  $   Henri Lefebvre: Spatial Politics, Everyday Life and the Right to the City, Routledge-Cavendish. $BSS  4  'SBODJT  .  3JWMJO  -(  Stone, A.M. (1992), Public Space, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Crawford, M. (1995), Contesting the Public Realm: Struggles over Public Space in Los Angeles, Journal of Architectural Education 49 (1), 4-9. %FÄ&#x2022;MJQQJT  +   'SPN B QVClic re-creation to private recreation: The transformation of public space in South Street Seaport, Journal of Urban Affairs    &SLVU  (   The Case of Be-

yoÄ&#x;lu, Istanbul: Dimensions of Urban Re-development, Technische Universität Berlin Berlin. 'SBTFS  /   3FUIJOLJOH UIF Public Sphere: A Contribution to the Critique of Actually Existing Democracy, in: B. Robbins (ed) The Phantom Public Sphere, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. (FIM  +   1VCMJD TQBDFT GPS B changing public life, in: C.W. Thompson, P. Travlou (eds) Open Space: People Space -POEPO5BZMPS'SBODJT  (VOBZ  ;   Ä&#x2021;F QPXFS PG UIF public in remaking the space: Reflections from Istanbulâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Gezi, 6th Asian Conference on Arts and Humanities, 351 0TBLB +BQPOZB "QSJM Habermas, J. (1989), The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere: An Inquiry into a Category of Bourgeois Society, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Habraken, J. (1998), The Structure of the Ordinary, Cambridge: MIT Press. )FBMFZ  1   0O DSFBUJOH UIF city as a collective resource, Urban Studies   %FNJS ,BISBNBO  .   Reclaiming The City Square; Social Production Of Public Space Sultanahmet-Beyazıt-Taksim Republican Squares. Unpublished PhD Thesis, ITU Institute of Science and Technology. ,BZEFO +4  Privately owned Public Space: The New York City Experience /FX:PSL .BEBOJQPVS  "   Cities Actions Against Social Exclusion, Brussels: Eurocities. Madanipour, A., Kneirbein, S., DeHSPT  "HMBFF   Public Space and the Challenges of Urban Transformation in Europe /FX:PSL3PVUMFEHF 1BL # 7FSCFLF +  3FEFTJHOing the urban design studio: Two learning experiments, Journal of Learning Design (6) Special Issue - Design Education, 45-62. 1BL #7FSCFLF+  %FTJHOTUVEJP  BVHNFOUJOH SFÄ&#x2DC;FDUJWF BSDIJUFDUVSBM design learning, ITcon   1BSLJOTPO  +3   Democracy and Public Space â&#x20AC;&#x201C; The Physical Sites of Democratic Performance, Oxford: Oxford University Press. Sachs Pfeiffer, T. (1982), The City Lived #FSMJO$'.à MMFS (SPTTESVDLFSFJVOE7FSMBH(NC)

Learning from the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Re-PUBLICâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;: Remaking the public space as a medium of knowledge transfer in design education


4OPX  $1  <>  The Two Cultures, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 4PMB.PSBMFT.  Public and Collective Space: The Urbanisation of the Private Domain as a New Challenge, A Matter of Things, Rotterdam:

/BJ1VCMJTIFST 1VOUFS +7  Ä&#x2021;FQSJWBUJTBUJPO of public realm, Planning, Practice and Research 5 (3), 9-16. 6[VNLFTJDJ 5  5BLTJN5PQçu KıÅ&#x;lası, in: I. Ã&#x153;nal, C. Kozar, T. Saner (eds), Hayalet Yapılar É®BO 

Figure 10. Poster of Team 1 on urban interfaces. *56 "]; t 7PM  /P  t /PWFNCFS  t  ; (à OBZ  ) 5àSLPÊ&#x201C;MV  # 1BL  5 ,OPSS4Å&#x201D;FEPX  .%FNÅ&#x201D;S,BISBNBO ½±FMÅ&#x201D;L $'VISNBOO


Figure 11. Poster of Team 1 on urban interfaces. Learning from the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Re-PUBLICâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;: Remaking the public space as a medium of knowledge transfer in design education


Figure 12. Poster of Team 2 on defining connections.

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Figure 13. Poster of Team 2 on defining connections.

Learning from the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Re-PUBLICâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;: Remaking the public space as a medium of knowledge transfer in design education

Figure 14. Poster of Team 3 on green Istanbul.

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Figure 15. Poster of Team 3 on green Istanbul.

Learning from the ‘Re-PUBLIC’: Remaking the public space as a medium of knowledge transfer in design education


Figure 16. Poster of Team 4 on see the memory, look into the square.

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Figure 17. Poster of Team 4 on see the memory, look into the square.

Learning from the ‘Re-PUBLIC’: Remaking the public space as a medium of knowledge transfer in design education


Landscape in architecture: A place between culture and civilization


doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2017.77698  

3FDFJWFE+BOVBSZt Final Acceptance: October 2017

Abstract This paper evaluated two alternatives to rightfully conceive the relation between landscape and architecture: a historical reconstruction and some interpretations of philosophical sources, as. This evaluation was achieved by an identification of precedents in order to characterize the context of the problem; by a selection of representative examples for illustrating the type of difficulties that arise from historical reconstructions or from interpretations of philosophical sources; and by a proposal of some criteria to articulate both historical and theoretical sources, based in the analysis of the selected examples. As a conclusion of such evaluation, it was stated that by keeping in mind the distance between the philosophical sources and its interpretation, and by appreciating an architectural theory by its performance, rather than by its production of truths, it is possible, at least partially, to overcome the found difficulties. This conclusion invites to understand civilization as a project to contribute to a common heritage. In its turn, such understanding would help to reach a balance with interests tied to local cultures. Keywords Architectural theory, Place-based thinking, Landscape theory.


1. Introduction This paper is about the usefulness of the concept of landscape in the realm of architecture. It is grounded on a research project on the concept of landscape in architectural compositionâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s learning processes, developed by two BSDIJUFDUVSFTDIPPMTJO#PHPUB $PMPNCJB EVSJOH In Latin America, some schools of architecture regard special relevance to landscape in the design studio. The TDIPPMBU6OJWFSTJEBEEF5BMDBJTBOFYample of this. Landscape â&#x20AC;&#x153;as an element linked to the spatial account of the arDIJUFDUVSBMPCKFDUw 6SJCF0SUJ[   Q   CFTJEFT i<U>IF NBUFSJBM RVBMJUZw and â&#x20AC;&#x153;the formal and constructive acknowledgment of rural typologiesâ&#x20AC;?, is an element of the local status in the architectural oeuvres that the school of Talca looks for. In contrast with this interest in giving a local status to the architectural works, in other parts of the world, there is a tendency that rejects any place-based thinking, as Leachâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s â&#x20AC;&#x153;The Dark Side of the Domusâ&#x20AC;?  JMMVTUSBUFT*UTFFNTUPSFFEJUUIF former controversy between civilization and culture, registered in writings like Rapoportâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s House Form and Culture   PS 'SBNQUPOT i5PXBSET B $SJUJDBM3FHJPOBMJTN4JYQPJOUTGPSBO BSDIJUFDUVSFPGSFTJTUBODFw   In accordance with such contrast, there would be a problem for architectural theory that could be summarized JOUIFRVFTUJPO)PXUPSJHIUGVMMZDPOceive the relationship between landscape and architecture? This paper contributes to solve the problem of how to rightfully conceive the relation between landscape and architecture with an evaluation of two alternative ways in which this relationship has been argued. The first alternative considered is a historical reconstruction, while the second one is an interpretation of philosophical sources. Such evaluation provides some criteria, useful to identify, select and articulate historical and theoretical sources. In order to evaluate these historical and theoretical alternatives it was needed first to characterize the context in which a conception of the relation between the concepts of landscape and BSDIJUFDUVSF JT SFRVJSFE  UIFO UP JMMVT-

trate the type of difficulties the mentioned alternatives offer to a rightful conception of the relation between landscape and architecture, and finally to consider how to merge historical and theoretical approaches. An identification of precedents, in which the necessity to conceive the relationship between the concepts of landscape and architecture was recognized, provided a characterization of its context. Moreover, some representative examples were selected to illustrate the type of difficulties that arise from historical reconstructions, or from interpretations of philosophical TPVSDFT 'JOBMMZ TFFLJOH UP BSUJDVMBUF both historical and theoretical sources, some criteria were developed based on the analysis of selected examples. 2. Methodology Identifying precedents was useful to consider references to architectural theory and practice at the moment in which the concept of landscape was introduced to Western culture. Thus, some works from the Architecture and Landscape research programme of the 'BDVMUZPG"SDIJUFDUVSFBUUIF56%FMÄ&#x2122; XFSF GPVOE 0OF PG UIFN  Palladio, the Villa and the Landscape (Smienk  /JFNFJKFS    TUVEJFT UIF XSJUings and architectural works of this sixteenth-centuryâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Italian architect, as an example of the moment mentioned above. #VUUIF1BMMBEJBOWJMMBTTFFNUPCFMPOH UP B DPOUFYU RVJUF EJÄ&#x152;FSFOU GSPN the metropolitan one, which predomJOBUFT OPXBEBZT 'PS UIJT SFBTPO  JU was also invoked a precedent related to the starting point of the theoretical thinking about the relationship between metropolitan landscape and architecture. This precedent comes from Aureliâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s The Possibility of an Absolute Architecture  Ä&#x2021;FGPVSUIDIBQUFS of this book refers to the work of Ă&#x2030;tiFOOF -PVJT #PVMMĂ?F  BT BO JMMVTUSBUJPO of a response of a monumental architecture to this new, at his time, type of landscape. #PUIPGUIFNSFGFSUPUIFQSFDFEFOUT they consider as an implicit conception of the relationship between the concepts of landscape and architecture that they contributed to make explicit.

*56"];t7PM/Pt/PWFNCFSt3'-BUPSSF 8#-Ă&#x2DC;QF[


Nowadays, it is possible to find authors that quoting Rappoportâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s House Form and Culture to stand: â&#x20AC;&#x153;Culture has always been an essential dimension in the life of man who has manifested in the production of his livingâ&#x20AC;? (Layachi, 2016, pĂĄg. 80)

In this way, their research recognised an absence or, at least a silence, about the mentioned relationship in the theory of architecture. Some examples of historical reconstructions were found at the aforementioned Palladio, the Villa and the Landscape 4NJFOL/JFNFJKFS  0OF of them is related to some assumptions that this type of attempt must accept. Another one is, to some extent, the speculative nature of the result of inRVJSFTMJLFUIJT BTBDPOTFRVFODFPGJUT assumptions, that led them towards unDFSUBJOUZ 4NJFOL/JFNFJKFS 

0OF PG UIF TFMFDUFE FYBNQMFT PG the difficulties in using philosophical sources comes from another attempt UP Ä&#x2022;MM BO BCTFODF *U JT )VOUT Greater Perfections: The Practice of Garden Theory  BOEUIFFNQUJOFTTUIBU it tries to fill is the absence of interest in a theoretical base for the practice of landscape architecture. The author went backwards in order to find the point of departure for the landscape architecture practice and theory. At this QPJOU  )VOUT JORVJSZ GPMMPXT B RVJUF similar methodological approach as UIF POF BEPQUFE CZ 4NJFOL BOE /JFmeijer. )PXFWFS  IF XFOU FWFO GVSUIFS looking for the philosophical sources behind its historical precedents. In this XBZ  UIJT FYBNQMF BEEFE PUIFS RVFTtions to those about the difficulties of a IJTUPSJDBM SFDPOTUSVDUJPO Ä&#x2021;FTF RVFTtions, related to the use of philosophical sources are: â&#x20AC;&#x153;Are there some clues or limits for this use?â&#x20AC;? and â&#x20AC;&#x153;Are there forbidden sources? An affirmative answer UP UIF TFDPOE RVFTUJPO XBT GPVOE JO Leachâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s â&#x20AC;&#x153;The Dark Side of the Domusâ&#x20AC;?  Ä&#x2021;FSFWJFXPGUIFTPVSDFTBMTP depicted an argument against Leachâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s answer, in Heideggerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Topology. Being, Place, World  CZ.BMQBT *OSFHBSEUPUIFRVFTUJPOBCPVUUIF MJNJUT GPS B GBJS VTF PG TPVSDFT  )VOUT book offered an opportunity to approach an answer, particularly around JUTJOUFSQSFUBUJPOPG$JDFSPT%Fnatura deorum, whereas Leachâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s article provided another case to consider how far must the loyalty to philosophical sources go, for the use he gave to Lyotardâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s â&#x20AC;&#x153;Domus and the Megalopolisâ&#x20AC;?  

In accordance to the examples of difficulties found in the selected sources, the analysis of them suggested some RVFTUJPOT )PX UP NBOBHF UIF TQFDVlative character of a historical reconstruction? Which criteria could be established in order to avoid an unfair use of philosophical sources? Does some merging of both help to conceive rightfully the relationship between landscape and architecture? 3. Results 3.1. The tale of an absence Looking for precedents, in which the necessity to conceive the relationship between the concepts of landscape and architecture had been recognized, imQMJFTUPBDDFQUTPNFBTTVNQUJPOT0OF of them is the historical character of the landscape concept and of some social practices connected with it. Accepting this, on the other hand, implies refusing that landscape is something like a natural place, and avoiding the temptation of assuming that landscape had already exist before mankind appeared in surface of the Earth. An existence of landscapes, previous to mankind, could be suggested by statements like this from /PSCFSH4DIVM[T(FOJVT-PDJ 'SPNUIFCFHJOOJOHPGUIFUJNFNBO has recognized that nature consists of interrelated elements which express fundamental aspects of being. The MBOETDBQF XIFSF IF <UIF NBO> MJWFT JT not a mere flux of phenomena, it has structure and embodies meanings. These structures and meanings have given rise to mythologies (cosmogonies BOE DPTNPMPHJFT  XIJDI IBWF GPSNFE UIFCBTJTPGEXFMMJOH /PSCFSH4DIVM[  <> Q

'SPN UIJT QPJOU PG WJFX  UIF MBOEscape is what would have moulded the culture, not the culture what would have produced the landscape1 0G course, there are some reasons to think like this, as well as for recognizing a sense in which landscape is a result of human action. Accepting the historical character of the landscape could be easier for people who live in a manmade landscape. It could be for this reason that precedents that recognize the necessity to conceive the relationship between the concepts of landscape BOEBSDIJUFDUVSF XFSFGPVOEJO/FUIerlander authors. The way in which

Landscape in architecture: A place between culture and civilization


some of these authors interpreted â&#x20AC;&#x153;the process of accessing, reclaiming and developing the land for the purposes PG BHSBSJBO QSPEVDUJPOw JO UIF 7FOFUP since 1556, as a re-creation of the landscape, seems to confirm this sensitiveness to man-made landscapes (Smienk /JFNFJKFS  Q  "DDPSEJOH 4NJFOL BOE /JFNFJKFS   1BMMBEJP i<y> XPSLFE JO B time when an interest in aesthetics and autonomous value of landscape was HSPXJOHw Q   Ä&#x2021;FZ BTTPDJBUF TVDI interest in landscape with painting, TBZJOHUIBUi<G>PSUIFÄ&#x2022;STUUJNFUIFMBOE around the cities was being mapped extensively, and since the invention of perspective at the beginning of the fifteenth century, landscapes and vistas had become a theme in Italian paintJOHw *EFN Ä&#x2021;JTSFGFSFODFUPQBJOUJOH serves them to highlight the absence PG BO FRVJWBMFOU EFWFMPQNFOU JO UIF architectural realm, in their words: i#VUVOUJM1BMMBEJPTUJNFUIFMBOETDBQF had never been regarded as an object to be manipulated by architectonic NFBOTw *EFN Ä&#x2021;FZBMTPTIPXBEJGGFSFODFCFUXFFOi<U>IFMBSHFTDBMFMBOE reclamation and development of the TXBNQZ EFMUB PG UIF 7FOFUP CFUXFFO 7JDFO[B  1BEVB BOE 7FOJDFw *EFN  BOEBO*UBMJBOÄ&#x2022;Ä&#x2122;FFOUIDFOUVSZTQSFDFEFOU i<U>IF iFUFSOBMw "SDBEJBO MBOEscape of the Tuscan hills, as it extended, for example, beyond the rigidly PSEFSFE  UFSSBDFE HBSEFOT PG UIF 7JMMB .FEJDJ CVJMUCZ.JDIFMP[[POFBS'MPSFODFJOw *EFN *OUIFJSPQJOJPO  this difference represents a challenge for the tradition, successfully faced by 1BMMBEJP  XIP i<y> XBT DPOGSPOUFE with the task of connecting his designs for villas with lands newly recovered through the efforts of hydraulic engineers, technicians and surveyors, if POMZGPSSFBTPOPGFÄ?DJFODZw *EFN  Although successful, Palladioâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s task of connecting his architectural works with the landscape, there would be a silence in his writings about the way UP BDIJFWF JU  XIJDI 4NJFOL BOE /JFNFJKFS  USZUPÄ&#x2022;MMCZTUVEZJOHIJT villas in order to reveal their secret. As UIJT SFGFSFODF UP 7JMMB 3PUPOEB JMMVTtrates: Then there is the way in which the 7JMMB 3PUPOEB  MZJOH PO UIF FEHF PG B

hill ridge, dominates and directs the surrounding landscape. It is a silent witness, because while Palladio indeed mentions the panoramic view over the fields and farms all around, he is silent about the way in which he has joined the villa and the landscape. (Smienk & /JFNFJKFS  Q 2

"DDPSEJOH UP 4NJFOL  /JFNFJKFS  such domination and direction of the surrounding landscape was possible in a context of politics, economics, and military change. Political circumTUBODFTBMMPXFEUIF7FOFUJBO3FQVCMJD to recover its former boundaries. In contrast with such a positive change in MPDBMQPMJUJDT 7FOJDFMPTUJUTQSJWJMFHFE position in the intercontinental trade because of some deep changes in the HFPQPMJUJDT DPOEJUJPOT $POTFRVFOUMZ its economy moved from trade to agricultural production. In a context like this, some members of the ruler class moved to the countryside, outside UIF TBGFUZ PG UIF DJUZ *O 7FOJDF  TBGFty was not provided by a wall but by the lagoon: it was an impregnable city without walls. Thus, the sprawl of aristocratic residences in the terraferma is FRVJWBMFOUUPBOFYQBOTJPOPVUTJEFUIF city walls. In this sense, the context of Palladioâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s villas would be similar to the DPOUFYU UIBU "VSFMJ   BTTPDJBUFT with the monumental architecture of #PVMMĂ?F XIFOIFTBZT 8JUI-PVJT9*7TEFNPMJUJPOPGUIF DJUZXBMMTJO UIFGPSNPGUIFDJUZ finally broke its ancient constraints. The bollwerkâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;the expansive system of fortifications that used to enclose cities within geometrically complex earthworksâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;became the boulevard, a broad TZTUFN PG DJSDVMBUJPO UIBU BDRVJSFE JUT scale precisely by incorporating the new â&#x20AC;&#x153;extra-cityâ&#x20AC;? space created by the removal of the city walls. Significantly, what had once limited and enclosed the city was now transformed into a system that expanded the cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s circulation and, by implication, produced the possibility of endless growth. The demolition of the fortifications was the most clear and aggressive manifestation of the way economic transactions and urban development were linked, ready to become the very form of the new urban expansion. With the removal of its walls, the city could no longer be conDFJWFE BT BO <> BVUPOPNPVT FOUJUZ placed within a territory from which it had been disconnected by its defen-

*56"];t7PM/Pt/PWFNCFSt3'-BUPSSF 8#-Ă&#x2DC;QF[


Smienk and Niemeijer added to this: â&#x20AC;&#x153;He [Palladio] has even exploited the given situation here so well that he, and not Alexander Pope (a few centuries later), would appear to have invented the concept of genius lociâ&#x20AC;? (Smienk & Niemeijer, 2011, pĂĄg. 10)


The phrase alteram naturam could be read as a reference to the other that is not nature, as the Arendt´s idea of worldliness from The Human Condition (1998 [1958]): â&#x20AC;&#x153;Work in the activity which corresponds to the unnaturalness of human existence, which is not imbedded in, and whose mortality is not compensated by, the speciesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; everrecurring life cycle. Work provides an â&#x20AC;&#x153;artificialâ&#x20AC;? world of things, distinctly different from all natural surroundings. Within its borders each individual life is hosed, while this world itself is meant to outlast and transcended them all. The human condition of work is worldliness.â&#x20AC;? (Arendt, 1998 [1958], pĂĄg. 7)


sive system. The new metropolis now became the hub of the nation-state, where concentration and decentralization were simultaneously organized as part of the process of the circulation and distribution of people, resources, BOE DPNNPEJUJFT "VSFMJ    QQ 


â&#x20AC;&#x153;[â&#x20AC;Ś] on one occasion, when the topic of the immortal gods was made the subject of a very searching and thorough discussion at the house of my friend Gaius Cotta. It was the Latin Festival, and I had come at Cottaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s express invitation to pay him a visit. I found him sitting in an alcove, engaged in debate with Gaius Velleius, a Member of the Senate, accounted by the Epicureans as their chief Roman adherent at the time. With them was Quintus Lucius Balbus, who was so accomplished a student of Stoicism as to rank with the leading Greek exponents of that system.â&#x20AC;? (Cicero, 1967 [1933]/45 a. C., pĂĄg. 17 y 19) 5 After saying: â&#x20AC;&#x153;I think that I have said enough to prove the existence of the gods and their natureâ&#x20AC;? (Cicero, 1967 [1933]/45 a. C., pĂĄg. 193), at the end of the II Bookâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s 28th chapter, Balbusâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; character begins next chapter declaring: â&#x20AC;&#x153;Next I have to show that the world is governed by divine providence.â&#x20AC;? (Cicero, 1967 [1933]/45 a. C., pĂĄg. 195)

This association allows a connection between two ways of thinking about the relationship between landscape and architecture, separated by the industrial revolution, to characterize the context in which a conception of this relationTIJQJTSFRVJSFE BTPOFPGVSCBOFYQBOsion. Such an urban expansion would urge to conceive the relationship between landscape and architecture. 3.2. Getting back into landscape (Analysis of examples) As it was mentioned above, Smienk BOE /JFNFJKFS   SFDPHOJ[F TPNF difficulties that are faced by any attempt to reconstruct a past event. Thus, about UIFJS i<y> BUUFNQU UP SFDPOTUSVDU UIF multiple relationships between the villa buildings, the farmyard with its garEFOT BOEXJEFSTVSSPVOEJOHTw Q  UIFZ OPUFE IPX JU i<y> JT DPNQMJDBUed by the fact that much has changed PWFS UIF DPVSTF PG UJNFw *EFN  4P  they claim: â&#x20AC;&#x153;Much has disappeared, changed in function, or is only presFOUOPXJOSVEJNFOUBSZGPSNw *EFN  #BTFEJODPOTJEFSBUJPOTMJLFUIFTF UIFZ conclude: â&#x20AC;&#x153;Any reconstruction of what was realised almost five hundred years ago will thus be in part speculative, and is therefore necessarily shroudFE JO VODFSUBJOUZw *EFN  Ä&#x2021;FZ BMTP recognize that they had to make some TVQQPTJUJPOT 'PS FYBNQMF  UIFZ BTsumed the existence of a remarkable consistency in Palladioâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s architectural work. This assumption allows them to EFEVDF i<y> UIBU IF BMTP BQQMJFE UIF principles which were the basis of the ordering and architecture of the villa itself, with its component parts, to the relation with the surrounding land, to the extent that it was within his power.â&#x20AC;? 4NJFOL/JFNFJKFS  Q Ä&#x2021;JT past consideration, although it shares a methodological character, it is different from the others, in attention to its logiDBMDPOTFRVFODFT*UJTMJLFUIFGPVOEBtion of a building, if it fails, the whole building collapses. Although plausible,

without documents, it is almost impossible to demonstrate that Palladio applied the same principles to the villa and to the surrounding land. Problems like these might justify the use of philosophical sources in the realm of architectural theory. *G4NJFOLBOE/JFNFJKFSXFOUCBDL to Palladio to find the start point of the relationship between landscape BOE BSDIJUFDUVSF  )VOU JO Greater Perfections: The Practice of Garden Theory  XFOUCBDLUPUIFPSJHJOPG the reflection on landscape architecture, in the writings of two authors of UIFNJETJYUFFOUIDFOUVSZ#BSUPMPNFP 5BFHJPBOE+BDPQP#POGBEJP#VU)VOU  VOMJLF 4NJFOL BOE /JFNFJKFS  XFOU back one more step, towards their philPTPQIJDBM TPVSDFT )VOU OPUFT  JO UIF QSFGBDF PG UIJT CPPL UIBU i<y> NFNbers from the profession of landscape BSDIJUFDUT<y>BSFOPUMJLFMZJOUFSFTUFE or impressed by conceptual essays on UIF NBLJOH PG HBSEFOT <y>w Q YJ  BOE BMTP UIBU i<M>BOETDBQF BSDIJUFDture is uncertain of its way and at the same time profoundly skeptical of inUFMMFDUVBM EFNBOET VQPO JUw *EFN  To help overcome these shortcomings, UIFXPSLJOSFGFSFODFQSPQPTFTBi<y> deep scrutiny and understanding of the QSBDUJDF GSPN XJUIJOw *EFN  UIBU BTsumes the theory, not as the opposite PG QSBDUJDF  CVU BT i<y> UIF GBS PMEFTU JEFB PG UIFPSZ BT DPOUFNQMBUJPO <y>w *EFN 4VDIEFFQTDSVUJOZUBLFTIJN back to the philosophical sources of 5BFHJP BOE #POGBEJP  UP $JDFSPT USFBtise De natura deorum <> B$  'PSJOUIFHBSEFOTyUIFJOEVTUSZPG the local people has been such that nature incorporated with art is made an arUJÄ&#x2022;DFSBOEOBUVSBMMZFRVBMXJUIBSU BOE from them both together is made a third nature, which I would not know how to OBNF<#POGBEJPRVPUFECZ)VOU>Ä&#x2021;JT is, I believe, along with a virtually idenUJDBMGPSNVMBUJPOCZ#BSUPMPNFP5BFHJP RVPUFE BT BO FQJHSBQI UP UIJT DIBQUFS <-JOEVTUSJB EVO BDDPSUP HJBSEJOJFSP  che incorporando lâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;arte con la natura fa che dâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;amenude ne riesce una terza OBUVSB>  B IVHFMZ JNQPSUBOU QBTTBHF Ä&#x2021;PVHI #POGBEJPT Ä&#x2022;OBM SFNBSL TFFNT casual and the phrase terza natura is apparently thrown out without much thought, I doubt whether anything in this epistle is unstudied, in particular,

Landscape in architecture: A place between culture and civilization

â&#x20AC;&#x153;third natureâ&#x20AC;? is emphatically neologisUJD "Ä&#x2122;FS IF IBT DJUFE TP NBOZ DMBTTJcal authorities, it is at the very least an PEEJUZUPIFBS#POGBEJPDMBJNJOHUPCF baffled or nonplussed. In fact, it is very doubtful that he is foundering on his own: he alludes â&#x20AC;&#x201C;I believeâ&#x20AC;&#x201C; to remark PG 3PNBO XSJUFS $JDFSP JO UIF USFBUJTF De natura deorum, a well-known classical text that circulated in at least a dozen manuscripts and had already been printed four times in the year leading up to these two occasions in which the phrase terza naturaXBTDPJOFECZ#POGBEJPBOEMBUFSCZ5BFHJP )VOU (SFBUFS 1FSGFDUJPOT Ä&#x2021;F 1SBDUJDF PG (BSEFO Ä&#x2021;FPSZ  Q 

Ä&#x2021;F $JDFSPT GSBHNFOU RVPUFE CZ )VOU TBZT i<y> nos campis nos montibus fruimur, nostri sunt amnes nostri lacus, nos fruges serimus nos arbores, nos aquarum indictionibus terris fecunditatem demus, nos flumina arcemus derigimus avertimus, nostris denique manibus in rerum natura quasi alteram naturam efficere conamur.w $JDFSP  <>B$ Q *UTTUBOdard translation into English is: We enjoy the fruits of the plains and of the mountains, the rivers and the lakes are ours, we sow corn, we plant trees, we fertilize the soil by irrigation, we confine the rivers and straighten or divert their courses. In fine, by means of our hands we essay to create as it were a second world within the world of nature. $JDFSP <>B$ Q

"MUIPVHI  )VOU QSFTFOUT IJT PXO USBOTMBUJPOPG$JDFSP}TQBTTBHF $JDFSP  JO EFTDSJCJOH MBOETDBQF  writes of what he calls a second nature: â&#x20AC;&#x153;We sow corn, we plant trees, we fertilize the soil by irrigation, we dam the rivers and direct them where we want. In short, by mean of our hands we try to create as it were a second nature within OBUVSBMXPSME )VOU  Q

0OUIFCBTJTPGJUTSFBEJOH IFTVQports the existence of such as a â&#x20AC;&#x153;second natureâ&#x20AC;? that would explain the expression terza natura found in Taegio and #POGBEJPTRVPUBUJPOTÄ&#x2021;VT IFBTTPDJates his â&#x20AC;&#x153;second natureâ&#x20AC;? to the cultural landscape, saying: â&#x20AC;&#x153;This second nature is what today we would call the cultural landscape: agriculture, urban developments, roads, bridges, ports, and other JOGSBTUSVDUVSFTw *EFN Ä&#x2021;FNBJOBOE UIFXFBLFTUQPJOUPG)VOUTBSHVNFOUJT UIFFRVJWBMFODFCFUXFFOBlteram naturam and â&#x20AC;&#x153;second natureâ&#x20AC;?, in his words:

i$JDFSPVTFTUIFQISBTFalteram naturam, an alternative nature, or a second PG UXPw *EFN  'SPN UIJT iTFDPOE OBUVSFw  IF BUUSJCVUFT UP $JDFSP UIF statement of the existence of a first one: i<y> IJT FUZNPMPHZ UIFSFGPSF JNQMJFT UIBUUIFSFJTBMTPBÄ&#x2022;STUOBUVSFw *EFN  If the second nature corresponds to the cultural landscape, the first one would be something like a natural landscape: This is â&#x20AC;&#x153;the natural wordâ&#x20AC;? to which IFSFGFSTBUUIFFOEPGUIFQBTTBHFRVPUed above and â&#x20AC;&#x153;withinâ&#x20AC;? which his second JTDSFBUFEGPSUIF$JDFSPPGDe natura deorumUIJTQSJNBM<>OBUVSFJTCPUI the raw materials of human industry BOE UIF UFSSJUPSZ PG UIF HPET )VOU  (SFBUFS 1FSGFDUJPOT Ä&#x2021;F 1SBDUJDF PG (BSEFOÄ&#x2021;FPSZ  QQ

Ä&#x2021;F SFGFSFODF UP UIF UJUMF PG $JDFroâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s work, De natura deorum, would QSPNQUUIFRVFTUJPO8IBUJTUIFSPMF of existence of two natures in an argument on the nature of the gods? "O BUUFNQU UP BOTXFS UIJT RVFTUJPO XPVME NBZCF OPUF UIBU UIF RVPUFE text was written as a dialog, in which three points of view are represented, each one by a different character. The three points of view correspond to the epicurean, the stoic, and the academic, whose associated characters are called 7FMMFJVT UIF FQJDVSFBO  #BMCVT UIF TUPJD  BOE $PUUB UIF BDBEFNJD . InEFFE UIFQBTTBHFRVPUFECZ)VOUDPSSFTQPOETUP#BMCVTTDIBSBDUFS XIPEFpicts the theological doctrine of stoics. 0OF PG UIF NBJO BTQFDUT PG UIJT TUPJD theological doctrine is divine providence5. This doctrine is the context in which appears the reference to a â&#x20AC;&#x153;quasi alteram naturamâ&#x20AC;?, a doctrine that is SFGVUFECZ$PUUB}TDIBSBDUFS XIPTFUT forth the arguments of the academics.6 4P $JDFSPIJNTFMGXPVMEIBWFSFGVUFE UIFBSHVNFOUQBSUJBMMZRVPUFECZ)VOU /FWFSUIFMFTT UIJT#SJUJTIBVUIPSBDUTBT if his interpretation were self-evident, forgetting any distance between it and the original text. Such is the case in The Venetian City Garden. Place, Topology, and Perception   XIFSF IF SFGFST UP i<y> XIBU $JDFSP IBE OBNFE TFDond nature (ateram naturam  JO IJT treatise De natura deorum<y>w Q


*56"];t7PM/Pt/PWFNCFSt3'-BUPSSF 8#-Ă&#x2DC;QF[

6 An example of how Cottaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s character refutes the stoic divine providence doctrine is: â&#x20AC;&#x153;[â&#x20AC;Ś] similarly, if men abuse the faculty of reason, bestowed on them with a good intention by the immortal gods, by employing it to cheat and wrong their fellows, it would have been better for it not to be bestowed upon the human race than to be bestowed. Just as, supposing a doctor to know that a patient for whom he prescribes wine will be certain to drink it with too little water and will die on the spot, that doctor would be greatly to blame, so your Stoic providence is to be censured for bestowing reason upon those whom it knew to be going to use [363] it wrongly and evilly. Unless perhaps you say that providence did not know. I only wish you would ! but you will not dare to, for I am well aware how highly you esteem its name.â&#x20AC;? (Cicero, 1967 [1933]/45 a. C., pĂĄg. 363 y 365) 7

â&#x20AC;&#x153;Balbus the Stoic is speaking here, but Cicero has revealed elsewhere his appraisal of the power of men to change the earth about them.â&#x20AC;? (Glacken, 1967, pĂĄg. 145)


â&#x20AC;&#x153;In short, what advantage and convenience could have been realized from the brute creation, had not men assisted? Men, undoubtedly were the first who discovered what useful results we might realize from every animal; nor could we even at this time either feed, tame, preserve, or drive from them advantages suited to the occasion, without the help of man. And it is by the same that such as are hurtful are destroyed and such as may be useful are taken. Why should I enumerate the variety of arts without which life could by no means be sustained? [Cic., De officiis, II, 4.]â&#x20AC;? (Glacken, 1967, pĂĄg. 145) After this quotation Glacken adds: â&#x20AC;&#x153;With Cicero surely it was not a matter of philosophy alone; it must also have been the observation of past and present Roman technical achievements: mining, commerce, trade, the Cloaca Maxima, the land surveys, and the roads were evidences that the power of man was not only great but of a different order than that of any other kind of life,â&#x20AC;? (Glacken, 1967, pĂĄg. 146)

PG UIF USBOTMBUJPO BOE NFOUJPOT i<B> O JOUSPEVDUJPO UP $JDJFSPT CPPL BT B XIPMF <y>w  BT XFMM BT  i<y> B DPNNFOUBSZ PO UIJT DSVDJBM QBTTBHF <y>w BU (MBDLFO    Ä&#x2021;JT DPNNFOUBSZ SFGFSTUPBRVPUBUJPOPGUIFNFOUJPOFE passage taken from the standard translation into English, and recognizes the EJBMPHJDBM TUZMF PG $JDFSPT XSJUJOH. The commentary also alludes to other writings by the Roman author (De officiis  XIPTF JOUFSQSFUBUJPO CSJOHT him closer to the Arendtâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s concept of â&#x20AC;&#x153;worldliness8 that allows him to sumNBSJ[FUIFBOUJRVFUIJOLJOHPOOBUVSF as: â&#x20AC;&#x153;If the earth was divinely ordered for life, manâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s mission on earth is to imQSPWFJUw (MBDLFO  Q 9. This QBTTBHFCZ(MBLFODPVMEIBWFJOTQJSFE )VOU}TUJUMFGreater Perfections, as well BT  i$SFBUJOH B 4FDPOE /BUVSFw  IJT UJtle for the third chapter of the part one, XIJDIDPVMECFBOJOTQJSBUJPOUP)VOUT USBOTMBUJPOPGUIF$JDFSPTGSBHNFOU Ä&#x2021;FXBZJOXIJDI)VOUJOUFSQSFUT$JDFSPTRVPUFEQBTTBHFBSJTFTBRVFTUJPO about the rightful use of philosophical TPVSDFT#VU XIBUDBOPOFÄ&#x2022;OEJOQIJMosophical sources? An answer from the historical moment in which Taegio BOE #POGBEJP XSPUF XPVME CF iÄ&#x2021;F ancientsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; authorityâ&#x20AC;?, as it is suggested CZ )VOUT DPNNFOUBSZ PO IPX #POfadio â&#x20AC;&#x153;cited so many classical authorJUJFTw )VOU  (SFBUFS 1FSGFDUJPOT Ä&#x2021;F 1SBDUJDFPG(BSEFOÄ&#x2021;FPSZ   Q   )PXFWFS  EPFT $JDFSPT BVthority make for a better architectural MBOETDBQFUIFPSZOPXBEBZT 0SJTJUT strength what should be appreciated in this type of theory? The second alterOBUJWF JT XIBU $JDFSP IJNTFMG DIPPTFT at the beginning of De natura deorum <>B$ 11 3.3. Forbidden sources "O BOTXFS UP B QPTJUJWF RVFTUJPO about the sources that must be used to support an architectural theory is to JOWPLFUIFBODJFOUTBVUIPSJUZ#VU JUJT BMTPQPTTJCMFUPBTLUIFPQQPTJUFRVFTtion: which are the forbidden sources? An example of an answer to this negaUJWFRVFTUJPODPVMECFGPVOEJO-FBDIT â&#x20AC;&#x153;The Dark side of the Domusâ&#x20AC;?, who argues: Within recent architectural theory architecture as â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;dwellingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; has become

something of a dominant paradigm amid calls for a regionalist architecture and celebration of the concept of genius loci. This is an approach which FNBOBUFT GSPN UIF XPSL PG UIF (FSNBO QIJMPTPQIFS  .BSUJO )FJEFHHFS  and which has been pursued by those who have developed his thought â&#x20AC;&#x201D; arDIJUFDUVSBM UIFPSJTUT TVDI BT $ISJTUJBO /PSCFSH 4DIVM[ BOE QIJMPTPQIFST TVDI BT (JBOOJ 7BUUJNP .BOZ IBWF looked to an architecture of â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;dwellingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; as a means of combatting the alienation of contemporary society and of resisting the homogenising placelessness of International Style architecture. What I wish to argue, however, is that taken to an extreme â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;dwellingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; itself â&#x20AC;&#x201D; the logic of the domus â&#x20AC;&#x201D; can have negative conTFRVFODFTÄ&#x2021;FSFJT *XPVMENBJOUBJO B negative side to â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;dwellingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; â&#x20AC;&#x201D; a dark side UPUIFEPNVT -FBDI  12.

"DDPSEJOHUPUIJTBSHVNFOU )FJEFHHFSXPVMECFBGPSCJEEFOTPVSDF'PS Leach, there are two types of reasons that make this architecture of dwellJOH TVTQJDJPVT 0OF PG UIFN JT B IJTtorical and personal reason, which DPSSFTQPOET UP )FJEFHHFST QPMJUJDBM CBDLHSPVOE"Ä&#x2122;FSSFDPHOJ[JOHUIBUi*U XPVME CF XSPOH UP BTTPDJBUF )FJEFggerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s thought too closely with the excesses of fascist ideologyâ&#x20AC;? (Leach,  -FBDIBEET #VU FRVBMMZ  UIF QPJOU TIPVME CF made that his work lends itself to a nationalistic outlook, and that his own life was inscribed within a nationalistic outlook. Thus it hardly seems inconsistent that a philosopher such as )FJEFHHFSTIPVMEIBWFCFMPOHFEBUPOF TUBHF UP UIF /BUJPOBM 4PDJBMJTU QBSUZ  B stand for which he has been highly critJDJTFE *EFN

In this respect, Jeff Malpas in his book Heideggerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Topology : Being, Place, World   IBT OPUFE UIBU i*OEFFE )FJEFHHFST/B[JBTTPDJBUJPO  coupled with the evident centrality of place and associated notions in his UIJOLJOH<y> TFFNTPÄ&#x2122;FOUPCFUBLFO as providing a self-evident demonstration of the politically reactionary and dangerous character of place-based UIJOLJOHw .BMQBT    Q   'PS this Australian author, this is a misUBLF CFDBVTFPGi<y>UIFTUSBUFHZUIBU BQQFBST JO )BSWFZ  .BTTFZ BOE -FBDI seems to be one that attempts to discredit ideas explicit in the later thinking largely in the basis of the political

Landscape in architecture: A place between culture and civilization

engagement apparently present in the FBSMJFSw .BMQBT  Q

The other reason is more philosophical and was brought out from Lyotardâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s â&#x20AC;&#x153;Domus and the Megalopolisâ&#x20AC;?. In this piece, as it is read by Leach, the 'SFODIBVUIPSi<y>DPOUSBTUTUIFUSBditional domus with our present condition, that of the megalopolis. In other words he is contrasting two models of existence, two ideals of living.â&#x20AC;? (Leach,   Ä&#x2021;JT EFTDSJQUJPO JT GPMMPXFE CZ an interpretation, in which the mentioned contraposition between domus and megalopolis is brought up as an argument against what Malpas calls â&#x20AC;&#x153;place-based thinkingâ&#x20AC;?, in the following terms: 'PS -ZPUBSE UIFSF DBO CF OP NPSF domus; the megalopolis has now stifled the domus, and has â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;gnawed awayâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; at the domus and its community. With the advent of the megalopolis the traditional values of the domus have been transformed, and the hegemony of the natural order has been supplanted by UIF BSUJÄ&#x2022;DJBM <'PS -ZPUBSE XIBU UBLFT over from the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;controlâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; of the domus in the megalopolis is a form of techno-science which offers a new form of control, one that is no longer territorialised BOE IJTUPSJDJTFE  CVU DPNQVUFSJ[FE> -FBDI  

As much because of its political background, as because of its lack of actuality, such a â&#x20AC;&#x153;place-based thinkingâ&#x20AC;? would be an unacceptable source to support an architectural theory OPXBEBZT /FWFSUIFMFTT  CPUI GPSNBM and substantive objections could be opposed against these two reasons. 'SPNBGPSNBMQPJOUPGWJFX -FBDI reading contrasts with some statements GSPN-ZPUBSE}TUFYUTVDIBTUIFPOFUIBU TBZTi<y>BUBOZSBUF JUJTPOMZGPSUIF last of men, to the nihilist, that the disaster of the domus and the rise of the megalopolis to the stars can procure an FWJM  EFMJHIUw -ZPUBSE  i%PNVT BOE UIF .FHBMPQPMJTw    Q   Moreover, the way in which Leach reGFSTUP-ZPUBSE}TUFYUEPFTOPUTFFNUP notice the ironic style within the paraHSBQIGSPNXIJDIIFFYUSBDUTUIFRVPUF â&#x20AC;&#x153;The control is no longer territorialized or historicized. It is computerized.â&#x20AC;? (Lyotard, â&#x20AC;&#x153;Domus and the MegalopoMJTw  Q XIFSFBQBSPEZ of a sci-fi tale is almost given.

A substantive objection against Leachâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s argument is found in Maplasâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; Heideggerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s topology. Being, Place, World  . Malpas synthetizes -FBDITBSHVNFOUBTi<y>QMBDFCBTFE thinking is out of kilter with the character of the contemporary worldâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;in Leachâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s case with the impact of technology and globalizationâ&#x20AC;? (Malpas,  QQ )JTSFTQPOTFUPUIF radical statement, according to which i<y> QMBDF OP MPOHFS IBT BOZ TJHOJÄ&#x2022;DBODFw .BMQBT  QQ JOWJUFTUPDPOTJEFSi<y>UIBU JOBTNVDI as all revelling is bound to place, so the particular mode of revelling that occurs in technology must also be so bound. What technology does, however, is to hide its own character as a mode of revelling, and, in so doing, it hides its own place-bound character while also transforming and, indeed, PCTDVSFQMBDFBTTVDIw .BMQBT   QQ

The selected examples illustrated the type of difficulties that arise from a historical reconstruction or from interpretations of philosophical sources. In the first case, the found difficulties were related to speculation and uncertainty of their results, whereas in the second, the sense given to their use and loyalty to them, were difficulties TIPXO CZ UIF FYBNQMFT 0O UIF CBTJT of an analysis of the selected examples it is possible to state some criteria to articulate both historical and theoretical sources. The problem of the lack of loyalty to the philosophical sources could be solved by keeping in mind the distance between the sources and their JOUFSQSFUBUJPO 0O UIF PUIFS IBOE  B criterion to avoid, as much as possible, the speculative character and the uncertainty could be to appreciate a theory by its performance in order to enrich the study of the works of architecture, rather than by its production of truths. 4. Discussion 4.1. A price for overcoming the objections It could be asked if historians would find acceptable to appreciate theory by its performance to enrich the study of architectural works, seeking to overcome the speculation and uncertainty

*56"];t7PM/Pt/PWFNCFSt3'-BUPSSF 8#-Ă&#x2DC;QF[


â&#x20AC;&#x153;In antiquity, Panaetius, Posidonius. Cicero, and the Hermetical writers came closed to giving philosophical significance to the environmental change made by man. If he earth was divinely ordered for life, manâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s mission on earth is to improve it.â&#x20AC;? (Glacken, 1967, pĂĄg. 148)


Palladio also explicitly supports his Four Books of Architecture (1570) in Vitruviusâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; treatise, as he declare in the first paragraph: â&#x20AC;&#x153;I proposed to myself Vitruvius for my master and guide, who is the only antient writer of this art, and myself to search into the reliques of all the antient edifices, that, in spight of time and the cruelty of the Barbarians, yet remain [â&#x20AC;Ś]â&#x20AC;? (Palladio, 1965 [1738] /1570, pĂĄg. 5)

 11 â&#x20AC;&#x153;In fact I am not disposed to approve the practice traditionally ascribed to the Pythagoreans, who, when questioned as to the grounds of any assertion that they advanced in debate, are said to have been accustomed to reply â&#x20AC;&#x153;He himself said soâ&#x20AC;?, â&#x20AC;&#x153;he himself â&#x20AC;? being Pythagoras. So potent was an opinion already decided, making authority prevail unsupported by reason.â&#x20AC;? (Cicero, 1967 [1933]/45 a. C., pĂĄg. 13) 12

In a note, after mentioning Norberg-Schulz and Vattimo, Leach indicates: â&#x20AC;&#x153;Christian NorbergSchulz, Genius Loci: Towards a Phenomenology of Architecture, London: Academy Editions, 1980; Gianni Vattimo, â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;The End of Modernity, The End of The Project?â&#x20AC;&#x2122;, trans. David Webb, Journal of Philosophy and the Visual Arts, Academy Editions, pp.74-7. 13

In respect of Leach´s text Malpas argues â&#x20AC;&#x153;[â&#x20AC;Ś] Leach [â&#x20AC;Ś] seem to argue that placebased thinking is out of kilter with the character of the contemporary world [â&#x20AC;Ś] with the impact of technology and globalization. I would argue [â&#x20AC;Ś] that such a claim rest in a misunderstanding concerning the nature of place and the contemporary world.â&#x20AC;? (Malpas, 2008, pĂĄgs. 324325).

UIBU PÄ&#x2122;FO BSJTFT GSPN IJTUPSJDBM SFconstructions. Maybe they would not. Such a negative answer suggests that this criterion provides more of a rethinking of the problem than its actual solution. In the case of the criterion of keeping in mind the distance between the philosophical sources and their interpretation, it is possible to advance some difficulties to classify and situate a source in relation to others. 4.2. Comparing apples and oranges? Some differences between the origins of the mentioned sources could be noted within the main realms of archiUFDUVSF BOE QIJMPTPQIZ  'PS JOTUBODF  the philosophical sources include one GSPN UIF "OUJRVJUZ $JDFSP   B $  and other from the present century .BMQBT  Ä&#x2021;FWBSJFUZXJUIJOUIF architectonic sources is wider. It includes a classical one from Renaissance 1BMMBEJP    UISFF DPOUFNQPSBSZ works in architectural theory, without any explicit connection between them "VSFMJ    4NJFOL  /JFNFJKFS    BOE -FBDI    BOE BOPUIFS one, also contemporary, but coming specifically from the realm of landTDBQFBSDIJUFDUVSF )VOU   In this respect, it could be said that their analysis have shown or constructed communicating vessels between UIFN 4NJFOL  /JFNFJKFS   BT belonging to the specific realm from which the interest in connecting architecture and landscape comes, provided something like a conductive thread. "VSFMJ   SFQSFTFOUT B NFUSPQPMitan counterpart to the latter, while )VOU   JT BO FYBNQMF PG HPJOH B step back, from some historical point of departure towards its philosophical PSJHJOT *O JUT UVSO  $JDFSP  B $  appeared as an important source for )VOU   *G)VOUTRVPUBUJPO PG $JDFSP TVHHFTUFE BO BSHVNFOU PG authority, as an example of a positive way for selecting philosophical sourcFT  -FBDI   SFQSFTFOUFE B OFHBtive one. In what concerns to Malpas  JUNBEFBOFYQMJDJUDSJUJDJTNUP Leach. 5. Conclusions Palladio placed some architectural solutions to local problems in the

context of a civilization project. In this context, his contributions became useful in other times and places, as Smienk /JFNFJKFSJMMVTUSBUFT*GIFIBESFQSPduced the castellum, as a solution for the landownersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; residence, perhaps his work would never have helped others to overcome architectural difficulties in different contexts. This observation invites to understand civilization as a project to contribute to a common heritage that helps to reach a balance with an interest in a â&#x20AC;&#x153;local statusâ&#x20AC;?. 'SPNTVDIVOEFSTUBOEJOH UIFDPODFQU of landscape could be a link between culture and civilization, whose means would be the proposed criteria: appreciating a theory by its performance in order to enrich the study of the works of architecture and keeping in mind the distance between the philosophical sources and their interpretation. References "SFOEU  )  <>  The Human Condition OEFE $IJDBHPÄ&#x2021;F 6OJWFSTJUZPG$IJDBHP1SFTT "VSFMJ  1 7   i"SDIJUFDUVSF as a State of Exception. Ă&#x2030;tienne-Louis #PVMĂ?FT1SPKFDUGPSB.FUSPQPMJTw*O1 7"VSFMJ The Possibility of an Absolute Architecture QQ $BNCSJEHF and London: The MIT Press. $JDFSP .5 <>B$  i%F OBUVSB EFPSVNw *O . 5 $JDFSP  De natura deorum â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Academica ) 3BDLIBN  5SBOT  QQ   $BNCSJEHF-POEPO .BTTBDIVTFUUT 64" 6,)BSWBSE6OJWFSTJUZ1SFTTBOE8JMMJBN)FJOFNBOO-UE 'SBNQUPO  ,   i5PXBSET B $SJUJDBM3FHJPOBMJTN4JYQPJOUTGPSBO architecture of resistanceâ&#x20AC;?. Perspecta: The Yale Architectural Journal   (MBDLFO  $ +   Traces on the Rhodian Shore: Nature and Culture in Western Thought from Ancient Times to the End of Eighteenth Century. #FSLFMFZ $BMJGPSOJB 64"6OJWFSTJUZPG$BMifornia Press. )VOU +%  Greater Perfections: The Practice of Garden Theory Â&#x2039;FEJDJĂ&#x2DC;OFE 1IJMBEFMQIJB 1FOOTZMWBOJB 64"6OJWFSTJUZPG1FOOTZMWBOJB Press. )VOU +%  The Venetian City Garden. Place, Typology, and Perception.#BTFM #PTUPO #FSMJO 4XJU[FSMBOE 

Landscape in architecture: A place between culture and civilization

64" (FSNBOZ#SJLIĂ&#x160;VTFS7FSMBH"( -BZBDIJ "  /PWJFNCSF Ä&#x2021;F archetypes of landscape and sustainBCMFEFTJHOJOUIFLTBSPG,FOBETBA|Z ITU Journal of the Faculty of Architecture    -FBDI /  iÄ&#x2021;F%BSL4JEFPG the Domusâ&#x20AC;?. Journal of Architecture   1-12. -ZPUBSE  +'   i%PNVT BOE UIF .FHBMPQPMJTw *O +' -ZPUBSE  The Inhuman: reflections on time 0YGPSE  6, 1PMJUZ 1SFTT#MBDLXFMM 1VClishers. .BMQBT +  Heideggerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Topology : Being, Place, World $BNCSJEHF  .BTTBDIVTFUUT 64.*51SFTT /PSCFSH4DIVM[  $  <>  Genius Loci. Toward a phenomenology of architecture/VFWB:PSL3J[[PMJ*Oternational Publications Inc.

1BMMBEJP  "  <>   Four Books of Architecture. (I. Were, &E *8FSF 5SBOT /FX:PSL 64" Dover Publication, Inc. 3BQPQPSU  "   House Form and Culture &OHMFXPPE  /FX +FSTFZ  64"1SFOUJDF)BMM 4NJFOL  (   /JFNFJKFS  +   Palladio, the Villa and the Landscape. % .BEFS  5SBOT  #BTFM  4XJU[FSMBOE #SJLIĂ&#x160;VTFS(NC) 6SJCF0SUJ[ +-  iÄ&#x2021;F*NBHJOBUJPO.PEFM4DIPPMw*O."ESJĂ&#x2C6; . $VBESB  " (SJCPSJP  + 1 .FMMBEP  + 3PNĂ&#x2C6;O +-6SJCF0SUJ[ +-6SJCF 0SUJ[ &E Talca. Matter of Education '1FUDI 21PQF 5SBOT QQ  .Ă?YJDP%' .Ă?YJDP"SRVJOF4"EF $7

*56"];t7PM/Pt/PWFNCFSt3'-BUPSSF 8#-Ă&#x2DC;QF[


Malpas says: â&#x20AC;&#x153;More recently [than David Harveyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s The Condition of Post-Modernity (1989) and Doreen Masseyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s â&#x20AC;&#x153;PowerGeometry and Progressive Sense of Placeâ&#x20AC;? (1993)], and from within an architectural frame, the architectural theorist Neil Leach argues against Heideggerian idea of â&#x20AC;&#x153;dwellingâ&#x20AC;? (closely associated in the later thinking with notions of place) and associated notions, on grounds that echo that the criticism found on Harvey and Massey.â&#x20AC;? (Malpas, 2008, pĂĄg. 19)


The vocabulary of post consumer packaging waste in the built environments: A qualitative study


doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2018.32704

3FDFJWFE"VHVTUt Final Acceptance: September 2017

Abstract Innovative applications of post consumer packaging units in architecture are traced from the Hellenistic period. Interpreting the Romansâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; eco sensitivity, post industrial revolution era witnessed the development of â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;eco-centric idealâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; and â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;prospectorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s, cookâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s and nomadâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s approachesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;. The primary objective is to study the unique strategies and techniques developed by architects, artists, technocrats and environmentalists in reusing the primary, secondary and tertiary packaging waste in the built environments. For the study, thematic analysis is adopted to investigate and consolidate the diverse practices in todayâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s context. The summary of findings reveals the embedded design processes, the vocabulary created by such structures in the environment portraying the current use of post consumer packaging waste as building blocks in load and non load bearing components, techniques developed in erecting ephemeral spaces creating a dialogue with the environment, offering a variety of spatial experiences to the viewers, visitors and the users. We posit that a comprehensive understanding of such approaches and concepts give new directions to evolve and develop ideas with the used packaging materials in open ended prefabricated systems. Keywords Architecture, Design process, Packaging waste, Vocabulary.

1. Introduction According to the council directive  AQBDLBHJOHJTBOZUIJOHUPDPOtain, protect, handle, deliver or present raw materials and processed goodsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;. They are classified as primary, secondBSZBOEUFSUJBSZBTJO5BCMFJOBXJEer perspective. In addition, corrugated board, crushed paper, foam netting, bubble film, loose fill and air pouch cushion are classified as cushion packaging, which are used along with the secondary as well as the tertiary packaging. Based on the commodities, classification of primary and secondary packaging keeps interchanging. With respect to agricultural goods, baskets, barrels, jute bags and polymer bags are used which fall under the primary as well as tertiary packaging. 1.1. Origin of packaging waste use in built forms The innovative application of post consumer packaging wastes can be traced from the Romansâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; era. They devised techniques to use the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;amphoraeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; in the built forms. Reuse A is using the packaging unit for the original purpose DPOUJOVPVTMZ XIFSFBT$BOE#SFGFSTUP using it for an altogether purpose with and without modification. The former revolves around use of broke pieces of the earthenware in facades and pavements as paving materials, whereas the latter is about reducing the self weight of massive structures by placing the pot in inverted positions. In the current scenario, post consumer waste is used in construction is in the nascent phase. The primary reasons for such applications are exhaustive use of natural and virgin materials in packaging industry, an alternative use to the materials which becomes a waste after the primary use, address the shelter crisis through developing appropriate construction techniques, to create an awareness to the public, use technology to develop the waste in to novel building materials, components etc. The primary objective of this study is to explore the ideas, approaches and methods adopted by architects, environmentalists and artists in erecting permanent and temporary structures intuitively, poetically and as problem

Table 1. Classification of packaging materials.

Table 2. A chronological applications of packaging wastes in built environment.

solving strategy. The chronological application of post consumer packaging waste in construction, version to indicate the range and time scales is sumNBSJ[FEJO5BCMF 1.2. Architectsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; paradigms on packaging waste "DDPSEJOH UP "OUPOJBEFT   â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;materialâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; as a source of inspiration is identified as a tangible channel to creativity in architecture. Materials are broadly classified as those that affect the structural systems and functional organisation followed by those that determine the interior and exterior texUVSFT Q   &DPDFOUSJD MPHJD (VZ  'BSNFS    QSPQBHBUFT UIF VTF of renewable or recyclable materials. $BSQFOUFS   QPTJUT UIBU SFWPMVtionary outcomes which are developed through inductive process must work with nature and nurture human conEJUJPOT +FBOOF (BOH   IBT QPTtulated the cookâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s, the prospectorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s and the nomadâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s approach. The cookâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s paradigm is about incorporating the left over products in building industry for


Table 3. Interpreting the ideologies of packaging waste in built environment.

construction. The curiosity, persistence in locating the used materials, evaluating their potential, giving them new life in architecture and portable structures in relation with the climate and ecology are the prospective architectâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC;s and nomadâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC;s approaches respectively addressing â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;form follows materialsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;. :BUJO1BOEZB  IBTGSBNFEÄ&#x2022;WF BQQSPBDIFT  OBNFMZ "  #  $  % BOE & addressing sustainable architecture. Ä&#x2021;F BQQSPBDI $ JOEJDBUFT UIF VTF PG recycling waste as environmental and economical way in buildings. Reuse and recycling is identified as a strategy CZ$IJUISB7JTXBOBUI The intent of this paper is to explore the diverse approaches, consolidate, interpret and find new directions to use packaging waste in architecture. 2. Method The primary objective of qualitative research is to seek illumination, comprehensive understanding and extenTJPOUPTJNJMBSDPOEJUJPOT (PMBGTIBOJ   *UJTTQFDJÄ&#x2022;DUPBQBSUJDVMBSDPOUFYU Ä&#x2021;PNBT  )BSEFO    Ä&#x2021;F EFtails of data collection are reported sysUFNBUJDBMMZ 1BUUPO    3FTFBSDIFS JTUIFEBUBHBUIFSJOHJOTUSVNFOU #SJDL    *OUFOTJWF FOHBHFNFOU XJUI UIF EBUB JT JNQPSUBOU 3PCFSUT  1SJFTU  5SBZNPS  *UJTEFUFSNJOFECZUIF QVSQPTFPGUIFTUVEZ ,SFÄ&#x2122;JOH   Placing the raw data logically in a hoMJTUJDGBTIJPOSFRVJSFTDSFBUJWJUZ )PFQ-

Ä&#x2DC;    TFOTJUJWJUZ BOE SFNBJO PQFO .PSTF #BSSFUU.BZBO 0MTPO4QJDFST    Thematic analysis is the most common method adopted in qualitative TUVEJFT #SJDL  *UXJEFMZVTFEBT an analytical approach to yield insightGVM JOUFSQSFUBUJPO .JMMT  %VSFQPTF  8FJCF    *U JT B Ä&#x2DC;FYJCMF NFUIPE and a useful tool for analysing and reQPSUJOHQBUUFSOT #SBVO 7$MBSLF 7    8F IBWF BEPQUFE CPUI JOEVDUJWF BOE EFEVDUJWF QSPDFTTFT Ä&#x2021;PSOF   VTJOHEPNBJOBOBMZTJT -FZEFOT  .PTLBM  1BWFMJDI    UP JEFOUJGZ the patterns and themes. Data is collected and interpreted from diverse secondary sources like websites, magazines, articles, research papers and interviews which is the limitation of this study. The gathered ideas, approaches and concepts are consolidated inductively like the techniques adopted to construct the different components of the building such as foundation, wall, roof, light diffusers, fillers in slabs etc in permanent structures for a comprehensive understanding. In addition, various temporary pavilions using packaging waste by professionals, design build workshops in academics is included to interpret the design processes. Following this, for the deductive analysis, 3PNBOTQSJODJQMFTBOE(BOHTQPTUVlates are adopted to analysis the prior findings. 3. Findings The consolidation of the ideas and approaches are through inductive and deductive process are summarised JO 5BCMF  *U JT PCTFSWFE UIBU QSJNBry, secondary and tertiary packaging waste are used in constructing walls, roofs, structural elements, fillers, skin, light diffusers, portable structures etc BT JO 5BCMF  1PTJUJWF PVUEPPS TQBDes, wings of light, arcades, half open wall, tactile surface, filtered light, seat spots, ornament, pools of light, warm materials, trellised walks etc offering a variety of spatial experiences to the WJFXFST WJTJUPSTBOEVTFST "MFYBOEFS  *TIJLBXB 4JMWFSTUFJO +BDPCTPO ,JOH "OHFM     BSF UIF QBUUFSOT DSFBUFE to etch unique vocabularies in the built environments.

The vocabulary of post consumer packaging waste in the built environments: A qualitative study

4. Discussion A study on the design processes and erection of temporary pavilions or portable structures is interpreted as in Figure 1. It is posited that they are mostly â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Do-it-yourself â&#x20AC;&#x2122; activities for awareness, academic â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Design-buildâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; workshops or experimentation with advanced software and fabrication in academics as well as in construction industry by professionals. The study portrays that even though the ideals, design processes and approaches are diverse, the ultimate goal of is to reduce the use of virgin buildJOHNBUFSJBMT5FDIOPMPHZQMBZTBWJUBM role in designing new structural components such as the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;paper tubesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; by 4IJHFSV #BO BOE QSFGBCSJDBUFE AQPMMJ bricksâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; curtain wall glazing by Arthur Huang, which are either interdisciplinary or multidisciplinary in nature is challenging.  "DDPSEJOH UP ,SPOFOCFSH   Q UIFSFJTBMBDLPGDPPSEJOBUFESFsearch activities in using recycled materials in portable structures, which are as valuable as high tech solutions. The study posits that there is a strong potential for reusing packaging waste in designing open prefabricated systems which are dry assembled site, giving a new direction to explore various possibilities in ephemeral structures and spaces. References "MFYBOEFS $  *TIJLBXB 4  4JMWFSTUFJO .  +BDPCTPO .  ,JOH *'  "OHFM 4   A pattern language: Towns, buildings, construction.0YGPSE 6OJWFSTJUZ1SFTT "OPUOJBEFT  "$  1PFUJDT of architecture: Theory of design: Van /PTUSBOE3FJOIPME #SBVOF 7  $MBSLF 7   6Ting thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative research in psychology      IUUQEYEPJ PSHRQB #SJDL )*-   7BMJEJUZ BOE reliability in qualitative research. SA society of nurse researchers workshop,    $BSQFOUFS 8+   Modern sustainable residential design: John Wiley BOETPOT 1 (BOH 4  Ä&#x2021;FDPPL UIFQSPTpector, the nomad and their architect.

Figure 1: Design processes and temporary pavilions.

*OMJLB"3VCZ &ET Reinventing construction #FSMJO3VCZ1SFTT  (PMGTIBOJ /  6OEFSTUBOEJOH reliability and validity in qualitative research. The qualitative report      )PFQÄ&#x2DC; .$  $IPPTJOHRVBMitative research: A primer for technology education researchers. Journal of Technology Education    ,SPOFOCFSH 3    Portable Architecture: Design and technology. Birkhauser ,SFÄ&#x2122;JOH -  3JHPSJORVBMJUBtive research: The assessment of trustXPSUIJOFTT    -FZEFOT +- .PELBM #.1BWFMJDI .+   2VBMJUBUJWF NFUIPET used in the assessment of engineering education. Journal of engineering education  .JMMT "+  %VSFQPT (  8FJCF &   &ODZDMPQFEJB PG DBTF TUVEZ SFTFBSDI UIFNBUJD BOBMZTJT  %PJO Morse,J.M., Barrett,M., Mayan,M, 0MTPO ,  4QJDFST +   7BMJEJUZ in qualitative research. International journal of qualitative methods   BDDFTTFEPOUI.BZ 1BOEZB  :   4VTUBJOBCMF  manifestoes, Indian Architect & BuildFS    1BUUPO .2  &YBNJOJOHUIF qualitative and credibility of qualitative analysis, Health services research,  3PCFSUT 1  1SJFTU )  5SBZNPS .   3FMJBCJMJUZ BOE WBMJEJUZ JO SFsearch. Nursing standards    Ä&#x2021;PNBT +  )BSEFO  "   Methods for the thematic synthesis of qualitative research in systematic reWJFXT  Ä&#x2021;PSOF 4   %BUB BOBMZTJT JO




The vocabulary of post consumer packaging waste in the built environments: A qualitative study

*56"];t7PM/Pt/PWFNCFSt 181-194

Le Corbusierâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s exhibition pavilion: The heterogeneous character of his modernism between representation and functionalism Efe DUYAN FGFEVZBO!NTHTVFEVUSt%FQBSUNFOUPG"SDIJUFDUVSF 'BDVMUZPG"SDIJUFDUVSF  Mimar Sinan Fine Arts University, Istanbul, Turkey

doi: 10.5505/itujfa.2017.83702

3FDFJWFE"QSJMt Final Acceptance: August 2017

Abstract This study investigates the exhibition spaces designed by Le Corbusier and their common features by describing and classifying them as the existing literature does not offer a full genealogy of his exhibition spaces with the intent to identify connections between them. The relationship of architecture and the exhibited object is the key concept in understanding of the exhibition spaces, including the pavilions, galleries, and some of his museums, which can be described in three main groups: in the first group, architecture becomes the representation itself as a nomadic gesture. In the second group, the structure separates itself from the materiality of the exhibition to create a dual existence and in the third group, the structure and the exhibition obtain singular yet connected and well-defined identities. The reading of exhibition spaces indicates a career-long search by Corbusier for the identity of architecture as a representation of the exhibition itself, which explains the emergence of a template in the late years. The development of exhibition spaces from 1924 to 1962, evidences the existence of a clear leitmotif, which connects Corbusierâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s pavilions one another and represents his conception of exhibition space. All temporary exhibition spaces have a very specific shape, which can be described as a reverse double triangular at the roof or on the facade. The relation of this formal leitmotif as the common feature and the understanding of exhibition space reveals an example of Corbusierâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s rationalism, which contains elements of symbolism, formalism, functionalism and structural innovation as a synthesis. Keywords Le Corbusier, Exhibition Pavilions, Representation, Functionalism, Leitmotiv.


1. Introduction This paper will focus on the relationship of the exhibition pavilions Le Corbusier has designed throughout his career. In addition to the analysis of formal features of the temporary exhibition spaces, how Le Corbusier conceives them will also be described. On the basis of a classification and genealogy, the common features of pavilions will be brought to spotlight in terms of symbolism, formalism and functionalism. In the first part, the first exhibition pavilions will be studied. The Lâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;Esprit Nouveau Pavilion  /FTUMĂ? 1BWJMJPO  #BUB1BWJMJPOBOE/FX5JNFT1BWJMJPO can be considered as a group of exhibition spaces, where an experimental and light structure puts forward the exhibition and acts predominantly as a faceless skin to transform the architecture into the exhibition itself. The structure in its pure sense exposes various timid triangular experimentations. In the second part, it will be focused on the two pavilions as a period of transition. The Water Pavilion and Synthesis of Major Arts Pavilion represent an intermediate tone where the structure becomes more independent than the exhibition areas. Thus, as the structure becomes less attached to the exhibition, it also becomes less representative. The independent umbrellas exhibit wave-like rise and falls in obtuse angles. In the third part, some of the museum designs of Le Corbusier will be analyzed in terms of their relation to the exhibition pavilions to emphasize the role of the triangle leitmotif. The World Museum of Mundaneum, the City and State Museum and the Knowledge Museum in Chandigarh (are the atypical museums of Le Corbusier, which are in a formal dialogue with exhibition pavilions. They have a direct connection with the archaic pyramidal shape that was first used in Mundaneumâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s museum. It will be shown that the pyramidal reference obtains certain concrete and representational functions, whereas the historical reference weakens after the Mundaneum project. A fourth group of pavilions can be described as a template, which were EFTJHOFEJOTBOEQSPQPTFENBOZ times as a part of a cultural complex.

The exhibition areas preserve their semi public, circulation-based character, but the limitless shell structure of attached units becomes a more formally defined roof with double pediments. The last pavilions, namely the Philips Pavilion, Ahrenberg Palace and Heidi Weber Pavilion, the last realized project of the architect, represent a maturity where the expressionist character of the shell continues, whereas the exhibition spaces become less nomadic and more unique. While Phillips Pavilion is rather an exception, combining architecture with the exhibition space, the Heidi Weber museum embodies the separation of shell of folded steel and exhibition space and they both have their own architectural formal character. In the fifth part, the leitmotif will be evaluated on the background of Le Corbusierâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s architecture. It will be noted that a certain understanding of exhibition space reveals itself throughout the development of exhibition pavilions and, thus, prints its stamp as a leitmotiv, which is the reverse triangles. Finally, it will be suggested that reverse triangels have representational, formal and structural connotations. As a conclusion, it will be noted that the leitmotiv as reverse triangles in exhibition is an example of Le Corbusierâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s rationalist attitude. 2. Exhibition pavilions: From NestlĂŠ Pavilion to Water Pavilion Exhibition Pavilions are signs, like billboards, that have the intention to draw attention. As portable structures, an exhibition pavilion is expected to stand for something else. Le Corbusierâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s first pavilion in 1924, Lâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;Espirit Nouveau, was a pavilion showcasing the modern life and itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s style of designs. The graphically designed letters on the outer wall reminds us that it was not a real modern villa, but a promotion of it. It was standing in the place of modern architecture itself. While Lâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;Espirit Nouveau is the starting point implying BNBJOEJSFDUJPO JUJTUIF/FTUMĂ?1BWJMion that should be considered as the first exhibition space speaking entirely for something else. /FTUMĂ? 1BWJMJPO JT EFUBDIBCMF FYhibition pavilion for the Paris fair in 1928, adopting a metal framework


Figure 1. Ateliers dâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;Artistes, 1910.

Figure 2. Mundaneum, MusĂŠe Mondial, FLC 32114 (FLC/ ADAGP).

Figure 3. MusĂŠe de la ville et de lâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;etat, FLC 28814 (FLC/ ADAGP).

DPBUFEXJUITIFFUNFUBM%FNPVOUBCMF and functional, paired with the use of

graphic design, the pavilion helped to popularize the metal and glass structure and acted as a strategy of promotion of modern materials. (PanigySBLJT 

The colorful facade was painted like a billboard and had a basic composition of metal and glass. The interior was like a â&#x20AC;&#x153;collage painting into which UIFWJFXFSDPVMEXBMLw /BFHMF   The first thing that attracts attention is how the street facade gradually passes from transparency at the bottom to opaqueness so that the wings on topsides of main sign give an effect expansion. The butterfly shaped roof on the other facade is enhancing this effect. Two obtuse triangles are striking, as it is neither a gable roof nor the terrace roof described by Le Corbusier in â&#x20AC;&#x153;Five Pointsâ&#x20AC;?. Interestingly, Le Corbusier were going to use the same butterfly roof in a house design, M.A.S. Maison JO BQSFGBCSJDBUFEESZDPOTUSVDtion of standardized units to tie his rare use of butterfly roof to prefabrication. As Lâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;Esprit Nouveau pavilion was a turning point in the design of modern JOUFSJPSBTBIPVTF UIF/FTUMĂ?1BWJMJPO rather quietly sets the standards for exhibition spaces of Le Corbusier - a system of light architecture consisted of a metallic framework with a folded roof and covered with sheet metal. So, it is the first time a double triangular shape appears on the roof of an exhibition pavilion. A decade later, architecture and exhibition unifies once again in Batâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;a Pavilion, an unrealized design exeDVUFE JO  GPS UIF $[FDI TIPF BOE BJSQMBOF NBOVGBDUVSFS #BUB /BFHFMF  *UXBTBDMPTFECPYXJUIPOF ceiling consisting of translucent glass with a map on it and another as a projection screen. All walls were covered with photographs and texts or simply painted. An airplane was suspended to intensify the inseparable character of representation from the space. Representation was becoming one with the space. It was a combination of artifacts in the size of a building to surround the visitor completely with the objects, visual material and texts. Whereas the interior was designed a separate entity from the structure, it was inseparably from the represented objects.

Le Corbusierâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s exhibition pavilion: The heterogeneous character of his modernism between representation and functionalism


On the entrance the letters Batâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;a were part of the geometric composition like UIFi&wBOEi/wMFUUFSTJOLâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;Espirit Nouveauâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s PVUFS XBMM PS i/FTUMĂ?w JO /FTUMĂ? Pavilion. Still, there was a continuous circulation in this rather tiny building and one single space despite being partly divided. It was supposed to be a continuous space as a converted pictured book. Le Corbusier was trying to use steelâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s potential and in Batâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;a he used the truss system not only in columns but also in the roof. Except a ceremonious shed roof no triangular dominated shape can be seen in this unrealized building. But the truss with a slight angle can be noticed in the section. yet the roof detail connects this pavilion to the former galleries. The space inside is covered with documents; even the walls were proper for projection. It is not a void; it is a customized space for a particular group of artifacts. Le Corbusierâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s emphasizing on standard production elements exists here as well. By standardization, the construction becomes easier to proceed and it gives his designs the notion of reproductively. Another pavilion designed around UIF TBNF UJNF JT UIF /FX 5JNFT 1BWJMJPO 1BWJMMPO EFT 5FNQT /PVWFBV  After the failures of three proposals for 1BSJT  &YQPTJUJPO  B GPVSUI POF  UIF1SPKFDU%XBTÄ&#x2022;OBMMZBDDFQUFEÄ&#x2021;F /FX 5JNFT 1BWJMJPO XBT QMBOOFE BT an immense tent, which could be dismantled and transported to other places. With the pylons outside supporting the tent, it is a huge space, which surrounds the exhibition inside. The exhibition acted as anthology of modern urbanism and it was a result of the many years of work by the architects and their CIAM colleagues who were presenting their work to a large public, to the professional community and HPWFSONFOUPÄ?DJBMT 4IVNLPW

The exhibition itself seems to be a separate entity with its partition walls and cubic character. The skin of the pavilion lays an obvious emphasis on transportability as the roof was sewn in one piece and unrolled all at once. A structure of steel pylons and tensioning cables, â&#x20AC;&#x153;expressing forcefully the idea of a temporary event and nomadic ocDVQBUJPOw 1BQJMMBVU &BTZUPCVJMEBOE deconstruct, the pavilionâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s main struc-

Figure 4. MusÊe de la Connaissance, Chandigarh, 1962 (Le Corbusier - Oeuvre complète, Birkhäuser, 2006).

ture was a flexible cover construction atop. Its lightness puts the emphasis on the interior, which Le Corbusier describes as a â&#x20AC;&#x153;trial of museum of popular educationâ&#x20AC;?. It was like a book with photos and passages on the panels, where one could walk inside. His interest in the tent as a primary form was evoked earlier, as his popular book Towards a /FX"SDIJUFDUVSFTVHHFTUTÄ&#x2021;F1SJNJUJWF UFOU DBO CF DPNQBSFE UP /FX Times Pavilion, â&#x20AC;&#x153;where he preferred to keep the interior free of architecture, as the roof hangs in an inversion of the WBVMUFEGPSNw 4BNVFM 

3. The transition period: The separation of exhibition and structure The last pavilion proposal before the Second World War was for an exhibition for the history of water and its importance in civilization. In August  -F$PSCVTJFSXBTTVNNPOFEUP the committee of the Liège Exhibition and was asked to submit his idea on the overall design of the exhibition. Le Corbusier and Jeanneret came up with the idea of creating a total space with a flexible cover construction atop as they used the techniques of fabric covering the steel structure in a large composition of parasols of welded sheet steel BCPWFUIFQFEFTUSJBOSBNQT 1BQJMMBVU

The continuous ramp in the middle as the entrance and exit was supposed to gather the different pieces of the exhibition as an infinite nave. Le Corbusier reapplied the ideas that he used JO/FX5JNFT1BWJMJPOBOE#BUB1BWJM-



Figure 5. Pavillon Lâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;Espirit Nouveau (FLC/ ADAGP).

Figure 6. Pavillon NestlÊ (Le Corbusier - Oeuvre complète, Birkhäuser, 2006).

ion. The combination of steel-trussed poles and wires became horizontally expandable double vaulted trusses. Structurally more complex, it was designed as a unit to be attached to each other at all sides. Le Corbusier defined his building as â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;infinite naveâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; reminding his Museum of Infinite Growth of  FTQFDJBMMZJOUFSNTPGUIFBTZNmetrical swastika of the ramps. But his exhibition space can be considered as a total flux in one axis instead of the spiral growth of the museum. A double bowstring truss above his building should give a â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;breathâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; to the whole exhibition while the promenade entrance provides a sense of monumentality. Covering the main walkway, this arch-structure does literally not touch the exhibition itself but it creats a semiopen space underneath. This aspect XBT QSFNBUVSF JO /FX 5JNFT  CVU JU was the Water Pavilion that completely separated the structure from the exhibition. The double bowstring trusses are doing the job of the triangles as intermingled sinus curves moving ahead. A wave emerges from the two curves performing the exactly opposite NPWFNFOU Ä&#x2021;F WBVMUFE UFOU PG /FX Times Pavilion can be sensed here, too, as umbrella units, while one vault is

looking up, the next looking down. A rhythmic rise and fall movement then, dominate the structure. The â&#x20AC;&#x153;infinite naveâ&#x20AC;? remained unrealized but the wave movement of umbrellas reemerged as a motif right after the Second World War. Le Corbusier already made an appeal for a synthesis of the major arts in his essay for the journal VolontĂŠ in 1944. The theme then was taken up by CIAM and finally, a meeting was held in Paris to put in practice this introduction of the plastic arts into architecture in 1948. The concrete task, which Le Corbusier undertook was to create, the â&#x20AC;&#x153;architectural conditionsâ&#x20AC;? into which painting and sculpture might be introduced in the form of an exhibition at Porte Maillot, a ground which was provisionally loaned by the town of Paris. The selected artists was supposed to show their work to under â&#x20AC;&#x153;a series of shelters, umbrellas and parasolsâ&#x20AC;? placed along a circulation ramp to from â&#x20AC;&#x153;a succession of coPSEJOBUFETFOTBUJPOTw -F$PSCVTJFS  The main aspect of the design is a double roof structure, covering independent units and the ramp for public exhibition. The double unit roof structure has its roots in the semi open parasols of Water Pavilion. It creates a public space, independent of the exhibition itself. The roof does not consist of curved trusses but of angular sheetsteel units, which face opposite directions -one heading down, the other up. It is not an infinite number of the roof unites, but only two, whereas the alternation effect is similar to Water Pavilion. This alternation of orientation of the grand steel umbrellas implies the continuity as a possibility, expressing a f dynamism at the same time. The continuous sinus curves of the roof of Water Pavilion became the recognizable alternating triangles of Synthesis of Major Arts Pavilion. Le Corbusier firmly believed that architecture itself was the synthesis of arts and as he became more of a poet of â&#x20AC;&#x153;right angelâ&#x20AC;? then the prophet of machine age after the Second World War, it was understandable he initiated an association and an majestic exhibition to fortify architectureâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s artistic value and his position as the most suitable delegate of it. At this stage, it

Le Corbusierâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s exhibition pavilion: The heterogeneous character of his modernism between representation and functionalism


was obvious that the architecture has separated from the representation, it became the synthesis itself, sheltering the semi-public exhibition of painting and sculpture. 4. The pyramid and Le Corbusierâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s museums Le Corbusierâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s museums and exhibition pavilions together constitute the solution of exhibition problem in two compartments, permanent and temporary. They should be covered as a whole as many museum and pavilions were proposed next to each other on the same side as part of his cultural center baggage. Moreover some of his museums, which do not fit to the strictly applied, trademark museum temples, the generic Museum of Infinite Growth, can rather be linked to exhibition pavilions. Le Corbusierâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s exhibition pavilions VOUJM  TIPXDBTFE B QSPDFTT GSPN the unity of exhibition and space towards the independence of structure. Ä&#x2021;FJOUFOTFGVODUJPOBMJTNPGTBOE FBSMZ T XBT SFQMBDFE XJUI B NPSF FYQSFTTJPOJTU DIBSBDUFS JO T "OE after years of experimentation Le Corbusier envisioned a template gallery as a part of the cultural complex. At that point, the pavilions presented various ways of dynamic roof -from the butterfly to the triangular cross-section umbrellas. The main point was structural, though. The growing expressionist efGFDUUPXBSETTDBOCFTFFOJOTPNF of the museums, as well. The pyramid and triangular facades in comparison to the triangular cross-sections of pavilion roofs can be traced back to Le Corbusierâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s formative years. Le Corbusier considered himself as an artist, as a poet in the age of the machines, so it is no coincidence that the first projFDU  B DPVQMF TLFUDIFT GSPN   CFlongs to an art school in La Chaud de Fonds. It is actually a preliminary proposal for the school where he studied and worked as an instructor for a while before moving to Paris permanently. A small pyramid in the middle is surrounded by masses organized in a grid system, which quickly reminds an ancient ziggurat. As Le Corbusier did not break his visible ties with neo-classical BSDIJUFDUVSF OPU VOUJM T  UIF BO-

Figure 7. Pavillon Batâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;a, FLC 17814 (FLC/ ADAGP).

Figure 8. Pavillon des Temps Nouveaux, (FLC/ ADAGP).

cient reference seems not being of great importance. But as it is well documented, Le Corbusier, an admirer of Greek architecture, always stayed close, if not loyal, to the mathematical formalism of guiding lines and basic shapes that he considered as fundamentals of ancient temples. Fittingly, a pyramid pops up in the first pages of Oeuvre Complète, the self-edited book of collected works by Le Corbusier and Pierre Jeanerette. This project, maybe unconsciously, sets the tone of art related projects in Le Corbusierâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s career. Workshop of Artists was not an exhibition center, but the pyramidal form and the salle centrale de cours, the central room, would resurface in the World museum of Mundaneum QSPKFDU JO MBUF T 4IPSUMZ BÄ&#x2122;FS UIF GPVOEBUJPOPG-FBHVFPG/BUJPOT BQSFMJNJOBSZFOUFSQSJTFGPSUIFGVUVSF6/ESCO was put on the agenda, following the outline by Paul Otlet. Le Corbusier


Figure 9. Pavillon de la France Ă lâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;exposition de lâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;Eau, FLC 00622 (FLC / ADAGP).

and Pierre Jeanneret designed an urban complex as a meeting point of cultures, called Mundaneum, which also included a World Museum. Although the timid modernity of its architecture was not approved in the final round of the competition, it was the first museum project Le Corbusier worked on. Mundaneum project is based on a three-dimensional spiral, which forms the exhibition naves, setting up an obscure main hall in the middle. The circulation, starting from early cultures, brings the visitor to present which is symbolized by the escalation of ramps. The project was not built, but it played a subtle but an important role as an early prototype for the museums and exhibition centers throughout Le Corbusierâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s career. In 1929, right after the publication of the plans, Karel Teige published a harsh criticism towards Le Corbusier from the camp of functionalist architecture. Teige, one of the most influential advocates of modernJTN JO T  EFOPVODFE UIF QSPKFDU for its archaic impression. In his article 5FJHF Q PO.VOEBOFVNQSPKFDU in Czech magazine Stavba, he argued that the museum building in the shape of a pyramid has no functional justification and it â&#x20AC;&#x153;produces an effect of an old Egyptian, or rather old Mexican atmosphereâ&#x20AC;?. According to Teige, the symbolic character of a museum idea GPS -FBHVF PG /BUJPOT MFBE UP NPOVmentality and geometric proportions, thus to a priori aesthetics. On the other hand, Le Corbusier explains his idea

in functionalist tone, but never denied the symbolic character of the building, representing the whole achievements of mankind. The City and State Museum, a comQFUJUJPO QSPKFDU EBUJOH UP   EPFT not follow the same path, yet its affinity to Mundaneum is all but faint due to the escalation effect of the ziggurat-verse steps. According to the competition program, the building was to house the state and city museums. Although praised by the jury for being an â&#x20AC;&#x153;extraordinary solution, original and worthwhileâ&#x20AC;?, it was eliminated in the first round, for being not suitable JO UFSNT PG MJHIUOJOH 7BO EFS 4UFVS  Q   *SPOJDBMMZ  UIF NPTU QSPNJOFOU feature of the project was its lightning scheme as one of the aspects to justify the terraces. Le Corbusier and +FBOOFSFU   OPUFE JO UIF QSPKFDU report published in the same journal, Musieon, that there was â&#x20AC;&#x153;no single room, whatever its size, deprived of direct sunlightâ&#x20AC;?. The galleries were arrayed like the branches of a tree to provide immediate orientation. It was aimed thar the visit takes place in an unbroken circuit. The musum ramp leads the visitor from the bottom of the building to the top â&#x20AC;&#x153;on a continuous promenadeâ&#x20AC;?. It was not a spiral as it was in Mundaneumâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s museum, but the uninterrupted circulation seems UP CF DSVDJBM 0#ZSOF  8IJMF QSPQer lightning and fluency in movement were the main functional aspects, the double building cannot be defined better than its courtyards or its negative spaces. One side of the building creates a sliced pyramid, while the other side creates another sliced pyramid on its top. On the facade, both sides clearly reveal the pyramidal outline, but in a fragmented way. It can be argued that a similar formalist scheme was processed in a modernist manner. Le Corbusierâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s museums soon found their archetype in Museum of Infinite Growth, leaving the pyramidal references behind until the Knowledge Museum of Chandigarh, a project that remained unrealized as one of the last projects Le Corbusier presented to the Indian authorities. It is a unique building for two reasons. It is not ordered by the government and it is the

Le Corbusierâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s exhibition pavilion: The heterogeneous character of his modernism between representation and functionalism


only building in Chandigarh for which Le Corbusier defined the whole proHSBNIJNTFMG .JMMFU &YQSFTTJOHUIBU he wanted to set up â&#x20AC;&#x153;an important instrument, a language specialized in the JOGPSNBUJPO PG NBDIJOFT   TP UIBU information can be gathered togetherâ&#x20AC;?, the Knowledge Museum was significant for Le Corbusier. The collection of knowledge in a museum naturally reminds the Mundaneum, which was expected to act as a universal index. The symbolic meaning of the Knowledge Museum in Chandigarh is similar to UIFPOFPG.VOEBOFVN/FWFSUIFMFTT  it is not a well documented project, designed in the final years as a consultant architect and never seemed to be fully supported due to its conceptual comQMFYJUZBOECVEHFU .JMMFU  The basic plan was in a rectangular form, the huge ramp breaking the continual geometry of the prism decorated with awnings. The exterior ramp, which is identical to Secretariat in Chandigarh, can be compared with the vertical â&#x20AC;&#x153;tree trunkâ&#x20AC;? transitions of City and State Museum. Furthermore, the sun shields placed on either facade between all columns, differ along floor in a rhythmic movement. The modules including stairs to connect storeys vertically have a more solid look and by sliding them one step towards the middle on each floor, Le Corbusier creates a triangle on one side and a reverse triangle on the other side. The building shows strange but obvious similarity to the City and State Museum. It gives the first impression as if Le Corbusier put the terraced part of the City and State Museum on the top of the other side to obtain a rectangular prism with a junction mark on the triangle facade. The City and State Museum and Knowledge Museum are derivations of Le Corbusierâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s strictly followed museum archetype manifested in the built Chandigarh museum, an elevated building without facade, with a swastika plan presenting multiple vistas - a version of museum of unlimited growth without the ability of growth. The resemblance to pyramid or triangular terraced organization may have the archaic reference or its functional aspect, too, but it essentially reveals a representational attitude. The terraced

Figure 10. Exposition â&#x20AC;&#x153;Synthèse des arts majeursâ&#x20AC;?, FLC 18154 (FLC/ ADAGP).

ascendance represents the rigid circulation of permanent exhibition areas and the flow of history as a compact story with a firm beginning and an end, or a course in a â&#x20AC;&#x153;good schoolâ&#x20AC;?, in UIFXPSETPG-F$PSCVTJFSJOi%FDPSBUJWF"SUT5PEBZw   XIPXSPUFJO glowing terms that he â&#x20AC;&#x153;acquired certainties without holes from museumsâ&#x20AC;?. Le Corbusierâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s early education  encouraged him to think of architecture in idealistic and metaphoric terms: architecture not as a building, but as a representation. Schooled in the neo-medieval beliefs of John Ruskin and Owen Jones, and in the organic style of art nouveau, he was convinced that art and industry, like art and craft in former times, could naturally ally. For Le Corbusier, a building was always  likeâ&#x20AC;Ť Ú&#x20AC;â&#x20AC;ŹTPNFUIJOH FMTF /BFHFMF    The triangular cross-section roof of /FTUMĂ? 1BWJMJPO XBT BMTP EFTJHOFE JO the same year as Mundaneumâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Museum, but there the structural necessities and dynamic expression were on IJT BHFOEB 4P  VOUJM UIF FBSMZ T dynamism of triangular cross-section structures of pavilions had a separate development than the symbolic triangular facades of atypical museums. This, however, was going to change $VMUVSBM $PNQMFYFT BÄ&#x2122;FS NJET when pavilions would also obtain a certain expressionist aspect. 5. The gallery template in cultural complexes The double steel umbrellas of the unrealized Synthesis of Major Arts exhibition became the starting point and an ideal solution for pavilions for -F$PSCVTJFSJOT"WFSZTJNJMBS design firstly reappears in Chandigarh under the name of Art Gallery along



Figure 11. Centre Culturel, Chandigarh, FLC 04830 (FLC/ ADAGP).

Figure 12. MusĂŠe National des Beaux-Arts de lâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;Occident, Tokyo (Le Corbusier - Oeuvre complète v7, Birkhäuser, 2006).

Figure 13. Centre dâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;art international, Erlenbach, 1962 , FLC 23422 (FLC/ ADAGP.

with the Museum of Infinite Growth, plus a â&#x20AC;&#x153;Spontaneous Theatreâ&#x20AC;? and a â&#x20AC;&#x153;Box of Miraclesâ&#x20AC;?. These trademark designs compose the ideal art complex for the last years of in Le Corbusierâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s career. The first sketches of the Art Gallery date from March 1955 and it is todayâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Architecture Museum, which was constructed, according to the plans of Le Corbusier, posthumously by one of the architectsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; disciples. The double square-plan building includes a U-shaped access ramp vertical to the buildingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s main axis and the two prismatic parasol roofs supported by flared piers shelter the exhibition spaces. Shortly afterwards, Le Corbusier proposed one of his exposition pavil-

ions as part of the cultural center for Tokyo in the same year, 1955. Both designs, for Chandigarh and Tokyo, remained unrealized, as only the versions of his Unlimited Growth Museum have been constructed, but his temporary exhibition pavilions have not. In 1962, Le Corbusier once again proposed his typical museum as a part of a cultural complex for Erlenbach International Art Center and along with it, his exhibition pavilion. The design directly GPMMPXT UIF TUVEJFT PG T 4ZOUIFTJT of Major Arts Pavilion. In 1956 the name of the building type became the â&#x20AC;&#x153;Pavilion of Temporary and Traveling Exhibitions for the Synthesis of the Plastic Artsâ&#x20AC;? and â&#x20AC;&#x153;the transition from cloth at Liege to sheet metal in Tokyo is made by way of folded cardboard [as UIFNPEFMUFTUJÄ&#x2022;FT>w 1BQJMMBVU "UUIJT point, it can be seen that a template for temporary exhibition pavilions was established as well as a package containing the trademark designs of theatre and museum under the name of Cultural Center. 6. Towards a synthesis Last years of Le Corbusierâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s career include two more exhibition galleries of the same template, albeit some differences implying a synthesis of various schemes in the past decades. The roof structure and exhibition spaces would reach a mature and balanced self-expression. The first example of that balance was designed in 1962. The Ahrenberg Palace (Pavillon dâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;exQPTJUJPO  1BMBJT "ISFOCFSH  XBT OPU designed as a nomadic structure but accommodates a modifiable museum interior. The building was lifted from the water on pilings and a bridge provided the entrance. The roof was supported by large portal frame, which avoided the necessity of having bearing structures inside the building, whereas the ramp system allowed a continuous WJTJU 1BQJMMBVU Ä&#x2021;FQSPKFDUXBTOUSFalized, again, and the frustrated architect wrote that â&#x20AC;&#x153;one could believe that God who created the world does net tolerate little man to be impassioned with creation-even on his own small scaleâ&#x20AC;?. The proposal, this time, was not a semi-open space; it was a single and

Le Corbusierâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s exhibition pavilion: The heterogeneous character of his modernism between representation and functionalism

closed building under the double umbrellas. This difference lies on the program, as Ahrenberg Palace was not part of a cultural complex, as second tier to the major museum building. In PUIFS WFSTJPOT TJODF   UIF FYIJCJtion spaces were composed of either independent small buildings integrated through ramps or walkways, or, at most, a semi-open single building. Ahrenberg Palace, on the contrary, has its own proper facade balanced with the roof structure. â&#x20AC;&#x153;Circulation has been designed in such a way, that visitors are guided through a great variety of spaces: along an esplanade, through a two storied covered space, then lower spaces 2,26 m high, by a garden with monumental sculptures and over a ramp underneath the umbrellasâ&#x20AC;? (Le $PSCVTJFS   On the other hand, all exhibition pavilions, including the one for Stockholm, had the twin parasols, two butterfly-shaped steel folds facing opposite directions. In the meantime, a deviation form the template can be seen in the famous experimental design of Philips pavilion. Yet, it also represents the expected dynamism of his exhibition spaces created again by triangular shapes, even if it is much more complicated. Philips Pavilion in Brussels fair in 1958 cannot be considered in the line of typical exhibition spaces with the pressed triangular trusses. The pavilion completely toys with some other structural opportunities. The structure is composed of hyperbolic-parabolic shells. But it is interesting to see the complex facade of various triangles. It is called an electronic poem, creating a space with possibilities of projection and sound. The architecture becomes one with representation, as in his early pavilions, but Philips Pavilion has its unique formal character. It is not a faceless structure to bring the exhibition area under the spotlight. The complex triangular three-dimensionality expresses lightness and dynamism as expected. Le Corbusierâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s last pavilion and last realized design is located in Zurich and based on his pavilion template containing an angular sheet-steel roof cantilevered from a series of steel piers

Figure 14. Pavillon Exhibition, Palais Ahrenberg, FLC 25048 (FLC/ ADAGP).

Figure 15. Pavillon Philips (FLC/ ADAGP).

Figure 16. Pavillon dâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;exposition ZHLC  (Maison de lâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;Homme), (FLC/ ADAGP).

and detached from, but still covering, a rectilinear steel structure below 0DITIPSO â&#x20AC;ŤÚ&#x20AC;â&#x20AC;ŹÄ&#x2021;FCVJMEJOHXBTEFTJHOFE as a house for the gallery owner, Heidi Weber in the template of Le Corbusi-



erâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s pavilions and, ironically, converted into a gallery later. â&#x20AC;&#x153;More precisely Mrs. Heidi Weber wanted a house/ museum/house-exhibition hall able to QSFTFOU UP UIF QVCMJD XPSLT PG   -F Corbusierâ&#x20AC;?. The folded roof is built of thin welded sheet metal supported, as before, by exterior piers, thereby opening up interior areas surrounded by colored enamel. Although Heidi Weber contacted Le $PSCVTJFSJOGPSUIFÄ&#x2022;STUUJNF UIF final project was prepared only in 1962. One year before Le Corbusierâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s death, the construction has started and it was inaugurated as the Centre Le CorbusJFS JO  Ä&#x2021;F HFOFSBM PVUMJOF JT UIF same as Ahrenberg Palace, except the distance of the roof from the building. The design of the roof is characteristic, steel screens fitted together as brisesoleil. It consists of two square parts of welded metal sheets that were lifted and fixed on the pillars. With the frame completed, walls, windows, ceilings and floors were then screwed onto the steel frame. The building has two floors connected by a concrete ramp, which is a mass itself, reminding the ramp of the Knowledge Museum (also the 4FDSFUBSJBUPG$IBOEJHBSI FTTFOUJBMMZ  Heidi Weber Pavilion manifests the independent parts as self sustained architectural entities. The roof structure has the same expressionist character of the template. But the spaces underneath are not walkways or scattered prisms; but they constitute the building itself. The building has a balance between the roof structure and interior as two separate entities. Furthermore, todayâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Le Corbusier Center in Zurich is a representation of Le Corbusierâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s architecture itself. Painted panels in primary colors dominate the facade, whereas the distances maintain the standard of Modulor, the 2.26 m height as a basic unit. In a way, it is a return to the first pavilion structures of Lâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;Esprit Nouveau BOE/FTUMĂ?JOUIFXBZUIBUUIFBSDIJUFDture becomes the represented object at the same time. The main difference is that in Zurich the architecture is on the spotlight and it attracts the attention with its own formal features. In a way the architecture became more dominant to the temporary representation space. Still the nomadic sense

is there -the flying roof, tens of thousands of bolts and other parts whixh were prefabricated and assembled in the ground. It is conspicuous that folded steel sheets were placed behind two triangles - one looking up, one looking down, which can also be found at the sides of the building. And the concave and convex umbrellas are not supported at the corners but at the center, which is a direct connection to the /FTUMĂ?1BWJMJPOPG 6. Revealing the leitmotiv 4UBSUJOHGSPNT VOUJMIJTEFBUI  Le Corbusier designed numerous exhibition pavilions. It is intriguing to notice that all of them, albeit their varying contexts, have a set of common features. His conception of temporary exhibition space can be defined as a single search guided by the dialogue between architecture and audience. An anecdote related to the complaints by La Roche of his house in Paris gives an early example of this tension: â&#x20AC;&#x153;I commissioned from you a â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;frame for my collectionâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;. You provided me with a â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;poem of wallsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;. Which of us most UP CMBNFw 8FCFS    .PPT PODF noted that Le Corbusier â&#x20AC;&#x153;left no stone unturned in order to emphasize his anti-utilitarian position within ModernJTNw WPO.PPT Q  The problem of representational architecture naturally arises in the architecture of representation. His exhibition spaces, therefore, reflects a shared conception and can be evaluated in four groups. The first group, the early designs, brings architecture and the exhibited object together, transforming architecture into the representation. Surrounded by the exhibition, architecture becomes an initial part of the spectacle. The house/exhibition Lâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;Espirit Nouveau is a fine and first example PGUIJT BTUIFQBWJMJPOTPG/FTUMĂ? #BUB BOE 5FNQT /PVWFBV BSF QBSU PG UIJT group of early buildings in the form of demountable structures. The second group, Liege and Port Maillot pavilions, represents a transition from the billboard-like lightness to the floating umbrella. The structure is separated from the exhibition creating a semiopen, boundless space underneath. The structure acts as a sunshade in the

Le Corbusierâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s exhibition pavilion: The heterogeneous character of his modernism between representation and functionalism


air, definitely apart from the exhibition masses. It is not an integral part of it, such that it floats in the air even without touching it. The third group of exhibition spaces includes the temporary exhibition Pavilions of Chandigarh, Tokyo, Fort-Lamy, Erlenbach and Paris. Among all parts of the ideal cultural center, the umbrella structure becomes a formally defined shell construction with a more self-confident identity and relation to the ground. The distance remains, however, between the roof and exhibition space and the semi-open and extendable exhibition area does not cease to exist immediately. The fluid character of the exhibition spaces was obvious in cases whenever they were placed next to a museum as part of the cultural complexes, providing the necessary rigidity for permanent exhibitions. The exception is Philips Pavilion, which represents a reunion of architecture and representation and where architecture has its own geometric language in contrast to the less eye catching functional constructions of the first pavilions. The last group also includes the pavilions the unbuilt Palais Ahrenberg and another house/ gallery, the Heidi Weber Pavilion, being the mature final examples of the development. The well-defined shell remains without any change, so does the independent ramp, but the exhibition spaces drop off their nomadic character. The Heidi Weber Pavilion expresses a balanced relationship between independent roof and prismatic exhibition space, so that it acquires their own architectural agenda. While the development shows a variety of directions, certain common features can clearly be traced. Firstly, the free plan of the exhibition area and the ramps imply that the circulation was of major importance. Rather than a total and empty space, Le Corbusier designed the circulation scheme, even it was never an imposing orientation. On the contrary, he tried creating ambiguous boundaries, telescopic divisions and dramatic ramps. â&#x20AC;&#x153;It was not merely the ramp as such that we discovered here but its special formation as a path which is open to the outside permitting the visitor to look back to whence he has just comeâ&#x20AC;?Â

+PFEJDLF  3BNQTQMBZBOJNQPSUant role in Le Corbusierâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s houses, espeDJBMMZ JO T WJMMBT  iPÄ&#x152;FSJOH QSPTpects which are constantly changing and unexpected, even astonishingâ&#x20AC;? (Le $PSCVTJFSBOE1JFSSF+FBOOFSFU B    Ä&#x2021;F SBNQT DSFBUF B UISFF EJNFOsional dramatic effect and adds a duration aspect to the visitorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s perspective. This leads us to the second feature, the nomadic character of pavilions, as explicitly seen in the construction techniques and the semi-open exhibition areas. Le Corbusier strictly emphasized the temporary character of his pavilions, even for Heidi Weber pavilion, which was never meant to be a temporary structure. The demountable steel constructions, small structures around the walkways, free installation of partition wall created the nomadic impression in various examples. A third and a most important feature can be defined as a proper Leitmotif /FJUIFS TUSJDUMZ functional, nor absolutely formalistic, the triangles continued to pop up in each and every pavilion. Although the triangles on the facades and roofs have different forms, they can be detected like a signature for each exhibition design. As it was pointed out, the three atypical museum designs of Le Corbusier have their triangular elevations themselves. *O T BOE T  UIF MFJUNPUJW mainly emerges as a structural soluUJPO BTUIFCVUUFSÄ&#x2DC;ZSPPGPG/FTUMĂ?1Bvilion or the braced pylons of Temps Nouveau. Mundaneumâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s pyramid and the City and State Museumâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s terraced structures were functional solutions. Still, they all are very powerfully expressed. Le Corbusier abandoned the obvious pyramid but kept the triangles at his facades in an alternating formation. The wave-like umbrellas of de Lâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;Eau Pavilion can be considered as a clue, as the constant widening and narrowing of the roof imply a horizontal flow. Another clue and the most formalist one of all can be found in Chandigarhâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Knowledge Museum. It simply indicates a beginning and an ending on a facade decorated by repetitive brise-soleils. It refers to temporariness by being continuous like a wave, yet it is obvious where it starts and finishes. In house of Heidi Weber, the double


reverse pediments pinpoint the final strokes of the leitmotivâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s evolution. They create a balanced composition between triangular pediments and the static prism on the ground. The obtuse triangular cross-section of the double umbrella roof has various roles, with strong implications as a reminder of the dynamic circulation and a classical yet well-hidden reference going back to Ti%FÄ&#x2022;OJOHUIFSPPGBTBOBVUPOomous form, distinct from the volume underneath, represent an archaism. It JTUIF%PSJDUFNQMFPSUIF"MQJOFCBSO roof redefined. The goal is spatial draNBUJ[BUJPOw 7PO.PPT   7. Conclusion It can be argued that Le Corbusierâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s exhibition pavilions and some of his museums use the reverse triangles as a leitmotiv. The temporary exhibition space is represented by the dynamic expression by their wave-like up and down movement. The evolution of the pavilions into a representation of Le Corbusierâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s architecture assisted the emergence of the roof as an independent element. Thus an ideal solution was developed comprising a dynamic effect and a formalist geometry at the same time, which is not only supported but also well hidden by the structural necessities. As Moos once underlined â&#x20AC;&#x153;the assumption that an elementary geometry is inherent in the nature of mechanical design, and that â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;the wholesome spirit of the engineerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; will quite automatically result in forms that possess the objective, immutable charBDUFSPGDMBTTJDCFBVUZw WPO.PPT   Le Corbusierâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s play with the forms has always been controversial, to say the least. He extensively used formal comQPTJUJPOT PO IPVTF GBDBEFT JO T  designed radical reconstruction urban plans, famously introduced a sculptural latitude of BĂŠton brut after the Second World War or curiously practiced his meditation on proportions, the Modulor theory, on many occasions. Sometimes implicitly formalist, sometimes cavalierly lyrical, his architectural attiude never only fed from the functionalist aesthetics of the industrial age. He insisted in using highly individualized devices such as pilotis, architectural promenade or reverse triangular roofs.

Only Mies van der Rohe among major figures of modernism was as consistant as Corbusier to apply trademark forms, but he never went towards an expressionist interpretation. Alvar Aalto or Hans Scharoun may have followed him in his poetic manners but they tried to avoid any kind formalism like most of their contemporaries. As Le Corbuiserâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s architecture does not only contain the functional and scientific standardization of forms but also the subjectification of them by the creative ego of the architect. It is no coincidence that Le Corbusier instantly took the opportunity given by the exhibition spaces to manifest his ideas and created a leitmotiv as part of his search for a synthesis of his representational and functional perspectives of archicture. Self-expression has always been one of the idiosynchratic aspects of Le Corbusierâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s persona. Le Corbusier was used to set up rules to promote his vision. It is a leitmotiv, not a rule, which is standing in the center of a exhibition pavilion template as a result of a long search. It can be argued that his pavilions are all interconnected as Le Corbusier was looking for a synthesis of symbolism and the needs of nomadic structures for wide spans. The expressionist use of triangles as a leitmotiv combines representational aspects of architectural design with the functional aspets. On the one hand the leitmotiv can be read as an archaic reference or as a symbol of dynamic circulation, on the other hand it is a functional solution and a structural convenience. While the leitmotiv of reverse-triangle in pavilions gave the opportunity to knead the forms beyond their function, the border between representation and function are quite complex in an exhibition space as an exhibition space itself do have the function of representation. The leitmotiv represents the nomadic character, the anti-hierarchical installation, free circulation, the separation of container and contained, which are the functional aspects of the pavilion template defining his ideal exhibition space. What transforms the functional agenda into the representational form is Le Corbusierâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s desire to highlight them to the user and render them as

Le Corbusierâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s exhibition pavilion: The heterogeneous character of his modernism between representation and functionalism


specialities of the visitorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s experience. They can be read in the spaces as a text through the representational character of the forms. Le Corbusierâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s pavilion leitmotiv is respresentional of its functional raison dâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;etre, which means it simply represents its own function. The function is not only functioning but it also becomes evident to that extent that the particular function separates the building from other kinds of exhibition spaces. It can be said that the representational character of Le Corbusier pavilion has a deep connection to its idiosynchratic function agenda. While the rationalist composition as a reference to antiquity in disguise and the representational aspect of architecture find their place in the leitmotiv of reverse triangles, the standardized modern techniques and the basic roofing function are also part of the same leitmotiv. It is a synthesis to exemplify Le Corbusierâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s contradictary inclanations. As a conclusion, it can be said that the leitmotivs of the exhibition pavilions manifests the heterogeneous character of Le Corbusierâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s modernism. Abbrevations '-$ "%"(1 'POEBUJPO -F $PSCVTJFS  4PDJĂ?UĂ? EFT "VUFVST EBOT MFT Arts graphiques et plastiques. References #PZFS  .$   Le Corbusier, Homme de Lettres, Princeton ArchitecUVSBM1SFTT /FX:PSL $VSUJT  8+3   Le Corbusier Ideas and Forms, Phaidon, Hong Kong. +PFEJDLF +  Ä&#x2021;F3BNQBT"Schitectonic Promenade in Le CorbusJFST8PSL â&#x20AC;ŤÚ&#x20AC;â&#x20AC;Ź%BJEBMVT  Q -F$PSCVTJFS  Lâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;Art dĂŠcoratif dâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;aujourdâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;hui, Ă&#x2030;ditions Crès, Paris. -F $PSCVTJFS   1SPKFDU 3Fport, Mouseion: Revue internationale EF.VTĂ?PHSBQIJF  Q Le Corbusier - Oeuvre complète v1-8,  #JSLIĂ&#x160;VTFS (FSNBOZ

-F $PSCVTJFS 1MBODIF   '    Fondation Le Corbusier Archives. .JMMFU .  .VTĂ?FEFMB$POnaissance, Chandigarh, Le Corbusier Plans v1-16 Echelle-1 & FLC, Tokyo. /BFHFMF %+  #VJMEJOH#PPLT Le Corbusierâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Word-Imageâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; Pavilions, an Architecture of Representation, Architecture Conference Proceedings and Presentations (91st ACSA InternationBM$POGFSFODF1SPDFFEJOHT *PXB4UBUF 6OJWFSTJUZ %JHJUBM 3FQPTJUPSZ  Q     4BWPZF 4QBDF  )BSWBSE %FTJHO.BHB[JOF  'BMM 0#ZSOF  $   .VTĂ?F EF MB 7JMMFFUEFM&UBU Le Corbusier Plans v116, Echelle-1 & FLC, Tokyo. 0DITIPSO  +   4UFFM JO UI$FOUVSZ"SDIJUFDUVSF Encyclopedia of Twentieth Century Architecture, FE 4FOOPUU  4  'SJU[ %FBSCPSO 1VCMJTIFST /FX:PSL 1BOJHZSBLJT  1*   .BQQJOH the Stylistic Affiliations of Le Corbusierâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Work, Le Corbusier, 50 years later, 1PMZUFDIOJD6OJWFSTJUZPG7BMFODJB 7Blencia. 1BQJMMBVU  3   "SU (BMMFSZ  Le Corbusier Plans v1-16, Echelle-1 & FLC, Tokyo. 4BNVFM  '   -F $PSCVTJFS JO %FUBJM  "SDIJUFDUVSBM 1SFTT  /FUIFSlands. 4IVNLPW  *   1I% %JTTFSUBtion, Polytechnic University of Catalonia / Columbia University GSAPP. 5FJHF  ,  <>  .VOEBOFum, Oppositions Reader: Selected Essays 1973-1984. Princeton ArchitecturBM1SFTT /FX:PSL WBOEFS4UFVS -FT/PVWFBVY.VTFFT dâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;Art a Paris, Mouseion: Revue internaUJPOBMFEF.VTĂ?PHSBQIJF   WPO .PPT  4   -F $PSCVTJFS Elements of a Synthesis,OBJ 3PUUFSdam. 8FCFS  /'   Le Corbusier: A Life  ,OPQG 1VCMJTIJOH )PVTF  /FX York.


Contributors Amar Akbar ALI Associate Professor at Architecture Department, Faculty of Engineering, Tadulako University, Palu, Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. My field of study and research interest is in city identity, urban and regional planning. I involved in professional association such as member of Indonesian Architecture Association (IAI). Bilge ARMATLI KÖROĞLU Received her B.CP in City and Regional Planning from İstanbul Technical University, Faculty of Architecture, earned her M.RP. and Ph.D. degrees in City and Regional Planning from Middle East Technical University. Currently works as an Associate Professor at Gazi University, Faculty of Architecture. Major research interests include city planning, local economic development and production networks. William BLAIN LÓPEZ Architect (Universidad Piloto de Colombia), Master of Arts in Architectural History (Bartlett School of Architecture, UCL). I am currently teaching both architectural design and research modules at Universidad Piloto de Colombia. My research work has explored mainly two topics: architectural representation and narrative in architecture. Alper BODUR I was born in Konya. I graduated from ITU Faculty of Architecture, completed MSc (Disaster and Emergency Management in 2008 in ITU and Urban Systems and Transportation Management in 2012 in Bahcesehir University), and Phd (Building Sciences Program in 2017 in ITU). I have two boys aged 10 and 4. Özge ÇELİK Ozge Celik is a landscape architect and holds an M.Sc. in Urban Planning. She is a PhD candidate, research and teaching assistant at ITU Urban and Regional Planning Department. She has experience of research in sustainable design concepts of public space.

Kemal Ferit ÇETİNTAŞ He was born in Istanbul in 1978. He got PhD degree from Istanbul Technical University in 2017. Since 2014 he has been working as a lecturer in the Architecture Department of Istanbul Arel University. Hasan Engin DURAN Hasan Engin Duran is an assistant professor of regional economics at Izmir Institute of Technology, City and Regional Planning Department. He has completed his Ph.D. degree in economics at the University of Venice, Italy. He obtained his master degree in International Economics at the Berlin School of Economics and Bachelor degree in economics at Ege University. Ayşe DURUKAN KOPUZ Ayşe Durukan Kopuz received her B.Arch in Architecture from Karadeniz Technical University, Faculty of Architecture (1991- 1995) and MSc from Cukurova University, Faculty of Architecture (1997-1999). PhD. degree in Architecture from İstanbul Technical University, Faculty of Architecture (1999-2006). Major research interests include modern architecture, early republican period and people’s houses. Efe DUYAN Efe Duyan, born in İstanbul in 1981, studied architecture and philosophy at METU (BA), History and Theory of Architecture at YTU (M.S.) and History of Architecture in Mimar Sinan FAU (PhD). He is currently teaching at Mimar Sinan FAU and publishes fiction and poetry in addition to his scholarly work. Yurdanur DÜLGEROĞLU YÜKSEL Currently teaching at ITU Faculty of Architecture, Department of Architecture. Since 2016, heading of the Department of Architecture; since2013, acting as İTÜ HousingResearch Center Director; ITU A/Z Internationaljournaleditor; since 2000, in the editorial board of Open House InternationalJournal; and since 2010, has been workshop member in European Net-

work for Housing Design: Urban Issues and Housing in Developing Countries working group. Harun EKİNOĞLU Harun Ekinoglu received his BA from Bilkent University  in Landscape Architecture and Urban Design (2006), his MSc from the Politecnico di Milano in Urban Planning and Policy Design with honors (2009) and his Ph.D. from ITU in Urban Planning (2017). Harun, a practicing Urban Designer, is the recipient of UNESCO/UIA/ Carleton University award on “Historic District Renewal Methods” in 2006 organized as UN-HABITAT sub-event in World Urban Forum III. Recently Harun has been a  TUBITAK  Fellow visiting scholar at Columbia University (2014 – 2015). Umut ERDEM Umut Erdem is a research assistant and PhD student at Dokuz Eylul University, Department of City and Regional Planning. He received Master degree in City Planning at the İzmir Institute of Technology and Bachelor degree in City and Regional Planning at the Suleyman Demirel University. Ayşen ETLACAKUŞ Ayşen Etlacakuş holds a bachelor degree in Architecture from the Dokuz Eylul University, Turkey, MS in Architectural Restoration from İzmir Institute of Technology, Turkey. Currently she is a PhD student and works as a Research Assistant in the Department of Architectural Restoration, Izmir Institute of Technology, Turkey. Christine FUHRMANN Christine Fuhrmann is a landscape architect and art historian. She has experience in development of sustainable concepts and use of public space in design and implementation planning. Zeynep GÜNAY Zeynep Gunay is associate professor of urbanism in ITU. Her major areas of interests are urban conservation and urban renewal theories and policies. Apart from her role as a Vice President Young Planning Professionals in ISOCARP, she is the member of ICOMOS

and ACHS, leading networks on urban and heritage studies. Mine HAMAMCIOĞLU TURAN Mine Hamamcioglu-Turan holds a bachelor degree in Architecture from the Dokuz Eylul University, Turkey, MS in Architectural Restoration from the Middle East Technical University, Turkey, and Ph D in Architecture from the Izmir Institute of Technology, Turkey. She is a faculty member in the Department of Architectural Restoration, Izmir Institute of Technology, Turkey. Meriç DEMİR KAHRAMAN Meric Demir Kahraman is a lecturer and holds a PhD in Urban and Regional Planning. She has an experience of five years as a Research Assistant at ITU Department of Urban and Regional Planning and a semester as an International Scholar at KU Leuven. She was a coordinating member of this Erasmus IP project. Orçun KEPEZ Orçun Kepez received BSc and MSc degrees in Architecture from Istanbul Technical University and a PhD in Design from North Carolina State University. His research won prestigious awards from institutions such as the American Society of Interior Designers, the Turkish Cultural Foundation, and the European Union. Thomas KNORR-SIEDOW Thomas Knorr-Siedow, trained sociologist and urban planner, is teaching urban sociology, housing and social aspects of landscape at BTU Brandenburg and is member of the Berlin based UrbanPlus planning consultancy. He has experience of research and consultancy in urban social development and housing in Germany, countries of the EU and in developing countries. Ayşe Sema KUBAT Ayşe Sema Kubat is a Professor of Urban and Regional Planning at ITU. She was the founding professor of the Department of Landscape Architecture and Urban Design Graduate Program at ITU.She has been working in the Steering and Refereeing Committees of the International Space Syntax Sym-

posium since 2003. She was the chair of the 6th International Space Syntax Symposium that was held in Istanbul in 2007. Her research area is focused on urban morphology, urban planning & design, urban history, and space syntax. She currently serves as the chair of the Turkish Network of Urban Morphology Group (TNUM) that aims to extend the cooperation between local researchers and other regional networks and ISUF, International Studies on Urban Form. Rafael Francesconi LATORRE Architect, Magister in Philosophy and PhD candidate in Art and Architecture. I have been teaching a wide range of modules at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels since 1986 . In research terms, I have published on architectural design, architectural history and theory, urbanism and design pedagogy. Lukman NADJAMUDDIN My field of study and research interest is in social history. I involved in professional association such as chairman of the Indonesian Historian Association of Central Sulawesi. Jothilakshmy NAGAMMAL Dr. Jothilakshmy Nagammal, received UG degree from CET, Trivandrum in 1990; PG and Doctoral degree from SAP, Anna University in 2000 and 2011 respectively. Her research was on “Evaluation of Form Based Codes and the Image of Chennai, Tamilnadu”. She has presented and published several papers in various conferences and journals. Burak PAK Burak Pak is the Professor of Architectural Collaborative Design, Collective Spaces and Digital Media at KU Leuven Faculty of Architecture. He is currently teaching design studio courses and running international and national research projects. He holds a PhD from ITU Faculty of Architecture and was the co-advisor of this Erasmus IP project. Richard PLUNZ Richard Plunz is Professor of Architecture at Columbia GSAPP, where

he has served as Chair of the Division of Architecture and Director of the post-professional Urban Design Program. He is also Earth Institute Professor and Director of the Urban Design Lab at Columbia. He received his engineering and architecture degrees from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. Faculty appointments have included Rensselaer, Penn State and the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven. He is known for a wide range of urban research, development and design projects both nationally and internationally, with a particular expertise in urban infrastructure and fabric. He has been the recipient of the Andrew J. Thomas Pioneer in Housing Award from the American Institute of Architects for his contributions to housing research. A revised edition of his book, A History of Housing in New York City (Columbia 1992) has been published in October 2016. Arulmalar RAMARAJ Arulmalar Ramaraj received UG and PG degree from SAP, Anna University, Chennai in 2001 and 2002 respectively. Her areas of interests are ‘creativity’, ‘puzzle based learning in architecture’. Currently she is pursuing research on ‘innovative applications of recyclable post consumer packaging waste in architecture’ under Dr.Jothilakshmy Nagammal. Tuba SARI Tuba Sarı, received her Phd from architectural history department at Istanbul Technical University in 2017.Currently, Tuba Sarı resides in Istanbul and continues her studies as a researcher. Her working fields are focused on design-history studies, the changing image of high-rise housing and contemporary architecture of Turkey. Handan TÜRKOĞLU Handan Turkoglu is a full professor at Urban and Regional Planning Department at ITU Faculty of Architecture. She has conducted evaluative studies and research dealing with various aspects of neighbourhoods, housing, and urban open spaces. She was the co-ordinator of Re-Public Workshop: Remaking Public Space.

Selin Ă&#x153;ST Selin Ă&#x153;st received BSc and MSc degrees in Interior Architecture and PhD in Architecture from Istanbul Technical University. Since 2008, she has been working as a researcher and lecturer at the Department of Interior Architecture and Environmental Design of Kadir Has University.

A. Zerrin YILMAZ She graduated from Istanbul Technical University in 1976. She Works at Istanbul Technical University from 1979 in several academic positions. She has been published several articles and completed scientific research projects.

Itujfa 2017 3  
Itujfa 2017 3