Vol 13 No 3 âˆž November 2016
Vol 13 No 3 ∞ November 2016
Published three issues in one year by Istanbul Technical University as a refereed journal.
Yurdanur Dülgeroğlu Yüksel Gül Koçlar Oral Tüzin Baycan
Aygül Ağır Nilgün Ergun Yegan Kahya İlknur Kolay Sinan Mert Şener Hayriye Eşbah Tuncay Gülname Turan Alper Ünlü Zerrin Yılmaz
Publishing Editor Y. Çağatay Seçkin
Editorial Secretariat Melike Ersoy Koray Gelmez Buket Metin
Ümit Yılmaz • Georgia, USA Sadık C. Artunç • Mississippi, USA
Ömer Akın • School of Architecture, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, USA Michael Batty • School of Architecture, Faculty of the Built Environment, Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis, University College London, London, UK Sina Berköz • Department of Architecture and Interior Design , College of Engineering, University of Bahrain, Isa Town, Bahrain Sibel Bozdoğan • Department of Architecture, Faculty of Art and Design, Kadir Has University, Istanbul, Turkey Richard Buchanan • Department of Design & Innovation, Weatherhead School of Management, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, USA Erich Buhmann • Department of Landscape Architecture, Faculty of Agriculture, Ecotrophology and Landscape Development, Anhalt University, Bernburg, Germany Conall O’Cathain • School of Architecture, Queen’s University of Belfast, Belfast, N. Ireland Jay Chatterjee • Seasongood Foundation, Urban Design Review Board City of Cincinnati, Contemporary Arts Center Cincinnati, Cinnati, Ohio, USA Max Conrad • Department of Landscape Architecture, College of Art and Design, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, USA Gülen Çağdaş • Department of Architecture, Faculty of Architecture, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey Gülden Erkut • Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Faculty of Architecture, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey Zafer Ertürk • Department of Interior Architecture, Faculty of Architecture and Design, Feyziye Schools Foundation Işık University, Istanbul, Turkey John Gero • Department of Computer Science, College of Computing and Informatics, The University of North Carolina at Charlotte, North Carolina, USA Luigi Fusco Girard • Department of Architecture, University of Naples Federico II, Naples, Italy Joachim B. Kieferle • Department of Architecture, Faculty of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Rheinmain University, Wiesbaden, Germany Roderick John Lawrence • Department of Geography & Environment, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute of Environmental Sciences, University of Geneva, Switzerland Ardeshir Mahdavi • Department of Building Physics and Building Ecology, Institute of Architectural Sciences, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria Ezio Manzini • Chair of Design for Social Innovation,Department of Industrial Design, Polytechnic University of Milan, Milan, Italy Robert W. Marans • Department of Urban and Regional Planning, College of Architecture and Urban Planning, University of Michigan, Michigan, USA Mehmet Ocakçı • Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Faculty of Architecture, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey Rivka Oxman • Faculty of Architecture and Town Planning, Technion Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa Israel Süha Özkan • Faculty of Architecture and Design, Özyeğin University, Istanbul, Turkey Andrew D. Seidel • School of Environmental Planning, University of Northern British Columbia, Prince George, British Columbia, Canada Hasan Şener • Department of Architecture, Faculty of Architecture, Istanbul Kultur University, Istanbul, Turkey Handan Türkoğlu • Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Faculty of Architecture, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey Zerrin Yılmaz • Department of Architecture, Faculty of Architecture, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey
Gürkay Aydoğmuş Ceylan Beşevli Koray Gelmez
Cenkler Matbaa, Istanbul Turkey, November 2016
Cover Design Koray Gelmez
Logo Design Koray Gelmez
Abstracted and Indexed in
Avery Index to Architectural Periodicals Design and Applied Art Index (DAAI) Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) Genamics JournalSeek International Construction Database (ICONDA) Scopus SJR Scimago ISSN 1302-8324
İTÜ A|Z Yayın Sekreterliği, İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Mimarlık Fakültesi Taşkışla, Taksim, 34437 İstanbul Türkiye fax: 90 212 251 4895 e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org web: www.az.itu.edu.tr
ITU A|Z • Vol 13 No 3 • November 2016
Contents Y. Çağatay Seçkin • Editor Editorial
Theory Sema Alaçam, Gülen Çağdaş Spatial dimensions of bodily experience in architectural modeling: A case study
Gülname Turan The first society of industrial design in Turkey: Endüstri Tasarımı Derneği (ETD)
Ümit Arpacıoğlu Evaluation of the physical environment in Anatolian rural architecture
İlker Fatih Özorhon The expression of identity: Country pavilions for expo in architectural design studio
Nazlı Taraz, Ebru Yılmaz A study on the daily life and coffeehouse culture in Gaziantep: Tahmis Coffeehouse
Asutan Sarp Yalçın, Ayşe Balanlı A conceptual process model for the sustainability of a healthy building
Abdeldjebar Layachi The archetypes of landscape and sustainable design in the ksar of Kenadsa
Emel Cantürk, Nurbin Paker Kahvecioğlu An alternative dwelling history narrative : The story of the ‘apartment’
Pınar Irlayıcı Çakmak Causes of disputes in the Turkish construction industry: Case of public sector projects
Odeta Manahasa, Ahsen Özsoy Do architects’ and users’ reality coincide? A post occupancy evaluation in a university lecture hall
Cermetrius L. Bohannon, Nikolus Henry Vacancy and access to food: Spatially addressing food insecurity in urban Appalachia
ITU A|Z • Vol 13 No 3 • November 2016
Başak Özer, Yasin Çağatay Seçkin The use of qualitative data analysis software to read landscapes in movies: The case of Midnight in Paris
Sevil Yazıcı A parametric landscape urbanism method: The search for an optimal solution
Betül Orbey, Sinan Mert Şener Variations in design process: A case study about tool and task as design variants
Editorial Y. Çağatay SEÇKİN• Editor This is the last issue of the A|Z ITU Journal of the Faculty of Architecture for 2016. With this issue, we mark twelve years of continuous publication. Our starting year was the year of many firsts. • Zaha Hadid became the first woman to receive the Pritzker Architecture Prize. • Mark Zuckerberg launched Facebook from his Harvard dormitory room. • The ASLA Medal bestowed upon Peter E. Walker, whose lifetime achievements and contributions to the landscape architecture profession have had a unique and lasting impact on the welfare of the public and the environment. • Michael Schumacher won his seventh and final world championship with Ferrari by breaking the record of most races won in a single season – 13. • The 9th Aga Khan Foundation Awards for Architecture, went to the B2 House designed by Han Tümertekin. • Fahrenheit 9/11, directed by Michael Moore won the Palme d’Or at 57th Cannes Film Festival as first documentary in the history of the Festival. • 30 St Mary Axe, designed by Norman Foster, was completed in the City of London. • Former South African President Nelson Mandela called for commitment by the world to take action against AIDS. • Forum Building, by Herzog & de Meuron, inaugurated in Barcelona during the opening ceremony of the 2004 Universal Forum of Cultures. • Maria Sharapova, aged just 17 years, became the third-youngest Wimbledon women’s champion ever by defeating two-time winner Serena Williams. • Apple won 2 Gold (for the iPod Mini and the G5), a Silver (for the iSight) and a Bronze (for the Apple Wireless Keyboard) at the Industrial Design Excellence IDEA 2004 Awards. • Another 17 years old, Lionel Messi made his league debut for Barcelona
against Espanyol. • Seattle Central Library, designed by Rem Koolhaas, was opened to the public. • The Scream by Edvard Munch, was stolen at gunpoint from the Munch Museum in Oslo, Norway. • The 9th National Architecture Grand Award (Sinan Prize) was given to Behruz Çinici. And the first issue of A|Z ITU Journal of the Faculty of Architecture was published in June 2004. Shortly after beginning its broadcasting life, in December 2004, A|Z ITU Journal of the Faculty of Architecture has started to be indexed by ICONDA International Construction Database. In the following years, the journal was indexed and abstracted by DAAI (Design and Applied Art Index), AVERY Index to Architectural Periodicals, DOAJ (Directory of Open Access Journals), GENAMICS JournalSeek and SCOPUS. As well as increasing the recognition of the Journal, our first 10 years have seen many notable articles written by the doyens of the design and planning society. In those years, we were also delighted to have seen many younger scholars publishing for the first time. Starting with the first issue of 2015, according to expanded visibility and outreach of the Journal, the number of good-quality submissions has increased dramatically and was left no choice but to move from biannual (spring & fall) to tri-annual publication (spring, summer & fall). Beginning from the same issue, the logo, the cover and the page layout have been completely redesigned. This was done both to give the journal a brighter appearance and give the reader an opportunity to quickly identify and read the article that might be of immediate interest. Finally, in 2016, the webpage of the Journal (www.az.itu.edu.tr) was renewed. Now, it is more appealing, easier to navigate, and more fun to use than even before, with its new fresh-look. At the same time, online manuscript management system (www.journalagent.com/itujfa/) was started to use for accelerating the submission, peer-review and correspondence processes.
Additionally, accepted manuscripts in the journal started to publish with a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) number to increase the accessibility and ease the calculation of the citations. As it could be seen from the stepping stones at above, in 12 years, we have grown steadily and had a more significant position in the community of scholarly literature. In 12 years, the promise of the first words of the first editorial have been fulfilled, and more. Twelve years later, we stand on the shoulders of our founders as we celebrate our successes and see how remarkably far we have come. In brief, it has been a wonderful 12 years for the journal, but we have still more work to do, and it is time to introduce the present issue. In this issue of A|Z ITU Journal of the Faculty of Architecture, we present the following: Sema Alaçam and Gülen Çağdaş, in their paper argue that the aesthetic dimension of bodily experience is one of the key concepts in the effort towards a deeper understanding of today’s crisis in architecture design and is needed to gain insights into the future of digital design environments. Gülname Turan, in her article reviews the activities of the earliest industrial design society of Turkey established by a group of architects and designers in 1978 under the aegis of a private Turkish firm that is still pioneering in similar design activities today. Ümit Arpacıoğlu, in his essay emphasizes the need to explore the properties of climate, material and building technology used in the traditional rural architecture and aim to resolve the characteristics of traditional Anatolian architecture, in order to adapt into modern architectural design and construction. İlker Fatih Özorhon, in his paper discusses design in architecture education by generating notions and concepts and examines this issue through the design studio titled ”Expo Pavillion Design”. Nazlı Taraz and Ebru Yılmaz, in their article determine the historical Tahmis Coffeehouse in Gaziantep as case-study, and combine both mi-
cro-historical and cultural studies to construct a connection between past and present by intertwining oral narratives of Coffeehouse regulars to written evidence. Asutan Sarp Yalçın and Ayşe Balanlı, in their essay determine the sustainability of the healthy building and its criteria by the help of the definition of sustainability and associated criteria; and introduce the changes which prevent the building from sustaining its healthy status. Abdeldjebar Layachi, in his paper brings us to an ancestral city of the Sahara Desert, which represents an inestimable source of reference with its ingenious durable architecture and specific landscape. Emel Cantürk and Nurbin Paker Kahvecioğlu, in their article propose a ‘micro-narrative of dwelling history’ in which the spatial and social change of dwelling at the scale of neighborhood and city, via individual “apartments” and the personal stories of their inhabitants. Pınar Irlayıcı Çakmak, in her essay aims to identify the primary causes of disputes which both pose serious risks for the project participants and prevent the completion of construction projects within the desired cost, time and quality. Odeta Manahasa and Ahsen Özsoy, in their paper accept Post Occupancy Evaluation is an assessment method that involves the users to give clues to the building’s performance; and collect users’, designers’ and implementers’ thoughts about the Istanbul Technical University Lecture Hall Building to measure student satisfaction and behaviour within the designers’ own predictions, by the help of POE. Cermetrius L. Bohannon and Nikolus Henry, in their article examine food deserts in Roanoke, Virginia in the United States and explore ways to address food insecurity by utilizing vacant lots. In their study, the authors envision a framework as an early component to a community engaged process that recognizes vacancy patterns and honors community agency and identity in the development of site-specific design strategies.
In our essay with Başak Özer, we offer a methodology concerning the use of qualitative data analysis software (ATLAS.ti) to read landscape narratives in movies. To test our methodology, we selected a great movie that Gil and Inez are in love: Midnight in Paris. Sevil Yazıcı, in her paper introduces a parametric landscape urbanism method, which includes defining the site constraints, generation of the computational geometry and the optimization process, which uses evolutionary algorithms. The last article of this issue, written by Betül Orbey and Sinan Mert Şener, tries to exhibit the interactions between
design variants in hand, the design tool and the design problem, at the scale of design phases in order to give a general sense of the impact that the tool and the task makes on the process. Finally, I would like to thank all our readers for the support they provide to the Journal. We really look forward your comments, contributions, suggestions and criticisms. Please do not hesitate to share with us your feelings and especially, let us know if you have ideas or topics that we could be focusing on. Enjoy your reading and meet with us again in next issue on March 2017. Happy new year!
We would like to thank the following colleagues for reviewing manuscripts for which a positive or negative decision was reached during 2015 and 2016. Emrah Acar Aygül Ağır İpek Akpınar İlknur Aktuğ Kolay Eti Akyüz Levi Şermin Alyanak Bilge Ar Nihal Arıoğlu Cemal Arkon Sadık Artunç Mehmet Asatekin Erkan Avlar Hatice Ayataç Şinasi Aydemir Cermetrius Bohannon Tevfik Balcıoğlu Arzu Başaran Oğuz Bayrakçı Süha Berberoğlu Dilek Beyazlı Burak Beyhan Özgül Bingöl Erich Buhmann Burçin Cem Arabacıoğlu Gül Cephanecigil Max Conrad Gülen Çağdaş Gözde Çelik Birgül Çolakoğlu Ranjith Dayaratne Yüksel Demir Sokol Dervishi İclal Dinçer Neslihan Dostoğlu Vedia Dökmeci Yurdanur Dülgeroğlu Yüksel Soofia Tahira Elias-Özkan Zeynep Enlil Özlem Er Nilgün Ergun Fatma Erkök Stephen Ervin Halit Yaşa Ersoy Nur Esin Mine Esmer Hayriye Eşbah Tunçay Ebru Firidin Özgür Emine Görgül Leman Figen Gül Murat Gül Zeynep Günay Murat Günaydın
Işıl Hacıhasanoğlu Orhan Hacıhasanoğlu Gülay Hasdoğan Ulrike Wissen Hayek Karin Hofert Feix Demet Irklı Eryıldız Göksenin İnalhan Mustafa Adil Kasapseçkin Ebru Kerimoğlu Gül Koçlar Oral Fatma Korkut Alpin Köknel Yener Zeynep Kuban Tokgöz Aren Kurtgözü Rana Kutlu Gülten Manioğlu Mehmet Ocakçı Salih Ofluoğlu Tarkan Agah Okçuoğlu Veli Ortaçeşme Agnieszka Ozimek Tarık Örgen Şengül Öymen Gür Levent Özaydın Özlem Özçevik Pelin Pınar Özden Taner Özdil Mine Özkar Meltem Özkaraman Şen Ahsen Özsoy Serdar Kale Nurbin Paker Kahvecioğlu Serdar Kaya James Palmer Çiğdem Polatoğlu Gülçin Pulat Gökmen Tolga Sayın Y. Çağatay Seçkin Nazire Papatya Seçkin Bruce Sharky Şükrü Sönmezer Zeynep Sözen Carl Steinitz Soner Şahin Aslıhan Şenel Sinan Mert Şener Nurgün Tamer Bayazıt Fatih Terzi Tülay Tıkansak Karadayı Mine Topçubaşı Gülname Turan Sırma Turgut Fatma Ayçim Türer Başkaya Şence Türk Belkıs Uluoğlu Alper Ünlü Tolga Ünlü Hakan Yaman
Nuri Yavan Zeynep Yazıcıoğlu Halu Zerrin Yılmaz Neşe Yüğrük Akdağ
Ferhan Yürekli Nuran Zeren Gülersoy Gülay Zorer Gedik
Spatial dimensions of bodily experience in architectural modeling: A case study
Sema ALAĂ‡AM1, GĂźlen Ă‡AÄžDAĹž2 1 TFNPTQIFSF!HNBJMDPNt%FQBSUNFOUPG"SDIJUFDUVSF 'BDVMUZPG"SDIJUFDUVSF Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey 2 DBHEBT!JUVFEVUSt%FQBSUNFOUPG"SDIJUFDUVSF 'BDVMUZPG"SDIJUFDUVSF Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey
3FDFJWFE4FQUFNCFSt Final Acceptance: August 2016
Abstract We argue that the aesthetic dimension of bodily experience is one of the key concepts in the effort towards a deeper understanding of todayâ€™s crisis in architecture design and is needed to gain insights into the future of digital design environments. Our aim is to explore if there are repetitive gestural patterns among different students during the externalization of design ideas. In order to study the crucial focal points and changes in the way of making in architecture and their relations with the â€œbodyâ€? from a historical perspective, we designed a half an hour structured modeling exercise as an experimental study. We repeated the same exercise two times in different institutions with two participants each, all masterâ€™s level architecture students. In this study we introduce our findings and outcomes in the analysis and comparison of the two modeling exercises based on McNeillâ€™s classification of gestures and Lakoff and Johnsonâ€™s theory of image schema. Keywords Bodily experience, Spatial thinking, Gestures in design, Architectural modeling.
1. Introduction The evolution of technology and human beings are at asymmetric speeds. Because the pace of the evolution, human beings lags beyond the speed of the changes in technology, there is a constant gap between these two processes. Concerning the relation between human beings and technology, the perceptual and the biological limitations of human beings have not been taken into consideration; instead, it has been focused on the speed of technology and its limitations. Within the process of technological progress, the experiential dimensions of the â€œbodyâ€? has been neglected. This neglectance occurs at both the literal and the theoretical/conceptual levels. As a result of approaching the human body and the mind, the experience and the thought, the making and the thinking; as two different entities and the reflection of this approach in scientific studies; in the areas of the researches of architectural design, cognitive sciences and the human-computer interaction (HCI) from a methodological and ontological perspective, a certain extent of reductionism occurs. In a broader sense, this reductionist and disembodied approaches have become insufficient to understand the contemporary dynamics and the essence of digital transformation. We argue that the aesthetic dimensions of bodily experience is one of the key concepts in the effort to get a deeper understanding of todayâ€™s crisis and gain insight about future directions of digital design environments. Experience is embedded in time, space and body. The two dimensions of experience, space and time are folded with/in body. Time makes the space spatial. In other words, space, time and embodied experience are the complementary dimensions of each other. In the context of architectural design, not only the design representations and their locations in the space but also the bodily dimensions of experience become important. Here the term bodily experience refers to both sensory and cognitive dimensions of experience. However, beyond the real-time sensed experience, there is also a non reductable whole. This nonreductable holistic experience includes the collection of
experiences since the early childhood. To mention but not to extend, bodily experience has also cultural, social and biological roots. Bodily experience acquired through sensory perception by hand gestures has multidimensional/multilayered influence on the thinking process of the designers. The short-term memory of the human beings is limited. The bodily experience acquired through sensory perception causes tacit knowledge. Therefore, body itself becomes an extension of human memory, which spares a tacit knowledge beyond the explicit knowledge. The current digital interfaces and digital design environments do not enhance designerâ€™s bodily schemas and multisensory perception adequately. This might be the reason why there is a huge gap between the promised potentials of the digital media and its current inadequate reflections on architectural design curricula. In the most generalized terms, the main motivation for this study is to investigate how and why the digital environment interfaces used in early stages of architectural design are insufficient in the designersâ€™ process of creating abstract and conceptual thinking, and to come across findings that will serve as the basis for digital environment deTJHOTJOUIFGVUVSF'PSUIJTQVSQPTF B structured modeling exercise was created that allows the empirical observation of the process which was conducted in a digital environment. The modeling exercise was repeated two times with different participants from different universities. In each experiment two graduate-level students from the field of architecture participated, one of the participants was asked to describe to the other participant four architectural models that they had initially observed. The study was designed in a way to help the participants explain and understand geometrical and spatial relations, and the hand gestures and verbal expressions used in their dialogues were studied. Therefore, the role of the bodily experience, which consists of hand gestures conveying ideas not represented in words, in expressing or creating spatial ideas was examined.
2. The disappearance of bodily experience in digital epoch: a historical perspective One of the first separations between making and thinking in conceptual level can be traced back the terms that were introduced by Aristotle such as â€˜technĂŞâ€™ and â€˜epistĂŞmĂŞ. The Greek word â€˜â€˜technĂŞâ€™ is translated as â€œcrafts or artâ€? (Url-1). The term â€˜epistĂŞmĂŞâ€™ is generally used in terms of knowledge, however the notion of knowledge it represent is different than what we understand from the contemporary version of the word which consists of experimentaUJPO 6SM i'SPNFBSMJFTUUJNFTVOUJM Plato the word technĂŠ is linked with the word epistĂŠmĂŠ. Both words are names for knowing in the widest senseâ€? RVPUFT)FJEFHHFS )FJEFHHFS Heidegger (1954) unfolds the meaning of technĂŠ through the word â€œaltheueinâ€? (Heidegger, 1954). Therefore technĂŠ involves the affordance, however it â€œdoes not yet lie here before usâ€? says Heidegger (Heidegger 1954:5). The activities or the skill of the craftsman bring the potentials and the affordances of the technĂŠ into forth (Heidegger 1954:5). This interpretation of Heidegger is important not only for the mechanical technologies but also the digital technologies. Here, Heidegger recovers the detached / isolated / disembodied assumption of â€œtechnologyâ€?, giving reference to the Aristotelian meanings. Thence, â€œexperienceâ€? and â€œpraxisâ€? are needed to bring up the affordances and reveal the â€œpoiĂŠsisâ€? of the instruments, in Greek word â€œaletheiaâ€?. The disembodied interpretation of technĂŠ also caused the detachment between the craftsmenâ€™s body and the instrument. As a reflection, both the body and the bodily experience neglected. In terms of the thresholds for the detachment of way of making and way
Figure 1. Thresholds for the detachment of way of making and way of thinking.
of thinking relationship between body and architecture, there are important theoretical contributions by Pallasmaa $BSQP BOE1JDPO 4IPXO JO 'JHVSF BOE FYQMBJOFE JO 'JHVSF UIPTFEFUBDINFOUTIBWFCFFO occurred in verbal, visual, cognitive levels. In architectural discourse and practice, reflections of the separation of body and architecture can be traced. 1BMMBTNBB JOEJDBUFTUIFTJNJMBSity between the â€œconstruction in traditional cultures guided by the bodyâ€? and â€œa bird shapes its nest by movements PG JUT CPEZw 1BMMBTNBB *O QBSBMMFM 4NJUI TUBUFT UIBU JNitation of practice and manual works are the way to transmit the knowledge PG UIF BSUJTBOT 4NJUI i"SUJsanal guilds, their rituals, apprenticeship training, and written techniques constituted the means by which artisanal knowledge was producedâ€? PaNFMB 4NJUI BEET 4NJUI Ä‡FSFGPSF BT 4NJUI VOEFSMJOFT this experience of craftsmanship was â€˜nontextualâ€™ and â€˜nonverbalâ€™ (Smith, 4PNF PG UIF CBTJD UISFTIPMET in the way of making in architecture is TIPXOJO'JHVSFCFMPX Apart from these detachment in conceptual and theoretical levels in the fourth century BC, we can assume that another detachment emerged in the 1st century BC by â€œThe Ten Books on "SDIJUFDUVSFw UIFPSJHJOBMOBNFJTi%F "SDIJUFDUVSB -JCSJ %FDFNw PG 7JUSVvius in terms of verbal description of making in architecture (Pollio, 1914). However, the distance between the body and the way of making in architecture was relatively slight. Still, body and bodily experience were required in order to describe some concepts such as symmetry and proportion between the elements of the body. In the third CPPL PG 7JUSVWJVT XF TFF UIF UJUMF PG â€œOn Symmetry: In the Temples and in UIF)VNBO#PEZw 1PMMJP Another important departure from the body emerges during Renaissance period. â€œOne of the most striking changes that occurred in the Renaissance was the development of visual perspectiveâ€? Smith points out (Smith, 1BMMBTNBB JOEJDBUFT Leon Battista Alberti and his perspective as a beginning of a crucial turn
Spatial dimensions of bodily experience in architectural modeling: A case study
through the primacy of visual perception, harmony and proportion (PallasNBB *O UIFJS i#PEZ .FNPSZ BOE Architectureâ€? book, Bloomer and .PPSF USBDF CBDL UIF NFDIBOJTBUJPO PG BSDIJUFDUVSF JO -PVJT 97* UI DFOUVSZ #PPNFS BOE .PPSF *OEFFE JUJTEJÄ?DVMUUPNFOUJPO a precise date as a beginning of the paradigm of mechanisation and rationalization. Instead, there had occurred a lot of complex causalities in the constitution of the idea of the disembodJNFOU #MPPNFS BOE .PPSF mention the relation between how the body was conceived and how the scientific paradigms evolved at that times: The transition from the presence of the body as a â€˜divineâ€™ organising principle in architecture to a more mechanical organisation gained momentum from Galileoâ€™s arguments in favour of mathematical measurement and experiment as the criteria for physical truth #MPPNFSBOE.PPSF
5[POJT BOE -FGBJWSF FYQSFTT that: â€œThe manual and the theoretical spheres of architecture were fused into POFw 5[POJTBOE-FGBJWSF -BUFS JO UIF UI DFOUVSZ UIF TFQBSBUJPO between theory and practice; thought and making; designer and the laborer had increased. â€œAt the same time the laborer was exemplted from any theoretical activitiesâ€? write Tzonis and -FGBJWSF BOE UIFZ NFOUJPO UIF constitution of Royal Academy and formal methods of teaching (Tzonis BOE-FGBJWSF *OUIFJSXPSETi"T the divison of labor changed, so did the training of the architectâ€? (Tzonis and -FGBJWSF %VSJOHUIDFOUVSZ UIFHSPXUIPG the scientific studies continued, like the specialization in the professions. Instead of embodiment, various methods emerged not only in architecture but also in other fields. The differentiation between the art and the engineering schools can be traced back at
Figure 2. Detachment of body from the way of making in architecture. *56"];t7PM/Pt/PWFNCFSt4"MBĂŽBN (ÂąBĘ“EBĘ°
this century. Therefore, the distinction between the Cartesian rationalism and relatively holistic experience of art had EFFQFOFE #PPNFSBOE.PPSF The guild type organization gradually had lost its importance as Tzonis and -FGBJWSF TUBUFT 5[POJT BOE -FGBJWSF EJTDVTT the conceptualization of the architectural design with regards to the body in two periods, the â€œarchaic periodâ€? and the â€œmechanical ageâ€? (Tzonis and -FGBJWSF %JTDPVSTFT TVDI BT the â€œbuilding as a bodyâ€? and the â€œdivine bodyâ€? of the archaic period are changed into â€œbody as a machineâ€? and â€œbodies of the users of the building as machinesâ€? (Tzonis and Lefaivre, Ä‡F JOEVTUSJBM SFWPMVUJPO BMTP marks the period when the work of the craftsman is fragmented into pieces, whereas before the craftsman had complete control over the decisions made throughout the process, from the CFHJOOJOHUPUIFFOE 4FOOFUU Taking these points to the 21th cenUVSZ 1JDPO TUBUFT UIBU iDFSUBJO aspects of digital architecture can only be understood from an expanded hisUPSJDBM QFSTQFDUJWFw 1JDPO Similarly, to comprehend the relationship between architectural design and the body, the changes that have occurred in the creative process in architecture as well as the representation of architectural knowledge, needs to CFTUVEJFE'SPNUIFQFSJPEXIFOUIF craftsman built a brick wall without any prior representation of it, using his body and hands, to the period of modern architecture, which uses comQVUFSBJEFEEFTJHO $"% UIFiCPEZw and the â€œbodily experienceâ€? have gone through many breaking points in the practice, theory and discourse of archiUFDUVSF 'JHVSF In respect to the relation of the body and the tools, and the conceptualisation of the body, in the digital era the visual representation become much more dominated. Apart from the distinction of the hand and the mind of mechanic era, the fragmentation of the senses emerged. Approaching the senses separately became the common attitude in scientific research. There had been limited number of people who criticized the reductionist growth
of the computational approaches. To NFOUJPO 1BMMBTNBB %SFZGVT -BLPÄŒ and Johnsonâ€™s embodiment theory, and Gallagher can be listed. As a key point of the critics of Pallasmaa, suppression of hapticity among the other senses became a problematic for the architects JOUIFEJHJUBMFQPDI1BMMBTNBBT defines this detachment and alienation of the technical world as â€œcertain pathology of the sensesâ€?. Today for architects, visual perception still keeps its dominance in terms of interaction between the design tools and designers. In brief, there had been a common tendency of dominating the vision in the theories, approaches, and assumpUJPOT JO UI DFOUVSZ *O UIF TFDPOE IBMGPGUIFUIDFOUVSZUIJTUFOEFODZ gained acceleration by the impact of development in the information and communication technologies. The disembodied assumptions of knowledge, neglected the aesthetic qualities of experience and the spatial dimensions of the experience. The encounter of the architecture with the digital could not become fruitful enough because of the reductionist and disembodied approaching. The communication and interaction between the architect and the digital media remained insufficient, without utilizing both the potentials of the digital media and the potentials of multisensory experience. The theories of knowledge neglected the tacit dimensions of the experience. Moreover, similar with the previous mechanic era, the specialization brought degregation in the architectural practice. The draftsman of the mechanic era, slightly had been transformed into the render operator of the digital era. This is also because, the technological development did not and still is not provides architect friendly interfaces which support the spatial abilities of the architects. 3. Theories and concepts on bodily experience -BCBO JOUSPEVDFT UIF DPOcept of â€˜choreuticsâ€™ to underline the relationship between movement and QFSDFQUJPO -BCBO )F BTTFSUT â€œSpace is a hidden feature of movement and movement is a visible aspect of space. We must not look at the locality
Spatial dimensions of bodily experience in architectural modeling: A case study
simply as an empty room. Continuous flux within the locality itself â€? (Laban, 1FUJU IJHIMJHIUTUIFMJWJOH and dynamic foundations of experience through the etymological investigation of the concept of â€˜kinesthesiaâ€™, which covers the sensation mechanism of moving body, and he proposes the idea of blind preverbal, implicit and immanent knowledge of daily expeSJFODF 1FUJU 4IFFUT+PIOTUPOF EFBMTXJUIUIFLJOFTUIFTJBDPOcept as an awareness of â€˜qualitatively felt kinetic flowâ€™ (Sheets-Johnstone, 4IFFUT+PIOTUPOF BQQMJFT the phenomenological approach to exhibits the felt qualities and patterns of body movement, and after analyzing kinesthetic consciousness, she suggests that â€˜tensionâ€™, â€˜linearityâ€˜, â€˜amplitudeâ€˜, and â€˜projectionâ€™ are the four primary qualities of body movement (Sheets-JohnTUPOF Lakoff and Johnson investigate how the bodily experience affects the constitution of language, by criticizing dominant thinking about meaning in Western philosophy (Lakoff and JohnTPO Ä‡FZTIPXFEUIBUUIF constitution of abstract concepts is related to bodily experienced spatial orientation concepts (Lakoff and Johnson, Ä‡FZFYQMBJOUIBUQIZTJDBM experience and experiencing the world physically and culturally using the body lies at the roots of spatial orientation concepts, such as up / down, in / out, front / back, open / closed or center / periphery. Based on this premise, they state that, although it could show cultural variations, abstract terms such as good / bad or happy / unhappy can be paired with orientation terms such as up/down. They add, for example, â€œa lotâ€? would suggest a higher ground, or â€œlittleâ€? would suggest a lower ground. They also have shown how the future events are â€œahead of usâ€?, whereas the past is â€œbehind usâ€? (Lakoff and JohnTPO +PIOTPO TUBUFT that â€˜movementâ€™ is one of the principal ways by which people learn the meaning of things and acquire an ever-growJOHTFOTF +PIOTPO The first source in architecture to refer to the body-image theory is considered to be Bloomer and Mooreâ€™s â€œBody, Memory, Architectureâ€? published in
The body image is informed fundamentally from haptic and orienting experience early in life. Our visual images are developed later on and depend for their meaning on primal experiences that were acquired hapticallyâ€™â€? (BloomFS BOE .PPSF 1BMMBTNBB
Bloomer and Moore state that the term body-image, or the term imagery in its extended meaning, already include the concepts of body-perception and body-schema (Bloomer and .PPSF Ä‡FZ TUBUF UIBU i'PS our purpose we mean to accept the body-image as the complete feeling, or three dimensional Gestalt-sense of form- that an individual carries at any one moment in time - his spatial intentions, values, and his knowledge of a personal, experienced bodyâ€? (BloomFS BOE .PPSF "T GPS UIFJS body-image schemas, they list schemas such as â€œup/downâ€?, â€œfront/backâ€?, â€œright/ leftâ€? and â€œhere-in-the-centerâ€? (BloomFSBOE.PPSF Gallagher has investigated the difference between the terms body schema and body image using a phenomenological analysis, going all the XBZ CBDL UP T UP TUVEZ UIFJS FUZmological and historical roots, and he has shown that these terms have often been used incorrectly in the literature (BMMBHIFS #PEZTDIFNBTXFSF described as â€œsensory-motor capacities that function without the awareness or the necessity of perceptual monitorJOHw (BMMMBHIFS +PIOTPO Johnson highlights that in addition to this, the body schemas govern the tacit performances that operate below the level of self-refential intentionality, at UIFQSFDPOTDJPVTMFWFM +PIOTPO Therefore, â€œour perception, bodily movement and kinesthetic sensibilityâ€? can operate at the preconscious level, in an integrated and spontaneous way +PIOTPO 'PS CPEZTDIFNB Merleau-Ponty gives the example of reaching over to something using gesUVSFT .FSMFBV1POUZ Body image, on the other hand, is described as â€œa personâ€™s perception, behavior and belief system about oneâ€™s PXOCPEZw (BMMBHIFS +PIOTPO
3.1. Bodily experience in protocol studies There are only a few number of studies dealing with the body and bodily experience in architectural design process. Charles observes the role of bodily experience during the design process intuitively without initial assumptions by looking at what designers draw, say, EPBOEHFTUVSF $IBSMFT "UIBvankar et al. compare the architectural space image constructed in the mind and the space physically experienced using the â€˜thinking aloud methodâ€™ to produce a verbal transcript (AthavanLBSFUBM "MPOHXJUIUIJTWFSCBM transcript, body and hand gestures are used as data source for analysis (AthaWBOLBSFUBM 7JTTFSBOE.BIFS summarize the state of art on the role of gestures in the design process of an FEJUPSJBMQSFTFOUBUJPO 7JTTFSBOE.BIFS -BLPÄŒ BOE +PIOTPO have contributed to the embodiment theory with their concept of the â€œimage schemaâ€?, explained in detail in the next TFDUJPO -BLPÄŒ +PIOTPO The concept of the image schema was suggested by Lakoff and Johnson in -BLPÄŒ +PIOTPO This concept lies at the foundation of the sensory motor experience, which encounters a world that we comprehend and participate in through our FYFDVUJWF GVODUJPOT +PIOTPO In other words, according to Johnson, at the basis of all aspects of perception, motor activities and our understanding of spatial terms, lies the image-schematic structure (Johnson, Ä‡FSFGPSF SFDVSSJOH QBUUFSOT and structures (up-down, front-back, near-far, in-out, on-under, etc.) constitute spatial experience and how individuals perceive the word (Johnson, Before assuming the image-schema as an abstract, cognitive structure, we need to consider its embodied roots +PIOTPO "U UIJT QPJOU B EJBlectic approach is needed to study the interaction between abstract conceptualization and reasoning processes with concrete bodily experience. Image schemas constitute an important part of our unrepresented world and thoughts, in addition to our senso-
SZNPUPS FYQFSJFODF +PIOTPO Image-schemas function as activation patterns in the topological nervous sysUFNNBQT +PIOTPO McNeill (1992) classifies gestures under four main groups: (i) iconic, (ii) metaphorical, (iii) deictic and (iv) beats (McNeill, 1992). The term â€œiconic gestureâ€? was first used by McNeill BOE -FWJ JO .D/FJMM BOE -FWJ Ä‡FTFNBOUJDDPOUFOUPGUIFWFSbal expression and the iconic gesture is required to have a formal relationTIJQ .D/FJMM Ä‡FTFJDPOJD gestures are those that express concrete beings and/or actions and convey semantic content that has a formal or pictorial representation (McNeill, .D/FJMMMJTUTESBXJOHBUSBKFDUPry through hand gestures, grabbing an object that has width or pointing out to a direction as iconic gestures (McNeill, Ä‡FJDPOJDHFTUVSFTJODMVEFUIF â€œkinetographicâ€? and â€œpictographicâ€? categories suggested by Ekman and 'SJFTFO &LNBO BOE 'SJFTFO .D/FJMM Ä‡FSFGPSF UIFZ can correspond to the portrayal of a bodily movement or a drawing in the air for the content referred to. Metaphoric gestures differ from iconic gestures in expressing semantic content that refers to abstract concepts, memories or thoughts. In McNeillâ€™s words, they are the â€œimages of the abstractâ€?, and they match the concrete gestures that carry pictorial quality with a content that carries metaphorical content .D/FJMM %FJDUJD HFTUVSFT SFfer to those that involve pointing to a certain place in an area using the index finger, but sometimes, the head, nose, eyebrows or feet can accompany the EFJDUJD HFTUVSF .D/FJMM 4VDI abstract deictic gestures are considered to be a sub-group of metaphorical HFTUVSFT .D/FJMM 4ZTUFNBUJD gestures, also referred to as beat gestures, are gestures that are used while breaking down a verbal narration into pieces. When verbal content and gestures are compared, the meaning may not NBUDI'PSTJUVBUJPOTXIFSFJOBHFTUVSF corresponds to a word that is expected to come at a prior time or at a later UJNFJOBTQFFDI .D/FJMM VTFT the term â€œoffsetâ€?. An 1999 year analysis
Spatial dimensions of bodily experience in architectural modeling: A case study
conducted specifically for Turkish language which was held at Max Planck Institute in Nijmegen is available in McNeillâ€™s book â€œGesture and Thoughtâ€? .D/FJMM 4. Case study: Structured modeling exercise The case study designed focuses on the following questions: 1. How is the role of hand gestures different than verbal expressions in expressing spatial thoughts in the processes of examining, remembering and describing a physical model, as well as in recreating it in the digital medium? 2. Can we find common and recurrent patterns that people use while explaining a scaled model to another person after having sensorily observed it with hand gestures and touch? $BO XF EFFQFO PVS LOPXMFEHF and understanding of the role of bodily experience in the designing process by making a connection between Lakoff and Johnsonâ€™s image schemas and McNeillâ€™s gesture categories? 4.1. Scope and constraints 'PSUIFTUVEZ BUXPTUFQ 'JHVSF experiment was conducted with two graduate level architecture students. The first step consisted of one of the students observing the physical models, and the second step consisted of the other student, who has not seen UIFNPEFMT QFSGPSNJOHB%NPEFMJOH of these physical models on the computer based on the verbal and gestural directions of the first student. In the Ä•STU TUFQ GPVS GBDF NPEFMT 'JHVSF with a scale of 1:1 were used. The models were made with a laser cutter and the participant was given the physical printouts. The methods of production and geometrical designs of the physical models were different from each other. One of them was created by adding parallel cardboards to each other without leaving any space in between. The second model was made of cardboards that crossed each other perpendicularly, leaving spaces in between. The third model was created using non-identical polygonal frames and contained relatively more detailed information, i.e. points of intersection, surface lengths and number of components. The fourth
Figure 3. Exploring by touching on the left; Digital modeling exercise on the right.
Figure 4. Physical models which have been used in the modeling exercise.
model was constructed in a telescopic way, could expand three times its original size and had a dynamic quality 'JHVSF In this first step, the participant was asked to observe the models for 5 minutes. While doing this, touching, taking notes and sketching was allowed. In the second step, the models were removed and the first participant was asked to describe the physical modelâ€™s geometrical relationships in words and gestures. None of the participants were informed about the purpose and methods of the study so as to prevent any influence of this information on their gestures. In the second step, a laptop BOE3IJOPTPÄ™XBSFXBTVTFEBTUIF% modeling medium. This two-step experiment was repeated two times by different participants at different universities. The entire experiments were videotaped. Using the recordings, verbal analyses were conducted on the second steps of the experiments. Experiment 1 MBTUFE NJOVUFT BOE TFDPOET BOE &YQFSJNFOU MBTUFE NJOVUFT BOE TFDPOET *O UIJT BOBMZTJT IFBE BOE eye movements were ignored and only hand gestures were studied. The sensory feedback obtained through pressing keys on the laptop keyboard or by using the mouse was also ignored. In addition, it should be noted that at the time of the experiments, all the participants had already completed their architectural education.
4.2. Segmentation of the verbal and gestural content The analyzed video recordings were segmented into pieces, consisting of gestures. In this step, McNeillâ€™s (1992) gesture definitions, which consist of four categories: iconic, metaphorical, deictic and beat, were used. ExperiNFOU QSPWJEFE QJFDFT BOE &YQFSJNFOUQSPWJEFEQJFDFT The participants were observed to be focusing on the computer screen or conveying the modelâ€™s geometrical information by sketching or engaging in a face-to-face dialogue, in no particular order. Based on these different types of engagement, three categories were determined where gestures were executed: computer screen, paper and none. If the computer screen became Table 1. Distribution of the gestures in two modeling exercise.
Figure 5. Distribution of the gestures as a percentage in two modeling exercises.
Figure 6. Occurrence of spatial qualities with/in the gestures.
the main focus of the communication between two participants, we tagged the medium of the gesture as â€œcomputer screenâ€?. In the case of touching to the computer screen, and/or the case of pointing the screen by the hand were evaluated under this category. If one of the participants make sketching by using a pen or a pencil; or if one of the participants points out a detail on the sketching paper whether touching or not; we evaluated these situations under the category of â€œpaperâ€?. A third item, â€œnoneâ€? refers to the usage of hand gestures in the air without a supporting media. 4.3. Evaluation and comparison of the two modeling exercises In this part, the distribution of the gestures, the spatial quality of them which we call â€œaugmented gesturesâ€? and gesture-medium relationship are examined and discussed. The distribution of these gestures in the verbal analysis can be seen in Table 1. Seven of the deictic gestures in ExQFSJNFOU BOE PG UIF EFJDUJD HFTtures in Experiment-2 carried iconic and spatial qualities. These â€œiconic/ deicticâ€? gestures did not only point to the geometric object as a singular object in the environment, but also gave information on its direction, angle, its sphere-like quality and its representation of an area as a circle. These â€œiconic/deicticâ€? gestures that contain spatial qualities are evaluated under the cateHPSZPGEFJDUJDHFTUVSFT 'JHVSF %Fictic gestures). The following spatial qualities are seen both in Experiment 1 and Experiment 2: verticality, horizontality, sequentiality, expansion of the piece of the model, direction, orientation, angle, spatial relations, circular movement, connections, frames, simulation PG UIF TIBQF JO % TJNVMBUJPO PG UIF HFPNFUSZJO%"TJUJTTFFOJO'JHVSF BMMUIFJDPOJDHFTUVSFTBSFBTTVNFEUP convey spatial qualities. More than half of the metaphoric gestures convey spaUJBM RVBMJUJFT 'PS FYBNQMF XIFSF UIF verbal content is â€œcolumn like treesâ€?, the participant simulated the growth of the brunches of a tree by two hands in the air. This metaphoric gesture has motion quality and it also shows the di-
Spatial dimensions of bodily experience in architectural modeling: A case study
rection of the growth. In general, deictic gestures are expected to point some point in the space. Therefore at least the indicated point has a direction. )PXFWFS JO 'JHVSF XF EJTSFHBSEFE this one dimensional information and counted the deictic gestures as not conveying spatial quality. The expression of the physical model through hand gestures in the space above the table plane (â€œnoneâ€?) and on the sketches made on paper (â€œpaperâ€?) involved more iconic gestures compared to those used for the computer TDSFFO 'JHVSF 8IFOUIFDPNQVUFS screen was the main focus of the participants, deictic gestures were used TJHOJÄ•DBOUMZ NPSF PÄ™FO 'JHVSF The execution of the deictic gestures involved the index finger touching the computer screen to point to the digital NPEFMBTBXIPMFPSJOQBSU*OUIF deictic gestures where the model was pointed to on the computer screen, 4 of them carried an iconic quality as well. 'PSFYBNQMF UIFTFOUFODFi-FUTDBSSZ this from here to hereâ€? was accompanied by pointing to a starting point, the direction towards which the action was to take place, as well as the destination point on the computer screen. When verbal and gestural content is compared, shifting the meaning forward or backward has significance in UFSNT PG -BLPÄŒ BOE +PIOTPOT TPVSDFQBUIHPBM TDIFNB .D/FJMM DBMMTUIFTFTIJÄ™TBTiPÄŒTFU .D/FJMM 8IJMFFYQMBJOJOHUIF physical model using a sketch or using hand gestures while sitting face-to-face, iconic gestures were used in â€œforwardâ€? and â€œbackwardâ€? offsetting. While the focus was on the computer, the offsets were encountered less often and in the GPSN PG EFJDUJD HFTUVSFT 'JHVSF Considering the relationship between iconic gestures and the image schemas 'JHVSF BOE 'JHVSF JDPOJD IBOE gestures can be said to offer stronger support of the source-path-goal schema during communication in a physical environment. Both in the two exercise it seen that, participants might utilize different gestures for the same verbal data. 'PS FYBNQMF PODF UIFZ FYQSFTTFE UIF geometry of the model in detail by using iconic gestures, for the second
Figure 7. Comparison of two modeling exercises in terms of the type of medium.
Figure 8. Iterations and transitions.
or third time they tend to use deictic gestures and only point the location in the space. This location can be both a detail on the drawing/sketch or an arbitrary space in the air. This situation is TIPXOJO'JHVSF 5. Concluding remarks In a broader sense this study sought to answer the question, â€œWhat is?â€?. This might be the reason why there is a huge gap between the promised potentials of the digital media and its current inadequate reflections on architectural deTJHODVSSJDVMB%FTQJUFUIFSBQJEQSPHSFTT JO $"% BOE $". UFDIOPMPHJFT in the last two decades, today conventional methodologies such as sketching and model making are still crucial in architecture education. This research should be considered as a preliminary step in understanding why and how the digital interfaces are insufficient in designersâ€™ creation of abstract and conceptual thinking in the early stages of architectural design. We argue that the aesthetic dimensions of bodily experience is one of the key concepts in the
effort to get a deeper understanding of todayâ€™s crisis and gain insight about future directions of digital design environments. In this study, where a modelling application was used, the role of bodily experience, which was complemented by hand gestures and conveyed information that was not verbally expressed, was investigated in the process of expression and creation of spatial thoughts. In the modelling process in a digital environment, the repetitions, patterns and relations in the hand gestures of a participant asked to describe a physical model, were observed. Iconic gestures complement the verbal dialogue when the relationship between the components of a physical model and the spatial information is being conveyed. In some situations, the gestures, particularly the iconic gestures, were observed to support the sourcepath-goal schema and the movement TDIFNB TJNVMUBOFPVTMZ 'PS JOTUBODF we have encountered situations where the kinetic qualities of the physical model were expressed only in gestures, without any verbal expression. The hand gestures do not only convey geometrical qualities of the model, but also the becoming process of an action. In addition, it is sometimes possible to use the same verb for two consecutive sentences and to connect the two sentences to each other through gestures. References Athavankar, U., Bokil, P., Guruprasad, K., Patsute, R. and Sharma, 4 3FBDIJOH0VUJOUIF.JOET Space, in Gero, J.S. and Goel, A.K. (ed.) %FTJHO$PNQVUJOHBOE$PHOJUJPOA /FUIFSMBOET4QSJOHFS Bloomer, K. C. And Moore C. M. #PEZ NFNPSZ BOE BSDIJUFDture. Yale University Press, New Haven and London. $BSQP . Ä‡FBMQIBCFUBOE the algorithm. MIT Press. $IBSMFT 11 1FSTQFDUJWFTPG the role of the body in the design process: observations from an experiment, .*5 1SFTT %FQBSUNFOU PG "SDIJUFDture. &LNBO 1 'SJFTFO 8 7 The Repertoire of Nonverbal Behaviour: Categories, Origins, Usage,
BOE$PEJOH 4FNJPUJDB * * Q (BMMBHIFS 4 )PXUIFCPEZ shapes the mind. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Heidegger, M. (1954). The question concerning technology. Technology BOEWBMVFT&TTFOUJBMSFBEJOHT +PIOTPO . Ä‡FCPEZJOUIF mind: The bodily basis of meaning, imagination, and reason. University of Chicago Press. +PIOTPO . Ä‡FNFBOJOHPG the body: Aesthetics of human understanding. University of Chicago Press. -BCBO 3 $IPSFVUJDT-POEPO.BD%POBME&WBOT -BLPÄŒ ( 8PNFO 'JSF BOE %BOHFSPVT Ä‡JOHT 8IBU $BUFHPSJFT Reveal about the Mind Chicago: University of Chicago Press -BLPÄŒ ( +PIOTPO . Philosophy in the flesh: The embodied mind and its challenge to western thought. Basic books. -BLPÄŒ ( +PIOTPO . Metaphors we live by. University of $IJDBHP QSFTT 'JSTU QVCMJTIFE JO .FSMFBV1POUZ . 1IFOPNFOPMPHZ PG 1FSDFQUJPO 5SBOT %POBME "-BOEFT 3PVUMFEHF /FX:PSL 'JSTU publication in 1945). .D/FJMM % )BOEBOENJOE What gestures reveal about thought. University of Chicago Press. .D/FJMM % 4P ZPV UIJOL gestures are nonverbal? Psychological SFWJFX .D/FJMM % Gesture and thought, University of Chicago Press. .D/FJMM % -FWZ & $POceptual representations in language acUJWJUZ BOE HFTUVSF *O 3 +BSWFMMB 8 Klein (Eds.), Speech, place and action: Studies in deixis and related topics (pp. $IJDIFTUFS &OHMBOE8JMFZ 1BMMBTNBB + Ä‡FFZFTPGUIF skin: Architecture and the Senses. England, WileyAcademy (Originally pubMJTIFEJO 1FUJU + - " )VTTFSMJBO Neurophenomenologic Approach to Embodiment. In Handbook of Phenomenology and Cognitive Science QQ 4QSJOHFS/FUIFSMBOET 1JDPO " %JHJUBM DVMUVSF JO architecture. Birkh user Architecture. 1PMMJP 7 7JUSVWJVT Ä‡F
Spatial dimensions of bodily experience in architectural modeling: A case study
5FO#PPLTPO"SDIJUFDUVSF 7PM $PVSJFS%PWFS1VCMJDBUJPOT 4FOOFUU 3 ;BOBBULÃ‰S5SBOT Pekdemir, M AyrÄ±ntÄ± YayÄ±nlarÄ±. 4IFFUT+PIOTUPOF . #PEZ and movement: Basic dynamic principles. In Handbook of Phenomenology BOE $PHOJUJWF 4DJFODF QQ Springer Netherlands. 4NJUI 1) Ä‡FCPEZPGUIF artisan: art and experience in the scientific revolution. University of Chicago Press.
5[POJT " -FGBJWSF - Ä‡F .FDIBOJDBM #PEZ WFSTVT UIF %JWJOF #PEZÄ‡F3JTFPG.PEFSO%FTJHOÄ‡FPSZÄ‡F3JTFPG.PEFSO%FTJHOÄ‡FPry in Europe. Journal of Architectural &EVDBUJPO Url-1 <http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/episteme-techne/>, date retrieved 7JTTFS 8 .BIFS .- Ä‡F role of gesture in designing, Artificial *OUFMMJHFODF GPS &OHJOFFSJOH %FTJHO "OBMZTJT BOE .BOVGBDUVSJOH
The first society of industrial design in Turkey: EndĂźstri TasarÄąmÄą DerneÄ&#x;i (ETD)
GĂźlname TURAN HVMOBNFUVSBO!JUVFEVUSt%FQBSUNFOUPG*OEVTUSJBM1SPEVDU%FTJHO 'BDVMUZPG Architecture, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey
3FDFJWFE.BSDIt Final Acceptance: June 2016
Abstract This article reviews the activities of the earliest industrial design society of Turkey established by a group of architects and designers in 1978 under the aegis of a private Turkish firm that is still pioneering in similar design activities today. The paper, starting with a very brief introduction on the relationship between industry and design initiatives in the 1970s, discusses on the formation of the EndĂźstri TasarÄąmÄą DerneÄ&#x;i (ETD) and its role on the institutionalization of product design in Turkey. The research background of this paper includes semi-structured interviews, interpretation of archival data and secondary information reached through memoirs and histories of institutions. Keywords EndĂźstri TasarÄąmÄą DerneÄ&#x;i, Design history of Turkey, Institutionalization of design in Turkey.
1. Introduction This paper 1, reviews EndĂźstri TasarÄąmÄą DerneÄ&#x;i (ETD) as a step in the proto-instutionalization of industrial design in Turkey. ETD was established in 1978 under the support of EczacÄąbaĹ&#x;Äą - one of the leading private firms of the 1970s in terms of production - at a time it was deemed to be an early initiative by some of its founders while another group believed that it was right on time. Once the scope of discussion is centred on â€œindustrial design in Turkeyâ€?, it is common to come across two different views. The first asserts that institutionalised education such as industrial design departments in particular, have achieved a greater pace of development in comparison with design practice required in industry. The second view suggests that they have been structured just in due course.4 ETD constituting the subject matter of this research can be correlated with both of these views due to its date of establishment, and also the fact that its founders were mostly from an academic background mainly professors at universities. )BTEPĘ“BO TUBSUT UIF QSPDFTT of institutionalization in industrial design profession in Turkey in the 1970s with the foundation of industrial design programmes at universities and the governmental concern in design XIJDI XBT EFDMBSFE JO UIF UIJSE 'JWF:FBS %FWFMPQNFOU 1MBO PG UIF 4UBUF 1MBOOJOH 0SHBOJ[BUJPO DPWFSJOH UIF QFSJPEUP8JUIJOUIJTDPOtext, face-to-face interviews were held XJUI 1SPG :VSEBFS "MUÂ‘OUBĘ° BOE 1SPG /F[JI &MEFN CE XIP were among the founding members of the society. AltÄąntaĹ&#x; was the Head of Graphic Design Department of MiNBS 4JOBO 'JOF "SUT 6OJWFSTJUZ XIFO UIFJOUFSWJFXXBTIFMEJO"QSJMJO 'Â‘OEÂ‘LMÂ‘ $BNQVT *TUBOCVM &MEFN XBT BOFNFSJUVTQSPGFTTPSBUUIFÉ—5Ăƒ'BDVMty of Architecture when the interview was held in his home-office in Levent JO "QSJM "TTPD 1SPG .FINFU Asatekin as one of the founding members was e-mail based and face to face JOUFSWJFXFE JOBOESFTQFDtively. He was a member of Middle East Technical University, Department of Industrial Design at the time of the
first interview and today is a professor at BahĂ§esehir University. He kindly provided detailed answers for the inquiries and contributed greatly to this paper. The author also held an interWJFX XJUI 1SPG %S #FSJM "OÂ‘MBONFSU JOBOEJO"OÂ‘MBONFSUBDUFE as the general secretary of the society; and her contribution together with Asatekin helped to re-construct the paper especially in terms of focus and conclusions. An archival research in EczacÄąbaĹ&#x;Äą A.Ĺž. was undertaken ending partially fruitless than expected including the regulations of the association and a few photos from the general assemCMJFT 4FDPOEBSZ CVU TVQQPSUJWF JOGPSmation was derived from sources such as history of universities and published memoirs. 2. Establishment of the ETD The initial steps on the establishment of ETD were taken in 1974 and its establishment was officially completed on 1 August 1978 (Asatekin, 1979). During this four years time /JMHĂ O (Ă SFTJO GSPN &D[BDÂ‘CBĘ°Â‘ BDUed as the secretary and corresponding person (B. AnÄąlanmert, personal comNVOJDBUJPO 0DUPCFS 0ODFJU was established the first president was %S/FKBU&D[BDÂ‘CBĘ°Â‘BOEWJDFDIBJSXBT Ă–nder KĂźĂ§Ăźkerman. As stated in Article 1 of ETD Regulations constituting the name and administration center of society, the association was established QVSTVBOU UP OP A-BX PG "TTPDJBtionsâ€™. The center of the society was Ä°stanbul and had no branches. The offiDJBM BEESFTT XBT i#Ă ZĂ LEFSF $BEEFTJ OP -FWFOUÉ—TUBOCVMw XIJDI XBT EczacÄąbaĹ&#x;Äąâ€™s main administrative building. "TQSPWJEFEVOEFS"SUJDMFJO&5% Regulations, founding members listed alphabetically is as follows: t #BLJ"LUBS 4FOJPS*OUFSJPS"SDIJtect [Y. Ä°Ă§ Mimar], t Yurdaer AltÄąntaĹ&#x;, Graphic Designer [Grafiker], t #FSJM"OÂ‘MBONFSU "TTPD4FOJPS$FSBNJTU<%PĂŽFOU:Ă LTFL4FSBNJLĂŽJ> t .FINFU"TBUFLJO 4FOJPS"SDIJUFDU [Y. Mimar], t Mustafa AslÄąer, Graphic Designer %5(4"<(SBÄ•LFS%5(4">,
The translation of EndĂźstri TasarÄąmÄą DerneÄ&#x;i into English is Society of Industrial Design (SID). 1
An introductory research phase of this paper in Turkish was printed in 2006, in the proceedings of the 3rd National Design Conference organized by ITU Department of IPD. The structure and research undertaken is deepened with new archival data and interviews which led to novel and different arguments. 2
The first industrial design program in undergraduate level was established at the Istanbul State Academy of Fine Arts (IDGSA) with two successive programmes in 1971 and 1973. The following program was founded in Middle East Technical University (METU) in Ankara in 1979. 3
Even today it is still claimed that industry-university and societies of design professions -cooperation fails to be effective. Still, such design societies, innovation centers and and universities from different design areas attempt to draw attention and privilege themselves through their emphasizing their contact with the industry. 4
The building was designed by AydÄąn Boysan who was one of the founding members. Mentioned building was demolished and Kanyon Shopping Mall and Office Building was construct-ed. 5
DTGSA are the initials of â€œDevlet Tatbiki GĂźzel Sanatlar Akademisiâ€? which is the States Academy of Applied Fine Arts 6
t "EOBO #JSHJ *OEVTUSJBMJTU <4BOBZJci], t Umur Ă‡amaĹ&#x;, Interior Architect [Ä°Ă§ Mimar], t Melih Birsel, Architect [Mimar], t AydÄąn Boysan, Architect [Mimar], t 5VSHVU $BOTFWFS "SDIJUFDU <.Jmar], t /FKBU &D[BDÂ‘CBĘ°Â‘ %S $IFNJTU <%S Kimyager], t Ĺžakir EczacÄąbaĹ&#x;Äą, General Manager [Genel MĂźdĂźr], t /F[JI&MEFN 1SPG"SDIJUFDU<1SPG Mimar], t 4BEVO &STJO 1SPG 4FOJPS *OUFSJPS "SDIJUFDU<1SPG:É—ĂŽ.JNBS> t MengĂź Ertel, Graphic Designer [Grafiker], t .VIUFĘ°FN (JSBZ 1SPG 4FOJPS "SDIJUFDU<1SPG:.JNBS> t Erkal GĂźngĂśren, Architect [Mimar], t "CEVMMBI,VSBO 1SPG*OUFSJPS"SDIJUFDU<1SPG:É—ĂŽ.JNBS> t Â˝OEFS ,Ă ĂŽĂ LFSNBO 1SPG 4FOJPS *OUFSJPS "SDIJUFDU <1SPG : É—ĂŽ .Jmar], t "MUBO Â˝LF 1SPG 4FOJPS &OHJOFFS <1SPG:.Ă I> t "INFU3BNB[BOPĘ“MV 54*%(FOFSBM.BOBHFS<54*%(O.Ă E> t 7FEBU 4BSHÂ‘O %FTJHOFS"SUJTU [Grafiker - Ressam], t )BZBUJ 5BCBOMÂ‘PĘ“MV "TTPD 1SPG Architect [DoĂ§. Dr. Mimar], t &NJO /FDJQ 6[NBO 1SPG 4FOJPS "SDIJUFDU<1SPG:.JNBS> The profiles and professions of the founding members show traces of the design environment that the society XBT CPSO JOUP 'JÄ™FFO PG UIF UXFOUZ four founding members are architects, four are graphic designers, four are industrialists and one is ceramist. All members, except Asatekin, resided in Ä°stanbul. During the period corresponding to the establishment date of ETD, the first industrial design department graduates in Turkey were from IstanCVM "DBEFNZ PG 'JOF "SUT QSFTFOUMZ LOPXOBT.JNBS4JOBO'JOF"SUT6OJWFSTJUZ .4(4Ăƒ JU XBT QSFDFEFE JO XJUIRVJUFBGFXOVNCFSPG.&56 graduates, and in the second half of 1980s Marmara University followed ,PSLVU "Ä™FSXBSET TPNF PG these graduates participated in the ac-
tivities of the ETD as told by Asatekin (personal communication December Ä‡FOBNFPGUIFJOTUJUVUJPO did not directly imply any professional group since it did not contain the word â€œdesignerâ€? but rather referred to the profession and activity of industrial EFTJHO:FUJOUIFSE"SUJDMFTJUVBUJOH the objectives, profession of industrial design and the concept of industrial design are explicitly mentioned but still industrial designers are not mentioned overtly. This might be related to the fact that founders and members of the society originated from a diversity of professional backgrounds, other than industrial designers as approved by Asatekin (personal communication, %FDFNCFS According to the interviews, there are different stories behind the establishment phase and the dynamics lying behind the society. The story provided by Eldem (personal communication, "QSJM JODMVEFT B HSPVQ PG QJPneering architects who thought that Turkey needed such a society. And UIFZIBEDPOTVMUFEUP/FKBU&D[BDÂ‘CBĘ°Â‘ whom they thought was the key person to understand and give support. Thanks to the personal support of &D[BDÂ‘CBĘ°Â‘ (SPVQ %JSFDUPS /FKBU &DzacÄąbaĹ&#x;Äą, the meeting location and secretariat demanded by the society were catered for the project (Eldem, personBM DPNNVOJDBUJPO "QSJM (FOeral meetings and board meetings were IFME JO &D[BDÂ‘CBĘ°Â‘ $FOUFS )PXFWFS at the time apart of this research was conducted, in the EczacÄąbaĹ&#x;Äą archives SFWJFXJO-FWFOU #Ă ZĂ LEFSF4USFFU OP document could be detected on the ordinary general meetings scheduled for every April and board meeting scheduled on a monthly basis. In archive review on ETD, ETD Regulations and photos from one of the meetings could CF GPVOE &D[BDÂ‘CBĘ°Â‘ "SDIJWF The bulletins known to be issued by ETD were not present at this archive. EczacÄąbaĹ&#x;Äą Group, not only provided the meeting places and the office for ETD, but they also provided support from the marketing department. Bilgin 1FSFNFDJ UIFIFBEPG&D[BDÂ‘CBĘ°Â‘QVClic relations department, supported the ETD executive board in their relation UPUIFNFNCFSTBOETVDI1SPGÂ˝OEFS
The first society of industrial design in Turkey: EndĂźstri TasarÄąmÄą DerneÄ&#x;i (ETD)
KÃ¼Ã§Ã¼kerman also tells about the meetJOHT JO UIF &D[BDÂ‘CBÊ°Â‘ 1MBOU (F[HJO ,Ã ÃŽÃ LFSNBO BLOPXOÄ•HVSFJO the scene of industrial design in since the 1970s, was the design consultant PG É®JÊ°FDBN 1BÊ°BCBIÃŽF BOE B GBDVMUZ NFNCFS PG UIF 4DIPPM PG "QQMJFE *Odustrial Arts which later led its way UP UIF QSPHSBN PG *OEVTUSJBM 1SPEVDU %FTJHOJOUIF.JNBS4JOBO6OJWFSTJUZ KÃ¼Ã§Ã¼kerman puts the story behind the establishment of ETD in a romantic XBZ BT JG IF XBT UIF IFSP CFIJOE /Fjat EczacÄ±baÅ&#x;Ä±â€™s interest in industrial design formed in a sincere chat among them: EndÃ¼stri TasarÄ±mÄ± DerneÄ&#x;i with a bunch of entrepreneurs and I was amid UIF GPVOEFST Ä‡F QSFTJEFOU XBT /FKBU EczacÄ±baÅ&#x;Ä±, vice president was me for MPOHZFBST4FDSFUBSZ(FOFSBMXBT#FSJM "OÂ‘MBONFSU (F[HJO
AnÄ±lanmert told that she was recommended to act as the general secretary of the ETD by her professor at UIF VOJWFSTJUZ 4BEJ %JSFO QFSTPOBM DPNNVOJDBUJPO 0DUPCFS 4IF CSPVHIU B WFSZ EJÄŒFSFOU QFSTQFDtive to the story behind the establishNFOU PG &5% 4IF UFMMT UIBU JO there had been very lively discussions at the faculty on industrial design. A group of faculty members visited the /PSEJD DPVOUSJFT JODMVEJOH 'JOMBOE Main purpose of this trip was making inquiry on design issues related to industry and education. This team XIP WJTJUFE UIF 'JOOJTI "TTPDJBUJPO of Designers Ornamo brought some printed material and AnÄ±lanmert was asked to translate them to Turkish. 4PNFUJNF BÄ™FS ,Ã ÃŽÃ LFSNBO TIBSFE IJT JOTJHIU XJUI UIF GBDVMUZ PG 'JOF Arts on the meeting held in India by 6/*%0 BOE *$4*% JO VOEFS UIF title of â€œImproving Industrial Design JO %FWFMPQJOH $PVOUSJFTw *O QBSBMMFM the first design competition of Turkey was organized by EczacÄ±baÅ&#x;Ä± Group, XBTBXBSEFE4BEVO&STJO"OÂ‘MBONFSU QPJOUFEPVUUIBUJUXBT/FKBU&D[BDÂ‘CBÊ°Â‘ who demanded such a society to be established as a platform for the design and industry environment of the time in which a lively discussion started. #VU BÄ™FS TPNFUJNF /FKBU &D[BDÂ‘CBÊ°Â‘ MFÄ™IJTQMBDFUPÉ®BLJS&D[BDÂ‘CBÊ°Â‘ UIFBSU lover person of the family. AnÄ±lanmert
says that this was rather a bad decision since Åžakir EczacÄ±baÅ&#x;Ä± did not have the enthusiasm and vision in merging deTJHOXJUIJOEVTUSZBT/FKBU&D[BDÂ‘CBÊ°Â‘ did (B. AnÄ±lanmert, personal commuOJDBUJPO 0DUPCFS Meanwhile Asatekin (personal comNVOJDBUJPO 'FCSVBSZ DMBJNT that he learned about ETD activities WJBUIF*OUFSOBUJPOBM$PVODJMPG4PDJFUJFTPG*OEVTUSJBM%FTJHO *$4*% In the summer of 1974, I was on a study tour in Italy, England and HolMBOE'SPN)PMMBOE*USBWFMMFEUP#SVTsels for one day and during that time I WJTJUFE *$4*% 4FDSFUBSJBU BOE DPMMFDUFE *$4*% QVCMJDBUJPOT Ä‡FZ BMTP JOformed me that a group of people came from Turkey a short while ago and this group was to set up an industrial design society in Turkey.
This is how Asatekin got the contact EFUBJMT PG "EOBO #JSHJ 8IFO IF XBT CBDL BCPVU NPOUIT MBUFS IF HPU JO touch with Birgi about the forthcoming association. Birgi manufactured glass medicine bottles for EzcacÄ±baÅ&#x;Ä± and Asatekin told that EczacÄ±baÅ&#x;Ä±â€™s interest in design was inspired of his enterprise. Birgi directed Asatekin to 4BÊ“MBN %BMBNBO UIF BUUPSOFZ PG &DzacÄ±baÅ&#x;Ä± Group. Dalaman told Asatekin UIBU/FKBU&D[BDÂ‘CBÊ°Â‘BJNFEUPFTUBCMJTI a design society and the legal procedures had already been worked on for the last two years. Asatekin was invited to a soon to be held meeting with all concerning parties. -BUFS PO .BSDI &5% SFHulations scheme and an invitation for .BSDI EBUFE GPVOEJOH CPBSE meeting was sent to Asatekin and the Middle East Technical UniversiUZ .&56 'BDVMUZ PG "SDIJUFDUVSF JO Ankara. METU was the only contributing institution that was not from IstanCVM *O BEEJUJPO UP .&56 'BDVMUZ PG Architecture member Asatekin, GÃ¼ner .VUBGBOE'FZZB[&SQJBMTPQBSUJDJQBUed in the meeting (Asatekin, personal DPNNVOJDBUJPO 'FCSVBSZ BOE %FDFNCFS "TBUFLJOXBTBGterwards selected to the founding management board and took part in a number of subsequent meetings held on a monthly basis as a founding member and representative of METU. AltÄ±ntaÅ&#x; (personal communication,
"QSJM DMBJNFE UIBU IF CFDBNF a founding member upon the request PG/FKBU&D[BDÂ‘CBĘ°Â‘)FXBTPOFPGUIF leading founders of the Turkish GraphJD "SUJTUT 4PDJFUZ FTUBCMJTIFE JO and he had experience in design societJFT4JODF"MUÂ‘OUBĘ°IJNTFMGXBTBHSBQIJD EFTJHOFS IFUPME/FKBU&D[BDÂ‘CBĘ°Â‘UIBU industrial design and graphic design were not the same and he had doubts JO CFJOH B GPVOEJOH NFNCFS /POFUIFMFTT/FKBU&D[BDÂ‘CBĘ°Â‘DPOWJODFEIJN that they had to approach industrial design in a more holistic way and integration of various field experts was OFDFTTBSZ $MBJNJOH UIBU &D[BDÂ‘CBĘ°Â‘ made the very same proposition to Ara GĂźler too, AltÄąntaĹ&#x; (personal comNVOJDBUJPO "QSJM UPME UIBU IF attended one or two meetings subsequent to the establishment of ETD, but then he did not follow the activities of the association. In reference to Eldemâ€™s statement QFSTPOBMDPNNVOJDBUJPO "QSJM iyJUXBTOPUBDUVBMMZ/FKBU&D[BDÂ‘CBĘ°Â‘ himself who decided to set up the associationâ€?; as the founding membersâ€™ stories put, the motivation behind such a society can be summarized with a symbolic triangle. EczacÄąbaĹ&#x;Äą Group with a vision of design, the stakeholders of the EczacÄąbaĹ&#x;Äą including their submanufacturers and the the architects they work with, and academics eager to DPMMBCPSBUFXJUIUIFJOEVTUSZ#VU/Fjat EczacÄąbaĹ&#x;Äą turned the society into a heterogeneous design institution with his personal invitations to people with EJÄŒFSFOU CBDLHSPVOET 'PMMPXJOH UIF year of establishment Asatekin (1979) reported on the society as follows: â€ŚIt is possible to claim that Turkey is at a turning point in terms of industrial design. Developing companies are now quite aware of the fact that in order to distinguish their own products from the competitors (both national and international) they have to do â€™somethingâ€™ and go beyond copying. Right at this point, it is of importance to enlighten the companies on the existence and significance of industrial design phenomenon. A meaningful step towards this aim has been taken recently with the foundation of the EndĂźstri TasarÄąmÄą DerneÄ&#x;i. A number of attempts have been made for the
last four years to set up this association and these attempts were initially commenced by two industrial enterprises then eagerly welcomed by designers and design instructors.
Indeed many of the founding members were, practitioner academics parallel to the academic tradition of the time and they were specialized in a variety of design fields; architecture basically. Eldem (personal communiDBUJPO "QSJM CBTFT UIF SFBTPO why association founders were mostly architectures on the fact that during that period architects spoke the last word in any place concerning design: At that time there were architects everywhere since architects were the teachers of not only industrial designers but also city planners and interior designers. As founding members only 5VSHVU$BOTFWFSBOENFIBEEFTJHOFE a chair (pointing to the chair he is sitting on). I guess Abdurrahman HancÄą, UPP EFTJHOFE B DIBJS BÄ™FSXBSET "Oyway there were no other designers. All I cared about was making ETD an institution that would bring serial production and standardization to Turkey.
Eldem can be seen as a representative of missionary modernist architects of the 1970s as he atomizes his view of design and architecture through the example of a chair, canonical in modFSOJTUEFTJHOIJTUPSZ 5VSBO A majority of founding members XFSFBDRVBJOUFEXJUI/FKBU&D[BDÂ‘CBĘ°Â‘ through commission or friendship except Asatekin: Architects of EczacÄąbaĹ&#x;Äą Group buildings, medicine bottle manufacturer Adnan Birgi, graphic designer AltÄąntaĹ&#x; engaged in graphic design works of EczacÄąbaĹ&#x;Äą. In the end all these motivated names - maybe to find relief for their own problems - united under EczacÄąbaĹ&#x;Äąâ€™s invitation to be a member of this society. They all believed in the necessity of design and its institutionalization. One important discussion topic of the first meeting was the name of the society. A group of architects declared that â€œdizaynâ€? was the right term to use whilst another group including KĂźĂ§Ăźkerman and Asatekin supported â€œtasarÄąmâ€? to be in the title. This high tensioned discussion was ended by /FKBU&D[BDÂ‘CBĘ°Â‘BOEIFDMPTFEBOEMFÄ™
The first society of industrial design in Turkey: EndĂźstri TasarÄąmÄą DerneÄ&#x;i (ETD)
UIFÄ•STUNFFUJOHSJHIUBÄ™FS "TBUFLJO personal communication, December "OPUIFS UZQJDBM EJTDVTTJPO was lived on the design of the logo. ETD had a logo with specially designed typeface. On the front and back cover of the regulations, below seen logo was QSJOUFE 'JHVSF .FOHĂ &SUFM XBT asked to propose a variety of alternatives for ETD logo. But he gave up due to neverending criticisms (Asatekin, QFSTPOBM DPNNVOJDBUJPO 'FCSVBSZ "TBUFLJO UIJOLT UIF MPHP VTFE was still resembling Ertelâ€™s. 3. Objectives of ETD It is obvious that the design scene depicted by Eldem above had some points in terms of interior design but there had been a more mature environment in terms of other industries. A closer and brief look at the background of design activities in Turkey in the 1970s and right before would make one understand better the significance of ETD. *O UIF BÄ™FSNBUIT PG .BZ .JMJUBSZ$PVQ i%FWSJN 3FWPMVUJPO w domestic automobile utopian project as the symbol of new era had to be laid BTJEF BÄ™FS TPNF USJBMT 4UBSUJOH GSPN UIFFOEPG ,PĂŽ(SPVQ7 launched Anadol as the first domestically manufactured automobile. It was designed by a team of British company Ogle in XIJDI +BO /BIVN GSPN ,PĂŽ (SPVQ also took part. Manufacture of the one BOEPOMZBVUPNPCJMF45$EFTJHOFE CZ B 5VSLJTI EFTJHO UFBN EBUFE was ceased (Demirer and AydoÄ&#x;an, 6NVS ÂąBNBĘ° QSPWJEFE EFTJHO consultancy to ArĂ§elik at the ends of T BOE ,Ă ĂŽĂ LFSNBO UP 1BĘ°BCBIĂŽF at the onset of 1970s. Tubular steel and aluminium profiles first manuGBDUVSFECZ#PSVTBOUIFO1SPÄ•MPIBWF inspired designers as Ä°lhan Koman and 4BEJ Â˝[JĘ° UP FTUBCMJTI FOUFSQSJTFT JO NPEFSO GVSOJUVSF É—TUBOCVM 1PSDFMBJO
Figure 1. Logo of EndĂźstri TasarÄąmÄą DerneÄ&#x;i with original typeface design, from ETD Regulations Cover Page, 1979.
factory had an in house design team composed of Turkish ceramic design HSBEVBUFT TJODF UIF FOE PG T BOE their products could make their way onto the tables of middle class people UPHFUIFS XJUI 4Ă NFSCBOL QSPEVDUT JO the 1970s. Moreover, EczacÄąbaĹ&#x;Äą not only commissioned Adnan Birgi to design and manufacture medicine bottles but also graphic designers for the packaging and the advertisements. These are some of the basic and well known design activities that took place in the 1970s. Once these activities are combined with initiatives in ceramics, graphic and textiles industry, the overall situation might be considered even brighter. It can be asserted that intrinsic to the manufacturing systems, design somehow was on the ghost agenda and had to find is way to the fore through new initiatives. 4UJQVMBUFE CZ "SUJDMF JO 4PDJFUZ Regulations the objective of ETD was identified as t to enable a boost in Industrial Design profession in Turkey, t to strengthen the qualities of industrial design in industry and consumer goods, t to contribute positively to industrial design issues by paying attention to fulfilling societal needs and to use creative power in the solution of environmental problems. In the 4th Article of the regulations, activities required to fulfill the objectives have been listed as: t to conduct education, research, surveys; create rewarding systems, organize exhibitions and archive works towards the aim of internalizing and enhancing industrial design among larger circles, t to establish cooperation with institutions providing industrial designeducation, t to take supportive initiatives that will contribute to the understanding of industrial design in industry, t to take export-supportive tasks, t to assist the tourism industry to search and identify forms that reflect natural, cultural and social characteristics of our country, t to establish harmony and unity between nature and the artificial
KoĂ§ Group is another leading Turkish company acting in the business of commerce and man-ufacture. KoĂ§ was the company to have first inhouse design teams in many of its branches. 7
Asatekin (personal communication, December 14, 2015) was informed on the UNIDO / â€œDe-sign in Developing Countriesâ€? meeting from AkĹ&#x;it Kayalar who was working in State Planning Organization. 8
Later this paper of KĂźĂ§Ăźkerman was republished in 1992 in the first issue of Tasaâ€Ś published by ETMK. The journal did not succeed to be published continuously. 9
world in order to help in solving environmental problems, t to perform creative activities in the identification of formative qualities of manufactured goods. To put effort in forming coherent unity among the structural and functional relations of products and their physical appearance, t to provide assistance in creating balance between the technological quality and visual necessities of products, t UP QSPWJEF BTTJTUBODF UP IBOEDSBÄ™T entrepreneurs and to lead the way for them to improve their productions in terms of quality and aesthetical values, t to establish required cooperation in securing consistency among domains of environmental, interior and exterior design, t to give all kinds of support to improve an active industrial design profession in Turkey, to the ends of ensuring global and international compatibility of aforementioned objectives and activities, ETD becomes a member of International $PVODJM PG 4PDJFUJFT PG *OEVTUSJBM %FTJHO*$4*% BOE BDUT JO DPPSEJnation with national members of this council. &5%*$4*%SFMBUJPOTIJQIBWJOHFYisted in 1974 took place as one of the foreseen objectives in the last clause of Article 4. During the meeting held between in January 1979 under the coopFSBUJPOPG6/*%0BOE*$4*%JO*OEJB "INFEBCBE/BUJPOBM%FTJHO*OTUJUVUF under the title of â€œImproving Industrial %FTJHOJO%FWFMPQJOH$PVOUSJFTw i%Fsign in Turkeyâ€? titled report of Ă–nder KĂźĂ§Ăźkerman, mingled with Mehmet Asatekin and Ă–nol AkalÄąn was pronounced and published as a meeting report. Later this report was published in 1979 in Arkitekt under the signature of Asatekin: â€œImproving Industrial Design in Turkeyâ€?.8 4. Activities of ETD Organizing activities is one of the touch points between a society and its NFNCFST4P BDUJWJUJFTXFSFJNQPSUBOU at two levels in terms of the objectives of the society. One was communicating
with the members and the other was creating an institutional existence in the industry while making one to one QFSTPOBM DPOUBDUT BWBJMBCMF $PODFSOing the activities organized by ETD, Asatekin (1979) reported that a design seminar was to be actualised in 1979 ,together with a public exhibition and newsletters on a monthly basis would be issued. All the members inquired confirmed the release of a few ETD newsletters. Articles from members, news from the world and to be held activities of ETD were announced in the newsletters KĂźĂ§Ăźkermanâ€™s article in one of these newsletters, under the title PG A0O *OEVTUSJBM %FTJHO JO 5VSLFZy included general definitions on industrial design and industrial designer, teamwork and â€œTurkish Designâ€?.9 The article presented general introduction for those unfamiliar with particular issues although the newsletter was already mailed to the members. This makes one think that there was still ambiguity and discussion on the state of industrial design and its meaning. ETD organized visits to some leading firms of the industry such as Manajans and Kelebek. Manajans was esUBCMJTIFEJOCZ&MJ"DÂ‘NBOBT'BBM Ajans and then changed its title to Manajans. It is the first modern agency of Turkey in creative industries. This first WJTJU DPJODJEFE XJUI /FKBU &D[BDÂ‘CBĘ°Â‘T objective to bring different realms of design together. Another visit was orHBOJ[FE UP ,FMFCFL 'VSOJUVSF XIJDI XBT FTUBCMJTIFE JO GPS NBOVGBDturing plywood for the aviation industry. Kelebek opened the first modular furniture company of Turkey in DĂźzce in 1978. Eldem (personal communicaUJPO "QSJM UPMEUIBUUIFTUBÄŒXBT very interested in the visiting team as well as the members of the society. He told that he had shared his own view and experience on mass production of furniture, and noted that the factory at that time had two different production lines but used the same machines which was an obstacle in standardization of products. He told that the team had a discussion on the changes the factory needed in order to manufacture standardized modules of furniture which seemed very interesting to the young industrial design graduates.
The first society of industrial design in Turkey: EndĂźstri TasarÄąmÄą DerneÄ&#x;i (ETD)
Eldem (personal communication, "QSJM FNQIBTJ[FE UIBU IF IBE a mature understanding of industrial design with his two and a half years of FYQFSJFODFJO(JP1POUJTEFTJHOPÄ?DF in Italy. Throughout the interview, Eldem remarked on the misconceptions of mass production and problems they faced with the use low standardized construction materials in the 1970s and 1980s. He emphasized that the mission PG &5% XBT UP JNQMFNFOU 8FTUFSO positivist mass production systems to the Turkish industry through design. KĂźĂ§Ăźkerman reported that there were a good number of international speakers and conferences were organized in Ä°stanbul Hilton, tours were planned to industrial enterprises and state-support was also received (F[HJO 5. The end of ETD 3FHBSEJOH UIF DMPTVSF PG 4PDJFUZ JO 1984, it was remarked that ETD was established on the base of good will and high motivation of a key group which did not continue (personal DPNNVOJDBUJPOT "OÂ‘MBONFSU "TBUFLJO "MUÂ‘OUBĘ° "MUÂ‘OtaĹ&#x; (personal communication, April, DPNNFOUFE UIBU EFDMJOF PG JOterest and motivation was the reason for the failure of ETD and he himself was also partially responsible since he did not follow any meetings. AltÄąntaĹ&#x; also thought that the reason behind the decline of the society must have been /FKBU&D[BDÂ‘CBĘ°Â‘TMBUFSGPSNFEMBDLPG interest. He added that ETD was established at a time design awareness was not yet in peopleâ€™s minds and necessity PGJUXBTOPUEJTDPWFSFE4JODF"MUÂ‘OUBĘ° was a graphic designer he emphasized the close relationship between corporate identity studies and industrial design: As naturally expected people were not then familiar with industrial design UIBU JT TPNFIPX DMPTF UP ADPSQPSBUF identity designâ€™ accepted as a branch PG HSBQIJDT $PSQPSBUF JEFOUJUZ EFTJHO flourished in Turkey once new companies started to be established, though it XBTBMSFBEZEFFQMZSPPUFEJO8FTU#VU still it was ahead of industrial design. 1FPQMFXFSFTUJMMVOBXBSFPGXIBUQSPE-
uct design meant while ceramic factories had already been involved in it.
8IJMF "MUÂ‘OUBĘ° QPJOUT UP UIF JOEJGferent members, KĂźĂ§Ăźkerman links the decline of ETD directly with the MiliUBSZ$PVQ 4FQUFNCFS XIFOTPDJFUies were either being reorganized under monitor by the police or closed down. KĂźĂ§Ăźkerman reported that though there were no political charges directed against ETD they had attempted UP DMPTF EPXO UIF 4PDJFUZ EVF UP UIF general chaotic atmosphere. Asatekin QFSTPOBM DPNNVOJDBUJPOT 'FCSVBSZ BOE %FDFNCFS TUBUFE that the reasons behind the closing down of the society was multifolded. One important reason was the lack of experience in forming and sustaining such societies; he thought that there had to be members solely dedicated to the societal activities and relationship XJUIUIFNFNCFST/POFPGUIFNFNbers had such dedication. Asatekin does not accept the military coup as the main reason of the end, since the society was not enlivened when the necessary environment both politically and legally was available. Existence of the society was trivial to even some of the board members and in the last period even general board meetings could no longer be held with the participation of full team . "TBUFLJO "T "OÂ‘MBONFSU BOE "TBUFLJO BQQSPWFE in personal communications; Umur Ă‡amaĹ&#x;, Beril AnÄąlanmert, and Mehmet Asatekin were the ones who were very keen on attending the meetings but this did not form a critical mass to sustain the activities and objectives of ETD. It was Asatekin who was the intellectual leader of the board meetings TJODF IF XBT USZJOH UP TIJÄ™ UIF BHFOda from personal success stories to: what design in developing countries meant, what were the environmental aspects of design, the role of industrial designers etc. (B. AnÄąlanmert, personBMDPNNVOJDBUJPO 0DUPCFS As mentioned above, Asatekin was the only member to attend from a city other than Istanbul. He was already into industrial design education and was following the agenda of the global de-
sign communities. Asatekin (personal DPNNVOJDBUJPO %FDFNCFS himself told that coming to Istanbul on itself was a motivation of his since he felt isolated in Ankara from the design and industry scene of the country. 6. Impact and conclusion To sum up the life of ETD; earliest initiative to set up the society was commenced in 1974, it was officially founded in 1978, entered into a stage PG SFDFTTJPO XJUI .JMJUBSZ $PVQ and closed down in 1984. Though the 4PDJFUZDPVMEIBWFCFFOTVTUBJOFEBÄ™FS UIF $PVQ BMM PG UIF JOUFSWJFXFFT reported that negligence and lack of motivation among the members were the key reason behind permanent closure. Thirty six years have passed since EndĂźstri TasarÄąmÄą DerneÄ&#x;i was founded in 1978. In this period Turkey mainly Istanbul centered - gained acceleration in all areas and aspects of design; in terms of practice, education and institutionalization. Turkish design literature has enlarged and enriched accordingly though ETD remained as a silent subject. Establishment of ETD took place in the early Turkish design literature in 1979 not as a main topic CVU B TJEF TVCKFDU NBUUFS /FYU JO MJUerary works on industrial design literature and training in Turkey, it was noted as the earliest professional society (see Asatekin 1979 and 1981, Korkut, 1998). But matters concerning the activities, objectives, success or failure of ETD have been ambiguous. Its role in the history of Turkish Design has been neglected and its impact on institutionalization of design, design education, understanding of design in the industry and any policy in relation to design stayed questionable; and this article dealt with these questions among limited data collected. One of the significant inputs this society maintained to the Turkish design world of the time was depicting a trustworthy dimension for the stakeholders of design. Asatekin (personal DPNNVOJDBUJPO %FDFNCFS explained that the most beneficial ones were the newly graduates and the existence of such a society made the profession more institutionalized in their
eyes. All the newsletters and site visits fortified this trust and ignited the idea of a professional design community free from architects. Although architects in Turkey did not dominate professional product design practice, they had a strong impact on design education. In the case of ETD, the dominance of architects are felt again but their impact factor did not comprise the architect as an athletecomplet as accepted in the academic fields. The reason behind the accumulation of architects in the founding HSPVQ XBT UPUBMMZ EJÄŒFSFOU /FBSMZ BMM of the founding architects were working for the flagship manufacturers of Turkey owned either by EczacÄąbaĹ&#x;Äą or by KoĂ§ Group, and their main practice was designing factories. Their entity in the foundation of ETD can be accepted BT/FKBU&D[BDÂ‘CBĘ°Â‘TBUUFNQUUPGPSNB multifaceted critical mass in which debate over necessity of industrial design could be created. As various views are analyzed, it can be seen that different groups that advocated the necessity of such a society united under one roof upon the BUUFNQUT PG /FKBU &D[BDÂ‘CBĘ°Â‘ )FODF ETD happened to be primarily a private sector supported organization. Establishing formal membership UP *$4*% DPOTUJUVUFE B IJHI MFWFM JNportance in the objectives of ETD; however on accounts of several administrative and financial problems NFNCFSTIJQ PG &5% UP *$4*% XBT blocked (Asatekin, 1981). This failure UPHBJO*$4*%NFNCFSTIJQNJHIUTVHgest that there were some administrative problems on the surface since ETD that received financial and operational support of EczacÄąbaĹ&#x;Äą would unlikely be burdened with monetary problems regarding membership. As supported by Asatekin (personal DPNNVOJDBUJPO %FDFNCFS and AnÄąlanmert (personal communiDBUJPO 0DUPCFS &5%XBTFGfective in the idea of design education. It can be argued that ETD even had by-effects on the establishment of an industrial design department at Istanbul Technical University (ITU). A group of professors from ITU were effective in the establishment phase of ETD, including Eldem and Altan Ă–ke. The
The first society of industrial design in Turkey: EndĂźstri TasarÄąmÄą DerneÄ&#x;i (ETD)
reason behind their interest to industrial design was their will towards standardization and design of structural and interior elements. Later, members of this group were part of the academic staff teaching at industrial design at ITU. The pointed relation between industrial design and standardization of interior and structural elements had its reflection on the foundation of industrial product design program at ITU. Traces could be followed in the earliFTUDVSSJDVMVN DPNQPTFE by founding academic staff of the proHSBNJODMVEJOH/JIBU5PZEFNJS /JHBO #BZB[Â‘U &Ę°FS #FSLĂš[ 'JMJ[ Â˝[FS .FUF 5BQBOBOE:Â‘MEÂ‘[4FZ Beside ETDâ€™s impact on the design TDFOFPGUIFEBZBOEJUTBÄ™FSNBUI&DzacÄąbaĹ&#x;Äąâ€™s impact onto institutionalization of design deserves to be mentioned. EczacÄąbaĹ&#x;Äąâ€™s support to the design activities in Turkey was present in the earliest foundation on design that is ETD. An early design competition in 5VSLFZ i$FSBNJD 4BOJUBSZ &RVJQNFOU %FTJHO $PNQFUJUJPOw XBT PSHBOJ[FE under the collaboration of EczacÄąbaĹ&#x;Äą and Or-An. EczacÄąbaĹ&#x;Äą Holding was BMTP UIF TQPOTPS PG UIF TU /BUJPOBM $POHSFTT PO %FTJHO JO #BZB[Â‘U BOE 5BQBO FU BM 4JNJMBSMZ &DzacÄąbaĹ&#x;Äą was the main sponsor of the UI *OUFSOBUJPOBM $POGFSFODF PO i%Fsign and Emotionâ€? organized by Middle East Technical University, DepartNFOUPG*OEVTUSJBM%FTJHOJO+VMZ in Ankara The support of EczacÄąbaĹ&#x;Äą Group in art and design scene of Turkey accelerated in the following years leading to the Ä°stanbul Design BieOBMMFTPSHBOJ[FEJOBOE BOE the forthcoming one. Apart from the DPSQPSBUF TVQQPSUT /FKBU &D[BDÂ‘CBĘ°Â‘T entrepreneurial character and personal interest in the establishment phase of ETD once more deserves to be menUJPOFE /FKBU &D[BDÂ‘CBĘ°Â‘ IBE DMPTF SFlationship with the monetary foundaUJPOTPGUIF6OJUFE4UBUFTPG"NFSJDB His industrial enterprises including the first modern medicine factory of Turkey were fruits of the support NBJOUBJOFE WJB .BSTIBMM 1MBOT /PVSished with both his family background BOE64PSJHJOBUFEA/FX%FBMQPMJDZ he did not considered money making as the ultimate goal but canalized the
wealth he created to social benefits. He is remembered as one of the pioneers for the field of design and industry in Turkey. This paper clarified his association and role within industrial design history in Turkey. According to Bonsiepe (1999), institutionalization of industrial design CFHBO JO UIF T BOE T BOE JU involved the establishment of design offices and educational centers, and the definition of specific design services. And institutionalization of a profession denotes the process of establishing particular roles, values, norms and modes of behavior among the members of the profession that are communities of educationalists, and policy makers as well as the professionals themselves )BTEPĘ“BO *OUFSNTPGOBUJPOBM design history, the foundation of ETD is juxtaposed with the dates put by Bonsiepe while it was a step in creating particular roles, values and norms as put by HasdoÄ&#x;an. ETD holds vital position by virtue of being the earliest non-governmental organization of the field. In terms of institutionalJ[BUJPO /POFUIFMFTT VOBWBJMBCJMJUZ PG documents in EczacÄąbaĹ&#x;Äą archives, particularly for the first two years that it was active, makes it hard to discuss to what extent it served to the objectives declared. The relationship between the state, its policy and ETD stays vague and can be a further research question. References Asatekin, M. (1979). Developing Industrial Design in Turkey, MimarlÄąk, "TBUFLJO . *$4*%BOE%Fsign â€™81, MimarlÄąk #BZB[Â‘U / 5BQBO . "ZÂ‘SBO / BOE&TJO / Foreword, Birinci Ulusal Tasarlama (Dizayn) Kongresi #JMEJSJMFSJ 1SPDFFEJOHT PG UIF st /BUJPOBM%FTJHO$POHSFTT É—TUBOCVM Bonsiepe, G. (1999) cited in HasEPĘ“BO ( Ä‡F*OTUJUVUJPOBMJ[BUJPOPGUIF*OEVTUSJBM%FTJHO1SPGFTTJPO JO5VSLFZ$BTF4UVEZÄ‡F*OEVTUSJBM %FTJHOFST 4PDJFUZ PG 5VSLFZ The Design Journal, 12 %FNJSFS "BOE"ZEPĘ“BO Â˝ HuzurlarÄąnÄązda Spor Anadol: Seri Olarak Ăœretilen Ä°lk ve Tek TĂźrk TasarÄąmÄą Otomobilin Ă–ykĂźsĂź ve Anadol, BĂścek,
Ă‡aÄ&#x;daĹ&#x;. Ä°stanbul: GĂźncel Kitabevi. EndĂźstri TasarÄąmÄą DerneÄ&#x;i TĂźzĂźÄ&#x;Ăź 4PDJFUZPG*OEVTUSJBM%FTJHO"TTPDJBtion Regulations), (1978). Ä°stanbul. Gezgin, A.Ă– FE Akademiye TanÄąklÄąk 3 GĂźzel Sanatlar Akademisiâ€™ne BakÄąĹ&#x;lar Dekoratif Sanatlar WPM BaÄ&#x;lam YayÄąnlarÄą: Ä°stanbul. )BTEPĘ“BO ( Ä‡F *OTUJUVtionalization of the Industrial Design 1SPGFTTJPOJO5VSLFZ$BTF4UVEZÄ‡F
*OEVTUSJBM%FTJHOFST4PDJFUZPG5VSLFZ The Design Journal, 12 ,PSLVU ' %J[BZOEBO5BTBSÂ‘ma: EndĂźstriyel TasarÄąm YazÄąnÄąnda 1970â€™li YÄąllar ve Ă–ncesi. Notlar + KaynakĂ§a: TĂźrkiyeâ€™de EndĂźstriyel TasarÄąm YazÄąnÄą. ETMK: Ankara. 5VSBO ( 5VSLJTI'VSOJUVSF %FTJHOJOUIFT3FTQPOTFTUP"SU Deco in the Early Republican Era. Furniture History
The first society of industrial design in Turkey: EndĂźstri TasarÄąmÄą DerneÄ&#x;i (ETD)
Evaluation of the physical environment in Anatolian rural architecture
Ăœmit ARPACIOÄžLU VNJUBSQBDJPHMV!HNBJMDPNt%FQBSUNFOUPG"SDJUFDUVSF 'BDVMUZPG "SDIJUFDUVSF .JNBS4JOBO'JOF"SUT6OJWFSTJUZ É—TUBOCVM 5VSLFZ
3FDFJWFE+BOVBSZt Final Acceptance: June 2016
Abstract Anatolia, with its multicultural background and unique geography, is â€œthe cradleâ€? of many civilizations. It enables a variety of architectural design practices, due to diverse climate conditions from one region to another. Recently, a great intention is to generate architectural forms which provides health and comfort, less energy and harmony with human in the rural areas of Anatolia. There is a need to explore the properties of climate, material and building technology used in the traditional rural architecture in order to adapt into new architectural system. The identification of how physical environmental characteristics change in accordance with different climate regions and how traditional architecture aligned with the existing physical environment are specially important for the development of a method in this context. This study aims to resolve the characteristics of traditional architecture for the reassessment of rural area. BalÄąkesir is one of the provinces having a physical environment that can be utilized with the diversity of climate. In this study, therefore, BalÄąkesir is taken into account as it holds three types of climate. Different types of country houses in BalÄąkesir region are selected, modelled in 3D and analysed in terms of physical environment in regard to their own climate conditions. A comparison is also made between the obtained values of different climate regions. The results show that traditional rural architecture has many traits and features, that hardly found in todayâ€™s contemporary residences. Keywords Anatolia, Environmental parameters, Rural architecture, Traditional architecture, Villages houses.
1. Introduction Rural areas are extremely rich in structural design. The structures in these areas make use of many elements, from belief systems to lifestyle preferences, from the climate data of the specific geography to the usage of traditional materials. Rural structures become integrated with the social and physical environment. Some architectural features embedded in rural structures carry great potential for improving todayâ€™s standards in terms of the human, physical environment and comfort relation. In modern buildings, by the help of new materials, new technologies and new construction methods, many of the features of vernacular architectures can seem out of EBUF/PXBEBZT FOFSHZFÄ?DJFODZJTBO important area of concern so, studying vernacular architecture has still something new to explore. Especially solar passive features in the vernacular CVJMEJOHTBSFWFSZEJÄ?DVMUUPRVBOUJGZ scientifically. However, by the help of thermal performance study, comfort temperatures evaluation etc., it is possible to calculate and explain the various solar passive features of the vernacular architecture that persist in different climatic regions. All over these specifications, the building sustainability aspects; such as economical, social and environmental, are also truly satisfied in the vernacular architectures (Singh, .BIBQBUSB "USFZB The vernacular environment is formed by the heritage as art, literature and music of its point of time. The loss of vernacular forms is not only a cultural loss, but also has an adverse and often irreversible effect on the way of life of the society concerned. When societies want to preserve parts of the vernacular environment and adapt them to conform to the more positive aspects of modern life, the â€œmuseumâ€? result is not the best way to do it. To preserve the values of the community and upgrade facilities to comply with modern standards must be the chosen solution. The loss of cultural specific architectural forms and landscape has been substituted by modern planners and designers. They create objects which have began to dominate the open spaces and roads of modern
urban developments. This is a characteristic of the modern tradition and especially the deterioration and virtual disappearance of the public domain $VSSBO &CFO4BMFI The natural harmony with climate, built form and people is the strength of vernacular architecture. However, the modern practice in architecture lacks conscious effort in using passive methods of controlling the indoor environNFOU 8BOH-JV $BOUJOFUBM ;IBJ1SFWJUBMJ &YDFTTJWF use of modern materials irrespective of UIFJSFÄ?DJFODZBUJOEPPSFOWJSPONFOU has often resulted in high energy consumption, leading to many ecological and environmental problems (Kim, "MTP FOFSHZJOUFOTJWFTPMVUJPOT are required in such buildings to attain comfort conditions in terms of cooling BOE WFOUJMBUJPO %JMJ /BTFFS 7BSHIFTF Although the living conditions of vernacular houses were poor in the past, the attempt to improve these conditions has led to the use of materials, which in fact produce an inferior building quality. Therefore, unfortuOBUFMZ MPPLJOHCBDLPOUIFMBTUZFBS period in Anatolia, it is seen that the settlement pattern in rural areas has deteriorated because of actual structuring against the culture of the region, without considering local architectural features and the needs of local people. In trying to improve comfort, people were led to construct buildings which were not compatible with the contemporary buildings and which deteriorated the architectural texture (Vural, VuSBM &OHJO 3FĘ°BU4Ă NFSLBO The spread of urban living has a negative influence on the rural environment and therefore on rural housing. Today, the texture of rural settlements, the rich art and culture of rural structures are threatened by over consumption and mass production, products of modernity. The aim of this study is not only to evaluate the traditional architecture in relation to the physical environment but also to recognize and conserve those characteristics that are unique to the architecture of rural area, BalÄąkesir, exposed to three different climates. The research focuses on the identifi-
cation of how physical environmental characteristics response to different climate conditions and how traditional architecture is aligned with the existing physical environment. This is important in order to develop a method for the adaptation of physical environment so that future works can get use of it. 2. Method The Department of Architecture and UIF%FQBSUNFOUPG6SCBOBOE3FHJPOBM1MBOOJOHJO.JNBS4JOBO'JOF"SUT 6OJWFSTJUZDBSSJFEPVUB1SPKFDUJO XJUIUIF.JOJTUSZPG1VCMJD8PSLTBOE Settlement, for the protection of rural areas and re-creation of life in BalÄąkeTJS "MUIPVHI UIF 1SPKFDU DPNQSJTFT village planning, user surveys and assessment of regional chracteristics in a CPSBETFOTF ÂąPSBQĂŽÂ‘PĘ“MVFUBM this paper presents only a part of it. The study was conducted in the reHJPOPG#BMÂ‘LFTJSMPDBUFEJO/PSUIXFTUern Anatolia, both Marmara Region and Agean Region. BalÄąkesir is one of the provinces having a physical environment that can be utilized with the diversity of climate. According to the Turkish Standard of Thermal Isolation in Buildings 54 UIFSFBSFUZQFTPGDMJNBUFSFgions in Turkey. BalÄąkesir is one of two provinces that contains three of these four climate conditions. Therefore, the research takes the advantage of BalÄąkesir holding three types of climate and the physical environmental values are calculated for specific villages chosen according to their climate conditions. 'JHVSFTIPXTUIFMPDBUJPOPG#BMÂ‘LFTJS in Turkey, on a satellite image.
Figure 1. The location of the BalÄąkesir in Anatolia.
2.1. Objects and scope of the study The project called â€œExtensification of Housing Compatible with RegionBM 5FYUVSF BOE "SDIJUFDUVSBM 'FBUVSFT in Rural Areasâ€? was initiated by evalVBUJOH UIF WJMMBHFT JO UIF 1SPWJODF PG #BMÂ‘LFTJS ÂąPSBQĂŽÂ‘PĘ“MV FU BM Then detailed field survey and analysis were carried out to select villages for further investigation. This paper comprehends the analysis of houses in the villages selected, in terms of â€œBuilding 1IZTJDT BOE .BUFSJBMTw Ä‡F BJN JT UP create opportunities for some architectural modifications and restorations to respond to the needs of todayâ€™s, by preserving the current value of the villages. In the study, multi-dimensional situation analysis and assessment were implemented, surveys with the villagers were performed, the village houses containing original and characteristic features were identified, measured and their plans were drawn. In the scope of the study, a modeling and evaluation works took place in order for the technical analysis of the houses and all data were gathered in an evaluation chart. All technical analyses were performed under similar conditions. Typical meteorological year data in accordance with climate changes in the region were used. The analyses in this study are concerned with the determination of the original values of village houses and the relations with climate changes. Correspondingly, the study is interested in the determination of the factors that form the basis for the protection orders and also architectural decisions for the new structures in the villages. 2.2. Climate of BalÄąkesir In Turkish Standard of Thermal IsoMBUJPOJO#VJMEJOHT 54 JO5VSLFZ there are four types of climate regions that characterized as degree-day regions. BalÄąkesir is in the second degree-day region. However, since the city of BalÄąkesir is spreaded to three climatic region, it is accepted that the Marmara coast is at the third degree-day region and the Aegean side of the city is at the first degree-day region BT TIPXO JO 'JHVSF 5VSLJTI 4UBOEBSE C ÂąPSBQĂŽÂ‘PĘ“MVFUBM
Evaluation of the physical environment in Anatolian rural architecture
The northern side of the city, parallel to the Marmara Coast, is under the influence of the Marmara climate type, which is mild and humid. Continental climate prevails in the city center and surroundings, which makes it mild and dry. The towns in the Aegean part of the city fall under a climate that is warm and humid. In the field measurements, as a first step, all the villages and houses in BalÄąkesir region were visited to define most typical ones, which is valuable GPS GVSUIFS TUVEZ Ä‡FO WJMMBHFT JO three different climate zones and totalMZIPVTFTXFSFDPOÄ•SNFEUPCFDPOsidered in the study. All the data were collected by measuring the physical environmental characteristics of daylight, thermal comfort and energy use. In modeling the houses in 3D, Ecotect, sustainable design program was used as it enables the users to analyze the required environmental parameters. The regions of BalÄąkesir were evaluated in regard to their average temQFSBUVSF"TJUJTTFFOJO5BCMFB 3F-
HJPO "FHFBO TJEF IBT UIF IJHIFTU UFNQFSBUVSFTBOE3FHJPO $POUJOFOUBM$MJNBUF IBTUIFMPXFTUUISPVHIPVU the year.
Figure 2. Three climate types prevailing in BalÄąkesir.
Table 1. Meteorological characteristics and annual heating and cooling degree-hour values for three climate regions in BalÄąkesir.
Figure 3. KireĂ§ Village: one of the rural settlement characteristics.
Figure 4. An example of functional analysis for one the selected villages.
Figure 5. An example of material analysis for one of the selected villages.
Average relative humidity values as HJWFOJO5BCMFC CZNPOUIBSFNFBTVSFE BU BN GPS UIF UISFF SFgions of BalÄąkesir. In the comparison of three climate regions in terms of heating degree-hours, it is seen that the
prevailing continental climate in ReHJPOSFRVJSFTNPSFIFBUJOHMPBEUIBO UIFPUIFSSFHJPOT3FHJPO POUIFPUIer hand, is dominated by the Aegean climate type and the need for heating JTUIFMFBTUJOUIJTBSFB5BCMFDTIPXT the annual heating degree-hour values for three climate regions. The values in 'JHVSF E TIPX UIBU EVF UP JUT XBSN and humid climate, the cooling load on 3FHJPOJTNVDINPSFUIBOUIFPUIFS regions. In hot-humid regions where the marine climate prevails, a fairly insulated building envelope will work. In order to lessen the effect of discomfort caused by high temperature and humidity, the indoors should be cross ventilated through at least two windows to the outdoor air reciprocatively 2.3. Case study description 1SPWJODFPG#BMÂ‘LFTJSJTWFSZSJDIJO the types of Anatolian rural architectural styles. In the context of this study, WJMMBHFTXFSFEFÄ•OFEUPTQFDJGZUIF architectural examples in three differFOU DMJNBUF BOE UPUBMMZ IPVTFT JO UIFTF WJMMBHFT XFSF BOBMZ[FE 'JHVSF 3 shows one of those villages called â€œKireĂ§â€? in â€œDursunbeyâ€? located in the east part of BalÄąkesir. Each village is identified by landscape and texture and also structural, material and functional analyses were DBSSJFEPVUGPSFBDIPGUIFN'JHVSF shows the functional analysis of one of UIFWJMMBHFTBOE'JHVSFEFTDSJCFTUIF material analysis of the village. 'VSUIFSNPSF IPVTFTJOUIFWJMMBHFT were investigated. As an example, two houses, with their plans and views, preTFOUFEJO'JHVSF *O UIF BOBMZTJT PG IPVTFT B SFgional typological distribution was GVMÄ•MMFEBTTIPXOJO'JHVSF1MBOUZpologies were formed and conceptual
Evaluation of the physical environment in Anatolian rural architecture
Figure 6. Example of village houses analyzed (Ă‡orapĂ§ÄąoÄ&#x;lu et al., 2010).
formation of new buildings were made. The survey carried out in the rural areas of the BalÄąkesir, shows that almost all houses have rooms connected with halls. However, the connection forms, hall shapes and location varies. Halls can be open to the outside or closed, located to the front, side or interior, in T-shapes, L-shapes or I-shapes, according to the planning of the houses BOE OFFET ÂąPSBQĂŽÂ‘PĘ“MV FU BM
ÂąPSBQĂŽÂ‘PĘ“MV,"ZTFM/ (ĂšSHĂ MĂ $ ,PMCBZ% 4FĂŽLJO1 ĂƒOTBM& It is observed that â€œeâ€? type plan NPTUMZ VTFE JO 3FHJPO XIFSF NJME and dry climate prevails, â€œdâ€? and â€œf â€? type plan mostly used in Region 3, where mild and humid climate prevails, â€œg â€œ and â€œhâ€? type plan mostly used JO 3FHJPO XIFSF XBSN BOE IVNJE climate prevails. Houses with â€œaâ€?, â€œbâ€? or â€œcâ€? plan type are seen in different climate regions. The houses, located in different climate regions of BalÄąkesir, with different construction techniques and materials were also compared in terms of thermal comfort and conservation, dayMJHIU BOE FOFSHZ VTF 'JHVSF TIPXT four houses from different villages and built with different construction tech-
Figure 7. Plan Typologies: plan with hall (a) Without hall (b) Plan with hall front (c) Plan with hall shaped L (d) Plan with hall side (e) Plan with hall interior (f) Plan with hall shaped T(g) Plan with hall seperated (h) Plan with hall half (Ă‡orapĂ§ÄąoÄ&#x;lu et al., 2010).
niques and materials. In order to evaluate the energy efficiencies of houses, energy quantities were calculated taking Into account the minimum and maximum indoor temperatures needed for comfort criteria of indoors in rural areas. It is assumed that when the temperatures fall below oC, the houses need to be heated and XIFOUIFUFNQFSBUVSFTSJTFBCPWFoC
Figure 8. Vernacular house types in BalÄąkesir.
the houses need to be cooled, between UIFIPVSTPGBOEJOUIFEBZ 3. Evaluation of structural differences resulting from material conditions In addition to the socio-cultural setup, economy, material and technological availability, climate is also one of the main factors that greatly influence building architecture and its sustainability. Since climate varies from place to place, favorable architectural solutions for the built environment are also region specific which reflects their needs and socio-cultural values of the region people (Engin, Vural, Vural, & 4VNFSLBO Ä‡F CVJMEJOHT UIBU are constructed using locally available materials show a greater respect for the existing environment and also take into account the constraints imposed by the climate. Vernacular architecture sets an example of harmony between dwellings, dwellers and the physical environment (Singh, Mahapatra, & "USFZB It is a known fact that traditional rural architecture is shaped under the
Table 2. (a) Ratio of material usage for constructing walls in BalÄąkesir, (b) Average wall thickness of BalÄąkesirâ€™s climate regions, according to material used in construction (c) Average aspect ratio of facades for three climate regions of BalÄąkesir (d) Average aspect ratios of facades according to the wall material for three climate regions of BalÄąkesir.
Evaluation of the physical environment in Anatolian rural architecture
influence of environmental factors and material resources. This study illustrates the changes in the design-environment relationship and in structural details of the space, resulting from differences in climate conditions. Walls may be the most important structural element for village houses in rural areas. The wall material and technology is not only an indicator of the constructionâ€™s identity but also an important factor affecting the indoor environmental quality. Research indicates that three different wall materials are being used in three regions of BalÄąkesir. Stone is usually used in masonry walls as load bearing material, whereas bricks are most frequently used as filling material. Adobe is used for both masonry construction and noggin. Adobe materials feature two BEWBOUBHFTUIFZBSFQFSNFBCMFUPXBter vapor and their mechanical behavior is similar to that of earthen walls, which makes them more compatible with earthen walls than cement based coatings, which are waterproof and PWFSMZTUJÄŒ -BOBT"MWBSF[(BMJOEP Ä‡F NFDIBOJDBM DPNQBUJCJMJUZ can be estimated based on the difference between Youngâ€™s moduli of the wall and plaster (Hamard, Morel, SalHBEP .BSDPN .FVOJFS Bricks and adobe as filling have been found in wooden constructions. However, in todayâ€™s measures for some physical environment values, a space that is surrounded with this type of filling materials is quite inadequate. This is the main reason for the difference in the estimated physical environment values of walls made with different construction techniques. The results of the analysis of houses in three climate regions in BalÄąkesir TIPX UIBU 3FHJPO TUBOET PVU XJUI almost equal usage of stone and adobe. More frequent usage of stone maUFSJBMJO3FHJPONBZCFBUUSJCVUFEUP the mountainous terrains in the area. Region 3 has various structures. It is seen that brick is used in this region as packing material within a wooden carSJFSTZTUFN5BCMFBHJWFTUIFSBUJPTPG preferred construction techniques owing to available material. The average wall thickness of stone and adobe material is quite similar to
FBDIPUIFSJO3FHJPO XIJMFUIFSFJTB CJHEJÄŒFSFODFJO3FHJPOBOE3FHJPO 3. This difference results from the use PG EJÄŒFSFOU UFDIOJRVFT *O 3FHJPO mainly masonry wall material is used XIJMFJO3FHJPOTBOECPUINBTPOSZ BOEOPHHJO TUVEXPSL NBUFSJBMTVTFE 5BCMFCJMMVTUSBUFTUIFSFMBUJPOTIJQCFtween average wall thickness and materials used for constructing walls, for three regions. *O3FHJPOBOE3FHJPO UIFGBDBEF aspect ratios of village houses that are made of stone and adobe are close to each other. Lower aspect ratios for ReHJPONBZCFBUUSJCVUFEUPDIBOHFTJO construction techniques due to the regionâ€™s hot and humid climate. Average aspect ratio of facades for three climate SFHJPOTBSFTIPXOJO5BCMFDBOEUIF differences in aspect ratios according to construction techniques and climate SFHJPOTBSFTIPXOJO5BCMFE 4. Evaluating the effects of physical environment to the space in traditional architecture Vernacular architecture is shaped by locally available materials in a functional style devised to meet the needs of common people in their time and place. Most of the vernacular architecture responds to the regional climate and these structures were modified and evolved over time through feedback mechanisms that already exist in the system, to reflect the environmental, cultural and historical context in XIJDIUIFZFYJTU "MCBUJDJ -BV -BN :BOH Ä‡F WFSOBDVlar building construction techniques and specifications are more based on
Figure 9. An example of three-dimensional model of a village house.
es. The village houses in three regions were analyzed in terms of daylight, thermal protection and comfort and energy usage. 4.1. Daylight utilization The study aimed to define the spatial and visual comfort values for the village houses. The objective is to see if there is any change in the visual comfort values in those spaces where technologies of construction and material have been affected by climate factors. Figure 10. An example daylight analysis in radiance by ecotect software.
knowledge achieved by trial and error rather than conventional practices and these techniques are more often transferred by traditions and handed down through the generations (RakoUP+PTFQI (BSEF %BWJE "EFMBSE 3BOESJBNBOBOUBOZ Ä‡FTFTPMVtions represent the perfect balance between economic, cultural, social needs, natural built environment and limited UFDIOJDBMSFTPVSDFT ;IBJ1SFWJUBMJ %JMJ /BTFFS ;BDIBSJB 7BSHIFTF 5BTTJPQPVMPV (SJOEMFZ 1SPCFSU In the physical environmental analysis the houses were modeled in 3D by using a software of Ecotect. Thus, it became possible to make evaluations and DPNQBSJTPOTCFUXFFOUIFIPVTFT'JHVSF TIPXT UISFFEJNFOTJPOBM NPEel of a village house produced for the analysis of physical environment. The villages and the corresponding climate types included in this study BSF BT GPMMPXT 3FHJPO XBSN BOE IVNJE "FHFBO $MJNBUF ,Ã ÃŽÃ LEFSF ,VZVDBL 5BSMBCBÊ°Â‘ WJMMBHFT 3FHJPO NJME BOE ESZ $POUJOFOUBM $MJNBUF "LÃŽBLÃšZ %FSFMJ ,JSFÃŽ .BINVEJZF Ã–renli, SaraÃ§ villages; Region 3 (mild BOEIVNJE.BSNBSB$MJNBUF #BCBZBLB &NSF 1FIMJWBOIPDB 5VSBOWJMMBH-
Table 3. Illuminance levels accepted by the IES (Illuminating Engineering Society) for residential buildings (IES 1968) (Tzempelikos 2005).
4.1.1. Daylight analysis As a result of the studies in each of the three regions, the average and extreme daylight illuminance level values of first and third regions are found to be very close to each other. Also the values of the second region can be considered close to them. In the first climate region, the maximum and minimum daily daylight illuminance MFWFMWBMVFTXFSFGPVOEUPCFBOE -VY BOEBWFSBHF-VY*OUIF second climate region, the maximum and minimum daily daylight illuminance level values were found to be BOE-VY BOEBWFSBHF-VY In the third climate region, the maximum and minimum daily daylight illuminance level values were found to be BOE-VY BOEBWFSBHF-VY The overall average of all three regions XFSFGPVOEUPCF-VY BTBSFTVMU of calculations made for village houses GSPNWJMMBHFTPGSVSBM#BMÂ‘LFTJS VTing Radiance software under CIE standard overcast sky. Table 3 shows the illuminance level of IES for residential buildings. The value found is above the required levels given in Table 3, for the visual comfort of spaces. An example from the Daylight Illuminance Level BOBMZTFTJTTIPXOJO'JHVSF "T JU JT TFFO JO UIF 'JHVSF UIBU aspect ratios of houses analyzed in BalÄ±kesir rural areas havenâ€™t changed so much. At each of the three climate regions, in living areas, maximum dayMJHIU MFWFMT BSF BSPVOE MVY BOE minimum daylight levels are around MVY Ä‡FTF MFWFMT BSF BQQSPQSJBUF for living rooms, according to illumination level accepted by Illuminating Engineering Society.
Evaluation of the physical environment in Anatolian rural architecture
Table 4. (a) Average illuminance levels for the villages with three climate regions of balÄąkesir, (b) Average values of Äąlluminance level for three climate regions of BalÄąkesir (c) Illumination levels of village houses in three climate regions of BalÄąkesir, according to wall construction material.
Table 5. Maximum Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient (U) values for walls, defined by TS825 according to climate regions(10).
5BCMFBBOE5BCMFCJMMVTUSBUFBWFSage daylight illuminance levels for villages in regard to climate regions. The average daylight illuminance level for BMM WJMMBHFT FYDFFE UIF MJNJU WBMVFT set forth for residential buildings. 4.1.2. Dependent structural differences in terms of material use daylight The distribution of illumination levels according to wall material and construction technology is shown in Table
D*UJTTFFOUIBUBWFSBHFJMMVNJOBUJPO levels are quite close to each other. The illumination levels in all regions for all construction techniques are within the limit values. 4.2. Thermal protection and comfort The village houses were also evaluated for the spatial thermal comfort. The purpose is to see how materials and construction technology differentiation associated with climate affects thermal comfort.
Table 6. (a) Average wall overall heat transfer coefficients (U) for the villages with three climate regions of BalÄąkesir, (b) Average values of wall overall heat transfer coefficient for three climate regions of BalÄąkesir (c) The overall heat transfer coefficients for walls of BalÄąkesir village houses, according to climate regions and material used in wall construction.
4.2.1. An investigation of thermal conservation of village houses Ä‡FiÄ‡FSNBM1SPUFDUJPO'BDUPSwPG a space is evaluated according to the 0WFSBMM )FBU 5SBOTGFS $PFÄ?DJFOU 6 of walls, ceilings, floors and glazing. Thermal transmission value is one of the variables that directly influence the extent of thermal loss and gain. The limit values for Overall Heat TransGFS $PFÄ?DJFOU EFÄ•OFE CZ 54 BSF EFNPOTUSBUFEJO5BCMF 5VSLJTI4UBOEBSE C As BalÄąkesir is in the second climate [POF i6w WBMVF Ä‡F 0WFSBMM )FBU 5SBOTGFS $PFÄ?DJFOU EFÄ•OFE GPS OFX CVJMEJOHT JO UIJT BSFB JT Ä‡F SFTVMUTPG6WBMVFTDBMDVMBUFEGPSWJMMBHFTPG#BMÂ‘LFTJSBOEBWFSBHF6WBMVFT of climate regions are displayed in TaCMFBBOE5BCMFCÄ‡FBWFSBHF0WFSBMM)FBU5SBOTGFS$PFÄ?DJFOUDBMDVMBUFE for walls of traditional buildings in ruSBM#BMÂ‘LFTJSJT8NK. *U JT TFFO UIBU 3FHJPO XIFSF B
warm humid Aegean climate prevails, IBT UIF MPXFTU WBMVFT PG i6w WBMVF .BYJNVN BOE NJOJNVN 6 WBMVFT JO UIJT SFHJPO BSF BSPVOE 8NK BOE8N,*OUFSNTPG6WBMVFT 3FHJPO XIFSF NJME ESZ DPOUJOFOUBM DMJNBUFQSFWBJMT JTDMPTFUP3FHJPO*O this region, maximum and minimum 6WBMVFTXFSFDBMDVMBUFEBTBSPVOE 8N,BOE8NK. The highest values of thermal conductivity were calculated in Region 3, where a mild humid Marmara climate prevails. .BYJNVN BOE NJOJNVN 6 WBMVFT JO UIJTSFHJPO BSFBSPVOE8NK and 8NK. 4.2.2. Structural differences dependent materials and thermal conservation The intention was to determine the changes in the thermal performances of house walls, in relation with climate and wall types. Therefore, the wall details of each house were tested for the
Evaluation of the physical environment in Anatolian rural architecture
Table 7. (a) Average values of thermal decrement factor for walls of BalÄąkesir village houses according to climate regions and material used in wall construction. (b) Average values for the time lag factor in the specified village houses of BalÄąkesir, according to climate regions and wall material.
(a) Average values of thermal decrement factor for walls of BalÄąkesir village houses according to climate regions and material used in wall construction
Ä‡FSNBM $POEVDUJWJUZ 'BDUPS Ä‡F SFsults were calculated taking into consideration the material and the details PGXBMMT5BCMFDJMMVTUSBUFTUIFJNQBDU of construction technique, based on climate and material, on The Overall )FBU5SBOTNJTTJPODPFÄ?DJFOUT 6 GPS Walls values. An evaluation of the Overall Heat 5SBOTGFS $PFÄ?DJFOUT JOEJDBUFT UIBU none of the techniques in any region of BalÄąkesir meet the standard thermal values defined for todayâ€™s spaces. Adobe materials have higher thermal conductivity values when compared to stone. This is the result of two construction preferences present in BalÄąkesir; one is the frequent use of adobe as OPHHJO TUVEXPSL NBUFSJBM UIFPUIFS is constructing thinner walls with adobe when compared to stone. 5BCMFBJMMVTUSBUFTBDPNQBSJTPOCFtween regions and materials in terms of UIFUIFSNBMEFDSFNFOUGBDUPS3FHJPO BOE3FHJPOBSFSFMBUJWFMZTVQFSJPSUP Region 3 regarding the thermal decreNFOUGBDUPS*O3FHJPOBOE3FHJPO the thermal decrement factors ranges CFUXFFOBOE#VUJO3FHJPO 3, the thermal decrement factors deterNJOFEXFSFJOUIFSBOHFPGBOE In rural architecture, one of the factors affecting the comfort is time lag factor of spaces. The houses are analyzed for this factor by using the Autodesk thermal response factor NFUIPEPMPHZBOETPÄ™XBSF iÄ‡FSNBM "OBMZTJT.FUIPET w
(b) Average values for the time lag factor in the specified village houses of BalÄąkesir, according to climate regions and wall material)
Figure 11. Psychometric graph of the Percentage of Dissatisfied People, as seen in the interface of â€œPredicted Mean Voteâ€? software.
Figure 12. An example comfort analyses for each village house.
The comparison of time lag factors between regions in relation to materiBMT JT TIPXO JO 'JHVSF " UJNF MBH GBDUPSPGUPIPVSTJTGPVOEUPIBWF a positive influence on the comfort MFWFM PG UIF TQBDF )PXFWFS UJNF MBHT EPXOUPIPVSTSFNBJOBDDFQUBCMFGPS
Table 8. (a) Average spatial PPD values for the villages with three climate regions of BalÄ±kesir, (b) Average spatial PPD values for three climate regions of BalÄ±kesir.
Table 9. (a) Average heating load values for the villages with three climate regions of BalÄ±kesir, (b) Average heating load values for three climate regions of BalÄ±kesir.
MBH WBMVFT BSF BSPVOE IPVST BOE IPVST*O3FHJPOXIFSFBIPUIVNJE Aegean climate prevails maximum and NJOJNVNUJNFMBHWBMVFTBSFBCPVU IPVSTBOEIPVST
Figure 13. An example output from energy software demonstrating analysis results on heating and cooling load for each village.
SVSBMBSFBT &JDIMFS *U JT TFFO JO UIF 5BCMF C UIBU 3FHJPO XIFSF NJME ESZ DPOUJOFOUBM climate prevails, has the highest values for thermal time lag factors. Maximum and minimum time lag values JOUIJTSFHJPOBSFBSPVOEIPVSTBOE IPVST 3FHJPO IBWJOH B NJME IVmid Marmara climate has the lowest thermal conductivity values. In this region, maximum and minimum time
4.2.3. Thermal comfort The village houses were also anaMZ[FE GPS UIFSNBM DPNGPSU BOE i1SFEJDUFE 1FSDFOUBHF PG %JTTBUJTÄ•FE 1FPQMFw 11% WBMVFT XFSF EFÄ•OFE 11% is a model for evaluating thermal comGPSU BQQSPWFECZ*404UBOEBSET If it is not satisfied by the space, then 11%JTBDDFQUFEBT'VMMTBUJTGBDUJPO JT EFÄ•OFE CZ B 11% WBMVF PG *40 Ä‡Fi1SFEJDUFE.FBO7PUFwTPÄ™XBSF XBT VTFE GPS DBMDVMBUJOH 11% WBMVFT Comfort values were calculated using the data collected between the hours of BOEQN EVSJOHUIFIPUUFTUEBZPG the year and also using data available GPSUIFTQFDJÄ•DSFHJPO'PSUIFIPUUFTU day of the year, the comfort values XFSFBDDFQUFEBTN NJMECSFF[F GPS JOEPPS BJS Ä˜VY BOE GPS DMPUIJOHMFWFM i)VNBO$PNGPSU 1SFEJDUFE
Evaluation of the physical environment in Anatolian rural architecture
Table 10. (a) Average cooling load values for the villages with three climate regions of BalÄ±kesir, (b) Average cooling load values for three climate regions of BalÄ±kesir.
.FBO7PUF w Considering the sample village IPVTFT UIFBWFSBHF1FSDFOUBHFPG%JTTBUJTÄ•FE 1FPQMF GPS XIPMF SFHJPO PG #BMÂ‘LFTJS JT'JHVSFTIPXTUIF psychometric graphic and calculations of the dissatisfaction ratio, computed BUUIFi1SFEJDUFE.FBO7PUFwTPÄ™XBSF BOE BDDPSEJOH UP *40 4UBOEBSET 5BCMFBBOE5BCMFCTIPXTEJTUSJCVUJPOPGUIFBWFSBHFTQBUJBM11%WBMVFT for villages and climatic regions, and 'JHVSFBOE'JHVSFTIPXTBOFYample of comfort analyses for each village house. 4.3. Energy consumption Energy consumption levels have been taken into account in accordance XJUIi$PEFPG&OFSHZ1FSGPSNBODFJO #VJMEJOHTwJO5VSLFZTJODF54 defines the heating energy limit values for Turkey in relation with degree-day SFHJPOT 5VSLJTI 4UBOEBSE B C 4.3.1. Energy usage analysis results Thermal gain and loss analyses of village houses were made by computer simulation techniques. It uses the CIBSE Admittance Method to calculate
heating and cooling loads for any number of zones within a model, based on the typical meteorological year (â€œTherNBM "OBMZTJT .FUIPET w 8JUI the data gathered from these analyses, average values were determined for the villages, climate regions and for the whole of BalÄ±kesir. 'JHVSF HJWFT UIF WBMVFT PG &OFSgy Consumption of each village house. The heating load for village houses was calculated separately for each month. The results were then added together to find an annual total heating load; according to which the final values and regional averages were organized and QSFTFOUFEJO5BCMFBBOE5BCMFCÄ‡F average heating load per unit area of all inventories in BalÄ±kesir was found to be L8INÄ‡JTWBMVFJTBCPWF L8IN UIF MJNJU WBMVF QSFEFÄ•OFE for this region. The monthly cooling load values were observed and collected; the calculated annual cooling load was thereby determined. The annual values for cooling load are demonstrated by the HSBQIJO5BCMF"WFSBHFDPPMJOHMPBE QFSVOJUBSFBGPS#BMÂ‘LFTJSJTL8I N *O 3FHJPO BOOVBM BWFSBHF UFN-
Table 11. Average heating and cooling loads for village houses of BalÄ±kesir, according to climate region and wall material (a) Average heating loads (b) Average cooling loads.
Table 12. Average physical environment values calculated for BalÄąkesir village houses, in comparison to predefined standards.
perature is lower than other two regions. However, it has the highest altitude. Maximum and minimum heating MPBET BSFGPVOEUPCFBSPVOEL8I NBOEL8IN Also in this kind of climate region continental climate prevails, there are high temperature variations in the daily cycle. In these regions an attempt is normally made to take advantage of the great temperature variation during the day-night cycle, delaying the penetration of heat as far as possible so that it reaches the interior at night, when JU JT MFBTU CPUIFSTPNF 'PS UIJT QVSpose such as clay in the form of adobe bricks or mud walls, thick stone and all the possible combinations of these solutions materials of great thermal inertia are used (Labaki & Kowaltowski, *O 3FHJPO "FHFBO 3FHJPO UIF maximum and minimum heating loads BSF BSPVOE L8IN BOE L8I N *O 3FHJPO XJUI B NJME IVNJE Marmara climate, maximum and minimum time lag values are calculated BTL8INBOEL8INÄ‡F variance of heating load values among the three climate regions of BalÄąkesir is 5BCMFBBOE5BCMFCQSFTFOUT DPPMJOHMPBEWBMVFTGPSUIF WJMMBHFT under study, and averages cooling load values for climate regions. *O UFSNT PG DPPMJOH MPBE 3FHJPO was found to be the region with highest values. In this region, maximum and NJOJNVNDPPMJOHMPBET BSFBSPVOE L8INBOEL8IN$PPMJOHMPBE values for the other two regions were close to zero, which means thereâ€™s almost no cooling load. Variance of cooling load values among BalÄąkesirâ€™s three DMJNBUFSFHJPOTJTUIVT
4.3.2. Energy usage depending on the material terms of structural differences The changes of average heating and cooling loads of the houses were analyzed, depending on climate regions and wall material. *O 5BCMF B UIF SFMBUJPOTIJQ CFtween construction techniques and heating loads is demonstrated for three climate regions. The results indicate that the heating load varies greatly in different regions, due to changes in climate conditions. 5BCMFCJMMVTUSBUFTUIFSFMBUJPOTIJQ between construction techniques and cooling loads for three climate regions. The situation is similar in terms of both IFBUJOHBOEDPPMJOHMPBET*O3FHJPO the cooling period is longer than other regions, due to having the highest yearly average temperatures among three SFHJPOT *O 3FHJPO UIF DPPMJOH MPBE is negligible because of continental climate. 5BCMF TVNNBSJ[FT UIF SFTVMUT PG physical environmental analysis in comparison with standard values. It is apparent that the local architectural culture already embraces many techniques and characteristics that can, after certain structural improvements on insulation, produce effective results for DPOUFNQPSBSZ TQBDFT 'JHVSF QSFTents a characteristic rural settlement. 5. Conclusion In this work some part of the research project carried out in BalÄąkesir, Turkey is presented. The work is based on the analysis of the physical environment of the traditional architecture in rural area. The results of the research helps to produce a better judgment of traditional housing concerning compatibility to the environment, rate of usability in the modern life style and generate ideas for better adaptability for daily use. It is seen that average values regarding daylight for three regions of BalÄąkeTJSBSFIJHIBOETVÄ?DJFOUBDDPSEJOHUP residential standards. it is also found that differences in climate, material or construction technique do not account for significant deviance in these numbers. That means that the conventional aspect ratios are preserved in the area,
Evaluation of the physical environment in Anatolian rural architecture
regardless of climate of technology factors. Minor variances in value between regions may be seen as a result of differences in construction techniques and in aspect ratios. The slight differences in values can be explained by the difference between aspect ratios; resulting from the materialâ€™s various uses, as OPHHJO TUVEXPSL PSBTDBSSJFS In thermal analysis, it is clearly apQBSFOUUIBU3FHJPO XIFSFBO"FHFBO climate prevails, has lowest values for UIFSNBM DPOEVDUJWJUZ 6 Ä‡JT EJÄŒFSence in thermal conductivity values may be associated with higher values in the thermal insulation factor; a result of building thicker walls for protecting indoor areas from the extreme temperature during summer days. The EJÄŒFSFODF JO 6 WBMVFT CFUXFFO 3FHJPOBOE3FHJPOJTUIPVHIUUPCFEFrived from differences in construction UFDIOPMPHZ 'VSUIFSNPSF JU IBT CFFO a critical observation that hot climate is an important determinant for locating a â€œbuilding facadeâ€? at the planning stage; which indicates the existence of successful traditional precautions for improving comfort in summer days. An evaluation of heat loss and gain results makes it possible to say that, for traditional architecture in rural areas, it appears that conduction is the most important cause of thermal loss. However, there is also a significant amount of heat loss due to ventilation and infiltration. These factors may be associated with weak insulation in windows, air leakages from the space, and spaces that connect directly to outdoor areas. When thermal gain is considered, the sun is a source of heat that is highly effective in this area. This proves it to be essential that a study of the positive and negative influences of solar heat be held before a new phase of construction in rural BalÄąkesir. *O3FHJPO BDPNQBSJTPOCFUXFFO materials used for making masonry walls shows an advantage of adobe against stone in terms of thermal conductivity. Higher values of thermal infiltration for brick material in Region 3 are a result of using bricks as noggin TUVEXPSL NBUFSJBM XJUIJO XPPEFO carrier systems. The reason that Region BOE 3FHJPO BSF SFMBUJWFMZ TVQFSJPS to Region 3 regarding that the thermal
decrement factor is the differences in construction techniques and materials in climate regions and varying average values of thermal conductivity and UIFSNBM NBTT 3FHJPOT BOE IBWF average thermal decrement factor valVFTPG XIJDIBSFBCMFUPNFFU todayâ€™s requirements. However, the inventories in Region 3 fall below this standard. *EFBMMZ UJNFMBHTEPXOUPIPVSTSFmain acceptable for rural areas. When the averages are calculated according to this value, it can be concluded that, in all types of climate, adobe material has a relatively positive influence on the quality and stability of interior space. It may also be said that this positive influence and stability is still relevant for houses in Region 3, where wall thickness is relatively less. Lower values of time lag for Region 3 may also be attributed to higher aspect ratios for facades, a natural result of using wooden carrier systems with noggin (studXPSL XBMMT In planning for future construction or for renovation of current structures in the rural areas, the comfort values calculated for BalÄąkesir indicate that extra precautions would become necessary; that is, if the comfort values of 3FHJPO TQBDFT BSF UP CF CSPVHIU VQ to ideal levels without the help of mechanical cooling systems; especially for summer days. Meanwhile, no extra precautions seem necessary for spaces JO3FHJPO'PS3FHJPO UIFOFFEGPS any precaution must be determined individually for every designed space, after an extensive evaluation of the calculated comfort values. Analyses show that it is natural and possible that differences in climate can have a dramatic impact on comfort values of spaces, even among villages of the same city. It is recommended to combine the structural details of village houses with todayâ€™s contemporary structural details in order to reduce energy consumption to more reasonable levels. Specifically; if transparent surfaces, which usually come in the form of wooden window frames with single-layered glass, and other structural details that cause thermal loss are modernized properly, then it would be possible to attain physical environment and energy values that
BSFNPSFFÄ?DJFOUBOEQPTJUJWFJOUFSNT of producing comfort in living. The results indicate that the heating load varies greatly in different regions, due to changes in climate conditions and construction techniques. In the light of this data, the necessity to formally define the climate regions of BalÄąkesir is proven once again. Region IBT MPXFTU BWFSBHF UFNQFSBUVSF CVU highest heating degree-hour. The fact that adobe material is frequently used as infilling and that wall thicknesses are less in this region may account for the unexpectedly high values heating load on adobe. The situation is not different in terms of cooling loads although wall thicknesses and aspect ratio of facades are similar in value; adobe material is found to cause more cooling load in comparison to stone material. The same significant difference is also found in the time lag factor. This condition may be explained by the nature of the material; the specific heat, that is, the heat capacity of stone material is higher than adobe material. When the thermal properties are examined for stone material, despite its unsuitable UIFSNBM DPOEVDUJPO DPFÄ?DJFOU UIF physical environment values are found to be similar with adobe material. The study of physical environment values for traditional village houses in rural areas has produced significant reTVMUT'JOEJOHTJOEJDBUFUIBUUSBEJUJPOBM rural architecture has many traits and features, that are hardly found in contemporary residences we live in today; especially those that improve the comfort value of the space. Turkeyâ€™s rural architecture has developed unique techniques and methods, as a result of the influence of climate conditions. The results of this study also imply that if new structural details in the traditional rural architecture are to be added, they must be defined after a thorough study of the physical environment values. Careful consideration of these evaluations would support the conservation of architectural culture and identity, in the case of a new structures or renovations of the existing ones.
References "MCBUJDJ 3 &MFNFOUT and Strategies for Sustainable Intervention in the Residential BuildJOH 4FDUPS B $BTF 4UVEZ Indoor and Built Environment, 18 o EPJ9 "UIBOBTTJPT 5 " NFUIPEology for integrated daylighting and UIFSNBM BOBMZTJT PG CVJMEJOHT 1SPQuest Dissertations and Theses. ConDPSEJB6OJWFSTJUZ $BOUJO 3 #VSHIPM[FS + (VBSSBDJOP ( .PVKBMMFE # 5BNFMJLFDIU 4 3PZFU #( 'JFMEBTTFTTNFOUPG thermal behaviour of historical dwellJOHT JO 'SBODF Building and Environment, 45 o EPJK CVJMEFOW $VSSBO 3 + "SDIJUFDUVSF and the urban experience. Van Nostrand Reinhold. ÂąPSBQĂŽÂ‘PĘ“MV , "ZTFM / (ĂšSHĂ MĂ $ ,PMCBZ% 4FĂŽLJO1 ĂƒOTBM& Âą4 KÄąrsal Alanda YĂśresel Mimari Ă–zeliklerin Belirlenmesi Kitap 1 Mimari Kimlik "OLBSB .JNBS 4JOBO (Ă [FM 4BOBUMBSĂƒOJWFSTJUFTJJMF#BZÂ‘OEÂ‘SMÂ‘LWF É—TLBO #BLBOMÂ‘Ę“Â‘ 5FLOJL "SBĘ°UÂ‘SNB WF 6ZHVMBNB.Ă EĂ SMĂ Ę“Ă Ă‡orapĂ§ÄąoÄ&#x;lu, K., Diri, C., Ĺžahin, # ,VSVHĂšM 4 Â˝[HĂ OMFS . &SFN Â˝ y "SQBDÂ‘PĘ“MV Ăƒ BalÄąkesir KÄąrsalÄąnda YĂśresel Doku ve Mimari Ă–zeliklere Uygun YapÄąlaĹ&#x;manÄąn YaygÄąnlaĹ&#x;tÄąrÄąlmasÄą Kitap 1 Rehber Kitap. "OLBSB#BZÂ‘OEÂ‘SMÂ‘LWFÉ—TLBO#BLBOMÂ‘Ę“Â‘ 5FLOJL"SBĘ°UÂ‘SNBWF6ZHVMBNB(FOFM MĂźdĂźrlĂźÄ&#x;Ăź. %JMJ B 4 /BTFFS . B 7BSHIFTF 5 ; 1BTTJWF FOWJSPOment control system of Kerala vernacular residential architecture for a DPNGPSUBCMF JOEPPS FOWJSPONFOU " qualitative and quantitative analyses. Energy and Buildings, 42 o EPJKFOCVJME %JMJ B 4 /BTFFS . B ;BDIBSJB7BSHIFTF 5 1BTTJWFDPOUSPM methods of Kerala traditional architecture for a comfortable indoor enWJSPONFOU $PNQBSBUJWF JOWFTUJHBUJPO during various periods of rainy season. Building and Environment, 45 o EPJKCVJMEFOW &CFO4BMFI ." Ä‡FBSDIJtectural form and landscape as a har-
Evaluation of the physical environment in Anatolian rural architecture
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The expression of identity: Country pavilions for expo in architectural design studio
Ä°lker Fatih Ă–ZORHON JMLFSP[PSIPO!P[ZFHJOFEVUSt%FQBSUNFOUPG"SDIJUFDUVSF 'BDVMUZPG Architecture and Design, Ă–zyeÄ&#x;in University, Istanbul, Turkey
3FDFJWFE"QSJMt Final Acceptance: June 2016
Abstract This study discusses design in architecture education by generating notions and concepts and examines this issue through a design studio. The study, through the studio which handles â€œExpo pavilion designâ€? that is considered to reflect the issue of identity in the most solid way possible, aims to present how notions representing identity turn into architectural products, by observing dynamics that constitute design process, how different choices and methods reflected on the final product and student tendencies. The methods employed in the study are presentation of theoretical framework in line with the literature review, qualitative methods including participant observation and interviews with students concerning studio process. In the study, the architectural design studio that aimed to create an interactive and participatory environment which enabled students to learn from each other was discussed. Finally, the study underlines the relationship between the method employed in studio and outcomes of the process and studentsâ€™ inclination to prefer concrete data with regard to conceptualisation. Keywords Architecture education, Concept, Design studio, Identity, Metaphor.
1. Introduction Identity and its expression is a research area of everyone who is concerned with architectural design. Processes of generating ideas and notions and conversion of these into concrete forms and spaces proceed in a different way for each designer. This study, through a design studio experience, aims to present how notions representing identity turn into architectural products, by observing dynamics that constitute design process, how different choices and methods reflected on the final product and student tendencies. In this respect, several methods were employed including a theoretical framework based on the literature review, participant observation and interviews with students concerning studio process that are qualitative methods. In this paper, selection of subject in accordance with the studio goals, the method employed, the studio environment and the tools used were discussed and both the studio itself and the products created within the studio were evaluated. After the literature review, which was completed with the key words â€œdesign studioâ€?, â€œidentityâ€?, â€œnotionâ€? and â€œconceptâ€?, particularly studies on design studios, their setups and pedBHPHZ 0I *TP[BLJ (SPTT %P ,VIO 4BMBNB 8JMLJOTPO studies investigating design processFT -BXTPO 3PXF (PMETDINJEU BOE UIFTJT DPOcerning generation of concepts and design and studies emphasizing cultural identity in particular (Tomic at BM .BIHBVC XFSF DBNF across and examined. The distinctive feature of this study is the attempt that it demonstrates properties of a studio environment, which was set up to teach design approaches to students, student tendencies to generate notions that express identity and suggestions concerning accurate guidance of these tenEFODJFTÄ‡FDBTFPGUIJTTUVEZ SEZFBS undergraduate architectural design studio, handled â€œExpo pavilion designâ€?, which is considered to reflect the issue of identity in the most solid way possible. Expo structures not only reflect socio-cultural identities of countries but sometimes their economic power,
technological development and political stance. Therefore in this sense the issue includes an extensive definition of identity. Identity literally refers to all features that are necessary to identify an object. According to GĂźr and Cordan, the notion of identity is defined with distinctive attributes. Accordingly, identity is a vital and existential notion containJOHNVMUJGPSNWBSJFUZPGIVNBOMJGFJU should not turn into a dogma (GĂźr and $PSEBO "DDPSEJOH UP :Ă DFM Q who evaluated the notion in the architectural context, identity is an architectural expression of a nationâ€™s values. These values might consist of lifestyles, traditions and customs, construction techniques or technology. Architectural interpretations that are based on cultural identity, tradition and approaches that reflect universal tendencies are the issue of aesthetic-intellectual-philosophical background of design, in other words history-art-society and world viewsâ€™ relations with the architecture. 2. Designing by generating notions and concepts In studio, it is aimed to make students to gain the ability to transform identity phenomena that are expected to be represented in architecture as architectural products. In line with this purpose, the first stem of making the identity concrete has been considered as generation of notions that reflect the components of the identity. Generation of notions is a learning method that includes direct questioning through notions. In this context, in order to achieve a lucrative design process, the first idea that is proposed, or a notion that can be considered primitive, needs to develop into a certain level and presented. A notion is an abstract and general EFTJHO PG BO PCKFDU JO NJOE /PUJPOT combine general ideas concerning an objectâ€™s features in an abstract way. For this reason a notion is regarded a starting point and main idea of any Ä•FME UIBU SFRVJSFT DSFBUJWJUZ /PUJPO which is a starting point that is associated with the designer and the idea contributing the creation of a design, is the first step of this creativity pro-
DFTT (PMETDINJEU *OUIJTTUFQ learning and development by questionJOHUISPVHIOPUJPOTPDDVSUIFJNQPSUant thing is that the necessity to apply a language which converts goals that are abstract and conceptual to design conDFQUT (FODPTNBOPHMV Each designer approaches the issue of design from a different perspective and forms his or her own ideas. The designer, in line with his or her main
Figure 1. Notion- Concept- Product (www. pinterest.com).
idea, develops a specific method and strategy and completes the design QSPDFTT BDDPSEJOHMZ *ODFPHMV Each designerâ€™s distinctive features are about to what extend the main idea is reflected on final product, how far the problems create a distance from the notion during the process or how well the notion is developed, how accurately the image of a notion is reflected on design, from general to details are distinctive features of each designer 6SB[ During designing, designers usually have a preliminary image or a notion, in other words, a message to deliver JO UIFJS NJOET #BZB[Â‘U /FYU they begin to think how this is delivered and what type of an indicant will be used. The place of the concept is just in between, the area indicating passage from one stage to another. The concept also reveals information about how content transforms into form. This stage at the same time is the process when designerâ€™s design language beHJOT UP GPSN #JMJS (FISZ BOE Milunicâ€™s work, known as the Dancing House, is a fine example to this (Figure Ä‡FXPSL XIJDIJTEFEJDBUFEUPUIF well-known dancers Fred and Ginger, is a formal transfer of a metaphor of a dancing couple to architecture. In designing process, each notion that is reached in the end of abstraction phase leads to steps to final product, which includes concretisation. However, the essential concretisation process during designing begins when designer starts to carry his or her concept to final product. In this stage, a complicated process of designing in mind gradually slows down and ends 5VSBO %FMBHF JOEJcates that a concept is not an isolated, changeless formation. Instead it is an active part of the intellectual process constantly engaged in serving communication, understanding and probMFN TPMWJOH %FMBHF FU BM Ä‡F designerâ€™s steps are more reasonable, outcome-oriented and concerned with problem solving. The designer, before reaching up this stage, should use his or her creativity on the upmost level and consider the alternatives as much as possible. Developing an architectural concept
The expression of identity: Country pavilions for expo in architectural design studio
can be seen as thinking with an architectural language. According to Onat XIJMF XF BSF EFTJHOJOH XF UIJOL FYQMPSBUPSZ BOE DSFBUJWFMZ XF transform our decisions to objective forms and in a way convert our emotions and ideas, which lead to these decisions, into design language, presentation and narration. According to him, the quality of a designed product that is obtained through formative decisions depends on conceptual framework over design, the ability to transform a conceptual being into an objective formation, consciousness, consistency and sensitivity of design language that JTVTFEJOOBSSBUJPO 0OBU The concept is the stage when conceptual thinking phase in an individualâ€™s mind gradually becomes externalised. In this stage, goal-oriented first idea can be easily delivered to the inEJWJEVBMIJNTFMGPSTQFDUBUPS8JUIUIJT feature, concept development helps to apply ideas to any problem occurring throughout designing process in a repetitive and consistent way. A concept includes significant analogies and metaphors, if any, directives that are associated with designer and user in determination of notions, relations between notions and maps that are formed by this conceptual integrity )FZ FU BM -BLPÄŒ BOE +PIOTPO BMTPJOEJDBUFEUIBUUIJOLJOHTZTtem generally works with analogies and metaphors. The use of tools to demonstrate relationship between these two different notions in fact constitutes the basis of development system of a concept. In summary, the problems that the designer has to solve, although they reach the last stage through formal language, in fact all problems demonstrate the content of the design. During the step of appropriate forming, which is realised through content or accurate definition of the essence, the first step
Figure 2. Turkeyâ€™s pavilions 1939 New York1958 Bruxelles- 2010 Shangai (www.arkiv. com.tr).
to be made is the development of the notion or definition of the essence. In design process and design studios which are simulations of the design process, this point is called â€œconcept developmentâ€?. 3. Methods, environment and tools in the studio In this studio, first of all it was considered that how the studio setup should be formed as a design process 5BCMF *O GBDU UIJT XBT B EFTJHOJOH QSPDFTT BT "TSBG 4BMBNB TUBUFE as â€œdesigning the design studioâ€?. In the IPVSTQFSXFFLTUVEJP XFFLTJO UPUBM XIFSF TUVEFOUT QBSUJDJQBUFE it was aimed to create an interactive and participatory environment which enabled students to learn from each
Table 1. Studio setup.
other. This environment was tried to be achieved by a peer critique process which includes the studio tutor. As Oh, *TP[BLJ (SPTTBOE%P JOEJDBUFE in their study, peer critique is important in terms of providing opportunity to observe students in solving similar design problems and in comparison to larger review groups, encouraging students who find it difficult to speak in public and express their opinions. 4UVEFOUT MFBSO UP GPSNVMBUF B DSJUJRVF and to take responsibility for what they learn. In addition, peer critiquing supports collaborative learning and encourages students to value peers opinJPOT 0IFUBM On the other hand students were encouraged to freely select their tools that they used to represent their opinions in the most comfortable way possible. Therefore, the physical environment was set accordingly. The studio has a peer critique order that has been obtained through putting tables side by side. It is also used for individual studJFT"DDPSEJOHUP,VIO QIZTJDBM space in an architectural studio should be ordered in a way that designer is able to handle open-ended problems, deTJHO SBQJEMZ UIF FOWJSPONFOU TIPVME be appropriate for media use, formal and informal critics and creative use. In the studio, presentations were made in the following order. First the studio tutor made a general presentation about expo and gave examples concerning Turkeyâ€™s forms of representation on exhibitions and their difGFSFOUJBUJPO JO UJNF 'JHVSF Ä‡FO students were given a pre-schedule, which was expected to be reinterpreted by them in accordance with the country that they chose. In the following, students were asked to reply these questions that might affect design proDFTTFT How do the forms of country representations of expo structures differentiate today? How can the values that vary from country to county (social, cultural, UFDIOPMPHJDBM FDPOPNJDWBMVFTFUD CF expressed in architecture? The research process, which aimed to create necessary conceptual infrastructure, began with individual presentations of participant students.
Their presentations included definitions and aims of expo and sample buildings. /FYU TUVEFOUT TFMFDUFE DPVOUJFT that they would work on. They chose *UBMZ %FONBSL 64" &OHMBOE 'SBODF Holland, United Arab Emirates, Egypt, 4XJU[FSMBOE (FSNBOZ BOE +BQBO UP design expo buildings. In these selections, in terms of being familiar to a particular countryâ€™s culture, previous visits to that country, even for shortterm, was decisive. "DDPSEJOH UP (Ă S JEFOUJUZ concern for an architect depends on understanding-enhancement of a societyâ€™s values, benefiting from doctrines of national and general architectural history masterly, evaluation of geography and urban data as design opportunities and filtering style, format and language of tectonic studies. In this context, each student made a presentation that reflected social, cultural, economic and political identities of the country that he or she had chosen. The next subject of research and presentation was expo, other structure types and architectural attitudes, which express transformation of notions into architecture well. Architectural identity and its representation was attempted to be understood with the help of notions such as inspiration of phenomena, analogy and metaphors. Particularly designing with metaphors and its effective role in supporting creation was underlined. Metaphors seem to be quite beneficial instruments compared to several other methods and approaches applied by architects in order to achieve the purpose of architecture which is to reveal a unique situation which has never been experienced before and broaden the feelings, thoughts and imagination of human beings "ZÂ‘SBO 0OUIFPUIFSIBOE TUVdent were asked to examine Lakoff and +PIOTPOT CPPL i.FUBQIPST 8F -JWF#Zw #BZB[JUT XPSLi6OEFSTUBOEJOH%FTJHOwBOE,BSBUBOJT book â€œArchitecture as Metaphorâ€?. Following the searches, each student began to develop first notions, which constitute intellectual background of the county pavilion that he or she would EFTJHO"DDPSEJOHUP%PSTU UIF most important targets in design is to
The expression of identity: Country pavilions for expo in architectural design studio
use the most dominant notion and idea as a guide, assemble all different pieces and form a concept which creates a solid relation. In doing so, it is possible to determine limits of design. This stage can be regarded as the most significant stage of studio process. A study CZ-BXTPO TVQQPSUTUIJTOPUJPO In order to investigate how design process developed, observation and methods for obtaining data within the process were employed. Drafts of eleven successful designers, whom were interviewed by the researcher, were selected. As a result, it was observed that first productive ideas and design decisions made during the initial stage of design played an important role in the development of the works of designers -BXTPO The designer, since he or she begins to develop notions through abstraction of data that belong to various fields, needs some tools in order to transfer knowledge that is in his or her mind to outer sources. It can be claimed that the faster externalised these ideas in mind, the faster the development stage happens. The transition from notion to concept is generally achieved by these tools. Design development tools can be considered as a guide, which takes a person from something to another while he or she is thinking by guiding his or her mind (KĂśknar and Erdem, Q *O UIJT QSPDFTT TUVEFOUT were not aware of the physical structure of the space where expo would take place and building would be built. The process consisted of focusing notions with many alternatives and design ideas. These were refined and the ones with potentials to transform into architectural products were selected. 4UVEFOUTCFHBOUPQSPDFFEBUUIJTTUBHF already, with many variations, while they were expressing their opinions. For example, Caner Ăœretmen, who considered futurism as a starting point and aimed to build Italyâ€™s pavilion by setting up analogical relations with the Pantheon, began his work with a painting that was dominated by futurist features. This way reminds Zaha Hadidâ€™s path when she just began architecture. Onur Tekin, who conceptualised dominant geographical element and the
Figure 3. Expo site model.
use of bicycles for Denmark, chose to express these ideas rapidly on digital environment. Ece Alan, who wanted to combine global power metaphor and notion of downtown as a physical image, preferred to externalise her ideas UISPVHIGSFFIBOEESBÄ™T 5BCMF The students, afterwards, made a model of a layout plan which had been transformed from a current expo area )BOOPWFS CZ UIF TUVEJP UVUPS 'JHVSF *OUIFMBUFSTUBHFTPGUIFTUVEZ draft studies were applied to digital environment alongside with the trial of solid models on this general model. As 0YNBO JOEJDBUFE TVDI IZCSJE methods (the use of different design UPPMTUPHFUIFS BOEWBSJFUZQMBZBOJNportant role in design world and interaction of the physical and the digital in different environments address to the designerâ€™s different perception, feelings and emotions. Design process proceeded in an environment where students were able to turn into active participants and to DPNNFOUPOFBDIPUIFSTJEFBT8IJMF discussing design, an enriched studio environment concerning recent topics of architecture beside the project oriented issues was formed in order to make students to feel free in developing their own opinions. It is thought that recognition of students throughout design process and exploration of appropriate learning methods with them is an important factor in developing his or her own perspective and emphasizing individual features. As Paker TUBUFE BO BSDIJUFDUVSBM EFTJHO studio should be more than a place of knowledge transfer and acquisition for students as active participants, and for
the studio tutor as a moderator, and should become a medium for improvisation. In this approach, the studio tutor is more of a â€˜mediatorâ€™ or â€˜moderatorâ€™ than a director or manager. In other words, a â€œcoach for a creative climateâ€?. The significant stages of the project process were intermediate jury and intermediate submission. The intermediate jury contributed studentsâ€™ works with opinions of the jury members. Breaking points such as preliminary jury and intermediate submission certainly influenced students in their development. The aim in juries was not to direct students but to enlighten them in finding their own paths.
After juries, collected talks and studio tutor-student interviews were made on transformation of focused JEFBTJOUPBSDIJUFDUVSF"T,PDI stated the significant of desk critique in design studio, this enables the most appropriate environment in order to watch each studentâ€™s individual development. Here, the executor sometimes acted as a user. Although it is impossible to eliminate the studio tutorâ€™s role as an expert, the user- designer approach provides a less intimidating, more constructive learning environment (Oh, et BM *OUIJTTUBHF TUVEFOUTXBZT of representations for expressing their designs were mostly on digital media. Building forms were tasted through
Table 2. Studio works.
The expression of identity: Country pavilions for expo in architectural design studio
solid models and on common model. In this point, it is essential to state that designing a building on Expo exhibition area lead students to seek for interesting and different mass and shell formation instead of conventional construction solution. This situation pushed students to analyse interior space and increase their capacities in this while they effectively use computer-aided design as a designing tool. The last stage of the studio process XBTUIFÄ•OBMKVSZ5BCMFTVNNBSJ[FT
the works of all participant students. The students were expected to demonstrate their ideas that were matured in phases. The attitude of the jury members, which were rather directive during the intermediate jury, turned to be more questioning, teaching and assessing. The juryâ€™s assessment on designs, whether consisting of concrete data and physical features or abstract notions of semantic transformations, was concerned with the quality of the architectural product. In this point the
decisive thing was studentsâ€™ consistency of expressing the initial identity that they had created in the beginning of the process, transforming the notions that reflect the identity to architectural products and sensitivity in expressing these transformations. On the other hand, an interview about the studio process was conducted with the students at the end of the course. Open-ended questions were asked to the students in order to understand to what extent they have been satisfied with this process. Among the TUVEFOUTXIPQBSUJDJQBUFEUPUIFTUVdio all have expressed that they found UIF TVCKFDU FYQP EFTJHO JOUFSFTUJOH while the majority found the methPEPMPHZ QFFS DSJUJRVFEFTL DSJUJRVF helpful on gaining ability of designing by generating notions and concepts. Two of the students stated that peer critique process could not have enough contribution due to the levels of criticism and interpretation of the students. 4. Conclusion This study discusses design in architecture education by generating notions and examines this issue through a design studio. The studio aimed to think over identity-oriented topics such as culture, technology, social structure and physical structure and to represent ideas developed in these fields on &910TUSVDUVSFT4UVEFOUTXFSFJOUSPduced with interdisciplinary research which includes transformation of theoretical studies and developed notions on country identities into architecture. It was observed that common discussions in the studio environment helped to develop studentsâ€™ abilities of analytical and critical thinking. 8IFOBTTFTTJOHJOUFSWJFXTXJUITUVdents, it can be argued that the most important benefits of the above-mentioned flexible approach in studio education are formation of a participative environment where different ideas come together, comfortable expression of ideas through individuality and gaining self-confidence. In this way, it was observed that students were better motivated in design process as they freely selected their media and tools of representation in externalising their design ideas. This situation allowed
students to express their designs in the best way possible. It was observed that reflection of a country identity included many ways including historical references, transfer of ideologically based art movements to architecture, interpretation of a solid physical features of a country that make it distinctive from others and expression of technology through stunning spectacles of architectural forms. However, it can be claimed that students are inclined to conceptualisation of solid physical data, which have potentials to represent the identity. This might stem from the fact that transformation of physical features into forms is less indirect. To sum up, in design education, the candidate designers should be gained UIFBCJMJUZPGOPUJPOEFWFMPQNFOUUIFO they can develop their point of views and most importantly become designers, who not only focus on problem solving but also on generating meanings through establishing accurate relations. Certainly all students in a design studio do not have same level of consciousness, capacity to perceive, background and architectural knowledge. Therefore, it is the studio tutorâ€™s duty to reflect the differences to the studio considering these as diversity and richness and create an environment in which students can express their own features and points of views. As a further study, the same method will be employed in the following semesters and more data will be collected to reflect the experiences and perceptions of the new students. References "ZÂ‘SBO / The role of metaphors in the formation of architectural identity, A|Z ITU Journal of the Faculty of Architecture, 9 #BZB[Â‘U / â€Ť Ú€â€ŹTasarÄąmÄą Anlamak *TUBOCVM É—EFBM ,Ă MUĂ S YayÄąncÄąlÄąk. #JMJS 4 .FLBO5BTBSÂ‘NÂ‘OEB ,BWSBN (FMJĘ°UJSNF 4Ă SFDJOF "OBMJUJL Bir YaklaĹ&#x;Äąm (unpublished masterâ€™s UIFTJT )BDFUUFQF6OJWFSTJUZ*OTUJUVUF of Fine Arts, Ankara. %FMBHF $ .BSEB / $PODFQU'PSNBUJPOJOB4UVEJP1SPKFDU *O.1FBSDF .5PZ &ET Educat-
The expression of identity: Country pavilions for expo in architectural design studio
ing Architects QQ o /FX :PSL Academy Editions. %PSTU , %FTJHO 1SPCMFNT and Design Paradoxes. Design Issues, 22 )FZ + â€Ť Ú€â€Ź-JOTFZ + â€Ť" Ú€â€ŹHPHJOP " . â€Ť Ú€â€Ź8PPE , - "OBMPHJFT BOE Metaphors in Creative Design. International Journal of Engineering Education, 24 É—ODFPĘ“MV . É—ODFPĘ“MV .JNBSMÂ‘LUB4ĂšZMFN ,VSBNWF6ZHVMBNBÉ—TUBOCVM5BTBSÂ‘N (FOĂŽPTNBOPĘ“MV " &TUFtik ve MimarlÄąkta Kavram, Kavramsal "OBMJ[ ,BSĘ°Â‘MBĘ°UÂ‘SNB 4POSBTÂ‘ Ăœzerine Ă–rneklemeler (Unpublished EPDUPSBM EJTTFSUBUJPO ,BSBEFOJ[ 5FDIOJDBM6OJWFSTJUZ*OTUJUVUFPG4DJences,Trabzon. (PMETDINJEU ( 0O WJTVBM EFTJHOUIJOLJOHÄ‡FWJTLJETPGBSDIJtecture. Design Studies, 15 (Ă S ÉŽÂ˝ .JNBSMÂ‘LUB5BLMJU Eski TĂźrkĂź-Yeni Aranjman, MimarlÄąk, January-February, (Ă S ÉŽ Â˝ $PSEBO Â˝ Kimlik ve FarklÄąlÄąk ArasÄąndaki ParaEPLTBMÉ—MJĘ°LJMFS .JNBS"OMBN#FĘ“FOJ ,BWSBNMBSÂ‘ *O ( (Ă WFOĂŽ &E .JNBS"OMBN#FĘ“FOJ QQ É—TUBOCVM:&.:BZÂ‘OMBSÂ‘ ,BSBUBOJ , Metafor Olarak Mimari. Ä°stanbul: Metis. ,PDI " 4DIXFOOTFO , %VUUPO 5" 4NJUI % The redesign of studio culture: A report of the AIAS studio culture task force 8BTIJOHUPO %$Ä‡F"NFSJDBO*OTUJUVUFPG"SDIJUFDUVSF4UVEFOUT *OD ,ĂšLOBS 4 " &SEFN " Tasarlama Eyleminin TasarÄąm AraĂ§larÄą Modeli Ăœzerinden Bir OkumasÄą. ITU Dergisi/a, 9 ,VIO 4 -FBSOJOHGSPNUIF "SDIJUFDUVSF 4UVEJP *NQMJDBUJPOT GPS Project-Based Pedagogy. International Journal of Engineering Education, 17 -BXTPO # Design in Mind. 0YGPSE#VUUFSXPSUI -BXTPO # How designers think: The design process demystified.
0YGPSE "SDIJUFDUVSBM 1SFTT 'JSTU QVCMJTIFE -BLPÄŒ (FPSHF .BSL +PIOTPO â€Ť Ú€â€ŹMetaphors We Live By. ChicaHP6OJWFSTJUZPG$IJDBHP1SFTT .BIHPVC : "SDIJUFDUVSF and the expression of cultural identity in Kuwait, The Journal of Architecture, 12 0I : *TIJ[BLJ 4 (SPTT .% :J-VFO%P & Design Studies, 34 0OBU & .JNBSMÂ‘Ę“BYolculuk. Ä°stanbul: YapÄą EndĂźstri Merkezi. 0YNBO 3 Ä‡FPSZ BOE EFsign in the first digital age. Design Studies, 27 1BLFS,BIWFDJPĘ“MV / i"SDIJUFDUVSBM %FTJHO 4UVEJP 0SHBOJ[Btion and Creativityâ€?, A|Z ITU Journal of the Faculty of Architecture, 4 3PXF 1( Design thinking. .*51SFTT $BNCSJEHF ." 4BMBNB " New trends in architectural education: Designing the design studio5BJMPSFE5FYU6OMJNJUFE Potential Publishing. 4BMBNB " 8JMLJOTPO / &ET Design Studio Pedagogy:Â Horizons for the Future. Gateshead, United Kingdom. 5PNJĘ‰ %7 /JLF[JĘ‰ "OB É†JSJĘ‰ % /FHPUJBUJOH$VMUVSBM*EFOUJUZÄ‡SPVHIÄ‡F"SDIJUFDUVSBM3FQSFTFOUBUJPO$BTF4UVEZ'PSFJHO&NCBTTZ In Belgrade, Facta Universitatis Series: Architecture and Civil Engineering, 11 o 5VSBO / , 5BTBSÂ‘N 4Ă SFDJOEF #JMJĘ°TFM :FUJ 0MBSBL É—NHFMFN WF ,BWSBN É—TUBOCVM 6OQVCMJTIFE EPDUPSBM EJTTFSUBUJPO É—TUBOCVM 5FDIOJDBM 6OJWFSTJUZ*OTUJUVUFPG4DJFODFT É—TUBObul. 5VSBO / "MUBĘ° & 5BTBSÂ‘N4Ă SFDJOF,BWSBNITU Dergisi /a, 2 :Ă DFM " .JNBSMÂ‘LUB#JĂŽJN ve MekanÄąn Dilsel Yorumu Ăœzerine, Unpublished associate professorship UIFTJT É—TUBOCVM 5FDIOJDBM 6OJWFSTJUZ *OTUJUVUFPG4DJFODFT É—TUBOCVM
A study on the daily life and coffeehouse culture in Gaziantep: Tahmis Coffeehouse
NazlÄą TARAZ1, Ebru YILMAZ2 1 OB[MJUBSB[!JZUFFEVUSt%FQBSUNFOUPG"SDIJUFDUVSF 'BDVMUZPG"SDIJUFDUVSF Izmir Institute of Technology, Izmir, Turkey 2 email@example.com t%FQBSUNFOUPG"SDIJUFDUVSF 'BDVMUZPG"SDIJUFDUVSF Izmir Institute of Technology, Izmir, Turkey
3FDFJWFE0DUPCFSt Final Acceptance: July 2016
Abstract The nineteenth century may be seen as a rupture in the field of history regarding its changing focus from glorious narratives of empires, wars and treatises to lives of ordinary people and individual stories. The actors of historical narrative ignored up to that time came to the forefront with the new micro-historical approach and individual stories gained importance in historical process. By using oral history, the very beginning of the social structures of societies can be revealed and a new historical narrative can be constructed upon daily life events and micro-histories. In a parallel vein, in the twentieth century, researchers studied individuals and their role in construction of society to re-interpret social and cultural conditions under the title of cultural studies. Importantly, culture is handled as an accumulation of shared values and daily life praxis and public spaces are regarded as valuable cores where collectively shared values are spatialized in the urban context. In this paper, the historical Tahmis Coffeehouse in Gaziantep is determined as case and micro-historical and cultural studies are combined to construct a connection between past and present by intertwining oral narratives of Coffeehouse regulars to written evidence. This interconnection is found precious because Tahmis Coffeehouse is a public space involved in daily life routine of the city lively with its traces from the history carried by the building itself and its regulars by revealing how it was used as a political and social space connecting its regulars to social, cultural and political context of the time. Keywords Daily life, Gaziantep, Micro-history, Oral history, Tahmis Coffeehouse.
1. Introduction In her study titled GeĂ§miĹ&#x;in Ä°zleri: YanÄąbaĹ&#x;ÄąmÄązdaki Tarih iĂ§in Bir KÄąlavuz (Traces of the Past: A Guide for History Right Beside), DanacÄąoÄ&#x;lu elaborates changing historical perspective and new focus points of historiography in the late nineteenth century with reference to the key figures of historical OBSSBUJWFT"DDPSEJOHUPIFS UISPVHIout the centuries, wars, glorious victories and successful figures such as leaders, politicians and emperors were considered as the main subjects of historical narration. But in the nineteenth century, the field of history and historiography transformed according to the changing understanding of new era, and besides significant events and bright victories, activities of daily living, ordinary people and their life stories came into prominence as valuable components of history (DanacÄąoÄ&#x;lu, The focus of the new historiographical approach has been changed from victories and famous figures to societies, cultural and social structure of communities and ordinary people that constituted the background of domiOBOUIJTUPSJDBMOBSSBUJWFT"TPOFPGUIF main instruments of the new historical standpoint, oral history is used to gather information about societies and it is aimed to show the importance of micro-histories which are constructed via narratives of people who lived or connected in some way to the focused hisUPSJDBMUJNFQFSJPE %BOBDÂ‘PĘ“MV Changing historical standpoint which emphasizes micro-histories is firstly proposed by German historian Leopold van Ranke in the nineteenth century and according to Ranke, history is not only the glorious voices of ceremonies but a notion that fed from the daily life activities and experiences of all people living in a society (DaOBDÂ‘PĘ“MV Ä‡FO JOUIFUXFOUJFUI century, the importance attached to the micro-history and oral history studies that depend on individual narratives had increased and oral history gained JNQPSUBODFJOUIFXPSLTPG"NFSJDBO IJTUPSJBO +PTFQI (PVME "DDPSEJOH to Gould, the existing historiographic approach which based on the wars, leaders, emperors and treaties has to be
changed into the narratives of ordinary people and their life-stories. In order to re-construct historical understanding from macro scale to micro, Gould offers oral history as a main methodolPHZ %BOBDÂ‘PĘ“MV Similarly, in his study, TarihyazÄąmÄąnda Yeni YaklaĹ&#x;Äąmlar: KĂźreselleĹ&#x;me ve YerelleĹ&#x;me (New Approaches in Historiography: Globalisation and Localisation), micro-historical approach, life stories of individuals and daily life activities are defined as the key issues of the twentieth century historiography by Tekeli and, the new historiographical approach is fed from personal narratives and expressions of individual GFFMJOHT"DDPSEJOHUP5FLFMJ UIJTOFX perspective aimed to emphasize the importance of multi-cultural structures of societies is consisted of different individual stories and focused on the neglected actors of ongoing historical approach shaping around the glorious actors and great wars (Tekeli, In a parallel vein, Iggers explains changing historical approach in the twentieth century via two main concerns in his book Historiography in the Twentieth Century: From Scientific Objectivity to the Postmodern Challenge. The first is the emergence of a new â€œsocial-science oriented historyâ€? which changes the focus of historiography from great events to individual OBSSBUJWFTBOEUIFJSTPDJBMDPOUFYUT"T the second concern, Iggers mentions on changing time perception and rejection of â€œa universal and unilinear historyâ€? which resulted in concentration on â€œmultiplicity of historiesâ€? (IgHFST Q *OUIJTXBZ OPUPOMZ glorious events but also their individual actors and, social, political and cultural contexts gain importance in order to get a comprehensive historical understanding. Thus, the term â€œa history from belowâ€? is emerged to define micro-historical approach which is fed from neglected issues such as stories of minorities, individual narratives and personal memories which were thought as unimportant parts of hisUPSJDBMÄ˜PX *HHFST Q In this way, under the light of micro-historical approach, daily routines, social lives and individual stories be-
â€œBurada mimari aĂ§Äądan senin dikkatini Ă§ekecek Ĺ&#x;ey Ĺ&#x;u tavanâ€Ś Buna tekne tavan deniyor. Dikkat edersen, normal bir teknenin ters dĂśndĂźrĂźlmĂźĹ&#x; bir haliâ€Ś Bu, o yapÄąya benzer.â€? (SÄąddÄąkoÄ&#x;lu, personal interview, 2011). 1
â€œMesela bu tavan komple sĂśkĂźldĂź, yapÄąldÄą, sanki yaÄ&#x; emilmiĹ&#x; bir ahĹ&#x;ap gibiâ€Ś Tekrar bu yapÄąldÄą yeni malzemelerleâ€Ś Nefes almasÄą iĂ§in de, dikkat et, verniklenmedi buâ€Ś Ĺžu duvardaki ahĹ&#x;ap malzeme vernikli, bunda vernik yok...â€? (SÄąddÄąkoÄ&#x;lu, personal interview, 2011). 2
â€œĹžu yan taraftaki pencereler de hava sirkĂźlasyonunun, mesela Sultanahmetâ€™te de vardÄąr bu, Ayasofyaâ€™da da vardÄąr bu, hava sirkĂźlasyonunun Ă§ok rahat olabilmesi iĂ§in bu Ĺ&#x;ekil ĂśrĂźlmĂźĹ&#x;tĂźr. AyrÄąca bir baĹ&#x;ka ĂśzelliÄ&#x;i de, Ĺ&#x;u andaki izolasyon malzemeleri ve ya yapÄąnÄąn tersine aÄ&#x;aĂ§ sĂźrekli yaĹ&#x;ayan bir malzemedir, nefes alÄąr verir dolayÄąsÄąyla bunun hava kirliliÄ&#x;ine Ă§ok bĂźyĂźk etkisi vardÄąr. Zaman iĂ§inde sĂźreli dumanÄąn iĂ§indeki atÄąk maddeleri, dumanÄą absorbe eder.â€? (SÄąddÄąkoÄ&#x;lu, personal interview, 2011). 3
â€œâ€Śher tepede bir kilit taĹ&#x;Äą vardÄąr. Kilit taĹ&#x;Äą koniktir, kesik bir koniktirâ€Ś Yaprak gibi taĹ&#x; Ă§ÄąkarÄąlÄąrdÄą... Bu ilk kesildiÄ&#x;inde yumuĹ&#x;ak bir taĹ&#x;tÄąr fakat oksijenle temas ettiÄ&#x;inde sertleĹ&#x;ir. Bunun bir yumuĹ&#x;aÄ&#x;Äą vardÄąr bir serti vardÄąr. Serti genellikle bĂśyle kapÄą ve pencere noktalarÄąnda kullanÄąlÄąr. Bak dikkat et, oradaki taĹ&#x;la duvardaki taĹ&#x; arasÄąnda yapÄąm farkÄą vardÄąr. O sarÄą bir taĹ&#x;tÄąr, daha serttir, sertleĹ&#x;miĹ&#x; bĂśyle biraz daha mermer formuna doÄ&#x;ru giden bir tarzÄą var. Duvardakiler daha beyaz, daha yumuĹ&#x;ak, Ă§ok yumuĹ&#x;akâ€Ś Bu iĹ&#x;te Ă§ok yumuĹ&#x;aÄ&#x;Äąna Havara denirâ€Ś Bu taĹ&#x; da iĹ&#x;te nefes alÄąp verdikĂ§e bahar aylarÄąnda yĂźzĂźnde bir pamukĂ§uk oluĹ&#x;ur, o da GĂźherĂ§ile dediÄ&#x;imiz eski barutun hammaddesiâ€Ś Bu pamukĂ§ular toplanÄąr, onun bir Ĺ&#x;ekilde barut yaparlardÄą ama KÄąymÄąkâ€™tan Ă§Äąkmaz o, Havara TaĹ&#x;â€™tanâ€Ś Burda az gĂśrĂźnĂźr, belki karĹ&#x;Äądaki handa (PĂźrsefa HanÄą) gĂśrebilirsin. Bir de o karataĹ&#x;a ne diyordukâ€Ś Bazen bu KÄąymÄąk TaĹ&#x;la karataĹ&#x; kullanÄąlÄąr ki Antepâ€™in KarataĹ&#x; bĂślgesini biliyorsun, dĂźnyanÄąn en kaliteli karataĹ&#x;ÄąnÄąn Ă§ÄąktÄąÄ&#x;Äą bĂślge burasÄądÄąr. KarataĹ&#x;â€™ta da 2 unsur var. Birisi, sĂźngerimsi yapÄąlÄą ve sÄącaÄ&#x;a-soÄ&#x;uÄ&#x;a Ă§ok dayanabilen bir malzemeâ€Ś SĂźngerimsi yapÄąlÄą, boĹ&#x;lukludur oâ€Ś Ă–bĂźrĂźsĂź, hiĂ§ boĹ&#x;luÄ&#x;u olmayan taĹ&#x;â€Ś O, sÄącaÄ&#x;a ve soÄ&#x;uÄ&#x;a dayanmaz ama statik aĂ§Äądan Ă§ok gĂźĂ§lĂź bir malzemeâ€Ś Ă‡ok Ă§ok Ă§ok eskiden de yollarda taĹ&#x; dĂśĹ&#x;enmiĹ&#x; olurdu, Ĺ&#x;imdi de bu kesilerek dĂśĹ&#x;eme yapÄąlÄąyor.â€? (SÄąddÄąkoÄ&#x;lu, personal interview, 2011). 4
came important information storages which illuminate the social and cultural context of a society and the glorious historical narrative is replaced by a new micro-historical understanding consisted of daily live activities and active participants of the society. Cultural studies, as well as the micro-historical approach, are also used to construct a new focus on society. When cultural studies had emerged JOT UIFNBJOBJNPGJUTQJPOFFST was to resolve the problems of existing studies in humanities and to unmask the ignored aspects of conventional asTVNQUJPOT )BMM )BMMEFTDSJCFT cultural studies as â€œintersect the humanitiesâ€ŚThey are a series of interruptions in the peaceful life of humanitiesâ€? and according to Hall, cultural studies are distinctive in every field of research and could be achieved with an JOUFSEJTDJQMJOBSZ XPSL )BMM Q *OPUIFSXPSET DVMUVSBMTUVEJFTBSF re-interpretations of social, political and anthropological contexts and their decentralization in a new manner as the critique of the humanist tradition JUTFMG )BMM On the one hand, Hall handles cultural studies as interdisciplinary work consisted of every field of humanities, Ray focuses on the â€œcultureâ€? itself. "DDPSEJOHUP3BZ UIFDVMUVSFPGBTPciety consists of the fragmentations of its individuals who have a desire to be unique in their own fragmented lives and culture is a representation of shared values which is â€œcollectively embodiedâ€? and a â€œself-conscious endeavor to be differentâ€? is created by individVBMTUIFNTFMWFT 3BZ Q The collective embodiment of culture and its spatial representation can be observed in urban context. In order to elaborate the relationship between the collective memory and society, Lowenthal focuses on personal and collective character of memory which is composed by the elimination of certain memories and recollection of the others under the effect of social context. On the one hand, memory is completely personal and untouchable; on the other hand, it has a collective aspect that strengthens its existence with society and other individualâ€™s SFDPMMFDUJPOT -PXFOUIBMM *O
larger scale, individual memories are connected to each other in the form of â€œcollective self-awarenessâ€? and history emerges as collective memory of a certain group or society (Lowenthall, Q 8IJMF QFSTPOBM NFNPries are largely intrinsic to individuals, history is shared by community. In this respect, Lowenthalâ€™s approach may be directly associated with the construction of micro-histories through indiWJEVBMNFNPSJFT -PXFOUIBMM 'SPN UIJT QPJOU PG WJFX UIF NJcro-historical approach of this study is supported by the cultural studies and it is aimed to analyze a public space and its relation to the daily life experiments learned through the oral narratives of its users. In other words, the micro-historical approach is intertwined with cultural studies and similarly, spaces are related to memory and material culture. Thus, the social praxis constitutes the cultural foundations of the micro-historical approach of this study and the personal experiments are used as key points. Combining micro-historical approach with cultural studies, coffeehouses are determined as important social cores where the social and daily life activities can be observed through coffeehouse regulars. The historical Tahmis Coffeehouse is analyzed as a case study, which stayed in use from its construction in the seventeenth century in Gaziantep and the written historical information on Tahmis is intertwined with the oral narratives and personal memories of the regulars. It is aimed to analyze Tahmis Coffeehouse not only as a physical structure remained from the seventeenth century, but also its social and cultural importance for Gaziantep is studied in order to achieve an interconnected relation between the past and the present. Due to the climatic and geographical advantageous location on the southeastern region, Gaziantep is one PGUIFPMEFTUTFUUMFNFOUBSFBTPG"OBUPMJBEBUFTCBDLUPUIF#$"MUIPVHI it is not clear, the first urban development of the area dates back to the late fifteenth century on the slopes of the IJMMIPVTJOHUIF(B[JBOUFQDBTUMF'SPN that time to the mid-twentieth century, the city developed around the hill and
A study on the daily life and coffeehouse culture in Gaziantep: Tahmis Coffeehouse
JO UIF T EFWFMPQNFOU QSPDFFEFE toward south. Due to the geographical boundaries on the north and east, the ongoing enlargement of the city has been continuing towards west, including industrial and residential arFBT (B[JBOUFQ ,FOU #Ă UĂ OĂ "OBMJUJL &UĂ EMFSJ The historical commerce areas of Gaziantep has been located on the southern slopes of the castle hill, where it is now open for public visit with its historical streets, inns and bazaars. Today, the immediate vicinity of Tahmis Coffeehouse, called BuÄ&#x;day ArasasÄą 8IFBU #B[BBS JT POF PG UIF most popular touristical regions of the city beause of numerous historical buildings restorated according to the original structure and converted into museum. This area housed numeorus coffeehouses, winter-cinemas and bars as primary public spaces of the city and in this way, became a major meeting point for domestic and foreign people mostly gathered for commercial activiUZ (B[JBOUFQÉ—M:Â‘MMÂ‘Ę“Â‘ "NPOHTU these public spaces, Tahmis comes into prominence as the most preferred coffeehouses which has stayed in use from the seventheenth century up to today without changing its public function. Thus, Tahmis Coffeehouse is determined as a visible trace from the historical city which connects past and present with its regulars and their personal narratives who lived in four hundred years old public space. 2. Methodological approach and data gathering "T B RVBMJUBUJWF SFTFBSDI XIJDI JT based on the intertwining of written and oral historical narratives on Tahmis Coffeehouse, the data collection for this study has initiated from a literature review. In order to understand micro-historical approach, DanacÄąoÄ&#x;lu, Tekeli and Iggers are used as major secondary sources and, the emergence and importance of micro-historical approach is explained. Being at the heart of public core where the social and cultural conditions of time can be observed in daily life routine, coffeehouse is determined as the case study. Then, references of Lowenthall, Hall and Ray constitute the cultural framework of
this study. In this way, it is aimed to constitute a relationship between the micro-history, memory, culture and public space. Determining the coffeehouse as the core for this relationship, the literature review is continued with the history of coffee in order to understand the importance of coffeehouses in social life. Then, the establishment of coffeehouses in Ottoman cities and their social and political role in daily life are studied in order to understand the evolution of coffeehouses from the beginning of its history in the seventeenth century. In addition to the literature review, interviews and participatory observations are held in the coffeehouse. The answers to how and when the regulars experience Tahmis Coffeehouse are searched in order to clarify whether a social and political usage continuation exists from the construction of the coffeehouse in the seventeenth century. The consistency between the literary information and the memories learned from the regulars are also compared under the light of interviews. In order to develop a daily conversation between the observer and the participants, open-ended interview questions are prepared and the regulars are requested to tell their personal memories BCPVU5BINJT$PÄŒFFIPVTF"DDPSEJOH to the Creswellâ€™s table on the qualitative data collection types, the author can be classified as â€œobserver as participantâ€? for this study and in this way, the untold/unwritten conditions of the coffeehouse can be observed firsthand $SFTXFMM "DDPSEJOHUP(SPBUBOE8BOH JOUFSpretation of the gathered data is the key point in the field of cultural and historical studies and the evaluation of data can be conducted in different manners during the research process (Groat and 8BOH "T(SPBUBOE8BOHNFOtioned, the contextual and recollective evidences are used as major ways of data gathering for this study. In the former, the research object is placed in its context and the interpretation of the gathered data is made regarding its relation to its social, cultural or political FOWJSPONFOU (SPBUBOE8BOH 'SPN UIJT QPJOU PG WJFX UIF MJUFSBSZ
â€œĹžu kÄąrmÄązÄą taĹ&#x;, eski Antep taĹ&#x;ÄądÄąr. Yani Antepâ€™te Ă§Äąkan, Ă§ok sertliÄ&#x;i mermer gibi olmayan, biraz dĂźĹ&#x;Ăźk bir taĹ&#x;â€Ś Bu genelde bej dediÄ&#x;imiz, bordĂźr olarak kullanÄąlan koyu kÄąrmÄązÄąya benzer taĹ&#x;Äąn biraz daha yumuĹ&#x;aÄ&#x;Äą bir taĹ&#x;, KÄąymÄąkâ€™tan biraz daha sertâ€Ś Bir de Ĺ&#x;unu sĂśylemek lazÄąm, bu tĂźr yapÄąlar dÄąĹ&#x;arÄąya Ă§ok aĂ§Äąk deÄ&#x;ilse Ă§ok aĹ&#x;ÄąrÄą sÄącak ve soÄ&#x;uk olmaz. IsÄą absorbisyonu fazlaâ€Ś Mesela burasÄą dÄąĹ&#x;arÄąya aĂ§Äąlmasa (ana kapÄąyÄą gĂśsteriyor), 3-4 dĂźkkan iĂ§erde olsa yani soÄ&#x;uk bu kadar etkilemez. Ama burda Ĺ&#x;u anda sirkĂźlasyon Ă§ok fazla...Yukardaki yer Ăśnemliâ€Ś HavalandÄąrmayÄą saÄ&#x;lamak iĂ§in, dikkat et, orda bir kot farkÄą var. O kot farkÄą, sÄącak hava yukarÄą Ă§ÄąktÄąÄ&#x;Äą iĂ§in, burada ÄąsÄąnan hava yukarÄą Ă§ÄąkÄąp ordan kayboluyor. Burdaki duman da ordan gidiyor. Bak dikkat et, o bĂślge kĂźĂ§ĂźcĂźk bir bĂślge olmasÄąna raÄ&#x;men kaĂ§ tane pencere var ordaâ€Ś BĂśyle Hatayâ€™da var bir tane, Ankaraâ€™da var, Mersinâ€™de bir han varâ€Śâ€? (SÄąddÄąkoÄ&#x;lu, personal interview, 2011). 6
â€œÄ°Ĺ&#x;te burda, modern ve klasiÄ&#x;i birbirine birleĹ&#x;tirmeye Ă§alÄąĹ&#x;mÄąĹ&#x;lar. Biraz da Ă§aÄ&#x;Äąn gerekliliÄ&#x;iâ€Ś Ĺžu anda burada internet var, serbest kullanabiliyorsun. Ne kadar otantik olursa olsun bu lazÄąm artÄąkâ€Ś Belki biraz ÄąsÄątmayÄą farklÄą yapabilirlerdi burdaâ€Ś Eskiden soba vardÄą. Ă‡ok eskiden, aslÄąnda burada deÄ&#x;il de bilmiyorum kĂśylerdeki yapÄąlarÄą biliyorsun, ocaklÄąk dediÄ&#x;imiz yapÄąlar vardÄą. Sonra burasÄą Ă§ok bĂźyĂźkâ€Ś Belki buranÄąn ÄąsÄątmasÄą farklÄą yapÄąlabilirdi.â€? (SÄąddÄąkoÄ&#x;lu, personal interview, 2011).
â€œĹžimdi modern bir Ĺ&#x;ekle getirdiler. Ĺžeyi meselaâ€Ś Bu hafta Ĺ&#x;ey bu bayramda bizim Antepâ€™in geleneksel bir Ĺ&#x;eyi, nedir? Kurban BayramÄąâ€™nda kalaycÄąlar, demirciler kelle Ăźter (Kesilen kurbanÄąn baĹ&#x;Äą ateĹ&#x;te Ă§evrilir ki tĂźyĂź gitsin). Bu geleneksel bir Ĺ&#x;eyâ€Ś ZabÄątalar gĂśz aĂ§tÄąrmamÄąĹ&#x; bu kelle Ăźtenlereâ€Ś Efendim turistler! Turist buraya geliyorsa bu Ĺ&#x;ehrin Ăśrf ve ananelerini, geleneklerini gĂśrmeye geliyor...â€? (Ă‡ete, personal interview, 2011). 7
â€œBurasÄą da Ăśnceden Antepâ€™in komple buÄ&#x;day ticaretinin yapÄąldÄąÄ&#x;Äą bĂślgeydi. Ĺžu karĹ&#x;Äądaki dĂźkkanlar falan kĂźĂ§Ăźk kĂźĂ§Ăźk komisyoncularÄąn dĂźkkanlarÄąydÄą ve burada numuneler iĹ&#x;te yazÄąn dÄąĹ&#x;arda, kÄąĹ&#x;Äąn iĂ§erde tepsilerde, kĂźĂ§Ăźk tepsilerde sergilenirdi. Esnaf da oturur, Ăśnlerine tepsiler gelir, onlara fiyat tespit edilir sonra da iĹ&#x;te indirir kaldÄąrÄąr gĂźnĂźn koĹ&#x;ullarÄąna gĂśre imalata girerdi. Ä°Ĺ&#x;te bu kahvenin esnaf kahvesi olma ĂśzelliÄ&#x;i buâ€Ś Bazen de... Antepâ€™in Ă§ok Ăśnce ticaretinin olduÄ&#x;u yer; ElmacÄąpazarÄą, ĹžirehanÄą, BakÄąrcÄąlar Ă‡arĹ&#x;ÄąsÄą... SanatkarlÄąÄ&#x;Äąn ve ticaretin oluĹ&#x;tuÄ&#x;u bĂślge burasÄą olduÄ&#x;u iĂ§in burasÄą klasik esnaf kahvesiâ€Śâ€? (SÄąddÄąkoÄ&#x;lu, personal interview, 2011). 8
information and the oral narrative of the regulars are connected to the social condition and the gathered data is evaluated in their cultural context. In order to achieve such a contextual approach, the individual narratives, mostly based on the historical use of Tahmis, are related to the current use of the public space. In this way, it is aimed to establish a mutual relation between the past and present via individualâ€™s social praxis in the cultural context. In the latter evaluative category, the recollective evidence, which is based on the gathering of historical information from an individual who is the witness in person of narrated event or its audience, is used (Groat and Wang, "DDPSEJOH UP (SPBU BOE 8BOH the recollection of evidence can be mostly provided from the secondary witnesses of the events. In this paper, recollection of evidence is used in order to classify the individual oral narratives about the spatial practices of the intervieweeâ€™s father, grandfather or an acquaintance. "TBOFUIJDBMSFTQPOTJCJMJUZ UIFQBSticipants/the coffeehouse regulars are informed about the scope of the study and their participation degree is determined according to each participantâ€™s individual preference. There are four interviewees participated this study at the ages between fifty to sixty and in order to encourage the participants, it is offered to conceal their names in the study but all regulars accepted to use their real names during the research QSPDFTT"TBOJNQPSUBOUGBDUPSUPFOhance the participantâ€™s oral narratives, it is advantageous to study on their one of the most important social space from their childhood to old age and all participants especially pointed to their pleasure in enlarging historical data PO UIFJS IPNFUPXO (B[JBOUFQ "MTP being their townsman is quite advantageous in the research process because most of the participants felt intimate while sharing their life stories in Tahmis Coffeehouse. This resulted in a mutual trust between the author and regulars and some interviewees offered their friends who also have memories and information about the coffeehouse. Thus, some interviews are made out of Tahmis. Since, Tahmis Coffe-
house was built as a source of income for the Mevlevihane in the seventeenth century, another interview is held with the director of Mevlevihane Museum in order to understand the relationship between Tahmis and its social context. Dialogues are recorded in a tape and also, notes are taken during the interviews with particpantâ€™s own permission GPSSFDPSEJOH"MUIPVHITPNFQBSUTPG the dialogue seem irrelevant in the flow of conversation regarding the aim of the study, everything is written and reDPSEFE'PSFBDIEJÄŒFSFOUQBSUJDJQBOU a new note sheet is used which consisted of the date, information about the participant such as birth place, age and job. Since some participants offered their friends who are well-informed and important regulars of Tahmis Coffeehouse and so, additional interviews are made in different places. Thus, the interview location is also added to the recording sheets. Besides the participant narratives, the personal feelings, participant behaviors and the spatial characteristics of the interviewed place are recorded during the interviews in order to get a better understanding of the participants. In addition to the literature review and interviews, observation is used as an important data gathering method. In order to provide multiplexed interviews, Tahmis Coffeehouse is visited on FWFSZXFFLEBZCFUXFFO/PWFNCFS PG 4PNF EBZT BSF VTFE POMZ for observation without interviews and it is aimed to gather data about daily routine of the coffeehouse which are learned from the literature review and the interviews. In this way, first hand observations are made by the authors as a â€œcomplete participantâ€? as Creswell NFOUJPOFE $SFTXFMM Q Literary data, interviews and observations are supported with the visual sources such as the photographs taken by the authors and the wall-hung old photos of Tahmis Coffehouse. In this way, gathered data are grouped as XSJUUFO MJUFSBUVSFSFWJFX PSBM JOUFSWJFXT BOEWJTVBM QIPUPHSBQIT JOGPSmation. 3. Data analysis The data analysis is made during the research process and documenta-
A study on the daily life and coffeehouse culture in Gaziantep: Tahmis Coffeehouse
tions are made right after the contacts in order not to miss important points noticed during the interviews. The narratives of participants are transcribed XPSECZ XPSE BT UIFZ BSF UPME "Ä™FS finishing transcription, all recordings are read in a whole and repetitive points are noted. These keywords are determined as base points for the successive method which consisted of coding, categorizing and describing TUFQT "T /FVNBO FNQIBTJ[FE DPOcepts provided an elaborative analysis of data which is gained from both the written sources and oral narratives -BXSFODF While intertwining the two different evidence, line-by-line coding is used to classify basic concepts. The noted keywords are classified as their relation with time, space and special events such as the commercial importance of Tahmis, social interaction in Tahmis, political arguments held in Tahmis, table games, bairam celebration in Tahmis and relationships between regular costumers of Tahmis. In addition to the line-by-line coding, the axial coding method is used, also. In order to compare written information with the oral narratives, certain questions are determined according to the written evidence such as â€œis Tahmis an important place for social gathering? Do regular costumers of Tahmis use the coffeehouse as an important political space as emphasized in written sources? Does the use of Tahmis change in bairam celebrations and special days?â€? These questions are helpful in understanding the interaction between the Tahmis Coffeehouse and its regulars with the social, cultural and political context. The personal narratives are written in quotations and each word of the participant is transcribed without change. The interpretation of the observer is noted in a different sheet in order to prevent misunderstandings. Then, the concepts are categorized and each group became an important determiner while intertwining the written and oral information gained from the literature review, interviews and observations about Tahmis Coffeehouse. In order to provide the validity of data, the categorized concepts are
Table 2. Frequently repeated keywords by interviewees.
re-debated with the participants and it is requested to check the conceptualization of their oral narratives. The misunderstood points are fixed and the coding-categorizing and description line is repeated for each correcUJPO"Ä™FSUIFDPNQMFUJPOPGQBSUJDJQBtion permissions, the validity of data is controlled again triangulation which is based on the control of data from different types of sources. 4. The history of coffee and the coffee culture in the ottoman daily life The very beginning of the coffee consumption dates back to the sixteenth century, when the Ethiopian Shazili boiled the coffee beans and served to people. In time, coffee became a merchandise good in Yemen and Mecca, and was used as a pilgrimage gift since it was believed as healing drink. Besides its curative function, coffee symbolized the wealth of people. With shipping trade, coffee was transported from Mecca and Yemen to the "MFYBOESJB BOE UIFO UP ,POTUBOUJOJyye and especially in the reign of SuleyNBOUIF.BHOJÄ•DFOU DPÄŒFF became the most important socialization drink, was accepted as healthy and good activity for Muslims who used to gather in early coffee houses established around the mosques in Ottoman DJUJFT :Â‘MEÂ‘[ KÄąrlÄą, in his study â€œKahvehaneler: 19. yy OsmanlÄą Ä°mparatorluÄ&#x;uâ€™nda Kamuoyuâ€?, explains the changing role of coffee in the Ottoman cities and mentions the evaluation of coffee consumption from being wealth symbol to a social drink which can be accessible by all levels of the Ottoman society ,Â‘SMÂ‘ Ä‡VT UIF DPÄŒFF IPVTFT were not only established around the mosques, but also diffused all neighborhoods of the Ottoman cities. In time, coffeehouses became political
â€œ....Orda buÄ&#x;day satÄąlÄąrdÄąâ€Ś KĂśyden kĂśylĂźler buÄ&#x;day getirirler, deÄ&#x;iĹ&#x;ik bazÄą Ĺ&#x;eyler; nohut, fasĂźlye, mercimek, peynir satmaya getirirlerâ€Ś Onu oradaki adamlara verir, gelir kendi oturur kahveyeâ€Ś Ĺžimdi sabah Ĺ&#x;ey olurâ€Ś Ă–Ä&#x;lene kadar esnaf satÄąĹ&#x;ÄąnÄą yapar, kĂśylĂź gider.â€? (Ă‡ete, personal interview, 2011). 9
10 â€œKĂśylĂźnĂźn vakti orda geĂ§erdi. AlacaÄ&#x;Äą Ĺ&#x;eyler de sabun alacak, gaz yaÄ&#x;Äą alacak, mum alacak, kibrit alacak, Ĺ&#x;eker alacak. Hepsi de ordaydÄąâ€Ś Ĺžimdi esnaf sabahleyin gelir dĂźkkanÄą kaldÄąrÄąr, kiminde daraba var kiminde eskiden daraba yoktu, bir ĂśrtĂźyleâ€Ś Ondan sonra orda arasanÄąn bir tane bekĂ§isi olurdu, bekĂ§iye emanet edilirdi, dĂźkkanlar falan aĂ§Äąkâ€Ś Ă–te berilerin ĂźstĂźnde bir ĂśrtĂź, ĂśrtĂźyĂź kaldÄąrÄąr gelir Ă§ay kahve iĂ§erdi. Ondan sonra herkes merhabalaĹ&#x;Äąr, konuĹ&#x;ur, ondan sonra gider dĂźkkanÄąna kĂśylĂź gelmiĹ&#x; olurâ€Ś KĂśylĂź geldi miydi zaten herkes dĂźkkanÄąnÄąn ĂśnĂźnde olmak zorunda... Zaten daha Ăśnce Ă§ok eskilerde saat 12 den 1 den sonra kĂśylĂźnĂźn Ĺ&#x;ehirde dolaĹ&#x;masÄą yasaktÄąâ€Ś Polis, jandarma iĂ§eriye koyardÄą kĂśylĂźyĂźâ€Ś
59 Sen burada ne geziyorsun diyeâ€Ś KĂśylĂź gezemezdi Ĺ&#x;ehrin iĂ§indeâ€Ś AlÄąĹ&#x;veriĹ&#x; bitmiĹ&#x;, senin bu Ă§arĹ&#x;ÄąnÄąn iĂ§inde ne iĹ&#x;in varâ€Śâ€? (Taraz, personal interview, 2011). â€œâ€Śyani yĂźzey alanÄąna ve nĂźfusuna gĂśre hemen hemen en Ă§ok han barÄąndÄąran yer Antepâ€™tir. Alt kat gerek develerin gerek atlarÄąn yattÄąÄ&#x;Äą ahÄąrlar, hemen onun ĂźstĂźnde ticaret erbabÄąnÄąn yattÄąÄ&#x;Äą, konaklama ihtiyacÄąnÄą saÄ&#x;ladÄąÄ&#x;Äą yerlerâ€Ś DĂźĹ&#x;Ăźn ki, ortada bir avlu, orda ticari bĂźyĂźme var. AkĹ&#x;am olduÄ&#x;unda herkes ticaretini yaptÄą bitirdi. Hayvanlar, yĂźk indirilmiĹ&#x;, hayvanlar ahÄąrlara Ă§ekilmiĹ&#x;. Odalar da yukarda. Her Ĺ&#x;eyi bir yerdeâ€Ś Mesela hemen Ĺ&#x;u arkada BuÄ&#x;day HanÄą varâ€Ś Yine KĂźrkĂ§Ăź HanÄą var, Leblebici HanÄą varâ€Ś Buradan Ă§ÄąkÄąyoruz yukarÄą Ă§ÄąktÄąÄ&#x;Äąnda KĂźrkĂ§Ăź HanÄą sola dĂśnĂźyoruz 10m gidiyoruz Leblebici HanÄą var. Yani hanlar dibidibine burada. Neden? Ä°Ĺ&#x;te Ä°pek Yolu Ăźzerinde olduÄ&#x;u iĂ§in ticari aktivitenin en yoÄ&#x;un olduÄ&#x;u bĂślge...â€? (SÄąddÄąkoÄ&#x;lu, personal interview, 2011). 11
spaces where people discussed their political tendencies and the general situation of the government and this resulted in their bad reputation as sink of corruption in the seventeenth century. However, this consideration changed in time and in the eighteenth century, coffee houses became important political spaces in which people argued about the politic condition of the 0UUPNBO &NQJSF "DDPSEJOH UP ,Â‘SMÂ‘ the Ottoman administration benefited from coffeehouses in terms of their political aspect and the emperor charged spies in the coffee houses in order to learn about the public opinion of his BENJOJTUSBUJWFSFJHO ,Â‘SMÂ‘
GĂźndelik YaĹ&#x;am: OrtaĂ§aÄ&#x;â€™dan Yirminci YĂźzyÄąla (Kunst und alltagsleben im Osmanischen Reich, 'BSPRIJ mentions the emergence of the spatialization of coffeehouses in cities and their importance as centers for gaming, reading and political and cultural EFCBUFT 'BSPRIJ "TBSFTVMUPG their specialization, coffeehouses varied according to their functions such as bazaar, neighborhood, tradesman and FBSMZSJTFSDPÄŒFFIPVTFT 5PLV[ "NPOHTU UIFTF DMBTTJÄ•DBUJPO 5BINJT can be included in the tradesman coffeehouses regarding its location in the middle of the commercial center of the city.
5. Gaziantep Tekke Mevlevihane Mosque and Tahmis Coffeehouse, 1638 The use of coffeehouses as important public cores in Ottoman cities was observed in Gaziantep from the seventeenth century. On the orders of .VTUBGB"HB UIFÄ˜BHPÄ?DFSPG"OUFQ Tekke Mevlevihane Mosque was built JO JO UIF #VĘ“EBZ "SBTBTÂ‘ XIFSF the commercial center of the city was PSHBOJ[FE (Ă [FMCFZ Ä‡F.FWlevihane was a large building complex consisted of semahane, prayer room, dervish cells, harem-selam rooms, cemetery and kitchen but most of these units burned in fires at the beginning PGUIFUXFOUJFUIDFOUVSZ*O .FWlevihane was repaired and converted into a museum 6SM *O 5BINJT $PÄŒFFIPVTF XBT built as a source of income for Tekke Mevlevihane Mosque and became one of the most important commercial centers of the city. In the Historical Ottoman Phrases and Terms Dictionary (OsmanlÄą Tarih Deyimleri ve Terimleri SĂśzlĂźÄ&#x;Ăź), PakalÄąn explains the lexical meaning of Tahmis as â€œTahmis is a word, used to describe market for roasted and ground coffee. Recently, this term is replaced by â€˜coffeehouse for roasted coffee.â€™ Tahmis means roasting of coffee beans and such like seedsâ€? 1BLBMÂ‘O Q 'SPNUIFÄ•STU establishment of coffeehouses in the seventeenth century, the use of the term Tahmis has changed according to the daily use of people in time.â€? In her book OsmanlÄą KĂźltĂźrĂź ve
6. Architectonic characteristics of Tahmis Coffeehouse Tahmis Coffeehouse is one of the oldest buildings in Gaziantep with its stone walls and historical wood ceiling. On the upper storey, place for association meetings is now used for hosting crowded groups. One of the most characteristic architectural materials of Gaziantep, the zinc blende (karataĹ&#x; PGUIFÄ˜PPSDPWFSJOHBOEUIF MBDVOBS UFLOFUBWBO JTQSFTFSWFEBOE repaired during the restoration of Tahmis Coffeehouse. â€œHere, your eyes have to catch the ceiling. It is called lacunar. It looks like an upturned boat.â€?1 Hasol in his study Ansiklopedik MimarlÄąk SĂśzlĂźÄ&#x;Ăź &ODZDMPQFEJD%JDUJPOBSZPG"SDIJUFDUVSF MBDVOBSJTEFÄ•OFEBTBDFJMing type which has difference of levels between the edges and the higher point PGUIFSPPG )BTPM During the restoration work of the building, the lacunar is re-built as its original structure. Because, the color of the ceiling was changed under the effect of cigarette smoke and turned into brown, the new ceiling is left unpolished to gain its original color with smoke again. â€œThis ceiling was completely removed and re-built. It is made of a material like oil-absorbent wood. Look! In order to provide breathing, the ceiling is left unpolished. The wood on the walls are polished, but the ceiling is notâ€Śâ€?2 The construction materials were selected according to the climate of Gaziantep. â€œThese windows were built in this shape, in order to provide air circulation. The same
A study on the daily life and coffeehouse culture in Gaziantep: Tahmis Coffeehouse
â€œHala birbirini soruĹ&#x;tururlar. Ben 2-3 ay buraya gelmedim iĹ&#x;te bir defa, beni 2-3 defa aradÄąlar. Var halaâ€Ś Burda biraz bĂśyle bugĂźnĂźn karmaĹ&#x;Äąk iliĹ&#x;kilerinin dÄąĹ&#x;Äąna Ă§ÄąkÄąp Ĺ&#x;ehrin iĂ§inde, merkezinde ama karmaĹ&#x;Äąk iliĹ&#x;kilerin dÄąĹ&#x;Äąna Ă§Äąkan hala bir dostluk, bir iliĹ&#x;ki varâ€Śâ€? (SÄąddÄąkoÄ&#x;lu, personal interview, 2011). 12
â€œ2-3 gĂźn birisi kahveye gelmedimiydi hemen giderler evine, bu adam niye gelmiyor, hasta mÄą, baĹ&#x;Äąnda bir iĹ&#x; mi var, niye gelmiyor diye de kahvenin mĂźdavimleri birbirlerini arar sorarlarâ€Ś Antepâ€™in en eski kahvesi olduÄ&#x;u iĂ§in Tahmis, diÄ&#x;er kahvelere gĂśre bu durumun biraz daha yaygÄąn olduÄ&#x;u bir yerâ€Śâ€? (Taraz, personal interview, 2011). 13
Figure 1. The entrance of Tahmis Coffee House and the ground floor.
method is used in Sultanhamet and Hagia Sophia. In contrast to contemporary isolation materials, wood is a living material which is good for the air pollution. It absorbs the harmful gases of cigarette smoke.â€? â€œOn the top of each arched door, there is a keystone, which is shaped as frusto-conicalâ€Ś When the keystone is cut, it is a soft material and as soon as it comes together with oxygen, it hardens. There are two types of the stone, the soft and the hard. The hard one is used in doors and window openings. Look, there is construction difference between this keystone and the stone on the wall. The latter is a yellow stone, which is harder than the other just like marble. The soft stone is called havara, which breathes and cankers in spring. These cankers called gĂźherĂ§ile and used in making gunpowder. It is rare here but you can see more in PĂźrsefa Inn. You definiteMZ LOPX UIF ,BSBUBĘ° SFHJPO PG "OUFQ where the best quality stone quarry is provided. There are two different types of stone quarried in KarataĹ&#x;. The first is a heat-resistant and spongelike stone and the second is a void-free stone. The latter cannot resist change in heat but it is very strong statically. Long ago, the latter was used in streets but nowadays, it is used for floor covering.â€?4 "T B SFTVMU PG UIF OBUVSBM XFBMUI PG Gaziantep, different kinds of stones
are used in constructions. The Black 8FMMPG"OUFQ #PTUBODÂ‘LBOE5PQBLUBĘ° are among the most important stone quarries near Gaziantep, and sand and HSBWFM BSF UBLFO GSPN #JSFDJL /BSMÂ‘ BOE :FĘ°JMDF "MTP CSJDL UJMF BOE MJNF are provided from Gaziantep. In other words, the city and its neighbors are rich in respect to natural construction material. â€œThis soft, red stone is an old "OUFQNBUFSJBM(FOFSBMMZXFDBMMFEJU bej and it is used as curbstoneâ€Ś Importantly, if the building has few openings, it will never be so cold or hotâ€Ś Ä‡FIFBUBCTPSQUJPOJTWFSZIJHIy'PS example, if Tahmis has no opening towards outside and located in a more closed area, the cold would not affect so muchâ€Ś But in here, there is a strong air circulation. The ceiling is important to provide ventilation through the level difference. The warmed air is rising and disappearing hereâ€Ś In the same way, the smoke is evacuated. There are TJNJMBSCVJMEJOHTJO)BUBZ "OLBSBBOE Mersinâ€Śâ€?5 "MUIPVHI UIF CVJMEJOH JT SFTUPSBUFE properly to the original structure, the regulars are dissatisfied with modernization and they advocate the idea that modern habits should not have to enter the historical buildings. â€œIt is tried to combine the modern and the classic to respond to the necessities of UJNFy /PX UIFSF JTXJSFMFTT JOUFSOFU
â€œHer gĂźn gelen mĂźdavimleri var. Mesela Ĺ&#x;u gĂśrdĂźÄ&#x;Ăźn dĂśrt kiĹ&#x;i mĂźdavimlerâ€Ś Yani burada tahsilimiz, kĂźltĂźrĂźmĂźz, cebimizdeki para deÄ&#x;il, burada birbirimizden gĂśrĂźlen aĹ&#x;inalÄąk Ăśnemliâ€Ś Ă–nemli olan insanÄąn birbirine yakÄąnlÄąÄ&#x;Äąâ€Śâ€? (SÄąddÄąkoÄ&#x;lu, personal interview, 2011). 14
â€œBurda mevki, tahsil, Ĺ&#x;u bu hiĂ§ Ăśnemli deÄ&#x;ilâ€Śâ€? (Taraz, personal interview, 2011). 15
Figure 4. Stairs and floor covering made of KarataĹ&#x;.
â€œAkĹ&#x;am namazÄąndan sonra oyun oynarlar, sohbet ederlerâ€Ś O zamanlar particilik Ă§ok yaygÄąnâ€Ś Halk Partisi ve Demokrat Parti var. Halk Parti ve Demokrat Parti muhabbeti olur, sert tartÄąĹ&#x;malar olur ama kavga olmazâ€Ś Herkes herkese sataĹ&#x;Äąr Halk Partili DemirgÄąratâ€™a (Demir KÄąratDemokrat Partinin sembolĂźnden kaynaklanan bir hitap Ĺ&#x;ekli) sataĹ&#x;Äąr, DemirgÄąratlÄą Halk Partiliâ€™ye sataĹ&#x;Äąrâ€Ś Sonra DemirgÄąratâ€™la Halk Partililer kol kola girerler yĂźrĂźyerek evlerine doÄ&#x;ru giderlerâ€Śâ€? (Taraz, personal interview, 2011). 16
DPOOFDUJPOIFSFy/PNBUUFSIPXBVthentic you are, it is necessaryâ€Ś Maybe the heating system could be made differentlyâ€Ś There was a heating stove MPOH UJNF BHPy "DUVBMMZ OPU JO IFSF but in villages, maybe you know, there are special structures called fireplace (ocaklÄąk y 5BINJT JT UPP CJH NBZCF the heating could be made differentlyâ€Śâ€? â€œTahmis became modern in recent timesâ€Ś What is our traditional habit in bairams? In the feast of sacrifice, blacksmiths singe the head of the sheep in order to burn hairsâ€Ś This is a traditional habitâ€Ś But in this bairam, QPMJDFT CBOOFE UIJT SPVUJOFy 'PS UIF sake of tourists! But tourists come here to see out traditional celebration behaviors, routines and ritualsâ€Śâ€? Throughout its long-lived existence from the seventeenth century, Tahmis Coffeehouse is accepted one of the mot important public cores of Gaziantep and will be examined according to the subchapters titled as Tahmis Coffehouse as a Trade Center, a Social Hub, a Political Space, a Game Place and a Storytelling Place below. t Tahmis Coffeehouse as a Trade Center Tahmis Coffeehouse is placed in UIF #VĘ“EBZ "SBTBTÂ‘ XIFSF UIF DPNmercial center of Gaziantep from the seventeenth century has located. This quarter was organized as the housing for tradesmen not only from Gaziantep but also from different cities of the Ottoman Empire and in this way, the social and commercial life of the city arouse from the history onwards. The relationship between the neighboring cities resulted in the rapid improvement of the city. â€œHere is the place
GPS BMM UIF XIFBU DPNNFSDF PG "OUFQ These shops belonged to the brokers and the goods were displayed on trays inside or the outside according to the season. Then, the tradesman comes and looks over the goods and agrees on price after discussion with the broker. This makes Tahmis as a tradesNFO DPÄŒFFIPVTF 'PSNFS DPNNFSDJBM DFOUFST PG "OUFQ XFSF &MNBDÂ‘QB[BSÂ‘ ĹžirehanÄą, BakÄąrcÄąlar Bazaarâ€Ś Since this quarter is the center of craftsmanship and commerce, Tahmis is a traditional tradesmen coffeehouseâ€Śâ€? Since it was used actively, BuÄ&#x;day "SBTBTÂ‘XBTPOFPGUIFMJWFMJFTUDFOUFST of the city and days begun early for the exchange between the villagers and USBEFTNFO"Ä™FSPQFOJOHIJTTIPQ UIF tradesman comes to Tahmis and waits for villagers. Similarly, the villager buys his needs from the tradesman and DPNFT CBDL UP UIF $PÄŒFFIPVTF "Gter finishing the exchange, tradesman goes back to his shop and the villager spends time in Tahmis. â€œâ€Ś Wheat was TPME UIFSFy 7JMMBHFST CSPVHIU XIFBU chickpea, bean, lentil and cheese and give them to tradesman for their sold. Then, villager comes to Tahmis and spends his time up to the noon. Tradesman finishes the sale and the villager goes back to villageâ€Śâ€?9 The under population of the city resulted in acquaintance and feeling of trust between people. Thus, wardens XFSFTVÄ?DJFOUUPQSPUFDUUIFHPPETPG the shops. â€œThe villagers spent their UJNF JO UIFSF "MM IJT OFFET BSF TPME in there. He is going to buy soap, gaTPJM DBOEMF BOE TVHBSy "MM PG UIFN are sold there. The tradesman comes and pulls the covers to open his shop in the early morning. Some of them have shutters and some have not, only B DPWFS "MTP UIFSF BSF B XBSEFO PG the arasta. Tradesmen commit all his goods to the warden and all the shops stay open. The covers on the goods are opened and the tradesman comes to Tahmis to drink tea or coffee. Then, everybody greets each other and began to daily conversation. When the villager comes, tradesman has to be in his TIPQy'JOJTIJOHUIFJSUBML USBEFTNBO comes back to his shop and checks if the villager came. Long time ago, the strolling of the villager in the city was
A study on the daily life and coffeehouse culture in Gaziantep: Tahmis Coffeehouse
forbidden in the afternoon and the policemen had arrested themâ€Śâ€? Gaziantep is one of the most important trade centers of Turkey being on the Silk Road, connecting the east and the southeast regions of the country. This commercial route enables a lively commerce and interaction between the neighborhood cities and provides a transportation link. Besides Tahmis Coffeehouse, there are several inns housing the outsider tradesmen such as PĂźrsefa, KĂźrkĂ§Ăź and Leblebici Inns. In these large commercial housing complexes, tradesmen stay under the same roof with his caravans and this provides a continual control of the tradesmen on his goods. Tahmis Coffehouse was one of the most important public spaces, where the local and outsider tradesmen linked up and NFSDIBOEJTFE iy "DDPSEJOH UP JUT TVSGBDF BSFB "OUFQ JT UIF SJDIFTU DJUZ regarding the number of inns. While the downstairs were used for the camels and horses, the upstairs were used for the accommodation of tradesmen. Think of a courtyard in the middle and a commercial development. In the evening, shopping overs. Camels and horses stay in downstairs and the rooms are located in the upstairs. His goods and himself stays under the same roof. It is clear what is done in whereâ€Ś There is BuÄ&#x;day Inn right over there, like ,Ă SLĂŽĂ *OOPS-FCMFCJDJ*OOy"MMJOOT are so close each other. Why? Because they aligned on the Silk Road, where is the brightest commercial areaâ€Śâ€?11 t Tahmis Coffeehouse as a Social Hub Traditional Ottoman city structure has been developed due to life styles and beliefs of people which is introverted, and thus streets were organized as dead-ends and the houses were quietly enclosed to the inner life. Public spaces and streets were kept in minimum in order to increase the protection. Most of the neighborhood members were closely related with each other and the neighborhood residents controlled the pedestrian movement in order to detect strangers. So, the quarters were consisted of narrow dead-end streets where the protection is kept in maximum by the inhabitants themselves 'BSPRIJ In his work titled â€œGĂśnĂźl Arzu Eder
ki: Toplumsal Cinsiyet, Kentsel Mekan ve OsmanlÄą Kahvehaneleriâ€?, Mikhail handles coffeehouses as among the most popular public spaces where everybody knew each other closely and in such a truthful space, the absence of one coffeehouse regular was noticed JNNFEJBUFMZ .JLIBJM &WFO JG the regular does not come back to Tahmis within a few days, his friends went his home to check his state of health. â€œRegulars still ask each other. Once, I did not come here for a few months and they called me to inquire my health. There is a warm relation in here ignoring the complex relationships of the modern world.â€?12 â€œIf a regular did not come to the Tahmis for two or three days, other regulars call each other, visit the absent regularâ€™s home to ask what is going on. Since Tahmis is the oldest DPÄŒFFIPVTFPG"OUFQ UIJTTJUVBUJPOJT more prevalent in hereâ€Śâ€? Tahmis Coffehouse became the most important public space of Gaziantep because it was used by every social class of the city. â€œThere are certain regulars who come to Tahmis evFSZ EBZ 'PS FYBNQMF UIFTF GPVS HVZT are regulars. It is not a matter of who you are, what your education or culture is, or how much money you have, but familiarity is important.â€?14 â€œYour position, education or something else is not important hereâ€Śâ€?15 t Tahmis Coffeehouse as a Political Space Because all social classes of the city came together in the Coffeehouse, Tahmis housed several arguments and EJWFSHFODF "MUIPVHI SFHVMBST BSHVFE feverishly in Tahmis, at the end of the day, all of them went to house in peace, and the day ends in a respectful consensus. Especially in the period of the transition to a multi-party system, Tahmis Coffeehouse became one of the most important political spaces of (B[JBOUFQ "Ę“DBCBZ "MMQIBTFT of change in the regime were followed from Tahmis and the opposing views XFSF BSHVFE IFSF i"Ä™FS UIF FWFOJOH prayer, the regulars play games and DIBUJO5BINJT"UUIBUUJNF QBSUJTBOship was prevalentâ€Ś There were Public 1BSUZBOE%FNPDSBU1BSUZy"MUIPVHI everybody argue, they never fightâ€Ś Everybody teases one another. The
Demokrasinin ne olduÄ&#x;unu bilmedikleri iĂ§in telaffuz da edemiyorlar, DemirgÄąrat diyorlarâ€Ś Partinin amblemi de oâ€Ś Bir atâ€Ś Zaten birbirlerine Ĺ&#x;ey etmeleri deâ€Ś GĂźlmece yaratÄąrlar, siyasi eleĹ&#x;tirileri bile ortak bir gĂźlme, eÄ&#x;lence konusu haline getirirlerâ€Ś Yoksa Ĺ&#x;ey yokâ€Ś Kavga yokâ€Ś Zaten hepsi birbirine hÄąsÄąm, akrabadÄąrâ€Śâ€? (Bayaz, personal interview, 2011). 17
â€œMesela burada bazÄą toplantÄąlar olurdu. Nedir? Mesela dernek toplantÄąlarÄą, efendime genel kurul yapÄąlÄąrdÄą, dernekler, kooperatifler gelir burada toplanÄąrâ€Ś Herkesin geldiÄ&#x;i merkezi bir yer burasÄą, yakÄąn olmasÄą Ĺ&#x;art deÄ&#x;ilâ€Śâ€? (Ă‡ete, personal interview, 2011). 18
â€œBasra diye bir oyun var. Basra bir 52â€Ś Yani piĹ&#x;tinin bir versiyonuâ€Ś Basra oynarlar... Basrada bir tane yaz-boz tahtasÄą istenir. Yaz-boz tahtasÄą eskiden araba lastiklerinden yapÄąlÄąrdÄą. KenarlÄąk Ĺ&#x;ey olur, bĂśyle bir Ă§erĂ§eve yapÄąlÄąr bir de tebeĹ&#x;ir gelir. Rakamlar yazÄąlÄąrken de eski TĂźrkĂ§e yazÄąlÄąrdÄąâ€Ś Ä°Ĺ&#x;te orda bir de Äąslak bez getirirlerâ€Ś O doldu muydu o Äąslak bezle silinir temizlenirâ€Ś Ondan sonra ikindi vakti millet kalkar evine giderâ€Ś Sonra domino oynarlardÄąâ€Ś GeĂ§miĹ&#x;in en bĂźyĂźk oyunlarÄąndan birisiydi, en yaygÄąn oyunlarÄąndanâ€Ś Ben hiĂ§ oynamadÄąm daâ€Śâ€? (Taraz, personal interview, 2011). 20 â€œBen Ă§ok oynadÄąm daâ€Ś Zeka oyunudur yaniâ€Ś O da dama gibi satranĂ§ gibi o kadar Ĺ&#x;ey olmasa da zeka oyunudur. SayÄąlarÄą takip edeceksinâ€Ś Efendim icabÄąnda oyunu kilitleyeceksin. Onun elindeki sayÄąlar daha fazlaysa senin elindeki sayÄąlar daha azsa oyunu kitlersin oyun orda biter, sayÄąlÄąrâ€Ś Ä°stersen de oyunu aĂ§abilirsinâ€Ś UzaÄ&#x;Äą gĂśrme Ĺ&#x;eyiâ€Ś SatranĂ§ gibiâ€Śâ€? (Bayaz, personal interview, 2011). 19
Public Party supporter teases to Democrat Party, similarly the Democrat Party supporter teases to the otherâ€Ś "UUIFFOEPGUIFEBZ UIFZXBMLBSNJO BSNPOUIFXBZIPNFyw â€œBecause they did not know what democracy is, they could not pronounce the word. They say DemirgÄąrat. This is what the emblem of the parUZy " IPSTFy Ä‡FZ NBLF IVNPVS and convert the political critiques into FOUFSUBJONFOUy /FWFS Ä•HIUy .PSFover, all of them are relativesâ€Śâ€? Besides its political and social function, Tahmis Coffeehouse was also an important meeting place for the busiOFTTNFO "TTPDJBUJPOT BOE DPVODJMT were gathered in Tahmis to conduct UIFJS SFHVMBS NFFUJOHT i'PS FYBNQMF there were certain meetings realized IFSF 8IBU LJOE PG NFFUJOHT 'PS FYample, general assemblies, associations, foundations and cooperatives were gathered here. The distance is not important, everybody comes here from all regions of the cityâ€Śâ€? t Tahmis Coffehouse as a Game Place Besides its commercial function, Tahmis Coffeehouse was an important entertainment space where historical table games were played by regulars FWFSZ EBZ 'SPN UIF IJTUPSZ POXBSET pishti, 52 and basra are among the most popular games played in Tahmis. â€œThere is a game, called basra" WFSTJPOPGDBSEHBNFy"TDSBUDIQBE made up of automobile tire, is needFE"MTP BDIBMLXBTCSPVHIUUPXSJUF "MMTDPSFTXFSFXSJUUFOJOPME5VSLJTI Then, a wet fabric was brought. Basra was played up to mid-afternoon, and then, regulars began to play domino. Basra was one of the most important games of historyâ€Ś I have never played thoughâ€Śâ€?19 "EEJUJPOBMMZ UP CBTSB JO IFS TUVEZ titled 20. YĂźzyÄąlda Gaziantepâ€™te EÄ&#x;lence HayatÄą, Tokuz mentions domino as another game played with rectangular tusks, which was not much known except the regulars of Tahmis, (Tokuz, i* QMBZFE TP NVDIy *U XBT B NJOEHBNF"MUIPVHIUPBMFTTFSFYtent with comparison to chess, it was a mind game, tooâ€Ś It was a mind game such as game of draught or chess. You have to follow scoresâ€Ś If necessary, you have to lock the gameâ€Ś If your op-
ponentâ€™s scores are higher than yours, you have to lock and finish the game. If you want, you can open the game and you can charge your domino toolsâ€Ś It is a game which you have foresight, like chessâ€Śâ€? t Tahmis Coffehouse as a Storytelling Place In Ramadan celebrations and bairams, daily routine of Tahmis Coffeehouse changes and a celebrative enthusiasm pervades. Hacivat-KaragĂśz as the most popular shadow puppetry is displayed in Tahmis and people listen the epic narratives of the storyteller (meedah "T JU XBT JO UIF QBTU during these special days, not only coffee house regulars but also families and friends spend their time in Tahmis in our day. "T 5PLV[ NFOUJOFE TUPSZUFMMFS JT a public theater play, which is created and performed by one personâ€™s gestures BOENJNJDT 5PLV[ *OPSEFSUP invite people in Tahmis, the storyteller shares a small part of his stories in a day and continues the day after. â€œMy father took me to Tahmis a few times in bairams, when I was a little boy. The storyteller sits to the upstairs of the DPÄŒFF IPVTF XJUI IJT MPOH TUJDL 'PS example, he handles KĂśroÄ&#x;lu story. He re-animates his history with all details and exaggerated descriptionsâ€Ś How many buttons KĂśroÄ&#x;lu have, what the color of button strandsâ€Ś Tells all of them in detailâ€Ś â€˜He handled the saz, let see what he says!â€™ Sometimes he uses his stick as an instrument while telling his story and if he notices that people are bored, he hits hard on the table to awake them. Then, stops his narrative and says â€˜I will continue tomorrowâ€Śâ€™ One story takes almost a monthâ€Ś We used to go to Tahmis very oftenâ€Ś Then I started going there alone when I was seventeen-eighteen years old. Especially in Ramadan, there were special events conducted in Tahmis. The Coffee House were full of peopleâ€Ś Just like a wedding houseâ€Ś Musicians play and sing songsâ€Ś The entertainment lasts up to the sahur "MTP TUPSZUFMMers and shadow puppets were played in Tahmis. I can not clearly remember CVUNZFMEFSTUFMM"DDPSEJOHUPBTVSvey Tahmis is one of the most popular ten coffee houses of Turkey.â€?21 On the
A study on the daily life and coffeehouse culture in Gaziantep: Tahmis Coffeehouse
Figure 2. Tahmis Coffee House regulars.
one hand, the historical spirit of this public space is refreshed by its regulars, on the other hand, tourists and the young visitors of coffee house increase the fame of Tahmis. The regulars and young tourists share the same table today, listening to the personal memories of the eldersâ€™. 7. Conclusion This study interrogates the relation of the coffeehouse culture with the daily life activities and the spatial practices in Gaziantep. The study focuses on Tahmis Coffeehouse as one of the most important public spaces of this historical city that reflects this relation obviously. The building has already been integrated with the urban fabric characterized with commerce and managed to be both cultural and political space of the city. The analysis of Tahmis Coffeehouse also contributes to other spatial studies in terms of its methodological approach. In this paper, oral history techniques are related with micro-history studies and the methods used in cultural studies are combined, and thus physical and social features of space are read through the methods of social sciences. In this way, the meaning of space is deciphered through the experiences of actors in real life with a very close look. In this paper, the written evidence is
â€œBabam beni birkaĂ§ sefer gĂśtĂźrmĂźĹ&#x;tĂźâ€Ś Giderdik, babam gĂśtĂźrĂźrdĂź, kĂźĂ§Ăźk Ă§ocuktukâ€Ś Ĺžimdi Hikayeci, kahvenin Ăźst baĹ&#x;Äąnda otururâ€Ś Uzun bir de sopasÄą olurâ€Ś Ĺžimdi o sopayÄą bazen... Mesela KĂśroÄ&#x;lu hikayesini eline alÄąr. Ă–yle anlatÄąr ki canlandÄąrÄąr, gĂśzĂźnĂźn ĂśnĂźne gelir. KaĂ§ tane dĂźÄ&#x;me var Ăźzerinde, dĂźÄ&#x;menin iplikleri ne renk, ayrÄąntÄąlaarÄąyla anlatÄąr. â€˜AldÄą sazÄą eline, bakalÄąm ne sĂśyledi!â€™ O deÄ&#x;neÄ&#x;i alÄąr, saz olarak yaparâ€Ś Biraz anlatÄąr anlatÄąr, bakarsÄąnkine millette uyku olurâ€Ś MasanÄąn ĂźstĂźne vurduÄ&#x;u gibiâ€Ś Belli bi saatte keser, â€œKÄąssamÄąz burada karar eyledi, arkasÄą yarÄąnaâ€Śâ€? derâ€Ś Bir ay sĂźrer yaniâ€Ś O bir hikaye, bir ay boyunca sĂźrer. 21
Figure 3. Puppets and pearl inlaid gammon.
intertwined with the oral narratives of Tahmis Coffeehouse regulars in order to understand the spatial practices of the coffeehouse users and the history of coffee culture in Ottoman cities from the very beginning of the coffee conTVNQUJPO JO UIF TJYUFFOUI DFOUVSZ "U the beginning of their establishments in the Ottoman cities, coffeehouses were used for religious conversations and thus, they were centered around the mosques. But in time, coffeehouses attached importance as public spaces of cities where people socialized and played games as well as spending GSFF UJNF "MTP UIF DPÄŒFFIPVTFT XFSF transformed into celebration spaces where bairams were celebrated not only with regulars but also with people from all strata in the city. "T POF PG UIF PMEFTU 0UUPNBO $PG-
feehouses, Tahmis has been in use since its construction in the seventeenth century, in its first location at the commercial core of Gaziantep until now. The written evidence focusing on the social and political importance of Tahmis Coffeehouse is analyzed through regularsâ€™ narratives and written sources are supported by the methods of oral history. Certain details and historical information which are not mentioned or ignored in written sources became apparent through the personal narratives of regulars. In this way, the traces of memories and gaps in written evidence are integrated with the historical narrative. Biz oraya (Tahmis Kahvesi) Ă§ok sÄąk giderdik. 17-18 yaĹ&#x;Äąndayken ben giderdim. Hele hele ramazanda oranÄąn Ăśzel, Ă§eĹ&#x;itli alemleri olurdu. Sahura kadarâ€Ś Ĺžimdi teravihten sonra herkes oraya gelir, yer bulamazsÄąnâ€Ś TÄąklÄąm tÄąklÄąmâ€Ś Ä°ki kattÄąr orasÄąâ€Ś Ăœst katÄą da dolar, alt katÄą daâ€Ś Buraya mĂźzisyenler de gelirâ€Ś Ĺžimdi orasÄą, bir dĂźÄ&#x;Ăźn evi gibiâ€Ś Ă‡algÄącÄąlar Ă§alarlar, sĂśylerler, sahura kadar devam eder buâ€Ś Ă‡ok gĂźzel bir ortamdÄą... Daha da eski, yani bizden Ăśnceki, biz gĂśrmedik ama bizim bĂźyĂźklerimiz sĂśylerdi; orda KaragĂśz oyunlarÄą oynanÄąrmÄąĹ&#x;. Ramazanda hikayeciler, meddah olarakâ€Ś Hikayeciler Antepâ€™te belli baĹ&#x;lÄą Ĺ&#x;eye geliyorâ€Ś Bir araĹ&#x;tÄąrmaya gĂśre de TĂźrkiyeâ€™de 10 kahvehaneden bir tanesi bu Tahmisâ€Śâ€? (Ă‡ete, personal interview, 2011).
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A study on the daily life and coffeehouse culture in Gaziantep: Tahmis Coffeehouse
Authority and Identity in the Modern Era. 0YGPSE8JMFZ#MBDLXFMM 5FLFMJ É— 5BSJI :B[Â‘NÂ‘OEB GĂźndelik YaĹ&#x;am TarihĂ§iliÄ&#x;inin KaWSBNTBM ÂąFSĂŽFWFTJ /BTÂ‘M (FOJĘ°MFUJMFbilir?. In Tarih YazÄąmÄąnda Yeni YaklaĹ&#x;Äąmlar: KĂźreselleĹ&#x;me ve YerelleĹ&#x;me. Ä°stanbul. 5PLV[ ( 20. YĂźzyÄąlda Gaziantepâ€™te EÄ&#x;lence HayatÄą. (B[JBOUFQ
(B[JBOUFQĂƒOJWFSTJUFTJ7BLGÂ‘ :Â‘MEÂ‘[ . $ Kahvehane KĂźltĂźrĂź. É—TUBOCVM#FZBO:BZÂ‘OMBSÂ‘ 6SMIUUQXXXTBIJOCFZCFMUS Interviewee YaĹ&#x;a Bayaz .FINFUÂąFUF M. Orhan Taraz Mustafa H. SÄąddÄąkoÄ&#x;lu
A conceptual process model for the sustainability of a healthy building
Asutan SARP YALĂ‡IN1, AyĹ&#x;e BALANLI2 1 BTVUBOTBSQ!BHVFEVUSt%FQBSUNFOUPG"SDIJUFDUVSF 'BDVMUZPG"SDIJUFDUVSF Abdullah Gul University, Kayseri, Turkey 2 CBMBOMJBZTF!HNBJMDPNt%FQBSUNFOUPG"SDIJUFDUVSF 'BDVMUZPG'JOF"SUTBOE Architecture, Hasan Kalyoncu University, Gaziantep, Turkey
3FDFJWFE+VOFt Final Acceptance: July 2016
Abstract Healthy buildings may lose their healthy characteristics over time and due to changing circumstances during their usage phase, which may lead to biological and psychological health problems for their users. Thus a process model is required for buildings which ensures that the initial healthy environment is retained. This study therefore introduces a conceptual Process Model for the Sustainability of a Healthy Building. In the study, the sustainability of the healthy building and its criteria were determined by the help of the definition of sustainability and associated criteria. Then, the changes which prevent the building from sustaining its healthy status were introduced. Based on the events that lead to the loss of healthy building performance, the actions and functioning of the process model were created. Action steps were then composed and the relationship between these steps were established. As a result, the principal components of this model are determined as Achievement of a Healthy Building, Sustainability Assessment of a Healthy Building, and Sustainability Management of a Healthy Building. Application of the procedures in the proposed model can help maintain the healthy characteristics of buildings throughout their operational lifespan, thereby preserving the basic requirement for a healthy environment. Keywords Healthy building, Building biology, Performance evaluation, Sustainability assessment, Sustainability management.
1. Introduction Healthy buildings meet biological, psychological and social needs of users by their quality indicators (BalanMJ FU BM 1FPQMF NBZ TQFOE VQ UP PG UIFJS MJGF XJUIJO CVJMEJOHT when those buildings fail to fulfil the usersâ€™ needs, they may cause health problems or even contribute to death. To establish a healthy building, and to prevent health problems related to the use of buildings, architects should make the maximum use of building biology which â€œâ€Ś is a scientific study, the objectives of which are to prevent the negative effects that influence peopleâ€™s lives, by establishing the relationships between the building, its environment BOEQFPQMFUPQSPEVDFBOEDPOUSPMUIF decisions which lead to the design, construction and use of buildings in terms of peopleâ€™s healthâ€Śâ€? (Balanli and OzUVSL )PXFWFS CVJMEJOHTXIJDI are designed, constructed and presented to use under healthy conditions may change in character over time, and may cause biological and psychological health problems for their users. %JTDPOUJOVJUZPGBCVJMEJOHTIFBMUIZ characteristic during its usage phase results from the fact that quality indicators of the building degrade in time due to the changes and new circumstances which the building is exposed to. Since a healthy lifestyle is a basic human need, buildings which are designed and constructed to meet these health needs should not be negatively affected from the changes which lead to health problems for users. It is therefore important that the initial health performance of the building should be sustained throughout its lifespan. A review of the literature indicated that the majority of studies on sustainability focus on an object, project or system in terms of sustainable development. Analogously, studies which assess the sustainability of a building show whether or not the building is ecologically, economically or sociologically sustainable. However it is thought that sustainability is not a concept that is limited to sustainable development, but that it encompasses the sustainability of any positive situation or characteristic. Based on this approach, it should be possible to de-
termine the health-performance of a building with regard to the needs of users, and to evaluate the sustainability of this healthy building status over time. A building can be thought to follow a specific process, since the following situations may occur while ensuring that the building continues to provide a healthy environment during its lifespan: t being presented to users in a condition which meets healthy building indicators, t losing healthy building status during the usage phase, and t regaining healthy building status. In this context, a process model is needed to ensure that the building initially meets healthy building performance indicators and sustains this condition. Literature review revealed no such model for healthy buildings. Therefore it was considered necessary to establish a conceptual process model intended for the sustainability of a healthy building. In the framework of this sustainability process model, the satisfactory ongoing performance of a building in terms of providing a healthy environment for users is important for the following reasons: t contributing to the sustainability of human health by facilitating the well-being of users, t increasing the quality of life and efficiency of users, t contributing to sustainable development in the following fields: â– ecological sustainability, by minimizing natural resource consumption arising from the recurring maintenance and rehabilitation of buildings, â– economic sustainability, through the efficient use of resources (land, laCPVS DBQJUBM â– social and cultural sustainability, through the protection of a healthy social environment. In addition to healthy buildings such a model may be applicable to other studies on the sustainability of a positive situation or the characteristics of any object, project or system. The present study was based on the following assumptions: t The sustainability model of a
healthy building comprises three main activities as: â– Achievement of the healthy buildJOHBQSFDPOEJUJPOGPSTVTUBJOBCJMJUZ â– Sustainability assessment of the IFBMUIZCVJMEJOHEFUFSNJOJOHXIFUIFS the building has lost its healthy status during the usage phase. â– Sustainability management of the IFBMUIZ CVJMEJOH EFUFSNJOJOH BOE applying any necessary procedures in accordance with the results of the sustainability assessment. t By the application of those activities, the buildingâ€™s healthy status can be sustained as long as it exists. In this study, healthy buildings were defined at first. The sustainability of the healthy building and its criteria were determined by the help of the definition of sustainability and associated criteria. Then, the changes which prevent the building from sustaining its
healthy status were introduced. Based on the events that lead to the loss of healthy building performance, the actions of the process model were created. Action steps were then composed and the relationship between these steps were established. The result of the sustainability process is a series of procedures which will ensure that the building retains its initial performance level, in terms of providing a healthy environment, throughout the usage phase. 2. Healthy buildings Buildings which fulfil the usersâ€™ biological, psychological and sociological needs by their quality indicators related to physical and social outdoor/indoor environmental characteristics can be defined as healthy buildings. Table 1 and 2 show the quality indicators of a healthy building.
Table 1. Healthy building quality indicators related to physical and social outdoor environmental characteristics.
A conceptual process model for the sustainability of a healthy building
Table 2. Healthy building quality indicators related to physical and social indoor environmental characteristics.
3. Sustainability of a healthy building Sustainability can be defined as ensuring that an existing, intended or achieved positive situation or characteristic of any object, project or system is maintained at the same quality over a specific period of time. In this context, sustainability criteria can be deUFSNJOFEBTGPMMPXT 4BSQ t The object, project or system should achieve a specified performance.
t The object, project or system should resist to the changes by performing the functions expected from it. t Ä‡FDPOUJOVJUZ QFSNBOFODF PGUIF object, project or systemâ€™s specified performance should be protected over a specific period of time. Based on this definition of sustainability, the sustainability of a healthy building can be defined as the continuation of the capacity of a building
Figure 1. The changes which cause to the loss of healthy building status during the usage phase.
to meet the state of being healthy required from it, without interruption, as long as it exists. The relevant criteria regarding the sustainability of a buildingâ€™s healthy status can be determined as follows: t The building should be designed and constructed in a way that does not negatively affect its usersâ€™ health. t The continuity of the buildingâ€™s state of being healthy should be ensured over its lifespan. 'SPN UIF TVTUBJOBCJMJUZ EFÄ•OJUJPOT and sustainability criteria above, it can be inferred that the loss of a buildingâ€™s initial healthy status during the using phase arise from exposure to new conditions and therefore potentially negative effects over time. According to this concept, the following points play a role in the loss of sustainability of a healthy building: t Changes over time. t Changing circumstances. These changes which may occur during the lifespan of the building can relate to the building itself, the users or the rules followed during design and construction. Ageing causes a gradual decrease in a buildingâ€™s performance. As a result, the building may fail to meet the levFMTPGQFSGPSNBODFSFRVJSFEPGJU%VF to the changes in building (change of function, changes in environmental DIBSBDUFSJTUJDT PS JO VTFST BHFJOH PG the existing user, replacement by a new user, changes in biological, psychological or social characteristics of the exJTUJOH VTFS VTFS OFFET NBZ DIBOHF Changes in rules (laws, regulations, directives, codes, guidelines, specifiDBUJPOT TDJFOUJÄ•D Ä•OEJOHT FUD NBZ result in the buildingâ€™s existing perfor-
mance being insufficient to meet new HVJEFMJOFT 'JHVSF It can be concluded that two basic problems arise from changes which affect a building: t %FÄ•DJFODZ JO UIF CVJMEJOHT RVBMity indicators, depending on the changes over time and changes in rules. t Inability of the building to continue to meet user needs, which change over time or instantly. The impairment of the healthy building status during the usage phase occurs as follows: t 'SPN UIF EBUF PG DPNQMFUJPO B building is exposed to changes over time or variations in circumstances. t Being affected negatively by those changes, the quality indicators fail to meet the functions required from them or remain insufficient for the new circumstances or needs. t The building is not able to sustain the healthy status required from it. 4. A model for the sustainability process of a healthy building The term process is defined as â€œ... a series of events or actions which have a union between each other or which repeat, progress, or develop in an orderâ€? (Turkish Language Institution, &OTVSJOHUIFTVTUBJOBCJMJUZPGB healthy building can be characterized a process, as it contains the following components: t %FTJHOQIBTF t Construction phase, t Usage phase, t Temporal or circumstantial changes, t Actions to re-establish the healthy building status. Sustainability of the healthy status throughout the lifespan of the building is thought to be possible with the help of a sustainability model which contains the actions of this process. 4.1. Actions of â€œthe process model for the sustainability of a healthy buildingâ€? According to the sustainability criteria, in order to provide sustainability, firstly, there needs to be a positive condition which is worth sustaining. In this context, designing, construc-
A conceptual process model for the sustainability of a healthy building
tion and presenting the building for use such that it meets the requirements for health performance and does not negatively affect the health of users is a prerequisite for the sustainability of the healthy building. Accordingly, the first action of the model can be determined as achievement of a healthy building. &BDICVJMEJOHXIJDIJTJOBIFBMUIZ status at the beginning of the usage phase by performing the first action of the model, undergoes time or circumstance changes during the operational phase. Those changes may cause loss of healthy status. Therefore it is necessary to determine whether the building still meets health performance criteria following these changes. This can be achieved by a sustainability assessment study. Sustainability assessment is defined CZUIF*6$/<*OUFSOBUJPOBM6OJPOGPS $POTFSWBUJPO PG /BUVSF BOE /BUVSBM 3FTPVSDFT Ä‡F 8PSME $POTFSWBUJPO 6OJPO > BT B TUSVDUVSFE analytical process for measuring circumstance changes and assessing the progress of a system toward sustainBCJMJUZ (VJKU BOE .PJTFFW Based on the sustainability definition BOE DSJUFSJB FYQMBJOFE JO $IBQUFS sustainability assessment can be defined as determining whether or not any object, project or system could protect the positive situation or characteristic desired from it against an existing constant change over a desired period of time. Briefly, sustainability assessment determines whether or not there is sustainability. Therefore the second action of the model can be determined as sustainability assessment of the buildingâ€™s health. Sustainability assessment of the healthy building can be defined as determining whether the building could retain the health performance expected from it against changes associated with time and circumstances during the usage phase. If the result of the sustainability assessment is negative, one should proceed with the management study to restore the previous healthy conditions. Sustainability management can be defined as a series of actions for determining and achieving the required targets of any object, project or system in order to ensure re-running
of the concerned object, project or system properly, effectively and efficientMZ 'PMMPXJOH UIF OFHBUJWF KVEHFNFOU of the sustainability assessment, the management study seeks responses to UIF RVFTUJPOT PG i8IBU DBO CF EPOF BCPVUUIFJTTVF w i8IBUJTUIFBQQSPpriate response to the existing negative TJUVBUJPO w i8IJDIQSFDBVUJPOTDBOCF taken?â€?. Briefly, sustainability management includes regulatory precautions that should be taken following the loss of sustainability. In this context, when it is found that the building has failed to meet health performance criteria, the third action of the model (sustainability management of the buildingâ€™s IFBMUI TIPVME CF QFSGPSNFE 4VTtainability management of the healthy building can be defined as a series of actions performed in the framework of the process of applying the activities required for the building to possess the targeted health performance and to regain its sustainability. 'PMMPXJOH UIFTF EFÄ•OJUJPOT UIF BDtions within the sustainability model for a healthy building can be sumNBSJTFEBTGPMMPXT 'JHVSF t Achievement of a Healthy Building t Sustainability Assessment of a Healthy Building t Sustainability Management of a Healthy Building A building which appears to sustain its healthy status by means of sustainability assessment, or which regains it by means of sustainability management intervention may be repeatedly exposed to further ageing or changes of circumstance during the usage phase. Sustainability assessment and (if necFTTBSZ NBOBHFNFOU JOUFSWFOUJPO JT therefore a cyclical process, as seen in 'JHVSF 4.2. Action steps of â€œthe process model for the sustainability of a healthy buildingâ€? 4.2.1. Steps of the â€œachievement of a healthy buildingâ€? action The first stages in the delivery of a healthy building are the design and construction phases. The building should be designed and constructed in such as way that it does not contribute to biological or psychological health problems for its users. In order
Figure 2. The running of the process model for the sustainability of a healthy building.
to achieve this, it is necessary to determine data which will feed into the perGPSNBODF UBSHFUT %FUFSNJOBUJPO DBO CFBDIJFWFECZ t defining the building, â– identity of the building (name, location, size, number of storeys, designers, contractors, operaUJPOZFBS VTFGVMMJGFTQBO FUD â– function/s of the building, â– environmental factors related to physical/social outdoor/indoor characteristics of the building â—† physical â€“ outdoor factors related to natural and built environment, â—† social â€“ outdoor factors related to groups and individuals forming those groups, â—† physical â€“ indoor factors related to dimensional-formal, visual, auditory, tactile, and atmospheric characteristics of the building,
â—† social â€“ indoor factors related to groups and their members. t defining its users, â– identity of the users (age, duty at the building, usage period / daytime-night-full time/, temQPSBSZQFSNBOFOUVTBHF FUD â– biological, psychological, sociological characteristics of the users (physiological disorders, sicknesses, disabilities, sensitive groups /infants, children, elders, QSFHOBOU XPNFO QTZDIPNPtor, emotional, cognitive beIBWJPVST UIFJS HSPVQT OPSNT FUD t defining the rules (laws, regulations, directives, codes, guidelines, specifications, scientific findings, FUD UIBUTIPVMECFGPMMPXFEEVSJOH the design and construction. Thereby, it can be clearly defined what type of environment is to be created for which type of users and by obeying which rules. These data help determine the performance targets XIJDI XJMM HVJEF UIF EFTJHO 5BCMF samples the determination of a target health performance. This determination should be performed within all of the quality indicators shown in Table 1 8IJMF NFBTVSBCMF WBMVFT DBO CF expressed by numbers, subjective values can be scaled as more/less, easy/ difficult, etc. 'PMMPXJOHUIFEFTJHOBOEDPOTUSVDtion phases, the building should be checked to establish whether it actually meets the agreed health performance targets, against potential negative situations such as design and construction errors. In this context, the initial health performance of the building should be evaluated to confirm that it meets the UBSHFU QFSGPSNBODF 5BCMF 8IJMF values able to be expressed by numbers are measured by the relevant devices, subjective indicator values (aesthetics,
Table 3. Determination of target performance.
A conceptual process model for the sustainability of a healthy building
Table 4. An example of performance evaluation at the beginning of the use.
FUD DBO CF EFUFSNJOFE CZ PCTFSWBtions, interviews or surveys. Thereby, the building which is healthy can be identified as an object and environNFOU JO UIJT TUBHF %VSJOH UIF JEFOUJfication, the building materials/pieces of components and elements can be clarified as well as the environmental quality indicators and their values on a â€œhealth status documentâ€?. In terms of achieving the required performance, the steps of the â€œAchievement of a Healthy Buildingâ€? Action can therefore be determined as follows: t Pre-design identification t %FUFSNJOBUJPO PG UBSHFU QFSGPSmance t %FTJHO t Construction t Performance evaluation at the beginning of use t Healthy building identification at the beginning of use 4.2.2. Steps of the â€œsustainability assessment of a healthy buildingâ€? action Undergoing changes related to time or circumstances, failure of the current health performance to meet the conditions of the post-change period, and loss of healthy building status may occur. According to this sequence, time-related or circumstantial changes which can negatively affect the sustainability should be determined first. 8IJMFDIBOHFTPG t function, t user or user group, t ageing of users can be easily determined by observation PSJOUFSWJFX t ageing of the building, t environmental factor changes, t biological, psychological, or sociological characteristic changes in users, t changes of rules
determinations are more complicated as these topics involve many components and there is a possibility of developing many changes in each of all. To determine latter changes, control lists may be used. Identifying the building, users or rules which have changed is necessary in order to determine the new operating conditions. Post-change identificaUJPODBOCFNBEFBT t the identity, object (building prodVDUT FOWJSPONFOU GVODUJPO EFÄ•nitions of the building, t the identity, biological, psychological, sociological characteristic definitions of the users, t the obligation and/or scientific finding definitions. Identification should be made not for all of the characteristics, but only for the changed ones, unlike the pre-design identification. Any revised performance targets arising from new identification should also be determined. This determination should only be performed within the quality indicators that may be affected from the DIBOHFT5BCMFTBNQMFTUIFEFUFSNJnation of the new target health performance for supposed occasions as a user change (new user with psychological EJTPSEFS BOE JTDIFNJD IFBSU EJTFBTF and an outdoor environmental factor change (construction of a highway OFBSCZUIFCVJMEJOH A performance evaluation can then be conducted to determine whether the buildingâ€™s existing health performance is appropriate for the new situation. Meanwhile, the ways in which the performance has been affected by time-related and circumstantial changes should be determined and a decision should be made regarding the adequacy of the buildingâ€™s quality indicators 5BCMF "UUIFFOEPGUIFBTTFTTNFOU the following decisions may be made about the situation of the building:
Table 5. Determination of post-change target performance.
t The status of the building remains healthy, or t The healthy building status is no longer sustained due to the effects of time and/or changing circumstances on the quality indicators. 'SPN UIFTF FYQMBOBUJPOT JU JT DPOsidered that the â€œSustainability Assessment of a Healthy Buildingâ€? Action should contain the following steps: t %FUFSNJOBUJPOPGDIBOHFT t Post-change identification t %FUFSNJOBUJPO PG QPTUDIBOHF UBSget performance t Post-change performance evaluation t %FDJTJPO 4.2.3. Steps of the â€œsustainability management of a healthy buildingâ€? action If a result of an assessment study determines a negative condition, a management plan should be conducted, to develop, analyse, and compare potential actions to achieve the required situation and to select the appropriate response among them. Then, the ap-
plication of the decision is carried out /3$ The sustainability management plan of a healthy building identifies the potential actions to regain the health performance, to select the most appropriate solutions, and to carry out the necessary actions to achieve the required level of performance. Based on the example above, precautions should CF UBLFO GPS UIF E#" OPJTF EJÄŒFSFODFTFFOJO5BCMFUPSFHBJOUIFTVTUBJOBCJMJUZ0QUJPOTBT t precautions at the environmental factors by creating artificial ridges, noise barriers, landscaping, etc. t precautions at the building itself by designing a double wall construction, using sound absorption products, etc. should be determined at first. After the prediction of the noise insulation value of each option by calculations and/ or comparisons, the decision upon the most appropriate option should be made. After the application of the selected option, the building with the new environmental factors will be
Table 6. An example of post-change performance evaluation.
A conceptual process model for the sustainability of a healthy building
healthy again for its new user. Based on these functions, the steps of the action of the â€œSustainability Management of a Healthy Buildingâ€? can be determined as follows: t %FUFSNJOBUJPO PG BQQSPQSJBUF PQtions t %FDJTJPO t Application t Result 4.3. Application of â€œthe process model for the sustainability of a healthy buildingâ€? The major actions and minor steps of the model for the sustainability of a healthy building, and their relationTIJQTJTTIPXOJO'JHVSF#ZBQQMZJOH the first action of the model, buildings achieve the required level of health performance at the beginning of the usage phase. In the event of a negative result produced by the performance evaluation made during this process, feedback should be provided to ensure the healthy status of the building at the beginning of use. Once the building is operational, the first sustainability assessment should be performed when a circumstantial change is thought or reported to have PDDVSSFE 'PS FYBNQMF UIF CVJMEJOH should be assessed when it is thought or predicted that an environmental change has occurred, or when a change of function or user is reported. If a regulatory change occurs, the assessment should be conducted when the relevant specialist who attends the study is acquainted with the change. However, in terms of the ageing of the building, the assessment should be performed within the first three years at the earliest and six years at the latest. Because it can be concluded that the earliest ageing at the building occurs within this duration as the acceptable minimum service life of building products (easy UP SFQMBDF PS SFQBJS JT EFUFSNJOFE BT UISFF PS TJY ZFBST CZ TUBOEBSET &$ *40 *OUFSNTPGUIFBHFing of the user, the first sustainability assessment should be made when the user passes to the next chronological age group.1 %FUFSNJOBUJPOPGDIBOHFT XIJDIJT the first step of the sustainability assessment action, can be made by com-
paring pre-design and healthy building identification data (acquired by obTFSWBUJPO JOUFSWJFX TVSWFZ FUD XJUI the conditions prevailing during the assessment. If the result of the comparison does not reveal any change, it means that the building sustains its healthy status. In this case, the building can be continued to be used without taking any precaution. But existence of a change would require the application of other assessment steps. If the performance evaluation shows that the health performance of the building is still convenient for the new situation after the change, the healthy building status is sustained. But, if the health performance is not sufficient for new conditions, the first sustainability management action should be applied to restore the initial health status. In case of a new change during the usage, the second sustainability assessNFOUTIPVMECFQFSGPSNFE%VSJOHUIF determination of changes, comparisons should be made with the help of information gained from the earlier identification steps (the initial achievement of the healthy building and the Ä•STU TVTUBJOBCJMJUZ BTTFTTNFOU BDUJPOT and the new condition should be determined. After the application of the other steps of the action, the appropriate sustainability decisions should be made and, if required, the second sustainability management should be carried out. The frequency of sustainability assessment varies with the type of time-related or circumstantial changes. Changes in circumstance do not follow a specific time interval. Sustainability assessment should therefore be applied XIFOFWFSBDIBOHFPDDVST'PSUIFBHFing of the building, healthy building sustainability should be checked every three â€“ six years. In terms of the ageing of the user, the assessment should be repeated when the user passes to the next chronological age group. 5. Conclusion %VSJOH UIF TFSWJDF MJGF PG B IFBMUIZ building, changes related to time or circumstances may occur. The protection of the healthy status against these changes is aimed within the sustainability of a healthy building. This re-
The human life which starts with birth and ends with death chronologically consists of following steps (Erickson, 1984; Piaget and Inhelder, 200; WHO, 2004): tJOGBODZ years) tDIJMEIPPE years) tBEPMFTDFODF 18 years) tBEVMUIPPE years) tPMEBHF tZPVOHPME years) tPMEPME years) tPMEFTUPME years and over) 1
Figure 3. The process model for the sustainability of a healthy building.
quires the creation of a process model. The proposed conceptual model, Process Model for the Sustainability of a Healthy Building, consists of the following actions and action steps: t Achievement of a Healthy Building â– Pre-design Identification â– %FUFSNJOBUJPOPG5BSHFU1FSGPSmance â– %FTJHO â– Construction â– 1FSGPSNBODF &WBMVBUJPO BU UIF Beginning of Use Healthy Building Identification at the Beginning of Use t Sustainability Assessment of a Healthy Building â– %FUFSNJOBUJPOPG$IBOHFT â– Post-change Identification â– %FUFSNJOBUJPO PG 1PTUDIBOHF Target Performance â– 1PTUDIBOHF1FSGPSNBODF&WBMuation â– %FDJTJPO t Sustainability Management of a Healthy Building â– %FUFSNJOBUJPO PG "QQSPQSJBUF Precaution Options â– %FDJTJPO â– Application â– Result Application of this model can help maintain the healthy status of a building throughout its lifespan. By this way, the occurrence of health problems caused by buildings is prevented and humansâ€™ basic need to live a healthy
life is met. This model should be applied by specialists across the fields of construcUJPO FOWJSPONFOUBOEIFBMUI<EFTJHOers (architects, interior architects, landTDBQF BSDIJUFDUT CVJMEJOH QIZTJDT specialists (lighting, colour, thermal DPNGPSU BDPVTUJD TQFDJBMJTUT FOgineers (civil, mechanical, environmental, chemical, physics, electrical, ... FOHJOFFST FOWJSPONFOUBMIFBMUIEPDUPST QTZDIPMPHJTUT TPDJPMPHJTUT FUD> under the coordinatorship of building biologists. The following actions are recommended to ensure successful implementation of the model, and to benefit further studies in this field: t making users aware of the healthy building and its sustainability, t basing the achievement and sustainability of the healthy building on legal obligations, t establishing groups of secondary health specialists, who are trained in sustainability assessment and management, in the relevant disciplines, t forming and institutionalizing a working team established from the specialisms mentioned above, to apply the model, t taking the model into consideration during every stage of the building lifecycle, to fully realise the potential benefits to human health.
A conceptual process model for the sustainability of a healthy building
References "TTFTTNFOUBOE.BOBHFNFOUPG&OWJSPONFOUBM/PJTF3FHVMBUJPO Â±FWSFTFM (Ã SÃ MUÃ OÃ O %FÊ“FSMFOEJSJMNFTJ WF :ÃšOFUJNJ :ÃšOFUNFMJÊ“J 3FTNJ (B[FUF )B[JSBO #BMBOMJ " 0[UVSL " "DPOceptual model to examine buildings in terms of building biology. Architectural Science Review Balanli, A., Ozturk, A., Karabiber, Z., Unver, R., Gedik, G., Yavuz, G., 7VSBM . "OFYBNJOBUJPOBOE evaluation of YTU library and documentation building in terms of building biology. Building and Environment, &$ &VSPQFBO$PNNJTTJPO Durability and the construction products directive (VJEBODF QBQFS ' #SVTTFMT Ä‡F &VSPQFBO $PNNJTTJPO %(*** &SJLTPO &) Insanin Sekiz Cagi (Eight Stages of Human Development). Ankara: Birey ve Toplum Yayincilik. (VJKU * .PJTFFW " Resource Kit for Sustainability Assessment. (MBOE 4XJU[FSMBOE*6$/ *TJOH ) #SBVO $ "DVUF and chronic endocrine effects of noise : Review of the research conducted at the Institute for water, soil and air hygiene. Noise & Health ISO (International Organization for 4UBOEBSEJ[BUJPO Buildings and constructed assets - Service life planning
- Part 1: General principles *40 (FOFWB*OUFSOBUJPOBM0SHBOJ[BUJPO for Standardization. /3$ /BUJPOBM 3FTFBSDI $PVODJM Risk Assessment in the Federal Government: Managing the Process. 8BTIJOHUPO %$ /BUJPOBM "DBEFNZ Press. 1JBHFU + *OIFMEFS # The Psychology of the Child/FX:PSL#Bsic Books Inc. 4BSQ " 4BHMJLMJ ZBQJOJO surdurulebilirlik surecine yonelik bir model Ã¶nerisi (A process model proposal for the sustainability of a healthy CVJMEJOH 6OQVCMJTIFE EPDUPSBM EJTTFSUBUJPO :JMEJ[5FDIOJDBM6OJWFSTJUZ Istanbul. Turkish Language Institution Turkce Sozluk (Turkish Dictionary)"OLBSB5VSL%JM%FSOFHJ 8)0 8PSME )FBMUI 0SHBOJ[BUJPO Guidelines for Community Noise. B. Berglund, T. Lindvall and %) 4DIXFMB &EUT (FOFWB 8PSME Health Organisation. 8)0 8PSME)FBMUI0SHBOJ[BUJPO A glossary of terms for community health care and services for older persons. Ageing and health (Technical SFQPSU 7PMVNF 8PSME )FBMUI 0SHBOJ[BUJPO$FOUSFGPS)FBMUI%FWFMPQNFOU 8)08,$5FDI4FS 8)0 8PSME)FBMUI0SHBOJ[BUJPO Night Noise Guidelines for Europe$PQFOIBHFO8)03FHJPOBM0GÄ•DFGPS&VSPQF
The archetypes of landscape and sustainable design in the ksar of Kenadsa
Abdeldjebar LAYACHI BCEFMEKFCBSMBZBDIJ!VOJWVTUPE[t%FQBSUNFOUPG"SDIJUFDUVSF 'BDVMUZPG Architecture and Civil Engineering UniversitĂŠ des Sciences et de la Technologie dâ€™Oran Mohamed Boudiaf USTO-MB, El Mâ€™naouer, 31000 Oran, Algerie
3FDFJWFE4FQUFNCFSt Final Acceptance: July 2016
Abstract The ksour are ancestral cities of the desert; they represent an inestimable source of reference with their ingenious durable architectures. They are charged with specifically local signs and paradigm that reflect a socio cultural and an ecosystemic context, and a singular landscape. Thus, the architect is confronted with these designs with which he can choose to refer to or not. Consequently, which resources do these ksour represent for the Saharan architectural culture? This article is a synthesis of a fieldwork carried out during the preparation of a thesis which questions the future of the ksour. It is the result of several surveys, investigations and interviews conducted during the period between 2012 and 2015 in the Kenadsa city. In this context a multitude of investigations approaching the anthropological aspect were committed. This approach is characterized by the research of the elements of the conceptual originality of the ksour and their future, in relation to cultural, ecosystemic and landscape dimensions. To sieze the importance of these aspects, we propose to undertake a reading about the conception of the ksar of Kenadsa regarding these three dimensions. As a conclusion, we say that the ksour represent perfect archetypes for the conception of sustainable architecture that is specific to the Algerian Sahara. The lessons, which we can learn, refer to the inspiration of the local socio-cultural values, harmonious integration with the ecosystem, respect for landscape of the site, the use of local building materials and the urban architectural composition that is suitable to the microclimate. Keywords Ecosystem, Ksar, Landscape, Socio-cultural, Vernacular architecture.
1. Introduction In this paper, we consider ksar as a vernacular habitat, within the meaning of this micro space structured unconsciously and specifically by a given community. Ksar is a term of Arabic origin which indicated in the early days of Islam, a strengthened building generally located in an oasis. It was generally used as residence for a representative of authority. It was employed thereafter to indicate these strengthened villages, in the African northern Sahara. Into Berber, ksar is said aghram. The ksour are regarded as archetypal examples of cities. This is due to the morphological and organizational characteristics which they present $IBNQBVMU #VJMUUIFSFGPSTFWeral centuries, they represent a significant source of reference for their architecture and history. They are charged with signs representing the marks of a singular socio cultural context. Located in arid areas with rigorous and harsh climate, they present the example of a perfect symbiosis between ecological architecture and natural landscape. Our case of study will tackle the ksar of Kenadsa as an emblematic figure. This locality is a city in the state of BeDIBSXIJDIJTMPDBUFELNTPVUIXFTU of Algiers. The objective of this work is to try to detect the rules governing the process of its morphogenesis, in connection with its natural environment and its socio cultural context. It is about revealing the aspects of symbiosis between the architecture of the ksar and its palm grove all in unveiling cultural representations and landscapes which BSFTQFDJÄ•DUPUIJTPBTJT 'JHVSF
2. The ksar, a vernacular projection of a cultural image Culture has always been an essential dimension in the life of man who has manifested in the production of his MJWJOH 3BQQPQPSU Q Ä‡F ksar as a vernacular territory does not only express the environmental and landscape values, but it is also, the reflection of the local ethos (Moussaoui, Q &YQMBJOUIFDIPJDFPGTJUF and morphology of human settlements only by ecosystem constraints and / or technology is in our opinion, inTVÄ?DJFOU (JWFO UIF TQJSJUVBM TBDSFE seems at least as important, if not the NPTU DSVDJBM .PVTTBPVJ Q Indeed, this architecture that is specific to a community characterized by its own representations is regarded as a reduced model of an Arab-Muslim city $IBNQBVMU %POOBEJFV FU BM .BSDBJT Ä‡JTJTEVFUPUIF organizational characteristics which it presents from the formal and functional point of view. On the contrary, other experts consider that these ancestral cities existed well before the arrival of Islam; they were confronted with several socio cultural and environmental factors, which engendered their morphology and their specific organization 'JHVSF
Figure 1. The ksar of Kenadsa in a state of disrepair.
Figure 2. A Deriba (at bottom) in the ksar of Kenadsa.
On the other hand, Moussaoui advances critics to the theses which tried to define the origin of the ksour based only on a single view (Moussaoui, )FEFNPOTUSBUFTUIFFYJTUFODF of several factors that determine the morphology and the occupation of the LTPVS )F DPOTJEFST UIBU UIF PSHBOJzation and the current form of ksour were strongly influenced by an IslamJDSFMJHJPVTNPSBMJUZ)FBEWBODFTGPVS theses which were defended according to this methodological perspective. The functionalist thesis which considers the built, in all its components, as a functional answer to objectified data, is defended by two approaches. The ecosystemic functionalism: the choice of the sites, the height of the building, the width of the streets, the employed materials, everything in this oasis society, in terms of our authors, falls within the same ingenious response to the constraints of the ecosystem. The bellicose atavism: this approach considers that Ksour, were fortified by walls, lookout towers and by other techniques, for reasons of war BOEEFGFOTF &DIBMMJFS The second thesis is qualified as a culturalist Berber. This type of research has been carried out under the direction of Mouloud Mammeri, man-symbol of the Berber culture. Its objective was to demonstrate the antecedence of the Berber culture on the Arab-Muslim culture. In fact, this approach is founded in response to the identity crisis and the struggle for the emergence of the so called minority cultures, threatened to remain in the background. Thereby, they tried to bring out to the foreground the aspects of reference to the Berber culture. They tried to demonstrate the priority of Aghram on the other forms PG LTBS )PXFWFS BMM "HISBN HP CBDL approximately to the XV century. That is to say to the time of the arrival of the Arabs. The appellation Berber Aghram was regarded as sufficient to assign the production of this type of building to the Berber population (Moussaoui, Q The third thesis is qualified as progressive, it is supported by A. Adam, who considers the ksar is a kind of medina in failure because it would have missed the possibilities of material ac-
cumulation that would have enabled it UPSFBDIBOBQQSFDJBCMFTJ[F)FDPOTJEers the ksar as an aborted city (Adam, Q In the Arab-Muslim woman, the religion has often been served as a landmark in the design of the dwelling and the urban landscape. As an example, we cite the choice of the orientation (even if this choice is irrational comQBSFE UP PUIFS DSJUFSJB UIF SFRVJSFment of a distinction between the sacred and profane spaces. The issue of intimacy and the degree of openness to the outside are also determinant, by consecrating the inviolability of the private life (very rigorous ranking of spaces, by distinguishing the passage of places from the most public to the private ones, chicane entrance, introverted house, moucharabiehXJOEPXTy
The concept of equality must also be respected at all scales. At the neighborhood level, it has led to sober uniform facades, allowing no distinction between the housing of the rich and one of the poor, despite the large difference of the interior. What strikes the observer, here is the general character unit. There are no two gestures; we build the dam, the mosque, the home. The builders have cut and cleaned every reason to influence or prestige and chose egalitarian solutions, no palace in the Mâ€™zab, they found themselves confronted with the only defense issues BOEUIFFOWJSPONFOU 3BWFSFBV 3. The concept of the landscape in the Arab Muslim culture The landscape is considered as the cultural expression of the perception of the material world and its represenUBUJPO -BUJSJ "TUIFMBOETDBQF can have diversified significances, since numerous cultural elements which are closely linked to a context, can intervene in the decryption of these differFOU TJHOJÄ•DBUJPOT -VHJOCVIJ The decoding of the landscape presumes a common language (Latiri, Ä‡FSFCZ UIF TUVEZ PG UIF MPHJD of the landscape construction requires the knowledge of the cultural specificities and conventions that are particular to the society concerned with the analysis.
The archetypes of landscape and sustainable design in the ksar of Kenadsa
Figure 3. Derb Dlima, a perspective towards the mosque Mâ€™hamed Ben-Bouziane.
Figure 4. Entrance to the mosque of sidi Mâ€™hamed Ben-Bouziane.
Consequently, we have sought the significances of this concept in the EPNJOBOUDVMUVSFPGUIFSFHJPO 'JHVSF Thus, through the exploration of the linguistic and the literary Arab Muslim production sands out the existence of three criteria that permit appreciating the landscape. They are related to the visual, aesthetic and sensory aspects. Ibn Khaldoun adds the imaginary stereotypes that can influence the percepUJPO PG UIF TFOTJUJWF XPSME )F XSPUF in the fourteenth century in his Al Moquadima, â€œThe memory serves as a depot for all the perceived objects, whether imaginary or not. It is like a store which preserves them till the moNFOUXFOFFEUIFNw .POUFJM Q We find two words in the Arabic language which designate the term landscape: Mandhar and Mashhad that signify both the object and its representation. These words are extracted from the verbs (nadhara, shahada), and focus on the vision of an area without prejudice neither for its dimension nor for the mark which man prints. The concept evoked by these words expresses the portion of a space or a fragment of the material world, under the effect of a mentally guided glance and an esthetic. This aesthetic reveals that it is no more about any space but a particular one with its own characteristics that make it a landscape, since it is
BCPVUJUTTFUUJOHJOTDFOF -BUJSJ The fact that this notion is a carrier of beauty and ugliness, it allows to specify the characteristics of the place. Quran gives the Muslim a model that guides its relationship with his environment, these are descriptions by the rushing water, landscapes and scenes that evoke are designed to capture the imagination of the faithful. The imagination of Muslim being conditioned by the notion of Paradise, the landscape it is because of pre-existing adjectives attributed to space and place. The Quran descriptions of Paradise are the most important moments in the history of Muslim sentiment landscape. This model combines all the riches of nature that inspired the Muslim man to meet his ideal of being sensitive. The thought of the Moslem is conditioned by the existence of the paradise; the one of landscape becomes preexistent for him because of the qualifying adjectives attributed to this place. The description given by the Qurâ€™an is understood in a symbolic sense. It is important to underline the relationship between the moral dimension of paradise with the oasis manifested by the sacredness of the palm tree, the aura of the oasis, and water, the basic element for life. These three concepts are controlled by a code of morals and well defined social practices (Miquel, Ä‡FNFOUBMTZNCPMJ[BUJPOPGUIF paradise which is rooted in the social
collective memory is projected in the PBTJT -BUJSJ Ä‡F DPODFQUT PG paradise, gardens, and landscapes become hence synonyms that eventually become interchangeable. The example of the palm plantation FM+FOOB JOUIFDPOTUSVDUJPOBOEUIF conceptualization of the landscape oasis is particularly edifying. The palm tree as a sacred tree of Islam and symbol of eternity is regarded as a crucial factor of the structure of the oasis landscape. In addition to the fact that the palm plantation is a work place, it is also a living being linked emotionally to the family. Thus, in several cases, each member of the family member owns a palm tree that holds his name, therefore, we say it is the palm of Kada PS'BUJNBy UIBUXBZ UIJTQFSTPOHJWFT all his affection to this tree. Oral tradition reports to us that in several cases, when the person cedes his palm tree he crumbles and dies at once. 'PS UIF JOIBCJUBOUT PG UIF LTBS the palm tree is also blessed because it would have been created by God with a piece of the clay that was used to create Adam. It is indeed, because it would have nourished Mary when she was driven out by her tribe. The crowned value of the palm tree is reinforced by the fact that it is quoted 22 times in Qurâ€™an, we find it in surates: 47- 497*** 499 S. XXVI. It is also mentioned, in much hadith BCPVUUIFQSPQIFU.BIPNFU XFRVPUF i*TXFBSCZ)JN 8IPIPMET NZTPVMJO)JT)BOE UIFSFFYJTUQBMN trees in paradiseâ€?. 4. The logic of morphogenesis ksar Kenadsa Reading the process of formation-transformation, the ksar of Kenadsa allows us to address a number of rules governing its genesis and evolution. Its genesis obeys an order enacted by a religious morality. In this context, it has been demonstrated by several scholars that the Qurâ€™an and the prophetic tradition give to the Muslim rules governing his relationship with his natural environment like the respect for nature, sharing of resourcesâ€Ś It also defines the limits of his intervention and his relations with the built environment, the publics spaces,
the neighborhoods and the templates PG DPOTUSVDUJPOT #MBOD (BSEFU *OPVSDBTF UIFDPOUJOVPVT and progressive growth of entities has only been possible by the strict respect of certain rules and operational tools derived directly from the teaching of 4IFJLI 3JOO Ä‡FDJUZJTNBEF up of successive centralities, which is a characteristic of each level (ksar, entity, IPVTF "U UIF LTBS MFWFM UIF PSHBOJ[ing core is the mosque which also constitutes the geometric and social center 'JHVSF The ksar was organized from the old mosque (el-djamaa BOE UIF Kasbah. In extending towards the north and east, the Kasbah was surrounded CZBXBMMTUPOF FTTPVS FRVJQQFEXJUI XBUDIUPXFST CPSEK BOE QJFSDFE CZ three urban gates. It is with the arrival of sheikh sidi Mâ€™hamed Benbouziane in the 18th century and the establishment of Zawiya Zianiya that Kenadsa QSPTQFSFE )JSU[ *UCFDBNFTQJSitual, cultural and commercial at the TBNFUJNF 'JHVSF The zawiya ziania is founded in CZ 4IFJLI 4JEJ .PIBNFE #FObouziane. The term zawiya appointed in the first instance, a dedicated room within a larger structure where the Sufis .VTMJN NZTUJDT DPVME XJUIESBX as suggested by the direction of the ArBCJDSPPUXPSE BOHMFPSDPSOFS Ä‡JT term also comes from the Arabic word which means inzawa â€œopt outâ€? is an angle from which life is perceived differently, which gives the place its semantic load retreat. Thereafter, the term shall mean a religious complex containing a mosque, rooms reserved for study and meditation to another (Eddikr wa Ettafakour BOE BIPTUFMUPBDDPNNPEBUF visitors. It performs spiritual practices and there buries the founders of soufi TBJOUT 3JOO Spatial order of the growth was structured primarly by foggaras of a north south direction that would beDPNF[LBL BTNBMMBMMFZ Ä‡Ffoggara is an irrigation system Saharan form of underground tunnel. SubsequentMZ B TZTUFN PG ESPVC DPWFSFE BMMFZT classified, punctuated by a subtle play of shadow and light, structures the ksar 'JHVSF
The archetypes of landscape and sustainable design in the ksar of Kenadsa
Figure 5. Direction of travel of the religious festivities (mawlid ennaboui).
5. The ecosystemic integration ksour "DDPSEJOHUP3BWĂ?SFBV UIFTF desert cities offer the most complete example of an adaptation to environmental constraints, architecture and an urban friendly environment. The ksar thus, presents an archetype adaptation to the natural ecosystem; this is manifested by the orientation studied in relation to the sun and prevailing winds, the use of natural elements, the densification of urban areas, the bioclimatic conception of the spaces and the rational use of architectural elements and the constructive methods. The palm tree is a natural filter between the ksar and the desert; it offers a favorable microclimate to the sedentarisation of man. Thanks to greenery, shade, water and silence, it is a pleasant place to live in that provides relaxation and freshness. The palm tree is always associated with the ksar. Thereby, all these constituents are exploited by man of the Sahara. It is also a real sun breaks, in such a way, an Arab proverb says â€œthe palm tree grows, the head in fire and feet in water â€œ. Indeed, all these components are opFSBUFECZIVNBOT4BIBSB'PSFYBNQMF El-kheshba QBMNUSVOL JUJTVTFEBTB beam, ladder wells, columns, mortars, troughs, loom, gargoyles, gutters irrigation ... El-Jerid Ä•OT TUSJQQFEMFBWFT are used for ceilings crisscrossed,
IFEHFT [FSJCB QFSHPMBT GBJMVSFT loom, beds, windbreaks (afreg El-lif XPPEÄ˜VÄŒGPSNJOHBSPVOEUIFUSVOL is used to ropes, bags, nets ... El-kernĂ˘f QFUJPMFTÄ•OT JUTFSWFTBTBVSJOBMNBsons to compact the earth and women to beat the wool after washing, making fighting camels and recycled as firewood. Ez- zaaf MFBÄ˜FUT VTFECZXPNen for weaving baskets ... etc. (Layachi BOE$IFLLBM Water is a scarce commodity and essential to the life of the ecosystem QBMN LTBS JOIBCJUBOUT UIVT JUT EJTtribution has been fair. It is a complex and ingenious system which takes into account the times of the day (night and EBZ BOETFBTPOTUISPVHIOPODPWFSFE canals (seguia). These latter contribute to the refreshing of the ambient air. We also note the existence of a perfect balance between the water sources, the palm, the population and the size of the ksar. When an imbalance occurs, another ksar is created in another site. %FTJHOFST PG UIF LTBS IBWF HSBTQFE the importance of the amortization of undesirable winds by creating breaks in the delivery of their cash. Thus, they have opted for narrow paths, twisting, non regular and oriented according to the sun and the prevailing wind. In most of the cases, the streets are fully covered; some voids are reserved to its lighting and ventilation. Thus, enjoying
Figure 6. A subtle shade of light on landscape structure Ksar Thurs.
Figure 7. Home aĂŻn eddar, Carrier system arcade.
the play of shadow and light that it created, we can better control the periods of the sunshine of facades, generate fresh air flow and prevent the wind to chase the fresh air that was accumulated during the night. Regarding housing, the most widespread type is the patio house or wast- eddar. The patio meets the needs of introversion and acts as a thermal regulator. It is a shady place most of the day, and the gallery that borders it (riwak SFEVDFTUIFTVOshine of the adjacent rooms. The rooms (buyut BOEUIFPUIFSTQBDFTBSFBSUJDVMBUFEBSPVOEJU 'JHVSF
components of the site, the ocher color of Barga and sand dunes, the green palms and the blue reflection of the sky on the water.
6. The ksar, a symbiosis between the natural and architectural landscape Kenadsa is a small town of some 13000 inhabitants. It is distant about twenty kilometers from Bechar (the SFHJPOBMDBQJUBMPGUIF4BPVSB *UJTJNplanted in the foothills of the Saharan Atlas in the region of the Saoura which constitute a part of the north western Sahara. This region is known for its extremely arid characteristics. This town JT MPDBUFE BU ÂĄ XFTU MPOHJUVEF BOE ÂĄ OPSUI MBUJUVEF *UT BWFSBHF MBUJUVEF JT NFUFST *U QSFTFOUT B QFBL of terrain of not more than ten meters. This region is characterized by very flat reg sandstone interspersed into sandbanks. Kenadsa owes its existence to the countless canals that feed its arid plateau. It is the river which creates life. The landscape is shaped by the natural
6.1. The natural site of Kenadsa, a marvel landscape The integration of the ksar to its surrounding nature is so harmonious that it leads us to wonder if it is about a natural or architectural landscape. This is manifested by the state of symbiosis that the palm/ksar couple presents. In fact, when admiring this landscape we feel that the ksar is native of land and the palm. K. Lynch proposes to identify in the city, the elements that combine each other to form an overall picture, and wonders about the quality of legibility, identity and memorization of this representation by the inhabitants 1BOOFSBJFUBM *OUIJTNFUIPEological logic, we will try to unveil the secrets of this ecosystemic and landscape symbiosis between ksar and oasis. We will develop the key elements of the urban landscape (course, nodes, arFBT MJNJUTBOECFODINBSLT BOETPNF aspects concerning the identification and the singularity of the landscape in relation to different levels of appropriation of space. In the following passage, we present the aspects of the harmonious integration between nature and the urban landscape produced by the local man.
The archetypes of landscape and sustainable design in the ksar of Kenadsa
6.2. The integration of the ksar with its natural territory At the level of the palm grove and the territory, the ksar of Kenadsa comes in a compact form, of an earth colPS PDIFSHSBZ BEKBDFOU UP UIF QBMN grove. Its outward appearance resembles the other ksour of the region. It is a set of grouped habitat that is overlooking a land situated in a valley. Built on a slight slope along the north south axis, it respects the necessary declivity for the circulation of water between the QSPUFDUJWFDMJÄŒ MBCBSHB BOEUIFOPVSJTIJOHQBMNHSPWF'SPNBGBS UIFLTBS in ocher gray color, is hardly distinguished from the sands that cover the Ä˜BOLTPGUIFDMJÄŒ SPDLIJMM BUUIFGPPU of which it stands. At the base of this ochre gray stain, spreads a dark green DPMPS QBMNHSPWF EFOTF UIFOTQBSTF as long as we move from the ksar. Between these two limits, stretches a DPNQBDUBHHSFHBUFPGDVCFT UIFLTBS matching the colors and the shapes of the landscape.(Moussaoui, 2002, p. Ä‡FFYJTUFODFPGUIFPBTJTEFQFOET on the availability of water resources that ensure the creation of extensive gardens, functioning as pleasant microclimates for life and relaxation. So the couple ksar/palm appears as a balanced ecosystem, providing excellent MBOETDBQF QJDUVSF UP DPOUFNQMBUF 'JHVSF This integration reflects the respect for local natural ecosystem with the adoption of a traditional irrigation system, the balanced exploitation of the assets of the oasis, the balanced morphological composition, and the construction with materials issued from nature (stone, clay, straw, trunks, and QBMNT *OGBDU UXPPOMZVOJRVFUJNFT the inhabitants defied the environment in its plasticity. The first time, when raising a graceful minaret of a square basis with blind niches which report volumetric proportions. Two levels of niches and the head of the minaret constitute proportions that are harmonious and bold enough to challenge the height of the cliff. Momentum towards God is an excess of things from our world. The second time, they are the temporal reasons that will dictate the way and the color of the house of sheikh, a sumptuous house which
Figure 8. The ksar with earth color harmoniously integrated with its palm.
Figure 9. The zaouĂŻa of Kenadsa after restoration.
Figure 10. The ksar place (rahba) after refurbishment.
Figure 11. The space of the djemaa in the ksar of Kenadsa.
white color and the engendered arcades indicate the distinction of its tenant. Impressive by its size and architectural character, it overwrites the
Figure 12. Plan and section of a patio type house in the Ksar Kenadsa.
habitations of men without ever challenging the house of God (Moussaoui, Q 'JHVSF 6.3. The ksar in the city At level of the city, the ksar constitutes the culmination of the main axis CPVMFWBSE XIJDI QSFTFOUT BO FYDFMlent perspective. It is noted that the relationship between the city and the ksar is issued from three main sites (rahba Ä‡FÄ•STUPOFJTPGBTUSPOHBUtractiveness, called rahba du ksar. The two other ones situated at the suburbs are: Ain Sidi Mbarek place and the one of Souk. These three places constitute the nodes of convergence of the main courses, they are therefore the major landmarks. The ksar is identified by a main road which presents today a mechanical character. This path carefully goes along all the houses which formerly constituted the wall of the city. The natural earth color of the ksar is contrasting with the new hard built environment (the reinforced concrete, UIFDJOEFSCMPDLy 'JHVSF 6.4. The ksar and urban entities Urban entities are the combination of several houses organized along a street or around a plot (rahba) defining an urban independent unit that is appropriated by the group. The transition from on entity to another occurs
without physical barrier; however, the boundaries are often psychological. Entities differ from each other according to a lineage distribution and by social groups based on ethnic, religious kinship or according to the dominant activity. Thus, we find the entities of notable people (descendents of TIFJLITJEJ.IBNNFE#FOCPV[JBOF the grouping of the douiriettes (large homes reserved for guests, the artisans city (hadjoua), the territory of peasants (aĂŻn eddir), and the entity of the Jews (aĂŻn Sidi Mâ€™barek). Assembly houses (diour) among each other reflect a system of social solidarity, where the logic of any concessions marks the implantaUJPOT 'JHVSF "MM FOUJUJFT OFJHICPSIPPET JO structured and hierarchical assemblies BSF EJÄŒFSFOUJBUFE TFDUPST 'PVS NBjor route structure and organize the space within the city. This network is punctuated by urban events (squares, NPOVNFOUT CVJMEJOHT NBSLJOH *U is prioritized in the following order: zkak and derb MBSHF BSUFSJFT MBOFT public and semi-public, serving different parts of the ksar, the driba (small TFNJQSJWBUFDSPTTJOHT PÄ™FODPWFSFE and allowing an access to the houses. A virtual frame ordered morphological division of plots. A growth area is made in a geometrical ratio relatively constant duplication. Obeying a mod-
The archetypes of landscape and sustainable design in the ksar of Kenadsa
Figure 13. The patio, aesthetic element, thermal regulation and openness to the celestial landscape.
Figure 14. House ksar, an architectural heritage abandoned.
VMBUJPO PG N UIJT NFTI TVQQPSUT derb as axes officers punctuated events and sequences. The urban landscape is marked by a subtle play of light and shade which directs the course and derb. These skylights are arranged rhythmically along the streets.
7. Mutations of the Oasian landscape 7.1. Ruptures in the evolution of Ksour Major ruptures that affected the oasis are almost identical. They started during the colonization by the disaffection of the aristocratic hierarchy. Later, they took other forms after the independence, imposing agricultural systems which were not appropriated by the local populations. In fact, â€œthe NBKPSJUZPGUIFTFSGT UIFIBSSBUJO BSF free from servile labor in the context of the ruin of owners subject to the colonial tax exaction. The second rupture, consecutive to the previous one, holds the dynamic nature of haratin oasis at UIF BÄ™FSNBUI PG JOEFQFOEFODF )PXever, the supposed social mobility result is neither obvious nor systematic; it meets resistance from above and the conservatism of the old land notability. â€œThe oasis experience; however GSPN UIF T USBOTGPSNBUJPOT UIBU change the social order, â€œcoexistence of an oasis culture and a capitalist culture leading to the abundance of the former one, and the gradual professionalization of farmers becoming agricultural laborers. This situation resonates curiously with the process of colonization of Algeria in the mid nineteenth century.
6.5. At the scale of the house /FHPUJBUJOH UIF USBOTJUJPO CFUXFFO the outside and the inside is always done through a hierarchy, where each boundary is marked by a threshold TLJGB *U JT B DIJDBOF FOUSBODF XIJDI has a role of a filter with a set of doors or indirect passages. It is the median place of the house between two worlds UIF PVUTJEF NBMF BOE UIF JOOFS GFNBMF 'JHVSF The patio is usually square in shape; it is often marked by the presence of GPVSQPMFTXJUIBSDBEFT TZSJBU XIJDI TFSWFUPDPWFSHBMMFSJFT SJXBL BSPVOE it. It is the irreducible core training deformations which are resumed by peripheral areas. Being the heart of the house, it constitutes the common space for the living space, for the work of women, games for childrenâ€Śetc. Through this space the house offers the inhabitants a part of the celestial landscape and calls for its contemplation by the visual communication with him. 'JHVSF
Figure 15. The wealth of decorative motifs in the ksar.
Figure 16. Mutations and disfigurement ksourien landscape.
Socioeconomic difficulties which the oasians meet nowadays pose the problem of relationship of the local society with its agriculture and environment. In fact, the modernization policies of agriculture however have created an upheaval of the social structures and ancestral practices.. Actually, as it is the case in all cities of southern Algeria ÂŤvertical social structures FDPOPNJDIJFSBSDIJFT BOEIPSJ[POUBM USBEJUJPOBM TPMJEBSJUJFT MPHJD PG FDPnomic interest and local power, urban reality tends to dilute lineage reports and reconstruct the social landscape #FMHVJEPVNBOE$05& Q These mutations which the ecological and socio economic cost is significant, have disfigured the landscape cataTUSPQIJDBMMZ 'JHVSF
7.2 Kenadsa, a degraded ecosystem and landscape 4JODFJUTGPVOEBUJPOGSPNVOUJM the early 20th century, the ksar of Kenadsa was one of the most prestigious cities in the south of Algeria. Being distinguished by its cultural and religious dimension, its architectural value, and the extent of its urban influence, it played a radiant central role throughPVU UIF XFTUFSO QBSU PG /PSUI "GSJDB 'JHVSF â€œThe specialty of the marabous of zawiya ziyania was to drive caravans and to protect them against the highway robbers. Kenadsa became little by little, thanks to this beneficial action,of HSFBUJNQPSUBODFw $FBSE Q Ä‡FLTBSPG,FOBETBJTOPXBNBSginalized suburb of the city which has developed by making its original core a commonplace and by abondoning a rich heritage which holds the history and the identity of a whole community. Indeed, the urbanization projects which are still scheduled outside of this ancient city, strongly contribute to its EFHSBEBUJPO )PXFWFS JG UIF LTBS MPTU its residential function, the spiritual role of zawiya ziania would not be affected by the decrepitude of the places. Currently, the ksar of kenadsa is largely abandoned and the inhabitants, who remain there, have undertaken some changes which have sometimes affected the morphology and altered the urCBOMBOETDBQF 'JHVSF 8. Conclusion: The ecosystem and landscape reintegration of the Ksour Culture, ecosystem, architecture and landscape are deeply connected and maintain relationships of interdependence. Indeed, the landscape for vernacular architecture is only the cultural expression and representation of the world perception. Throughout this work, we tried to confirm the hypothesis that ksour represent perfect symbiosis of an ecosystemic and landscape BSDIFUZQFT )FODF XF DPOTJEFS UIBU these vernacular cities are perfectly successful from a landscape and an architectural point of view. This finding is raised from the fact that this architecture integrates perfectly with the natural environment, and respects faithfully the cultural identity of the inhabitants.
The archetypes of landscape and sustainable design in the ksar of Kenadsa
The use of natural materials in construction, as well as the morphological composition that respects the site, is in our opinion, the main cause of this balance. Similarly, the oasis landscape reflects the image of cultural legacies and local social representations. We have shown, in this context, the report of the (el-jenna QBMNXJUI*TMBNJDCFMJFGT JO which the heavenly model is the most recurrent expression. This work has allowed us to reveal the existence of a landscaped model specific for oasis that illustrates a harmony between man, the ksar and its palm. Currently, we raise transformations that disfigure the landscape and reflect the disruption seen by the oasis society. This latter was affected by socio-cultural and economic changes that led to the desertification of the palm and the abandonment of the ksour. Similarly, the architectural production that is specific to the Saharan context seems gradually to disappear in favor of bringing new approaches. Thus, the construction with inadequate materials and the inappropriate morphology contrast with the natural and cultural landscape, altering deeply. In the ksar of Kenadsa, the sacred buildings are intensively frequented nowadays. These buildings and pathways that they mark out must therefore constitute a starting point for any
project of enhancing the landscape. The other major advantage to exploit is the one of the ecological tourism. So many landscape sites can be exploited to promote this field. The palm, water and traditional irrigation system which constitute the constructor thread of the oasian nature, must participate in the rebuilding of the local MBOETDBQFNPEFM 'JHVSF The oasian patrimony should be reconsidered as a marker of identity; and its rehabilitation should be approached from different perspectives: socio-cultural, economic, ecosystemic, architectural and landscaped. To achieve this end, the mobilization of all the actors involved in this field is mandatory: residents, the elected, the concerned authorities and the professionals. These oases must be involved in the dynamics of contemporary urban Algerian 4BIBSB)PXFWFS UIJTBNCJUJPVTQPMJDZ tends to impose operating procedures that are foreign to local social practices and that are questioned by the local population. This latter yearn for commitment to innovative actions without causing mutations that can affect the essence and the form of these ancestral permanence. A commitment of scientists is equally fundamental to identify the teachings of these archetypes from the ecosystem and landscape conception.
Figure 17. Renovation of the ksar kasbah with stone. *56"];t7PM/Pt/PWFNCFSt"-BZBDIĹ”
References "EBN " â€Ť Ú€â€Ź-BHBEJS CFSCĂ’SFâ€Ť Ú€â€Ź une ville manquĂŠe, ROMM Belguidoum, SaĂŻd, & CĂ–TE, Marc La ville et le dĂŠsert, le Bas-Sahara algĂŠrienÂ approche socio-ĂŠconomiqueÂ : une urbanisation pour quelle urbanitĂŠÂ ? &EJUJPO *3&.".,"35)"-" "JY en-Provence. #MBOD ' 1 Le Droit musulman &EJUJPO%BMMP[ 1BSJT $FBSE - Gents et choses de Colomb-BĂŠchar (sud Oranais), Edition archives de lâ€™institut pasteur, Alger. $IBNQBVMU % Une oasis du Sahara Nord-OccidentalÂ : Tabelbala, &EJUJPO$/34 1BSJT $POBO . LÂ´invention des identitĂŠs perdues, Cinq propositions pour une thĂŠorie du paysage, Edition champ Vallon. %POOBEJFV $ %POOBEJFV 1 %JEJMMPO +. %JEJMMPO ) Habiter le dĂŠsertÂ : Les maisons mozabites, Edition Archi + Recherche, Bruxelles. &DIBMMJFS +$ Essai sur lâ€™habitat sĂŠdentaire traditionnel au Sahara algĂŠrien, Edition IUP, Paris. (BSEFU - Islam, religion et communautĂŠ &EJUJPO%FTDMĂ?FEF#SPVwer )BEKâ€Ť Ú€â€Ź.PIBNFE / â€Ť Ú€â€Ź.BEBOJ . Renouvellement des espaces habitĂŠs spĂŠcifiques aux rĂŠgions sahaSJFOOFT MFYFNQMFEF#Ă?DIBSâ€ŤÚ€â€ŹRevue des mondes musulmans et de la MĂŠditerranĂŠe REMMM, 138. )JSU[ ( Lâ€™AlgĂŠrie nomade et ksourienne &EJUJPO15Bcussel, Marseille. -BUJSJ - La mise en paysage des systĂ¨mes dÂ´irrigation dans les oasis du sud tunisien Ä‡Ă’TFEFEPDUPSBU UniversitĂŠ de Paris I-PanthĂŠon-Sorbonne, Paris. -BUJSJ - -BTPDJĂ?UĂ?PBTJFOOF
EV %KĂ?SJE FU MFT SFQSĂ?TFOUBUJPOT QBZTBHĂ’SFT Cybergeo : European Journal of Geography, EPJ DZCFSHFP -BZBDIJ " $IFLLBM " Le devenir des ksour de la Saoura, Projet $/&136 6450 .# 6OJWFSTJUZ PG sciences and technologies Mohamed Boudiaf, Oran. -VHJOCĂ IM : Paysages : textes et reprĂŠsentations du paysage du siĂ¨cle des lumiĂ¨res Ă nos jours, Edition La Manufacture, Barcelone. .BISPVS , 5BNFOUJUFâ€ŤÚ€â€ŹDJUĂ? EV EĂ?TFSUâ€Ť Ú€â€ŹPV MF QBUSJNPJOF DPNNF rĂŠfĂŠrence dans lâ€™enseignement de lâ€™architecture, HabitatÂ : tradition et modernitĂŠ "MHFS .BSĂŽBJT ( Lâ€™architecture musulmane dâ€™occidentÂ : Tunisie, AlgĂŠrie, Maroc, Espagne, et Sicile, Edition Arts et MĂŠtiers graphiques, Paris. .BSPVG / Lecture de lâ€™espace oasien, Edition Sindbad, Paris. .JRVFM " La gĂŠographie humaine du monde musulman jusquâ€™au milieu du XIe siĂ¨cleÂ : Le milieu Naturel, &EJUJPO&)&44 1BSJT .POUFJM 7 Extraits du Discours sur lÂ´Histoire universelleÂ : Al-Muqaddima, Edition Sindbad, Paris. .PVTTBPVJ " Espace et sacrĂŠ au SaharaÂ : Ksour et oasis du sudouest algĂŠrien $/34Â˛EJUJPOT 1BSJT 1BOFSBJ 1 %FQBVMF +$ %FNPSHPO . "OBMZTF VSCBJOF &EJUJPO1BSFOUIĂ’TFT .BSTFJMMF 3BQPQPSU " Pour une anthropologie de la maison, Edition %VOPE 1BSJT 3BWFSFBV " Le Mâ€™Zab, une leĂ§on dâ€™architecture, Edition Sindbad, Paris. 3JOO - Marabouts et Khouans. Ă‰tude sur lâ€™islam en AlgĂŠrie, Edition Adolf Jourdan, Alger.
The archetypes of landscape and sustainable design in the ksar of Kenadsa
An alternative dwelling history narrative: The story of the â€˜apartmentâ€™
Emel CANTĂœRK1, Nurbin PAKER KAHVECÄ°OÄžLU2 1 FNFMDBOUVSL!HNBJMDPNt%FQBSUNFOUPG"SDIJUFDUVSF 'BDVMUZPG "SDIJUFDUVSF *TUBOCVM5FDIOJDBM6OJWFSTJUZ *TUBOCVM 5VSLFZ 2 OVSCJO!HNBJMDPNt%FQBSUNFOUPG"SDIJUFDUVSF 'BDVMUZPG"SDIJUFDUVSF *TUBOCVM5FDIOJDBM6OJWFSTJUZ *TUBOCVM 5VSLFZ
3FDFJWFE.BSDIt Final Acceptance: July 2016
Abstract Dwelling is not solely a spatial organization in which specific activities take place, but also a place to â€˜dwellâ€™, which has different meanings for each occupant. Consequently, any attempt to explain the issues of dwelling through the prevailing discourse is limited. In this context, this paper proposes a â€˜micro-narrative of dwelling historyâ€™ in which the spatial and social change of dwelling at the scale of neighbourhood and city, are explored via individual â€˜apartmentsâ€™ and the personal stories of their inhabitants. The case study in this paper addresses the residential area between KÄązÄąltoprak-BostancÄą in Istanbul, which is experiencing both a rapid urban transformation and the threat of losing its distinctive modern residential architecture from the period of 1950-1980, and focuses on one of its neighbourhoods â€“ ErenkĂśy. With the investigation of this transformation through an oral history method â€“based on interviews with inhabitants of the â€˜apartmentsâ€™â€“ it is aimed to make a contribution at micro-scale to the understanding of the impact of urban transformations in the realm of dwelling. Keywords Micro-narrative, Microhistory, Dwelling history, Residential buildings, Urban transformation.
1. Introduction Conventional historiography is based on examining and understanding fundamental spatial and social changes mostly through a social scale. In this manner, historical narratives, being products of the prevailing discourse in society, tend to exclude subjects, which do not participate in this discourse. This mechanism can be also observed both in urban and architectural history. Hence, a perspective, which aims to understand the general by ignoring the â€˜individualâ€™ as well as its relationship to urban and architectural space, ultimately leads to incomplete observations and explanations of unique real-life sequences. Consequently, any attempt to explain the issues of â€˜dwellingâ€™ â€“ one of the most subjective realms â€“ as well as the relationship of occupants to dwelling and neighbourhoods, through the general discourse, is limited. Dwelling is not solely a spatial organization in which specific activities take place, but is also a place to â€˜dwellâ€™ corresponding to its different â€˜meaningsâ€™ to each difGFSFOU PDDVQBOU "DDPSEJOH UP .FBE QIZTJDBM PCKFDUT IBWF BO JNportant role in the development of our self-identity and based upon his idea, .BSDVT QSPQPTFEUIBUBQFSTPOT psychological development is affected not only by meaningful emotional relationships with people, but also by emotional attachment to some significant physical environments, especially the home. Indeed, home is a medium by which we express ourselves and manifest that that we are. Bachelard (1994: ESBXTBUUFOUJPOUPUIFTVCKFDUJWFSFlationship between the dweller and the dwelling by defining the house as â€˜our corner of the world â€Śour first universe, a real cosmos in every sense of the wordâ€™. Indeed, the dwelling differs from all other places by being â€˜a spatial and an architectural expressionâ€™ of its userâ€™s socio-economic, cultural and personal JEFOUJUZ"T5BOZFMJSFNBSLT â€˜a reading of residential architecture, although urban dwellers considered themselves as passive victims, provides a medium in which to explore that they are in fact effective.â€™ The dwelling appears, as a real â€˜microcosmâ€™ when considering the fact that the house is the essential
point where the changing residential patterns, practices of everyday life, cultural demands and expectations are FYQSFTTFE "T #JMHJO TUBUFT â€˜dwellings, in a sense, are the structures that form the backbone of the city and to make an assessment through the housing culture is equivalent to understand the cityâ€™s DNA. "OE BDDPSEJOH UP IJN Athe critical point in this respect is the phenomenon of apartment that needs to be addressed in the context of changing urban patterns and daily lives in the process of modernizationâ€™. "O FYBNJOBUJPO PG UIF DIBOHF PG UIF residential space and the housing culture, which are the most obvious mediums of modernization, provides significant clues about the transformation of the urban patterns and everyday life practices. *O 5VSLFZ GSPN UIF MBUF OJOFUFFOUI century until today, living habits and expectations in apartments have had many breaking points, and through this process, the mode of production, as well as the form and the typology of UIF BQBSUNFOUT DIBOHFE "T BMM UZQFT of change in the urban space and the social life affects urbanites, their housing culture, and housing typology; it is not possible to read the change of the dwelling as independent of the changes occurring in the urban, socio-cultural or political realms. The living habits, expectations and modes of production of the apartments, vary in different societal, political and economic environments, thus the meaning of the apartment â€“which is to a large extent socially constructedâ€“ changes. In this context, the paper proposes a â€˜micro-narrative of dwelling historyâ€™ in which the spatial and semantic change of dwelling in Istanbul is explored through the perception of its inhabitants. Spatial and social change in dwelling at the scale of neighbourhood and city, are explored via the personal stories and of their inhabitants. The case study focuses on the neighbourhood of ErenkĂśy, which is experiencing a rapid urban transformation and the threat of losing its distinctive modern residential architecture from the period of 1950-1980. With the investigation of this transformation through an oral history method â€“based on interviews
*56"];t7PM/Pt/PWFNCFSt&$BOUĂ SL /1,BIWFDĹ”PĘ“MV
with inhabitants of the â€˜apartmentsâ€™â€“ it is aimed to make a contribution at micro-scale to the understanding of the impact of urban transformations in the realm of dwelling. 2. Historiography as a discourse of the past: Epistemology and ideology â€˜I often think it odd that it should be so dull, for a great deal of it must be invention.â€™ $BUIFSJOF.PSMBOEPOIJTUPSZ $BSS .
See: Roland Barthes, â€˜The Discourse of Historyâ€™ in Comparative Criticism: A Year Book, (1981), p.3-28. Hayden White, â€˜Historical Text as Literary Artifactâ€™ in Tropes of Discourse, Baltimore, (1978). 1
Epistemology of history concerns with the question of what is possible to know with reference to its own area of knowledge â€“ the past. And if the answer is given as â€˜the past â€“ an absent subject â€“ cannot be really knownâ€™, the epistemological fragility of the history is revealed. 2
Historiography, which emerged as a professional discipline in the nineteenth century described itself as a scientific discipline, and had a firm belief that the scientific research renders UIF PCKFDUJWF LOPXMFEHF QPTTJCMF 'PS historians, this meant the re-establishment of past as it actually occurred. In the course of recent thought, to believe that historical research reveals the objective historical facts has become an increasingly abandoned mode of UIJOLJOH 5PEBZ B DPNNPO WJFX SFgarding history as a form of narration and that historical fact cannot exist independently from its narrator, has become broadly accepted. Even a number of theorists coming from a literary criticism background, such as Barthes, White and Derrida, question the distinction between fact and fiction, history and poetry and even bring forth an idea that meaningful historical writing is impossible1 *HHFST 'JSTU PG BMM IJTUPSJDBM GBDU DBOOPU exist on its own, because the past has occurred and gone and it cannot be brought back as real events; but only in different kinds of communication inTUSVNFOUT +FOLJOT 4FDPOE BT history is a reconstruction in the historianâ€™s mind and an interpretation (Carr, XF DBO SFBE UIF IJTUPSZ OPU EJrectly per se, but only through the account of the historian. This means, histories we attribute to things and people are created, composed, constituted and constructed written works, and they contain within themselves their auUIPSTQIJMPTPQIZ .VOTMPX "DDPSEJOH UP 8IJUF AAn event cannot enter into a history until it has been established as fact. From which it can be concluded: events happen, facts are established.â€™ Historical narratives are â€˜verbal fictions, the contents
of which are more invented than found and the forms of which have more in common with their counterparts in literature than they have with those JOUIFTDJFODFT 8IJUF Ä‡F definitions of history, such as â€˜a literary narrative about the past, literary composition of the data into a narrative where the historian creates a meaning for the past +FOLJOT AB narrationâ€™ 7FZOF and â€˜a novel about real events whose actor is man 'MBDFMJĂ’SF $JUFEJO7FZOF JOEJDBUFUIBUMJUerature and historiography do not difGFSJOOBUVSF8IJUF FYQMBJOT the common nature of them as follows: â€˜historians are concerned with events which can be assigned to specific timespace locations, event which are (or were) observable or perceivable, whereas imaginative writers are concerned with both these kind of events and imagined or invented ones.â€™ However, White adds that their aim in writing is often the same: to obtain a verbal representation of reality. History is one of a series of discourses about the world whose object of enquiry is the past and with this in mind, historians construct different discourses through their narrations BCPVUUIFTBNFQBTU +FOLJOT This categorical difference between the past and history, leads history to be an epistemologically fragile discipline.2 +FOLJOT TVNNBSJ[FTUIJTFQJTUFNPMPHJDBMGSBHJMJUZBTGPMMPXT'JSTU UIF content of the past event is simply infinite and it is impossible to cover the totality; also a significant part of the past has never been recorded and the remainder has evanesced. Second, as the past has gone, it is not possible to check any account against it, but only against other accounts; there is no correct history, which stands as a reference point. Third, history is subjective rathFSUIBOCFJOHPCKFDUJWF$BSS states that â€˜the belief in a solid core of historical facts existing objectively and independently of the interpretation of the historian is a preposterous fallacyâ€™. Lastly, as Croce points out, â€˜all history is contemporary historyâ€™; history requires seeing the past through the eyes PGUIFQSFTFOU $BSS Ä‡FIJTUPSJan conflates the different aspects of the past, sorts, simplifies, and organizes to give the past events meaning (Jen-
An alternative dwelling history narrative: The story of the â€˜apartmentâ€™
LJOT $BSS 7FZOF â€˜Because stories emphasise linkages and play down the role of breaks, of ruptures, histories as known to us appear more comprehensible than we have any reason to believe the past wasâ€™ (Lowenthal, $JUFEJO+FOLJOT "OPUIFS GBDU TUFNT GSPN UIF DBUFgorical difference between the past and the history, is that history can easily be used as an ideological instrument. 'PVDBVMU VOEFSMJOFT UIF SFMBUJPOTIJQ between power and knowledge, and states that what authorities claim as â€˜knowledgeâ€™ is really just means of soDJBMDPOUSPM 4UPLFT *OUIJTDBTF as the historical knowledge is a historical discourse reached by interpreting the past, ideological aspect of it comes into question. Ä°f history is the way that people create their identities; it is inevitable that history includes an ideological aspect by being a â€˜legitimatingâ€™ QIFOPNFOPO +FOLJOT 5P VOEFSTUBOE UIF DBUFHPSJDBM EJGference between past and history is especially important because certain groups such as women and minorities have been systematically excluded GSPNNPTUIJTUPSJBOTBDDPVOUT"T+FOLJOT TVHHFTUT JG UIFTF PNJUUFE groups were included to historical accounts, these accounts possibly could be different today. 2.1. Alternative approaches: Microhistory and history of everyday life One of the epistemological problems of historiography is to decide which facts are historical facts that are XPSUILOPXJOH5PNBLFUIJTEFDJTJPO first it can be said that â€˜the history is the account of the importantâ€™ But how is it possible to decide what is important? "UUIJTQPJOU PGDPVSTF UIFJEFPMPHJDBM aspect of history â€“and the knowledge more generallyâ€“ comes into play. General agreements do occur and they do TP CFDBVTF PG QPXFS +FOLJOT "T +FOLJOT TUBUFT SBUIFS strikingly, â€˜we live in a social system â€“ not a social randomâ€™. However, if we are to leave this ideological aspect of history aside for a moment, the question UIBU7FZOF BTLTBQQFBSTWFSZ significant: â€˜Why the life of XIV. Louis would be history and that of a Nivernais peasant of the seventeenth century not?â€™
The assumptions upon which historical research have been based since the emergence of history as a professional discipline in the nineteenth century are being questioned increasingly. The classical historicism that emerged as the main paradigm of nineteenth century had a firm belief in the scientific status of history and was event-oriented in the selection of its object. During the twentieth century, the social science/ social history approaches emerged and criticized that pre-existing approaches too narrowly focused on â€˜great menâ€™ and â€˜eventsâ€™ and that they ignored the wider context in which these operated. *HHFST *OUIJTTFOTF XIFUIFS.BSYJTU 1BSTPOJBO PS"OOBMJTU UIF social science approaches, represented a democratization of history and an extension of the historical perspective GSPNQPMJUJDTUPTPDJFUZ *HHFST *ODSFBTJOHMZ JO UIF T UIF BTsumptions of social science history were exposed to various criticisms. One of the most important criticisms was that the social science history is also a macro-process that ignores the â€˜little peopleâ€™ as the conventional political history, which focused on the prominent, did. With this criticism in mind, historians suggested the micro-history approach focusing on individual existence rather than broader social contexts. Thus, the subject of history first shifted from political processes to social ones, then to culture and individual. The scope of history has greatly expanded today, but the historianâ€™s problem of selection still stands as an imQPSUBOU RVFTUJPO 7FZOF XSJUFT that the interest of the historian can vary depending on numerous factors such as the state of the documentation, individual tastes, and many other things. But if the question is â€˜what historians ought to be interested inâ€™, it is impossible to determine an objective TDBMFPGJNQPSUBODF 7FZOF 'SPN UIJT QFSTQFDUJWF GPS IJTUPSJDBM knowledge, it is enough for an event to have occurred for it to be worth knowing. "DDPSEJOH UP 7FZOF the relative choice of the historian occurs between strong history that teaches more and explains less and weak histo-
*56"];t7PM/Pt/PWFNCFSt&$BOUĂ SL /1,BIWFDĹ”PĘ“MV
3 Besides, the Carlo Ginzburgâ€™s book entitled The Cheese and the Worms: The Cosmos of a Sixteenth-Century Miller showed that the life of a miller of sixteenth century might be included in history. Ginzburg, C. (1980)Â The Cheese and the Worms: The Cosmos of a Sixteenth-Century Miller, Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press.
One critical example of this is the Christopher Browningâ€™s book entitled Ordinary Men: Reserve Police Battalion 101 and the Final Solution in Poland (1993). In this research, which is based on interrogations in the1960s by the state prosecutorâ€™s office in Hamburg of 210 former members of the battalion who were involved in the mass executions of Jewish civilians in Poland, Browning focused on the role of the little men at the bottom of the hierarchy. This means to bring a new perspective to the history of genocide by using microhistorical methods: â€˜Christopher Browning did more than merely detail events; through his focus on individual perpetrators he also endeavoured to add a dimension to their behaviour that would not be disclosed by broader generalizations and emphasized that genocide is not an abstractionâ€™ (Iggers, 1997: 117). 4
ry that explains more and teaches less. 'PS7FZOF CJPHSBQIJDBMBOEBOFDEPUBM history is weak history and is the lowest on the scale, because it can contain its own intelligibility only in a history stronger than itself. Yet he states that it would be wrong to believe that micro-history contains less information. Biographical and anecdotal history is the least explanatory, but it is richer from the point of view of information it contains, as it considers individuals in terms of what is special to them and it goes into detail for each of them. In stronger history, this information is simplified and then abolished. *HHFST TFFT OP SFBTPO XIZ a history dealing with broad social transformations and one focusing on individual existences cannot coexist. In his opinion, it should be the historianâ€™s task to explore the connections between these two levels of historical experience. In this respect, micro-history appears not as a negation of a history of broader social contexts but as a DPOUSJCVUJPOUIBUFOSJDIFTJU"T*HHFST FNQIBTJ[FT NJDSPIJTUPSZBEET both details and a sense of concreteness to the past.4 J. F. C. Harrison emphasized the importance of oral history in terms of understanding the past as whole in his book entitled The Common People: A History from the Norman Conquest to the Present (1984): â€˜For us, the world of medieval peasantry is a closed box. The same is true for craftsmen and citizens. We can examine institutions in the society that the ordinary people had lived, but understanding these peopleâ€™s way of thinking is much more difficultâ€™ (Cited in Caunce, 2001: 8). 5
2.2. Alternative methods: Oral history The widespread increase of micro-history approaches, which focus on everyday experiences of ordinary people after World War II, has also brought the introduction of oral history methods. While micro-historical investigations deal with people, groups and events that have been neglected in traditional sources, in most cases sources about them are not available. Here, oral history can make a contribuUJPO *HHFST 0SBMIJTUPSZHBJOFE an increasing significance among historians as it is proved that in certain fields written documents remain inadequate. *O UIF "NFSJDBO )FSJUBHF %JDUJPnary, oral history is defined as â€˜historical information, usually tape-recorded, obtained in interviews with person having first-hand knowledge 6SM BOE in the Oxford Dictionary as â€˜the collection and study of historical information using tape recordings of interviews with people having personal knowledge
of past events 6SM "DDPSEJOH UP Ä‡PNQTPO PSBM IJTUPSZ JT UIF interviewing of eyewitness participants in the events of the past for the purposes of historical reconstruction. $SFTXFMM EFÄ•OFTPSBMIJTUPSZ as â€˜an approach in which the researcher gathers personal recollections of events, their causes, and their effects from an individual or several individuals.â€™ What is common in these definitions is that oral history is based on personal memories as a source. Many of the definitions indicate that there is an agreement that oral history forms the basis for a complementary and alternative IJTUPSZ"MTPBDDPSEJOHUPOral History Association, oral history appears as a field of study and a method: â€˜Oral history is a field of study and a method of gathering, preserving and interpreting the memories of people, communities BOEQBSUJDJQBOUTJOQBTUFWFOUT 6SM "DDPSEJOH UP $BVODF UIF oral evidences given by ordinary people are not small nostalgic events, but they form a key element in understanding history as a whole, and as such, oral history can contribute to many branches of the academic history. Caunce XSJUFTUIBU UIFJEFBCFIJOE the development of oral history is the idea that â€˜every family and every place has its own history, and this history shall contribute to more detailed studies by means of the detailed information it offers.â€™ Bringing together official documents and personal witnessing shall constitute a clearer whole, rather than any of it can explain on its own.5 Using oral history does not imply or suggest anything radical, but means to widen the scope of history. However, BT Ä‡PNQTPO XSJUFT TJODF witnesses can also be called from the under-classes, the unprivileged and the defeated, the oral history approach provides a challenge to the established historical account; thus the oral history approach appears to allow evidence from a new direction. This aspect becomes especially important when it is admitted that official documents and established accounts are not always necessarily objective. Some historians conclude that information obtained through the method of oral history is unreliable, since this
An alternative dwelling history narrative: The story of the â€˜apartmentâ€™
information depends on what interviewees remember today about past, hence it is dependent on their memPSJFT $BVODF $BVODFT PCKFDtion to this criticism seems to be rather consistent and acceptable: â€˜Because the details of daily life are in a constant state of repetition, they are drummed into our minds, and they are not subjected to an uncertainty that is true of extraordinary memories. While events that are closely linked to normalcy are likely to be remembered accurately, the same thing is not true of extraordinary events. Events that seem ordinary and routine are in fact the events, which form the life of the vast majority. What should draw the attention of the historian are the typical rather than the exceptional $BVODF 5P BDLOPXMFEHF UIF QSPWBCJMJUZ PG the written documents is suspicious reveals that there is no basis to treat personal witnesses as more unreliable than the written sources. 3. The story of the apartment: Exploring the change via personal stories of inhabitants The study so far has explored different perspectives of historiography and has examined how it has been problematized in terms of its epistemology. In light of the potentials that micro-history approaches carry, this paper methodologically focuses on the oral history method. In this context, the transformation of the dwelling and the housing culture in the urban context is explored trough the superposition of information obtained through oral history and sources obtained from archival documents, enabling a comprehensive comparative reading of the general context. Within the scope of the paper, interWJFXTXFSFIFMEXJUI"TJZF(Ă OBZ XIP has been living in ErenkĂśy since 1949, in terms of drawing upon her personal witnessing to the change of both housing typologies and the built and social FOWJSPONFOUJOUIFBSFB 'JHVSF A micro-narrative of dwelling history is constructed by bringing together the verbal material obtained from these interviews and the information obtained from the archives of KadÄąkĂśy MuniciQBMJUZ 'VSUIFSNPSF QBSBMMFM MJUFSBUVSF
Figure 1. Mrs. Asiye GĂźnay, 2015 .
reading is set as a method of understanding the narrative and the documents in an overall contextual relation. .ST(Ă OBZ XIPIBTCFFOMJWJOHJO ErenkĂśy since 1949, has changed eight houses and, during that period, has witnessed both the change of the housing typologies, and the change of physical and social geography of the environment. In this respect, her accounts constitute a significant personal witness for understanding the change of the area since 1950s in a wider context. .ST (Ă OBZT GBNJMZ NPWFE GSPN Istanbul to Ă–demiĹ&#x;, and then moved back again to Istanbul-ErenkĂśy in 1949. She had lived in a detached XPPEFO NBOTJPO OFBS UIF 5Ă DDBSCBĘ°Â‘ BĂścekli Mosque between 1949 and 1955. She makes the following statement about this house: â€˜We moved back to Istanbul with my family in 1949. We first came to TĂźccarbaĹ&#x;Äą; we lived in a two-storey wooden mansion with a large garden. We lived in the ground floor and some relatives in the upper. The upper floor had a separate entrance reached from the backyard. The main entrance was reached from stairs and a glazed porch on the front facade. When you enter from the big entrance door, you would go into a large hall6 with a black-and-white tiled floor. There was a cistern in the hall, when it rained the sound of the rain was heard. There were two rooms on the right of the hall, one room and the kitchen on the left. On the lower, floor there were the laundry and the bathroom. The house had a very large garden. We moved after 1955. After 1955, Mr. NazÄąm â€“the owner of the mansionâ€“ parcelled out and sold the property, the mansion was pulled down and apartments were built on the site.â€™ "OZJOGPSNBUJPOSFHBSEJOHUIFÄ•STU owner of the mansion could not be obtained but it is known that the mansion
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Here the word â€˜hallâ€™ refers to a specific place called â€œsofaâ€?. Inside the traditional Turkish houses, the rooms were placed around a common space called sofa, either on one or two sides or all around it. Sofa is an area, which provides workspace during the daily life as well as facilitating circulation among the rooms. 6
Figure 2. (a) Mr. Demirel (Mrs. GĂźnayâ€™s father) in the garden of the mansion with his children Asiye and Sabri, 1950 (b) Mrs. Asiye with her brother at the entrance of the garden, 1954 (c) Mr. & Mr. Demirel in the garden of the mansion, 1951.
Figure 3. Apartment blocks on the original site of the mansion, TĂźccarbaĹ&#x;Äą Street, 2015.
7 The term â€˜kira eviâ€™ is translated to English as â€˜rent houseâ€™. From the 1930s onwards, some of the apartment blocks were planned as â€˜kira eviâ€™, where each floor housed a flat that could be rented separately.
XBT TPME UP .S /B[Â‘N B QIBSNBDJTU who owned a pharmacy in ErenkĂśy; afterwards, in 1949, it was rented by UIF %FNJSFM 'BNJMZ -BUFS PO JO UIF FBSMZ T UIF QSPQFSUZ PG UIF NBOTJPOXBTQBSDFMMFEPVUBOETPME5PEBZ apartments exist on the original site of UIF NBOTJPO "DDPSEJOH UP UIF EPDVments in the archives of the KadÄąkĂśy Municipality, the first construction on UIBUPSJHJOBMQSPQFSUZTUBSUFEJO 'JHVSF
#BTFE PO .ST (Ă OBZT FYQSFTsions and the photographs depicting the mansion, it is understood that the NBOTJPO PG UIF %FNJSFM 'BNJMZ XBT one of the traditional wooden buildJOHTXJUIBDFOUSBMTPGB 'JHVSF HĂ S TUBUFTUIBU TJODFUIFOJOFUFFOUI century, the KadÄąkĂśy district â€“with its mansions, with wide gardens and with its orchards and vineyardsâ€“ attracted the Ottoman elite. It is known that, in the 1940s when .S /B[Â‘N CPVHIU UIF NBOTJPO B self-employed class â€“including engineers, doctors and lawyersâ€“ who had a significant amount of savings and did not invest in other areas, invested their savings in the construction of new apartment blocks so as to rent them PVU #BMBNJS *UJTPCTFSWFEUIBU
while â€˜rent housesâ€™ became widespread across the city, self-employed peoQMF MJLF .S /B[Â‘N QVSDIBTFE UIF PME mansions to rent each floor separately to different families and/or inhabitants, so that the concept of the â€˜rent houseâ€™ emerged in another form in the area. The period following 1950, which was when apartment blocks began to be built on the place of the demolished detached houses and mansions, corresponds directly to a breaking point in the urbanization process of Istanbul. The problem of housing, which emerged as a result of the accelerating internal migration in the 1950s, also led KadikĂśy to become a site of attraction. Later on, with the effect of PropFSUZ 0XOFSTIJQ -BX FOBDUFE JO mansions and gardens began to be demolished and apartment blocks built in UIFJSQMBDF )Ă S .ST (Ă OBZ BMTP UBMLT BCPVU IFS grandfatherâ€™s mansion, which she often visited in her childhood. She explains that the mansion belonged to her grandfather Lokman KuriĹ&#x; as follows 'JHVSF â€˜We used to call our grandfatherâ€™s house â€˜the other houseâ€™. It was very old, a mansion from the time of the sultans. It was partitioned in two parts. One part belonged to my grandfather
Figure 4. (a, b) Mrs. Hatice KuriĹ&#x; (Mrs. GĂźnayâ€™s mother) is with her sisters in the garden of KuriĹ&#x;â€™s mansion, ErenkĂśy, 1947-48 (c) Lokman KuriĹ&#x; in the garden of his mansion, ErenkĂśy, 1960 .
Figure 5. Mansion of the KuriĹ&#x; Family used as a bank today, 2014 .
Figure 6. The KuriĹ&#x; and Hoffman Housing Estates built in the site of the KuriĹ&#x;â€™s mansion, 2014.
and the other to his uncle. The vineyard located in the garden was also partitioned.â€™ In the 1950s, across from KuriĹ&#x;â€™s mansion, there had been another manTJPOJOXIJDI.ST(Ă OBZTGBUIFS .S %FNJSFM IBEMJWFEGSPNUP 5PEBZ &SHĂ O"QBSUNFOUJTMPDBUFEPO the same site: â€˜My mom and dad had lived in the same street before they got married. The mansion my dad had lived in might be older than my grandfatherâ€™s. It had a very large garden. It was demol-
ished when I was a kid. Then, the whole building-block was parcelled out and several apartments were built on the site of the mansion.â€™ The KuriĹ&#x;â€™s mansion is a typical example of the mansions that were built BMPOH #BĘ“EBU "WFOVF JO UIF UXFOUJFUI century. It is constructed as a masonry building with timber cover and has three storeys. It is also known that, from the early 1920s onwards, the construction method of the mansions
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shifted from the previous wooden construction tradition â€“of the early 1920sâ€”to the new tendency of masonry construction and timber covering Â˝Ę“SFODJ .ST (Ă OBZ TUBUFT UIBU EVSJOH T IFSHSBOEGBUIFSVTFEUIFJSNBOsion in ErenkĂśy as a summer-cottage: â€˜In the past, my grandfather and his family lived in Fatih, and came here, to the sayfiye. They used to come and live here during summer, but left in winter.â€™ Ä‡FTF ZFBST OBSSBUFE CZ .ST (Ă OBZ XFSFUIFFBSMZZFBSTPGUIF5VSLJTI3Fpublic and ErenkĂśy prolonged its previous character as a sayfiye settlement PG UIF SJDI BOE UIF FMJUF )Ă S 5PEBZ UIF NBOTJPO CFMPOHT UP UIF grandchildren of Lokman KuriĹ&#x; and Osman KuriĹ&#x;; and the building is used BT B CBOL CSBODI <'JHVSF > *O the land associated with the mansion had been sold to two different companies. KuriĹ&#x; Housing Estate and Hoffman Housing Estates were built on the TBNF TJUF 'JHVSF .ST (Ă OBZ UFMMT this period as follows: â€˜The successors of the mansion were multi-partnered; they owned a great number of flats as payment for to the land of the mansion.â€™ Presently, most of the historical buildings, which physically survived until today, are used as kindergartens, primary schools or as bank branches. Their gardens are parcelled out and transformed into building sites on which new apartments are built: â€˜Majority of the historical buildings in ErenkĂśy are either ragged or ruined. Sokullu Mehmet PaĹ&#x;a Mansion, one of the oldest buildings of the district, enunciated as a first-degree historical monument and has been transformed into a primary school after being reTUPSFE )Ă S It is also understood that the mansion Mr. Demirel had lived in was
also demolished and a series of new apartment blocks had been built after UIF MBOE XBT QBSDFMMFE PVU 'JHVSF However, since the qualities of the interior space have been erased from Mrs. (Ă OBZTNFNPSJFT BOZEFUBJMFEJOGPSmation is unavailable. Yet, it is understood that from the photographs depicting the mansion, the building was one of the typical nineteenth century buildings with wooden construction, white painted, two storeys and a hall JO UIF NJEEMF 'JHVSF )Ă S states that from nineteenth century onwards, almost all of the mansions were painted in white following the common trends in building style. This mansion can be seen as one of the earliest examples of the transformation under the effect of the Property Ownership Law. *O .ST(Ă OBZBOEIFSGBNJMZ NPWFE GSPN UIFJS NBOTJPO JO 5Ă DcarbaĹ&#x;Äą into a two-storey house â€“on Ethemefendi Street, ErenkĂśyâ€“ which belonged to her grandfather Lokman ,VSJĘ°.ST(Ă OBZFYQMBJOTUIJTIPVTF
Figure 7. Mr. Demirel and his mother, at the entrance of the mansion on Ethem Efendi Street, 1939.
Figure 8. The ErgĂźn Apartment built on the site of the previous mansion, 2015. An alternative dwelling history narrative: The story of the â€˜apartmentâ€™
Figure 9. (a) Asiye GĂźnay and her brother Sabri, in the backyard of their house on Ethem Efendi Street, 1958 (b) The Onur Tarman Apartment, 2015 (c) The building still belongs to the KuriĹ&#x; Family, 2015.
Figure 10. Former ErenkĂśy Cinema, the existing situation of the building, 2015.
Figure 11. The Ĺžahinler Apartment, 2015 .
and the life in it as follows: â€˜It was a two-storey house, and there was a workshop of a lumberman on the ground level. We had lived in the flat, which was on the ground floor, and on the first floor there lived the tenants. The vestibule was reached from the main street, and from there you can either reach our flat or climb up to reach the first floor. The windows of the house looked onto the backyard; it had no windows on the street faĂ§ade. It had three rooms and a small garden entered from the kitchen.â€™ Between 1990 and 1995, the house was demolished and on the same site UIF0OVS5BSNBO"QBSUNFOUXBTCVJMU On the other hand, the building which belonged to Lokman KuriĹ&#x;â€™s brother TUJMMFYJTUTBOEJOVTFUPEBZ 'JHVSF *O .ST (Ă OBZ BOE IFS GBNily moved to another house, which also belonged to Lokman KuriĹ&#x;, and UIFZ IBWF MJWFE UIFSF VOUJM .ST
(Ă OBZ TUBUFT UIBU UIFZ NPWFE UP UIJT house since their previous house was too dark. She describes the building â€“ which located on Ethemefendi Streetâ€“ as follows: â€˜It was a long, two-storeyed apartment building which is next to the railway. There were two flats on each floor, and below there were shops. I donâ€™t remember those times, yet the building was used as a cinema hall before my grandfather bought it. Later, my grandfather bought it, but he didnâ€™t want it to function as a cinema and transformed it into flats. The building is very old.â€™ This building still exists today, and CFMPOHT UP .ST (Ă OBZT DPVTJOT Ä‡F ground floors are still used as shops, while all flats on the first and the secPOE Ä˜PPS BSF SFOUFE 'JHVSF "T ReĹ&#x;ad Ekrem KoĂ§u wrote in the Encyclopaedia of Ä°stanbul, it is know that the building was a cinema, but no more detailed information is available:
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â€˜It is one of the cinema halls opened in the Anatolian continent, its opening date and duration of operation are not available; it is located on Ethemefendi Street, and is the biggest masonry building near to the bridge where the street continues over the railway. The building is still there, the shops on the ground level are used as a lumberman workshop, a hardware store, and a grocery store. The physical properties and the operation of the cinema hall are not knownâ€™ (KoĂ§u, 1968: 5167). *UJTVOEFSTUPPEUIBUUIF,VSJĘ°'BNily used some of their investments for buying apartments, and by renting most of the flats, they generated an income for the family. Within a period where apartments were sustained as individual investments, â€˜rent housesâ€™ were rented by the middle class who still didnâ€™t have capital to afford real esUBUFQSPQFSUZ 5FLFMJ *O UIF GBNJMZ EFDJEFE UP CVZ their own home and bought two flats GSPN UIF ÉŽBIJOMFS "QBSUNFOU B OFX apartment block that is located on ,BĘ°BOFMFS 4USFFU 'JHVSF The ĹžaIJOMFS "QBSUNFOU XBT DPOTUSVDUFE PO the site of a previous single-storey detached house by the contractor Hasan 5FWFSXIPJTUIFVODMFJOMBXPG.ST (Ă OBZ%FUBJMFEJOGPSNBUJPOSFHBSEJOH the previous building does not exist. .ST (Ă OBZ TUBUFT UIBU IFS VODMFJO law constructed many apartments in UIFTBOET The facade, mass and plan characterJTUJDTPGUIFÉŽBIJOMFS"QBSUNFOUSFÄ˜FDU the prevailing building typology of that period. Though these apartments, with a symmetrical plan organization, are not designed or built for specific people, they do not go beyond the ordinary, but represent a stereotype. In terms of the layout of their facades and mass, these buildings manifest that they are â€˜modernâ€™, and also that they were previously â€˜sayfiyeâ€™ houses. The large, transparent, glazed facades and large balconies are the most significant elements of the sayfiye house (Ă‡elik et BM 4JODFNPTUPGUIFBQBSUNFOUT CVJMUJOUIFTBOEUIFTTIBSF these characteristics, they have an important role in the generating the existing physical character of the area. *OUIFT XIJMFUIFBDDFMFSBUJOH
internal migration turned KadÄąkĂśy into a centre of attraction, the Property Ownership Law resulted in a different and significant period in terms of the transformation from low density/ low rise settlements into high-density VSCBOTFUUMFNFOUT"TBSFTVMUPGUIFTF transformations, the physical environment underwent radical changes on a larger urban scale. This change, which started in the 1950s in the area, TJHOJÄ•DBOUMZ BDDFMFSBUFE JO UIF T 5XPPGUIFNPTUJNQPSUBOUSFBTPOTGPS this acceleration are the approval of UIF #PTUBODÂ‘&SFOLĂšZ ;POJOH 1MBO JO BOEUIFPQFOJOHPGUIF#PTQIPSVT #SJEHF )Ă S "DSPTT UIF DPVOUSZ BÄ™FS UIF T with the accelerating population and the increasing demand for housing, it became harder to respond to the housing needs of the middle-class with single-family housing units. In addition, it also became impossible to individually cover the increasing prices of the MBOE JO *TUBOCVM "T RVPUFE CZ 5FLFMJ Q AXJUIJO UIJT TJUVBUJPO there are only two possible ways for the middle-class to own their houses: one is to find mechanisms, which prevent speculation; and the other is to seek a solution within current possibilities without opposing the speculation. The latter, solution is the property ownership and building apartment blocks.â€™ "T B SFTVMU PG UIF OFX SFHVMBUJPO JO 1954, which enabled property ownership, and with the introduction of UIF1SPQFSUZ0XOFSTIJQ-BXJO which provided an all-round regulation, the apartment became redefined as a multiple ownership property that enabled the middle-class to own their Ä˜BUT 5FLFMJ In addition to the physical qualities PG IFS IBCJUBU .ST (Ă OBZ BMTP NFOtioned the on-going life in these places in her narratives: â€˜In the past, we used to grab our cushions and go to the open air cinemas. The mosque on BaÄ&#x;dat Avenue was an open-air cinema called the Ă‡iĂ§ek Cinema. It functioned in the summer, in the garden. Across this one, there was the KulĂźp Cinema, which later became the Atlantik Cinema. On the way, just before this cinema, there was the Lokman Bakery. My uncle ran a shoe store next
to the bakery. In the summer, he kept the store open until one in morning, thinking that people on their way home from the cinema would go there for shopping. For us, as well as going to these cinemas, visiting the beaches used to be one of the main adventures of the season. There was a beach in ĹžaĹ&#x;kÄąnbakkal, we used to go down there and sail with our fishing boat. ... There were so many mansions in ErenkĂśy, and the area was not full of apartments yet. There was Mr. Dilman, a lawyer, who had an enormous garden with single-storey houses and sculptures in it (Figure 12). Turkish movies used to be shot in his house (Figure 13). There, we used to play snowballs in winter, and take walks in summer. Later on, from the 1970s onwards, these houses started to be demolished one by one.â€™ The first owner of the garden â€“which neighbourhood residents referred to as Mr. Dilmanâ€™s garden â€“ and of the manTJPOTJOTJEF XBT.FINFU"MJ1BTIBo BO 0UUPNBO TUBUFTNBOo 'JSTU B QBSU PGUIFHBSEFOXBTTPMEUP,BNJ/B[Â‘N Dilman because of the growing finanDJBMEJÄ?DVMUJFT"Ä™FSUIFEFBUIPG.FINFU"MJ1BTIBJO TVDDFTTPSTTPME the rest of the property to Mr. Dilman &LEBM .S%JMNBOCVJMUBNBsonry villa for himself, which was designed in a modernist aesthetic. With the death of Mr. Dilman, two high-rise BQBSUNFOU CMPDLT o%JMNBO 5PXFSTo were built in the site, and Mr. Dilmanâ€™s villa was destroyed in 2015 for a new BQBSUNFOU CMPDL DPOTUSVDUJPO 'JHVSF Ä‡FTF ZFBST UIBU .ST (Ă OBZ OBSrates highlight the time in which the area was still a summer place with its beaches and open-air cinemas. During UIFT UIFBSFBVOEFSXFOUBSBEJDBM transformation in terms of physical environment, as well as the way of living. .ST (Ă OBZ NPWFE GSPN UIF ÉŽBIJOMFS "QBSUNFOU XIFO TIF HPU NBSried in 1988 and has changed many SFTJEFODFTTJODF'JSTU TIFMJWFEJOUIF &TFO "QBSUNFOU PO #BĘ“EBU "WFOVF GSPNVOUJM4IFIBEUPNPWF from there because most of the flats in the apartment had been converted into offices: â€˜Almost all the flats in the apartment were converted into offices; there would be no one at night. Thatâ€™s why I had to move.â€™ Then she moved to
Figure 12. (a) Mrs. Asiye with her nephew Murat in Mr. Dilmanâ€™s garden, 1966 (b) Murat Kami in Mr. Dilmanâ€™s garden, ErenkĂśy, 1966.
Figure 13. Mr. Dilmanâ€™s mansion, view from the garden and view from the interior space to the garden, 1963.
another apartment, -the Baba YuvasÄą "QBSUNFOUMPDBUFEPO/PUFS4USFFUJO 1988 and moved from there because of personal reasons. Lastly, she had to move from the previous apartment she lived in since 2008, to the Hayriye "QBSUNFOUUIBUTIFDVSSFOUMZJOIBCJUT because it was going to be demolished as a part of the urban transformation. She is afraid that the apartment she is currently living in will be demolished as well and explains as follows: â€˜I had to move here because the apartment I lived in was to be demolished. When I moved here, they told me â€œyou moved to an old apartment again, what you are going to do if it is demolished?â€? I hope it will not. In fact, also our apartment would be demolished, there were some offers, but we did not accept.â€™ It is observed that the apartments in XIJDI.ST(Ă OBZIBEMJWFEJO XIJDI IBE CFFO DPOTUSVDUFE JO UIF T were typologically very similar in terms of plan layouts as well as faĂ§ade MBZPVUT 'JHVSF 5FLFMJ TUBUFT UIBU RVBMJUBtive changes occurred throughout the construction process of the apartment blocks, in their prevalence and inÂ the
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Figure 14. (a, b) Dilman Towers built in the garden of Mr. Dilmanâ€™s mansion, 2015 (c) Mansion of Mr. Dilman before it was demolished, 2014.
Figure 15. The apartments Mrs GĂźnay lived in between 1998-2015 (a) The Esen Apartment (b) The Baba YuvasÄą Apartment (c) The Silvan Apartment (d) The Hayriye Apartment.
social classes they appealed to within the property ownership law.Â The greatest impact of the transition to property ownership is that the small-scale developers called â€˜yapsatĂ§Äąâ€™8 acquired a significant share in the production of UIFBQBSUNFOUCMPDLT"MBSHFQPSUJPO of the housing production was organized in this process within the system of â€˜yapsatâ€™â€“ â€˜build-and-sellâ€™. Since the â€˜yapsatĂ§Äąâ€™ intends to maximize the change value, apartments built with that system had standard plan schemes and forms, and so this process led to the development of an anonymous CVJMEJOHTUPDL 5FLFMJ
8 â€˜YapsatĂ§Äąâ€™ is an urban entrepreneur, and a small-scale developer who acquires land acquire land from landowners in exchange for a selected number of apartment units in the multistory housing to be built on the land.
4. Conclusion 5PEBZ UIF SBQJE USBOTGPSNBUJPO and destruction-construction process, on-going in the neighbourhood of ErenkĂśy, has emerged as the result of urban land ownership becoming more and more profitable (YalĂ§Äąntan et al., Ä‡FMFHBMCBTJTPGUIJTUSBOTGPSNBUJPO JT UIF A5SBOTGPSNBUJPO PG UIF "SFBT VOEFS UIF %JTBTUFS 3JTL -BX OVNCFSFEUIBUDBNFJOUPPQFSBUJPOPO.BZ*OBEEJUJPO UIF building codes regulations made by the
ministry paved the way for a destruction-construction process by increasing the development rights. The case study area offers a unique practice of modernization and urbanization. It constitutes a significant reference point in terms of transformation of both the dwelling and housing culture, as well as transformation of the urban space and the urban life. The oral interviews conducted with .ST(Ă OBZIBWFSFWFBMFEOPUPOMZUIF physical changes of the area, but the location-specific lifestyles from a personal point of view for the time period between the years 1949-2015 as well. "MTPUIFSFTFBSDISFWFBMFEUIBUUIFSBQid changes in residential environments affects the bonds of feelings that individuals experience with their dwellings and their home environment. When the urban change emerged in Istanbul as well as the other cities in the 1950s, under the socio-economic and political effects is read through the dwelling; it is seen that the mode of production, the typology of the dwelling had changed because of changing conceptions surrounding property. Particularly, the Property Ownership
Law caused the typologies of the dwelling to change from detached houses and mansions into the apartment CMPDLT"OPUIFSDPNQFMMJOHNPNFOUJO apartment blocks becoming the dominant housing typology was during the TXIFOUIF#PTQIPSVT#SJEHFXBT constructed and property rights were increased by the new zoning plan. "OE UIFTF EFWFMPQNFOUT SFTVMUFE JOUP a constantly and rapidly changing residential environment that disables individuals to attach their home environNFOU "T UIF SFTFBSDI SFWFBMFE UIFSF is a meaningful relationship between dwellers and their dwelling places is interrupted by this transformation. "T %PWFZ BEESFTTFT IPNF JT B place where our identity is continuously evoked through connections with past: â€œThe role of the physical environment in this regard is that of a kind of mnemonic anchor.â€? The research shows that the residential environment of the case study area cannot serve as a NOFNPOJD BODIPS GPS UIF EXFMMFST " methodologically similar research held CZ .BSDVT through the use of interviews with dwellers, examined the connections people have with their homes and revealed that what people has a strong relationship with their homes, either positive or negative, and if a space that does not fit with the needs of a person, not only physical but also psychological, can lead to negative psychological effects. Throughout the paper, three forms of sources have been used to construct a holistic narrative history, including a personal witness, official sources and local sources which emerged as integral sources in reading history. In this context, the personal witness and accounts added details and concreteness to the historical information found in official and local sources, in addition to reaching micro-historical facts that were not JODMVEFEJOUIFTFTPVSDFT#JMHJO stresses the importance of a deeper understanding of the actors, the mechanisms and the relationships that determine the physical environments we live in. However, understanding the reflections of the determining process, of social relations and of decision-making mechanisms on the everyday life is also an important phenomenon. Exploring
the dwelling, the housing culture and the urban space, where the former two manifest themselves, through personal experiences and accounts, would make a contribution to the understanding of the transformation of dwelling on micro-scale by adding a concrete dimension. The individual story of each dwelling and its conditions of presence-absence, provide many clues about the change of the dwelling and the housing culture in a more general context. References #BDIFMBSE ( The Poetics of Space USBOT .+PMBT /FX:PSL0SJon Press. #BMBNJS . â€œ,BU .Ă MLJZFUJ WF ,FOUMFĘ°NFNJ[w 0%5Ăƒ .JNBSMÂ‘L 'BLĂ MUFTJ%FSHJTJ /P Q #BMBNJS . iA,JSB &WJOEFO A,BU&WMFSJOF"QBSUNBOMBĘ°NB#JS;JIOJZFU %ĂšOĂ Ę°Ă NĂ 5BSJIĂŽFTJOEFO ,FTitlerâ€?, MimarlÄąk /P Q #JMHJO É— i.PEFSOMFĘ°NFOJO WF 5PQMVNTBM )BSFLFUMJMJĘ“JO :ĂšSĂ OHFTJOEF $VNIVSJZFUJO É—NBSÂ‘w JO:4FZ FE 75 YÄąlda DeÄ&#x;iĹ&#x;en Kent ve MimarlÄąk Q #JMHJO É— i5Ă SLJZF.JNBSMÂ‘Ę“Â‘ 5Ă SLJZFEF ,POVU ,Ă MUĂ SĂ OĂ O %FĘ“JĘ°Jmiâ€?, Bilim ve Sanat VakfÄą BĂźlteni, /P Q $BSS & ) What is History? (2nd FEJUJPO .JEEMFTFY 1FOHVJO Books. $BVODF 4 SĂśzlĂź Tarih ve Yerel TarihĂ§i USBOT ##$BOBOE" :BMĂŽÂ‘OLBZB *TUBOCVM 5BSJI 7BLGÂ‘ :VSU YayÄąnlarÄą. $SFTXFMM + 8 Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choosing Among Five Traditions, Thousend Oaks: Sage Publications. ÂąFMJL ; Â˝[EFO &BOE:ĂšOEFS " i,POVĘ°BO .JNBSMÂ‘L %JOMFOFO MimarlÄąkâ€?, Ă‡evre Dergisi /P QQ %PWFZ , i)PNFBOE)PNFlessnessâ€? in I. "MUNBO $ . 8FSOFS FE Home Environments. Human Behavior and Environment: Advances in Theory and Research,7PM /FX:PSL Plenum Press. &LEBM . KapalÄą Hayat Kutusu: KadÄąkĂśy KonaklarÄą, Istanbul: YapÄą Kredi YayÄąnlarÄą.
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)Ă S " i&SFOLĂšZw JO/"LCBZBSFUBM FE DĂźnden BugĂźne Ä°stanbul Ansiklopedisi *TUBOCVM 5Ă SLJZF WF &LPOPNJL5PQMVNTBM5BSJI7BLGÂ‘ *HHFST ( ( Historiography in Twentieth Century: From Scientific Objectivity to the Postmodern Challenge, Middletown: Wesleyan University Press. +FOLJOT , Re-thinking History, London: Routledge. ,PĂŽV 3& *TUBOCVM"OTJLMPQFEJTJ 7PM *TUBOCVM,PĂŽV:BZÂ‘OMBSÂ‘ -PXFOUIBM % The Past is a Foreign Country, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. .BSDVT $$ House as a Mirror of Self: Exploring the Deeper Meaning of Home, Berkeley: Conari Press. .FBE ( ) Mind, Self and the Society: From the Standpoint of a Sociological Behaviorist, Chicago: University of Chicago Press. .VOTMPX " 1SFGBDF JO , Jenkins Re-thinking History, London: Routledge. Â˝Ę“SFODJ 1 i4BSÂ‘DB "JMFTJ :BQÂ‘MBSÂ‘ ,ĂšĘ°LMFS "QBSUNBOMBS WF :Ă [ZÂ‘M %ĂšOĂ NĂ OEF É—TUBOCVM ,POVU Mimarisine KatkÄąlarÄąâ€?, Arredamento MimarlÄąk /P Q 4UPLFT 1 Philosophy: 100 Essential Thinkers -POEPO"DUVSVT1VClishing Limited. 5BOZFMJ 6 Ä°stanbul 19002000: Konutu ve ModernleĹ&#x;meyi Metropolden Okumak, É—TUBOCVM "LÂ‘O /BMĂŽB,JUBQMBSÂ‘
5FLFMJ É— Konut Sorununu Konut Sunum BiĂ§imleriyle DĂźĹ&#x;Ăźnmek, *TUBOCVM5BSJI7BLGÂ‘:VSU:BZÂ‘OMBSÂ‘ Ä‡PNQTPO 1 iÄ‡F 7PJDF of the Past: Oral Historyâ€?, in R. Perks BOE"Ä‡PNTPO FE The Oral History Reader, London: Routledge. ĂƒO . EJSFDUPS #JSF 0O 7BSEÂ‘ *TUBOCVM6Ę“VS'JMN 8IJUF ) i)JTUPSJDBM 5FYU BT -JUFSBSZ "SUJGBDUw JO Tropes of Discourse, Baltimore. 8IJUF ) iÄ‡F 'JDUJPOT PG 'BDUVBM 3FQSFTFOUBUJPOw JO % "SOPME FE Reading Architectural History, London: Routledge. 8IJUF ) iÄ‡F )JTUPSJDBM Eventâ€?, Differences. A Jorunal of Feminist Cultural Studies 7PM Q 7FZOF 1 Writing History: Essays on Epistemology USBOT . Moore-Rinvolucri, Middletown: Wesleyan University Press. YalĂ§Äąntan, M. C, Ă‡alÄąĹ&#x;kan, Ă‡. O., ÂąÂ‘MHÂ‘O , BOE %Ă OEBS 6 iÉ—TUBOCVM%ĂšOĂ Ę°Ă N$PĘ“SBGZBTÂ‘w JO"# $BOEBOBOE$Â˝[CBZ FE Yeni Ä°stanbul Ă‡alÄąĹ&#x;malarÄą, Istanbul: Metis. Url-1: https://www.ahdictionary. com Url-2: http://www.oxforddictionaries.com 6SM IUUQXXXPSBMIJTUPSZPSH about/do-oral-history/ Url-4: http://lcivelekoglu.blogspot. DPNUS
Causes of disputes in the Turkish construction industry: Case of public sector projects
PÄąnar IRLAYICI Ă‡AKMAK JSMBZJDJ!JUVFEVUSt%FQBSUNFOUPG"SDIJUFDUVSF 'BDVMUZPG"SDIJUFDUVSF *TUBOCVM Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey
3FDFJWFE"QSJMt Final Acceptance: July 2016
Abstract Disputes are inevitable in construction projects. They pose serious risks for the project participants and if not managed properly, disputes prevent the completion of construction projects within the desired cost, time and quality. Therefore, it is vital to determine the factors that contribute to construction disputes. The main purpose of this study is to identify the primary causes of disputes in the Turkish construction industry. In this context, the public construction disputes among the parties during the execution of the contract are examined. The findings show that the problem areas giving rise to disputes are mainly related to seven dispute categories as unit prices, delays and extension of time, contractual matters, variations, contract documents, payments, and other disputes. These dispute categories are analyzed comprehensively, and finally, main causes of disputes in each dispute category are identified and discussed in detail. Keywords Causes of disputes, Construction industry, Dispute, Dispute categories, Turkey.
1. Introduction In construction industry, many work pieces are integrated together in a construction project using large amounts of money, materials and equipments by different participants from several specialties. Despite the fact that the main purpose is completing the construction project within the budgeted cost, scheduled time and accepted quality; participants of the project have their own goals and perceptions. Due to differences in perception and conflicting goals among the participants in a project, conflicts in the construction project environment are JOFWJUBCMF $IFVOHBOE4VFO *G not properly managed, these conflicts can quickly turn into disputes. Thus conflicts, claims, and disputes could be considered an unavoidable consequence of the construction process 'BX[Z BOE &MBEBXBZ 0HCVSO BOE&MBEBXBZ The terms conflict and dispute have CFFO VTFE JOUFSDIBOHFBCMZ "DIBSZB FUBM BOEUIFZBSFJOUFSSFMBUFE $IPOHBOE;JO )PXFWFS DPOflict and dispute are two distinct noUJPOT 'FOO FU BM $POÄ˜JDU IBT been defined as a serious difference or disagreement between two or more beliefs, ideas or interests (Kumaraswamy, Ä‡FSFGPSF DPOÄ˜JDUDBOCFNBOaged in order to prevent to result in EJTQVUF 0O UIF PUIFS IBOE EJTQVUFT are taken to imply prolonged disagreements on unsettled claims and protracted unresolved/destructive conflict ,VNBSBTXBNZ "CFZOBZBLF %JTQVUFTSFRVJSFSFTPMVUJPO BOE the process of dispute resolution lends JUTFMG UP UIJSE QBSUZ JOUFSWFOUJPO "O effective dispute resolution process is critical to the financial success of the QSPKFDU #BUFTBOE)PMU In this regard, this paper aims to identify and explore the primary causes of disputes occurred during the execution of the public construction contracts. In order to reach this aim, a literature review is conducted for the analysis of the causes of disputes from several countries. Disputes among the contracting parties during the execution of the contract are examined in the public construction projects. The examined disputes are the ones which
were applied by the state institutions to the Supreme Technical Board for investigation and a proper settlement. With the help of the examination, the main dispute categories are revealed according to their nature and mode of PDDVSSFODF'VSUIFSNPSF NBJODBVTFT of disputes in each dispute category are identified and discussed in detail. 2. Literature review There has been considerable research undertaken in order to determine the causes of disputes in the construction industry. Watts and Scrivener FYBNJOFE UIF TPVSDFT PG EJTQVUFTPOCVJMEJOHDPOUSBDUTJO"VTUSBlia and identified most frequent dispute sources as variations, negligence in tort, and delays including damages. "DBTFTUVEZDPOEVDUFEJOUIF6,XBT determined seven main types of disputes: contract terms, payments, variations, extensions of time, nomination, re-nomination, and availability of inGPSNBUJPO )FBUIFUBM "OPUIFS study in the UK revealed the main factors contributing to the development of construction disputes such as poor management, poor communication, inadequate design, unrealistic tendering, adversarial culture, and inadequate contract drafting (Rhys Jones, *O $BOBEJBO DPOTUSVDUJPO JOdustry, five primary causes of disputes were found as unrealistic expectations, ambiguous contract documents, poor communication, lack of team spirit, and failure to deal with changes and unexpected conditions (Bristow and 7BTJMPQPVMPT %JFLNBOO BOE (JSBSE JEFOUJÄ•FE UISFF DBUFHPries of project characteristics: people, process and project aspects on the occurrence of contract disputes. The DMBTTJÄ•DBUJPO PG ,VNBSBTXBNZ derived from a cross section of the literature provided a good reference of the common sources of construction EJTQVUFT 'FOO FU BM JEFOUJÄ•FE causes of construction disputes as poor communication, absence of team spirit, deficient management, and discrepancies or ambiguities in contract documents. Kumaraswamy and Yogeswaran NFOUJPOFE UIBU UIF TPVSDFT PG construction disputes are mainly related to contractual matters, including
variation, extension of time, payment, quality of technical specifications, availability of information, administration and management, unrealistic client expectation and determination. Ä‡PNQTPOFUBM JOEJDBUFEUIBU disputes arise due to lack of communication, distrust, misinterpretations of contracts, uncertainties of role and responsibilities, and imbalance in risk allocations. In US construction industry, it is found that disputes mainly arise due to project uncertainty, contractual problems, opportunistic behavior, contractorâ€™s financial position and cost of conflict and culture (Mitropoulos and )PXFMM $IFVOH FU BM classified six common causes of disputes: budget overrun, outstanding payment, different percentage of claim submission and certification, number of days behind programmed, liquidated damages and percentage change from original design. Chan and Suen B DMBTTJÄ•FE UIF TPVSDFT PG DPOstruction disputes into three categories: contractual, cultural, and legal. MorePWFS $IBOBOE4VFO C JOEJDBUFE that the problem areas giving rise to disputes in Chinese construction industry are mainly related to contractual matters such as payments, variations, extension of time, risk allocation, and unclear contractual terms. Cheung et BM EFÄ•OFEUIFGBDUPSTUIBUDPOtribute to construction disputes as the inclusion of special conditions in contract, changes in construction plans and specifications, and contradictory and error of information in the docuNFOUT $IFVOH BOE :JV JEFOtified dispute sources in two different category as construction related and human behavior related. Main reasons for disputes in Sri Lanka construction industry are determined as breaches of contract, inadequate administration of responsibilities, plans and specifications that contain errors, omissions and ambiguities, sudden tax and cost JODSFBTF "CFZOBZBLF Ä‡F SFTFBSDIJO"VTUSBMJBQSPWJEFEUPVOEFSstand the underlying pathogens contributing to disputes as failure to detect and correct errors, failure to oblige by contractual requirements, and unforeTFFOTDPQFDIBOHFT -PWFFUBM "DDPSEJOH UP (BE FU BM EJÄŒFS-
ent contractual factors, cultural backgrounds, legal and economic factors, languages, technical standards, procedures, currencies, and trade customs make projects more vulnerable to disQVUFT"MUIPVHISFTFBSDIFSTIBWFDPOcentrated on various causes of disputes, there is a certain level of commonality in the causes of disputes. The common causes of disputes were identified through a relevant literature review and classified into related categories. "NPOH UIF EJTQVUF DBUFHPSJFT EFSJWFE from a cross-section of the literature, contract related disputes were found as the most common ones (Cakmak and $BLNBL $BLNBLBOE$BLNBL 2.1. Disputes in the Turkish construction industry There are few studies concerning the concept of dispute in Turkish construction industry, and these studies are related to the perspectives of the project stakeholders to the dispute factors (IlUFS BOEUIFTFMFDUJPOPSVTBHFPG dispute resolution methods (Ilter and %JLCBT 5BT BOE 'JSUJOB Besides, there is no evidence on the identification of the disputes and the main causes of dispute occurrence for the projects in the Turkish construcUJPOJOEVTUSZ)PXFWFS JUJTDSVDJBMUP identify the sources of construction disputes; as they are one of the main factors which prevent the successfully completion of the construction projects. Completion of the projects within the budgeted cost, scheduled time and accepted quality has great importance especially in public construction projects. In public construction projects, the owner is the government and the NPOFZOFFETUPCFTQFOUDBSFGVMMZ"OZ dispute that cannot be resolved in a public construction project has to be TVCNJUUFEUPUIFDPVSUT)PXFWFS UIF decision process is long, expensive and acrimonious. This results not only in unsuccessful and incomplete projects, but also time delays and cost overruns. In public construction projects disputes are juristically examined in two main topics in Turkey. The first one is the disputes which arise during the tender process; and the other one is the
Causes of disputes in the Turkish construction industry: Case of public sector projects
disputes that occur during the execution of the contract in the construction phase. Disputes and complaints during the tender process are subject to administrative jurisdiction and their resolution process is under the responTJCJMJUZPG1VCMJD1SPDVSFNFOU"VUIPSJUZ ,*, *O PUIFS XPSET JU JT ,*,T responsibility to analyze disputes and complaints and bring them to a conclusion. The responsibility is given to KIK by the Public Procurement Law no: IFODFJUJT,*,TSFTQPOTJCJMJUZiUP evaluate and conclude any complaints claiming that the proceedings carried out by contracting authority within the period from the commencement of the tender proceedings until the signing PG UIF DPOUSBDUw ,*, B ,*,T responsibility on dispute resolution finishes after the contractor is selectFEBOEUIFDPOUSBDUJTTJHOFE"TTPPO as the contract is signed, it becomes a private law contract between the parUJFTPXOFSBOEDPOUSBDUPS)FODF BOZ disputes are subject to civil jurisdiction. This means that unless a dispute is resolved, the owner or the contractor needs to apply to the commercial courts. It is indicated in the standard GPSN PG DPOUSBDU BT iUIF EJTQVUFT UIBU may arise between the parties during the execution of the contract shall be settled by the Turkish Courtsâ€? (KIK, C *GUIFDPOUSBDUPSJTBOJOUFSOBtional one, then the disputes can be setUMFEJOUFSNTPG*OUFSOBUJPOBM"SCJUSBUJPO -BX QSPWJTJPOT 0UIFSXJTF UIFSF is no alternative mechanism for the dispute settlement such as mediation, arbitration or dispute review boards. In other words, there is not any establishment or organization which analyzes and settles the disputes between the parties before going to a court. Besides, the Supreme Technical Board JO5VSLJTI :VLTFL'FO,VSVMV:', BTFSWJDFVOJUPGUIF.JOJTUSZPG&OWJronment and Urbanization, has some responsibilities on public construction disputes which arise due to the execution of the contract. "TTUBUFEJOUIFMFHJTMBUJWFEFDSFFPG UIF .JOJTUSZ PG &OWJSPONFOU BOE 6Sbanization, one of the duties of the Supreme Technical Board is to investigate and settle the disputes occurred during the progress of the contracts signed by
the state institutions and organizations regarding consulting and construction works, referring to related state instiUVUJPOT BQQMJDBUJPOT :', "OPUIFS duty of the Board concerns the disagreements about the new unit prices. The Board is responsible for determining and fixing the new price which leHBMMZCJOETUIFQBSUJFT0UIFSEFDJTJPOT on the disputes do not legally bind the parties; and the parties can search for other solutions or can go to the court. /FWFSUIFMFTT FTQFDJBMMZ TUBUF JOTUJtutions apply to the Board for the investigation and settlement of disputes during the execution of the public construction contracts. 3. Research objective and methodology Since disputes are the main factors that prevent the completion of construction projects within the budgeted cost, scheduled time and accepted quality; it is crucial to determine the problem areas giving rise to disputes. In this regard, this study aims to identify the main causes of disputes occurred during the execution of the public construction contracts. In order to achieve this purpose, construction disputes, which were applied to the Supreme Technical Board for investigation and a proper settlement, were analyzed. The analyzed disputes were the state institutionsâ€™ applications that investigated and settled by the Board. In this regard, contextual analysis was used to assess overall applications with respect UP DPOTUSVDUJPO EJTQVUFT "DDPSEJOHMZ the applications were classified and examined in terms of the subject of the dispute. Then, each application was exBNJOFEJOUISFFNBJOUPQJDT TUBUF institutionâ€™s remarks and evaluations POUIFEJTQVUF DPOUSBDUPSTSFNBSLT BOEFWBMVBUJPOTPOUIFEJTQVUF BOE the final decision about the dispute. "OBMZ[FE BQQMJDBUJPOT BSF UIF POFT which were published by the Board UISPVHIUIFJSXFCTJUF :', BOEQSJOUFE QVCMJDBUJPOT PG UIF #PBSE :', Ä‡VT BUPUBMPGBQQMJDBUJPO were accessed which were investigated CZ UIF #PBSE CFUXFFO UIF ZFBST BOE 0G UIFTF BQQMJDBUJPOT PG them were eliminated as they were not related to construction disputes.
the projects. The information about project participants, project size, and project location are kept confidential. 0OMZUIFZFBSBOEUZQFPGUIFDPOUSBDU BSFTIBSFE0GUIFTFDPOUSBDUT PG UIFN BSF MVNQ TVN DPOUSBDUT BSF VOJU QSJDF DPOUSBDUT BOE PG them are mixed contracts. The number of disputes that were brought to a conclusion in each year is EFQJDUFEJO'JHVSF Figure 1. Number of disputes. Table 1. Profile of applications.
Table 2. Dispute categories.
)FODF BQQMJDBUJPOTSFGFSSJOHDPOstruction disputes were analyzed. Table I presents general characteristics of the analyzed applications. "MM PG UIF BOBMZ[FE BQQMJDBUJPOT BSF related to a construction dispute which were occurred in a public construction contract. Due to privacy issues, the Board gave limited information about
4. Findings and discussion Based on the analysis of applications, the common disputes occurred during the execution of the public construction contracts are revealed at first. The analysis showed that there is a certain level of commonality in the causes of disputes. Thus, the common causes of disputes are classified into seven broad categories depending on their nature and mode of occurrence. "TBSFTVMU UIFNBJOEJTQVUFDBUFHPSJFT are identified as unit prices, delays and extension of time, contractual matters, variations, contract documents, payments, and other disputes. The main disputes categories, their numbers and GSFRVFODJFTBSFHJWFOJO5BCMF The distribution of disputes among categories in each year and dispute TIBSFT BSF QSPWJEFE JO 5BCMF *O terms of the time span, the number of disputes has started to increase in BOE TIPXFE B EFDSFBTF JO which could be linked to the increase/ decrease in the public construction exQFOEJUVSFT"DDPSEJOHUPUIF,*,TTUBtistics, the increase rate of public conTUSVDUJPOFYQFOEJUVSFTJTJO BOE UIF EFDSFBTF SBUF JT JO ,*, 1VCMJD 1SPDVSFNFOU 3FQPSUT *U can be interpreted that this increase/ decrease has reflect on the number of disputes in two/three years. "DDVNVMBUFE OVNCFS PG EJTQVUFT from each dispute category is presentFE JO 'JHVSF #Z UIFSF BSF EJTQVUFTGPDVTFEPOVOJUQSJDFT EJTputes on delays and extension of time, EJTQVUFTPODPOUSBDUVBMNBUUFST EJTQVUFT PO WBSJBUJPOT EJTQVUFT PO DPOUSBDU EPDVNFOUT EJTQVUFT PO QBZNFOUT BOE EJTQVUFT PO PUIFS subjects.
Causes of disputes in the Turkish construction industry: Case of public sector projects
4.1. Causes of disputes "Ä™FSJEFOUJÄ•DBUJPOPGUIFNBJOEJTpute categories depending on their nature and mode of occurrence, each dispute category is examined comprehensively. Main causes of disputes in each category are summarized in Table "TJUJTTFFOJO5BCMF UIFDBVTFTPG disputes were revealed with respect to dispute categories. The detailed explanation on each dispute category is given below respectively. Unit prices: When there is a design revision on the project, a change in the work or an alteration of a material, equipment or system; new work JUFNT TIPX VQ &TQFDJBMMZ UIF QVCMJD BVUIPSJUZ UIF PXOFS XBOUT UP NBLF changes on materials during the construction. Since these new work items have not been specified in the contract, the owner and contractor need to agree upon the unit prices of new work JUFNT "MUIPVHI UIF TUFQT UP CF GPMlowed in determining a new unit price is given in the General Specifications GPS$POTUSVDUJPO8PSLT ,*, D these steps are not defined clearly. The owner and the contractor interpret these steps according to their own benefits, so it causes disputes between them. If the owner and contractor fail to agree on the new unit price, they can apply to the Supreme Technical Board for the determination of the new unit price. The owner and contractor have to accept this new unit price; if not, they can also apply to the court. The disputes occurred on unit prices are mainly due to the determination of a new unit price, scope of the unit price, and revised unit price. %FMBZTBOEFYUFOTJPOPGUJNF"EFlay is a project slipping over its planned schedule and is considered as common problem in construction projects. Delays occur in public construction projects, when the owner instructed additional works for which the contractor will be entitled to additional payment and extension of time. Besides, the contractor causes delay himself due to the inefficient works and failure to meet the contractual completion date. When the applications to the Board are analyzed, it is seen that the owners and the contractors had problems on
Table 3. Distribution of the disputes within the time span.
Figure 2. Cumulative number of disputes by category.
the cause of the delay; and they both did not want to accept any responsibility on the delay. The owners accused the contractors of the number of days behind scheduled and rejected the contractorsâ€™ claim for time extensions. The contractors claimed for additional payments in the case of time extensions. 0OUIFPUIFSIBOE UIFPXOFSTBOEUIF contractors had dispute on liquidated damages for the delay. $POUSBDUVBM NBUUFST "EEJUJPOBM work items occur during the execuUJPO PG B DPOTUSVDUJPO DPOUSBDU "OZ dispute occurs whether that additional work is in the scope of the contract or OPU&TQFDJBMMZJOMVNQTVNDPOUSBDUT since the owner and the contractor agree on a fixed price; payment of additional works caused serious problems. 0O UIF PUIFS IBOE VODMFBS DPOUSBDU terms and inadequate contract drafting caused different interpretation and misunderstanding of contracts; which resulted in disagreements between the contracting parties on their rights and
Table 4. Causes of disputes.
responsibilities. Due to the ambiguities in the contracts, the parties gave any meaning different from what was expressed by its terms. 7BSJBUJPOT"WBSJBUJPOJTBOZUZQFPG deviation from an agreed upon scope or schedule of works. Based on the analysis of applications, it is seen that variations caused disputes among participants in terms of project revisions, changes in the work, and unforeseen TDPQFDIBOHFT7BSJBUJPOTIBEOPUPOMZ cost-related effects like an increase in overhead expenses and additional payment for contractors; but also had time-related effects such as delays in QBZNFOU SFXPSL BOE EFNPMJUJPO &Tpecially in lump sum contracts, a variation which caused additional payments was a source for a serious dispute. Besides, in unit price contracts, variations brought along the determination of a new unit price, which also resulted in disputes between the owner and the contractor. Contract documents: The contract documents drafted for any contract should fulfill the intended roles and guidelines for the relationships between the contracting parties through-
out the project. Therefore it is necessary to have proper understanding of the contents of the contract documents. When the applications to the Board are analyzed, it is seen that any contradictory and error of information in the contract documents caused disputes between the parties. In order to avoid disputes, the owner should prepare whole and complete contract documents before the contractor selecUJPO"OBMZTJTBMTPSFWFBMFEEJÄŒFSFODFT between project design and contract documents, plans and specifications that contain errors, failure in cost estimates, and incorrect work schedules resulted in time delays, cost overruns and quality problems. 1BZNFOUT "OBMZTJT PG BQQMJDBUJPOT showed that payments are problematic issues in public construction projFDUT 0XOFST GBJMVSF PG QBZNFOU PVUstanding payments and late progress payments caused problems between the participants. In some cases, the contractor had to continue to work; although he had not received his payNFOUT PO UJNF 0O UIF PUIFS IBOE escalations are another dispute factor. When the contractors were entitled to a time extension, they also claimed for additional payment for price differencFT )FODF JU JT JNQPSUBOU UP JOEJDBUF the payment of price differences in the contract in the case of time extensions. 0UIFS 0UIFS EJTQVUFT XFSF PDcurred in the following topics such as substantial and final completion operations, termination or suspension of the contract, incorrect work, correction of work, and return of performance bond. When identified dispute categories compared with previous dispute classifications, it is seen that main causes PG EJTQVUFT BSF RVJUF TJNJMBS 'JSTU PG all, many researchers agree that delays and extension of time cause disputes during the execution of the contract 8BUUT BOE 4DSJWFOFS )FBUI FU BM ,VNBSBTXBNZ BOE :PHFTXBSBO $IFVOHFUBM $IBO BOE 4VFO C 4JNJMBSMZ DPOUSBDtual matters are identified as one of UIF QSJNBSZ EJTQVUF GBDUPST )FBUI FU BM 3IZT +POFT ,VNBSBTXBNZBOE:PHFTXBSBO Ä‡PNQTPO FU BM .JUSPQPVMPT BOE )PXFMM $IBO BOE 4VFO B
Causes of disputes in the Turkish construction industry: Case of public sector projects
$IBOBOE4VFO C$IFVOHFUBM "CFZOBZBLF "OPUIFS important dispute factor is identified as variations in many dispute related TUVEJFT 8BUUT BOE 4DSJWFOFS )FBUIFUBM #SJTUPXBOE7BTJMPQPVMPT ,VNBSBTXBNZ BOE :PHFTXBSBO $IFVOH FU BM $IBOBOE4VFO C$IFVOHFUBM -PWFFUBM -JLFXJTF QSFvious researches also revealed that any contradictory and error of information in the contract documents cause disputes between the parties (Bristow BOE 7BTJMPQPVMPT 'FOO FU BM ,VNBSBTXBNZBOE:PHFTXBSBO .JUSPQPVMPT BOE )PXFMM $IFVOH FU BM "CFZOBZBLF 'VSUIFSNPSF BTJUJTJO5VSLJTI construction industry, payments are also identified as an important dispute TPVSDF CZ PUIFS SFTFBSDIFST )FBUI FU BM ,VNBSBTXBNZ BOE :PHFTXBSBO $IFVOHFUBM $IBO BOE4VFO C 5. Conclusion Disputes have become inevitable parts of construction projects. If disputes are not properly managed, they may cause project delays, undermine team spirit, increase project costs, and, above all, damage continuing business SFMBUJPOTIJQT $IFVOHBOE4VFO $IBOBOE4VFO C .PSFPWFS EJTputes prevent the successfully completion of the construction projects within the budgeted cost, scheduled time and BDDFQUFE RVBMJUZ &TQFDJBMMZ JO QVClic construction projects, any dispute poses serious risk for the successfully completion of the project; because if the dispute are not resolved among participants, they need to apply to the court. Since it is a long, expensive and acrimonious process; it results in unfinished, incomplete and unsuccessful public construction projects. Therefore, identification of the sources of disputes is vital in order to avoid them. "DDPSEJOHMZ UIF QVSQPTF PG UIJT study was to identify the main factors contributing to the development of construction disputes in construction industry via public construction projFDUT " DPNQSFIFOTJWF BOBMZTJT XBT DPOEVDUFEBOEEJTQVUFTJOUIFFYecution of a contract were investigated
through a ten year period. The analysis results revealed that there are seven significant dispute categories shown in public construction projects perceived in Turkish construction industry. Based on the analysis, seven main general areas were identified for dispute categories: unit prices, delays and extension of time, contractual matters, variations, contract documents, payments, and other disputes. Then, each dispute category was examined comprehensively in order to identify the main causes of disputes. In the unit prices category, the main dispute causes were found as determination of a new unit price, scope of the unit price, and revised unit price. Delays and extension of time were the second dispute category and involved causes such as number of days behind programmed, claim of time extensions, and liquidated damages. The analysis showed that another problem areas giving rise to disputes were also related to contractual matters such as scope of the contract, unclear contract terms, and inadequate contract drafting. Moreover, variations as project revisions, changes in the work, and unforeseen scope changes were other causes of disputes among participants. Contract documents were identified as a dispute category; differences between project design and contract documents, contradictory and error of information in the contract documents, and plans and specifications that contain errors were found to be the main causes of disputes in that EJTQVUFDBUFHPSZ'JOBMMZ GBJMVSFPGQBZment and payment of price difference were determined as dispute causes in the category of payments. This study helped to identify the problem areas giving rise to disputes in public construction projects in Turkey. )PXFWFS UIF EBUB BSF CBTFE PO POMZ state institutionsâ€™ applications to the 4VQSFNF 5FDIOJDBM #PBSE 'VUVSF JOvestigation should focus on the private construction project practices. The findings of this study can help the construction project participants by providing understanding on the primary causes of disputes during the execution of a contract. By having knowledge on the main dispute categories and their causes, participants can take
precautions, make effort to prevent disputes, and after all make a significant contribution in the successfully completed construction projects. References "CFZOBZBLF . % 5 & Special features and experiences of the construction industry- arbitration in Sri Lanka. Paper presented at the meeting of International Conference on BuildJOH &EVDBUJPO BOE 3FTFBSDI 4BMGPSE United Kingdom. "DIBSZB /, %BJ-FF : .BO*N ) $POÄ˜JDUJOH GBDUPST JO DPOstruction projects: Korean perspective. Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, 13 #BUFT+S " )PMU -5 -BSHF complex construction disputes: dynamics of multiparty mediation. Journal of Legal Affairs and Dispute Resolution in Engineering and Construction, 3 #SJTUPX % + 7BTJMPQPVMPT 3 Ä‡F OFX $$%$ GBDJMJUBUing dispute resolution of construction projects. Construction Law Journal $BLNBL 1 * $BLNBL & An analysis of causes of disputes in the construction industry using analytical hierarchy process (AHP). Paper preTFOUFEBUUIFNFFUJOHPG"SDIJUFDUVSBM &OHJOFFSJOH *OTUJUVUF Ä‡F 1FOOTZMvania State University, Pennsylvania, 64" $BLNBL & $BLNBL 1 * "OBOBMZTJTPGDBVTFTPGEJTQVUFTJOUIF construction industry using analytical OFUXPSL QSPDFTT "/1 Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences $IBO & ) 4VFO ) $ B Disputes and dispute resolution systems in Sino-foreign joint venture construction projects in China. Journal of Professional Issues in Engineering Education and Practice, 131 $IBO & ) 4VFO ) $ C Dispute resolution management for international construction projects in China. Management Decision, 43 $IFVOH 40 /H 45 -BN ,$ 4JO 8 4 " GV[[Z TFUT NPEFM for construction dispute evaluation. Construction Innovation, 1
$IFVOH 4 0 4VFO ) $ "NVMUJBUUSJCVUFVUJMJUZNPEFMGPSEJTpute resolution strategy selection. Construction Management and Economics, 20 $IFVOH 40 :JV 58 :FVOH 4' "TUVEZPGTUZMFTBOEPVUDPNFT in construction dispute negotiation. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 132 $IFVOH 4 0 :JV , 5 " study of construction mediator tactics - Part I: taxonomies of dispute sources, mediator tactics and mediation outcomes. Building and Environment, 42 $IPOH ) : .PIBNBE ;JO 3 4FMFDUJPOPGEJTQVUFSFTPMVUJPO methods: factor analysis approach. Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, 19 %JFLNBOO +& (JSBSE .+ "SF DPOUSBDU EJTQVUFT QSFEJDUBCMF Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 121 'BX[Z 4" &MBEBXBZ *) Contract administration guidelines for managing conflicts, claims, and disputes under world bankâ€“funded projects. Journal of Legal Affairs and Dispute Resolution in Engineering and Construction, 4 'FOO 1 -PXF % 4QFDL $ Conflict and dispute in construction. Construction Management and Economics, 15 (BE (. ,BMJEJOEJ 4/ 4IBOF + 4USPOH , "OBMZUJDBMGSBNFwork for the choice of dispute resolution methods in international construction projects based on risk factors. Journal of Legal Affairs and Dispute Resolution in Engineering and Construction, 3 )FBUI #$ )JMMT # #FSSZ . The nature and origin of conflict within the construction process; construction conflict: management and resolution. Paper presented at the meeting PG $*# 5( $POGFSFODF ,FOUVDLZ 64" *MUFS % %JLCBT " "OBOBMysis of the key challenges to the widespread use of mediation in the Turkish construction industry. International Journal of Law in the Built Environment, 1 *MUFS % *EFOUJÄ•DBUJPO PG
Causes of disputes in the Turkish construction industry: Case of public sector projects
the relations between dispute factors and dispute categories in construction projects. International Journal of Law in the Built Environment, 4 ,*, IUUQXXXJIBMFHPWUS KIK Public Procurement Reports (http://www.ihale.gov.tr/ihale_istatisUJLMFSJIUNM ,*, B 1VCMJD QSPDVSFNFOU law [doc]. Retrieved from http://www. ihale.gov.tr/. ,*, C 4UBOEBSEDPOUSBDUGPS construction works [doc]. Retrieved from http://www.ihale.gov.tr/. ,*, D (FOFSBM TQFDJÄ•DBtions for construction works [doc]. Retrieved from http://www.ihale.gov.tr/. ,VNBSBTXBNZ .. $POflicts, claims and disputes in construction. Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, 4 Kumaraswamy, M., Yogeswaran, K. 4JHOJÄ•DBOUTPVSDFTPGDPOTUSVDtion claims. International Construction Law Review, 15 -PWF 1 %BWJT 1 &MMJT + $IFVOH 40 %JTQVUF DBVTBUJPO JEFOtification of pathogenic influences in construction. Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, 17 .JUSPQPVMPT 1 )PXFMM ( Model for understanding, preventing
and resolving project disputes. Journal of Construction Engineering Management, 127 o 3IZT +POFT 4 )PX DPOTUSVDUJWF JT DPOTUSVDUJPO MBX Construction Law Journal, 10 0HCVSO . - &MBEBXBZ * ) #JEEBCJMJUZ DPOTUSVDUBCJMJUZ operability, and environmental checklist: potential role in reducing conflicts, claims, and disputes. Journal of Legal Affairs and Dispute Resolution in Engineering and Construction, 6 5BT & 'JSUJOB 0 Ä‡FVTFPG dispute review boards in construction QSPKFDUT"DPNQBSJTPOPG5VSLFZ 6, and US. A|Z ITU Journal of the Faculty of Architecture, 12 Ä‡PNQTPO 3 . 7PSTUFS . $ (SPUPO + 1 *OOPWBUJPOT UP NBOBHFEJTQVUFT%3#BOE/&$Journal of Management in Engineering, 16 8BUUT 7. 4DSJWFOFS +$ 3FWJFXPG"VTUSBMJBOCVJMEJOHEJTQVUFT settled by litigation. Building Research & Information, 21 :', IUUQXXXDTCHPWUSHNZÄ— JOEFYQIQ TBZGBBOBTBZGB :', Yuksek Fen Kurulu Kararlar Gorusler"OLBSB4"3
Do architectsâ€™ and usersâ€™ reality coincide? A post occupancy evaluation in a university lecture hall Odeta MANAHASA1, Ahsen Ă–ZSOY2 1 PEFUBEVSNJTIJ!HNBJMDPNt%FQBSUNFOU0G"SDIJUFDUVSF 'BDVMUZPG Architecture and Engineering, Epoka University, Tirana, Albania 2 P[TPZB!JUVFEVUSt%FQBSUNFOUPG"SDIJUFDUVSF 'BDVMUZPG"SDIJUFDUVSF Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey
3FDFJWFE+VOFt Final Acceptance: October 2016
Abstract Post Occupancy Evaluation provides a good opportunity to make the built environment much more sustainable by correlating building performance to the occupantâ€™s needs. The need for socialisation for youth on a university campus is particularly important. This paper argues that in viewing educational spaces from another perspective, and in particular shared social-academic spaces, POE can be a valuable instrument of reflection. This case provides new insights into the universityâ€™s educational building design considerations and into engaging users, designers, university coordinators and researchers in a variety of issues of POE to provide a more holistic understanding. The purpose of this study is to find out whether spatial characteristics and overall aesthetic affects studentsâ€™/occupantsâ€™ work performance and satisfaction. It aims to identify the environmental quality design criteria and whether criteria such as building layout, thermal, lighting and sound comfort, and maintenance are among the designerâ€™s expectations. Userâ€™s ideas were elicited and from them suggestions for space enhancement were taken in consideration. The study also aims to find out how the building affected the students and their behaviours with its construction in the Istanbul Technical University campus, and on the other side, how satisfied students are with this new building. A multi-way analysis based on questionnaires, interviews, observations, photographs and behavioural maps is used to achieve the set goals. In this way, a detailed study of the Lecture Hall could contribute to setting the basis for future possible constructions of educational buildings. Keywords Educational buildings, POE, Satisfaction, User.
1. Introduction It is very rare for designers to regularly use the building that they have planned. Thus, architects generally have to make informed predictions about its future use. The design should feed architectsâ€™, stakeholdersâ€™, implementersâ€™, and certainly the usersâ€™ contentedness. Users are the ones who feel and experience the designerâ€™s predictions. It is important to consider whether the expectations of the designer and the actual experience of the user coincide. It is commonly accepted that most buildings do not fully satisfy the needs of their end users (Zimmerman & MarUJO #PSEBTT -FBNBO In order to measure the level of satisfaction, Post Occupancy Evaluation is an assessment method that involves the users to give clues to the buildingâ€™s QFSGPSNBODF 'PS UIF BSDIJUFDU 10& is an important device in the tectonics of a project. Thus, it is instrumental in helping to understand the buildingâ€™s performance from the occupantâ€™s point of view. It gives the needed feedback to the architect for the designed CVJMEJOH 5BOZFSBOE1FNCFHVM What happens when the target user is LOPXO %PFTUIJTNBLFUIFEFTJHOFST job easier? In cases where the users are youth, their dynamism should be part of the built environment. Consequently, POE is a method that can help the architect to match the design to the dynamism of the youthful user. In this manner, the building is able to perform better over time. "DDPSEJOH UP 4BMBNB 10& influences the decisions that are to be taken in the future. Technical, physical and socio-behavioural aspects can be improved in the future inspired by the POE results. â€œThe most cost-effective way of improving the service of future clientsâ€? is the application of the evaluation two or three years after the final completion of the project. This is what 3*#"TVHHFTUTJOUIFiGFFECBDL4UBHF Stage Mâ€? of the Plan of Work (CooQFS "EEJUJPOBMMZ BDDPSEJOH UP $IJLF[JFFUBM JUJTJNQPSUBOUUP evaluate the building so as to guarantee its final significance. The POE described in this paper collects usersâ€™, designersâ€™ and implement-
ersâ€™ thoughts about the Istanbul Technical University Lecture Hall building. Rarely do architects take part in the feedback process, so this is a notable example of that kind of participation. The research focuses on evaluating a new building dedicated to students. Uniquely, this paper aims to measure student satisfaction and behaviour within the designersâ€™ own predictions. The behavioural element is among the core considerations in measuring the userâ€™s perception and needs, because this is where we uncover their interaction with their surroundings. 'VSUIFSNPSF CFIBWJPVSBM NBQT BOE direct observations are important tools in measuring the behaviour of the occupants. Another aspect related to the occupantsâ€™ behaviour is the functional aspect, which in itself can be measured by work and productivity. All data researched and collected helped in giving a better view of the proper use of the building. The researcher looked at the overall quality of the building and its compounding comforts such as thermal characteristics, air movement and noise. All of these evaluations form what is called the POE process. The process of POE which is related to the elements of building performance should help the researcher gather sufficient information to run the analysis. This includes data collection about technical aspects of the building that generally consist of an analysis of security, acoustics, lighting, sanitation and )7"$ Another aim in this study was to critique recent building interventions. #FDBVTFUIFCVJMEJOHJTCFJOHDPOTUBOUly observed, it becomes clear that there are constructions that do not reflect the userâ€™s needs and feelings. Thus, this research contributes to the idea that the userâ€™s opinions melded to the designerâ€™s concepts could bring satisfactory results. 2. Post Occupancy Evaluation - POE POE evaluation dates back to the NJEUPT 1SFJTFSBOE/BTBS %VSJOH UIPTF ZFBST UIFSF XBT BO JOcreased interest in research on human behaviour and building design. Such an interest was manifested by the creation
PGCPUIUIFÄ•FMEPG&OWJSPONFOUBM%Fsign Research and several professional associations. Of special note, and one of the best known associations, is the &OWJSPONFOUBM %FTJHO 3FTFBSDI "TTPDJBUJPO &%3" GPVOEFE JO Members of these associations come from various fields of research such as design, psychology, sociology, and anthropology. The variety of professionals signify the wide range that POE would covers. *O #SJUBJO 'SBODF $BOBEB BOE the United States, POE was a participatory design method of evaluating UIF TUVEFOU IPVTJOH TFDUPS 7JTDIFS ;JNSJOH 3BTIJE,BNQTDISPFS 1SFJTFS BU BM BOE IJT colleagues express the need for such an evaluation as a method of having BEFRVBUFGFFECBDL'FFECBDLGSPNUIF occupants and users are of a profound importance. Consideration of this need is increasing daily due to the increase in the standards of living. User expectations from the environment surrounding them have also increased. Thus, the evaluation is two-sided. On one side it seeks to determine how satisfied people are with a particular setting, while at the same time, it â€œcan provide feedback to clients and designers on the impact of settings on beIBWJPVSw 8FOFS3 Q
1SFJTFSBUBM QQ NBLFB categorization of the benefits that POE brings in the short, medium and long term. In this study, the essence of the research is to determine the benefit from short-term post-occupancy evaluation, which Preiser at al. defines as follows: t Identification of and solutions to problems in facilities. t Proactive facility management responsive to building user values. t Improved space utilization and feedback on building performance t Improved attitude of building occupants, though active involvement in the evaluation process. t Understanding the performance implications of changes dictated by budget cuts t Informed decision making and better understanding of consequence PGEFTJHO 1SFJTFSBUBM Q
'VSUIFSNPSF 3JMFZ DPODFSOT IJN-
self with not leaving the process only for the finished building, preferring instead continuous feedback â€œthroughout the building delivery cycleâ€? (Riley. . BU BM )PXFWFS UIFSF BSF TDIPMBST TVDI BT 8BUTPO XIP think that POE is such that it can be conducted any time in the life of the building. The essential part of receiving feedback is to fulfil the objectives of the evaluation which are defined in the words of Preiser and his colleague as â€œan appraisal of the degree to which a designed setting satisfies and supports explicit and implicit human needs and values of those for whom a building is EFTJHOFEw 1SFJTFSBUBM Q
Over time, research on POE continues to deepen and intensify, not only in its focus, but also in the methods and techniques used. Moreover, in the wide range of POE studies Zimring BOE3FJ[FOTUFJO Q DPOTJEer that three â€œconceptual dimensions are of particular use in cataloguing them: generality, breadth of focus, and applicability.â€? Generality is dependent on the intended results of the research study and is a good place to start when focusing on the aim of the evaluation. ;JNSJOH 3FJ[FOTUFJO #SFBEUI DPOTJEFST UIF BUUSJCVUFT PG UIFTUVEZ ;JNSJOH 3FJ[FOTUFJO What Zimring and Reizenstein mention as the third dimension of POE is UIF UJNF PG BQQMJDBUJPO "QQMJcability, as an important feature of the POE, aims to improve the living quality of and to influence all the people related to that specific building. The people in consideration include: users, designers, financiers, etc. (Zimring, ReizenTUFJO i"O JNQPSUBOU GFBUVSF JO the majority of POE studies is that they involve a systematic investigation of opinions, perceptions, and viewpoints about building environments in use, from the perspective of those who use UIFNw 4BMBNB Q 2.1. POE and educational buildings The literature on the value of POE of educational buildings is tightly connected to the successfulness of building performance. Educational environments should assure quality for high educational achievement. POE as a tool is not only used in the design of
Do architectsâ€™ and usersâ€™ reality coincide? A post occupancy evaluation in a university lecture hall
good buildings, but also to improve buildings already constructed. Educational buildings are among the types of buildings that are most in need of rapid evaluation and maintenance. School buildings have a back history of evaluation that extends to more UIBO IBMG B DFOUVSZ -BDLOFZ Plenty of examples are from Scotland BOE UIF 64" /FX ;FBMBOE BOE "VTtralia have also seen a wide range of POE in a wide range of building typologies among which educational buildings make up a considerable percentBHF 8BUTPO $ Ä‡PNTPO , The latter is widely covered by Henry 4BOPÄŒ XJUI IJT FYQFSJFODF JO /PSUI Carolina. Sanoff â€™s leading institution, UIF/BUJPOBM$MFBSJOHIPVTFGPS&EVDBUJPOBM'BDJMJUJFT /$&' XJUIJUTDFOUFS JO8BTIJOHUPO %$CSJOHTBXFBMUIPG experience in the POEs of educational buildings. Their collection of research POUIFUISFFLOPXOUZQFTPG10&TUIF Indicative POE, the Investigative POE BOEUIF%JBHOPTUJD10& 1BMN provide a valuable platform for lessons to be learned by the POE process to identify the usefulness of the existing learning spaces and in gathering information for the future. In England such an assessment is crucial in the recruitment of new students and academic TUBÄŒ $"#& Among the problems identified by the Commission for Architecture BOEUIF#VJMU&OWJSPONFOUJOUIFOFX school buildings are problems with acoustics, lighting and improperly ventilated spaces (Wheeler, A., and .BMFL[BEFI . "DDPSEJOH UP .JDIFMMF #PVOE BOE $MBJSF 'MFNNFS productivity is improved wherever these environmental issues are considFSFE 'PSFYBNQMF UFNQFSBUVSF and ventilation concerns are grounded in userâ€™s asthma problems, good acoustics and spaces without noise are vital for learning, natural light has an influence on the body and human mind, and good maintenance, and flexible design requirements also influence FEVDBUJPOBMPVUDPNFT -ZPOT +PIO# "DDPSEJOHUP,BIJMFUBM â€œThe educational process and learning activities may be de-motivated and interrupted due to poor environmental conditions.â€? Hence, it is vital to con-
sider environmental aspects in a more efficient way. However, this should not be the only concern. An overall performance of the building including â€œthe buildingâ€™s appearance, its evaluative quality, the meanings and evaluative responses it conveys to the usersâ€™ should also be part of the investigation 1SFJTFS8 /BTBS+ 'PS FYBNQMF $ISJT 8BUTPO BOE ,FJUI Ä‡PNTPO JO UIFJS SFsearch about bringing post occupancy evaluation to schools in Scotland, gave importance to the increase in the feeling of inclusiveness in the process. The method of participation in those cases is thought to bring greater transparency. Thus, researchers, and in cases where these researchers are the architects of the buildings, architects, assimilate better what is fundamental and do not present subjective illustrations of UIF SFTVMUT 8BUTPO Ä‡PNTPO *OUIFFWBMVBUJPOPGUIF'BDVMUZPG"SUT BOE4DJFODFPG%PLV[&ZMVM6OJWFSTJUZ 3FOHJO;FOHFMBOE*MLJN4,BZB advance the idea of participation. Their research showed that students not involved in the university environment have a great risk of not using the building. Still, their participation and satisfaction may change based on their staUVTJOUIFJOTUJUVUJPO'SFTINBOIBWFB different attitude compared to seniors, for example. Zengelâ€™s research is still not completed. Accordingly, they propose not only student views about the educational building but all of the userâ€™s perspectives. POEs that are conducted in educational settings in Turkey are limited in quantity. Most of the authors focused on campus assessments (Cubukcu, IsiUBO CVUUIFSFBSFDBTFTUIBUFWBMVBUFCVJMEJOHTBTXFMM %VSTVO 0[TPZ 10& BT B QFSGPSNJOH UPPM TUJMM plays a small part in the recent boom in higher educational building conTUSVDUJPO *O UIFSF XFSF BCPVU VOJWFSTJUJFT JO 5VSLFZ (Ă OBZ (Ă OBZ BOE OPX JO UIFSF BSFBCPVUVOJWFSTJUJFT :0, In the context of this growth, examination of the success of an educational building is vital. The benefits that such research bring are for not only the users, but also they offer solutions to school management, government
Figure 1. View of the Lecture hall location (University Construction and Technical Support Office).
and designers. Additionally, lessons learned from this literature review revealed that there are few, if any, cases where the designers themselves conduct POEs for evaluating their own CVJMEJOH QFSGPSNBODF 'SPN UJNF UP time, POE has served as a tool for measuring user satisfaction. Planning and applying POE in Turkey is still a reTFBSDIÄ•FMEUPCFEFWFMPQFE/FWFSUIFless, bringing together the usersâ€™ and architectâ€™s thoughts is a crucial part of achieving the projectâ€™s set goal. 3. Case study: Lecture hall, Istanbul Technical University Ayazaga Campus The lecture hall taken as a research case in this study is located in the Istanbul Technical Universityâ€™s Ayazaga Campus. The building was designed by Hasan Sener and Ahsen Ozsoy and XBTDPOTUSVDUFEJO*UJTUIPVHIU to meet the need for high capacity lecture halls for the whole campus. The building is located in the social-cultural zone defining the main open public area of the Campus. As a monolithic building of steel construction containJOH GPVS TUPSJFT JU QSPWJEFT N of enclosed area. The building with its HSBOEMFDUVSFIBMMTTFSWFTTUVEFOUT #JOBUÉŽÂ‘L The Lecture Hall site (fig1. is in the centre of the campus, while the structure is recessed to offer a wide green area. Such an approach in design brought richness to open area socialisation spaces for the whole campus &SLPM Ä‡F HMBTTZ NBJO GBĂŽBEF
of the building provides a visual connection as well as a physical one. The canteen, as the most populated space in the building, dissolves naturally into the large open green space in front of it. Spatial divisions in the building layout show a hierarchical organisation from the ground floor that is public and lively, to the upper floors which are more private and quiet. Moreover, there are spaces where students of different academic programs attend common lessons and spaces where lectures that are more specific take place. The building offers spaces that houses lecture rooms, seminar rooms, computer laboratories, instructorsâ€™ rooms and a DBGFUFSJB #JOBUÉŽÂ‘L Ä‡F CVJMEJOH JT SFMBUJWFMZ OFX ZFBST CVUBT8FOFS Q TBZT â€œthe more immediate and discreet the feedback, the easier it is to change and improve the systemâ€? . What should not be forgotten here is the fact that stuEFOUTBSFUIFSFGPSZFBST TPJUJTUIF ideal time to elicit their opinions, reactions and comments about the building. The Lecture Hall was recognized in UIF#VJMEJOH$BUFHPSZBUUIF/Btional Architecture Award Programme / .VHF $FOHJ[LBO 4VDI BO award makes it even more important to put into context the results of the study. 3.1. Aim and methodology The aim of the research paper is primarily to evaluate and receive feedback about a building that is being used by a huge number of students. Additionally, we want to explore and investigate qualities, characteristics, needs and satisfaction toward the Lecture Hall building in the Istanbul Technical University campus. It will be a critical evaluation from the occupant point of view. The main objective depends on the holistic approach of POE to assess functionality and satisfaction of the building as an educational building of mixed use. The research is based on a mixed approach to determine the quality of the building and how the building impacts the life of the campus occupants. Tools for gathering information included questionnaires, in-depth interviews, analysis of architectural design, direct ob-
Do architectsâ€™ and usersâ€™ reality coincide? A post occupancy evaluation in a university lecture hall
servations of the studentsâ€™ behaviour, experience of spaces, and photographs to document the building. The building design analysis takes into consideration flexibility in the adapting of spaces, space hierarchy BOE DJSDVMBUJPO XJUI DPOOFDUJWJUZ %Jrect observation is documented by photography and behavioural maps in different time intervals and weather conditions. The questionnaire was applied to participants in the midterm week of FBSMZ TVNNFS CFGPSF UIF UFSN ended. On the other hand, the researcher observations have been done periodically until a short time ago. The researcher monitored recent interventions to the building such as the addition of an open cafĂŠ in the south GBĂŽBEF BOEUIFSFPSHBOJTBUJPOPGTPNF interior spaces on the ground floor. The study consists of two main QPJOUT 'JSTUMZ UIF PWFSBMM BSDIJUFDtural quality, including functionality, accessibility, size of the spaces, safety and the aesthetics of the building. SecPOEMZ FOWJSPONFOUBM GBDUPST TVDI BT heat control, temperature significance at work, noise, ventilation and natural lighting are considered. The interviews took place in the different areas of the building in order to get the studentsâ€™ honest opinions. Though they filled the questionnaires by themselves, the interviewer was present to elicit extra information as the students considered their responses. 3.2. Findings The research was conducted in three sections. The first section features the researchersâ€™ observations in terms of building usage. The second section presents the results of the questionnaire to measure the level of satisfaction in the main spaces of the building. Specific findings for specific units could be the basis for providing possible solutions. The third section contains the data/ information/comments of the Construction and Technical Support Office of Istanbul Technical University. t Section 1-Researchersâ€™ observations In examining the Lecture Hall building, a number of mechanisms were used, among which the first is the re-
searcherâ€™s view. Initially, the researcher tried to keep in mind the building design philosophy while visiting and spending time in the space in order to experience it first-hand. Then, gathering articles and other written information helped not only in deepening knowledge about the building but also in establishing further steps and in preparing the questionnaires. The building based on the observations of the researchers is surveyed in terms of the spaceâ€™s function and the way students use it. The table below shows the areas and the way they are used by the occupants. It represents not only the variety of activities that take place in the building as a whole, but also the large variety of activities that the cafeteria space in particular serves. It gives the impression that the building is a second library or study area where team work and discussions can take place. The researchers made observations before and during the interviews or conversations with the users. It is of note that the student response in general was that the building fulfils their needs on the whole. Spaces are accessible and easily identifiable. In the time of the research, ground floor was not accessed from all the doors the design offers. Students could not leave the building wherever they wanted to, despite the availability of exists. A considerable number of the students visit the building to use the canteen in the ground floor, but not the entire building. We use the concept of the lecture hall as an additional campus building where, besides the academic spacFT BVEJUPSJVNT BOE TFNJOBS SPPNT there are spaces where students can socialize. This concept is already confirmed by studentsâ€™ responses. It can be observed from the steadiness of their comments that the building in general terms meets their needs. The highest level of agreement is on the availability of natural light and the dimension of spaces. In particular, the cafeteria had the highest rate of positive responses, focusing on the natural light. This research as mentioned above was based on a series of short non-technical statements that were focused on
Table 1. An analysis of the use of spaces (authorâ€™s observation).
Figure 2. Analysis of the architectural design of the building, according to the spaces mentioned in the questionnaire (Binat & ĹžÄąk, 2014).
Figure 3. On the left the main entrance; on the right the behavioural map of the users (courtesy of the authors).
functionality, the quality of the building and of course, the impact the building has on student life. Asked about the accessibility of the building, all occupants replied that it is very accessible from the road. On the campus, there are several signs that guide you to the building. There is, however, a problem with occupants defacing the glassy facade at the entrance in front of the door that identifies the building. This makes it more difficult to recognize the building for those MPPLJOHGPSJUGPSUIFÄ•STUUJNF 'JHVSF On the other hand, the students were very satisfied with the signage inside the building. These clear signs made it easier to remember and identify the spaces they wanted to reach. That said, in the discussions there were comments about the lack of information in the entrance foyer to help freshmen orient themselves in the building. 7FSUJDBMBOEIPSJ[POUBMBDDFTTJCJMJUZ was considered very adequate. Most of the participants of the evaluation supported the idea of not facing diffiDVMUJFT 'PS JOTUBODF UIFZ EFÄ•OFE UIF lifts as spacey, comfortable and of an adequate size. Lately, changes have been made on the ground floor. A gift shop, a stationary shop and an open-air cafĂŠ on the TPVUIGBĂŽBEFBSFUIFOFXDPNQPOFOUT that have been added. The open-air cafĂŠ, has removed the wooden deck which was part of the original design and has generated a canopy on the south which is a poor quality intervenUJPOGPSUIF-FDUVSF#VJMEJOH t Section 2-Questionnaire results of the occupants Having briefly reviewed the building observations, POE from the standpoint of the users plays an important role in order to provide a broad view about the building. Thus, another mechanism conducted was the questionnaire. It focuses in from an overall evaluation of architectural features to specific techOJDBMBTQFDUTPGUIFCVJMEJOHTQBDFT users of the building were contacted by means of face-to-face meetings on the promises of the building. Almost all the interviewed students, lecturers, cleaning and security staff used the CVJMEJOHNPSFUIBOEBZTBXFFLGPSBU
Do architectsâ€™ and usersâ€™ reality coincide? A post occupancy evaluation in a university lecture hall
least 2 hours a day. Questions emerged along the way regarding the reasons for using the lecture hall. They were asked to evaluate in general the architectural design qualities from both an aesthetic and a technical perspective. Sometimes, especially in the examination periods, the demands on the ground floor of the building exceeds its capacity of use. Students look to use it frequently. Such a situation is confirmed by the interviews as well as by UIF POTJUF PCTFSWBUJPOT PG UIF interviewed students visit the student centre frequently. Within this segment, the rate of occupants using the CVJMEJOH WBSJFT GSPN EBZT UP EBZT a week. The busiest period seem to be the midterms and the final examination periods, since the building offers a huge space where students feel comfortable for group work and discussion. This kind of collaboration cannot take place in the library due to the need for silence. 'SPNUIFSFTQPOTFTXFTFFUIBUUIF usage of the building was the greatest CFUXFFO BOE BOE GVODtions primarily for studying and folMPXJOH MFDUVSFT UIFO SFMBYJOH FBUJOHBOEESJOLJOHTPNFUIJOH The staff at work in the building make up the rest of the functionality of the building. Among the responses interviewers elicited were unexpected details like the fact that users prefer to use the building just for having a cup of tea. â€œThe tea there is deliciousâ€? was one response. Ä‡F HSBQI CFMPX UBCMF HJWFT BO overall evaluation of the building from the studentsâ€™ perspective. Clearly, occupants expressed their positive feelings and experiences about the building. Students expressed that the configuration of the spaces were comfortable and aesthetic, though there were students who would prefer more colourful environments. Additionally, students expressed their appreciation for the spaces considered in the building. They especially pointed out that the learning space met their spatial needs. The variety of spaces and flexibility in the entrance hall promote student learning. Thus, for a better and easier evaluation of the building, the questions were directed to the properties of
each space individually. More precisely, the building was divided into lecture rooms, seminar rooms, academic offices, circulation and what the students gave most importance to - the entrance hall. This hosts many activities you would expect to be found in the cafeteria %FTJHORVBMJUJFTTVDIBTEJNFOTJPOT accessibility, and aesthetics, in addition to the physical environmental factors like lighting, noise and thermal comfort were criteria upon which the specific rooms of the building were evaluated. In this aspect letâ€™s see the results of each space individually. Lecture Rooms There are 12 lecture rooms in the CVJMEJOH Ä‡JT USBOTMBUFT UP TUVdents using the building at the same time. They are double height rooms and are located on the first and second floors of the building. The students were asked about the frequency of use of the lecture rooms in comparison to other spaces. Most of UIFN QPJOUFE PVU UIBU JU JT UIF second most used space, after the cafeteria. They expressed that they were glad to have lectures in such spaces. It was explicitly stated that the well-designed spaces were characterized by comfortable dimensions and ample daylight. More than half of the particiQBOUTJOUIFTVSWFZ XFSFDSJUJDBM about ventilation and the noise that it CSJOHT BT XFMM BT IFBU DPOUSPM The latter is mentioned in relation to its influence on learning and productivity, BOEPGUIFTUVEFOUTBHSFFPOUIBU Their evaluations and degree of satisfaction is tabulated below in Table 2. Cafeteria Using the same adjectives and gradTable 2. An overall evaluation of the building. Overall Evaluation 0
aesthetic quality (exterior) aesthetic quality of the interior amount of space environmental quality proximity of views adaptability to chaning uses maintainance/cleaning relationship of spaces/layout quality of built materials positive
ing technique in the study, students were asked to evaluate the main space FOUSBODF IBMM XIJDI IBT B NVMUJQVSpose character. Likewise, students are impressed by cleanliness and usefulness, and they are contented with the quality of lighting, itâ€™s large and comfortable dimensions, as well as the good ventilation. They do not share the same opinion about temperature in the building, finding it too hot in summer BT XFMM BT UPP DPME JO XJOUFS /PJTF JT another problem raised by students, but overall they find the hall inviting, relaxing, large enough and functional. On the whole, users also find it aesUIFUJDBMMZBUUSBDUJWF0OMZBGFX would prefer space that is more colourGVM /FWFSUIFMFTT JU JT B TQBDF IFBWJly frequented and used for a variety of purposes such as eating, drinking, chatting, studying, socializing, and QSPUFTUJOH 'JHVSF The most frequented time intervals
Figure 4. (on the left) View from the lecture hall. (N. Muge Cengizkan, 2014); (on the right) view from the hall in front of the lecture hall. (Courtesy of the authors).
Figure 5. Examples of the way the ground floor is used (http:// www.sendika.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/03/itu-ders-1.jpg).
Figure 6. On the left, usage of the hall in 15 minutesâ€™ survey (courtesy of the author); On the right activities in the outdoor (http://www2.itu.edu.tr/tr/haber/?98f324b9-e233-45c7-b8e2216ec90d76fb).
vary according to time and space. In the fall term the most frequented space is the ground floor, due to the bad weather, and during the spring term is UIFPQFOBSFBJOUIFTPVUIGBĂŽBEF6Tage peaks during examination weeks and daily lunch breaks. Ä‡F TDIFNB JO UIF Ä•HVSF TIPXT frequency of use, circulation and the way in which students use this space. Group studying, sitting, having a cup of tea and using the corners as individual places are among the most popular activities in the indoor usage of the building. Reading, having a cup of tea, smoking, talking, laying in the grass and even playing are among the most QPQVMBSPVUEPPSBDUJWJUJFT 'JHVSF Ä‡F DIBOHFT JO UIF TPVUI GBĂŽBEF PWFS UJNF 'JHVSF IBWF BMTP BÄŒFDUed the usage of the outdoor spaces and the activities that take place there. The introduction of an overhead shelter is thought to have been made as a result of studentsâ€™ needs. The use and the number of activities in the outdoor space has been improved by this new structure, even though the architects were not consulted about this addition. This kind of a supplement attached to a the coffee shop has encouraged students to frequent the outdoor space more and has led to the space to becoming more vibrant. Coffee is a simple beverage to be consumed outside, accompanied by a cigarette. It enriches the social and public life of the students. The use of the canopy should have been thought of in collaboration with the designers in order not to create physical barriers between the indoors and outdoors and psychological barriers between users. #BTFE PO UIF BSDIJUFDUT DPODFQUVBMization of transparency on the ground floor who wanted to achieve a diffuse border between the interior and the exterior, the new addition is misleading. Seminar Rooms Seminar rooms are located on the south zone of the building. The south GBĂŽBEFJTDPNQPTFEPGNPWBCMFQFSGPrated metal plates that help in saving energy and controlling light. Additionally, these spaces have also individual DPOUSPM PG WFOUJMBUJPO 'JOEJOHT PG VTersâ€™ interviews about the seminar room 'JHVSF IBWF TIPXO BQQSPQSJBUF
ventilation and natural light. In addition, it was found that the dimensions were adequate for the function that the TFNJOBS SPPNT TFSWF .PSF UIBO of the users evaluate these rooms on par with the other spaces, except that they find the heat control is better in the seminar rooms when compared to the other spaces. This is due to the individual control of ventilation. Academic Offices Teachers who use the offices pointed out their satisfaction at being able to spend their working hours within this building. They expressed that the spaces are large, quiet, well-ventilated and well-lit. At the time the questionnaire was conducted, heat was a persistent problem here as in all other spaces. Circulation Among the questions asked, was an FWBMVBUJPOPGDJSDVMBUJPO Ä•H "MMVTers show the same high level of satisfaction. Elevators and wide staircases, plus the horizontality of the building layout seems sufficient to accommodate the student flow. 5BCMF TVNNBSJ[FT UIF SFTQPOTFT collected on spaces and the occupantsâ€™ satisfaction level. In general, users are very â€œsatisfiedâ€? with the natural light, ventilation and dimensions, but â€œdissatisfiedâ€? with noise, temperature and heat control. t 4FDUJPO 6OJWFSTJUZ $POTUSVDUJPO and Technical Support Office Review Many approaches to Post Occupancy Evaluation include interviews with the designers, stakeholders and other important role takers in the buildings. The construction and maintenance staff may bring another perspective. They are aware of the positive and the negative aspects concerning the functionality of the building. They know how efficiently the Lecture Hall works. Their thoughts, added to their ability to effect change, and the users view, may facilitate improvements in building. The technical data may provide enough information to be considered in building maintenance. It is that part of Post Occupancy Evaluation that deals with the technical aspects of the setting. To achieve this, in depth interWJFXT XFSF DBSSJFE PVU XJUI QFPQMF on duty for the building construction
Figure 7. Facade before (above) and after (below) the addition of a canopy (Courtesy of the authors and http://wiki.eanswers. com/tr/%C4%B0stanbul_Teknik_%C3%9Cniversitesi, retrieved 10 February 2016).
and maintenance. Ä‡FSF XFSF NBJO JTTVFT VQPO which the interview was built: sustainability, safety and security in the buildJOH NBUFSJBMT)7"$ BOETBOJUBUJPO The interview started with questions gathering data that would help the evaluator understand the building and its challenges better. The researcher discovered that the building costed less than it was predicted, while the conTUSVDUJPOMBTUFENPOUITMPOHFSUIBO was planned. Staff stated that the building does not use any type of renewable energy. Instead, the double skin facade satisfies not only the level of natural light and the control over it, but at the same time it enables a reduction in electricity consumption. The teaching staff gave maximum points to the double skin facade for their not having to deal with glare from sunlight. Meanwhile, energy saving for the artificial lighting is achieved by sensory florescent lighting fixtures. The same method is used even in the wet spaces that employ photocell sinks. The staff brings up the challenge of the lack of an automated system that
would give them fuller control over the artificial lighting. The building performs well in terms of natural ventilation. The construction and management staff are of the opinion that the building is conducive to natural ventilation. In the time of the research, there was a problem of not having enough security staff to open the all present doors. This situation decreases the possibility of natural ventilation. As an addition to that, the work coordination group acknowledged the existence of some management problems in the building, this being one of them. Assessment on safety and security shows that the building is equipped with safety instruction in case of fire or other hazards with the help of alarms and guiding panels. The fire alarm works properly, and has been tested by a fire drill. The building does not provide lockers for students to store their books, bags and personal belongings. Monitoring the spaces is not possible as there is no camera observing the space. There is, however, a plan in place to address this soon. 'FFECBDL BCPVU UIF NBUFSJBMT VTFE in the building is full of satisfaction for the fact that the materials used are acoustic absorbers and they are in good condition. The staff believes that
Figure 8. View from the seminar room (courtesy of the authors).
Figure 9. View from the circulation (courtesy of the authors).
Temperature significance at work
Table 3. Satisfaction level in specific spaces.
Lecture rooms seminar rooms academic offices cafeteria circulation
they will remain so for a long time. They commented that epoxy and wood as materials help in reducing the potential noise in the building. Heating in the building is provided by a central system. There is no individual control over the spaces. The noise in the lecture classes is such that it disturbs the students. Other complaints came from the insufficient plugs for computer usage. The work coordination staff claim that they had dealt with the studentsâ€™ request by increasing the number of plugs. Apparently, they are still not enough. Among the issues covered in the interview were that of sanitation and the wet spaces. Student in general were very satisfied with the cleanliness of the working and wet spaces. Toilets are well equipped. There is no sign of vandalism by users, but the technical staff complains about basins being frequently out of order and there being no way of repairing them, except by replacement. The findings of this section have outlined the importance of management in improving building performance. 4. Discussion Educational building assessment deals not only with the physical quality of the building, but also with what the building concept offers to the users. The latter is merely anticipated. Agreement in the feelings, thoughts, and expectations of the architects to the usersâ€™ feelings, experience and perception are signs of an outstanding structure. The survey results showed that the designersâ€™ objectives and the researchFST Ä•OEJOHT BHSFF 'PS FYBNQMF UIF ground floor that was envisioned by the architects as a social area to be highly frequented, public and lively, is not only that, but the survey also showed that pockets of the space offered privacy, individuality and peace. The building is of mixed-use and the students appreciate the common spaces. Lecture halls and classrooms are NPSF UIBO DPNGPSUBCMF 'VODUJPOBMMZ the building is responding well to the goals it had. Size of the spaces, natural light and the control of lighting, materials used in the building and the colour of the building are among
the elements that users appreciate in the setting. Heat control, ventilation, noise and its impact on learning are among factors that need to be thought through more in terms of management of the building. On the other hand, the Construction and Technical Support office has always been responsive when giving assistance for the maintenance of the building. They have increased the number of plugins, and replaced toilet equipment in need of repair. In addition, they have been increasing the variety of foods in the cafeteria and launched an open-air cafĂŠ, indicators that this office is responsive to user needs and collaborating. The use of an innovative system in the wet spaces and resulting impossibility of repairing them is the reason why technical staff address it as a problem which has been solved by time. As for the issues of heating and cooling, it appears to be a problem of manageNFOU BOE CVEHFU %VSJOH UIF JOUFSviews with the technical staff, researchers passed on the student complaints about the air conditioning, and during recent observations, it was found that this problem has ended. The whole building is now fully air-conditioned. 5. Concluding remarks Evaluating is as important as designing. It tests the design quality with regard to user perception. Since the impact of design quality on learning environments is crucial for raising responsible and successful professionBMT TUVEFOUT 10&T BSF OFFEFE BOE desirable in order to recommend new proper design, and also to guide managers of the building to improve learning outcomes. Application of this study aims to improve the quality of spaces. .PSF JO UIF MJOF PG ;JNSJOH this paper shows the multiple facets that the study intended to address. It is not focused only on a single characteristic. With the help of the questionnaires, interviews and direct observations, the intention was to evaluate the building performance. In the present research, the â€œITU -FDUVSF)BMM#VJMEJOHwJTFWBMVBUFECZ user perception as to the quality of the environment. The data collected gives certain clues to help effect positive change.
The process of achieving feedback, with the objective to find out the problems and to focus on them (WatTPO DBOMFBEUPJNQSPWFEQFSformance of the evaluated building 7JTDIFS Ä‡VT10& DBOCFDPOsidered as a holistic method of knowledge accumulation. In this study, Post Occupancy Evaluation of the Lecture building on the Istanbul Technical University campus, the relation between users and the building was investigated. The idea behind it is not to have feedback on specific design decisions, but to suggest changes to improve studentsâ€™ quality of life. The findings of the research show that the optimal functioning of the building is related to design as well as effective management. However, the time that this study was conducted and the introduction of new interventions in the building, further research is recommended in the future. There was a time limitation and seasonal limitation in the research. Results should be tested to newly designed units that are added to the building. In addition, a limited number of students and other usersâ€™ participation indicate the need for applying the study to larger sample sizes. /FWFSUIFMFTT UIF Ä•OEJOHT TIPXFE a need for air conditioning, a crucial element in the quality of life of the building users, which were kindly considered by management staff. In this respect the paper achieved its aim of JNQSPWJOHTQBDFRVBMJUZ#VJMEJOHTBSF prone to continuous changes during its course of use. Thus, it is important to have a constant quality improvement check. To conclude, the design and implementation stage in building learning environments is vital, but of even greater importance is the role of effective management. As the findings have shown, the majority of results are in line with the designersâ€™ predictions. Moreover, when designers, occupants and management cooperate the satisfaction is high. #SJOHJOHUPHFUIFSFWBMVBUJPOBOESFflection, this study may be considered a guide for the University to apply the same methodology in further studies related to the Lecture Hall or other buildings.
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,IBMJM / )VTJO ) / 8BIBC - " ,BNBM ,4 BOE.BIBU / Performance evaluation of indoor environment towards sustainability for higher educational buildings . US-China Education Review, Vol.A no:2, QQ 3FUSJFWFE GSPN http:// Ä•MFTFSJDFEHPWGVMMUFYU&%QEG "DDFTTFE"QSJM .FJS *" (BSC : +JBP % BOE $JDFMTLZ " A1PTUPDDVQBODZ evaluation: An inevitable step toward TVTUBJOBCJMJUZ â€« Ú€â€¬Earthscan WPM QQ o -BDLOFZ +" Ä‡F 4UBUF of Post-Occupancy Evaluation in UIF 1SBDUJDF PG &EVDBUJPOBM %FTJHO Retrieved from: http://eric.ed.gov JE&% "DDFTTFE +BOVBSZ -ZPOT +# Do School Facilities Really Impact a Childâ€™s Education? Scottsdale: Council of Educational 'BDJMJUZ 1MBOOFST *OUFSOBUJPOBM 3Ftrieved from: http://files.eric.ed.gov/ GVMMUFYU&%QEG "DDFTTFE +BOVBSZ 1BMN 1 $MPTJOH UIF -PPQ The use of Post Occupancy Evaluation in Real Estate Management. Licentiate Ä‡FTJT 4UPDLIPMN ,VOHMJHB 5FLOJTka Hogskolan, Retrieved from https:// XXXNBITFVQMPBE'",6-5&5&3 5454@PME6UCJMEOJOH4'".)64 Petersavhandling.pdf "DDFTTFE /PWFNCFS 1SFJTFS8 /BTBS+ "TTFTTing building performance: its evolution from post-occupancy evaluation, ARCHnet, iJAR, Retrieved from http:// archnet.org/system/publications/ DPOUFOUTPSJHJOBM%1$ QEG "DDFTTFE .BZ Preiser, W., Rabinowitz, H., White, & Post-Occupancy Evaluation, /FX:PSL7BO/PTUSBOE3FJOIPME Riley, M., Moody, M., Pitt, M., " 3FWÂ‘FX PG UIF &WPMVUÂ‘PO PG 1PTU0DDVQBODZ &WBMVBUÂ‘PO BT " 7Jable Performance Measurement Tool. Retrieved from, https://ljmu.ac.uk/ #-5#6&@%PDT3JMFZ@.@()QEG, BDDFTTFE"VHVTU
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Vacancy and access to food: Spatially addressing food insecurity in urban Appalachia
Cermetrius L. BOHANNON1, Nikolus HENRY2 1 DM!WUFEVt-BOETDBQF"SDIJUFDUVSF1SPHSBN 7JSHJOJB5FDI #MBDLTCVSH Virginia, USA 2 /JLMI!WUFEVt-BOETDBQF"SDIJUFDUVSF1SPHSBN 7JSHJOJB5FDI #MBDLTCVSH Virginia, USA
3FDFJWFE'FCSVBSZt Final Acceptance: July 2016
Abstract This study examines food deserts in Roanoke, Virginia in the United States and explores ways to address food insecurity by utilizing vacant lots. In the State of Virginia, there are 200 food desert census tracts. Twenty-nine of those tracts have 100% low access to a supermarket; four of those tracts are located in Roanoke (Chittum, 2011). Like many areas in Appalachia, Roanoke has suffered urban decline and has lost population and subsequently lost businesses including grocery stores, thus creating food deserts with a disproportionate impact on low-income communities. Currently, tract-based food desert data is too coarse to understand the distribution of food deserts in relation to community demographics and other site-scale factors. This study uses census block scale data to specifically map food deserts in more detail at the neighborhood scale. In the case of Roanoke and its thirty unique neighborhoods, addressing vacant lots requires a methodology that considers the unique qualities of each neighborhood in order to understand the impact of vacant lots in each area and how best to address the challenge. Findings from this study show that this methodology provides community residents and landscape architects a systematic way to analyze, plan, and implement strategies to develop spaces that provide access to fresh food and increase social interaction while reducing the visual impact of vacancy. The authors envision this framework as an early component to a community engaged process that recognizes vacancy patterns and honors community agency and identity in the development of site-specific design strategies. Keywords Food security, Vacancy, GIS, Community food infrastructure, Food resilience.
1. Introduction Food deserts are a major contributor to food [in]security in the United States. Food insecurity in the United States is an epidemic that affects an estimated 48.1 million people, includJOH NJMMJPO DIJMESFO XIP MJWF JO GPPEEFTFSUT 'FFEJOH"NFSJDB The U.S. Department of Agriculture defines a food desert as â€œan area with limited access to affordable and nutritious food, particularly such an area composed of predominately lower-income neighborhoods and communitiesâ€? (110th Congress, 2008). Spatially, a food desert is defined as an area where people live more than one mile in an urban area or 10 miles in a rural area from a supermarket or large grocery store. Studies also show there is a strong relationship between health disparities and food insecurity in low-income communities. Although food deserts and food insecurity are strongly related, they are not the same. Food deserts are a contributor to food insecurity. Food insecure families at the most basic level are unsure where their food will come from. In addition, these families have little to no access to nutritious food. Thus, people who are food insecure often have unbalanced diets and higher health disparities including hypertension, diabetes, and obesity. It is implied that the development of chain supermarkets on the outskirts of inner-cities in affluent areas offer consumers better variety, quality and prices for food options but these markets often fail to serve lower-income citizens. Additionally, these venues tend to have longer business hours that are attractive to consumers in wealthier neighborhoods (Alwitt and Donley, 1997). The increased investment and development of large chain supermarkets have forced neighborhood grocery stores to close, thus creating areas where affordable food is not accessible. (Guy et al., 2004). This development strategy often neglects the utilization of vacant land in low-income communities. In particular the utilization of vacant land as community gardens space for urban agriculture. This research focuses on census block data to specifically map food
deserts using GIS. This method allows for accurate mapping of food deserts at the neighborhood scale. Roanoke, BDJUZXJUIBQPQVMBUJPOPG IBT thirty unique neighborhoods, thus addressing vacant lots requires a systematic strategy to assess the relationship between neighborhood demographics, USDA food desert data, and land use information obtained from the City of Roanoke. As part of this comprehensive approach, it is necessary to employ a methodology that considers the unique qualities of each neighborhood in order to understand the impact of vacant lots in each area and how best to address the challenge. 1.1. Food insecurity in Virginia and the city of Roanoke Food insecurity in Virginia is a growing epidemic in both rural and urban areas of the state. Currently approximately 17.8 percent of the stateâ€™s population lives in a food desert 64%" *OGBDUJO 7JSHJOiaâ€™s capital Richmond was identified as the largest food desert for a city it size in the United States (Community Development Financial Institution Fund 2012). According to the United States Department of Agricultureâ€™s food desert locator there are two hundred food deserts in the commonwealth of Virginia. Of the two hundred food deserts in Virginia, twenty-nine census tracts have 100% limited access to a supermarket or grocery store. As reported by Chittum, four of those twenty-nine DFOTVT USBDUT USBDUT BSF located in Roanoke, Virginia (2001). Roanoke, Virginia is the largest city in Southwestern Virginia and is MPDBUFE JO UIF #MVF 3JEHF .PVOUBJOT in the middle of the Roanoke Valley, a uniquely situated place where the mountains meet the city. Known as â€˜The Star City,â€™ the convergence of urban life and rural mountain landscape that make Roanoke different from other cities of its size in the State of Virginia. The Star City is located in the heart of the Appalachian mountain range, a TRVBSFNJMFSFHJPOUIBUTQBOT from southern New York to northern .JTTJTTJQQJ .VDI MJLF UIF DJUJFT $JOcinnati, Chattanooga, and Knoxville, Roanoke is classified, as an urban Ap-
palachian city. This distinction is different from Appalachiaâ€™s rural past, but illustrates the growing number of Appalachians who live an urban lifestyle. The demographic make up of Roanoke as reported in the Community Health Needs Assessment (CHNA) by $BSJMJPO JOEJDBUFT QFSDFOU BT $BVcasian, 28 percent as African-AmeriDBOBOEKVTUVOEFSQFSDFOU)JTQBOJD (2012). The report also states that roughly 20 percent of Roanokeâ€™s population lives below the federal poverty line based on household income data. The unemployment rate in the city at the time of the study was around 8.2 percent, slightly higher than the rest of UIFTUBUFBUQFSDFOU $)/" The number of residents that receive Supplemental Nutritional Assistance 1SPHSBN 4/"1 CFOFÄ•UT JO 3PBOPLF JTBQQSPYJNBUFMZ Ä‡FTFGFXEFmographics illustrate the severe state of food access in the city of Roanoke and highlights the disparities faced by residents with one third receiving federal food assistance and one-fifth living beTable 1. Vacant land typology.
MPX UIF QPWFSUZ MJOF 1PQVMBUJPOT UIBU are food insecure, not only face food access issues, but are often considered low income and lack sufficient transportation and therefore are limited in their ability to travel to grocery stores, without using public transportation. Limited access to healthy food options also contributes to health disparities for residents that live in food deserts. 1.2. Vacant land Cities across the country, regardless of size, have dealt with urban shifts including de-industrialization, population decline, and decentralization. These urban processes often leave areas of vacant land. Vacant land in urban areas is often viewed as a problem often associated with crime, abandonment, depressed real estate vales and social failure. (Accordinio & Jonshon, #PXNBO1BHBO *O"Qpalachia in particular vacancy can be traced to disinvestment, weak economic cycles, and the downfall of industries based on coal and rail. In the literature there is no one single recognized definition of vacant land, but man of the definitions included characteristics such as unutilized, underutilized, derelict land, brownfields, greenfields, and land with abandoned buildings and TUSVDUVSFT ,SFNFS FU BM #PXNBO1BHBOP 1BHBOP#PXman, 2000). In his work Northman developed a typology of vacant land that included five categories; (1) remnant parcels; (2) land that is difficult UP CVJME PO MBOE PXOFE CZ VUJMJUZ companies to be used for future expansion, (4) land held for speculation and MBOEJOJOTUJUVUJPOBMSFTFSWF Regardless of definition vacant land often comes with negative perceptions. One such perception is loss of economic revenue from the land due to its unoccupied state. Another is the negative perception that vacant land can have on how people view a community in terms of safety and community vitality. In some cities there is an on going debate on how to address the issue of vacancy. Some municipalities view redevelopment strategies that would increase the economic productivity of vacant land to raise tax review. These strategies include commercial, resi-
Vacancy and access to food: Spatially addressing food insecurity in urban Appalachia
EFOUJBM BOE JOEVTUSJBM VTFT #PXNBO 1BHBOP 0O UIF PUIFS IBOE community and neighborhood organizations may prefer to redevelop vacant land into green spaces including parks, community gardens, or other spaces that can be used to increase social capital. Ann Spirnâ€™s â€œVacant Land a Resource for Reshaping Urban Neighborhoodsâ€? illustrates five vacant lot types, as seen in Table 1. Her work shows how diverse vacant lands can be in both context and characteristics. Some vacant lots were once the site of buildings, now demolished, while others were never built upon. These lots often occur as small isolated â€œmissing toothâ€? (Figure 1) lots, and as large tracts under single or multiple tenure (Figure 2). The physical and social character of neighborhoods in which vacant lots occur varies significantly. Vacant lots can be viewed as part of the urban fabric that can hold transformation opportunities to meet community needs and provide places for urban agriculture and community gathering via community gateways and meeting places. We are interested in vacant lots for two main reasons. First, vacant land can be used to develop permanent and temporary community gardens to enhance local food environments thus increasing access to fresh and healthy food for community residents. Second, vacant land has the potential to provide opportunities for transformative community spaces that can help address the disproportionate social and environmental pressures many urban communities face. Third, developing vacant land can provide community engagement opportunities that can bring together landscape architects and designers, community residents, and others with shared interests to address community needs. 1.3. Community gardens and food access Community gardens have emerged in cities and towns across American as a way for citizens to address issues of low access to healthy food. Gardens take many forms and varying operating patterns; from informal guerilla
Figure 1. Vacant lot in the Hurt Park neighborhood in Roanoke, Virginia.
Figure 2. Multiple tenure vacant lot in the Hurt Park neighborhood.
plots to more structured gardens that are supported by local community garden associations and other non-profit organizations. Some gardens are used to supplement familiesâ€™ diets, others are used to grow food for food pantries. In addition, many schools are now incorporating community gardens as active outdoor learning laboratories to teach students about nature and nutrition. These spaces also play a key role in building social capital by reclaiming community space and providing opportunities for residents to collaborate to address mutual needs. Community gardens have been popular in areas, primarily in communities of color, where the inequitable distribution of green space is the result of urban renewal, redlining and disinvestment. In terms of addressing food insecurity in urban populations in particular, community gardens currently play a large role in establishing a network of productive green spaces that provide healthier food options than those that
Figure 3. Diagram showing methodological process.
can be found at fast food restaurants. Similarly community gardens are useful in closing the grocery gap that many urban communities face due to substandard or event non-existent groDFSZTUPSFT#ZHJWJOHUIFPQQPSUVOJUZ for community members to grow their own food, this reduces the dependence on stores with poor quality produce, such as convenience stores or corner stores. 2. Methods This study uses GIS data to investigate the distribution of food desserts and vacant land at the block scale (FigVSF Ä‡F NFUIPEPMPHZ VTFE JO UIJT study was adopted from a project titled Vacant Lots Occupied completed CZ ,FFQ $JODJOOBUJ #FBVUJGVM ,$# JOÄ‡FQSJNBSZNFUIPEVTFEJO this study combined USDA map layers with land use and demographic layers to show the relationship between WBDBODZBOEGPPEJOTFDVSJUZ#ZVTJOH this methodology the authors were able to provide a visual representation that can be used to analyze the geographical relationship between the concepts low access to food and high land vacancy in an urban area, particularly at the
Figure 4. Low access between 1 and 10 miles and low Äąncome areas in Roanoke.
neighborhood scale. The first phase of this research identified neighborhoods in the City of Roanoke that have the highest level of low access to food and lowest income 'JHVSF #Z VTJOH UIF 64%"T 'PPE Access Research Atlas and neighborhood association data provided by the City of Roanoke, ten food insecure neighborhoods met the criteria low income and low access. These neighborhoods became the target areas for this research (a total of 2077 acres). To insure low access to grocery stores, areas were evaluated at Â˝ mile and 1-mile distances. In addition, Supplemental /VUSJUJPO"TTJTUBODF1SPHSBN 4/"1 locations were mapped to analyze store distribution in the target area (Figure 2.1. Neighborhood vacancy The second stage of this research mapped vacancy in the City of Roanoke. To accomplish this, the authors used two sources of information: vacant land use and vacant buildings. Neighborhood vacancy was mapped by calculated the percentage of vacant parcels in each target neighborhood. For this study vacancy typologies adapted from the â€˜Vacant Lots: Occupiedâ€™ were used: stable, at risk, threatened, and hazardous. The first category â€˜stableâ€™, includes neighborhoods that have less than 10 percent of their parcels listed as vacant. The fabric in these neighborhoods is intact and is not faced with vacancy pressures. Neighborhoods that fall into the â€˜at riskâ€™ category have between 10 and 20 percent vacancy. These neighborhoods are in danger of facing serious vacancy issues. Neighborhoods UIBUIBWFCFUXFFOBOEQFSDFOUPG its parcels listed as vacant is considered â€˜threatenedâ€™. This type of neighborhood has a higher potential for vacancy to have a negative effect on the area both
Vacancy and access to food: Spatially addressing food insecurity in urban Appalachia
physically and socially. Areas in the city UIBUIBWFHSFBUFSUIBOQFSDFOUWBDBOU parcels is considered â€˜hazardousâ€™. These
areas tend to be in serious decline with extreme pressures on the residential fabric of the neighborhood.
Figure 5. Map showing supermarket and SNAP locations and income by tract.
Figure 6. Map showing Vacant Lot Percentages. *56"];t7PM/Pt/PWFNCFSt$-#PIBOOPO /)FOSZ
2.2. Vacant lot typologies After analyzing food deserts and neighborhood vacancy in Roanoke, the researchers used vacant lot data to develop a set of vacant lot typologies that could be used to understand the vacant fabric in the targeted neighborhoods. As a point of reference the researchers reviewed Ann Spirnâ€™s typology of vacant land. This vacant lot typology aided the researchers in identifying a total PG WBDBOUMPUTFRVBMJOHBDSFT in the food insecure neighborhoods. In order to achieve accuracy in the data, researchers verified vacant lots via aerial photography and field observations. The process of field verification Table 2. Vacant lot statistics in roanokeâ€™s food deserts.
Table 3. Food Äąnsecure neighborhood and vacancy typology.
allowed the researchers to gain a better understanding of the spatial impact of vacancy on each neighborhood. 3. Results Results indicate there are no â€˜stableâ€™ neighborhoods in terms of vacancy in the target area. As shown in Table .FMSPTF3VHCZ BOE 0ME 4PVUIwest neighborhood fell under the â€˜at riskâ€™ category. There were four neighborhoods categorized as â€˜threatenedâ€™: #FMNPOU )VSU 1BSL .PVOUBJO 7JFX and Southeast. Three neighborhoods were categorized as â€˜hazardousâ€™: LoudPO.FMSPTF (BJOTCPSP BOE /PSUIwest. Results also indicate there is a spatial disparity in the distribution of grocery stores in the targeted neighCPSIPPET .PTU PG UIF HSPDFSZ TUPSFT are located on the edges of the target area. On the other hand, there is an BCVOEBODFPG4/"1MPDBUJPOT OPSNBMly convenience stores, in these areas. Another finding from this research is the typology of vacant lots in the target neighborhoods. The researchers were able to develop a typology of vacant lots, from the GIS data and field verification that can be used to develop areas for urban agriculture, including community gardens and urban orchards. The types of lots include missing tooth, corner, connector, swiss cheese, and vacant blocks, which were consistent with findings from Ann Spirnâ€™s work. A â€œmissing toothâ€? is a vacant lot or a group of adjacent lots within a block that creates a gap between structures (Figure 7). These types of vacant lots are particularly noticeable in blocks of row houses and among rows of commercial buildings. Corner lots consist of one or more adjacent vacant properties at the corner of a block. Corner lots are usually bounded between two buildings and streets and sidewalks. This type of lot is often exposed to traffic and is more likely to experience dumping and vandalism. Connector lots are lots that span through a block. Swiss cheese lots occur when there are as many vacant lots on a block than buildings. Vacant block lots occurs when an entire city block or an area of acre or more is vacant. Vacant blocks may consist of single property or many, adjacent properties.
Vacancy and access to food: Spatially addressing food insecurity in urban Appalachia
As a result of our findings the researchers were able to identify a colMFDUJPOPGWBDBOUQBSDFMTJOUIF.FMSPTF Rugby community, a community that currently does not have a community garden. The researchers developed a conceptual master plan that converted five parcels into a community garden space, as seen in Figure 10. The conceptual design included raised beds, urban orchard, and community pavilion, as seen in Figure 11. Included in the plan was a play area for kids and seating area for adults, which would provide opportunities for interaction of various age groups. To maximize food access benefits of the proposed community garden and to establish a community food infrastructure, a food market and pavilion was proposed across from the garden for residents and visitors to purchase vegetables and other local goods. 4. Discussion and conclusion As discussed in this paper over 48 million Americans are affected by food insecurity. The number of food insecure Virginians is also high with Roanoke having a disproportionate number of its citizens relying on government assistance and living in communities that are known as food deserts. This paper proposes a GIS-based process that investigates the distribution of food desserts and vacant land at the block and neighborhood scale. Our paper aimed to demonstrate the potential of this place based approach to spatially examine the relation of vacancy and food insecurity and to demonstrate how vacant land can be considered from an asset based view to be re-conceptualized physically, socially, and environmentally to provide access to healthier food options for community residents. Through the use of GIS and a systematic analysis process landscape architects and community designers can develop a better understanding of vacancy patterns, land use typologies, neighborhood characteristics, and the relationship between income and food access. With this approach designers can begin to address food insecurity and vacancy spatially. We see this approach as the starting point of a
Figure 7. Missing tooth lot in food insecure neighborhood in Roanoke.
Figure 8. Swiss cheese vacancy pattern in food insecure neighborhood in Roanoke.
Figure 9. Vacant block pattern in food insecure neighborhood in Roanoke.
community engaged based design and planning approach. The results of this work provided us with information that was used to work with community members to conceptualize a new community garden space. Through this project the researchers have tried to demonstrate the importance of considering vulnerable populations when addressing problems that affect their lives. This study has also demonstrated that there is a strong relationship between high vacancy rates and low access to food. Armed with this understanding, designers can now approach the issues of food insecurity and other access bases disparities in urban areas in a way to better meet the needs of citizens. Future research should examine the implementation of this GIS based method of investigating and identifying vacant parcels located in food deserts into food security based design and planning processes. Furthermore more research needs to be conducted to evaluate stakeholder feedback of this process of identifying community vacant
Figure 10. Conceptual community garden design proposal for vacant block.
Figure 11. 3-D rendering of community garden design proposal.
land assets. Although this study was conducted in Roanoke, this research can be replicated in many smaller cities in towns throughout Appalachia that are facing issues of food insecurity. Additionally, future studies could actively engage community members and existing neighborhood associations in the input and field verification of vacant land that could be used to develop a place-based framework for a resilient food system. References 110th Congress. (2008). Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 20081VCMJD-BX4UBUVUF4FDUJPO 4UVEZ BOE 3FQPSU PO 'PPE Deserts. Accordino, J., & Johnson, G. T. (2000). Addressing the vacant and abandoned property problem. Journal of Urban Affairs, 22 Alwitt, L. F., & Donley, T. D. (1997). Retail stores in poor urban neighborhoods. Journal of Consumer Affairs, 31 Anatomy of a City | Keep Cincinnati #FBVUJGVM OE 3FUSJFWFEGSPN http://keepcincinnatibeautiful.org/
programs/urban-revitalization/vacant-lots/anatomy-of-a-city/. #PXNBO " 0 . 1BHBOP . A. (2010). Terra incognita: Vacant land and urban strategies. Georgetown UniWFSTJUZ1SFTT $IJUUVN . 'PPE EFTerts parch Roanoke residents of nutrition, money. Retrieved January GSPN http://hamptonroads. com/2011/07/food-deserts-parch-roanoke-residents-nutrition-money. Community Development Financial Institution Fund. 2012. A Summary of Searching for Mar- kets: e Geography of Inequitable Access to Healthy & A ordable Food in the United States. U.S. Department of the Treasury. www.cd - fund.gov/what_we_do/resources/Demand- StudySummary.pdf. Guy, C., Clarke, G., & Eyre, H. (2004). Food retail change and the growth of food deserts: a case study of Cardiff. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, 32(2), 72-88. )VOHFS BOE 1PWFSUZ 'BDUT OE 3FUSJFWFE+BOVBSZ GSPN http://www.feedingamerica.org/ hunger-in-america/impact-of-hunger/ hunger-and-poverty/hunger-and-poverty-fact-sheet.html ,SFNFS 1 )BNTUFBE ; " .D1IFBSTPO 5 " TPDJBMoFDPlogical assessment of vacant lots in New York City. Landscape and Urban Planning, 120 .JMCVSO -"4 7BJM #" Sowing the Seeds of Success Cultivating a Future for Community Gardens. Landscape Journal, 29(1), 71-89. /PSUIBN 3 . 7BDBOU VSban land in the American city. Land Economics, 47 Satterwhite, E. (1999). Seeing Appalachian Cities. Southern Changes, 21, 20-22. 4QJSO " 8 1PMMJP . Vacant land: A resource for reshaping urban neighborhoods. West Philadelphia landscape plan. Philadelphia, PA: Department of Landscape Architecture and Regional Planning, University of Pennsylvania. 64%"&34 i'PPE "DDFTT Research Atlas.â€? Retrieved from www.ers.usda.gov/ data- products/ food-access-research-atlas.aspx.
Vacancy and access to food: Spatially addressing food insecurity in urban Appalachia
The use of qualitative data analysis software to read landscapes in movies: The case of Midnight in Paris BaĹ&#x;ak Ă–ZER1, Yasin Ă‡aÄ&#x;atay SEĂ‡KÄ°N2 1 WJSHP[FS!HNBJMDPNt%FQBSUNFOUPG-BOETDBQF"SDIJUFDUVSF 'BDVMUZPG Architecture, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey 2 DTFDLJO!JUVFEVUSt%FQBSUNFOUPG-BOETDBQF"SDIJUFDUVSF 'BDVMUZPG Architecture, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey
3FDFJWFE'FCSVBSZt Final Acceptance: October 2016
Abstract Urban public landscapes include several discourses. Movies strengthen, diversify and change these discourses. For this reason, movies are a very important interaction area for the discipline of landscape architecture. With visual, aural and kinesthetic narrative, they have influences on landscapes and landscape perceptions.These influences are analyzed by reading movies and used as data in research. According to the aim of studies and researchersâ€™ background, various methodologies are used. One of them is qualitative data analysis software. This does not have a common method.The aim of this study reveals a methodology concerning the use of qualitative data analysis software to read landscape narratives in movies. In this context the case study is Midnight in Paris. Paris is consciously used as one of the characters of the movie. Thus, the narrative about Paris urban landscapes through the movie is revealed.Processing data in the proposed methodology consisted of designating the 7 basic Code Families (Landscapes, Places, Time, Movie characters, Discourses, Human behaviors, Music and Sounds); defining each sequence as a Quotation; creating Codes for each Quotation; and classifying Codes according to Code Families. Analyzing the movie was done by reading Networks between Codes and Code Families, and looking at statistical data in reports. Connections between Code Families contain important data to analyze visual, aural and kinesthetic landscape narratives in movies. Landscapes/Places and Time, Landscape/Places and Discourses, Landscapes/Places and Human behaviors give basic data for reading movies. Keywords ATLAS.ti, Landscape analysis, Midnight in Paris, Movies, Qualitative data analysis.
1. Introduction While urban public landscapes are shaped interaction with various factors, at the same time they include several discourses. These landscapes speak with their residents and visitors when they live, walk and look around #BSUIFT "MTP MBOETDBQFT BSF used in movies which construct their own narratives. Thus movies strengthen, diversify and change the discourses about urban public landscapes. Because of these effects, movies are a very important interaction area for the discipline of landscape architecture. With visual, aural and kinesthetic narrative, they have influences on landscapes and landscape perceptions. This effectiveness, consciously or unconsciously, determines the landscape appreciation criteria and open space preferences for people. Reading movies is an action that produces the basic meaning and connotation by signifiers in the construction of OBSSBUJWF +BIO .POBDP According to the aim of the study, various methodologies were used to read, for example discourse analysis, content analysis, semiological analysis etc. The most common methodology of these methodologies is semiology. Semiology is a science that investigates indicators. Indicators are generally defined as any kind of forms, objects or cases, which represent something other than itself and replace what they represent. In this regard, words, symbols, and signs and such are considered as indiDBUPST 3Â‘GBU
Besides these methodologies, qualitative data analysis software was used for reading movies. This does not yet have a common method but gives an advantage to researchers who arenâ€™t from the discipline of cinema. This software provides a technique for editing various sorts of data, such as text, audio, visual and multimedia, which facilitates interpretation and also assists in increasing the credibility of research Ä•OEJOHT "5-"4UJ Ä‡FSF BSFsome qualitative data analysis software MJLF ."92%" /7JWP BOE "5-"4 ti. The context and services of these programs are generally the same. They give both qualitative and quantitative results; give opportunities to make a detailed analysis to read a movie; and provide various data to interpret with Networks and reports obtained from the analysis. The aim of this study reveals a methodology concerning the use of qualitative data analysis software to read landscape narratives in movies. In this context the methodology was used for reading a movie, Woody Allenâ€™s Midnight in Paris "MMFO *OUIJTÄ•MN Paris is used not only as a background but also as a character of the movie. In this way it is aimed at affecting tourist behavior and increasing Parisâ€™ tourism JODPNF Â˝[FS C Ä‡FSFGPSFUIFSF is a conscious narrative about Paris urban landscapes in Midnight in Paris. 2. Methodology The qualitative data analysis software allows working on many docu-
Figure 1. The interface of ATLAS.ti. *56"];t7PM/Pt/PWFNCFSt#Â˝[FS :Âą4FĂŽLĹ”O
Figure 2. Some codes of landscapes.
ments in different formats. It enables the processing of data by Quotations, Code Families, and Codes etc. in these documents. Quotations, Code Families, and Codes were chosen according to the aim of study. As a result of processing the data, various Networks, digital data, and reports etc. were obtained. Relations between Codes constitute networks which are necessary for the reading, analysis and interpretation of movies. The analysis of Midnight in Paris was conducted by ATLAS.ti 7 (Figure 1). Two documents were used: the vidFPJOBWJGPSNBU "MMFO BOEUIF scenario in .pdf format (Allen). The video format of Midnight in Paris was the primary document. The first process was defining Quotations in the video. This defining was made according to sequences, not plans. Sequences are parts composed by plans as they gather in a systematically successive way and have semanUJD JOUFHSJUZ ,ĂšQSĂ Ä‡FSFGPSF sequences are determined considering plans which are consecutively in the same place. Each Quotation at the same time formed movie sequences. At the end of the sequence defining process, Quotations were obtained, created CZQMBOTPGUIFNXFSFPVUEPPST while the others were indoors. The second process was creating Codes, and appointing these Codes to the Quotations. Codes are created considering the aim of study. Code Families were synchronously designated because of the excess of Codes. Thus Codes were classified. The Code Families are used as a kind
of layer, considering movie elements. The process of designating Codes Families is also a crosscheck of creating the Code. It can discover some Codes which are missing. At the end of the second process, creating Codes and designating Code Families, Codes and 7 basic Code Families were determined. Within the scope of this study, Codes were created specifically according to Midnight in Paris but 7 basic Code Families were determined for all landscape analyzing in all movies. These Code Families are Landscapes, Places, Time, Movie characters, Discourses, Human behaviors, and Music and Sounds. The determining and the crosscheck processes are supported by the literature. Landscapes: Landscapes in movies are selected depending on narratives, movie characters, discourses, time etc. They are sometimes only a background, sometimes one of a character of movies. In this way, meanings can be attributed to landscapes. For this reason, landscapes should be analyzed in detail according to their typologies, classes, and elements. Landscapes in the each sequence of Midnight in Paris are encoded like Parks, Boulevards, Squares, River (side), Historical landscapes, Cultural landscapes etc. (Figure 2). Places: Movies have effects on creating, strengthening and effacing images. These images are decisive in person-place relations. Landscapes in movies are imagined by images, discourses, actions etc. Thus, some landscapes are specifically identified as Places so that Places are encoded un-
The use of qualitative data analysis software to read landscapes in movies: The case of Midnight in Paris
Figure 3. Some codes of places.
der the Places Family. The Eiffel Tower, River Seine, Alexandre III Bridge etc. are some of the Codes under this family 'JHVSF Time: Although space and time are explained as different terms, they are considered by a person as an integral QBSUPGUIFXIPMF ,BIWFDJPĘ“MV In view of this approach, outdoor is defined in terms of space and time. This is an individual process because it is related with a personâ€™s perception of the outside world, structuring and keeping JO UIF NJOE ,BIWFDJPĘ“MV 'PS this reason, Time Family is created to determine time like periods, years, seasons, daily times (morning, night etc.). There are three different periods in Midnight in Paris T T BOE T/JHIU JOUIFOBNFPGNPWJF JT as important a time of day as daytime. Movie characters: The source of psychological interaction through movies JT JEFOUJÄ•DBUJPO "LB 8IFO a person is watching a movie, he/she leaves his/her own identity for a while and puts himself/herself in the movie DIBSBDUFSTQMBDF "LB 8FEEJOH #PZE /JFNJFD .PWJF DIBSacters provide this identification with their discourses, behaviors and feelings. For this reason, movie characters like Gil, Inez, Helen, Gabrielle are defined in each Quotation under the family of Movie characters. Human behaviors: Behaviors of movie characters and other people are a kind of discourse and a guide about the culture of the public area. Codes under this family are classified into 2 groups: Peopleâ€™s Natural Behaviors and Behaviors of Movie Characters. Behav-
iors of Movie Characters are described in the sequences linking with movie characters. Discourses: Discourse is one of the tools of narrative construction. They represents words, idea and consciousOFTT +BIO 1MBDFT BSF DIBSBDterized and attributed meanings with movie charactersâ€™ discourses. Within this scope, the scenario of Midnight in Paris was used as the second document. Discourses in this document were described in the previously determined sequences. If there were any differences in discourses between the scenario and the video, discourses in the video were used as data. In particular, Places and descriptions about these Places were encoded. Music and Sounds: Music and sounds are other narrative tools which help support the Places (Uzunali, .VTJD JT BO JSSFQMBDFBCMF UPPM used to both create different emotions and strengthen the message in the narSBUJWF &SEPĘ“BO4PMNB[ In Midnight in Paris, UIFSF BSF QJFDFTPGNVTJDBOETPVOETQJFDF PGNVTJDJTB'SFODITPOH QJFDFTPG music are English songs, and 12 pieces of music are instrumental. The sounds, 12 â€˜tingsâ€™, rain, birds and a dog are used to described midnight, rain, landscape. These musical pieces and the sounds are described in the Quotations. 3. Analysis Qualitative data analyzing software creates Networks of ad libitum between Quotations, Codes, and Code Families. These Networks constitute various data which provide the multidirectional
other Code Families. According to the result of the analysis, the movie was summarized as follow: Midnight in Paris narrates the story of Gil and his fiancĂŠe Inez who DPNF UP 1BSJT JO BT UPVSJTUT (JM is an American author and a Paris lover. He dreams about living in Paris. One night, he loses his way wandering around the streets of Paris and sits on the stairs of a church. As the church bells begin to ring at midnight, he gets the chance to live the bohemian life of 1BSJTXJUIUIFGBNPVTBSUJTUTPGT On one occasion he goes back to the T UIF QFSJPE PG #FMMF Â˛QPRVF There are several spaces in different time periods in the movie. At the end he decides to settle in Paris, breaks up with Inez and gets closer with Gabrielle under the rain, whom he met in the antique shop in the flea market.
Figure 4. Places from 2010s in â€˜Midnight in Parisâ€™.
reading of movies. The reading of Midnight in Paris in the scope of this article are exhibited that the movie gives, creates and/or repeats some information and images about Paris urban landscapes. For this reason, Landscapes and Places from Code Families are fit into the center of this studyâ€™s analysis. Additionally, we revealed how Landscapes and Places support and establish the
3.1. The construction of visual narrative: Landscapes, places and time In Midnight in Paris, the most important milestones of visual narrative about Parisâ€™ urban landscapes are Landscapes, Place and Time. Paris is fantasized with time periods. As understood from the name of movie, night is as find a place as daytime. The past 1BSJT T BOE T JT BT ESFBNFE BTDPOUFNQPSBSZ T 1BSJT Ä‡FTDPNQSJTFTPGUIFNPWie. The season/weather is Spring-Summer and showery (sometimes rainy). Daytime is not described specifically as morning, midday etc., except in one example. There is just one specific daytime scene that is in the morning three UJNFTJOUIFTJOUIFIPUFMSPPN $POUFNQPSBSZ1BSJT T JTOBSrated with Landscapes and Places, most of which have been imagined. Urban landscapes (Eiffel Tower, River Seine, Louvre Museum, Concorde Square etc.), most of which have been wellworn, are shown as visual feasts without actors/actresses and lines, with jazz music in the background, especially JO UIF QBSU DPNQPTJOH UIF Ä•STU TFRVFODFTQMBOT UIFÄ•STU UJNFPG UIFNPWJF 'JHVSF The most powerful image of contemporary Paris is the Eiffel Tower. It is seen at different times during the
The use of qualitative data analysis software to read landscapes in movies: The case of Midnight in Paris
Figure 6. Constructing urban landscape identifiers for Paris in â€˜Midnight in Parisâ€™.
Figure 5. Eiffel Tower in â€˜Midnight in Parisâ€™.
day and appears bright at night, in the background of six plans, from the first sequence until the last sequence of the NPWJF 'JHVSF River Seine and its bridges are the two important landscape elements of the movie. They are seen 11 times in T BOEUJNFTJOTPGUIFTF TFRVFODFT BSF TIPXFE JO UIF Ä•STU plans which only contemporary Paris images are used. Also these two elements have representative role in othFS TFRVFODFT th th BOE th) because of having movie characters. In the first one, Gil and Adriana see Zelda Fitzgerald walking around the riverside than they prevent her to jump JOUPSJWFSBOEDPNNJUTVJDJEFJOT
In the second one, Gil walks along the riverside alone and looks mindfully. With these two sequences, the river represents both charactersâ€™ inner world and their struggle to find peace. From outdoor sequences understanding that Parisâ€™s topography is mostly plain because slope streets, stairs and cityscape are seen in less UIBO PG UIFN Ä‡JT UZQPMPHZ PG Paris affects peopleâ€™s behaviors that arenâ€™t movie characters. Peopleâ€™s most common urban landscape behaviors in TBSFXBMLJOHBOECJDZDMJOH1VClic space behaviors of movie characters in all periods also form a perception about a city. According to the analysis, the behaviors of the movie characters are to drink coffee in cafes in boulevards, experience bohemian life in the bars on historical streets, go to museum gardens, wander around palace gardens, buy souvenirs from historical NBSLFUT BOEXBML 'JHVSF Meanings to the nightscapes in the
Figure 7. Network of discourses about Paris City.
movie are strengthened by the use of UIF T (PMEFO "HF BOE T #FMMF Â˛QPRVF Ä‡FTF QFSJPET OBSSBUF Paris as created by the imagination, or fancied. Fancied Paris is used to strengthen the narrative of contemporary Paris and to view Paris from a different and new perspective. In this way, Allen wanted to create emotional experiences of Paris and tried to increase JOUFSFTU JO UIF DJUZ PG UIF NPWJF JTGBODJFE1BSJT JTT BOE JT T 0VUEPPS QMBOT PG T BOE T BSF PG UIF XIPMF PVUEPPS plans of the movie. Three historic buildings are used with their landscapes as parts of the story: 1BMBDFBOE(BSEFOPG7FSTBJMMFT the Cathedral of Notre Dame and its garden; the stairs and streetscape of Church of St. Etienne du Mont. The common thread to all these architectures is representing cultural richness of the past periods of Paris. While movie characters are visiting the palace, Paul narrates the historical background. Museum Guide reads Adrianaâ€™s words about her love for Gil from an old literature book in Notre Dame Garden. The stairs and streetscape of the church open doors to be acquainted and talk XJUIWBSJPVTBSUJTUTPGT 3.2. Landscapes and places by the way of aural narrative The center of the aural narrative about landscapes and places are the movie charactersâ€™ discourses in Midnight in Paris. These discourses attribute meanings and create perceptions
in relation to some places, especially Paris. 7BSJPVT EJTDPVSTFT BCPVU 1BSJT BSF developed in the movie (Figure 7). These appraisals are presented with adjectives like â€œunbelievableâ€?, â€œgorgeous in the rainâ€?, â€œgreatâ€?, â€œperfectâ€?, â€œwonderfulâ€?, â€œa mysteryâ€?, and â€œmost beautiful at midnight in Parisâ€?. For instance, as the first line of the movie, Gil says â€œThis is unbelievable - look at this. Thereâ€™s no city like this in the world. There never was.â€? The study detected that, besides the landscapes of Paris, narrative construction relates mainly to the United States of America followed by France, Spain and African countries, respectively. In this construction, California, Beverly Hills, Hollywood, Malibu and Alabama were among the places which take part in the discourses. The people involved in discourses are as important a factor as the discourses about places because place appreciations and practices carry information about characteristics of movie characters. Gil talks about his admiration of Paris and considers settling in the city. However Gilâ€™s fiancĂŠe Inez and her mother Helen donâ€™t agree with him and speak their opinions transparently. They make their affirmation about places in America, like Malibu. The elements of aural narrative (Sounds) are used to characterize places and time in Midnight in Paris. There is a â€˜tingâ€™ and itâ€™s heard when Gil goes to the stairs. From the 12 â€˜thigsâ€™ the understanding is that the stairs belong to
The use of qualitative data analysis software to read landscapes in movies: The case of Midnight in Paris
Figure 8. The stairs in â€˜Midnight in Parisâ€™ (photo: Ă–zer, 2015a).
a church and time is midnight (Figure The music in the movie is mainly used to strengthen the narrative which is formed by Landscapes, Places, Time, and Human behaviors. Music genres are selected according to the feelings which are desired in the places. The Ä•STU QBSU PG UIF NPWJF JT a kind of advertisement for Paris. It is accompanied by jazz music (Si Tu Vois Ma Mere) and suggestive of romantic Paris. 3.3. Tacit messages by construction of kinesthetic narrative The kinesthetic narrative in the movie is mostly given through tacit messages. These messages are used to strengthen the images and discourses about the city. When the relationship of Landscapes, Places, Time, Discourses and Human behaviors in the movie is observed, it is seen that some identities about the city of Paris are built, such as â€œParis in the rainâ€?, â€œmidnight in Parisâ€?
Figure 9. Constructing urban landscape identify for Paris in â€˜Midnight in Parisâ€™.
BOE i1BSJT JO Tw Ä‡F NPWJF DIBSacters are also involved in this relationship. In the last sequence of the movie, Gil comes together with Gabrielle by walking in the rain at midnight in Paris. As they come together in the final, it emphasizes the tacit romance (Figure â€œThe city of love and romanceâ€? and â€œthe city of lightâ€? are used to define Paris throughout the world (GĂźrel et al., BOE UIFTF BEKFDUJWFT BSF HJWFO in the movie as tacit messages. Beginning in the first sequence of the movie, the message of romance is processed in certain sequences. Eighty percent of the romance sequences are outdoor shootings and in different time frames 'JHVSF 8PPEZ"MMFOVTFTSBJOGPSQVSQPTes: to describe seasonal time; to create an image for Paris; to strengthen romance; and identify the movie characters. Gilâ€™s, Inezâ€™s and Gabrielâ€™s discours-
He has an encounter with Gabrielle on the bridge in the last Quotation th Sequence). The conversation between them is below: Gil: â€œCan I walk with you or can I buy you a coffee? I hope now sore the rain.â€? Gabrielle: â€œThatâ€™s okay. I donâ€™t mind getting wet.â€œ Gil: â€œI feel like that. Yes, itâ€™s more beautiful.â€œ Gabrielle: â€œActually, Paris is the most beautiful in the rain.â€?
Figure 10. Romance in â€˜Midnight in Parisâ€™.
es about rain and behaviors under the rain provide data about romance, character analysis, and movie charactersâ€™ relationships. For example, Gil and Inez are talking their first line at the beginning of the movie: Gil: â€œCan you picture how drop dead gorgeous this city is in the rain? Imagine this town in the twenties -Paris in the twenties- in the rain- the artists and writers-â€œ Inez: â€œWhy does every city have to be in the rain? Whatâ€™s wonderful about getting wet?â€? Gilâ€™s and Inezâ€™s approaches about rain are also seen their behaviors. In UIF th Quotation, it is raining. Inez, Helen and Gil get out from the antique shop and walk to their car. Inez and Helen use an umbrella but Gilâ€™s hands are in his pockets and he walks without an umbrella. These discourses and behaviors, together with the idea of living in Paris, gives other information about characters. Gil wants to live in Paris but Inez doesnâ€™t agree with him. At the end of the movie, Gil decides to live in Paris.
4. Conclusion Movies provide important data, not only for art-based research but also for different disciplines like sociology, economics, landscape architecture etc. Therefore they should be analyzed and interpreted. Qualitative data analysis software facilitates reading movies for researchers. The study stages used with this methodology for a landscape architecture perspective are as follows: t 7JEFP GPSNBUT PG NPWJFT TIPVME be used as the main document for analysis studies. t A movie should be separated into Quotations according to sequences. t 7 Code Families should be built up: Landscapes, Places, Time, Movie characters, Discourses, Human behaviors, Music and Sounds. t In each sequence, Codes should be defined relating to Code Families and identified relating to Code Families and Quotations. t For analysis studies, Networks should be looked between Code Families. t Relationships between some Code Families include important data for the analysis of landscape narrative: Landscapes/Places and Time visual landscape narrative; Landscapes/ Places and Discourses aural landscape narrative; Landscapes/Places and Human behaviors kinesthetic landscape narrative. t The most used Codes are shown the main narrative elements of movies. References "LB 5 4JOFNBUFSBQJOJO Grup UygulamalarÄąndaki EtkinliÄ&#x;i ve Bireysel Terapi UygulamalarÄąyla Ä°lgili GĂśzlemler. Psikesinema, Ocak-Ĺžubat
2016 Allen, W. Midnight in Paris. ReUSJFWFE GSPN %SFYFM University http://www.pages.drexel. edu/~ina22/splaylib/Screenplay-Midnight_in_Paris.pdf "MMFO 8 %JSFDUPS .JEnight in Paris. ABD, Fransa ve Ä°spanya. "5-"4UJ "UMBTUJ 2VBMJUBtive Data Analysis. Retrieved from http://www.atlasti.com #BSUIFT 3 GĂśstergebilimsel SerĂźven. Ä°stanbul: YapÄą Kredi YayÄąnlarÄą. &SEPĘ“BO É— 4PMNB[ 1# Sinema ve MĂźzik: Materyal ve SatÄąĹ&#x; BilinĂ§ YĂśnetimi iĂ§in BiliĹ&#x;selin ve DuygusalÄąn OluĹ&#x;turulmasÄą. Ankara: Pozitif MatbaacÄąlÄąk. +BIO . AnlatÄąbilim: AnlatÄą Teorisi El KitabÄą (B. DerviĹ&#x;cemaloÄ&#x;lu, Trans.). Ä°stanbul: Dergah YayÄąnlarÄą. ,BIWFDJPĘ“MV ) .FLBOÂ‘O Ăźreticisi veya tĂźketicisi olarak zaman. In S. YÄąldÄąz (Ed.), Zaman-mekan (pp. É—TUBOCVM:&.:BZÂ‘O ,ĂšQSĂ . #B[JOJO %JKJUBM
KameralarÄą Eisensteinâ€™in Bilgisayar Efektlerine KarĹ&#x;Äą: Geleneksel KuramlarÄąn BakÄąĹ&#x;Äąyla Yeni Film Teknolojileri. Ä°letiĹ&#x;im: AraĹ&#x;tÄąrmalarÄą Dergisi, 7(1.2), EPJ*MUBSBT@ .POBDP + Bir Film NasÄąl Okunur? (E. YÄąlmaz, Trans.). Ä°stanbul: OÄ&#x;lak YayÄąncÄąlÄąk. Â˝[FS # B $IVSDI PG 4U &UJFOOFEV.POU UI/PWFNCFS Â˝[FS # C Cities and Urban Marketing Movies. $*/&$3* 'JMN Studies and Cinematic Arts Conference, Ä°stanbul. 3Â‘GBU . GĂśstergebilimin ABCâ€™si. Ä°stanbul: Say YayÄąnlarÄą. 6[VOBMJ ( Zeki Demirkubuz SinemasÄąnda Mekan KullanÄąmÄą. (Master Thesis), Hacettepe Ăœniversitesi, Ankara. Wedding, D., Boyd, M. A., & NieNJFD 3 . Movies and Mental Illness: Using films to understand pschopathhology. Washingon: Hogrefe & Huber Publisher.
A parametric landscape urbanism method: The search for an optimal solution
Sevil YAZICI TFWJMZB[JDJ!P[ZFHJOFEVUSt%FQBSUNFOUPG*OUFSJPS"SDIJUFDUVSFBOE &OWJSPONFOUBM%FTJHO 'BDVMUZPG"SDIJUFDUVSFBOE%FTJHO Â˝[ZFĘ“JO6OJWFSTJUZ *TUBOCVM 5VSLFZ
3FDFJWFE"VHVTUt Final Acceptance: November 2016
Abstract Through ecological awareness, different methods have been investigated to explore the relationship between nature and design. Additionally, digital techniques and methods have begun to dominate all fields of professions, including design disciplines. Landscape is an integral part of a cityâ€™s public domain. The concept of Landscape Urbanism prioritizes landscape over building design in urban planing through the use of advanced digital techniques. Although there are studies and projects in this field, they lack a method that can be implemented for the organizational principles of a masterplan and the distribution of green-areas by creating iterations. A parametric landscape urbanism method has been developed and applied as the concept of a self-sufficient micro-nation located in Europe. The methodology uses principles that consist of three stages: defining the siteâ€™s constraints, generating computational geometry, and the optimization process, which uses evolutionary algorithms. As a result, a solution space is generated by creating iterations for green area distribution and determining their green area ratios. The method can potentially be applied to other site domains and optimization problems. Keywords Computing, Evolutionary algorithms, Form generation, Landscape urbanism, Parametric design.
1. Introduction Ecological awareness has been on UIFSJTFTJODFUIFMBTUDFOUVSZ%JÄŒFSent methods have been investigated to analyse the relationship between ecology and design in order to find solutions for environmental problems and create TVTUBJOBCMFMJWJOH &SEFN Ä‡F understanding of landscape architecture is multi-faceted and includes the knowledge of ecology, horticulture, land science, geology, soils, hydrology, botany, biology, chemistry and physics. Landscape architecture deals with open space, the public realm, and the relationship between human activities and natural environment (Holden and -JWFSTFEHF "TTFFOGSPN1FUFS Cookâ€™s perspective, landscape and architecture is a single environment and DBOOPUCFTFQBSBCMF 4QFOT %JHJUBMDPNQVUFSNPEFMTBSFFYUFOsively used in all design disciplines, including landscape architecture and urban planning. They are mainly used for visualization purposes and the evaluation of options and simulation, through computer-aided design $"% BOE HFPHSBQIJD JOGPSNBUJPO TZTUFNT (*4 &SWJO $PNQVUer-based simulation tools are used for various purposes, such as assessing the visual impact of land-use decisions #FSHFO FU BM BOE NPEFMMJOH and monitoring landscapes (EĹ&#x;bah et. BM -BOETDBQF JT DPNQPTFE PG TJYFMFNFOUTUFSSBJO MBOEGPSN WFHetation, water, structures (both archiUFDUVSFBOEJOGSBTUSVDUVSF QFPQMFBOE animals, and atmosphere. The static geometric model should be able to respond to structural loads or hydrologic models. Algorithmic and data-structuring techniques are used to represent DPNQMFYJUZJONPEFMT &SWJO Architecture has been influenced by nature in its forms and structures and in the inner logic of its morphological QSPDFTTFT"DDPSEJOHUP'SB[FS architecture is literally part of nature, which means the man-made environment is a major part of the global eco-system and that man and nature share the same resources for building. #BTFEPO%BSXJOTBQQSPBDI UIFXPSME is undergoing continuous evolution and change. Evolutionary architecture deals with form-generating process-
es in architecture through a scientific search for a theory of morphogenesis in the natural world. Computers are required to simulate complex natural processes. The development of computing has been significantly shaped by the building of computer models used for simulating natural processes. Holland questioned natural and artificial systems in terms of how evolution produced increasingly fit organisms in highly unstable environments. The evolutionary model is considered a HFOFSBUJWFUFDIOJRVF 'SB[FS The basis of computation is varying parameters that respond to different iterations of an algorithm (FrazFS "DDPSEJOH UP 4DIVNBDIFS QBSBNFUSJDJTN JT B TUZMF SPPUed in digital animation techniques. *UTMBUFTUSFÄ•OFNFOUTBSFCBTFEPOBEvanced parametric design systems and scripting methods that are applied to all scales, from architecture to urban design. Parametricist urbanism aims to construct a new logic to interrelate multiple urban systems, including fabric modulation, street systems, and a system of open spaces (Schumacher, "MUIPVHI UIFSF JT B DPOUSBSZ perspective on parametricism, namely that the use of parametrics is only an efficient way of flexibly describing geometry and does not necessarily lead UPBOZTUZMF 'SB[FS QBSBNFUSJD design systems, along with advanced geometric modelling capabilities of computers, lead to complex and articulated organizational and formal outputs. Similarly, Landscape Urbanism focus on urban planning by prioritizing the landscape design of the city over the design of buildings through the use of advanced digital techniques, including parametric design systems. Although there have been projects and research undertaken in landscape urbanism, there is a necessity to develop a method that can be implemented for a masterplan by selecting the critical parameters related to the distribution and optimization of green areas with the intent of creating a self-sustained ecological system. The concept of landscape urbanism and an algorithmic approach is discussed further to get a better understanding of the proposed methodology.
1.1. Landscape urbanism %FTJHO BOE QMBOOJOH OFFE UP SFspond to environmental issues, including the decline of natural resources, pollution, the greenhouse effect, and ozone layer destruction. The design of ecologically sustainable cities is concerned with the process of structuring public space (Moughtin and Peter 4IJSMFZ "MUIPVHICVJMEJOHTBSF considered the focus on issues related to sustainability, landscape plays an integral role in the generation of sustainable cities because landscape as a built piece of infrastructure obtains a critical task in the performance and livability of a city and needs to be evaluated as an important organ within the city rather than as leftover spaces between CVJMEJOHT 4DIXBS[ "MUIPVHI designers are aware of issues related to sustainability, sustainable design is not always seen as representing design excellence or innovation. Early examples were mainly focused on technologies that produce energy and recycle waste .PTUBGBWJ BOE %PIFSUZ "EEJtionally, the relationship between nature and architecture needs to include physical and biological processes beyond aesthetic considerations (PallasNB The concepts of Landscape Ecology, Ecological Urbanism and Landscape Urbanism aim to find ways to integrate nature with architecture and urban design. While landscape ecology intents to challenge the role of human impact on landscape structures and functions, ecological urbanism aims to balance conflicting conditions of ecology and VSCBOJTN*OMBOETDBQFVSCBOJTN UIF landscape is the main driver of urban design instead of some basic building blocks that combine ecology with stimulating designs generated through the use of advanced digital techniques 4VSZB -BOETDBQFIBTFNFSHFE as a model for contemporary urbanism today that is capable of describing decentralized urbanization in the context of complex natural environments and that obtains a deep concern for landscapeâ€™s conceptual scope, territories, ecosystems, networks and infrastructures aside from vegetation and earthworks by organizing large urban areas 8BMEIFJN -BOETDBQF VSCBO-
ism is described as a process-oriented approach above the form-oriented approach that has been driven by the arguments of Rem Koolhaas on urbanism. He describes urbanism as conditioning, fluid, and process-oriented 1BMNCPPN Landscape begins with the ground, which is a three-dimensional entity. The relationship between the infrastructure of a city and natural systems motivates the discussion of urban strategies through the development of networks of ecological systems (WaldIFJN Ä‡F EFWFMPQNFOU PG UIF landscape (dikes, drainage and reclaNBUJPO BOE UIF TIBQJOH PG UIF DJUJFT TUSFFUQMBOT DBOBMTZTUFNT EFGFOTJWF TZTUFNT XBUFSEFGFODFT GPSUJÄ•DBUJPOT and infrastructure (canals, harbours, SPBET BOE SBJMXBZ MJOFT BSF JOUFSDPOOFDUFE FMFNFOUT 1BMNCPPN There are methodologies developed for ecological infrastructure as a basis for design, which was pioneered by landscape architect Frederick Law Olmsted. The aim of landscape urbanism is to produce new open-space morphologies by generating, integrating and mediating ecological systems with a well-developed understanding of the ground as well as deploying a fluid built form that incorporates a new infrastructural sensibility (Castro et. al., 1.2. Algorithmic approach The term computation is usually confused with the term computerization. While computation includes mathematical and logical methods, computerization is concerned with the processing and storage of existing JOGPSNBUJPO 5FS[JEJT $PNQVUBUJPOBMEFTJHO $% IBTTUBSUFEEPNinating architectural design process parallel to technological developments that requires solving problems using a TZTUFNTJOUFHSJUZ$%XBTEFWFMPQFEBT a sub-discipline that aims to solve complex problems in architecture through its advanced computation capacities. *UT UFDIOJRVFT FOBCMF UIF FTUBCMJTIment of systems, even those with complex properties, in a holistic manner. Computation obtains an algorithmic logic that is deterministically rational, EFDJTJWF BOE TZTUFNBUJ[FE ÂąPMBLPĘ“MV
A parametric landscape urbanism method: The search for an optimal solution
*OMJOFXJUIUIJT QBSBNFUSJDEFsign is based on manipulating a particular form or study by changing its parameters and creating iterations (Kvan FUBM BTTFFOJO"OUPOJ(BVEJT work on a post-analysis of Mark Burry 'SB[FS )PXFWFS UIF DBQBCJMJUJFT PG UIF DVSSFOU UPPMT JO $% JO UIF design process have limitations, which are continuously being improved upon. Landscape urbanism offers the reinterpretation of the traditional conceptual, representational and operative techniques with a new language by entering the digital space of computers 8BMEIFJN 1BSBNFUSJD EFTJHO is a strong medium that enables people to generate a solution space through iterations, allowing various design alternatives to be tested in the process by generating extensive organizational and formal outputs. Although parametric models enable us to create systems with objective criteria, there are a comprehensive amount of issues that need to be addressed fully during the design process such as site constraints, program, performance requirements, planning regulations and climate. Therefore, simplifying the parametric model plays a critical role. The design decisions are generally made by the designer using the solution space driven by the parametric model and based on the combination of objective criteria and knowledge and his or her experience.
UXPEJNFOTJPOBM % $"%QMBOGSPN the Autocad is inserted into the RhiOPDFSPT%HFPNFUSJDNPEFMMJOHTPÄ™ware. Additionally, the Grasshopper parametric design tool and the Galapagos optimization engine for evolutionary solver are operated in the process. Although applied rules introduce an organizational logic regarding the masterplanning (including the parcel sizes, dimensions and green area EJTUSJCVUJPOT UIFSF BSF WBSJPVT PUIFS parameters to be considered during the design of a masterplan. Critical parameters related to green area distribution are selected for this research in order to simplify the model and reduce the computing power and runtime required. 2.1. Defining the site constraints The site has a mild climate and is located between Croatia and Serbia on UIFXFTUCBOLPGUIF%BOVCFSJWFSÄ‡F BSFBPGUIFTJUFJTBQQSPYJNBUFMZLN 'JHVSF Ä‡F OFBSFTU UPXOT UP UIF TJUFBSF;NBKFWBDJO$SPBUJBBOE#BĘŠLJ MonoĹĄtor in Serbia. Additionally, the topography is almost flat. According to the design brief, the masterplan should reflect the artificial ecologies concept by offering a nature-like built environment with a systemic settlement plan. The density QPUFOUJBMJTDVSSFOUMZ DJUJ[FOT
2. Methodology A parametric landscape urbanism method has been developed and applied to the concept of a self-sufficient micro-nation located in Europe by specifying the critical parameters, rules and relationships of the system that uses principles driven through natural systems. The methodology is implemented for the organizational principles of a masterplan and distribution of green areas by creating iterations consisting of three stages: defining the site DPOTUSBJOUT UIFHFOFSBUJPOPGUIF DPNQVUBUJPOBMHFPNFUSZ BOEUIF PQUJNJ[BUJPOQSPDFTT A series of digital tools are used in UIFQSPDFTTGPSUISFFEJNFOTJPOBM % geometric modelling, parametric design and optimization purposes. The Figure 1. Masterplan site. *56"];t7PM/Pt/PWFNCFSt4:B[Â‘DÂ‘
Figure 2. Analytical study of the NURBS curves forming the site: A- The length of the segments, including arches & straight lines; B-Perpendicular length of straight lines to the segments, by connecting starts and ends of segments.
Figure 3. Generation of the masterplan geometry.
A dense urban configuration, which could potentially be developed vertically, is suggested by the design brief. %VSJOH UIF EFTJHO QSPDFTT UIF TJUF boundaries of the masterplan area and the major roads in Croatia and Serbia BSFJOWFTUJHBUFE*UJTOFDFTTBSZUPHFOerate a main spine to connect the masterplan site to the other countries and cities. 2.2. Generation of the computational geometry /POVOJGPSN 3BUJPOBM #4QMJOF /63#4 JT B TUBOEBSE GPSN PG EFscription for curves and surfaces and has the ability to determine all types of geometries, including complex forms. /63#4 PCUBJOT BEWBODFE NBUIFNBUical and algorithmic properties (Piegl BOE 5JMMFS Ä‡F FRVBUJPO PG B /63#4 DVSWF DBO CF EFTDSJCFE as the following, whereÂ pÂ is the orEFS â€Ť Ú€â€Ź/i,pÂ are theÂ B-splineÂ basis functions,Â PiÂ are the control points, and the weightÂ wiÂ ofÂ PiÂ is the last ordinate of the homogeneous pointÂ Piw (Wolfram,
The shape of the masterplan is analysed geometrically. The site has an irregular geometry, with dimensions PG BQQSPYJNBUFMZ LN BOE LN in the x and y directions, respectively. The geometry is formed by two freeGPSN/63#4QSPÄ•MFDVSWFT XIJDIBSF described using analytical methods, and by generating rational segments as straight lines or arches. The lengths of the segments, as well as the perpendicular distance of straight lines that connect the start and end points of the segments to the segments, are calculated in order to re-build the profile curves 'JHVSF The surface is generated via the loft command, which is able to fit a surface through selected profile curves that define the surface shape using Rhino geometric modelling software. A /63#4 TVSGBDF DBO CF EFTDSJCFE CZ the polynomials of two independent QBSBNFUFSTDBMMFEUIF6BOE7WBMVFT which are the divisions of the surface JOUIFYBOEZEJSFDUJPOT*UJTOFDFTTBSZ to introduce a grid for the parcelling of the masterplan and for the major roads connecting the masterplan area to other cities. A grid and a sub-grid, driven by the geometric properties of the surface, as well as main roads in the north-south direction to be used as the major transportation spine, are inUFHSBUFEJOUPUIFTZTUFN 'JHVSF #Z increasing or decreasing the number of grid elements of the surface, the parcel sizes and shapes can be altered. Thus, various options for the parcelling of the masterplan are generated. The natural formations on the existing land, which appear as gaps in the forests, lead to the investigation of soil erosion in natural processes. Soil erosion occurs as a rule-based system in nature and obtains characteristics related to the directionality, linearity and specific ratios for length-width. Some rules are specified towards the formation of building geometries. The rules can be specified as follows, in which w and l represent the width and length of the building, respectively:
A parametric landscape urbanism method: The search for an optimal solution
t rule 1:XM t rule 2: building positioning / northsouth. t rule 3:building boundary / offset by NFUFSTJOXBSETGSPNUIFQBSDFMT Although the geometry of the masterplan responds to the site conditions, the parcels are generated by avoiding hierarchy and by aiming to democratize the use of parcels. Public, private and mixed-use buildings are introduced as different building types that create a continuous skyline that can be altered based on the design intent and density requirements. 2.3. Optimization process %FTJHO JT DPOTJEFSFE BO PQUJNJ[BUJPO QSPDFTT *U JT DSJUJDBM UP HFOFSBUF iterations/options for design development by eliminating immature soluUJPOT WPO #Ă MPX .BOZ PG UIF optimization processes used in engineering disciplines are adopted from a natural phenomenon, such as genetic BMHPSJUINT (" 4UPDIBTUJD NFUIods would be suitable for undertaking complex tasks; specifically the GA, which is based on analogies in bioMPHJDBM HFOFUJDT %JNDJD 5VSSJO FU BM ,BXBNVSB BOE 0INPSJ WPO#Ă MPX WPO#Ă MPXFU BM 0QUJNBMTQBDFJTBVOJWFSTBM mathematical object ruled by natural MBXT 1BTTJOP $MBTTJDBMPQUJNJzation methods are not sufficient for producing a variety of solutions. Evolutionary algorithms, however, can produce various solutions by working on multi-objectives. The design variables, objective functions and constraints are the important domains of optimization that need to be specified for optimization calculations. The design variables are those that can be changed to find an optimal solution. The goal of the design is the objective function, which is a mathematical definition of a term and mainly describes a minimization. Galapagos is an optimization engine on Rhino Grasshopper based on an evolutionary solver, GA. Evolution starts from a population by generating randomized individuals; each iteration is called a generation. Fitness is the objective function of the optimization problem. The generation process is carried out until the fixed number
of generations is reached. The fitness score represents the ability of an individual to compete. Evolutionary algorithms do not guarantee a solution nor is there a perfect solution. Every solution has drawback and limitations. *G B QSFEFÄ•OFE TVÄ?DJFOU WBMVF JT OPU specified, the process may run on indefinitely. Evolutionary algorithms have strong benefits, such as their flexibility at being able to handle a variety of problems. Additionally, because the run-time process is progressive, intermediate answers can be given. The variables, which are referred to as genes in evolutionary computing, are the values that can be changed. By using different combination of genes, better or worse results can be achieved. Every combination of genes results in a particular fitness. The initial step for the solver is to populate the model space with a random collection of individuals, or so-called genomes. They can be also called chromosomes. A genome is a specific value for each gene and the algorithms defines how fit every genome is. While the selection process aims to find the survival of the fittest, coalescence represents the gene combination. Breeding or coupling is the process of finding mates. After being elected to mate by the selection algorithm, the individual needs to pick a mate from the population. Selection PDDVST UISPVHI HFOPNJD EJTUBODF 5P select individuals that are not too close or too far, the in-breeding factor can be determined in the Galapagos program. Because selection, coupling and coalescence have a tendency to reduce the bio-diversity of a population, the only mechanism that can introduce diversity is mutation, which introduces random modifications. A population of candidate solutions is generated in UIFTPMWFS (BMBQBHPT A Grasshopper code for the parametric model is created for the generation of the computational geometry, including the parcels. The profile curves based on the site input are assigned to the loft command to generate the computational surface. Then the lofted surface is divided into sub-surfaces, which can be altered based on the number TMJEFSUIBUDPOUSPMTUIF6BOE7WBMVFT PG UIF /63#4 TVSGBDF BTTJHOFE BT
Figure 4. Grasshopper definition towards finding the fittest solution by operating the evolutionary solver: Parcels are indicated as the built-parcels and the remaining ones are considered as green areas.
in the model. The subdivided surfaces are extracted as items that retrieve specific items from a list. The items are connected to the random button, which can generate a list of pseudo SBOEPNOVNCFST*UPCUBJOTUISFFWBSJBCMFT DBMMFE 3BOHF 3 /VNCFS / BOE 4FFE 4 8IJMF 3 SFQSFTFOUT UIF EPNBJOPGBSBOEPNOVNFSJDSBOHF / represents the number of random values and S the seed of a random engine. The number slider ranges are indicated as follows: 3 / 4 The areas of the items, which represent the parcels, can be calculated. A list is generated through the panel for text. While the parcels generated by the code represent the built-parcels, the remaining areas represent green areas. By altering the parameters, different variations in parcel layout, and therefore different distributions of the green areas and built parcels, are created. %VFUPUIFOFDFTTJUZPGSFEVDJOHDPNputing power, the model is simplified by excluding roads in the optimization
process. For running the evolutionary solver in Galapagos, two input values need to be specified: the Genome and the Fitness. The Genome represents the genes and the variables to be altered while the fitness represents the objective function that the system aims to achieve through the process. The geOPNFJTDPOOFDUFEUPUIF/BOE4WBMVFT PG UIF SBOEPN CVUUPO 'JHVSF Fitness is selected by minimizing total built areas so that the algorithm finds the best fit solution by increasing green areas during the optimization process. The runtime is not restricted. Below are the initial settings used in the optimization process:
3. Results The optimization is based on minimizing the total built area so that a maximum gain in the distribution of the green areas is achieved. Based on
A parametric landscape urbanism method: The search for an optimal solution
UIFPQUJNJ[BUJPO UIFJUFSBUJPOT * BSF BOBMZTFE' / WBMVFT HSFFOBSFBTBOE the green area ratios, which indicate the ratio of green areas to the total area, BSFTQFDJÄ•FE 5BCMF Ä‡FUPUBMBSFBPG UIFNBTUFSQMBOTJUFJT TRN Ä‡FÄ•UUFTUTPMVUJPO * JTBDIJFWFEGPS /BOE4 XJUIUIFÄ•UOFTTWBMVF ' PG CZSFBDIJOHUIFHMPCal maxima, of which the total cumulaUJWFCVJMUBSFBJT TRNÄ‡F MFBTUÄ•UTPMVUJPO * BDIJFWFEUISPVHI UIF DPNQVUBUJPO PG / 4 BOE ' PG XIJDI UPUBM DVNVMBUJWF CVJMU BSFB JT TRN Through the computation of various PUIFSTPMVUJPOT *BOE*BSFHFOFSated in between the fittest and least fit TPMVUJPO*UIBTCFFOPCTFSWFEUIBUUIF system did not generate any solutions by using the maximum or minimum WBMVFT GPS UIF WBSJBCMFT JO XIJDI / PS BOE4PS * * CFcause the algorithm only works by taking some portions of the variables, the genes, as a result of an operation of the GAâ€™s in which all the genes are incorporated through crossover. One unexpected outcome of the optimization is UIBUBMUIPVHIUIF*BOE*PCUBJOB smaller built parcel area, they was not considered the most fit solutions following the computation of optimizaUJPOÄ‡FJOUFSQSFUBUJPOJTUIBUUIF* obtains one of the better combination PGHFOFT 'JHVSF The results underline the fact that although the optimization process driven by evolutionary algorithms assists users by creating iterations and a variety of options, the system cannot choose which one is the best solution depending on various design issues. The option developed further for the masterplan design is based on the analysis of the solution space generated by the optimization process combined with the experience, knowledge and intuitiveness of the designer / architect. Some parcels are merged into larger fields on the final version of the masterplan in order to accommodate land for forests and urban agriculture. Landscape becomes an integral part of the proposed masterplan and a sufficient amount of green areas must be created to generate a self-sustained system by using local resources, generat-
Table 1. I-1 and I-2 are the fittest and least fit solutions offered by the evolutionary solver.
Figure 5. Parcel distribution of different iterations, representing the built parcels. The rest remains as green. Table 2. Land use distribution of the masterplan.
ing its own energy and managing waste materials. A self-sustained ecological system should have a balanced distribution of green areas. The proposed masterplan introduces land portions, which are set aside for forests, urban BHSJDVMUVSBMMBOE BOEQBSLT 5BCMF The largest portion of the landscape is taken up by forest in order to maintain a natural eco-system. The purpose of the proposed urban agriculture land is to benefit the food supply. Additionally, a sufficient amount of parks are inUSPEVDFEBTBOPVUQVU 'JHVSF Proposed massing creates a seam-
Figure 6. Outcome of the masterplan.
MFTT TLZMJOF UIBU SFBDIFT VQ UP N The peaks in the masterplan skyline are high rise buildings that offer high density urban settlement, which is inevitable in order to maintain the highest portion of forests and other green areas in the built environment. The system PÄŒFST TRNPGBCVJMUFOWJSPOment, from mid- to high-density settlements, in order to accommodate a NJOJNVNPG JOIBCJUBOUTXIP SFRVJSFBQQSPYJNBUFMZ TRN TRNQFSQFSTPOBTSFRVFTUFECZUIF design brief. 4. Concluding remarks The concept of landscape urbanism is based on prioritizing landscape design in urban planning. The design of buildings is considered an outcome of JOJUJBMMBOETDBQFEFDJTJPOT%JHJUBMEFsign techniques influence all fields of EJTDJQMJOFT$%FOBCMFTVTUPFTUBCMJTI design systems using algorithmic logic in which parameters, rules and relationships are defined. Because of the necessity for a method that can integrate issues related to form generation and finding the optimal green area distribution of a masterplan, a parametric landscape urbanism method has been developed. By applying the procedures in the methodology, a solution space is created that consists of iterations through the optimization process. The green area ratios are then calculated. The results have proven that the algorithmic approach in the design and optimization processes enable to work with iterations for finding optimal solutions by comparing different alternatives. Although evolutionary algorithms enable us to create a solution space, architects, designers and landscape architects need to make their decisions through comprehensive
assessments concerning various design issues and intents for choosing the best solution unless there is an objective design goal that can be computed through the optimization process. The proposed method uses an algorithmic approach for a relevant design problem, which is important when creating a connection between the research VOEFSUBLFOJOUIFÄ•FMEPG$%BOEUIF practice in order to investigate the caQBCJMJUJFT PG UIF DVSSFOU $% UPPMT BOE enhance them. The scheme proposes certain percentages for green area distribution. However, these figures can be altered by maintaining systematic design principles and unity. The proposed method creates a self-sustained ecological system by creating a balanced distribution of green areas. Although the proposed method offers some indication related to a feasible distribution of the buildings on site, the model can easily be adapted to different possibilities through the parametric model. Because of the optimal geometry and size of the parcels, different building types can be implemented and various iterations can be created by using different parameters. The parcel sizes, as well as the building geometries, can be re-configured based on increasing or decreasing the density of urban settlement. Although the method has been tested on a specific site domain in Europe given by the design brief, it can be implemented on other site domains and optimized for different problems by re-defining the parameters. For future research, more studies should be undertaken to integrate the sub-systems into the masterplan including the infrastructure, water and XBTUFNBOBHFNFOUPGUIFMBOETDBQF*U JTQPTTJCMFUPBTTFTTUIF/63#4CBTFE TVSGBDFNPEFMPGUIFMBOETDBQFBTB% terrain by integrating issues related to the ground. Additionally, a multi-objective optimization process can be developed towards the solution of comprehensive design issues in landscape architecture, such as the climate, topography, distribution of plant morphologies and soil types.
A parametric landscape urbanism method: The search for an optimal solution
Acknowledgement The purposed methodology is applied in an international design competition, which was selected as a finalJTU %FTJHOMFBEFS4FWJM:B[Â‘DÂ‘EFTJHO BTTJTUBOTUÉ—TNBJMÉ®BIJOÂ½[ZFÊ“JO6OJWFSTJUZTUVEFOU References #FSHFO 4% .D(BVHIFZ 3+ 'SJEMFZ +- %BUBESJWFOTJNVMBUJPO dimensional accuracy and realism in a landscape visualization tool. Landscape and Urban Planning $BTUSP & 3BNÃ“SF[ + " 3JDP & Ä‡F (SPVOET PG B 3FOFXFE Practice. Architectural Design, Â±PMBLPÊ“MV # &YQMPSBUJPOT JO5FBDIJOH%FTJHO4UVEFOUTUPÄ‡JOL and Produce Computationally ComNVOJDBUJOH 4QBDF T 1SPDFFEJOHT PG UI F$""%F $POGFSFODF 7PMPT (SFFDF %JNDJD . 4USVDUVSBM 0QUJmization of Grid Shells Based on GeOFUJD "MHPSJUINT1I% EJTTFSUBUJPO *OTUJUVUF PG #VJMEJOH 4USVDUVSFT BOE 4USVDUVSBM%FTJHO 6OJWFSTJUZPG4UVUUgart. &SEFN . 3FWBMVBUJOHFDPMogy in contemporary landscape design, A|Z ITU Journal of the Faculty of Architecture, 9 &SWJO 4. %JHJUBMMBOETDBQF modeling and visualization: A research agenda. Landscape and Urban Planning &Ê°CBI ) &SEPÊ“BO . " "LJO 5BOSÂ‘ÃšWFS " $FMMVMBS BVUPNBta-Markov chain and landscape metrics for landscape planning, A|Z ITU Journal of the Faculty of Architecture, 'SB[FS + An Evolutionary Architecture. AA Publications, London. 'SB[FS + 1BSBNFUSJD$PNQVtation: History and Future. Architectural Design Galapagos. Retrieved from http:// XXXHSBTTIPQQFSEDPNQSPGJMFT blogs/evolutionary-principles. Access EBUF )PMEFO 3 -JWFSTFEHF + Landscape Architecture: An Introduction. Laurence King Publishing, London. ,BXBNVSB ) ) 0INPSJ Computational Morphogenesis of %JTDSFUF 4USVDUVSFT WJB (FOFUJD "MHP-
rithms.Memoirs of the School of Engineering /BHPZB 6OJWFSTJUZ ,WBO 5 .BSL & 0YNBO 3 .BSUFOT # %JUDIJOH UIF%JOPTBVS3FEFÄ•OJOHUIF3PMFPG%JHJUBM Media in Education.InternationalJournal of Design Computing. .PTUBGBWJ . %PIFSUZ ( Ecological Urbanism. University GradVBUF 4DIPPM PG %FTJHO -BST .Ã MMFS Publishers. .PVHIUJO $ 4IJSMFZ 1 Urban Design: Green Dimesions, Architectural Press, Elsevier, Boston. 1BMMBTNBB + /FX"SDIJUFDtural Horizons. Architectural Design, Palmboom, F. DrawingÂ theÂ ground: LandscapeÂ urbanismÂ today. Birkhaeuser, Basel. 1BTTJOP ,. Biomimicry for Optimization, Control and Automation4QSJOHFS7FSMBH -POEPO 1JFHM - 5JMMFS 8 The Nurbs Book4QSJOHFS7FSMBH #FSMJO 4DIVNBDIFS 1 1BSBNFUSJDJTN"/FX(MPCBM4UZMFGPS"SDIJUFDUVSF BOE 6SCBO %FTJHO Architectural Design 4DIXBS[ . Recycling Spaces Curating Urban Evolution: The Landscape Design of Martha Schwartz Partners. Thames & Hudson, London. 4QFOT . 'SPN .PVOE UP Sponge: How Peter Cook Explores Landscape Buildings. Architectural Design 4VSZB 4 -BOETDBQF &DPlogical Urbanism for Restoration of Pallikaranai Marsh Land, Chennai, 5BNJM /BEV*OUFSOBUJPOBM $POGFSFODF PO &NFSHJOH 5SFOET JO &OHJOFFSJOH 4DJFODF BOE 5FDIOPMPHZ *$&5&45 Procedia Technology 5FS[JEJT , Algorithmic Architecture. Elsevier, Oxford-UK. 5VSSJO . WPO#Ã MPX 1 ,JMJBO " 4UPVÄŒT 3 1FSGPSNBUJWF TLJOT for passive climatic comfort: A parametric design process. Automation in Construction 7PO#Ã MPX 1 "OJOUFMMJHFOU HFOFUJDEFTJHOUPPM *(%5 BQQMJFEUP the exploration of architectural trussed TUSVDUVSBM TZTUFNT 1I% EJTTFSUBUJPO *-&, 6OJWFSTJUZPG4UVUUHBSU
7PO #Ã MPX 1 Using Evolutionary Computation to explore geometry and topology without ground structures. 1SPDFFEJOHT PG UIF UI *Oternational Conference on, Computation of Shell and Spatial Structures *"44*"$. 4QBOOJOH /BOP UP .FHB$PSOFMM6OJWFSTJUZ *UIBDB /: 7PO #Ã MPX 1 'BML " 5VSSJO . Optimization of structural form using a genetic algorithm to search as-
sociative parametric geometry.Structures & Architecture, Proceedings of UIF 'JSTU *OUFSOBUJPOBM $POGFSFODF PO Structures and Architecture, Portugal. 8BMEIFJN $ TheÂ landscapeÂ urbanismÂ reader. Princeton ArDIJUFDUVSBM1SFTT /FX:PSL Wolfram. Retrieved from http:// NBUIXPSMEXPMGSBNDPN/63#4$VSWFIUNM"DDFTTEBUF
A parametric landscape urbanism method: The search for an optimal solution
Variations in design process: A case study about tool and task as design variants
BetĂźl ORBEY1, Sinan Mert ĹžENER2 1 CFUVMPSCFZ!HNBJMDPNt%FQBSUNFOUPG"SDIJUFDUVSF 'BDVMUZPG'JOF"SUTBOE Design, DoÄ&#x;uĹ&#x; University, Istanbul, Turkey 2 firstname.lastname@example.org t%FQBSUNFOUPG"SDIJUFDUVSF 'BDVMUZPG Architecture, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey
3FDFJWFE.BZt Final Acceptance: November 2016
Abstract Several researchers question the nature of design. Although design has specific characteristics that distinguish it from other cognitive activities, it also takes on different forms depending on the main factors of the design setting. To test this idea, this study has adopted design tools and tasks as the factors that change a design situation. In order to do that, a case study with one graduate student enrolled in Design Computing Program at Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul is conducted. The case is composed of four design sessions, each consisting of a unique combination of a tool and task. The analysis of the protocol aims to show how the different phases of a design process come together in different weights when working on the task depending on the problem given and the tool adopted. This study can be framed as adopting an activity based model where the actions of the participant are in a problem-oriented setting that requires re-production before re-iteration and are assessed through an analytical approach of coding activity in order to understand the impact of the design tool as a variant of the process. The results suggest that tools have a diverging effect on the process as they require different operational methods. On the other hand, the nature of design tasks converge designerâ€™s thoughts into a predictable pattern. The combination of the divergence and the convergence yields a spectrum of unique design situations. Keywords Design tool, Design process, Design variant, Tool cognition.
1. Introduction This study is conducted as part of a 1I% UIFTJT JOTQJSFE CZ 7JTTFST XPSL on augmented generic design, and argues that tools adopted act as design variants affecting the design process. *O BEEJUJPO 'JTI DMBJNT UIBU B mental tree of design possibilities exists in designerâ€™s mind; and this study claims that the adopted design tools are variants that effect the paths that the designer follows among the branches PGUIJTUSFF'JTIBMTPBSHVFTUIBUFBDI path requires the designer to practice a certain set of cognitive acts in shaping the design process which, this study aims to quantify through the use of design tools. However, a design situation can not be reduced to an isolated setting consisting of merely one variable being tested. Thoughts of a designer are as much related to the type of design task given as it is to design tool adopted. Therefore, this study comparatively analyzes tools against two types of design tasks. This allowed for a better understanding of dependencies between design variants that can be defined by triBOHMFPGUIFBDUPSUBSHFUBOEUPPM WPO Leeuwen, Smitsman, & von Leeuwen, JOUIFNPTUCBTJDBQQSPBDI The case study has aknowledged for a deeper understanding of the interdependent relation not only between the designer and the tool, but also between the type of design problem and the tool studied through a lens investigating the design process in a variety of design settings. It has attempted to inDBSOBUF7JTTFSTBQQSPBDIXJUIUBOHJCMF examples and data that reveal the inner workings of the design process. These examples and data indicate cognitive differences due to the adopted design tools and the type of the design task given. The case study involved one voluntary graduate student enrolled in the Architectural Design Computing Program at Istanbul Technical University. The case is composed of four design sessions, each consisting of a unique combination of one of the two types of problems to be tackled using physical modelling and one of the two distinct physical modelling tools utilized for the shared act of cutting.
The case is analyzed in three ways. The first set of analysis considers the tools as means of production by comparing them in a non-design task in terms of mental representations; and the second considers the tools as means of design by comparing tools in a design task. Third reading studies the design process altered by the adopted tools for the given tasks through phases of design activated in each tool and task combination. This article deals with the third reading that tries to understand the interactions between design variants in hand, the design tool and the design problem, at the scale of design phases in order to give a general sense of the impact that the tool and the task makes on the process. It attemts to quantify how the different phases of a design proccess come together in different weights to accomplish the task depending on the design problem given and the adopted tool. 2. Theoretical background 7JTTFS QPTFT UIBU BMUIPVHI â€œdesign has specific characteristics that distinguish it from other cognitive activities, it also takes on different forms depending on the main dimensions PG UIF EFTJHO TJUVBUJPOw Q $POTFquently, she confirms that â€œthere are both significant similarities between the design activities carried out in difGFSFOU TJUVBUJPOTw 7JTTFS BOE important distinctness between design and other cognitive activities as put forward in the generic design hypotheTJT (PFM (FSP1VSDFMM 7JTTFSJOUSPEVDFTBOFXQPTJUJPOUP augment the generic design notion by proposing that characteristics of a design situation introduce specifities in the corresponding cognitive activities and structures that are used in the reTVMUJOH EFTJHO 7JTTFS 4IF EFfines three dimensions as source for difference in design: the process, the designer and the artefact with relevant subsets to each. The focus of this study, design tools, are categorized under process with an emphasis on cognition. 2.1. Tool cognition Technologies are advanced and expanded so that we can do things that are not possible to achieve without the
help from technological advances, or so that they are inexpensive, speedy, BOE TJNQMF 7PMUJ -FÄ™ XJUI only the inherent physical capabilities, humans cannot reach certain capacities such as speed, strength etc. Overall, humankind is physically weak but it compensates for this physical weakness through intelligence which in reUVSONBLFTUFDIOPMPHZQPTTJCMF 7PMUJ
4JNPOEPO EJTUJOHVJTIFT CFtween a technical object and a tool by defining that technical objects are always embedded within larger networks of technical assemblies, including geographic, social, technological, political, and economic influences. On the contrary, like Hayles, I find it difficult to find a tool, as simple as it may be, that does not suit this definition. Accordingly, I depart from Simondon BOE Ä•OE QBSBMMFMT XJUI )BZMFT by considering tools as part of techniques and their potential in allowing for exponential change. At the root of the word technoloHZ JT UIF BODJFOU (SFFL XPSE UFLIOF XIJDI JT USBOTMBUFE BT iBSU w iDSBÄ™w PS iTLJMMw 7PMUJ XIJDIXFBTTPDJBUF XJUIDSBÄ™TNBOTIJQBOEiMPHPTw XIJDI refers to a framework of principles derived from the cognitive act of reasoning. â€œTekhneâ€? and â€œlogosâ€? were used together in classical literature to reveal the art of reason, or the skill involved in making. And this study values understanding the reasoning behind tools and technology that are in fact so powerful that change our own reasoning. However important it may seem, bibliometric studies indicate that role of tool in cognition is an under studied field compared to its language counterQBSU*O 1SFTUPOIBTOPUFE entries under the subject heading AMBOHVBHF FOUSJFTVOEFSiUPPMwBOE BOPUIFS VOEFS iBSUJGBDUw 1SFTUPO 0OUIFPUIFSIBOE "OEZ$MBSL TVHHFTUT UIBU iXIBU NBLFT VT distinctively human is our capacity to continually restructure and rebuild our own mental circuitry, courtesy of an empowering web of culture, education, UFDIOPMPHZ BOE BSUJGBDUTw 4NFEFT 8JUIIJTRVPUF IFGSBNFTXIZ tools are worth studying contrary to what bibliometric data might suggest.
Our brains re-structure and re-build our mental circuitry so seamlessly that the tools or technologies become transparent, meaning that they become WFSZXFMMJOUFHSBUFE4NFEFT FYemplifies this through sticks becoming an extension of the touch sense, in the case of the blind person; or cars extending our bodily motor capacities; or pens and pencils becoming extensions of our hands, and the paper becoming an extension of our cognitive device: by writing something down, we do not need to remember it any more as it is now externally stored on a piece of paper. In short, by technology and tools, we both manipulate human nature, and we also push ourselves beyond our QIZTJDBMBOENFOUBMDBQBCJMJUJFT 4NFEFT
8IFO UFDIOPMPHJFT BSF VTFE VCJRuitously surrounding and defining our environment, they do more than just allowing for the external storage and transfer of thoughts. According to $MBSL UIFZDPOTUJUVUFiBDBTDBEF of mind ware upgradesâ€?. Many of our tools are not just external aids, but they are â€œmind ware upgradesâ€? that are also deep and integral parts that re-define our problem-solving systems. Therefore, design tools are taken as variants that shape the design process; and this study focuses on the impact of a design UPPMPOEFTJHOQSPDFTT7BSJFUZPGEFÄ•nitions and approaches to models of design processes is explored next. 2.2. Design process models "DDPSEJOH UP #SPBECFOU BOE 8BSE +POFT EFÄ•OFT TJY EFTJHO NFUIods and the most important three of them are: â€œblack boxâ€?, â€œglass boxâ€?, problem structure. The â€œblack boxâ€? method reveals a mysterious approach to design and claims that design process can not be analyzed because is an abstract process that takes place in the designerâ€™s mind. The â€œglass boxâ€? method takes design as a sequencce of happenings that consists of identification, analysis, synthesis and evaluBUJPO #SPBECFOU *OUIFiQSPClem structureâ€? method, consisting of NBOZ JUFSBUJPOT "TJNPX "TJNPX NBLFTBEJBHSBNPGQSFMJNJOBSZ design and shows the steps to identify the best design approach from a num-
Variations in design process: A case study about tool and task as design variants
ber of other alternatives. A latter view CZ3JUUFMBOE8FCCFS TVHHFTUT that design process can not completely be described thus, it is not susceptible UP B DPNQMFUF BOBMZTJT $SPTT Royal Institute of British Architects 3*#" POUIFPUIFSIBOE MJTUTBMJOFFS structure of design process consisting of eight phases starting with identifying requirements and ending with QPTUDPOTUSVDUJPO GFFECBDL 3*#" Many definitions of the design process either elaborate the process at a macro level or reveal the order of comprehended results and not how the deTJHOFS CFIBWFT (FSJDLF BOE #MFTTJOH .PTUPGUIFQSPDFTTNPEFMTTVHHFTUBNBSLFUESJWFOQSPDFTT NBSLFU QVMM DPOUSBSZ UP UFDIOPMPHZ ESJWFO QSPDFTTFT UFDIOPMPHZQVTI (FSJDLF #MFTTJOH 0QQPTJOHMZ .BÄ?O TVHHFTUT UIBU OFX NPEFMT PG the design process should be informed by interpretation of context istead of prescribing the ideal process. AccordJOHUP%FTJHO$PVODJMT SFQPSU â€œOur world is evolving so quickly that there may never be an ideal methodology or processâ€?. Although there is no universel design process applicable in every design context, they agree with &DLFSU BOE $MBSLTPO BOE #FTU UIBU DPNNPO HFOFSJD TUBHFT exist, independent of domain and that this core needs adaptation to context (FSJDLFBOE#MFTTJOH In order to analyze design processes shaped by the context which is a tool variant in this case, this study asks whether it is possible to compare tool related differences between design processes in the case of design problem situations; non-design problem situations and accross design and non-design problem situations, according to UIF GSBNFXPSL QVU UPHFUIFS CZ 8ZOO BOE$MBSLTPO 8ZOO BOE $MBSLTPO EFÄ•OF three schemes that have interrelated dimensions: stage based model vs. activity based model; problem oriented vs. solution oriented approach; abstract approaches vs procedural approaches vs. analytical approaches. According to this framework, stage based models structure the design process according to its design phases
and activity based models represent the design process through activities conducted during the course of design #MFTTJOH "UZQJDBMDIBSBDUFSJTtic of an activity is that it reappears for a number of times during the design process. Solution-oriented models propose a solution, analyse it and repeatedly modify it to explore the design space. On the other hand, problem oriented models put emphasis on analysis and understanding of the design problem before generating a range of design alUFSOBUJWFT 8ZOOBOE$MBSLTPO Abstract approaches tend to describe the design process at a high level of abstraction which corresponds to a CSPBE SBOHF PG TJUVBUJPOT 8ZOO BOE $MBSLTPO 1SPDFEVSBMBQQSPBDIes on the other hand, are more concrete and they focus on certain aspects of design projects relating to practical situations. Analytical approaches are used to better understand the design process through the use of techniques, QSPDFEVSFTPSDPNQVUFSUPPMT #SPXOJOH This study adopts an activity based model where the actions of the participant in the case study is noted and assessed in terms of repeating chunks in a problem-oriented setting where, the first phase of the case requires re-production of the given problem geometry and the second phase requires a design activity through re-iterations to generate a range of possible solutions; and the results are assessed through an analytical approach through an approach that encodes activity in order to understand the impact of design tool as a variant of the process. 3. Method Activity Theory is a qualitative research method that helps finding patterns and making meaning across actions. An activity is a goal oriented interactive stage where the actor interacts with an object through the use of a tool. â€œThese tools are exteriorized forms of mental processes manifested in constructs, whether physical or psychological. Activity Theory recognizes the internalization and externalization of cognitive processes involved in the use of tools, as well as the transforma-
Table 1. Coding actions of Drawing, Move and Inactivity.
Table 2. Coding phases of design.
tion or development that results from UIFJOUFSBDUJPOw 'KFME FUBM This study finds parallels with the theoretical background of Activity Ä‡FPSZEFWFMPQFECZ/BSEJBOE,VVUUJ BOE BEPQUT B TJNJMBS BQQSPBDI focusing on the activities taking place during design sessions and their interdependent relation with eachother. Each four design session is video taped, the recordings are divided into five minutes intervals and each interval is analyzed using the acts performed by the participant. Each act conducted by the participant is noted, composing a sequence of activity. This data provides insight about the design process according to patterns that emerge from identification of repeating action couples, which are defined as chunks of action that appear in the same order for multiple times during the design process. This study re-interprets Suwa and DPMMFBHVFT 4VXB (FSP 1VSDFMM DPOUFOU PSJFOUFE BQQSPBDI UP protocol analysis and coding scheme to provide data that yields a process oriented understanding of the design phases in the end. 3.1. Coding scheme 7JEFP SFDPSEJOHT UBLFO EVSJOH EFsign processes are analysed and each move the participant made is noted. The activities recorded are then grouped into three action categories.
Meanings are drawn from the frequencies of these action categories, and patterns emerging from repeatedly coupling actions, forecasting indicators regarding the nature of the process. Activites, action categories and concepts that emerged are detailed in the following sections. The participantâ€™s activities are grouped into three groups: Drawing, Move, Inactivity. These categories emerged from observations and generalization of various actions during the process. Inactivity category refers to the state of being motionless and the categories of Drawing and Move refer to state of motion. Action categories related to each activity are listed and BTTJHOFEBDPEFBTBCCSFWJBUJPO 5BCMF Concepts on the other hand, are interpretations of data regarding actions and activities and reveal insight about the design process. These concepts have emerged through repetition of action chunks that reveal meaningul intentions/decision and dependency analysis where the intentions behind actions are sought for by looking at proceeding and preceeding actions for FBDINPWF 5BCMF 4. The study The study is pursued in two phases: In the first phase the aim is to understand the effect of a design tool during the process of physically building a geometry that have been given to the QBSUJDJQBOU OPOEFTJHO TJUVBUJPO *O the second phase the aim is to understand the impact of the same design tool during the process of re-interpreting the geometry in a creative fashJPO EFTJHO TJUVBUJPO Ä‡F Ä•STU QIBTF therefore, investigates the design tool as means of production and the second phase investigates the same tool as means of design. The time allowed for re-producUJPOPGUIFJNBHFJTNJOVUFTEVSJOH the first phase and during the second phase of the experiment,the participant is asked to produce at least two iterations of her understanding of the JOJUJBMHFPNFUSZXJUIBUJNFMJNJUPG minutes for each iteration. Sketching is allowed during all phases of the experiment. The whole proccess is conduct-
Variations in design process: A case study about tool and task as design variants
ed with two design tools chosen to be compared. 4.1. Tools Comparison criteria selected are production method, operator and modeling method. Production method criteria refers to the type of production process such as additive, subtractive, cut or formative which are abbreviatFEBT"E 4 $VBOE'SFTQFDUJWFMZ"Editive method proceeds with adding layers/parts of the model proposed. Subtractive method proceeds with the removal of the parts of the whole that are not needed for the model. And formative method proceeds with modelling of the negative space around the positive that needs to be modelled, which is then filled with a porous material to form the positive parts. A distinction is made on who is operating the process. The reason for this assessment is the belief that although human factor is involved in designing the pre-production phase in either DBTF SVOOJOHBQSPDFTTNBOVBMMZ . PS EJHJUBMMZ % JOWPMWFT PS FYDMVEFT technology and alters the procedural steps needed to operate the tool. Thus, it alters the method of production and the way a designer thinks. Modelling method is also taken as a criterion since it is possible to think DPNQVUBUJPOBMMZ $P UISPVHIBNBOVBMQSPDFTTPSBOBMPHPVT "O JOBEJHital medium. According to this, laser cutter and x-acto knife pair is selected for further study. The reason behind it is that these two tools show similarities both in modelling and production method and only differ in by whom they are operated. They both pursue the act of cutting through analogue methods but the designer has to mark where to cut either manually or digitally; the path is not generated computationally as it would be in three dimensional modelMJOHTPÄ™XBSF 4.2. Tasks Two distinct geometries were deTJHOFE GPS UIF FYQFSJNFOU PO B % NPEFMMJOH TPÄ™XBSF Ä‡F SFMBUJPOT PG the parts were designed by the author so that the participant is not allowed UPEFTJHOEVSJOHUIFÄ•STUUBTL OPOEF-
Figure 1. Geometry given during non-design task.
TJHO XIFSFUIFUBTLJTTPMFMZUPSFQMJcate the image as a physical model to test the tools as means of production. Tasks consisted of two different gePNFUSJFT OBNFE ( BOE ( BOE UIFZ are addressed with both of the design UPPMT JO UPUBM PG FYQFSJNFOUBM TFUtings. Each geometry is assigned a design tool to be utilized both in a design task and a non-design task. The geomFUSZ OBNFE ( JT CBTFE PO B SFDUBOHVMBSQSJTNBOE(JTCBTFEPOBDVCF 'JHVSF *UIBTCFFOVTFGVMJOBWPJEing a serial position, which refers to the experience gained during the first phase and may be carried out onto the second phase, by allowing a fresh start with the new design tool. 5. Results 5.1. X-acto knife use in design Ä‡JTEFTJHOQSPDFTTDPOTJTUTPG of Moves PGDrawingBOEPG Inactivity. At this scale, it is clear that the moves are the driving force behind the design decisions. This should show us that process of physical model making is independent of sketching and proceeds with variety of Moves. The array of moves recorded in this process are as follows: Malign, Mcut, Massemble, Mmeasure and Mgesture. Acts of Drawing and Inactivity provide either visual aid to the designer or an opportunity to re-interpret, evaluate or further evolve the model. Acts of Inactivity recorded are I_looking_at_design and Ipan_orbit_zoom, where I_looking_at_design provides an opportunity to review the design proposal and a basis for re-interpretation and Ipan_orbit_zoom allows the designer to view the model from different angles. The only act of drawing that is reDPSEFEBOEUIBUNBLFTVQUIFPG the actions is Dmarks. Dmarks are utilized to make a record of the decision made rather than to produce ideas in
Figure 2. Action chunk 1 during x-acto knife use in design task.
Figure 3. Action chunk 2 during x-acto knife use in design task.
Figure 4. Action chunk 3 during x-acto knife use in design task.
Figure 5. Action chunk 4 during x-acto knife use in design task.
the form of a sketch. Moves are interrupted by Drawing activity especially by Dmarks action for the first Âž of the process and interrupted by Inactivity for the last quarter. This means that the first Âž of the process consists of making design decisions and elaborating the design proposal by seeking guidence from the Marks made and the last quarter of the process consists of evaluating the proposal through inactive states of looking at the design proposal. /PUBCMF QBUUFSOT PG BDUJPO BSF .Blign + Dmarks; Malign+Dmarks+Mcut; Malign+Dmarks+Mcut+MassemCMZ 'JHVSF Ä‡FTFQBUUFSOTJOEJDBUF that the designer reflects on what she sees â€“that is what she builds- therefore a move that aligns two parts is frequently followed by marking the position which is then cut and assembled in the end. The smallest chunk of this
pattern is to align+mark. The designer may chose not to continue to other parts of the chain and revise her decisions according to what she sees emerging. Or she may evaluate the proposal as she builds and sees it to complete the whole pattern of align+mark+cut+assemble. Therefore, this part of the experiment is said to present compliBODFXJUI4DIĂšOT SFÄ˜FDUJPOJO action process. During the first five minutes, Malign, Dmark, Mcut and Massembly acts UBLFQMBDF 'JHVSF .PTUQSPNJOFOU of those is the Malign + Dmark action chunk. These two acts initiate the decision making phase of the process. The designer visualizes the outcome of his proposal through simulation provided by the act of aligning. She manipulates it and ends the decision process through marking. During the next five minutes, unUJM UIF NJOVUF NBSL .BMJHO ESPQT yielding the executive act of Mcut accompany the external marks of design EFDJTJPOT %NBSL TP UIBU UIF TFF NPWFTFF DZDMF (PMETDINJEU can be completed through Mcut+Massemble action chunk to review the outDPNF 'JHVSF In this part of the timeline, Mgesture TUBSUTUPBQQFBSGPSUIFÄ•STUUJNF of the time, Mgesture is followed by Mcut. Mgesture+Mcut action chunk reveals that Mgesture acts as a visual aid supporting seeing that yields a design decision followed by a design NPWF FYFDVUJOH UIF EFDJTJPO 'JHVSF During the next five minutes, unUJMUIFNJOVUFNBSL .DVUNBLFTB peak. The reason for this may be that a single act of cutting is not enough to complete the execution of a design move, therefore the act itself is repeated multiple times. The chunks of moves analyzed show that design decision process is still on, but through a slightly different sequence. Ilooking_at_design+Mgesture +Mcut+Ilooking_at_design action chunk in this part appears frequently to make up UIF TFFNPWFTFF DZDMF (PMETDINJEU 'JHVSF Ä‡F EFTJHOFS MPPLT at the design to evaluate the proposal, makes a gestural move to simulate the design move in her mind in order to
Variations in design process: A case study about tool and task as design variants
see, and executes the decision through Mcut followed by another actor evaluation with Ilooking_at_design. Absence of Dmarks does not point to an absence in design decisions. It shows that Dmarks act as an external way of storing the information embedded in the decision. This is why we observe .DVUSJHIUBÄ™FS.HFTUVSFBOEOPUIJOH else in between. Means of execution available here eliminates the need to externally represent design decisions. %VSJOHUIFQBSUUIBUJTQPTUNJOutes, the rate of Mcut drops and acts of evaluation such as I_looking_at_ design or Ipan_orbit_zoom appear. The designer makes her last decisions through gestures and executes them through new cuts followed by pauses to look at the design and orbit the model so that it is viewed from different anHFMT 5BCMF The seeing phase of the design process makes its peak as the design process initiates but falls in a decreasing trend throughout the overall process. Execution phase of design starts at a relatively lower rate, but draws an inDSFBTJOHUSFOEVOUJMMUIFFOEPGNJOVUF NBSL 5BCMF &WBMVBUJPO QIBTF presents an increasing trend for the Ä•STUNJOVUFTBOEBDPOTUBOUSBUFGPS the rest of the time remaining. These trends provide us with insight regarding the nature of the process. The design task when x-acto knife is utilized utilizes doing rather than visualizing, because the design itself is an emerging prototype as the designer acts on it. Therefore, evaluation phase supresses seeing, and the ease of acting on the tangible physical model puts emphasis on the execution phase. Thus, this process can be characterized with doing and reacting. 5.2. X-acto knife use in non-design Ä‡JT TFTTJPO DPOTJTUT PG %SBXJOH BDUT .PWJOH BDUT BOE Inactivity. The balance in the use of specified activities present a wide spectrum of actions related. Drawing acts recorded during this session consists of Dtracing_problem, Dnumeric_input, Dmarks_guides, Dtracing_design, Dnew_parts. Moving acts recorded in this session consists of Mcounting_ problem, Mgesture, Mmeasure, Mcut
Figure 6. Action chunk 6 during x-acto knife use in design task. Table 3. Time based design actions.
Table 4. Time based design phases.
and Mcounting_design. And Inactivity in this session consists of I_looking_ at_the problem, Ilooking_at_the_design and Istaring. During the first five minutes of the session, the designer makes acts of intense measurements and marking along with acts of looking at the problem in order to understand the geometry. Here, the action chunk Mmeasure + Dmarks is recorded frequently. The designer starts the session with investigating the problem geometry, mark numeric input on the given geometry and then a long sequence of Mmeasure+Dmarks starts. The other acts recorded in this part of the session and are worth mention-
Figure 7. Action chunk 1 during x-acto knife use in non-design task.
Figure 8. Action chunk 2 during x-acto knife use in non-design task.
ing are Dtracing_problem and DtracJOH@EFTJHO 'JHVSF Ä‡FTF BDUT BSF carried out to either understand the geometry or the part that is planned to be cut. During the second five minutes, the act of Mmeasure continues at the same rate along with the act of Ilooking_at_the_problem in order to make sure parts designed will make up the geometry given when constructed. Dtracing_design here also helps the designer to specify the contours of the parts to be cut. (FTUVSBM BDUT PG .HFTUVSF BSF SFcorded at its peak in this session when the designer is in the stage of designating the parts to be cut through Dtracing_design and the act of Mgesture is hypothesized to help the designer visualize how the part will fit with the PUIFSQBSUTPODFJUTDPOTUSVDUFEJO% Therefore the action chunk I_looking_ at_the_problem+Mgesture appears frequently as the result of the designerâ€™s intention to simulate the results of Table 5. Time based design actions.
his action, to make sure it replicates the QSPCMFNHJWFO 'JHVSF "OEUIFBDU of cutting is more frequently recorded during this part. This means that the designer has taken design decisions and is in the phase of executing them. During the next five minutes, the activity of the designer drops but the rate at which Ilooking_at_the_problem stays constant for the designer constantly checks if the parts drawn are in accordance with the problem geometry given. In addition to Ilooking_at_the_ problem the designer, makes Dmarks and moves of Mcut and evaluates her design through Ilooking_at_the_design. During the last five minutes, the rate of Ilooking at the problem stays constant but she records many other acts at dipensable times. The reason for this messy character of activity is that she realizes that her model is not sufficient to replicate the geometry given XIFODPOTUSVDUFEJOEJNFOTJPOBOE that she looks for ways to understand the reason why such an inconsistency has happened. Therefore, she makes random acts once or twice each to see if she can sort the problem through UIFN 'JOBMMZ UIF BMMPUUFE UJNF FOET during her search for a solution before UIFNPEFMJTDPNQMFUF 5BCMF
This design process shows a decreasing level of activity overall, and an ondulating phase of seeing that starts with an increase in the first ten minutes, then drops dramatically for the next five minutes and increases again for another five minutes. In this process, the activity level of the evaluation phase is always the highest, although it shows a decreasing trend as well. Similarly, although execution starts at mid-levels, it shows a decrease during the design process and stays constant BÄ™FS UIF NJEEMF PG UIF QSPDFTT 5BCMF Ä‡F OBUVSF PG UIF UBTL HJWFO IBT forced the designer to force her visualization skills and evaluate it to execute the correct solution. However, she has failed to do so because the requirement of both visualization and execution with the task combined with manual operation required by the tool had a negative influence on the cognitive process of the designer. She has failed in visualizing and making sure what
Variations in design process: A case study about tool and task as design variants
she visualizes complies with the given geometry, thus the execution phase has failed as well, requiring a constant need to evaluate the problem geometry to figure out a strategy to construct it. This design process can be characterized to put emphasis on evaluation. 5.3. Laser cutter use in design task Ä‡JTTFTTJPODPOTJTUTPGPGESBXJOHBDUT PGJOBDUJWJUZBOEPG moves. This distribution of activity suggests that the designer has experienced a design session driven by drawing which is supported by phases of evaluation through inactivity. Drawing activity consist of Dnew parts, Dnumeric_input and Dtracing_design actions; inactivity is observed through Ipan_orbit_zoom and Istaring and moves that are recorded are Mgesture and Mcounting_design. 0Ä™FO SFDPSEFE BDUJPO DIVOLT during this session have been Mgesture+Istaring, Istaring+Dnew parts BOE.HFTUVSF %OFXQBSUT 'JHVSF All the three couples signify the presence of an image in mind, and that it is transformed and kept alive through Mgesture + Istaring. Istaring+Dnew parts couple indicates that the decision made in the internal representation is stored as an external representation. And finally the occurance of Mgesture+Dnew parts suggests that gestures are representations of acts taken on the internal image and the concluding form is stored in the sketches. During the first five minutes of the session, an intense dialogue between Dnew_parts and Istaring starts. Dnumeric_input and Mgesture support this couple. The designer is hypothesized to create an image of her design in her mindâ€™s eye when she pauses NPSF UIFO TFDPOET BOE UIFO NBLFT a sketch on paper to externalize the image created. The precise nature of the design tool forces the designer to think in exact numbers, make a record of those values and think of new parts of the design according to those values. And finally in this session Mgesture is hypothesized to be a resemblance of the model created as an internal representation. Dtracing design is also observed as an act that helps the designer to image her design in her mindâ€™s eye
Table 6. Time based design phases.
Figure 9. Action chunk 1 during laser cutter use in design task.
to make sure that all the pieces will fit once they are constructed. The acts that are recorded so far suggest that the first five minutes of the session has been about constructing the design proposal through creation of an image in the mind and transferring it on paper aided by the acts of tracing and shaping the model with gestures. In the second five minutes, in addition to Dnew parts and Istaring, the designer also starts evaluating the design proposal through Ilooking at the design. Moves of gesture keep supporting the act of creation along with the evaluative act of Ipan_orbit_zoom in order to review the design proposal achieved so far. Dtracing design remains occuring at the same rate in this part of the
Table 7. Time based design actions.
Table 8. Time based design phases.
Figure 10. Action chunk 1 during laser cutter use in non-design task.
session, allowing the design proposal being viewed as an active image in the mind. All these actions noted suggest that this phase concentrates on synthesis as well as evaluation. The last five minutes of the session presents a dramatic drop in activity. The actions that are still in process during this part are Dnew parts, Mgesture, Ilooking at the design and Dtracing design. It suggests that there still is an active image of the design in the
mind that is being transfered on computer through the help of Dtracing design and Mgesture to keep the internal image alive. And the single instance of Ilooking at the design suggests that act of evaluation is still involved in the QSPDFTT 5BCMF This design process stars on emphasis on seeing and mid levels of execution accompanied by minor acts of evaluation. The rates of appearance HFUT DMPTFS UPXBSET UIF NJOVUF mark; and they all decline almost conWFSHJOHMZUPXBSETUIFNJOVOFNBSL This design situation creates a process where seeing feeds execution and evalVBUJPOBDDPNQBOJFTUIFNMJOFFSMZ 5BCMF 5.4. Laser cutter use in non-design task Ä‡JTEFTJHOQSPDFTTDPOTJTUTPG of looking acts. These acts consists of staring, looking at the problem, looking at the design and pan, orbit or [PPN PG UIFTF BDUT BSF SFDPSEFE during the second five minutes of the design process. Drawing acts on the PUIFSIBOEUBLFVQUIFPGUIFEFTJHOBDUJWJUZ PGXIJDIUBLFTQMBDF in the second five minutes of the process. These numbers show that an increase in the rate of activity takes place during the second half of the design process. 'SFRVFOUMZ OPUFE BDUJPO DIVOLT JO this session are Istaring+Dnew_part and Ipan_orbit_zoom+Ilooking_at_ QSPCMFN *MPPLJOH@BU@EFTJHO 'JHVSF Ä‡FTF DIVOLT TVHHFTU UIBU UIF designer constructs a replica of the problem geometry given in her mind, transfers it on the computer screen for execution and then tries to match her input with the geometry given to make sure that they comply. The first five minutes of the design QSPDFTT QSFTFOUT VT XJUI POMZ PG the total activity. Among this, there is UIF PG *TUBSJOH TJHOBMMJOH VT UIBU during the first five minutes the designer has tried to construct the proposal in his mind through attempts to image it internally. Chunks of Istaring+Dnew_part converge to the same point that the designer tries to see in his mind, draws on paper and repeats this chunk for several times during the
Variations in design process: A case study about tool and task as design variants
first five minutes. During this period she also tries to observe the problem to be replicated by Ilooking_at_problem and takes notes regarding the numeric values, Dnumeric, that would be utilized in the construction of the model and also traces parts of the problem Dtrace_problem to better visualize it. In general, this period in the session tries to construct the principles of the geometry asked to be replicated. In the second five minutes of the session, act of Dnew_parts doubles, Iproblem quadruples and acts of Ipan_ orbit_zoom, Idesign and various sorts PG .HFTUVSF BQQFBS 5BCMF Ä‡F JOcreased rate of activity implies that the designer has grasped the principles of construction of the geometry and is working towards production. And the details of the activity reveal that, Ipan_ orbit_zoom + I_looking_at_problem + I_looking_at_design chunk, the designer evaluates the drawing she made on the computer and compares it to the geometry given in order to detect any inconsistencies. Appearence of all sorts of Mgesture towards the end of the session signifies an overall evaluation of the completed model through simulation. It acts as a model drawn in the air as the geometry is still only represented on a 2D screen. Activity level during the first five minutes remain at lower rates, then each phase makes its own peak at the NJOVUF NBSL XJUI UIF FWBMVBUJPO QIBTFCFJOHPWFSQSBDUJDFE 5BCMF In this process, seeing is minimized as a consequence of the nature of design task given. The designer rather proceeds with attempts to understand the rules of the geometry and applying it, resorting to visualization at a minimum. This signifies that the tool has become transparent through ease of execution. 5. Conclusion Design process based readings have MFEUP7JTTFSTOPUJPO EFTJHOPOFCVUJO EJÄŒFSFOU GPSNT 7JTTFS 8IFO the phases, evaluation, execution and seeing are elaborated through their impact on the design process, a comparison based on design tasks and design tools becomes possible. According to this, based on non-design task situation, the process measured with either
Table 9. Time based design actions.
Table 10. Time based design phases.
tool has yielded an emphasis on evaluation; therefore we can conclude that the nature of task converges the acts of a designer. On the other hand, the tool combined with the task either becomes transparent as in the case of laser cutter, or becomes overwhelming when the cognitive cost of manual operation is added to evaluation, visualization and execution as in x-acto knife situation. Based on design task situation, evaluation phase is de-emphasized in either case. The tools within design task situation differ in how the designer uses them strategically, such as seeing by doing during x-acto knife use or doing by seeing during laser cutter use. X-acto knife use for a design situation has yielded an interactive physical model where the designer makes new design decisions as she reacts to her own design moves. On the other hand, laser cutter use during a design task requires the designer to visualize in mind in order to execute, changing the cognitive practices of the designer
Table 11. Comparing design processes.
8IFO B DPNQBSJTPO JT NBEF CFtween design and non-design situaUJPOTCBTFEPOVTFPGEFTJHOUPPMT 5BCMF UIF BOBMZTJT TIPXT UIBU TFFJOH and executing, although weighing the same rate, work in reverse timing in UIFDBTFPGYBDUPLOJGFVTF8IFOVTF of laser cutter is compared between non-design and design tasks, the role that the evaluation and seeing phases play signals an interchanging importance based on the tool and task combination. As a result, each design setting has presented similar qualities such as evaluation, seeing and execution phases, independent of certain variables. However, the level at which the previous sections study the sessions reveal that the internal -cognitive- mechanisms that take place and the intensities at which the phases appear, may alter as the variables change such as design tool adopted or design task. 6. Discussion The study has pursued an investigation at the level of design tools adopted with different types of design tasks, seeking for data that reveal distinct characteristics of design processes in each design situation. According to this, the results suggest that, the nature of design task, whether it is a design or a non-design task, converge the thoughts of a designer into a predictable pattern. The combination of tool and task, may yield a spectrum of unique design situations. Thus, the tool and the task can not be thought independently.
The results have shown that tools have a diverging effect on the proccess as they require different methods for operating and by definition, where StaDFZBOE-BVDIF EFÄ•OFBNFUIod as the way something is done. Each tool, even the ones adopted for same purposes, demand a specific method in order to operate. They bring variety in the way a designer formulates thoughts in order to solve the design problem thus; impact the way the designer thinks and the design process shapes. 'JOEJOHT PG UIJT TUVEZ XJMM CF VTFE as a base for future studies on the strategic use of design variables in design studios focusing on a much smaller scale where cognitive acts are studied. The future studies will look for specific cognitive clues presenting further evidence regarding the ways in which tools bring variety in terms of ways PG UIJOLJOH 'VSUIFS TUVEJFT EFQBSUing from such findings may construct a new pedagogy in design teaching where the instructor decides on a set of cognitive abilities to be practiced implicity by the student through a selection of design tools and related tasks. References "TJNPX . Introduction to Design. Prentice Hall. #FTU , Design Management: Managing Design Strategy, Process and Implementation. -BVTBOOF "7" "DBdemia. #MFTTJOH - $PNQBSJTPO PG design models proposed in prescriptive literature. Proceedings of COST A3 / COST A4 International research workshop, Social Sciences Series Vol 5. Lyon.
Variations in design process: A case study about tool and task as design variants
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ter University. .BÄ?O % &OHJOFFSJOH %Fsign Models: context, theory and practice. Journal of Engineering Design, 9 1SFTUPO # $PHOJUJPO BOE Tool Use. Mind and Language, 13 1VSDFMM " 5 (FSP + 4 Drawings and the design process. Design Studies, 19 3*#" .BZ RIBA Plan of Work 2013. Retrieved from http:// www.ribaplanofwork.com/about/Concept.aspx 3JUUFM ) 8 8FCCFS . . %JMFNNBT JO (FOFSBM Ä‡FPSZ of Planning. Policy Sciences, 4 4DIĂšO % Reflective Practitioner. USA : Basic Books Inc. 4JNPOEPO ( Being and Technology. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. 4NFEFT 5 " 5FDIOPMPHZ BOE &WPMVUJPO Ä‡F 2VFTU GPS B /FX Perspective. Dialog: A Journal of Theology, 44 4UBDFZ . -BVDIF , Thinking and representing in design. *O+$MBSLTPO $.&DLFSU Design Preocess Improvement: A review of current practice QQ -POEPO Springer. 4VXB . (FSP + 4 1VSDFMM 5 .BDSPTDPQJD BOBMZTJT PG EFsign processes based on a scheme for codign designersâ€™ cognitive actions. Design Studies, 19 7JTTFS 8 %FTJHOPOFCVUJOEJÄŒFSFOU forms. Design Studies, 30 7JTTFS 8 %FTJHO POF CVU in different forms. Design Studies, 7PMUJ 3 Society & Technological Change./FX:PSL4U.BSUJOT Press, Inc. 7PO -FFVXFO - 4NJUTNBO " WPO -FFVXFO $ "ÄŒPSEBODFT perceÄ&#x;tual complexity and the development of tool use. Journal of Ezperimental Osychology: Human Perception and Performance, 20 8ZOO % $MBSLTPO 1 + .PEFMTPGEFTJHOJOH*O1+$MBSLTPO & C. M. Eckert, Design Process Improvement: A review of current practice QQ -POEPO4QSJOHFS4DJFODF & Business Media.
Contributors Selma ALAÇAM Dr. Sema Alaçam is an architect and assistant professor at Istanbul Technical University (ITU), Faculty of Architecture. She has research experience from TU Delft, Hyperbody Research Group (2006-2007) and ETH Zurich, Chair of Structural Design in 20132014. Apart from the undergraduate architectural design studio, she teaches various graduate courses related to the computational design and digital fabrication approaches in architecture. Ümit ARPACIOĞLU Born in 1976, in Istanbul. He received his bachelor’s degree at Mimar Sinan Fine Arts University at 2001, on the same year he began his career as a research assistant in the Department of Architecture at MSFAU. He completed his master and PhD theses at the Institute of Science and Technology, Building Physics and Material Department. Since 2012, he continues his career as an assistant professor doctor at MSFAU. Ayse BALANLI Ayşe Balanlı is currently a fulltime Professor at Hasan Kalyoncu University, Gaziantep, Turkey, after her retirement from Department and Faculty of Architecture, Yildiz Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey. She received her B.Arch. and MSc. degrees from IDGSA (Istanbul State Academy of Fine Arts) in 1973. She acquired her PhD degree at IDMMA (Istanbul State Academy of Engineering and Architecture) in 1981. Her academic research focuses on building biology, building elements and materials. Cermetrius L. BOHANNON C. L. Bohannon, PhD, ASLA, teaches in the Landscape Architecture Program at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, and received his PhD and MLA from Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University and BLA from the University of Arkansas. His research focuses on community engagement and design pedagogy, community narrative, and environmental justice.
Emel CANTÜRK Emel Cantürk is lecturer at Maltepe University, Faculty of Architecture and currently continues to architectural design PhD program in Istanbul Technical University. Her research areas focus on “architectural design”, “theory of architecture“, “housing and urban transformation”. She worked in several architectural offices and was involved in various projects and applications. Gülen ÇAĞDAŞ Gülen Çağdaş has graduated from Istanbul Technical University, Faculty of Architecture. She began as teaching assistant in 1981 at the same faculty. She took her Ph.D. degree on Architectural Design from the same university in 1986. She has become Associate Professor in 1989 and Professor in 1997. She held the Vice Dean position of Faculty of Architecture between 1997 and 2000, was the Head of Architectural Design Chair between 2004 and 2007 and also Department Head of Architecture between 2008 and 2012. She is still the Department Head of Informatics at the Institute of Science, Engineering and Technology, ITU. Her main research area is Architectural Design Computing (Web page: http://akademi.itu.edu.tr/cagdas/). Nikolus HENRY Nikolus Henry is a current graduate student in Landscape Architecture at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. He received his BSLA from North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University in Greensboro North Carolina. Pınar IRLAYICI ÇAKMAK Received her B.Arch in Architecture (2005), MSc. in Project and Construction Management (2008) and PhD. in Building Science (2014) from Istanbul Technical University. Currently works as an Architect at Istanbul Technical University. Major research interests include project and construction management, contract documents, contract administration, dispute resolution, and cost management in constrution projects.
Abdeldjebar LAYACHI Since 1994, architect in charge of studies and monitoring the rehabilitation of some ksour in southern Algeria. Currently, he teaches at the University of Sciences and technology of Oran. He directs studies dissertations and graduation projects in his master workshop “Sustainable Architecture”. His research focuses on heritage and bioclimatic designs. Odeta MANAHASA Graduated with bachelor and master degree from METU in 2005 and 2008 respectively. Currently, she is a PhD candidate at ITU. Her areas of expertise and research interest include: Architectural Education, Children and Architecture and Participatory Design. She is a senior lecturer and teaches Basic Design. Betül ORBEY Born in İstanbul, in 1984. She earned her undergraduate degree in architecture from the University of Virginia in 2006 and her graduate degree in architecture from İTÜ, Architectural Design Computing Program in 2010. She started her PhD. studies the same year in İTÜ and graduated in 2016. She worked as a Research Assistant in the Department of Architecture in Doğuş University between 2010-2013. She worked as a Lecturer between 20132016 and she is assigned as Assistant Professor in Doğuş University. Başak ÖZER Başak Özer, Landscape Architect (Ph. Dc) and Research Assistant at Istanbul Technical University. Topics of interest include urban public landscapes; human psychology and landscape design; tourist behavior and cities; social memory and memoryscapes; movies and landscape perceptions; roles of movies in consumption and design of landscapes; urban marketing movies; film-induced tourism; urban gentrification; graffiti. İlker Fatih ÖZORHON Dr. İlker Fatih Özorhon received his B.Sc. (2000) and M.Arch (2002) degrees in Architecture from Yıldız Technical University and İstanbul Technical
University respectively. He obtained his Ph.D. degree from İstanbul Technical University in 2008. His recent research areas include Architectural Design, Design Teaching, Modernity and Modern Architecture. Ahsen ÖZSOY Studied architecture at ITU. She is a Professor and teaches architectural design, housing research-methodologies, psychology and architecture. Studies on housing quality; environment-behaviour research; architectural education, earthquake, gender and children issues. She has designed educational and residential projects, received national architectural awards. Administratively, served as Director of Institute of Social Sciences and Vice Rector of ITU. Nurbin PAKER KAHVECİOĞLU Nurbin Paker Kahvecioğlu is Associate Professor at Istanbul Technical University, Faculty of Architecture. Her research areas focus on “architectural and urban design”, “design theory”, “creativity in architectural design education”. She has undertaken various architectural design projects, received architectural design awards and put into practice some architectural applications with her colleagues. Asutan SARP YALÇIN Asutan Sarp Yalçın is Assistant Professor of Architecture at Abdullah Gul University (AGÜ), Kayseri, Turkey. She received her B.Arch. degree from Yildiz Technical University in 1998. She acquired her MSc and PhD degrees in the area of Building Science and Technology from Department of Architecture, Yildiz Technical University in 2000 and 2007, respectively. Her academic research focuses on building biology, building elements and materials. Yasin Çağatay SEÇKİN Yasin Çağatay Seçkin is an associate professor in Department of Landscape Architecture at Istanbul Technical University. He is educated as an architect and urban designer. Seçkin has a B. Arch. from the Mimar Sinan University in Istanbul. Seçkin has earned a
M. Arch. in history of architecture and also received a PhD. In urban design from the Istanbul Technical University. After completing his doctoral thesis, he conducted his postdoctoral study in landscape architecture at Louisiana State University. His main research interest centers on the urban design, landscape history and landscape construction issues. He has numerous papers presented in international conferences and published in academic journals. Sinan Mert ŞENER Born in İstanbul, in 1961. He started his architectural studies in İTÜ, in 1978 and earned his graduate degree in 1984. He completed his PhD. degree in 1994 and conducted his post-doctoral studies in Carnegie Mellon University, between 1998-1999. Şener, worked as a Research Assistant between 1988-1995; as an Assistant Professor between 19951997; as a Associate Professor between 1997-2011 and he has been working as a Professor since 2011 in İTÜ, Faculty of Architecture. He served as Dean’s Assistant between 2000-2008 and as Dean between 2012-2015. Nazlı TARAZ She received her Bachelor degree in Architecture at Eskişehir Osmangazi University in 2010 and got her Master at Izmir Institute of Technology in 2014 in Department of Architecture. Currently, she continues her doctorate at IYTE and works as a research assistant at Department of Architecture.
Gülname TURAN Gülname Turan is a member of the faculty of architecture at Istanbul Technical University, where she teaches design history and studio classes. She holds BS in industrial design and PhD in art history. Her research area includes the history of industrial design and craft. She has presented papers at international conferences and in the journals Design Issues, Furniture History, and others. Sevil YAZICI Dr. Sevil Yazıcı investigates possibilities for rehabilitating the built environment through the use of technology. Her research interests are computational design, material systems, digital fabrication, performance assessments and optimization processes. She received her BArch Degree from ITU, MArch Degree from the London Architectural Association and PhD Degree from ITU. Ebru YILMAZ Ebru Yılmaz is an Assistant Professor in the Faculty of Architecture at Izmir Institute of Technology, İ.Y.T.E. She received her Bachelor (1995) degree in Architecture at D.E.Ü. in İzmir. She got her master (1998) and doctorate (2004) degrees at İ.Y.T.E., in Department of Architecture. She researched for her dissertation entitled “Determination of Place Concept in the Reproduction Process of Built Environment: Kordon, İzmir as a Case Study.” She received awards in architectural competitions. She currently teaches undergraduate and graduate programs.
Guide for authors
Authors must follow these instructions carefully to avoid delays in submission, peer-review and publication processes.
Thesis Author, A. A. (2008). Title of thesis (Unpublished doctoral dissertation or master's thesis). Name of Institution, Location.
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Websites The BBC (http://www.bbc.co.uk). Author, A. (2011). Title of document [Format description]. Retrieved from http://URL
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Report Author, A. A. (2012). Title of work (Report No. 123). Location: Publisher. Author, A. A. (2012). Title of work (Report No. 123). Retrieved from Name website: http://www.az.itu.edu.tr
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3. Preparation of Tables and Figures Tables and figures must not be embedded in the article.The proposed location of figures and tables must be indicated in the article by using [Figure 1] and [Table 1] format. Tables must be provided after the references and each table should be placed on a single page. They must be consecutively numbered and must have a brief informative caption. The caption must be provided before the table and written in “Table 1. Name of the table” format. If necessary, explanatory footnotes must be brief, placed beneath the table and indicated by (*). Figures must be numbered consecutively throughout the paper and uploaded to the online submission system as separate image files. Figures must be in grayscale or in black-and- white with minimum 300 dpi resolution as jpeg format. Figures must be named as they named in the article in “Figure 1. Name of the figure” format. Figure captions must also be listed at the end of the article, after the tables. 4. Symbols, abbreviations and conventions Symbols, abbreviations and conventions in papers must follow the recommended SI Units. Abbreviations must be defined in brackets after their first mention in the text in accordance with internationally agreed rules. 5. Mathematical expressions Mathematical symbols and formulae must be typed and any other application or program must not be used. Particular care must be exercised in identifying all symbols and avoiding ambiguities. Distinction must be made between the number one (1) and letter (I) and between the number (0) and the letter (O). Equation numbers must appear in parentheses and numbered consecutively. All equation numbers must appear on the right hand side of the equation and must be referred to within the text. 6. Copyright and originality It is the author’s responsibility to obtain written permission from authors and publishers of any previously published material; text, tables, figures, etc. 8. Book reviews and notes A book review must run between 500-1000 words, which give scope for an assessment of the book and its contribution to knowledge and discussion within the broad field of architecture, planning and design. Reviews must be typed in double spacing by using Arial font with 12 points. Name, affiliation and e-mail address of the reviewer must be given. A photograph of book cover must be provided in jpeg format. The title, author, origin, publisher, date, number of pages, price and ISBN number must be provided as in the following example. The Search for Form in Art and Architecture Eliel Saarinen, 1985 Dover Publications Inc.: New York 354 pp 8.95 US $ Paperback ISBN 0-486-24907-7 9. Publication charges There is no submission and page fee for A|Z ITU Journal of the Faculty of Architecture.
Y. Çağatay Seçkin ∞ Editor Editorial
Theory Sema Alaçam, Gülen Çağdaş Spatial dimensions of bodily experience in architectural modeling: A case study Gülname Turan The first society of industrial design in Turkey: Endüstri Tasarımı Derneği (ETD) Ümit Arpacıoğlu Evaluation of the physical environment in Anatolian rural architecture İlker Fatih Özorhon The expression of identity: Country pavilions for expo in architectural design studio Nazlı Taraz, Ebru Yılmaz A study on the daily life and coffeehouse culture in Gaziantep: Tahmis Coffeehouse Asutan Sarp Yalçın, Ayşe Balanlı A conceptual process model for the sustainability of a healthy building Abdeldjebar Layachi The archetypes of landscape and sustainable design in the ksar of Kenadsa Emel Cantürk, Nurbin Paker Kahvecioğlu A micro-narrative of dwelling history: The story of the ‘apartment’ Pınar Irlayıcı Çakmak Causes of disputes in the Turkish construction industry: Case of public sector projects Odeta Manahasa, Ahsen Özsoy Do architects’ and users’ reality coincide? A post occupancy evaluation in a university lecture hall CL Bohannon, Nikolus Henry Vacancy and access to food: Spatially addressing food insecurity in urban Appalachia Başak Özer, Yasin Çağatay Seçkin The use of qualitative data analysis software to read landscapes in movies: The case of Midnight in Paris Sevil Yazıcı A parametric landscape urbanism method: The search for an optimal solution Betül Orbey, Sinan Mert Şener Variations in design process: A case study about tool and task as design variants
Vol 13 No 3 ∞ November 2016