Page 1

TEGUCIGALPA

Creating an Urban Identity in the Historic District Josue Edgardo Tejeda Masters of Urban Design


Tegucigalpa: Creating an Urban Identity in the Historic District Josue Edgardo Tejeda Castillo Accepted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements For the Degree of Masters of Urban Design at The Savannah College of Art and Design Š May 2013, Josue Edgardo Tejeda The author hereby grants SCAD permission to reproduce and to distribute publicly paper and electronic thesis copies of document in whole or in part in any medium now known or hereafter created.

Signature of Author and Date ______________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________/___/___ Ryan Madson, Professor Architecture and Urban Design Date Committee Chair

___________________________________________________________________________/___/___ Matthew Dudzik, Professor Architecture Date Faculty Adviser

___________________________________________________________________________/___/___ Robin B. Williams, Chair Architectural History Date Topic Consultant


Tegucigalpa: Creating an Urban Identity in the Historic District A Thesis Submitted to the Faculty of the Urban Design Department in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Masters in Urban Design. Savannah College of Art and Design By Josue Edgardo Tejeda Castillo Savannah, GA May 2013


“Bendiga Dios la prodiga tierra en que nací! Mi corazón y mi pensamiento, en una sola voluntad, exaltarán su nombre, en su constante esfuerzo por su cultura” Froylan Turcios


Dedication and Acknowledgement I would like to thank and acknowledge my parents, Manuel Tejeda and Belinda Castillo, for allowing me to pursue this dream. I dreamed it, but you supported me and my brother to achieve our goals in life, this wouldn’t have been possible without you. Thank you to my brother for your unconditional support and belief in me. This thesis is dedicated to my city and country. Tegucigalpa I believe in your future and your story is fascinating.


Table of Contents Tegucigalpa: Creating an Urban Identity in the Historic District


1

History and Background

2

European City vs. CDB vs. Latin American Historic Districts

17

3

Latin American Historic Districts

25

4

Typology of Public Markets in Latin America

35

Case Studies

41

Site Analysis

49

Center as a Symbol for National Identity

81

5 6 7

7

8

Conclusion

121

9

Bibliography

125


List of Images

Tegucigalpa: Creating an Urban Identity in the Historic District

Abstracts A.1

Catedral San Miguel de Heredia, Tegucigalpa, 1984. Private Collection

Chapter 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 1.10

Puente Mallol, Comayaguela MDC. 1967. Private Collection. Diagram of the Vitruvian City. Diagram by Author San Salvador, El Salvador. Diagram by Author Santiago de Chile, Chile. Diagram by Author Santa Clara, Cuba. Diagram by Author Ciudad de Panama, Panama. Diagram by Author Tegucigalpa MDC, Honduras. Diagram by Author The Kingdom of New Spanish America. Diagram by Author World Context, Republic of Honduras. Diagram by Author United Provinces of Central America. Diagram by Author

Chapter 2 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8

Cathedral of Comayagua, Comayagua, Honduras. 2010. Image by Author Aerial Image of Madrid, Spain. Plaza de Valladolid, Madrid, Spain. Downtown New York City from Empire State. April 2012. Image by Author Downtown Chicago from Sears Tower. November 2005. Image Plaza de Armas, Zocalo, Mexico DF, Mexico Plaza de La Independencia, San Francisco de Quito, Ecuador. Parque Central Francisco Morazan, Tegucigalpa MDC, Honduras. 2009. Image Diario El Heraldo Honduras

Chapter 3 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.10 3.11 3.12 3.13

Gen. Francisco Morazan Park, Tegucigalpa MDC. Honduras. 1918 Gen. Francisco Morazan Park, Tegucigalpa MDC. Honduras. 1889 Gen. Francisco Morazan Park, Tegucigalpa MDC. Honduras. 1890 Gen. Francisco Morazan Park, Tegucigalpa MDC. Honduras. 1918 Gen. Francisco Morazan Park, Tegucigalpa MDC. Honduras. 1966 Gen. Francisco Morazan Park, Tegucigalpa MDC. Honduras. 1984 Gen. Francisco Morazan Park, Tegucigalpa MDC. Honduras. 2005 Gen. Francisco Morazan Park, Tegucigalpa MDC. 1881. Diagram by Author Gen. Francisco Morazan Park, Tegucigalpa MDC. Honduras. 1857 Gen. Francisco Morazan Park, Tegucigalpa MDC. 1930. Diagram by Author Gen. Francisco Morazan Park, Tegucigalpa MDC. Honduras. 1930 Gen. Francisco Morazan Park, Tegucigalpa MDC. Honduras. 2005. Diagram by Author Gen. Francisco Morazan Park, Tegucigalpa MDC. Honduras. 2005


List of Images

Tegucigalpa: Creating an Urban Identity in the Historic District 3.14 3.15 3.16 3.17 3.18 3.19 3.20 3.21 3.22 3.23 3.24 3.25

Ave, Cristobal Colon, Tegucigalpa MDC, Honduras. Image by Author Paseo Marco Aurelio Soto, Tegucigalpa MDC, Honduras. Image by Author Calle El Telegrafo, Tegucigalpa MDC, Honduras. Image by Author Calle El Jazmin, Tegucigalpa MDC, Honduras. Image by Author Calle Los Dolores, Tegucigalpa MDC, Honduras. Image by Author Calle Salvador Mendieta, Tegucigalpa MDC, Honduras. Image by Author Los Dolores Plaza and Market, Tegucigalpa MDC. 1883. Private Collection Los Dolores Plaza and Market, Tegucigalpa MDC. 1930. Private Collection Los Dolores Plaza and Market, Tegucigalpa MDC. 1960. Private Collection Los Dolores Plaza and Market, Tegucigalpa MDC. 2003. Private Collection Los Dolores Plaza and Market, Tegucigalpa MDC. 2007. Private Collection Los Dolores Plaza and Market, Tegucigalpa MDC. 2012. Image by Author

Chapter 4 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 4.10 4.11

San Miguel Market, Comayaguela MDC. 2012. Esteban Hernandez Los Dolores Plaza and Market, Tegucigalpa MDC. 1880. Private Collection El Mayore Farmers Market. Tegucigalpa MDC. 2012. Image by Author La Isla Market, Tegucigalpa MDC. 1949. Private Collection La Isla Market, Tegucigalpa MDC. 2010. Image by Author San Isidro Market, Comayaguela MDC. 1939. Private Collection. Unknown San Isidro Market, Comayaguela MDC. 2012. Image by Author San Miguel Market, Comayaguela MDC. 1928. Private Collection. Unknown San Miguel Market, Comayaguela MDC. 2003. Diario El Heraldo, March 2003 Ministry of Education, Comayaguela MDC. 1889. Private Collection. Unknown Ministry of Education Comayaguela MDC. 2012. Image by Author

Chapter 5 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 5.10 5.11 5.12 5.13

Aerial View of San Francisco de Quito, Ecuador. 2012. Pablo Weaver Plaza de la Independencia, San Francisco de Quito, Ecuador. 2005. Franceso Bandarin. UNESCO Calle Garcia Moreno, San Francisco de Quito, Ecuador. 2008. UNESCO La Ronda, San Francisco de Quito, Ecuador. 2008. UNESCO Catedral Metropolitana de Mexico, Ciudad de Mexico. 2010. Image by Author Calle Condesa, Casa de los Azulejos, Ciudad de Mexico. 2010. Image by Author Calle Condesa, Banco Central de Mexico, Ciudad de Mexico. 2010. Image by Author Parque Manuel Bonilla. Tegucigalpa MDC. 1935. Private Collection. Felipe Edgardo Castillo Parque Manuel Bonilla, Tegucigalpa MDC. 2012. Image by Author Parque Manuel Bonilla, Tegucigalpa MDC. 2012. Image by Author Parque Manuel Bonilla, Tegucigalpa MDC. 2012. Image by Author Parque Manuel Bonilla, Tegucigalpa MDC. 2012. Image by Author Parque Manuel Bonilla, Tegucigalpa MDC. 2012. Image by Author


List of Images

Tegucigalpa: Creating an Urban Identity in the Historic District

Chapter 6 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8 6.9 6.10 6.11 6.12 6.13 6.14 6.15 6.16 6.17 6.18 6.19 6.20 6.21 6.22 6.23 6.24 6.25 6.26 6.27 6.28

Political division map of the Republic of Honduras, CA. Map by Author Avenida Miguel de Cervantes, Tegucigalpa MDC. 1922. Private Collection. Felipe Edgardo Castillo Avenida Miguel de Cervantes, Tegucigalpa MDC. 2012. Image by Author Calle Los Dolores. Tegucigalpa MDC. 1930. Instituto Hondure単o de Antropologia e Historia Calle Los Dolores. Tegucigalpa MDC. 2012. Image by Author Iglesia El Calvario. Tegucigalpa MDC. 2012. Image by Author Teatro Nacional Manuel Bonilla. Tegucigalpa MDC. 2009. Image by Author Museo de La Identidad Nacional, Tegucigalpa MDC. 2012. Image by Author Correo Nacional de Honduras, Tegucigalpa MDC. 2009. Image by Author Palacio de las Telecomunicaciones Hondutel, Tegucigalpa MDC. 2012. Image by Author Iglesia y Plaza Los Dolores, Tegucigalpa MDC. 2012. Image by Author Edificio Medina Planas, Tegucigalpa MDC. 2012. Image by Author Teatro Variedades, Tegucigalpa MDC. 2012. Image by Author Banco Central de Honduras, Tegucigalpa MDC. 2012. Image by Author Edificio Larach, Tegucigalpa MDC. 2012. Image by Author. Catedral de San Miguel Arcangel, Tegucigalpa MDC. 2012. Image by Author Edificio Midence Soto, Tegucigalpa MDC. 2012. Image by Author Iglesia de La Merced, Tegucigalpa MDC. 2012. Image by Author Galeria Nacional de Arte, Tegucigalpa MDC. 2012. Image by Author Congreso Nacional de Honduras, Tegucigalpa MDC. 2012. Image by Author Antigua Casa Presidencial de Honduras, Tegucigalpa MDC. 2012. Image by Author Palacio Arzobispal de Honduras, Tegucigalpa MDC. 2009. Image by Emilio Jose Maldonado Biblioteca Nacional de Honduras, Tegucigalpa MDC. 2009. Image by Author Ave. Miguel Paz Barahona and Calle La Concordia, Tegucigalpa MDC. 2012. Image by Author Ave. Miguel Paz Barahona and Calle Morelos, Tegucigalpa MDC. 2012. Image by Author Ave. Miguel Paz Barahona and Calle Los Dolores, Tegucigalpa MDC. 2012. Image by Author Ave. Miguel Paz Barahona and Calle Mendieta, Tegucigalpa MDC. 2012. Image by Author Ave. Miguel Paz Barahona and Calle La Leona, Tegucigalpa MDC. 2012. Image by Author

Chapter 7 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4-7.7 7.5-.19 7.20 7.21 7.22 7.23 7.24

Parque Soto and National Congress of Honduras, Tegucigalpa MDC. 1967. Private Collection Spread of the Identity Factor Diagram. Diagram by Author Layouts of the City. Diagram by Author Schematic Proposal sketches for Secondary Axis Design Schematic Proposal sketches for Main Pedestrian Axis Main Pedestrian Axis Pavement Plan Secondary Pedestrian Axis Pavement Plan Preliminary Pavement and Project Sketch Main Axis Pavement Detail Rendering Secondary Axis Pavement Detail Rendering


List of Images

Tegucigalpa: Creating an Urban Identity in the Historic District 7.25 7.26 7.27 7.28 7.29 7.30 7.31 7.32 7.33 7.34 7.35 7.36 7.37 7.38 7.39 7.40 7.41 7.42 7.43 7.44 7.45 7.46 7.47 7.48 7.49 7.50 7.51

Morazan Park - La Concepcion Market Plaza Floor Plan Evolution of an Urban Space - Morazan Park Diagram Calle La Leona - Calle Salvador Mendieta Section General Francisco Morazan Central Park Rendering Nuestra Se単ora de La Limpia Concepcion Market Rendering Ave. Miguel Paz Barahona Streetscape Floor Plan Ave. Miguel Paz Barahona Empty Lot Treatment Floor Plan Calle Salvador Mendieta - Calle Los Dolores Section Ave. Miguel Paz Barahona Streetscape Cafe Culture Rendering Los Dolores Market and Plaza Floor Plan Los Dolores Market Pavillon structure Section Calle Los Dolores Section Los Dolores Market and Plaza Rendering National Cultural Identity District Floor Plan Museo de La Identidad Nacional, Tegucigalpa MDC. 1889. Instituto Nacional de Antropologia e Historia Museo de La Identidad Nacional, Tegucigalpa MDC. 2009. Image by Author Correo Nacional de Honduras, Tegucigalpa MDC, 1880. Instituto Nacional de Antropologia e Historia Correo Nacional de Honduras, Tegucigalpa MDC, 2009. Image by Author Calle El Telegrafo - Calle Morelos Section Cultural Identity District Rendering Calle El Telegrafo Rendering Miradores de La Reforma Liberal Floor Plan La Reforma Liberal Parking Garage Floor Plan Paseo Marco Aurelio Soto Section 1 Paseo Marco Aurelio Soto Section 2 Paseo Marco Aurelio Soto and Reforma Liberal Parking Garage Rendering Escalinatas de La Reforma Liberal Rendering

Chapter 8 8.1 8.2

Postal by Sebastian Siercke, 1961. Tegucigalpa MDC. Instituto de Antropologia e Historia The Identity Factor of a Historic District Rendering


Tegucigalpa: Creating an Urban Identity in the Historic District Josue Edgardo Tejeda Castillo May 2013

Latin American historic inner cities encompass to rich historical backgrounds. A combination of cultural traditions and architectural styles amalgamate in a historic urban layout. The Spanish Law of Indies dictated the scenic urban focal point of a plaza bounded by the religious, political and economic institutions. However, the emerging urban trend in macrocefalias, the expansion of the city to the peripheries, has taken over Latin American cities. The city of Tegucigalpa, capital of Honduras is no exception to the case. Analyzing the historic inner city, successful revitalizations in other cities would provide guidelines in creating a successful historic district. The design for the history and pedestrian nature of the historic center can restore an urban identity for the inner city in Tegucigalpa.

El centro histórico Latino Americano se destaca por su riqueza cultural e histórica. La combinación de tradiciones culturales y estilos arquitectónicos se amalgaman en un histórico ordenamiento urbano. La plaza como elemento urbano focal, rodeado de las más importantes instituciones religiosas, políticas y económicas fueron establecidas por la colonia Española en Las Leyes de las Indias. Sin embargo, las tendencias actuales de las macrocefalias, el crecimiento desproporcionado de las ciudades fuera de su periferia, se ha apoderado de la ciudad latinoamericana. La ciudad de Tegucigalpa, capital de Honduras, no es excepción al caso. El éxito obtenido por las recientes revitalizaciones y planes de intervencion de otras ciudades Latinoamericanas serviría como un caso a seguir para el distrito histórico de Tegucigalpa. La busqueda de un resurgimiento peatonal y tangible es necesario para la restauración de la identidad nacional en la ciudad de Tegucigalpa.


{ {

“If Latin American cities are the most complicated of artifacts, and if they harbor the values of centuries of growth and change, then they merit an appreciation of their built environment in guiding their future design” Joseph. L Scarpaci, Plazas and Barrios, 12

“Si la ciudad Latinoamericana es el artefacto mas complicado, y si en ellas se concentra el valor de siglos de crecimiento y cambio, entonces ellas merecen el aprecio de su entorno para guiar los futuros diseños” Joseph. L Scarpaci, Plazas y Barrios, 12

} }


Chapter 1

History and Background Tegucigalpa: Creating an Urban Identity in the Historic District

I

II

III

IV

V

VI

VII

VIII


{ {

“Historic centers in Latin American towns and cities are anything but isolated from the forces of change” Joseph L. Scapaci, Plazas and Barrios 8

“Los centros historicos de los pueblos y ciudades de Latino America no se encuentran aislados de las fuerzas del cambio” Joseph. L Scarpaci, Plazas y Barrios, 8

} }

Figure 1.2 Puente Mallol, 1 Avenida, Comayaguela MDC. 1967. Private Collection, Felipe Edgardo Castillo


9

Introduction Latin American conurbations today stem from the cultural combination of styles and ideals that migrated with the Iberian/ Mediterranean Spanish colonies. James Lockhart and Stuart Schawrtz assert the importance of the Iberian kingdoms in influencing the Latin American cities (Britannica Online). The urban centered societies that existed previous to the arrival of the Spanish colonizers, amalgamated with the imported European styles to create urban scenery in the Historic District. Understanding the socioeconomic and political context

Figure 1.1

in Spain before the colonization of the Americas is vital to understand the Latin American city. Mark Burkholder and Lyman Johnson claim that the Spanish cities within the 15th century were characterized for their provincial yet urban-centered societies (Britannica Online). Undoubtedly the urban-centered society that existed in Iberia influenced the emergence of metropolitan cities in Latin America today Latin American cities continue to resemble the enduring qualities of the colonial layout. Upon the foundation of the first colonies in the Caribbean, the Law of Indies dictated and implemented the urban structure of colonial America. These regulations in urban form recap entities and characteristics in Spanish American urbanism. Through economic, religious and forced labor immigration, as well as topography, natural resources and climate the Spanish determined the location of their cities. Forward to the 21st century, the rich historical

Figure 1.2

backgrounds that defined the Latin American city are now challenged by the macrocefalia. Macrocefalia refers to the Latin American expansion of cities beyond their colonial borders. Joseph L. Scarpaci highlights despite local efforts in conservation, these centers fall into decay (10). Like much of modern Latin America the edges emerged as the new city. The colonial infrastructure and pedestrian qualities of the colonial scene were then abandoned. The colonial structure pushed the modern layout of the cities in Latin America. Bromley and Jones theorize that the inner city general concept applied to the rest of the developed cities cannot be translated into the Latin American region. Thus the original colonial areas pushed the complexities of the current urban issues (179). The Spanish colonizers followed specific regulations regarding location, climate and topography for the new colonies between 1500 and 1575. Tegucigalpa

Figure 1.3


was founded under Spanish regulations of location. Ideal due to climate San Miguel de Heredia de Tegucigalpa was founded on September 28, 1578 (Mario Secoff, 2006). With its current population of 1.24 million people, the hilly city has expanded beyond its colonial borders, now identified as the historic district. Since the mid-20th century, much of Tegucigalpa’s cityscape has changed drastically, leading to the first urban design interventions and projects. Figure 1.4

Over the last 50 years, in keeping with the developing trends of many Latin American cities, Tegucigalpa has grown exponentially in all directions.The overgrowth has led to unaccredited architectural richness abounded in the historic center. The expansion of the peripheries has fractured the historic inner city leading it to decay. The main plaza, now renamed Morazán Park, has suffered a loss of identity and no longer resembles its colonial splendor. It stands surrounded by a pedestrian street, Ave. Miguel Paz Barahona, characterized by an abundance of disorganized local street vendors. The automobile, modern amenities and commercial advertising have invaded the cultural sense of place in the inner city. The colonial inner city presents itself as a testimony of the heritage of a once vibrant urban center society of the Colonial and Republican eras. “Pride and hope can go long way in putting cities back together” (Ford, 199). It is important to direct our attention to restoring its splendor, the preservation of its structure, and creating civic realm,

Figure 1.5

public spaces and legibility in the pedestrian and vehicular traffic. The socioeconomic standing of the current conditions of the Historic District in Tegucigalpa risk the danger of becoming a contest for the city center in case of a revitalization. It is important in this thesis as well as any urban design project to the historic district, to not only keep in consideration the current vendors that inhabit the area, but provide a designed and dignified space for them. The street vendors of the historic district have sustained the economic activity that exists currently and should continue to have a voice in the future of the design. This thesis proposes a series of phases that consider the concept from the centrality of a capital city, respecting its tradition of history and heritage and providing a designed space for all of its urban players.

Figure 1.6

10

and richness in natural resources like gold and silver, Real Minas de


11

Urban Design and the Spanish Empire The socioeconomic and political structure arising in Spain prior to the 15th century discovery of America is crucial in determining the urban form of Latin America. Morris states that the resurgence of Castile and its powerful families shaped the traditions, life-styles and values that determined the nature of Spanish America (292). The unification of Castile and Aragon in 1492 coincided with Columbus’ journey to the Atlantic, transforming Spain into an Empire. Prior to the discovery of the Americas, Spanish urbanism had remained untouched for centuries and was characterized by country life-style cities. Spanish urbanism developed characteristics in the creation of Plazas Mayores or Plaza de Armas (Morris, 294). The plazas where designed to symbolize the authority of the church and Spanish crown. Throughout this symbolism, the plazas provided Spain the opportunity to create unique public spaces in which the reflection of power dictated the architecture that surrounded them. Symbolically placed in the heart of each town, the Spanish plaza de armas was space that provided the urban setting for political demonstrations and the market activity. Due to its symbolic centrality, the plazas were surrounded by monumental cathedrals and buildings that stood within its own lot steps above the central plaza. The Spanish crown and designers provided the space with architectural uniformity, usually of Renaissance or Baroque styles. The uniformity of style resulted in imposing buildings and facades that materialized the influence of religious power in the Spanish monarchy. Upon the discovery of the America’s, Spain and its empire traveled overseas to import their image of the city in the early Latin American cities. The main square concept in the Plaza Mayor traveled to the colonies in the later in 16th century. The symbolism in the plazas portrayed the power of the Spanish crown, as well as the Catholicism. The Baroque buildings helped present the concept of monumentality and power throughout their scale and architectural detail. The symbolic representation of American Spanish urbanism was consolidated by King Charles V. in 1521 when the Law of the Indies was passed (Morris, 305). Nonetheless despite detailed planning instructions mandated by law, much was left susceptible to the conquistadores. The variation in the interpretation of town planning resulted in variations of the urban form. This variation resulted in the different unique representation of the plaza mayor throughout Latin America. The resulting contrast of plazas and grids gives the historic districts common urban layouts instead of an identical repetition. The uniqueness in the urban plaza mayor later paved way for the Latin American urban form.


12 Figure 1. 7 Spanish America, representation of the countries and areas that made up New Spain


13

Origins of the Latin American City Spanish urbanism in Latin America symbolized the power of the Spanish crown over the new colonies. This symbolism is evident in the combination of public and private buildings that comprise the historic district. Scarpaci supports the role of symbolism in the first layouts of Latin American cities as represented in the forms of European art and architecture throughout the historic district (38).The main plaza and the most important buildings surrounding it reflected the economic, religious and institutional power of the crown. Anastasia LoukaitouSiders asserts colonial cities had no special organization of districts, but instead had a center, a public open space that was symbolically placed at the heart of each town (35). The influences of European planning were infused in the design of the Latin American historic districts with modest configurations. The European design traditions in the form of Iberian and Mediterranean planning traveled to the Americas through Master Planning, in accordance to the Law of the Indies. The ordenanzas or master plans mandated by the Law of Indies responded to uniformity and balance that traces back to the Renaissance principles in Europe (Scarpaci, 44). The role of the Law of Indies and the importance of the grid all came to symbolize and define the layout of the city. The Law of Indies was the main body of rules issued by the Spanish crown for the control of its possessions in the empire. Loukaitou-Siders agrees that the Spanish contribution of a square plaza was inspired in the Vitruvian principle of rectangular plaza as the heart of the city (35). The power of symbolism in the Law of Indies is reproduced in codes related to town planning. The codes regulated and dictated the master planning of the city in the case of growth and expansion. Scarpaci assures dictating the location of settlements and shapes of plazas later regulated the grid and its evolution (40). The master planning mandated in the Law of Indies opened the possibilities for European architects, designers and planners to collaborate and compete in the design of the city. Baroque, Neoclassical and Gothic styles were integrated in the design of religious, economic and institutional buildings (Scarpaci, 38). In the creation of urban spaces in the city, the plaza, served the most important role for the expansion of the town. The plaza was imbued with an astonishing combination of symbols, prestige and power (Scarpaci, 39). Through these plazas the


historic district evolved into the contemporary symbolic urban role district emphasizes the importance of restoration and conservations movements to preserving our past and identity.

The evolution of the grid and the uniformity it reflects is

evident in the emerging streets that form the plaza mayor in the historic district. “Remarkably the urban grid mandated by the Law of Indies succeeded in providing a simple solution that adapted to a variety of settings” (Scarpaci, 32). In the pivotal representation of all symbolisms, the geometric pattern conveyed the imperial will of the state and the importance of the church. “The grid was the venue for the diffusion of economic, political and social order” (Scarpaci, 32). Throughout the evolution of historic centers, the invasion of the high-rise buildings and the automobile weakened its colonial scenic character. Bernard Rudosfky observes the colonial past, at least in its original version is reduced in the absence of any remarkable buildings, trees and gardens (110). The historic center in Latin America is no exception to the case, the injection of new districts, sub urbanization and economic centers led to the denial and isolation of the once flourishing center.

Figure 1.8 Republic of Honduras, in representation of the World context and the United States of America

14

of reflecting the past within the city. This uniformity of the historic


15

Modern Latin American City The modern Latin American city, its abounding architecture, mixture of styles and urban layouts were the direct result of Spanish colonial planning. The historic district stands out in an amazing combination of architectural styles, culture and tradition that amalgamate in a historic urban layout. Scarpaci asserts that the inner city architecture in Latin America is an adaptation of the arts and architecture movements in Europe (8). On the basis of the Law of the Indies, most Latin American cities were planned under a high dominance of the Spanish grid. The scenic urban focal point placed in the plaza, bounded by religious, political and economic institutions reference the urban layout dictated by Spain. John Bannon agrees that the result of the city and its urban form was the direct result of three different types of immigration (23). Through economic, religious and forced labor, the population expanded beyond their colonial borders. The emerging urban trend of the macrocefalia – the expansion of the city to its peripheries – has overtaken Latin American urbanism. As Hispanic colonial cities evolved into independent countries, they developed characteristics that came to generalize and stereotype their cities. The most common is the centrality departing from the historic district into the peripheries. The extension of buildings and addendum of new districts dominate its fabric.The Latin American inner city has fallen into disrepair despite local efforts in preservation and conservation (Scarpaci, 42). Latin American urbanism is distinctive by the macrocefalia; the edges of cities have expanded past the colonial grids and in the process lost part of its identity. The loss in identity fomented the development of newer districts and the expansion of the city. Ford states that American cities, and therefore the Latin American, were in search of an identity and losing the previous identity was part of it (223).The identity crisis of the 20th century threatened Latin America, as macrocefalias pushed migration and depopulated the once vibrant historic center. The urban identity crisis that has emerged in Latin American conurbations corresponds with in the ideal of creating a modern metropolis while ignoring the past. However, the loss of place and identity has stimulated a movement in preservation and conservation. The United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) succeeded in calling attention to the Latin American historic


district by acknowledging the cultural richness in the declaration of Francisco de Quito paved way for its declaration as a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1978 (Carrion, 19). Currently, urban planners are evaluating the role of the historic district to determine the future of the city. Retornocefalia, the return of the city from its peripheries, presents the opportunity to evolve and acknowledge the urban conditions the historic district is forced to embrace.

UNITED STATES

Savannah

ATLANTIC OCEAN THE BAHAMAS

CUBA MEXICO

HAITI

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC PUERTO RICO

JAMAICA

PACIFIC OCEAN

Figure 1.9 The former United Provinces of Central America, region that gained independence for Spain in 1821.

16

World Heritages. The conservation of the historic inner city in San


Chapter 2

European City/North American CBD/Latin American Historic District Tegucigalpa: Creating an Urban Identity in the Historic District

I

II

III

IV

V

VI

VII

VIII


{ {

“Renaissance spaces frequently served aesthetic and aggrandizement purposes, either as a setting for a statue or a monument, or as a forecourt in front of an important building” A.E.J Morris, History of Urban Form Before the Industrial Revolution, 162

“Los espacios Renacentistas frequentemente servian con principios esteticos y de agrandecimiento, tanto como para la ubicacion de una estatua o monumento, o como una corte frente un edificio de importancia” JA.E.J Morris, History of Urban Form Before the Industrial Revolution, 162

} }

Figure 2.1 Comayagua Cathedral, Comayagua, Honduras. 2010 Catedrales Catolicas del Mundo


The European City 19

The ancient Roman Empire with its unique urban characteristics in the Cardo and Decumanus, gave many European cities their Mediterranean layout. Through much of the Middle Ages, the majority of the cities remained unaltered and expanded within the city walls. Nonetheless, in the 15th century, the introduction of “the city as work of art” during the Renaissance period restructured the idea of the European city. At the beginning of the Renaissance period, there is a reemergence of interest in the European city. “The Italian ideals of the city spread to France, England and Spain where there is a resurgence of production exchange and military strength” (Bagnasco and Le Gales, 5). The Renaissance ideal now focuses the concept of the city as a frame for human interaction. During the following centuries, different countries in Europe establish their nation capital cities, transforming them into worldly cities.

Figure 2.2 Madrid, established Unica Corte, in 156 medieval establishment and the modern city that h

The national capitals in Europe that were established throughout the Renaissance evolved into the modern day metropolis. However, the Industrial Revolution in the 19th century paved the way for the reshaping of the European city and the historic center. Bagnasco and Le Gales contend that factories and industries accompanied the capital cities in determining an “urban transformation in a parallel process of migration and concentration” (5). The urban fabric of the European historic district is a combined form of the last traces of the Roman Castrum and Medieval Church square into a modern industrial city. Unlike American and Latin American cities, some European cities are not the result of a gridded plan, but the evolution of centuries of growth in the city. Administrative public buildings, church squares, areas for commerce, trade and development all radiate from the inner city (Bagnasco and Le Gales, 8). In the European downtown, the pattern of streets and squares bring buildings together in creating a historic urban layout.

The North American Downtown The North American downtown, with high-riser, complexity of transportation and massive highways show a different scene than the Latin American reality.The description of a much denser and occupied city center has come to represent to a utopian dream in the Latin American city.As stated by Ford,“most [American] downtowns now embody at least

Figure 2.3 Plaza de Valladolid, Madrid, Spain.


61. Showing its has grown from it.

a square mile or two of a variety of districts and supplements to support air central plazas that are characteristic of the Spanish colonies. The planned open spaces with images of landscaped parks dominate the North American cityscape (Loukaitou-Siders, 47). Nonetheless, the presence of shopping centers, restaurants, museums and cultural centers in the downtown promotes the idea that culture sells. The culture component is clear in the historical richness of the Latin American historic district. The evolution of the North American Central Business District (CBD) into a bigger scale is the direct result of different factors. Technology, renewal, the city beautiful movement, zoning and private investment defined the evolution of the CBD (Loukaitou-Siders, 35). As the turn of the 20th century approached, new advances in technology made their way into the urban form. Loukaitou-Siders emphasizes the technological role in the art of building and its booming consequences. The opportunities provided by the construction of higher buildings enabled the land use of a single site (14). The widespread verticality of new buildings let the densification and transformation of the CBD. Along with the densification of space, the prices in the downtown area escalated and were abandoned for the less crowded and affordable outer city. In Latin America, the role of the historic district was not directly affected by the modern higher buildings, but the abandonment for a newer part of the city. The abandonment was a result of local migration to the newer and more modern parts of the city. The migration was followed by a gentrification of the historic center in which the lowincome groups continued to inhabit the center. Enter the role of gentrification and the city, a component that became present in both the North and Latin American city (Ford, 249). Technology introduced the automobile into an area that was originally designed for pedestrian activity. The new superimposed arteries of cars increased mobility in the historic inner city. To enable the new mobility of the 20th century, the downtown area underwent drastic changes in its urban layout. The clearance that came with the urban renewal projects of the 1960’s marked a new era in the North American CBD. Urban Renewal was characterized by massive clearance of space in the downtown area (Loukaitou-Siders, 21). Scholars agree that in this clearance and the relocation of activities to the suburbs led to the loss of place. Ford claims the effects of the cleared area, some of which

20

it� (198). This variation of activities significantly contrasts with the open-


were never developed but transformed into parking lots (23). The 21

centers became characteristic of parking overcrowding, superimposed highways and empty under-utilized lots. Ford explains that it was this placelessness that enabled the population to generate enthusiasm for historic preservation (223). Nonetheless, the Latin American city, due to the abandoning of the historic district for the “new newness�, remained untouched for the most part by redevelopment programs similar to North America. This led to a great opportunity in that much of the historic fabric of the Latin American city is intact.

Zoning and Investment The most contrasting difference that can be pointed out between the North and Latin American inner city is in zoning and investments. The North American introduction of mass public transit, automobile accessibility and real estate development characterized the CBD. The rising prices in the North American CBD brought along new

Figure 2.4 Downtown New York City from Empire State building. April 2012

stages of segregation and separation of income groups and social classes (Loukaitou-Siders, 16). Following World War II, the rise in accessibility of the auto permitted stages of segregation in the city to commence in the abandonment of the downtown area.The loss of population interrogated the centrality and power of the inner city and it was replaced with the suburban shopping center – modern, efficient, accessible with everything in its place (Loukaitou-Siders, 56). The expansion of cities increased distances as sidewalks became narrower and underground parking began interrupting the pedestrian experience. Rudosfky claims that the population shifts to shopping indoor for the inclement weather only led to the deteriorating of the downtown-shopping street (202).

In Latin America, the downtown area reflected a more pedestrian

perspective. However, Rudosfky emphasizes that the pedestrian nature of the inner city seemed to be incompatible with the modern Latin American way of life (220). The accessibility introduced by the Industrial Revolution intensified within the period of prosperity that followed WW II. Mass production in the automobile industry enabled a facilitation of automobile dependence and the increased the incompatibility. The Latin American inner city revolved around the pedestrian concept. Therefore with the introduction of mass motorization to the inner city, was reluctant to adapt and became unable to support the concept of centrality. The 20th century extended with the creation of newer urban districts that accommodated transportation demands.

Figure 2.5 Downtown Chicago, from Sears Tower. November 2005


The Latin American “rebirth” in the inner city came through republicanism and modernism.The increasing distances and higher prices in the outer city fostered reconsideration for the abandoned inner city. Nonetheless Ford claims cities began making the case of moving back to the city center, but regulations made it difficult to do so (241). The introduction of zoning came into play with regulations and limitations for downtown growth and development. The emphasis on zoning is more present and was reflected in the architecture of the inner city. Setbacks and corners began to be treated as aesthetic elements for the architects (Loukaitou-Siders, 50). The increased commercial activity of the inner city, as well as the modern building techniques that enabled vertical construction, highlighted the fact that the area was under used. Contrary to North American cities, the Latin American downtown lacked or had limited regulations with the historic districts. Roberta Gratz-Bandes contends that regulations that avoided the residential uses in historic downtowns and housing residences where supported by local laws and zoning (245). The attention given by UNESCO to the Latin American region shifted attention in the inner city. The declaration of San Francisco de Quito in Ecuador as the first World Heritage Site in 1978 brought attention to the need for zoning and regulations in the historic district. Local entities began uncovering the 500 years of history and evolution that converged in the architecture and urban fabric of the colonial inner cities. Nonetheless, despite the late zoning and conservation that began in Latin America, the conservation movement remained uneven in the region.

{

}

“From the 1950’s to the 1970’s any downtown master plans shared an interest in recapturing the importance and centrality of the downtown, by increasing the density of the core.”

Anastasia Loukaitu-Siders, Urban Design Downtowns, 59 “Most viable center cities or downtowns, now encompass at least a square mile or two and include a variety of support distritcts.” Larry R. Ford, Americas New Downtowns, 198

22

different interventions throughout periods of time, from colonialism,


23

The Latin American City As described above, the Latin American historic inner city differs from the typical North American CBD. The components that define the North American CBD such as the skyscraper, the dense and increased demand in real estate does not directly replicate in the Latin American urban context. The evolution of the skyline in the Historic District in Latin America extends beyond the inner city and there is a sorting out process of building types and urban scale (Carrion, 1992). Scarpaci theorizes the rise in demand in the inner cities in Latin American has only begun with its resurgence in the middle of the 20th century (11).This increase in the prices and markets in the inner city is a direct result of the revitalization and preservation movements that have been on the rise in the region. The landscape of the inner cities in Latin America is more pedestrianized and human scale than is typical in North America. The market, plaza, streets and building heights are both inviting and captivating. The different urban typologies that comprise the historic district are a true representation of the cultural richness that abounds. Perhaps the most similar characteristics of the CBD and Latin American historic districts are reflected in the City Beautiful movement in North America. Loukaitou-Siders claims the City Beautiful movement praised the ideal of returning to a glorified city center (41). Perhaps the scale and grandeur of the City Beautiful in North America did not take into consideration the human scale and proportions that are successful in the colonial Latin American center. Nonetheless, the movement did imply the notion that grand design of the center encouraged civic pride and responsibility (Loukaitou-Siders, 42).This ideal of civic responsibility and pride is manifested in the Spanish ideal of the main plaza and the symbolism behind the buildings that surrounded it.

{

}

“Since the 1950s, Latin America has been transformed from a rural to an urban society. The region now contains some of the world’s biggest cities, headed by Mexico City with its 20 million inhabitants. In all but five Latin American countries, more people now live in towns and cities than in the countryside� Alan Gilbert,The Latin American City, Introduction


24 Figure 2.6 Plaza de Armas, (Zocalo) Mexico City, D.F. , Mexico

Figure 2.7 Plaza de Independencia, San Francisco de Quito, Ecuador

Figure 2.8 Parque Morazan, Tegucigalpa, Francisco Morazan, Honduras


Chapter 3

Typologies of the Latin American Historic District Tegucigalpa: Creating an Urban Identity in the Historic District

I

II

III

IV

V

VI

VII

VIII


{ {

“Historically, an identity with the city centre also conferred a sense of place and a position on the inhabitants of the Latin American city” Gareth A. Jones, Ann Varley, The Contest for the City Centre (38)

“Historicamente, la identidad que se atribuia con el centro historico de la ciudad Latinoamericana representaba un sentido de identidad con la ubicacion y el espacio.” Gareth A. Jones, Ann Varley,The Contest for the City Centre (38)

} }

Figure 3.1 Morazan Park, Tegucigalpa MDC, Francisco Morazan, Honduras. 1918


27

The Plaza The importance of the plaza in Latin American cities is clearly evident in the Law of Indies. These plazas, inspired by the Vitruvian principle, stand out as symbolic centers and the dictating force of urban expansion. Scarpaci states that the plazas affirmed many aspects of Latin American culture (48).The sense of community that abounds in the Latin American historic district neighborhoods or barrios is affirmed in the pedestrian nature of the plaza. The influence of the plaza in generating a spirit of identity is present in the streets and the surrounding nomenclature given to the streets. As places for congregation, the plazas and streets give us the place they occupy in people’s hearts (Rudosfky, 155). Throughout the evolution of the Latin American city, the plaza and the streets evolved from colonialism to republicanism. The Spanish nomenclature regarding religious saints and royal recollections evolved into revolutionary heroes and patriotism. Scarpaci asserts the cultural adaptation is evident in the naming. The Spanish reflected biblical and military references to national heroes and politicians (49). The evolution of the plaza and its ongoing relationship with the street has defined the Latin American city. The city of Tegucigalpa contends the evolution as the central plaza was renamed Plaza Morazán honoring the first president of the Central American Federal Republic, General Francisco Morazán. The preservation of the plaza has led to numerous interventions with the introduction of the automobile and the fencing of the open space. “The Latin American plaza affirms many aspects of culture both material and nonmaterial as their functions change over time and during the year” (Scarpaci, 48).

{

}

“In providing for uniquely Spanish urban activities which determined their forms and architectural designs, plazas mayores are the distinctive national equivalent of the eighteenth century royal statue-squares and grand boulevards of France and Georgian residential squares of London” A. E. J Morris, History of Urban Form Before the Industrial Revolution, 296


28 Figure 3.2 General Francisco Morazan Central Park, Tegucigalpa MDC. 1889

Figure 3.3 General Francisco Morazan Central Park, Tegucigalpa MDC. 1890

Figure 3.4 General Francisco Morazan Central Park, Tegucigalpa MDC. 1918

Figure 3.5 General Francisco Morazan Central Park, Tegucigalpa MDC. 1966

Figure 3.6 General Francisco Morazan Central Park, Tegucigalpa MDC. 1984

Figure 3.7 General Francisco Morazan Central Park, Tegucigalpa MDC. 2005


The Street 29

The natural activity of walking was the vital component in the original Latin American city life and influenced its layout. The natural pedestrian relationship of the Latin American plaza and street is evident in the urban layout. This pedestrian activity is supported by the fact that the street is by nature the theater of the city and the world (Rudosfky, 110). The Law of Indies dictated a clear organization of dimension and number of streets for the new colonial settings.The colonial components of the street were dictated by the Renaissance ideal of perspectival view and practices (Scarpaci, 12).The Latin American street, surrounded by a low-density skyline, portrays the beauty of the Latin American Baroque architecture. The representation of symbolism and power over the new colonies enabled the creation of extraordinary architecture. The street evolved into an inviting theater of classical Baroque colonial and modernist architecture. Each of the eight streets laid out by Spanish colonizers, whether by design or default testify to the economic and architectural landscape of the Latin American past (Scarpaci, 223).The city of Tegucigalpa depicts the colonial and republican testimony, depicted in the collection of National Heritage buildings surrounding Avenue Cristobal Colon and Avenue Miguel de Cervantes at the edges of the plaza. On this note, Rudosfky points out that the role of the street came to symbolize the location, which oriented direction based on the cardinal points in the plaza (153). The orientation and direction directly symbolizing cardinal points, is affirmed with the evolution of land use in the main streets of the Historic District. The residential, institutional and commercial uses combined with landscaped parks, open spaces, street parking and abandoned lots came to represent specific locations in the Historic District.


30 Figure 3.8 Parque Morazan, Tegucigalpa MDC. Colonial Era, 1881

Figure 3.9 Central Plaza, Santa Maria de la Limpia Conception Cathedral, San Miguel Arcangel Cathedral, San Francisco Chapel, Tegucigalpa MDC. 1857

Figure 3.10 Plaza Morazan, Tegucigalpa, MDC. Independence Era, 1930

Figure 3.11 General Francisco Morazan Callejas Central Park, Tegucigalpa MDC. 1930

Figure 3.12 Parque Morazan, Tegucigalpa MDC. Modern Era, 2005

Figure 3.13 General Francisco Morazan Callejas Central Park, Tegucigalpa MDC. 2005


31

The Sidewalk The Latin American historic district stands out for its unique human scale and dimensions that make it inviting to the pedestrian public. It is important to emphasize that the original Spanish grid and layout gave higher importance to pedestrian activity. Rudosfky supports that the role of streets in past generations responded as the great world theater (123). The importance of the street and sidewalk relies in the architectural character that emanated from them. The architectural styles integrated in the Latin American inner city prove the point. Scarpaci asserts the mix of land uses and public spaces creates a strong impression through pedestrian activity (111). Through the different land uses the sidewalk becomes a major factor in the attraction of activities to the historic inner city. Rudosfky emphasizes the role of the plazas as squares that provide definition of sense of place (159). In Tegucigalpa the importance of the street and sidewalk relies in the architectural character that emanates from it.

{

}

“Cultural adapatation and change, besides the demoliton, birth and rebirth that city blocks and buildings ecperience, is also evident in the street names. It is common for streets in the historic district to have two or more designations.� Joseph L. Scarpaci, Plazas and Barrios, 45


32 Figure 3.14 Ave. Cristobal Colon, Tegucigalpa MDC.

Figure 3.15 Paseo Marco Aurelio Soto, Tegucigalpa MDC.

Figure 3.16 Calle El Telegrafo, Tegucigalpa MDC.

Figure 3.17 Calle El Jazmin, Tegucigalpa MDC.

Figure 3.18 Calle Los Dolores, Tegucigalpa MDC.

Figure 3.19 Calle Salvador Mendieta, Tegucigalpa MDC.


33

The Marketplace The Latin American historic districts are not isolated or immune to the forces of change.The Spanish heritage that is present in the urban character has transcended into the activities that surround the modern historic district. One of the most important activities that prevailed from Spanish to Hispanic culture is the presence of the marketplace.The market activities in Latin American come together as a public gathering of buyers and sellers of commodities that meet at a designated place (Bromely and Symanski, 3). The Latin American marketplace portrays a characteristic and picturesque combination of commercial activities that descend, much like the urban context, from the combination of Spanish and Pre-Colombian traditions. Bromely and Symanski explain markets can be classified in terms of frequency or periodicity in the city: daily and periodic (5). The daily and periodic markets are both major components of life in the Latin American city. Latin American society is dependent on public markets for the supply of fresh foods and weekly supplies. The setting of the public market has historically occurred under pedestrian principles in the main plaza. After the age of independence from Spain passed, markets continued to play a vital activity of Latin American life. In Tegucigalpa, the periodic market still continues to supply the population with fresh produce. Nonetheless, the complementary market activities have grouped in the edges of the plaza. Daily markets have surrounded the historic district as commercial supporting districts, transforming the urban fabric. Nonetheless this market transformation has placed a direct threat to conservation and preservation movements in the historic district. The urban challenge faced by planners in determining whether or not to let markets continue their original role in the plaza and the streets surrounding it or to reverse them in the name of preservation

{

presents valid argumentation.

}

“Open air markets in Latin America developed in and around plazas, ocassionally under protection of covered walkways.� Helen Tangires, Public Markets, 42

The Latin American tradition of the marketplace located in the plaza was imported with Spanish urbanism. Nonetheless, as time passed, the historic main plaza became a national treasure in which the market devaluated its monumentality.


34 Figure 3.20 Los Dolores Plaza and Market, Tegucigalpa MDC.1883

Figure 3.21 Los Dolores Plaza and Market, Tegucigalpa MDC. 1930

Figure 3.22 Los Dolores Plaza and Market, Tegucigalpa, MDC.1960

Figure 3.23 Los Dolores Plaza and Market, Tegucigalpa MDC. 2003

Figure 3.24 Los Dolores Plaza and Market, Tegucigalpa MDC. 2007

Figure 3.25 Los Dolores Market and Plaza, Tegucigalpa MDC. 2012


Chapter 4

Typology of Public Markets in Latin America Tegucigalpa: Creating an Urban Identity in the Historic District

I

II

III

IV

V

VI

VII

VIII


{ {

“Despite the availability of alternative food outlets, street and open markets are still very present as part of the urban landscape throughout the modern world” Helen Tangires, Public Markets (90)

“A pesar de la accesibilidad de medios de distribucion alimenticia alternos, los mercados abiertos y al aire libre siguen presentes como parte de la escena urbana en el mundo moderno.” Helen Tangires, Public Markets (90)

} }

Figure 4.1 San Miguel Market, Comayaguela MDC. 2012 Esteban Hernandez Garay


37

Typologies of Markets The Latin American marketplace activities play a major role in the shopping activities of modern day Latino society. Bromley and Symaski contend marketplace activity is of considerable importance in urban centered societies of the Latin American less developed countries (5). The market-like gatherings and activities have been present since precolonial times. Present day open air, free standing and street markets retain certain features of precolonial traditions (Bromley and Symanski, 9). Features like the open air quality and the street vendors or “ambulante� culture still prevail. The importation of the Spanish traditions translated in the post-colonial societies. Originally, the role of the Plaza Major in front of the church provided the space for the imposition of the Catholic calendar of periodic markets on Sundays. As Latin American cities expanded, the gradual increase in the inner city and demand for markets enabled the transition of days from Sundays to any day of the week and ultimately the daily markets. The organization of daily or periodical markets in Latin America continues in the open air, free standing and street markets. These typologies have established themselves as the characteristic depiction of the market in the historic district. In the evolution of the city, the empty lots in the historic district have become a symbol of decay in the city. The Latin American city suffered from the sense of emptiness and abandonment of the historic district. The marketplace has taken the role of a social equalizer in commercial activities, were classes and commerce come together in a single space (Bromley and Symanski, 14). The inner city marketplace is characterized as the center of socioeconomic activity from different neighborhoods and social classes in a historic urban layout.

The Open Air Market The open air market is characterized as the most consistent type of market in the Latin American city. Bromley and Symanski state the significance of the marketplace trade goes back to the precolonial urban societies (4). Therefore, under the grid mandated by the Law of Indies, it is no coincidence that the designation of particular streets and squares for market purposes was introduced to the Latin American city. “This designation of specific settings for the role of the market, usually the plaza, fostered the development of entire commercial districts


(Tangires, 9)�. The open air market has evolved in the Latin American The cultural activity of open air shopping promotes itself in the Latin American open throughout the presence of open spaces in the city. The original pedestrian concept of the market also enables it to develop under the protection of covered walkways, resulting in free standing markets.

Figure 4.2 Los Dolores Plaza and Market, Tegucigalpa, MDC.1880

Figure 4.3 El Mayoreo Market, Tegucigalpa MDC. 2012

Figure 4.4 Los Isla Market, Tegucigalpa MDC. 1949

Figure 4.5 La Isla Market, Tegucigalpa MDC. 2010

38

culture to a unique status for providing food distribution in the city.


39

The Free Standing Market The urban centered society of the Latin American culture combined with the Spanish country life traditions exerted influence in the market activities. This countryside lifestyle is reflected in typology of the free standing market. Like the open air market, the free standing markets occur in an open space or a pedestrian pathway.The traditional countryside construction techniques can easily by relocated in the free standing market through sheds. Bromley and Symanski support that the shed structure “owes its popularity to the familiar modular construction techniques of Latin America (17)”. Therefore, the most common type of market structure in Latin America is the shed. The use of the shed provides space for the commercial activity to develop in any location, square or street. The alignment of the shed in the free standing markets result in the Street Market typology.

The Street Market The combination of the open air culture with the countryside lifestyles of the Latin American culture produces the street market. The street market shares the characteristics of open air market and the sheds of the free standing markets. Helen Tangires suggests “the Spanish tradition of accentuating a vista or a space in the formal square stands that later evolved into a market center is a long tradition of urban design (65)”. The street market is characterized by the linear expansion of sidewalk or pedestrian pathway.The adaptability and popularity of the street market resides in the ability to be established in publicly owned space, such as the plaza or the street (Tangires, 89). Despite the fall of the central market in the 20th century, replaced with terminal markets and grocery stores, street markets remain a part of the Latin American landscape in the historic district. They provide an important means of subsistence for the social class that has come to inhabit and mobilize itself in the historic district.


40 Figure 4.6 San Isidro Market, Comayaguela MDC. 1939

Figure 4.7 San Isidro Market, Comayaguela MDC. 2012

Figure 4.8 San Miguel Market, Comayaguela MDC. 1928

Figure 4.9 San Miguel Market, Comayaguela MDC. 2003

Figure 4.10 Ministry of Education, Comayaguela MDC. 1889

Figure 4.11 Ministry of Education, Comayaguela MDC. 2012


Chapter 5

Case Studies Tegucigalpa: Creating an Urban Identity in the Historic District

I

II

III

IV

V

VI

VII

VIII


{ {

“Quito, it remains the least-altered historic center in Latin America and has been designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site UNESCO, 1978

“Quito, permanece el centro historico menos alterado en la region Latinoamericana y ha sido designada Patrimonio Cultural de la Humanidad por la UNESCO” UNESCO, 1978

} }

Figure 5.1 Aerial view of San Francisco de Quito historic district, Ecuador. Pablo Weaver. 2012


43

San Francisco de Quito, Ecuador San Francisco de Quito is the capital city of Ecuador. It was founded in the 16th century by the Spanish colonizers on the ruins of an Incan city (UNESCO).The historic center of Quito is one of the best preserved in Latin America, despite the earthquake that destroyed the city 1917 it is the least altered Centro Historico (UNESCO).The Centro Historico complex of Quito composes more than 130 historic sites and buildings which ultimately led to being the first World Heritage Site declaration by UNESCO in 1978. The 320 acres of building complexes in Quito represent the ultimate Latin American Centro Historico in the combination of styles and colonial architecture as well as the Latin American Baroque. The baroque style in Quito is the combination of Spanish, Italian, Moorish and Indigenous art (UNESCO). The city of Quito was laid under the regulations dictated by the Law of the Indies in rectangular squares and streets that align with the cardinal points (Scarpaci, 78). The combination of Spanish/ Moorish courtyard housing and the baroque public buildings provide impressive architecture in a historic urban layout. The central Plaza Mayor was later renamed Plaza Independencia and still stands with the Jesuit cathedral, government palace and the city hall surrounding it. The 1978 declaration of Quito as a World Heritage Site provided impulse for public and private investment in the Centro Historico. Carrion supports the intervention of the private financing in Quito enabled a dynamic awakening in reclaiming the Centro Historico as a space for cultural recreation (19).


44 Figure 5.2 Plaza de Independencia. Francesco Bandarin. UNESCO. 2005

Figure 5.3 Calle Garcia Moreno, San Francisco de Quito, Ecuador

Figure 5.4 La Ronda, San Francisco de Quito. Marielle Richon. UNESCO. 2008


45

Mexico City, DF., Mexico Mexico City was established by the Spanish among the Aztec ruins of Tenochtitlan in the 16th century.The Centro Historico of Mexico City stands with its architectural mix of Aztec temples, the largest metropolitan cathedral in the continent and 19th – 20th century public buildings (UNESCO).The uniform urban grid and the architectural styles that abounded Mexico City exerted a great influence in the development of the rest of Latin America. The monumentality of the complexes in Mexico City exemplified the Spanish use of symbolism in the Latin American region. The Centro Historico included the impressive Templo Mayor of the Aztec empire and an impressive collection of Spanish Latin American baroque architecture. The fear of the loss of the architectural richness of Mexico City Centro Historico provided impulse for the local governments to begin an urban intervention to revive the area. The renewal process of the Centro Historico began with the interest of private investors like Carlos Slim. The revitalization of the Centro Historico looks for the re population of the areas abandoned by residents in generating policies and process that focus on the cultural tradition. The creation of a National Fund for the Centro Historico in 1990, aimed for the objective to promote manages and coordinates public-private investments for the conservation and revitalization (Negocios, 2012). Carrion acknowledges that the model of financing created with the fund in Mexico City established the parameters for the rest of the Latin American region. The private sector has emerged as the prime hero in urban developments in the Centro Historico (19). The gentrification of the Centro Historico in Mexico City has resulted in a flourishing of national identity and the arts. The Centro Historico has become the center for the arts and the creative class.


46 Figure 5.5 Catedral Metropolitana de Mexico. Mexico City DF. 2010

Figure 5.6 Calle Condesa, Casa de Los Azulejos, Mexico City DF. 2010

Figure 5.7 Calle Condesa, Central Bank of Mexico, Mexico City DF. 2010


47

Parque Manuel Bonilla, Mirador de La Leona In 1840 the area now know as “La Leona” emerged from the legends and stories. It began as a resting place in the high mountains of Tegucigalpa, when the city began expanding to the now Barrio La Ronda, La Leona expanded as well, and became Barrio La Leona. The mirador that exists today is the result of the resting area used by the workers in the mines that transported the precious metals into Tegucigalpa. It became a Sunday family stop, where a basketball court was erected, still present today, becoming Mirador La Leona. The panoramic views of the city from the Mirador La Leona increased demand for proximity of residential uses in the area. In the late 19th century, German architect Gustavo Walther began constructing the first houses, characterized by their arcs. During the administration of Manuel Bonilla, the German architect Walther began establishing residences and a hospital in La Leona. Under the administration of president Lopez Gutierrez between 1910 and 1930, major transformations to the city took place. Augusto Bressani, the architect that was commissioned to design the Presidential Palace, was then commissioned to design a park in the site of La Leona Mirador. In 1925 the park was inaugurated and renamed in honor of President Manuel Bonilla. Today it still stands as one of the most impressive parks in the historic district of Tegucigalpa. In 2004 it was restored and remodeled preserving one of the oldest “spots” of the city.


48 Figure 5.8 Parque Manuel Bonilla, Tegucigalpa MDC. 1935

Figure 5.9 Parque Manuel Bonilla, Tegucigalpa MDC. 2012

Figure 5.10 Parque Manuel Bonilla, Tegucigalpa MDC. 2012

Figure 5.11 Parque Manuel Bonilla, Tegucigalpa MDC. 2012

Figure 5.12 Parque Manuel Bonilla, Tegucigalpa MDC. 2012

Figure 5.13 Parque Manuel Bonilla, Tegucigalpa MDC. 2012


Chapter 6

Site Analysis

Tegucigalpa: Creating an Urban Identity in the Historic District

I

II

III

IV

V

VI

VII

VIII


AS

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

ATLANTIC OCEAN

IA

AH

AB

L DE

35.4

73.20

mi

La Ceiba

ATLANTIDA

San Pedro Sula

GUATEMALA

CORTÉS

COLÓN

157.6 0 mi

0 m i

Puerto Cortés

YORO .50 87

mi

GRACIAS A DIOS

SANTA BARBARA mi .50 151

COPÁN Copán Ruins

OLANCHO

COMAYAGUA Comayagua

OCOTEPEQUE

FRANCISCO MORAZÁN .60 52

INTÍBUCA

i m

LEMPIRA LA PÁZ

EL PARAÍSO

EL SALVADOR

VALLE

77.50 mi

Tegucigalpa

Choluteca

CHOLUTECA

NICARAGUA

PACIFIC OCEAN

{ {

“Tegucigalpa (Tegus for short), is the capital of Honduras, and the country’s largest city. The name is derived from the Nahuatl Teguz-galpa, meaning silver hills” Leticia de Oyuela, Historia Minima de Tegucigalpa

“Tegucigalpa (Tegus), es la capital de Honduras, y la ciudad mas grande del pais. Su nombre deriva de Nahuatl Teguz-galpa, cuyo significado es ciudad de minas” Leticia de Oyuela, Historia Minima de Tegucigalpa

} }

Figure 6.1 Member state of the former Republic of Central America, Honduras became an independent republic in 1839.

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

Roatán

ISL

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

BELIZE


51

Tegucigalpa MDC, Honduras Real Minas de San Miguel de Heredia de Tegucigalpa Tegucigalpa and Comayaguela, the dual city or twin city, have worked together as the Central District (Municipio del Distrito Central) since 1937. The expansion of the city has reached beyond the planned limits, therefore it was divided into rural and urban sectors that form the entire capital region. The urban sector comprehends 201.5 km²; the rural sector is composed by 41 villages and 293 settlements (Duron and Padilla, 2007). Historic District of Tegucigalpa The historic district ofTegucigalpa is located at the Northeastern part of the city. According to the Honduran Institute of Anthropology it is composed by Barrios El Centro, Los Dolores, Abajo, Moncada, El Jazmin, La Merced, La Ronda, La Plazuela and La Hoya. Its extensive collection of National Landmarks includes Morazan Park, San Miguel Arcangel Cathedral and Ave. Paz Barahona among others. Through its collection of architecture, government buildings, the Choluteca River and bridges, the historic district stands out as a monument as a hole.The recent threats of modernity colliding with preservation have awakened a new era for this historic district, looking forward in the search for national identity. Fifth Centenary Peripheric Belt In 1990, the administration of then president Rafael Leonardo Callejas, commissioned the project of creating a four lane Peripheric belt around the city. The first phase of the project, which was later reduced to a 2 lane freeway connecting the city with major roads, was inaugurated in 1994. The second phase which connected Toncontin International Airport with the major roads in the country was inaugurated by president Carlos Roberto Flores in 1998. Despite succeeding in withholding the city for several years, ultimately the third phase of the project was concluded in 2004. Nonetheless, the final phase has not been inaugurated. The path is laid out, however the city has expanded beyond the borders and no transit laws exist to regulate its circulation. LEGEND Water Surfaces Peripheric Belt Historic District

A


ILL AN

52 O

R PE

RICO IFE


53

Urban Expansion Real Minas de San Miguel de Heredia de Tegucigalpa, MDC (Municipio del Distrito Central) by its official name, is the capital of Honduras. Although not originally founded as the capital, the city played an important role as an economic center for the Spanish Empire, with sources of gold and silver. The settlement was not considered an ideal location for a city, it was under constant threat of flooding due to the convergence of 3 rivers, Choluteca, Guacerique and Chiquito. Tegucigalpa has transformed itself through the years and evolving into the disorganized metropolis that exists today.

Colonial Era XVI Century 1578

Tegucigalpa was founded on September 29th, 1578. It was given the name of the Saint for the day it was founded. Businessmen from Comayagua established the settlement rich on silver and metals in the high mountains of the East.

1592

Originally bounded by 4 main avenues, Real Cabildo (Miguel de Cervantes), San Francisco, De La Estacion and De La Ronda. The Fraciscianos founded their church and market their prescence in La Merced Chapel.

1608

The Municipality of Tegucigalpa was created

1762

Tegucigalpa evolved into a Villam and was renamed Villa de San Miguel de Heredia de Tegucigalpa.

Independence Era XIX Century 1801

The population of Tegucigalpa consisted of 86 Spanish families, 507 Spanish-American families and 81 indian souls

1821

Tegucigalpa-Comayaguela had a combined population of 5,500 inhabitants in 831 buildings.

1876

The country enters a new phase with the Liberal Reform, progress is the new idealogy. Neoclassicism becomes the official style of public construction.

1880

Tegucigalpa becomes the capital on November 2, 1880 under the administration of Marco Aurelio Soto.


Republican Era 1881

Under the Liberal Reform, Tegucigalpa undergoes an urban transformation in which urban public spaces are remodeled to create a rupture with colonialism.

1882

Plaza Central Plaza La Merced Plaza San Francisco Non Existant Plaza San Isidro Plaza Inmaculada Concepcion

1883

Ramon Rosa in representation of the Honduran government, commissions italian artist Francisco Durini to create different statues in honor of Honduran heroes of the Republic.

Parque Morazan Parque Soto Parque Valle Parque La Concordia Parque Colon Parque Libertad

Francisco Morazan for Morazan Park Jose Cecilio del Valle for Valle Park Jose Trinidad Cabanas for Soto Park Jose Trinidad Reyes for Soto Park Liberty for Liberty Park

Modern Era XX Century 1921

El Obelisco Park is created in Comayaguela to conmemorate the 100th year of independence under the administration of Rafael Lopez Gutierrez.

1915

Herrera Park is created in front of Manuel Bonilla National Theater honoring the first president of Honduras.

1915

Manuel Bonilla Park is created as a mirador and park in La Leona under the administration of Alberto Membreno.

1950

Population of Tegucigalpa reaches 72.000 inhabitants

1980

Population of Tegucigalpa, 400.000 inhabitants

XXI Century 2011

Population of Tegucigalpa, 1.826.534 inhabitants

54

XIX Century


55

Urban Expansion Olancho San Pedro Sula

iq

er

Rio Gu a c

Los Laureles Dam Lepaterique

ue

Tonco Interna Airp

LEGEND 1707 1889 1935 1964 1990 2010 Road Infrastructure

C


56

Valle de Angeles

R

i o Ch o u teca l

Sa

n Jo s

e

ontin io ational R port

Choluteca

Danli


57

Tegucigalpa and Comayaguela MDC The Dual City Given the growth and urban expansion of Tegucigalpa and its adjacent sister city across the Choluteca River, a bridge was constructed in 1817 to connect both. After the independence declaration on 1821 further bridges were build to connect Tegucigalpa and Comayaguela. Comayaguela being the first part of the urban expansion in the city. They were both merged to become the single capital or Municipio del Distrito central in 1888. The abundance of open spaces in Tegucigalpa and Comayaguela was a direct result of the Liberal Reform ideology. The ideology established neoclassicism and progress as the ideal image of the city. The administration of Marco Aurelio Soto and Ramon Rosa, created an abundance of landscaped parks and plazas that server for the use of the people. Under the ideal of “progress in the city� they transformed the newly established capital and dual city of Tegucigalpa and Comayaguela into the center of progress in the country.

LEGEND 1. Manuel Bonilla Park 2. La Concordia Park 3. El Calvario Plaza 4. Herrera Park 5. Los Dolores Plaza 6. Morazan Park 7.Valle Park 8. San Francisco Park

9. Colon Park 10. Liberty Park 11. El Obelisco Park 12. Soldiers Park 13. National Stadium 14. Lempira Park 15. National Peace Monument


6

10

11

12

7

1

5

4 8

9

13

14

15 58

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

3 PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

2 PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT


59

Avenue vs. Street Avenue A broad road in a town or city, typically having trees at regular intervals along its sides. Honduran Avenues consist of no hierarchy, the run East-West in the Historic District and North-South in the grid of Comayaguela. Most have lost their adjacent original sidewalks and trees.

Figure 6.2 Avenue Miguel de Cervantes, 1922

Figure 6.3 Avenue Miguel de Cervantes, 2012

Street A public road in a city or town, typically with buildings on one or both sides. Similar to Avenues, Honduran definition of street vary depending on the area of the city.The streets in the Historic District run North-South, with the ones in Comayaguela East-West.

Figure 6.4 Calle Los Dolores, 1930

Figure 6.5 Calle Los Dolores, 2012


PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

Pedestrian

Avenues

Streets

60

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

LEGEND PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT


As the starting point in the foundation of the city of Tegucigalpa, the figure ground of the historic district is characterized by the proximity rdia

of the buildings in the urban structure. In the exceptions of the few

room for any other open space.

Calle M o

buildings, such as churches, markets and theaters, there is not much

relos

Calle L a Conco

open spaces symbolically placed in front of important civic and religious

As the city expanded there is evidence of how construction

Av

in the proximity of the mountains took place in an unregulated and disorganized manner. The residences of Barrio La Leona surrounding its

Ave.

historic Mirador Manuel Bonilla show a breaking point from the density around Morazan Park. Ultimately in recent years, the historic district has been invaded

Ave. Mig ue

ld

by the urban invasions near the river and has suffered the damage of yearly flooding. This is evidenced by the amount of empty or demolished structures in the adjacent lots to Paseo Marco Aurelio Soto. The change in elevation in direction of the Choluteca River has created an imbalance

Paseo Mar co Au re

Puente Sobera

nia

in the figure ground immediately next to the river.

RIO CH OLU

4th Avenue

2nd Street

5th Avenue

1st Street

6th Avenue

61

Figure Ground

3rd Street

TEC


Puente La Isla

2nd Street

to

l

Pu en te M lo al

de Cerva ntes

RIO CHI QU IT O

Ave. La Merced

R an Ju on am

Molina

Calle Damas

Calle Salador Corleto

Calle Pala ce

dor M endie ta

Salva

res

os Dolo

a

CalleAdolfo Zuniga

Calle

rahon Calle L

Telegra

Leona

Calle E l

Calle La

olon

on Bolivar

dieta

Paz B a

r Men

in

Jazm

tobal C

Av e.

C

CA lvado alle Sa

e El

Call

ve. Cr is

Calle Sim

s

ria

Ca

elio So

e

io

urc

Tib

fo

Ave. M

2nd Avenu

te

en

Pu

ulino ares PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

Valla d

axim o Jer ez

Ave. Max im o Jerez

62

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

3rd Avenue

Ave . Pa

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT


Calle M o

A

relos

Calle L a Conco

rdia

63

Historic Landmarks and Civic Buildings

Av

C

Ave.

D

B

E Ave. Mig ue

l

Puente Sobera

nia

Paseo Mar co Au re

RIO CH OLU

Historic Landmarks Government Buildings Bank/Corporations Schools/Institutional Marketplaces

4th Avenue

LEGEND

6th Avenue

2nd Street

5th Avenue

1st Street

3rd Street

TE


ECA to

de Cerva ntes

2nd Street l

Pu en te M lo al

J

RIO

Calle Pala ce

H

T K

S

CHI

M

L N

R Q

QU IT O

Calle Damas

dor M endie ta

Salva

res

Calle La

Telegra

Leona

Calle E l

F

CalleAdolfo Zuniga

na os Dolo

olon

on Bolivar

Calle

araho Calle L

tobal C

Calle Sim

alle S

C

elio So ndieta

. Paz B

r Me alvado

in

Jazm

ve. Cr is

Av e.

s

ria

Ca

e El

Call fo

axim

Puente La Isla

io

urc

Tib

Ave. M

2nd Avenu e

te

en

Pu

ulino ares PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

Valla d

o Jer ez

G

Ave. Max im o Jerez

U

Ave. La Merced

O

P

R an Ju on am

Molina

64

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

3rd Avenue

Ave . Pa

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT


65

Historic Landmarks and Civic Buildings A. El Calvario Church Date: Architectural Style: Architect/Designer: Current Condition: Observation:

1783 Spanish Colonial Renaissance Unknown Restored Originally built as the Cemetery Chapel for Los Dolores Church. Stands in front of a small Calvario Plaza in front of the church. Figure 6.6

B. Manuel Bonilla National Theater Date: 1915 Architectural Style: Honduran Neoclassicism Architect/Designer: M. Surgueois, Cristobal Prats, Carlos Zu単iga Current Condition: Restored/Preserved Observation: Construction began during the administration of Francisco Bertrand. The facade is covered by local pink limestone Figure 6.7

C. National Identity Museum Date: 1880 Honduran Neoclassicism Architectural Style: Unkown Architect/Designer: Current Condition: Restored (2004) Observation: Construction began during the administration of Marco Aurelio Soto Originally was constructed as the General Hospital D. National Post Office of Honduras 1881 Date: Architectural Style: Honduran Neoclassicism Architect/Designer: Unkown Current Condition: Restored (2004) Observation: Construction began during the administration of Marco Aurelio Soto Originally was constructed as orphanage in 1868 F. Communications Palace (HONDUTEL) Date: 1916 Architectural Style: Honduran XV Century Renaissance Architect/Designer: Unkown Current Condition: Restored (2004) Observation: Construction began during the administration of Francisco Bertrand. Highly decorated in local pink limestone

Figure 6.8

Figure 6.9

Figure 6.10


Figure 6.11

Figure 6.12

66

G. Los Dolores Chapel Date: Architectural Style: Architect/Designer: Current Condition: Observation:

1732 - 1812 Spanish Colonial Baroque Unknown Preserved Construction began in 1579 with first settlers. The highly decorated white facade represents the Spanish Colonial architecture of church building.

H. Medina Planas Building 1937 Date: Honduran Neoclassicism Architectural Style: Unknown Architect/Designer: Current Condition: Restored (2012) Observation: Build as one of the first mixed used buildings in the historic district. Famous for its restaurant Duncan Maya. J.Variedades Theater Date: Architectural Style: Architect/Designer: Current Condition: Observation:

1937 Honduran Neoclassicism Alberto Lazarus Abanodoned It was constructed in 1930 with the introduction of the movie business to Honduras. Theater consisted of 3 areas, General, Stall and Box

Figure 6.13

K. Central Bank of Honduras Date: 1880, 1954 Architectural Style: Honduran Neoclassicism Architect/Designer: Unknown Current Condition: Demolished (1970), Deteriorated Observation: Erected in 1880 with the support of the Rosario Mining Company. Demolished and replaced by the DEI in 1972 Figure 6.14

Figure 6.15

L. Larach & Company Building Date: 1955 Architectural Style: Honduran Modernism Architect/Designer: Unknown Current Condition: Abandoned Observation: First high rise building built in the historic district, It is located on Ave. Paz Barahona where it stands with 12 stories and 48 m high.


67

M. San Miguel Arcangel Cathedral Date: 1762 - 1782 Architectural Style: Spanish Colonial Baroque Architect/Designer: Gregorio Naciancino Quiroz,Vicente Galvez Current Condition: Restored (2005) Observation: The cathedral was built in 1762 by Guatemalan architect Gregorio Naciancino. It is 60 m by 11 m. It was inaugurated on September 29th 1782 Figure 6.16

N. Midence-Soto Building Date: 1778, 1970 Architectural Style: Honduran Modernism Architect/Designer: Miguel de Midence Current Condition: Demolished (1970), Abandoned Observation: Erected by Miguel de Midence, one of the first inhabitants of Tegucigalpa. Formerly known as the “Corredores� for its pavilion and stoa image. Figure 6.17

O. La Merced Chapel Date: Architectural Style: Architect/Designer: Current Condition: Observation:

1654 Spanish Colonial Renaissance Unknown Restored/Preserved It was erected by mercenary priests in Tegucigalpa. It consists of the chapel and the convent. Facade is covered in local pink limestone. Figure 6.18

P. National Gallery of Art 1654 (Built), 1857 (UNAH), 1994 Date: Spanish Colonial Renaissance Architectural Style: Architect/Designer: Unknown Current Condition: Restored (1994) Observation: Originally built as the Convent for Our Lady of Mercy. It was restored by the National Autonomous University and became the National Gallery in 1994 Figure 6.19

Q. National Congress of Honduras Date: 1954 Architectural Style: Honduran Modernism Architect/Designer: Mario Valenzuela Current Condition: Restored (2011) Observation: Originally the location of the presidential palace. It was erected in 1954 by instructions that the design respected the open space plaza beneath it. Figure 6.20


Figure 6.21

T. Archbishop Palace Date: Architectural Style: Architect/Designer: Current Condition: Observation:

1922 Honduran Neoclassicism Unknown Abandoned Commissioned in 1915 by the Association of Catholic Women as their ultimate goal. It was inaugurated for use in 1922,.

Figure 6.22

U. National Library of Honduras 1782 (1 Phase), 1894 (2 Phase), 1931 (3 Phase) Date: Honduran Neoclassicism Architectural Style: Architect/Designer: Unknown Current Condition: Restored (2003) Observation: Originally the Caxa Real, it remained untouched until the second phase becoming the Tipografia Nacional under president Policarpo Bonilla. Figure 6.23

68

S. Presidential Palace (1925 - 1990) Date: 1919 Architectural Style: Neo Gothic/Victorian Architect/Designer: Augusto Bressani, Manuel Zelaya Current Condition: Restored (1992) Observation: First inhabited by Luis Bogran Barahona and las inhabited by Rafael Leonardo Callejas in 1992. Currently the National Archives of Honduras


69

Districts and Neighborhoods

L

01-14

District 01 Zone: C-3 Classification: Commercial Zoning Compatible: R-5 Multi Family Housing (1000 inhabitants/acre) R-6 Multi Family Housing (7000 inhabitants/acre) R-7 Multi Family Housing (485 inhabitants/acre)

01-15

01-62 01-61

Barrio Abajo Number of Lots: Area: District: Population:

12 139,776 m² District 01 34,000 (Approx Full Capacity)

Barrio La Moncada Number of Lots: Area: District: Population:

5 30,421 m² District 01 7,500 (Approx Full Capacity)

Barrio El Jazmin Number of Lots: Area: District: Population: Barrio La Merced Number of Lots: Area: District: Population:

Barrio Abajo 01-63

01-64

01

01-65

01-6

01-93 01-92

01-94

5 36,962 m² District 01 9,000 (Approx Full Capacity)

01-91

01-97

01-95

Barrio La Moncada

01-98

01-96

RIO CH OLU

3 24,241 m² District 01 6,000 (Approx Full Capacity)

TEC

Barrio La Chivera

Barrio Centro de Tegucigalpa Number of Lots: 20 Area: 152,271 m² District: District 01 Population: 37,620 (Approx Full Capacity) Barrio Los Dolores Number of Lots: Area: District: Population:

DIS 7 51,204 m² District 01 12,650 (Approx Full Capacity)

Barrio La Concordia Number of Lots: 3 Area: 38,031 m² District: District 01 Population: 9,390 (Approx Full Capacity)

Barrio Sipile

B Centro de


PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

01-17

01-18

Barrio Los Dolores

Barrio La Leona

01-19

DISTRICT 02

01-20

1-60

01-58

Barrio La Ronda

01-59 01-57

01-55 01-54

66

01-53

DISTRICT 01

01-67

01-52 01-51

01-68 01-69

01-70

Barrio Centro de Tegucigalpa

01-90

01-132

01-131

01-89

01-73

Barrio La Plazuela

01-88 01-86 01-100

01-85

01-101

Barrio El Jazmin

01-104

01-103

01-105

01-102

CA

STRICT 06

Barrio e Comayaguela

01-126

01-123 01-124

Barrio La Merced

01-125 RIO C

HIQ UI TO

Barrio La Hoya

70

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

01-16

01-99

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

Barrio La Concordia


71

Zoning and Building Height District 01 Commercial Uses C-1 (Daily), C-2 (Neighborhood) and C-3 (Zone) are compatible with Residential Zoning The minimum size of the lots should be of 60m² to 400m², 15m of front Lots that have limited street access, shall not go over 3 stories high and 2.5 construction index (Reglamento de Metroplan, Alcaldia Municipal de Tegucigalpa). A) Topographic Landscape Zones limited to 3 stories: • Ave. Maximo Jerez • Ave. Cristobal Colon • Calle Matute • Calle Palace B) Topographic Landscape Zones limited to 4 stories: • Calle Adolfo Zuniga • Ave. Paz Barahona • Ave. Miguel de Cervantes • Parque Central Morazan • C)Topographic Landscape Zones limited to 3 stories and 3.0 construction index (To leave space for Parking Units) • Calle Adolfo Zuniga • Calle Salvador Corletto D) Due to Preservation and Restoration projects the limit should be of 4 stories and 4.0 construction index, also known as the Floor Area Ratio (FAR) in the United States: • Ave. Paulina Valladares • Ave, Paz Barahona • Calle Adolfo Zuniga • Ave. Cristobal Colon • Calle Las Damas • Calle Salvador Corletto • Paseo Marco A. Soto LEGEND 3 Stories, FAR 2.5 3 Stories, FAR 3.0 3 Stories, FAR 4.0 4 Stories, FAR 4.0 Open Spaces/Green


PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

72

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT


73

Land Use The land use trend of the historic district in Tegucigalpa has shifted dramatically to become an area formerly mostly residential, to being declared by the local municipality as primarily commercial C-3. The increases uses in commercial activity has led to the area to become populated and vacant depending on the hours of the day. The majority of the businesses that function in the historic district are local commercial, local restaurants and fast food chains that support the population that visit it on a daily basis. Nonetheless, this has led to an excess of vacancy in the upper floors of the higher buildings. The remaining residences in the historic district are mostly deteriorated by time and/or abandoned.

LEGEND Residential Commercial Governmental/Public Institutional Mixed Uses Open Spaces/Green Demolished Parking Lots Empty Lots


PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

74

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT


75

Green and Blue Infrastructure Rio Choluteca o Grande The Choluteca River is among the major water sources of the historic district and surrounds the city dividing it into a dual city, Tegucigalpa and Comayaguela. The neglect of the river has caused major damage to the city. In the Fall of 1998, the struck of Hurricane Mitch left much of Comayaguela and part of the historic district completely in ruins. Most of the affected buildings have still not been recovered by the owners. Future plans for the river include a Master Plan for the creation of a freeway in the South side. This will serve as a quick access to the Historic District. First Phase includes the treatment of the rivers Second Phase, the construction of the freeway Third Phase, the creation of new lots along the river front. Length: 250 Km, 7848 km² Observations: 100.27 tons/day 70% Domestic Waste 27% Solid Waste 3% Other

LEGEND Water Surfaces Flooding Areas Water Current

RIO CH OLU

TE


PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

76

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

ECA


77

Walkability and Circulation

LEGEND Pedestrian Streets One way Streets 5 Minute Walk 10 Minute Walk 15 Minute Walk


PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

tobal C

Ave. P az

Ave. Mig ue

olon

Barah

l de Cerva

ona

ntes

78

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

Ave. C ris


79

Site Selection and Documentation The selected site for this thesis project is located at the center of the historic district. Parting from Morazan Park and the San Miguel Arcangel Cathedral. The “pedestrian street� that was created under the initiative of the municipality in 2005, was set with the purpose of providing the priority of most of the pedestrian activity in the historic

Figure 6.23

district a single space to distribute around it. Since most of the historic district was not designed to support the automobile but the pedestrian, the existence of sidewalks is close to none.

La Concordia and Ave

On the images taken from the site visit and analysis it is clear that the area, despite its lack of design is inhabited and visited. Ave. Miguel Paz Barahona remains as a live place during most of the day. Businesses,

Morelos and

Figure 6.24

retail and restaurants, as well as an abundance of bank agencies and fast food chains are very much busy in terms of pedestrian traffic. The less visited areas unfortunately are the National Identity Museum, the National Post Office and the blocks immediately to the river. The materiality observed through the visit shows the use of concrete stamps as the paving material for the pedestrian axis.

Figure 6.25

Nonetheless the secondary streets to Ave. Miguel Paz Barahona are not paved and have suffered in becoming improvised parking lots or garbage disposals for businesses in Ave. Paz Barahona.

Figure 6.26

Figure 6.27

Figure 6.28


PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

d Ave. Paz Barahona

El Telegrafo and Ave. Paz Barahona

Los Dolores and Ave. Paz Barahona

Mendieta and Ave. Paz Barahona

Morazan Park and Ave. Paz Barahona

80

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

e. Paz Barahona


Chapter 7

Center as a Symbol for National Identity Tegucigalpa: Creating an Urban Identity in the Historic District

I

II

III

IV

V

VI

VII

VIII


{ {

“Pride and hope, can go long way in putting cities back together” Larry R. Ford, Americas New Downtown’s, 199

“El orgullo y la esperanza, pueden lograr mucho en la restauracion de las ciudades” Larry R. Ford, Americas New Downtown’s, 199

} }

Figure 7.1 Parque Soto and National Congress of Honduras 1967. Private Collection. Felipe Edgardo Castillo


83

The Identity Factor The Center as a Symbol for National Identity In the first phasing of this project the ultimate purpose is to establish the centrality of the Morazan Park and Ave. Miguel Paz Barahona as the symbolic centers for the city. The revitalization of this are will ultimately lead to an appreciation of place and an identity of the historic district as a city. The city of Tegucigalpa unites in its pride for its center. Capital 450 Capital 450 is the second level of the spread of the identity factor for Tegucigalpa. In this level, the city reaches its proposed plan to create a more efficient and sustainable Tegucigalpa for its 450th anniversary in 2028. The revitalization of the historic district unites in celebrating 450 years of heritage and history in the city and country levels. World Heritage Site (UNESCO) As Quito and Mexico City did in the past, the ultimate level of identity for the restoration of the historic district is receive global recognition. The preservation and efficient restoration of the historic district enables the pursuit of the second World Heritage Site in Honduras after the Mayan ruins of Copan. UNESCO World Heritage

GLOBAL

COUNTRY

Honduran Institute of Anthropolgy

CITY

Capital 450

The Center as a Symbol

Figure 7.2 Spread of the Identity Factor


84

The Layers of the City

DESIGN PROPOSAL

BUILDING ENVIRONMENT

URBAN FABRIC

NATURAL LANDSCAPE

Figure 7.3 Layers of the City Diagram


85

The Centrality of a Capital City A New Capital

Tegucigalpa was established as “the new and definitive capital

of Honduras” on November of 1880. The Liberal Reform enabled the evolution of a rural city into becoming the symbol of urban “progress” in the country. The identity established by the Liberal Reform, denied all things Spanish, Baroque to Neoclassicism, Plazas to Honduran Parks, Spanish nomenclature to Independence heroes. National Identity After “progress” and the Liberal Reform ended in the 1960’s, Honduras went through a period of loss of identity and decay impulsed by political and social instability.The urban transformation of Tegucigalpa in the 1970’s called for the demolition of Historic Landmarks and replace them with the “new modern city”. The expansion of the city to its peripheries has fractured the historic district.The main park, Morazan Park, has suffered a loss of identity and no longer resembles its colonial splendor. National Identity, which is not an inborn trait, but the direct result of the presence of elements from the common points in peoples daily lives: national symbols, language, national colors, the nations history, culture etc. Morazan Park and Ave. Paz Barahona Originally the Central Plaza established as an empty lot in 1589, it was remodeled 1883, 1890, 1963, 2005 and rename for Francisco Morazan. The current layout completely ignored the sense of place and space that made the park such an important symbol of national identity. Its centrality and pedestrian nature make it ideal as a formal and informal urban space. The main avenue that crosses the entire Historic District through the center of the Morazan Park. It was popularly remodeled into the “Pedestrian Street” or “Paseo Liquidambar” after its completion in 2005. The remodeling phase, although a success for pedestrian circulation, lacks connectivity to the heritage, history and place of the Historic District


Barah ona PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

86

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

Ave. P az PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT


87

Phasing Strategies

The first phase of this project introduces a design principle

to the existing conditions of the pedestrian mall, in Ave. Miguel Paz Barahona and a revitalization of the Morazan Park. Within these phases the project reinforces the Centrality of the Capital City parting from Morazan Park, strengthening the identity of the city with the historic district. As a consequences of the already revitalized and designed Ave. Miguel Paz Barahona, a spillover effect occurs with the adjacent streets or Calles. These continue to revitalize itself as a result of the preservation, interest and proximity to the blocks immediately next to Ave. Miguel Paz Barahona. Ultimately, the most neglected part of the historic district, the Paso Marco Aurelio Soto street, which comprehends much of the river front property, revitalizes itself. Due to the change in elevation of the historic district towards the Choluteca River, this area has a higher risk of seasonal flooding. Nonetheless, the “escalinatas� or stairs that connect it to the rest of the streets make them rich in providing a sense of history and place. Upon the revitalization of the Centrality of the Capital City, the Spillover Effect and the Choluteca River Front, the phasing continues to expand to the twin city of Comayaguela. Expanding therefore as a prototype to restore an identity with the city.

LEGEND Phase 1

The Center as Symbol for National Identity

Phase 2

Spillovers of the Center

Phase 3

Paseo Marco Aurelio Soto Riverfront


88


89

Materials of the Historic District Ave. Miguel Paz Barahona Throughout this thesis, and in the research leading to its design proposal, the study of photo documentation of previous layers of the historic district was important. Among these images the different patterns as well as textures and materials that have survived or been used in the historic district where evident. Concrete

Spanish Bond

Concrete

Grass

Concrete

Basketweave

Concrete

Concrete Block

The study of the different materials that exist today, original or interpretations of the original materials, created a multiple choice selection. In these variety as shown in the images, it is evident that the outcomes and combinations are endless in the same basic pattern.

Figures 7.4 - 7.7 Schematic Proposals for Secondary Pavement Design Figures 7.8 - 7.19 Schematic Proposals for Main Pavement Design


Concrete

Concrete

Basketweave

No Joint

Concrete Joint

Light Concrete

Basketweave

Basketweave

Concrete

Concrete

Concrete

Metallic Joint

Running Bond

Metallic Joint

Cobblestone

Concrete

Setts

Concrete

Concrete

Concrete

Metallic Joint

Limestone

Concrete Joint

Spanish Bond

Concrete

Basketweave

Dark Concrete

Concrete

Concrete

Grass

Metallic Joint

Setts Joint

Herringbone

Natural Stone

Light Concrete Light Concrete

90

Dark Concrete


91

Design Proposal

Figure 7.20 Main Pedestrian Axis Pavement Plan

Figure 7.22 Preliminary Pavement Sketch

Figure 7.21 Secondary Pedestrian Axis Pavement Plan


92 Concrete

Metallic Joint

Setts Figure 7.23 Main Axis Pavement Rendering

Concrete

Blocks Figure 7.24 Secondary Axis Pavement Detail


Master Plan 93

Ave. M

axim

o Jer ez

relos

l Teleg

rafo

Calle M o

Communications Palace

Calle E

Calle L a Conco rdia

Ruben Callejas National Gym

Ave. C rist

obal C

National Identity Museum Ave. P az

Miradores de la Reforma Liberal Intervention 5

Manuel Bonilla National Theater

olon

Barah

ona

National Post Office

Cultural Identity District Intervention 4 Ministry of Health

Ave. M ig

uel de C

USE Primary Axis Ave. Paz Barahona

Dark Concrete

Secondary Axes La Leona - Concordia

Concrete Blocks

Secondary Axes La Leona - Concordia

Rio C

Soto

holu

teca

en te

Tib

urc

io

Ca

Concrete Setts

Primary Axis Ave. Paz Barahona

Pase o Marco Aur elio

s

Light Concrete

IMAGE

ria

MATERIAL

Pu

COLOR

Puente Soberania

MATERIALS LEGEND

Nacional

Call

e El

Jazm

in

ervante

s


ares

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

Ave .M

axim

o Je

rez

ona

Calle P alace

La Le

Calle Matute

Calle

Calle

Salva

Calle L

dor M

os Dolo

endie

ta

res

Los Dolores Market and Plaza Intervention 3

Ave. Miguel Paz Barahona / Playgrounds Intervention 2

San Miguel Arcangel Cathedral Morazan Park / La Concepcion Market Plaza Intervention 1

S Calle

Calle Sim on

alvado

Bolivar

r Men

dieta

Municipal Palace of the Central District

Ave. La Merced

La Merced Chapel National Art Gallery

Presidential Palace 1919 - 1992 Central Bank of Honduras

National Congress

94

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

no V allad

Los Dolores Church

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

Ave . Pau li


The Centrality of Morazan Originally the Central Plaza was established as an empty lot in 1589 for religious, political and market uses. It was remodeled and renamed in honor of Francisco Morazan in 1883, 1890, 1963, ultimately in 2005. The current layout completely ignores the sense of place and space that made the park a symbol of national identity. Its centrality and pedestrian nature, as well as the current layout provides the opportunity to function as a dual plaza. This enables uses demanded by political, religious and economic activities to take place.

Ave. C ri

Colon

La Le

ona

stobal

Calle

Ave. M ig

Barah

ona

e

uel Paz

Calle Matut

95

Morazan Park - La Concepcion Plaza

Ave. Migu el

de Cerv

antes

La Concepcion Parking Garage 84 Parking Units Ave. C ri

stobal

Colon

Figure 7.25 Morazan Park - La Concepcion Market Plaza Plan


96

Colonial 1589 - 1883

Republican 1883 - 2005

Modern 2005 - Present

Figure 7.26 Evolution of an Urban Space - Morazan Park

Figure 7.27 Calle La Leona - Calle Salvador Mendieta Section


97

Gen. Francisco Morazan Park

Figure 7.28 View Gen. Francisco Morazan Park


98


99

La Concepcion Market Plaza

Figure 7.29 View Nuestra Se帽ora de la Limpia Concepci贸n Market


100


Ave. Miguel Paz Barahona Streetscape Is the main avenue that crosses the entire Historic District through the center of the Morazan Park. It was popularly remodeled into the “Pedestrian Street” or “Paseo Liquidambar” after its completion in 2005. The remodeling phase, although a success for pedestrian circulation, lacks connectivity to the heritage, history and place. The introduction of materiality and patterns, as well as tree lawn streetscaping would reinforce the centrality of the space. This treatment would provide a sense of space that enables the Honduran “cafe” and promenade culture to evolve.

Ave. C ri

Colon

Calle

Mend

ieta

olores

ona Calle

La Le

Calle

Mend

ieta

stobal

Calle Los D

101

Ave. Miguel Paz Barahona

Figure 7.30 Ave. Miguel Paz Barahona Streetscape Plan


102 Paths and Play

Playground Furniture Vegetation

Figure 7.31 Ave. Miguel Paz Barahona Empty Lots

Figure 7.32 Calle Salvador Mendieta - Calle Los Dolores Section


103

Ave. Miguel Paz Barahona

Figure 7.33 View Ave. Miguel Paz Barahona Street Cafe Culture


104


A Symbolic Market Place Los Dolores Church stands monumentally in front of Los Dolores Plaza and Market. The church was originally constructed between 1579 - 1812 with the arrival of the first settlers in Tegucigalpa. Los Dolores market was erected as an Art Deco style building to replace the old building of the 1880’s. Augusto Bressani designed the original structure. It was inaugurated in 1922, later remodeled in 1958 and finally demolished in 1978. Ultimately it was replaced with the existing market in 2004. This project proposes the replacement of the temporary structures with thin shell structures, a modern representation of the ones introduced by national engineer Francisco Pratts in 1965.

Ave . Pa

o Va

llada

res

l Telegr

afo

ulin

Ave. Ma

ximo

Calle

Bueno s Aire

s

Calle E

105

Los Dolores Market and Plaza

Jerez

Ave .M

axim

Figure 7.34 Los Dolores Market and Plaza Plan

o Je

rez


106 Thin shell cover

Vendors

Circulation

Vendors

Figure 7.35 Los Dolores Market pavillon structure section

Figure 7.36 Calle Los Dolores Section


107

Los Dolores Market and Plaza

Figure 7.37 View Los Dolores Market and Plaza


108


The Importance of Monumental Architecture The outstanding collection of architectural heritage buildings that composes the historic district of Tegucigalpa comes together in Ave. Miguel Paz Barahona. The National Identity Museum erected in 1881, the Correos Nacionales de Honduras (National Post Office Building) 1882, Hotel Plaza, Dionisio de Herrera Park and Manuel Bonilla National Theater come together to potentially create a space for cultural identity. The application of streetscape design, paving and materiality comes together in emphasizing the importance of the buildings to restore National Identity. The trees are replaced by street lighting to

Colon

Figure 7.38 National Cultural Identity District Plan

afo Calle E l Telegr

orelos

Calle E

stobal

l Teleg

Ave. C ri

rafo

provide illumination to the symbolic buildings of this block.

Calle M

109

Cultural Identity District


110 Figures 7.39 - 7.40 Museo de La Identidad Nacional 1889 and 2009

Figures 7.41 - 7.42 Correo Nacional de Honduras 1880 and 2012

Figure 7.43 Calle El Telegrafo - Calle Morelos Section


111

Cultural Identity District

Figure 7.44 View Ave. Miguel Paz Barahona betweem the Cultural Identity District


112


113

Calle El Telegrafo

Figure 7.45 View Calle El Telegrafo sidewalk expansion and treatment


114


Miradores de La Reforma Liberal After Tegucigalpa was renamed the capital city of Honduras, president Marco Aurelio Soto and Ramon Rosa introduced the Liberal Reform.The reforms symbolized the biggest transition in the city’s urban form and history into reflecting the ultimate Honduran republicanism style. Soon after the administration of Soto and Ramon Rosa, public monuments were planned in their names to stand in from of Los Dolores Plaza.

Colon

Calle L

stobal

a Conco

Ave. C ri

rdia

The monuments never happened and instead the San Miguel Arcangel stands in the plaza. The miradores are named in honor to complete the circle of national heroes in the historic district.

Calle L

a Conco rdia

Paseo Marco Aurelio Soto

115

Miradores de La Reforma Liberal

Figure 7.46 Miradores de La Reforma Liberal Plan


116 Figure 7.47 La Reforma Liberal Parking Garage Plan

Figure 7.48 - 7.49 Paseo Marco Aurelio Soto Section


117

Miradores de La Reforma Liberal

Figure 7.50 View Paseo Marco Aurelio Soto and Reforma Liberal Parking Garage


118


119

Escalinatas de La Reforma Liberal

Figure 7.51 View Paseo Marco Aurelio Soto and Escalinatas de La Reforma Liberal


120


Chapter 8

Conclusion Tegucigalpa: Creating an Urban Identity in the Historic District

I

II

III

IV

V

VI

VII

VIII


{ {

“The greatest need in our cities is not so much for a giant rebuilding program, as for a giant upsurge of popular concern for and pride in the urban environment” James Q. Wilson, The Metropolitan Enigma, 23

“La mayor necesidad de nuestras ciudades, no es tanto un gran plan de revitalización, si no un gran surgimiento popular por la preocupación y el orgullo del ambiente urbano. James Q.Wilson,The Metropolitan Enigma, 23

} }

Figure 8.1 Postal, Sebastian Siercke, 1961 Tegucigalpa, Francisco Morazan, Honduras


123

Conclusion The search for National Identity in the Historic District Latin America is a region that has come to be characterized by its diversity of culture, yet also by the common roots and backgrounds that part from European descent. The Republic of Honduras, located in the heart of Central America is no exception to the rich cultural diversity that identifies the region. Its capital, the city of Tegucigalpa has experienced a fascinating transformation, as the symbol for progress to the capital city that neglected its past. The urban transformation of the city, from its colonial history to the disorganized urbanization that exists today, played a major role in the identity of city and the nation. The hypothesis for this thesis emerged due to the effects of a globalized world and the toll it has taken to the identity of the population of Tegucigalpa. How can the design of cities and public space pay tribute to such rich history and provide with the identity of its people? The historic district of Tegucigalpa is a live place with enormous potential for urban revitalization. Throughout the years it has survived the test of time adapting itself to the demands of the modern city, where its colonial layouts and republican ideals dim in the plazas that stand today. The study of its history and place can ultimately provide design solutions or proposals that inspire modern interpretations. Through the use of materiality, patterns, pavements, vegetation, urban infrastructure, preservation and adaptive reuse, it is possible to restore the sense of space. All together the fields of architecture, preservation, history and urban design unite to create AN IDENTITY OF THE HISTORIC DISTRICT.


124 Figure 8.2 Birds Eye View The Identity of A Historic District, Tegucigalpa, Francisco Morazan, Honduras


125

Bibliography Alcaldia Municipal De Tegucigalpa. Libro De La Zonificacion General. Tegucigalpa: Alcaldia Municipal De Tegucigalpa, 2010. Gerencia De La Construccion. Web. 26 Jan. 2013. Bannon, John Francis History of the Americas McGraw-Hill,Vol. 2, 1952. Print Barnett, Jonathan. Redesigning Cities: Principles, Practice, Implementation. Chicago: Planners, 2003. Print. Bromley, R. J., and Richard Symanski. “Marketplace Trade in Latin Americs.” Latin American Research Review 9.3 (1974): 3-38. The Latin American Studies Association. Web. <http://jstor.otg/stable/2502565>. Carrión, M. , Fernando. Financiamiento De Los Centros Históricos De América Latina Y El Caribe: [seminario Internacional, Quito En Marzo De 2006]. Quito [u.a.: FLACSO, Sede Ecuador [u.a., 2007. Print. Ford, Larry. America’s New Downtowns: Revitalization or Reinvention? Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, 2003. Print. James Lockhart and Stuart B. Schwartz, Early Latin America: A History of Colonial Spanish America and Brazil, Web 7 Mar 2012 Loukaitou-Sideris, Anastasia, and Tridib Banerjee. Urban Design Downtown: Poetics and Politics of Form. Berkeley: University of California, 1998. Print. Marcus, Clare Cooper., and Carolyn Francis. People Places: Design Guidelines for Urban Open Space. New York:Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1990. Print. Morris, Anthony Edwin James. “Spain and Its Empire.” History of Urban Form: Before the Industrial Revolution. Burnt Mill: Longman, 1994. N. pag. Print. Oyuela, Leticia De. Historia Mínima De Tegucigalpa:Vista a Través De Las Fiestas Del Patrono San Miguel a Partir De 1680 Hasta Fines Del Siglo XIX. Tegucigalpa, Honduras: Editorial Guaymuras, 1989. Print. Rudofsky, Bernard. Streets for People; a Primer for Americans. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1969. Print.


Tangires, Helen. Public Markets. New York: W.W. Norton in Association with Library of Congress, 2008. Print. UNESCO. City of Quito. World Heritage Site. 2012. Web. 12 Nov. 2010 UNESCO. Historic Center of Mexico City and Xochimilco. World Heritage Site. 2012. Web. 12 Nov. 2012 Wilson, James Q. The Metropolitan Enigma; Inquiries into the Nature and Dimensions of America’s Urban Crisis. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 1968. Print.

126

Scarpaci, Joseph L. Plazas and Barrios: Heritage Tourism and Globalization in the Latin American Centro Histórico. Tucson: University of Arizona, 2005. Print. . Reina,Valenzuela José. Historia De Tegucigalpa. [Tegucigalpa, Honduras]: Concejo Metropolitano Del Distrito Central, Departamento De Relaciones Públicas, Oficina De Eventos Especiales, 1957. Print.


Profile for Josue Tejeda

Tegucigalpa: Creating an Urban Identity in the Historic District  

Thesis book submitted for the completion of the Masters of Urban Design at SCAD.

Tegucigalpa: Creating an Urban Identity in the Historic District  

Thesis book submitted for the completion of the Masters of Urban Design at SCAD.

Advertisement

Recommendations could not be loaded

Recommendations could not be loaded

Recommendations could not be loaded

Recommendations could not be loaded