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The Reformations


The Protestant Reformation • What was it? – Split in the Christian Church which gave us Protestantism.

• Key figure: Martin Luther – Was a German monk. – 1505…


Martin Luther • Had a problem with his salvation. Confessed for hours on end. • Came up with Justification by faith – Belief that people became saved by God’s mercy and grace – Instead of doing good works


Pope Leo X • Raising money to rebuild St. Peter’s Basilica. • Authorized the sale of Indulgences – Certificate issued by the Church to reduce or even cancel punishment for a person’s sins – Ensured place in heaven.

• John Tetzel-Church’s agent for selling in Northern Germany – Even promised forgiveness for future sins – Encouraged indulgences for dead relatives


• “By the authority of all the saints, and in mercy towards you, I absolve you from all sins and misdeeds and remit all punishments for ten days."


What do you think Luther did? • Martin Luther became furious • October 31, 1517- nailed to the door of a church the 95 Theses. – Statements criticizing indulgences and other church policies.

• Eventually copies spread throughout Germany. • Luther published 100’s of essays advocating justification by faith and attacking church abuses.


What did Pope do? • Was discouraged in the lack of money coming in. • Sent people to Germany to try and talk Luther out of causing all the problems. • 1520-Pope banned Luther’s works and condemned him • 1521-excommunicated from church


• The Diet of Worms- council of German Princes met to discuss a possible return of Luther. – Council said Luther should take back teachings. – What do you think he said?

• NO WAY!!!


• Luther was condemned as a heretic, snuck out of Worms and hid in a castle in Wartburg by Prince Frederick of Saxony. • In seclusion… – Translated the Bible in German – Made the Bible available to “normal” people


Lutheranism • Started what would become Lutheranism – Emphasized salvation by faith alone and the Bible was the only source of the TRUTH. – (Catholics believed salvation came from works and faith.) – Focused on Bible teachings-using vernacular – Church was community of believers – All jobs were vocations


Lutheranism • Brought new Life to Germany but also caused social problems. – Peasant revolts…

• Became a more conservative religion


Section 4 • Sects began to develop over differences in doctrines and other teachings and rituals. • Switzerland- church split from Rome • Led by Huldrych Zwingli – Also stressed faith alone – Denounced Catholic beliefs and practices • Purgatory and indulgences

– Wanted to break COMPLETELY away form Catholic Church (opposite of Luther)


• Zwingli wanted to make Zurich a Theocracy – Church run state

• 1525-it worked • 1531-Catholics beat him in war


John Calvin • Mid 1500’s-set up a Theocracy in Geneva • Calvin studied theology, law, humanism • Created his own Protestant theology


Calvin • 1536- The Institutes of the Christian Religion published his theology – Inspired reforms in Europe and North America

• Predestination- God knows all and controls fate of all people – Said God was all powerful and all knowing – God chose “elect” few to be saved


Calvin

• Visitors of Geneva helped spread Calvinism – Easy to set up because it was localized and not like C.C. – Netherlands and Scotland – Scotland-John Knox used Calvin's teachings to lead followers in revolts against “ungodly” rulers.


Radicals • Anabaptists- only allowed adult members – Only those who could make a free and informed choice to become Christian should be allowed to do so. • Catholics and Protestants baptized infants.

• Did not allow local governments to run their lives

Were peaceful but held fanatical beliefs


Anabaptists • 1534- Munster- seized town – Defeated by Lutherans and Catholics

• Baptists, Mennonites, Amish came from Anabaptists.


England

• King Henry VIII and Pope had a falling out. – Had 6 children with Catherine of Aragon • All died but one daughter (Mary)

• Henry wanted to marry Anne Boleyn and asked Pope for divorce • Catherine’s nephew was Charles V – Charles wanted to stay as Queen so he had the Pope say NO!!!


England • Henry had the Parliament create a series of laws to separate the English Church from the Pope. (Called the Reformation Parliament) – The Act of Supremacy 1534- made Henry head of the English Church instead of the Pope.

• The new Church was not Protestant – Worshiped and acted the same – Devout Catholics did not like King’s rule • Thomas More was beheaded for Treason 1535

– 1536-1540-he closed monasteries, convents, took land and gave to nobles and high officials • Gained support in future policy making


England • Henry married Anne-had a daughter • Married four more times – Finally had a son

• 1547-Edward took throne – Would introduce Protestant doctrines into Church of England.


England • Edward VI died mother took over • “Bloody” Mary – Tried to restore Catholicism by burning 100’s of Protestants at stake

• 1559- Elizabeth I became Queen – Made England Protestant with Catholic features – Puritans wanted no Catholic traditions • Started split that would cause them to move…


The Reformations