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VISUAL CONSISTENCY IN BILINGUAL DESIGN


Design is the method of putting form and content together. Design, just as art, has multiple definitions; there is no single definition. Design can be art. Design can be aesthetics. Design is so simple, that’s why it is so complicated. (Paul Rand - http://quotesondesign.com/)


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3 Contents 5 - Introduction. 6 - Typographic Matchmaking in the city. 12 - Lara Assuoad Khoury Interview. 18 - The first impression. 20 - Ikea case study. 22 - North55 interview. 24 - The challenge. 25 - The creative outcome 51 - List of Images. 53 - Bibliography. 55 - Acknowledgements.


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Designing for multicultural environments always has one typographic problem and that is visual consistency, how can you have consistency when you are interacting with two very different scripts, latin and arabic. Just focusing on contemporary design in the Arab world which a multicultural environment with places like Dubai and Saudi Arabia, how do designers deal with the bilingual design. Bilingual design has been subject to many projects during recent years with the Khatt foundation taking a particular interest, they launched two projects called “Typographic Matchmaking”. This book is an introduction to visual consistency in design that involves latin and arabic, how the scripts can be altered in to working together as one, focusing just on the type. It will explore how the type in logo’s can be modified so that visual elements are carried through to both scripts, by doing this a brand is portraying its values successfully throughout the world. Also looking at the typefaces produced by the Khatt foundation and their outcomes of attempting to create a typeface that works in two very different scripts. It also includes interviews from Lara Assuoad Khoury, a designer who was involved with the first typographic matchmaking project. Craig Falconer the creative partner of North55 has also answered a few questions on the matter of consistency in design. One of the main reasons for this book was to set out a challenge, the last part of the research document is a brief which is to experiment with bilingual design. The second half of this book is the completed brief, attempting to create visual consistency in bilingual design.

Fig 2. typographic matchmaking image 1


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Typographic Matchmaking in the city. “Typography in a built environment is a way to visually portray the story of a city, its history. We have lost this relationship between typography, material and architecture.” (Abi Fares Typographic Matchmaking in the city (2012) [video] http://vimeo. com/46673938: Jan de Bruin, Ans Kanen, Philipp Ernsting.)

The Khatt Foundation, Center for Arabic Typography is a cultural foundation and design research center dedicated to advancing design and typography in the Middle East, North Africa and their diaspora. The foundation launched a project which investigated new ways to produce bilingual fonts that would work well in public spaces. Combining two different scripts and uniting them in a font which have the same visual aesthetics creating consistency in multi cultural design. The project brought together 5 teams of dutch and arabic designers to collaborate to create a latin and arabic font that matched, each having their own influence on the 5 different outcomes. Type designers, graphic designers, product designers and architects worked on the fonts and some of them have never worked with type. The Khatt foundation published a book along with a documentary explaining the process of the project. The book encourages other designers to involve themselves with the project, explaining the grids they created so they can be replicated. It’s a manual to typographic matchmaking. “The essence of what we tried to do was not to behave as graphic designers so much ourselves, not to be the artist of this project but to give the opportunity to others.” Fig 3. Typographic matchmaking image 2

(Rene Knip Typographic Matchmaking in the city (2012) [video] http://vimeo. com/46673938: Jan de Bruin, Ans Kanen, Philipp Ernsting.)


7 Nuqat project.

The group gave themselves 3 goals when they started the Nuqat project, first enhance cross cultural dialogue in a simple and effective way, second it should enhance the public space and trigger emotions and finally it should have a distinct voice. The final outcome are a series of these flowing dots that form each letter anc connect each word, all resulting in this beautiful typeface. The latin and arabic versions work easily together creating one font not two individual fonts, the dots are precisely placed to create the unique feel to it. The latin version has taken on a characteristic of the arabic and that is connecting each word to the next, this adds largely to consistency of the font and the aesthetics of the latin when accompanied by the arabic. Nuqat is easily the most successful font that was produced from the typographic matchmaking experiment in my opinion. A contemporary, flowing, beautiful font, it fulfills the goals set out by the team and more, this is visual consistency in a font over two scripts.

designed by :

Fig 4. Nuqat font.

Khajag Adelian Rene Knip Khajag apelian Jeroen Van Erp


8 Kashida project. The Kashida project is a 3D font so in appearance it resembles a sculpture in itself, a beautifully crafted piece. The letters only exist in the 3 dimensional form this font is the first of its kind, truly innovative.The idea was to create a font family where latin and arabic work together but ensuring they respect both of the scripts traditions. They had to find one design feature that would link the scripts and make them work together.

The first idea they come up with was an endless 3 dimensional stroke the would bend and rotate in to shape of the letterforms. The type would become the public space and not just be produced for public space. After many attempts of finding a system the team found one that worked, producing similar shapes and components were put together to make this truly unique typeface. designed by :

Fig 5. Kashida Font.

Melle Hammer Yara Khoury Ana Dzokic Marc Neelan


9 Kufam project.

The Kufam project is highly influenced by the designers backgrounds, combining the dutch lettering style and archaic kufi script. The latin adds the consistency of the western type with the arabic is a little more playful and creative, resulting in both type design styles uniting. The initial thought of the project was to produce a typeface that would work on a digital screen, mobile phone apps for example. It would be displayed on an interactive screen which could display tourist information or could be a message that some one has sent in. It would be for the first time traveller to a new city and with this in mind the trio created one font with four variations. Kufam is the most contemporary out of all the resulting fonts from the typographic matchmaking project. Kufam is highly influenced by the designers backgrounds, combining the dutch lettering style and archaic kufi script. The latin adds the consistency of the western type with the arabic is a little more playful and creative, resulting in both type design styles uniting. designed by :

Fig 6. Kufam font

Artur Schmal Wael Morcos Richard Wagner


10 Hamsa project. The project consisted of two typographers and one architect. The inspiration for the font was from the land dredging in Dubai and Amsterdam, the use of land elements. 1st they started experimenting by creating letters in sand and pouring wax in to create a 3d structure.This evolved in to creating the letters by bending paper and holding them in place with barbecue skewers, this was then pushed in to the digital form.The result is this light weight urban font with a slight touch of femenine to it. “I bent the paper and liked the shape, I went to get the tape but the paper fooled me and lost the shape. I drew a line and found that it was faithful, but went back to the paper that was more playful� (29arabicletters.com (2007) Type Foundry | 29 Arabic Letters. [online] Available at: http://www.29arabicletters. com/foundry/retail/?m=1-2-1&fid=41 [Accessed: 25 Feb 2013].)

designed by :

Fig 7. Hamsa font.

Pascal Zoghbi Eric van Blokland Joumana Al Jabri


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Typographic matchmaking in the city is the second typographic matchmaking project the first took latin fonts and converted them to arabic creating a multi cultural font. The latin script has evolved far greater than the arabic due to it being studied more over a long period. Both scripts started with calligraphy but the latin have been studied and carefully manipulated to where is it today, the arabic script has really evolved in only the last few years. One of the main reasons this project worked was that the Khatt foundation launched it, the centre of arabic design invited eastern designers to collaborate. The first typographic matchmaking project was launched in April 2005 with the goal of converting contemporary latin fonts to their arabic counter part. Fresco was one of the fonts they focused on, taking visual elements and adding them to the arabic letters. Fresco was designed by Lara Assuoad Khoury and Fred Smiejers. Many designers can see these types of projects as the globalisation of design, taking the visual identity of arabic lettering which always based on the calligraphic styles. Personally I believe that this is the way forward for multi-cultural areas, it provides visual consistency and creating the sense of community as one not two different cultures. This is the way forward for arabic design and the Khatt Foundation will strive for arabic type to constantly evolve.

Fig 8. analysis of Fresco


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Fig 9. Image of Lara Khoury

Lara Assuoad Khoury

Lara Assouad Khoury was born in Montreal, Canada and graduated from the American University of Beirut with a degree in Graphic Design in 1998. She worked as a designer at LeoBurnett (Lebanon, 19982000). After one year in Cairo, Egypt she moved to Dubai (UAE) and worked as a Senior Designer for Landor Associates (2001-2005) where she was involved in the design of extensive corporate identity projects for large Middle Eastern companies and institutions, one of the big projects she worked on was thes visual branding for the country of Jordan. She completed an MA course from the Atelier National de Recherche Typographique in Nancy (France), where she studied under renowned type designers such Hans-Jürg Hunziker, André Baldinger. She has researched and is in the process of developing her own extensive Arabic ‘Naskh’ font. She taught graphic design and Arabic typography courses, at the American University in Dubai. Lara was also involved in the first typographic matchmaking projects which involved her working with another designer to produce the arabic version of ‘Fresco’.


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who was your inspiration growing up and why? My mother was a very inspiring figure to me while growing up. I was constantly in awe of all the beautiful work she did. She always helped and encouraged me in any craft project I wanted to undertake. If it was paper I wanted to make or fabric dyeing projects, or even leather stitching, she always got me the books I needed to learn. what are your views on neue helvetica arabic? I personally feel that even though it is a good well-balanced contemporary Arabic typeface, which we sorely need more of, it does not carry through into Arabic what makes Helvetica Neue so unique in Latin typography. if the word faith which is a huge part of the arabic culture was written in Neue Helvetica arabic what would this mean? I am personally not at all interested in mixing faith and typography. saying that faith is a huge part of the Arabic culture, undermines a big part of the arab population for which being Arab doesn’t necessarily rhyme with being Muslim and mixes culture and religion in a way that for me is reminiscent of the dark ages in europe. You might get a very different answer from other Arab type designers perhaps more so from arab calligraphers. But for me it’s like saying that if you speak English you must be a Protestant or speaking Italian implies you’re a catholic. It is not at all the case, and I think it is about time that the rest of the world understands that being an Arab does not imply that you’re Muslim, and that even if you were, it need not transpire into your creative work.

examples of Lara’s work in multi cultural indentities. Fig 10 Bloomingdales logo, 11 Stella Mccartney logo, 12 Moschino logo, 13 Royal air maroc logo


In designing a logo in english and arabic what are the main problems you come across? Different writing directions. More varying letter heights, no capital letters and fewer letters in most Arabic words making the Arabic always seem smaller/ lighter in texture than its Latin counterpart... Have you come across a logo in english and arabic which you have questioned if the brand can be represented consistently throughout different cultures? It is always a challenge to create bilingual brands when the two languages used are so diametrically opposite each other. If you walk around Dubai you will find plenty of examples of badly adapted brandmarks. It is however very easy to counter the obvious problem, by respecting the specificities of both languages and trying to find or create an aesthetic/ visual tie/common element between the two wordmarks without forcing either of them into a straight jacket. Some arabic fonts have meaningless spaces between letters do you think the non latin design have been forced in to the digital world? Actually there is no such thing as meaningless spaces in Arabic writing. In Arabic writing, calligraphy or typography because the letters of one word are most of the time connected you have the opportunity to stretch between letters (of course it has to be done with a minimum knowledge of how and where to do it!) it is called the kashida and is a very useful tool when creating justified blocks of text or when trying to match the width of an Arabic wordmark to it’s Latin equivalent (Arabic always tends to be shorter). However when it is not done properly you do end up with a very patchy paragraph texture!

Fig 14. Lara Khoury 2


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what are your views on the growth of non latin design? I will start with a small detour about how i came to arabic typography... I graduated from the American University of Beirut in january 1998 with a Bachelors in Graphic Design and a very strong interest in Arabic typography. an interest fueled by Professor Samir Sayegh, who remains my mentor and my sole reference on the subject. I worked with him on numerous arabic logo adaptations when I was working at Landor Associates as a designer.namely: Sabic affiliates (18 different identities), Commercial Bank of Dubai, Al Tayer Group, Brand Jordan.. Encouraged by him, I went to France in 2003 and spent a year at the Atelier Nationale de Recherche Typographique in Nancy researching Arabic typography with the project of developing an arabic font that could be the equivalent of any contemporary sans serif latin typeface, while keeping the specificities of the arabic writing. because unfortunately, a lot of what is being done in so called arabic type design is based on the latin rules of typography, which are most of the time just adopted blindly, instead of being adapted to the requirements of a completely different system of writing. The result being what I like to call ‘bastard’ typefaces which borrow curves and proportions from the latin alphabet in a very crude and blunt manner and confuse the eye which recognises latin letters in what is meant to be an arabic word.

Fig 15. Lara Khoury 3 16. Lara Khoury 4


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I had the chance to work with Al Tayer Group over a period of time adapting to arabic most of the brands that they represented in the middle east. the challenge was always to create an arabic wordmark which carries the same visual style/characteristics as the latin counterpart, without compromising on the legibility or integrity of the arabic. I think the increasing demand in the past 10 years for new arabic typefaces that speak a visual language that we can relate to not the ornamental, flowery, calligraphic arabic of manuscripts and Korans has led to a new generation of type designers in the arab world (there are a few brilliant non-arabs also) who have been to study type design in the west and adapt their learnings to the arabic script, as there are still no arabic type design programs in the arab world. This demand was mostly spurred by a dramatic increase in the ‘communication/branding’ awakening of the Arab world. I can speak of the Gulf countries where i’ve been living and working for the past 12 years. when i first arrived in Dubai, Landor Associates was the only branding consultancy in town with a small satellite office with barely three employees. now every major multinational branding consultancy in the world has an office here. in the beginning it was impossible to find any interesting arabic typefaces to work with when developing any form of bilingual communication be it a logo (it is required by the law here to have both arabic and english for all brandmarks), stationery, advertising

campaign, annual report... arabic typefaces that could communicate the same tone of voice as the chosen latin counterpart simply did not exist. from a technological point of view, the recent developments (past decade) in type design software resolved a lot of issues which were hindering the progress of arabic type design. previous softwares were designed for latin fonts and required a great deal of programming acrobatics to function for the arabic script. I think we are in a much better position now, but we still have a very very long way to go before we could comfortably compare an arabic typographic database to the tens of thousands of excellent latin typefaces available now. Some arabic fonts have meaningless spaces between letters do you think the non latin design has been forced in to the digital world? Actually there is no such thing as meaningless spaces in Arabic writing. In Arabic writing, calligraphy or typography because the letters of one word are most of the time connected you have the opportunity to stretch between letters (of course it has to be done with a minimum knowledge of how and where to do it!) it is called the kashida and is a very useful tool when creating justified blocks of text or when trying to match the width of an Arabic wordmark to it’s Latin equivalent (Arabic always tends to be shorter). However when it is not done properly you do end up with a very patchy paragraph texture!


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and finally what are your views on Talib Type? Its funny that you mention this typeface. a few days ago, I was flipping through one of the Arabesque books with a friend of mine, and we were both saying how annoyingly and gratuitously ‘Orientalist’ this font and all it’s close and distant relatives are! for a westerner it probably seems ‘exotic’ and very oriental. for an Arabic reader it is an eyesore and a very superficial expression of Arabic visual aesthetic! Your eye reads Arabic letterforms except that they don’t make any sense! it’s as bad as the very ‘westernised’ Arabic adaptations of European or American brands, which take parts from the Latin wordmarks cut them up, flip them, and put them back together to make Arabic words. the result is an extremely bastardised script, which doesn’t feel comfortable nor legible neither in Arabic nor in English/Latin. So not really a big fan! Talib Type is the font used in the 1st Arabesque book.

Fig 17. Front cover of Arabesque.


18 the first impression

It takes three to four seconds for someone to evaluate you when you meet them, this is the same for a brand. That moment when you see the brand identity subliminal thoughts are created and bound together to form that first impression. Everyday we see logos some we recognise, some interest us and some we don’t even acknowledge and this all comes down to these three to four seconds. It’s a visual representation of that company and more importantly the company’s personality. There is a certain amount of emotional connection between a brand and the consumer such as, when I think of Coca Cola all I can think about is a friend of mine who used to drink 5 or 6 cans a day. That logo was forced in my face everyday for years, these connections bring back memories and emotions that we wouldn’t necessarily think about. that’s what make a powerful logo. “One day Maudie Rae, about three then leaned out of the baby jogger and said “look daddy, Starbucks!” pointing to a crumpled up Starbucks cupe beside the road. I was horrified not only by the litter, but more that it was Stabucks, the behemoth crushing local coffee shops all over the world. But my horror and disappointment were even greater because I realised that Maudie Rae almost instinctively recognised the Starbucks logo. I thought I had protected her by living in this beautiful chain free community.The power of the logo was never so clearly demonstrated to me.” (HODGSON, M., & PORTER, M. (2010). Recycling & redesigning logos: a designer’s guide to refreshing & rethinking design. Beverly, Mass, Rockport Publishers. Page 9) Fig 18. Blackberry logo (latin) 19. Facebook logo (latin) 20. Fedex logo (latin)


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It is extremely important for a brand to ensure that it portrays its values consistently throughout different languages and scripts. For a brand to do this it has to relate the type in the logo consistently throughout two different scripts. This is the big challenge for the designer when designing in two different languages, also in some case the latin doesn’t directly translate. With this the problem legibility becomes an issue, does the brand keep the visual aesthetics of the logo but lose its legibility, ultimately this comes down to the brands decision. The idea is that you take visual elements from the latin and you insert them in to the arabic version, creating consistency. For example the Fedex logo translates the arrow in to the arabic version, the iconic arrow of the logo are part of what Fedex stand for and keeping these subtle details make sure the brands consistency. With the other examples shown they are based just on the type and the style of lettering. The designer has to produce the arabic equivalent of the latin type. The slight slant on the top of the ‘b’ and ‘k’ in the latin have been transferred on to the arabic letters, the weight of the letters and the spacing between them are all similar to the arabic. All of these logos are just examples of how designers have created consistent brand logo’s through the two scripts, without the subtle details they wouldn’t work. It is essential that brands of this size are consistent and send their message around the world consistently. “It can be welcoming. It can be a promise. It can convey confidence or bravado. Seductively, the logo weaves itself into our emotional landscape” Fig 21. Blackberry logo (arabic) 22. Facebook logo (arabic) 23. Fedex logo (arabic.)

(HODGSON, M., & PORTER, M. (2010). Recycling & redesigning logos: a designer’s guide to refreshing & rethinking design. Beverly, Mass, Rockport Publishers. Page 9)


20 IKEA case study

When a brand such a IKEA opens a store in a multicultural environment such as Dubai they have to design the logo to accommodate it for both scripts. The IKEA logo represents the roots of where the brand was formed which was Sweden and portray their vision which is contemporary design for low prices. The logotype is a simple, bold font and the designers of IKEA had to translate this in to arabic ensuring the logos in both scripts. It may seem an easy job just to convert a font in to arabic but there are many difficulties that you may come across such a weight of type, serif, letter spacing and many other subtle details that the font has which makes it unique and recognisable. IKEA provide a simple service they don’t over complicate things, flat pack furniture which is easy to assemble, clean simple designs. One of the problems they would encounter is arabic script works on very different systems than the latin. Here the designer has taken the slight serif of the I and applied it to the arabic letter with out these subtle details the font wouldn’t be consistent, it is what makes the logo unique.


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The letter spacing between the first arabic letter is the same distance between the two first letters in the arabic version.

Also applying the same weight to the letters creating this strong and simple message that represents the brand

The boldness of the font and strict lines are transferred to the arabic version,

Keeping the same colours blue and yellow, representing the Swedish flag.

Fig 24. IKEA logo (arabic) Fig25. IKEA logo (latin)


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North55 North55 is a UAE based independent creative consultancy specialising in branding and interactive design. “This is what we do: we have ideas. We take those ideas and we nurture them, feed them and encourage them to grow. Some of them become sparkling brand identities, others websites that pop. Some go on to educate, inform and entertain, as brochures, mailers or ads. Some work alone, while others work together. “

On a personal level I was fortunate enough to have two weeks of work experience with North55 and it was a fantastic environment to work in. Everyone was instantly welcoming but as soon as they were briefed on a project, concentration set in, just being in that environment makes you want to work. Motivation is key to success. The interview is about arabic type in corporate identities, looking at cultural aspects of arabic type. Craig Falconer (Creative Partner) will be answering on behalf of the North55 team. Fig 26. North55 office image 1 Fig 27. North55 office image 1 Fig28. North55 office image 3 Fig29. North55 office image 4


23 How important is it that a company ensures that their identity looks consistent in different languages? Very important, branding is all about consistency, and this applies across the various languages the brand may appear, although it’s not always easy, for example, swirls, swooshes or other kind of graphic elements implemented into English typography as part of the logo don’t always work in Arabic, a lot of designers will try to force these, but on occasions a brand is better served with a slightly different version of Arabic logo rather then a ridiculous looking one. When creating an arabic version of a logo what are some of the problems? Again in isolation an Arabic logo has the same challenges as creating any logo, the biggest issue is trying to match a pre exsisting English logo, which may work beautiful in Latin letter form but not in Arabic. The ideal solution is to develop the identities at the same time, ensuring both work. Also, some identities must be dual language, which often makes the logos very busy and cluttered. What are the difficulties handling Arabic type? The biggest challenge is trying to align the looks of the English and Arabic typography, in isolation they are both beautiful to work with, but side by side it can be challenging, elements such as Capitals letters simply don’t exists in Arabic, also balancing the lengths of words can be difficult. Techniques such as open kerning, can also be challenging in Arabic, as many letters must remain linked in order to be legible. Also one basic issue is the that Arabic runs from right to left, apposed to Latin which is left aligned. Are there any cultural aspects to consider, if so what are they?

Fig 30. North55 office image 5 Fig 31. North55 office image 6

It definitely helps to be aware of of the cultural aspects, and as designers we should definitely make an effort to try and understand the culture who they are designing for. Legibility is also an issue, it’s not always critical for the designer to be able to read Arabic to create a beautiful logo, however it is critical for an Arabic speaker to review his work, as sometimes the smallest shift of a character can change the meaning of the word.


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the challenge.

the outcome..

This research book is just a small insight to the complicated process that is bilingual design, one of the main reasons it was produced wasn’t just to introduce but to create a challenge.The challenge is to create visual consistency through bilingual design, it might be creating a typeface in two scripts, converting a series of logo’s or any other medium that involves bilingual design. If you decide to look at type focus on the visual aesthetics of it, the weight, curves and the feel of the font. Use visual elements in both scripts so that they work harmoniously together, the need to create the message that they are a family of fonts and not individual fonts. If its logo’s research the brand, know their brand values, what do they stand for. You need to know them like the back of your hand. Even if it’s converting a logo from latin to arabic need to that you know the brands values so that you can portray them in a different script. If you can’t portray the brand values in a different script then its a failed attempt. The production of your outcome can be anyway you decide wether it be digitally, hand-made or a variety. The main object of this project is to challenge yourself and experiment with ways you might of never tried before, trial and error

The outcome will be an exhibition of your work which will be accompanied by a booklet with information to back it up. The booklet should be a document of your thoughts and the processes you go through.


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THE CREATIVE OUTCOME


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COFFEE Coffee was first hand drawn and then filled with ground coffee. the idea was that the outcome would be a piece of art. I completed two versions of this, the second was the digital version of the font. The arabic and latin work well together, creating a font family either digitally or as a piece of art. I would like to create the full version of this font in both scripts in the future.


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90 DEGREES 90 degrees is based around the idea of right angles, simple shapes to form the letters. This font was created digitally and was my 1st attempt at creating visual consistency. The final design of the fonts work but it isn’t the most appealing of fonts. This font was the first step to creating matching and arabic typefaces and as the first attempt I’m happy with the result.


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Typographic matchmaking 1


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Typographic matchmaking 1


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Typographic matchmaking 1


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LOVE The font love was created by hand drawing the free flowing letters and then I collaged the shapes with red paper. I also experimented with creating the shape of the letters with ribbon, pinning it down in specific spots. The ribbon version I think is the most effective as it helps to create a fun flowing typeface.


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CIPHER The font cipher is based around my handwriting, I learnt how to write the word cipher in arabic and then wrote the latin version. I then scanned my handwriting in and started to edit the letters creating a digital version. The final outcome of the digital is quite confused, being stuck between my handwriting and a font created digitally. Over all I’m not entirely happy with the outcome of this font as I think it needs a lot more of editing which I was unable to do in the time scale I had.


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Digital version.

Handwriting light.

Handwriting regular.


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Bibliography. 29arabicletters.com Type Foundry | 29 Arabic Letters 29arabicletters.com (2007) Type Foundry | 29 Arabic Letters. [online] Available at: http:// www.29arabicletters.com/foundry/retail/?m=1-21&fid=41 [Accessed: 25 Feb 2013]. Book Hodgson, Michael (Michael R.) Recycling & redesigning logos : a designer's guide to refreshing & rethinking design HODGSON, M., & PORTER, M. (2010). Recycling & redesigning logos: a designer's guide to refreshing & rethinking design. Beverly, Mass, Rockport Publishers. DVD, video, or film Typographic Matchmaking in the city Typographic Matchmaking in the city (2012) [video] http://vimeo.com/46673938: Jan de Bruin, Ans Kanen, Philipp Ernsting. Quotesondesign.com Paul Rand Available at : http://quotesondesign.com/)


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53 List of Images - all images were sourced online Fig 1. Image of Love typeface Fig 2. Typographic matchmaking image 1 Fig 3. Typographic matchmaking image 2 Fig 4. Nuqat font. Fig 5. Kashida Font. Fig 6. Kufam font Fig 7. Hamsa font Fig 8. analysis of Fresco

Photo by Josh Evans. Available at: http://fast.mediamatic.nl/f/hmfm/image/143/26260-500-282.png Available at: http://b.vimeocdn.com/ts/325/141/325141717_640.jpg Available at: http://debakir.com/index.php?/type-design/nuqat-new/ Available at: http://www.designindaba.com/sites/default/files/node/news/7499/gallery/type70_0.jpg Available at: http://work.waelmorcos.com/Kufam Available at: http://www.29arabicletters.com/foundry/retail/?m=1-2-1&fid=41 Available at: http://www.khtt.net/page/146/en

Fig 9. Image of Lara Khoury Fig 10 Bloomingdales logo, Fig 11 Stella Mccartney logo Fig 12 Moschino logo, Fig 13 Royal air maroc log Fig 14. Lara Khoury 2 Fig 15. Lara Khoury 3 Fig 16. Lara Khoury 4 Fig 17. Front cover of Arabesque.

Available at: Available at: Available at: Available at: Available at: Available at: Available at: Available at: Available at:

Fig 18. Blackberry logo (latin) Fig 19. Facebook logo (latin) Fig 20. Fedex logo (latin)

Available at: http://mobi-wall.brothersoft.com/files/480360/b/12819923625908.jpg Available at: http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-W2yT75wzxfA/TXZAdcW8wjI/AAAAAAAAAHw/Dvu00mOCCN8/s1600/Facebook-logo.jpg Available at: http://mouseylibrarian.com/mouseylibrarian/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/fedex-logo.jpeg

Fig 21. Blackberry logo (arabic) Fig 22. Facebook logo (arabic) FIg 23. Fedex logo (arabic.)

Available at: http://www.versionb.ae/blog/arabic-logo/ Available at: http://www.versionb.ae/blog/arabic-logo/ Available at: http://www.versionb.ae/blog/arabic-logo/

Fig 24. IKEA logo (arabic) Fig. 25. IKEA logo (latin)

Available at: http://farm1.static.flickr.com/125/399988866_55602a0ba4.jpg Available at: http://www.writerlylife.com/wp-content/skitch//ikea-logo-20111010-195002.jpg

Fig 26. North55 office image 1 Fig 27. North55 office image 1 Fig 28. North55 office image 3 Fig 29. North55 office image 4 Fig 30. North55 office image 5 Fig 31. North55 office image 6

Available at: Available at: Available at: Available at: Available at: Available at:

http://market338bahrain.wordpress.com/2012/10/18/designer-profile-lara-assouad-khoury/ http://www.graphicbirdwatching.com/creativefield/print/lara-assouad-khoury/ http://www.graphicbirdwatching.com/creativefield/print/lara-assouad-khoury/ http://www.graphicbirdwatching.com/creativefield/print/lara-assouad-khoury/ http://www.graphicbirdwatching.com/creativefield/print/lara-assouad-khoury/ http://market338bahrain.wordpress.com/2012/10/18/designer-profile-lara-assouad-khoury/ http://market338bahrain.wordpress.com/2012/10/18/designer-profile-lara-assouad-khoury/ http://market338bahrain.wordpress.com/2012/10/18/designer-profile-lara-assouad-khoury/ http://www.stylemag-online.net/wp-content/uploads/2008/07/arabesque_cover.jpg

http://www.north55.com/design/company/meet-the-team/ http://www.north55.com/design/company/meet-the-team/ http://www.north55.com/design/company/meet-the-team/ http://www.north55.com/design/company/meet-the-team/ http://www.north55.com/design/company/meet-the-team/ http://www.north55.com/design/company/meet-the-team/


Acknowledgements

This is just a big thank you to everyone who helped me with this fantastic project and was willing to be involved. First of all to the designers I interviewed, Lara Assuoad Khoury and Craig Falconer your knowledge was huge help, as at the start I knew nothing about arabic type!. Then to my tutors Jean Boyd and John Brewer, who constantly pushed me and challenged the outcomes of the project. Thank you to Gerry Leonidas for willing to meet me and helping me to get a clear view on what I wanted to do. Finally to my classmates who took an interest in the project and was willing to have their opinion on the project, always great to have your insight!


visual consistency in bilingual design.  

Visual consistency in bilingual design looks at type and how arabic fonts match their latin counterpart. I have created four samples of font...

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