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GRANULATED PATTERNS OF LIVING Alicia Reyes


GRANULATED PATTERNS OF LIVING University of Southern California School of Architecture Fall 2016 Alicia Reyes


HISTORY

Jose Sa n c hez U SC 2016

BIBLIOGRAPHY

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ANALYSIS

DOCUMENTATION

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CONTENTS

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HISTORY


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HABITAT 67

AFTER COLLEGE, SAFDIE WENT TO WORK FOR SANDY VAN GINKEL FOR A YEAR. GINKEL SENT SAFDIE’S THESIS TO THE FORUM MAGAZINE WHICH PUBLISHED THE ENTIRE SET OF DRAWINGS, PHOTOS AND TEXT. HE AND HIS WIFE, NINA NUSYNOWICZ, THEN TRAVELED ACROSS AMERICA ON THE TRAVELLING SCHOLARSHIP HE HAD RECEIVED FROM MCGILL UNIVERSITY. TWO LITTLE TOWNS IN PARTICULAR OUTSIDE OF MAJOR CITIES THAT MADE A HUGE IMPACT ON SAFDIE WERE TAXCO, MEXICO AND THE PUEBLO INDIAN TRIBE LOCATED ON CLIFF DWELLINGS IN THE GRAND CANYON AS HE THOUGHT THEY WERE MUCH MORE MAGNIFICENT AND NATURAL THAN ANY OTHER ARCHITECTURE HE HAD EVER SEEN. HE THEN WENT TO WORK FOR LOUIS KAHN WHICH WAS THE ONLY PERSON HE HAD WANTED TO WORK FOR. AFTER A YEAR, HE BEGAN TO QUESTION ALL OF THE MOTIVES BY KAHN AND DECIDED HE WANTED TO BREAK AWAY TO DISCOVER HIS OWN IDEAS INSTEAD OF BEING COMPLIANT ONLY TO THE IDEAS OF KAHN. IT WAS THEN, AUGUST, 1963, THAT HE STARTED WORKING ON PLANS FOR HABITAT TO BE IN THE EXPO OF 1967, AS WELL AS WORKING FOR SANDY VAN GINKEL (AGAIN) WHO HAD BEEN COMMISSIONED TO WORK ON THE MASTER PLAN OF THE EXHIBITION (WORLD’S FAIR) IN MONTREAL.

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THIS WAS ACCOMPLISHED THROUGH HIS THESIS DESIGN DONE AT MCGILL UNIVERSITY IN MONTREAL, QUEBEC, CANADA. AFTER VISITING DIFFERENT TYPES OF HOUSING DEVELOPMENTS IN NORTH AMERICA ON A CMHC (CANADA MORTGAGE AND HOUSING CORPORATION) SCHOLARSHIP, HE CAME TO A CONCLUSION: “I FELT WE HAD TO FIND NEW FORMS OF HOUSING THAT WOULD RE-CREATE, IN A HIGH-DENSITY ENVIRONMENT, THE RELATIONSHIPS AND THE AMENITIES OF THE HOUSE AND THE VILLAGE”. HE STARTED ON AN UNORTHODOX DESIGN WHERE HE SET OUT TO CREATE A SYSTEM INSTEAD OF A BUILDING, A SYSTEM OF HOUSING THAT COULD BE LOCATED ON ANY SITE WITH REPETITIVE MODULES OF A CONTINUOUS URBAN STRUCTURE. HE CALLED THIS DESIGN “A THREE-DIMENSIONAL MODULAR BUILDING SYSTEM”. IT WON A GOLD MEDAL, A TRAVELING SCHOLARSHIP, AND THE HIGHEST MARK AT MCGILL UNIVERSITY.

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FOR HABITAT, MOSHE SAFDIE ENVISIONED A FANCY SUBURBAN HOME LIFE WITHIN A BUSY AVENUE IN NEW YORK. HE WANTED TO ACCOMPLISH A COMMUNITY INTERACTION AS IT WOULD BE IN THE CITY WHILE BEING ABLE TO WALK UPSTAIRS AND ENTER YOUR OWN PRIVATE, SECLUDED DOMAIN BY THE SEA, BEING ABLE TO WALK OUT TO YOUR GREENERY LACED BALCONY AND ENJOY THE SOLITUDE. MEANWHILE, YOUR CHILDREN ARE WALKING DOWN THE PEDESTRIAN STREET TO THE PLAYGROUND MEETING OTHER CHILDREN AND MAKING FRIENDS. YOUR OLDER CHILDREN WOULD BE DOWNSTAIRS WATCHING A MOVIE OR EATING OUT WITH THEIR FRIENDS ENJOYING THE BUSY CITY-LIKE ENVIRONMENT.


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WITHOUT AN INITIAL PATRON, THE WORK DONE FOR DESIGN PHASES FOR HABITAT WAS DEPENDENT UPON FINANCIAL SUPPORT FROM COMPANIES INTERESTED IN PUBLICITY OF FEASIBILITY STUDIES WITH THEIR PRODUCT. IN PARTICULAR, THE CEMENT COMPANIES OF CANADA WERE INTERESTED IN THIS STUDY OF A HOUSING EXHIBIT. IN ADDITION, SAFDIE WENT TO CENTRAL MORTGAGE WHICH AGREED TO BACK HIM UP $250,000. HE THEN HAD TO GO TO A DEVELOPER RECOMMENDED BY THE MORTGAGE COMPANY TO HAVE A FEASIBILITY STUDY DRAWN UP AND THE CHIEF ARCHITECT OF THE EXPO WHO AGREED TO LET SAFDIE HIRE UP TO FIVE PEOPLE TO WORK ON HABITAT WITH HIM. THE PLANS WERE APPROVED BY PARLIAMENT ON DECEMBER 20TH, 1963. SAFDIE STILL HAD THE UNDERTAKING OF STRUCTURE TO ACCOMPLISH FOR HABITAT. HE BROUGHT ON A STRUCTURAL ENGINEER THAT HE HAD MET WHEN WORKING FOR LOUIS KAHN NAMED DR. AUGUST KOMENDANT WHO PROCLAIMED “YES, IT CAN BE DONE” AFTER NUMEROUS OTHER ENGINEERS SAID THAT IT COULDN’T BE DONE. THE STRUCTURE WOULD HAVE TO BE LOAD-BEARING AS WELL AS SPACEENCLOSING AS A SUBSTITUTE TO THE REDUNDANCY OF HAVING PLUG-IN UNITS WITH A STRUCTURAL FRAME.

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THE 1967 WORLD EXHIBITION IN MONTREAL WAS RECORDED AS THE MOST SUCCESSFUL EXHIBITION OF THE TWENTIETH CENTURY WITH 62 PARTICIPATING NATIONS AND A RECORD ATTENDANCE FOR A WORLD EXHIBITION ON ITS THIRD DAY. SAFDIE PURPOSED A PLAN WHERE HABITAT WOULD BE ROOTED AS A PERMANENT STRUCTURE ON MACKAY PIER AS ALL THE PERMANENT STRUCTURES COULD BECOME A FUTURE COMMUNITY. THIS WAS AGREED UPON BY THE COMMITTEE AS WELL AS HAVING FOUR DIFFERENT AREAS SET UP LIKE A SHOPPING CENTER WITH THE TRAIN TO BE SEEN AS AN EXHIBIT ITSELF. IN THE PLANNING STAGES THE TRAIN WAS TO RUN THROUGH THE EXHIBITION TO HIGHLIGHT CERTAIN AREAS AT DIFFERENT SPEEDS BUT UNFORTUNATELY WAS NOT EXECUTED THAT WAY BECAUSE OF LACK OF FUNDS FROM PUBLIC BIDS. THE CITY BUILT TWO ISLANDS IN THE SAINT LAWRENCE RIVER TO ACCOMMODATE THE EXHIBITION CALLED ILE NOTRE- DAME AND ILE SAINTE-HELENE. THESE TWO ISLANDS WERE CONNECTED TO THE MAINLAND CITE DU HAVRE (WHERE HABITAT IS LOCATED) BY THE CONCORDIA BRIDGE. BY THE TIME EXPO WAS IN FULL PRODUCTION, IT HAD BECOME A CORPORATION WITH THOUSANDS OF EMPLOYEES. IN ADDITION TO HABITAT 67, THE EXHIBITION HOUSED PAVILIONS SUCH AS THE BIOSPHERE BY RICHARD BUCKMINSTER FULLER, AND CASINO BY JEAN FAUGERON AND ANDRÉ BLOUIN. THE TOTAL COST OF THE EXPO WAS $1,000,000,000, IT COVERED 900 ACRES, WITH A TOTAL ATTENDANCE OF 50,306,648. THE EXHIBITION WAS OPEN FROM APRIL 27,1967 TO OCTOBER 29, 1967.


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HABITAT WAS THE BEGINNING OF NEW TYPE OF PRECEDENT FOR FAMILY HOUSING THAT INCORPORATED THE LUXURIES OF COMMUNITY AND TRANQUIL SOLITUDE. IT INCORPORATED THE CIRCULATION OF PEDESTRIAN STREETS IN ORDER TO GET TO KNOW YOUR NEIGHBORS AS WELL AS PRIVATE BALCONIES THAT WAS SURROUNDED BY NATURE. IT OVERLOOKS THE RIVER AND IS SET IN A LANDSCAPE CAPABLE FOR LONG STROLLS OR LARGE GATHERINGS. IT COMES FROM THE CONCEPT OF MEDITERRANEAN VILLAGES WHICH ALLOW FOR LARGE GREEN AREAS INSIDE A BUSTLING TOWN WHERE ONE MAY ENJOY HAVING LIVESTOCK OF FARMING. HABITAT WAS ULTIMATELY A BUILDING WORTH FIGHTING FOR.

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HABITAT WAS ESTIMATED TO COST FORTY-TWO MILLION DOLLARS AT FORTY-FOUR THOUSAND PER UNIT. EXPO FUNDED THE DESIGN PHASES FOR HABITAT WHICH FORCED SAFDIE TO RESIGN FROM CONSULTING ARCHITECT OF EXPO AND START HIS OWN FIRM IN ORDER TO FINISH HABITAT. HABITAT WOULD ONLY GENERATE AROUND TWENTY-TWO MILLION IN REVENUE, THE OTHER TWENTY MILLION WAS UP IN THE AIR FOR TWO MONTHS WHILE SAFDIE AND THE DEVELOPMENT CONSULTANTS WERE PITCHING PRESENTATIONS EVERY DAY TO EVERY BIG CORPORATION THEY COULD THINK OF. THEY RECEIVED SOME OFFERS BUT ONLY IN THE TERMS THAT THEY WOULD RECEIVE A TAX WRITE OFF. THEY TOOK THESE OFFERS TO THE CABINET COMMITTEE AND MINISTER IN CHARGE OF EXPO WHICH DECIDED THAT HAVING HABITAT AS THIS TYPE OF PRECEDENT OF TAX WRITE-OFFS WAS NOT ACHIEVABLE. THE CABINET COMMITTEE THEMSELVES ENDED UP OFFERING HIM TEN MILLION PLUS ONE AND A HALF MILLION DOLLARS TO FINISH THE PROJECT WHICH WAS NOT ACCEPTABLE TO SAFDIE AS HE WOULD NOT HAVE THE FUNDS TO COMPLETE HABITAT AS HOW HE ENVISIONED IT TO BE. THIS UNFORTUNATE REALIZATION OF BUDGET IS THE REASON WHY HABITAT WAS BUILT ONLY AS HOUSING UNITS. THE ENVISIONED CITY-LIKE ENVIRONMENT BUILDINGS THAT WERE TO BE INTEGRATED WITHIN THE HOUSING WAS THE ENTIRE CONCEPT AROUND HABITAT, AND IT WAS LOST. SAFDIE HAD TO RE-ENVISION THE ENTIRE PROJECT BECAUSE THE ORIGINAL, RHOMBOIDAL SHAPE DESIGN WAS TOO EXPENSIVE AND MEANT TO INCLUDE COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS. THE LOWEST BID CAME IN AT RIGHT UNDER TWELVE MILLION FOR THE UPDATED DESIGN WHICH BROUGHT THE ENTIRE PROJECT TO THIRTEEN AND A HALF MILLION THAT INCLUDED DESIGN, WHICH MADE HABITAT ON THE LINE OF NOT BEING ABLE TO BE BUILT. THE PRICE WAS ACCEPTED AND THE COMPLETE SET OF FINALIZED DRAWINGS FOR HABITAT WERE FINISHED IN SIX MONTHS, BY MAY OF 1965.


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THE SAN FRANCISCO STATE COLLEGE STUDENT UNION WAS A STUDENT FUNDED PROJECT WHERE STUDENTS AND FUTURE STUDENTS EACH PAID TWENTY DOLLARS A YEAR WHICH ENABLED THEM TO SELL FORTY-YEAR BONDS ALONG WITH $500,000 THEY ACQUIRED FROM PREVIOUS YEARS. SINCE THE STUDENTS WERE UNEASY ABOUT HAVING AN ARCHITECT NOT FROM THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA (EVEN THOUGH THEY PICKED SAFDIE FROM AN INTERVIEW OF EIGHT OTHER ARCHITECTS), SAFDIE JOINED ANOTHER FIRM IN SAN FRANCISCO TO COMPLETE THE PROJECT. THE CONCEPT WAS TO BE ABLE TO INTERACT WITH THIS BUILDING BOTH FROM THE OUTSIDE AND THE INSIDE THROUGH RAMPS, TERRACES, AND STEPS. THE BUILDING SHOULD ALSO ACCOMMODATE ALL DIFFERENT FUNCTIONS AND HAVE EASILY MOVEABLE PARTS. THE COLLEGE BOARD OF TRUSTEES VOTED AGAINST THE UNION TO BE BUILT AFTER ALL THE BIDS CAME IN ON BUDGET. THIS WAS IN THE TIME OF STRIKES, RIOTS AND PROTESTS AROUND AMERICAN PEOPLE AGAINST THE VIETNAM WAR. AFTER STUDENTS FOUND OUT ABOUT THE REJECTION OF THEIR STUDENT UNION BUILDING ALONG WITH ALL THE OTHER PROBLEMS OF THAT TIME, THERE WAS A PEACEFUL RIOT THAT TURNED VIOLENT AFTER POLICE SHOWED UP AND STARTED THROWING TEAR GAS AT THE CROWD. THE ORGANIZATION OF ASSOCIATED STUDENTS ENDED UNTIL THAT YEAR AND WROTE: “THAT MOSHE SAFDIE, BURGER & COPLANS WERE TO REMAIN THE ARCHITECTS OF THE ASSOCIATED STUDENTS AND THAT THE FUTURE STUDENT GOVERNMENT WAS TO MAKE AN EFFORT TO REALIZE THE BUILDING”. WHEN FUTURE STUDENT GOVERNMENT STEPPED UP THE FUNDS WERE CONTROLLED UNDER THE ATTORNEY GENERAL OF CALIFORNIA WHICH MAKES THE STUDENTS UNABLE TO BUILD THEIR STUDENT UNION.

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SINCE THE 1967 WORLD EXHIBITION, SAFDIE HAS GONE ON TO DESIGN “HABITATS” FOR OTHER CITIES. THE FIRST WAS IN NEW YORK AFTER A WOMAN NAMED CAROL W. HAUSSAMEN VISITED HABITAT AT THE EXPO AND ENJOYED IT SO MUCH SHE THOUGHT NEW YORK NEEDED ONE AS WELL. AFTER SPEAKING TO MAYOR JOHN LINDSAY OF NEW YORK (WHO HAD ALSO VISITED HABITAT 67’), CAROL BROUGHT SAFDIE TO NEW YORK TO START WORKING ON THE PROJECT. THERE WERE TWO DIFFERENT LOCATIONS AND TWO DIFFERENT SCHEMES. THE FIRST WAS IN A LUXURY RESIDENTIAL AREA WHERE SAFDIE HAD THE FREEDOM TO DESIGN LUXURY HOUSING WITHOUT THE BUDGET RESTRAINTS OF EXPO. CAROL AND HER REAL ESTATE ADVISORS THEN CHANGED THEIR MIND AND WANTED A COMPLEX IN LOWER MANHATTAN WHERE THERE WERE MORE PEOPLE, SUCH AS THOSE ON WALL STREET, THAT WOULD NEED HOUSING AND HAVE THE CHANCE TO WALK TO WORK. THE VERTICALITY AND STRUCTURE OF THE DESIGN CHANGED TREMENDOUSLY FROM HABITAT 67’. IN THE END, THE BOARD OF DIRECTORS FROM THE NEW YORK STOCK EXCHANGE, WHO WERE BUILDING NEXT DOOR, REJECTED THE IDEA OF HAVING THIS TYPE OF FAMILY HOUSING NEXT DOOR TO THEIR BUSTLING ENVIRONMENT.


The metabolism ideals were set up around the same time period of Habitat 67. Metabolism explores how organic biological growth is fused with megastructures. It was first explored by through the Metabolism Manifesto put together for the 1960 Tōkyō World Design Conference by young architects and designers such as Kiyonori Kikutake, Kisho Kurokawa and Fumihiko Maki. It was also studied under Kenzo Tange’s 1959 MIT sutdio. It relates to Habitat by having multiple pre-fabricated units that grow into a single organism as a megastructure. It points to the interchangable unit that metabolism embodies with which Habitat should incorporate and what I wish to incorporate.

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Fig. 1 Design of Ocean City, an essay in the Metabolism Manifesto. Fig. 2 Design of Space City, an essay in the Metabolism Manifesto. Fig. 3 Kisho Kurokawa Metabolism Iconography

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Fig. 4 Book cover of “Metabolism and Symbiosis” by Kisho Kurokawa Fig. 5 Book cover of Kenzo Tange and the Metabolist Movement by Zhangjie Lin Fig. 6 Western Perspective of Habitat 67

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Fig. 7 TImeline of Habitat 67

1960

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1961 -Moshe Safdie finishes his thesis: “A case for city living/a threedimensional modular building system” from McGill University -Recieves the Lt. Governor’s Gold Medal andMclennan travelling scholarship -Thesis published as ”Habitat” in Forum magazine

Metabolism and its manifesto were first introduced with international exposure during the 1960 Tōkyō World Design Conference. Ideas of metabolism were studied and tested by students from Kenzo Tange’s MIT studio.

1962 Moshe Safdie recieves an Apprenticeship with Louis Kahn in Philadelphia

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-In August, Moshe Safdie returns to Montreal to work with Sandy van Ginkel on physical planning of the 1967 Expo -In December, Habitat’s official master plan was approved by the Parliament of Canada

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1964 Moshe Safdie opens his own office with John B. Parkin, then David, Barott, Boulva Architects

1965 -In June, the working drawings were completed and the bids were called on Habitat. The project was built in thirty months.

1967 -World Exhibition in Montreal -Metabolism architecture, Shizuoka Press and Broadcasting Center by Kenzo Tange was built -Moshe Safdie’s schematic design of: Habitat New York I & II San Francisco State College Student Union

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-Moshe Safdie’s schematic design of: Habitat Israel

1970 In August, the entire north cluster of Habitat 67 finally completed

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1972 Metabolism architecture, Nakagin Capsule Tower by Kisho Kurokawa was built

1985 In December, Tenants rightfully became owners of units after CMHC transferred Habitat to the tenant company, Housing Complex 67’ and Co. Ltd, and managed by Complexe Cite du Havre (Pierre Brien)

1986 In Janurary, Pierre Heafey, notary buys Habitat from CMHC for $10M. Shortly after, in Feburary, Houding Complex ‘67 purchased Habitat from Heafey for $3.35M with an $8M debt to CMHC

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In June, J.E.Guy and Al Meyer together with David, Boulva architects executed a report for corrective maintenance for Habitat 67

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-Moshe Safdie’s schematic design of: Habitat Puerto Rico & Tropaco Resort in St Thomas, US Virgin Islands


Fig. 8 Map of the 1967 World’s Fair in Montreal, Canada. The city built two islands in the Saint Lawrence River to accommodate the exhibition called Ile Notre- Dame and Ile Sainte-Helene. These two islands were connected to the mainland Cite du Havre (where Habitat is located) by the Concordia Bridge. The total cost of the expo was $1,000,000,000, it covered 900 acres, with a total attendance of 50,306,648. The exhibition was open from April 27, 1967 to October 29, 1967.

Fig. 11 The Biosphere is a United States pavilion located on the island of Ile Sainte-Hélène. It is the form of a geodesic dome which is the signature of the arhitect Richard Buckminster Fuller. At the world’s fair, there was an exhibition of the American culture in the interior such as Andy Warhol paintings, baseball paraphernalia, and spaceships. After the Expo was over, the Biosphere was used for different types of purposes such as a bird sanctuary or hosting private events. The translucent acrylic skin was destroyed in a 1976 fire while the structure remained. An environmental museum was installed within the dome in 1990.

Fig. 9 Aerial view of the 1967 World’s Fair Fig. 10 Close up aerial view of the 1967 World’s Fair

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Fig. 12 Casino is a France and Quebec pavilion located on the island of Ile Notre-Dame. The architects are Jean Faugeron and André Blouin. After the Expo was over, the Casino turned into a historical and sociological museum called the Palais De la Civilization.

Fig. 15 Mexico is a Mexican pavilion located on the island of Ile Notre-Dame. The architects are Antonio Garcia, Leonardo Favela Rey, and Federico Muggenburg. The theme of this pavilion was “History and Aspirations” as a panorama of yesterday, today and tomorrow.

Fig. 13 Kaleidoscope is a Canada pavilion located on the island of Ile Notre-Dame. The pavilion is designed by Morley Markson and Associates while the architect is Irving Grossman.

Fig. 16 USSR is a Soviet pavilion located on the island of Ile Notre-Dame. The architects are M. Posokhin, A. Mndoyants, and B. Tkhor. After the expo was over, USSR was disassembled and moved to Moscow to become part of the All-Russia Exhibition Centre.

Fig. 14 Gyrotron was a thrilling adventure ride through space and the core of the earth. The ride was located on Ile Sainte-Hélène and designed by Sean Kenny.

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Moshe Safdie’s thesis at McGill University in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. After visiting different types of housing developments in North America on a CMHC (Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation) scholarship, he came to a conclusion: “I felt we had to find new forms of housing that would re-create, in a high-density environment, the relationships and the amenities of the house and the village”. He started on an unorthodox design where he set out to create a system instead of a building, a system of housing that could be located on any site with repetitive modules of a continuous urban structure. He envisioned city-like environment buildings that were to be integrated within the housing that would give the family the availability to be in the city and the countryside within the proximity of a few stairways.

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He called this design “A Three-Dimensional Modular Building System”. After college, Safdie went to work for Sandy van Ginkel for a year. Ginkel sent Safdie’s thesis to the Forum magazine which published the entire set of drawings, photos and text. Fig. 17 A model of the Three Dimensional Modular Building System seen from the east side in the same location as where Habitat 67 is actually built although it is designed to be applied to any site. Fig. 18 A model of the Three Dimensional Modular Building System seen from an aerial view.


Fig. 19 A section cut drawing of the Three Dimensional Modular Building System. Fig. 20 Requirements for any residential development to have according to Moshe Safdie.

CONDITION REQUIREMENTS FOR THE HABITAT ENVIRONMENT:

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THE FAMILY CELL, SPACE TO LIVE

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OUTDOOR SPACE

SLEEPING SPACE

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CHILDREN’S PRIVATE SLEEPING SPACE INDIVIDUAL ADAPTATION AND FLEXIBILITY ACOUSTIC PRIVACY IN EACH UNIT OUTDOOR SPACE PRIVACY GLAZING PERCENT FOR PRIVACY UNIT ORIENTATION CULTURE IDENTITY DAYLIGHT ACCESS CHILDREN’S ACCESS TO OUTDOORS RECREATION AREAS RELATION OF DWELLING TO CAR RELATIONSHIP OF VEHICULAR AND PEDESTRIAN TRAFFIC PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION FAMILY RELATIONSHIP ENTRANCES COMMUNAL IDENTITY MIXTURE OF VARIOUS INDIVIDUALS COMMON FACILITIES 20


FIG. 21: HABITAT NEW YORK I NEW YORK CITY 1967–68

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FIG. 22: HABITAT NEW YORK II NEW YORK CITY

1967–68

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FIG. 23: SAN FRANCISCO STATE STUDENT UNION SAN FRANCISCO, CA

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SAN FRANCISCO STATE COLLEGE STUDENT UNION IN SAN FRANCISCO WAS A STUDENT FUNDED BUILDING. IT HAS SPACES FOR EVERY ORGANIZATION OF EVERY SCHOOL AND INTERCHANGABLE PROGRAM AREAS WHICH MAKE IT EASY TO TRANSFORM THE BUILDING ACCORDING TO THE SPACE NEEDED. THE EXTERIOR OF THE BUILDING HAS A SERIES OF RAMPS, STAIRS AND TERRACES UP AND AROUND FLOORS LEVELS WHICH MADE GREAT CIRCULATION IN AND AROUND THE BUILDING. IT WAS MADE UP OF PREFABRICATED CONCRETE MODULES WITH LARGE AREAS OF GLASS PANELS.THE BUILDING IS SEEN AS A THREE-DEMENSIONAL PARK AS THE GREENERY CONTINUES UP THE BUILDING FROM THE SITE AROUND THE AREA.

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HABITAT NEW YORK II IS LOCATED IN LOWER MANHATTAN CLOSE TO THE BROOKLYN BRIDGE. IT HAD ACCESS AND VIEWS TO THE EAST RIVER. THE CHANGE OF SITE TO A MORE DENSE POPULATION REQUIRED THAT THIS HABITAT HAVE THREE HUNDRED UNITS PER ACRE. THIS SCHEME INVOLVED THREE CANTENARY CABLES GOING IN DIFFERENT DIRERCTIONS FROM A MAST WHERE ALL OF THE MODULES WOULD BE SUSPENDED SOMEWHAT LIKE A SUSPENSION BRIDGE IN TENSION. THE ELEVATOR CORES AND MECHANICAL SERVICES ARE IN THE CORE, BETWEEN THE THREE CABLES. THERE ARE THREE FIRE STAIR LEADING DOWN EACH OF THE CABLES THAT SUPPORT THE STRUCTURE. THE MODULES ARE ABLE TO BE ONE, TWO, OR SPLIT LEVELS. THE FACADE RESEMBLES A HONEYCOMB DESIGN.

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HABITAT NEW YORK I IS LOCATED ON EAST RIVER IN NEW YORK. IT WAS TO BE A LUXURY HOUSING DEVELOPMENT. THERE WERE TO BE INTEGRATED SHOPPING ON THE LOWER LEVELS ALONG WITH ON-SITE PARKING. ITS POPULATION AREA REQUIRED TWO HUNDRED UNITS PER ACRE. AS A HIGH-RISE TOWER, IT REQUIRED A DIFFERENT STRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT THAN HABITAT 67. THE PREFABRICATED MODULES WERE OCTAHEDRONS THAT CARRIED THEIR OWN WEIGHT WITH THEIR GEOMETRY BY STEEL FRAMES THAT WERE CAST INTO CONCRETE MEMBRANES. THIS ALLOWED THE MODULES TO BE A SPACE FRAME WITHIN THAT COULD EXTEND FORTY STORIES HIGH. THE SPACE FRAME WITHIN THE MODULES WAS ALSO ALLOCATED TO HOLD PEDESTRIAN STREETS THROUGH THE COMPLEX THAT HOUSED THE MECHANICAL SYSTEMS SIMILAR TO THE PEDESTRIAN STREETS FROM HABITAT 67. EACH MODULE HAD A SKYLIGHT AND ROOF GARDEN. THEY WERE APPROXIMATELY 32’X32’ WITH A MECHANICAL AREA AT THE BOTTOM APEX.


DOCUMENTATION


Fig. 24 West Facade Aerial Perspective Fig. 25 East Facade Aerial Perspective

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Fig. 26 West Elevation Fig. 27 East Elevation Fig. 28 Perspective Elevation

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Fig. 29 North Elevation Fig. 30 South Elevation

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Fig. 26 North/South Section

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Fig. 29 Typical floor plan on the eleventh floor. Fig. 30 Eleventh floor development plan.

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Fig. 29 Typical floor plan on the tenth floor. Fig. 30 Tenth floor development plan.

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Fig. 29 Typical floor plan on the ninth floor. Fig. 30 Ninth floor development plan.

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Fig. 29 Typical floor plan on the eighth floor. Fig. 30 Eighth floor development plan.

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Fig. 29 Typical floor plan on the seventh floor. Fig. 30 Seventh floor development plan.

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Fig. 29 Typical floor plan on the sixth floor. Fig. 30 Sixth floor development plan.

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Fig. 29 Typical floor plan on the fifth floor. Fig. 30 Fifth floor development plan.

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Fig. 29 Typical floor plan on the fourth floor. Fig. 30 Fourth floor development plan.

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Fig. 29 Typical floor plan on the third floor. Fig. 30 Third floor development plan.

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Fig. 29 Typical floor plan on the second floor. Fig. 30 Second floor development plan

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Fig. 29 Typical floor plan on the first floor. Fig. 30 First floor development plan.

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Fig. 54 Exploded axon

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Fig. 55 This rooftop plan also acts as a terrace plan as every rooftop is either circulation space or a terrace for a different residence. Every residence contains at least one terrace. The terraces vary in sizes and shapes and are between a small breakfast size of 225 square feet, to a large dinner party size of 1000 square feet. The terraces are all lined in greenery. They end on one side with a glass niche in order for children to be able to see out as well as have a small seat to sit on.

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Structure for Habitat 67 is load-bearing as well as spaceenclosing as a substitute to the redundancy of having plug-in units with a structural frame. Each pair of units is post-tensioned and the units above and below are tied together with steel rods, which being under tension, put the concrete under compression.

Fig. 57 Diagram showing how the post-tensioned cables run through the concrete of each unit. It also shows where the steel rods would be placed in order to stack the units.

Fig. 56 Diagram showing how the units are stacked together within eachother. Each pre-fabricated unit has a notch cut out of the top wide enough to fit in the next perpendicular unit. Steel rods are used to tie them together.

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Fig. 58 Diagram showing how the post-tensioned cables are connected within the concrete. Fig. 59 Diagram showing how the units are being tied together with the steel rods. Fig. 60 Diagram showing how the post-tensioned cables are connected within the concrete.

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Habitat 67 sits on the Mackay Pier, a man-made peninsula in the St. Lawrence River originally built to protect the Old Port of Montreal from currents, ice banks, and floods. The long east façade of Habitat looks towards the St. Lawrence River while the long west façade looks toward the Avenue Pierre Dupuy and the Old Port of Montreal.

Fig. 62 Diagram showing circlulation of the stairways/ elevators to each of the residences from predestrian streets provided on the fifth floor.

Fig. 63 Diagram showing the circulation through the bottom level of the residences. Circulation shows connections to the Avenue Pierre Dupuy that is located Fig. 61 Diagram showing circlulation of the stairways/ adjacent to the Old Port of Montreal as well as the elevators to each of the residences from predestrian walkway above the parking/storage level for a type of streets provided on the ninth floor. podium for the development.

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Habitat 67 is separated into five seperate sections at the lowest level of residences. As the units are stacked they continue to follow these seperate sections until level five. At the fifth level the two outermost sections are joined by the units which create the base of the main pedestrian street through the development. At the seventh level the two lowest sections are joined by units which complete the development as a complete joined complex.

Fig. 65 Diagram showing the two outermost sections being joined to the central development by units to complete the main development

Fig. 66 Diagram showing the five seperate sections before they join. The top middle box being the central development, the far left and right boxes being what joins the central box to create the main development, and the two bottom boxes being the lowest sections that Fig. 64 Diagram showing the two lowest sections being join to create the joined complex. joined to the main development by units to complete a joined complex.

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Fig. 67 Diagram showing how original individual units are placed together to create single residences within the development. Originally, one to three units were joined together to create the residences. Once families were allowed to own the residences, they have been joined to create up to eight units for a single residence.

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There are four main floor plans for the residences at Fig. 68 Diagram showing the four main floor plans for Habitat. The terraces for these floor plans are above the different levels of Habitat. units below either the same residence or a different one. You can see if the residence continues below if there is a staircase in unit or if they are seperate units by a load bearing wall. Some units have much larger terraces or more than one based upon how the unit sits upon the unit below it. Habitat originally started with 154 residences before families were allowed to own the units. Once families were allowed to own the residences, the units were bought and joined together to create larger residences which brought the number of residences to 146.

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Fig. 69 Diagram showing orientation of all the units and in plan. There are 9 different orientations for which direction the units can take. They follow a similar and opposite direction on each level (example in level diagrams 32-53). They also form an opposite reaction to the unit below in order to stack accordingly so that each unit has a proper terrace. In order to join the seperate sections (diagrams 63-65) the orientation of the units must start to move outwards.

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Fig. 70 Diagram showing an exploded axon of the different levels of Habitat 67. The shades get darker the higher the level. This diagram shows the different orientations of the units of every level as they would fit into the entire development, combining seperate level diagrams and the orientation diagram in order to understand how they stack as a whole.

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LEVEL 11

LEVEL 9 LEVEL 8 LEVEL 7 LEVEL 6 LEVEL 5

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ANALYSIS


Fig. 71 Image showing MIT’s carbon fiber ‘Lego bricks’ that can be made into airplanes, rockets, and bridges. This type of structure could be used in prefabricated construction in order to take the possibilities of form and height to new levels.

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THE UNITS OF HABITAT 67 FEEL TOO ENCLOSED AND CONGESTED, EVEN THOUGH EACH UNIT HAS A SMALL BALCONY, I BELIEVE IN ORDER TO PORTRAY THE FEELING OF COMMUNITY/VILLAGE OR TO HAVE AN ADEQUATE FEELING OF RESIDING IN NATURE, THE DEVELOPMENT SHOULD HAVE MORE OUTDOOR AREAS THROUGHOUT, BOTH PRIVATE AND PUBLIC. THE OPPORTUNITY TO HAVE A PRIVATE YARD IN A MULTI COMPLEX BUILDING DEVELOPMENT TODAY WOULD BE WIDELY APPRECIATED AS FAR AS SUSTAINABILITY, IT WOULD ALSO BE AN AMENITY THOUGHT OF ONLY TO BE ACCESSIBLE BY HIGH END LUXURY DEVELOPMENTS. THIS WOULD ALLOW THE DEVELOPMENT TO HAVE MORE SUN LIT AREAS AS WELL AS NATURAL VENTILATION WITHOUT HAVING WIND TUNNELS.

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WHILE I BELIEVE HABITAT 67 HAS BEEN ADEQUATE IN ITS TIME FOR THE FUNCTIONALITY INTENDED, MANY ARCHITECTURAL ADVANCEMENTS COULD BE MADE TO ENHANCE THE RESIDENTIAL DEVELOPMENT THROUGH SUSTAINABLY, FUNCTIONALLY, AND AESTHETICALLY. IN ORDER TO KEEP OR EVEN ENHANCE UPON SAFDIE’S CONCEPT OF A RESIDENCE IN THE VILLAGE, I BELIEVE THAT THE DEVELOPMENT MUST HAVE MORE ACCESSIBLE OUTSIDE, OPEN SPACE THAT COULD OBTAIN MORE OF A BACKYARD TYPE FEELING AS WELL AS FRONT COMMUNAL AREAS. NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN STRUCTURE HAVE AROSE SINCE HABITAT. I BELIEVE IF THESE FUTURISTIC STRUCTURAL IDEAS THAT ARE ALREADY IN DEVELOPMENT ARE TAKEN LITERALLY FOR THIS DEVELOPMENT, IT COULD HAVE A MULTITUDE OF DESIGN POSSIBILITIES IN TERMS OF HOW THE SEPARATE UNITS CAN FIT TOGETHER. CONCRETE MAKES THE DEVELOPMENT FEEL HEAVY AND BRUTALIST, MANY PEOPLE FEEL THAT THIS LOOK IS JUST NOT APPEALING. I BELIEVE THAT THE DEVELOPMENT SHOULD HAVE MORE OF A LIGHTWEIGHT FEELING THAT COULD ENHANCE EACH UNIT AESTHETICALLY AS WELL AS GIVE THE USER MORE OF A FREE FEELING. MATERIALS USED SHOULD BE LIGHTWEIGHT, EASY TO WORK WITH, COST EFFECTIVE, AND AESTHETICALLY APPEALING. THE FORM OF HABITAT’S UNITS ARE CLEAN, SIMPLISTIC AND SOPHISTICATED WHICH IS A NICE TOUCH BUT LEAVES NOTHING UP TO THE IMAGINATION. THE FORM OF THE DEVELOPMENT AS A WHOLE IS PRETTY CLUTTERED AND DOES NOT HAVE A CLEAR FORM, I BELIEVE THE FORM AS A WHOLE SHOULD SOMEWHAT MIMIC THE UNIT AND FORM A CLEAN, SIMPLISTIC LOOK. HABITAT IS MOST INTERESTINGLY IN A STATIC FORM. I BELIEVE WITH THE IDEALS BEHIND HABITAT, IT SHOULD BE IN CONSTANT TRANSITION.


Fig. 72 Image of diagram showing the architectural studio of Jose Sanchez in exploration of form finding and combinatorial patterns within a game engine. This type of form finding can be useful in the creation of a form that can hold sustainability options while providing plentiful space for private and communal areas.

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THE FORM OF HABITAT’S UNITS ARE CLEAN, SIMPLISTIC AND SOPHISTICATED. I BELIEVE THERE HAVE BEEN MANY ENHANCEMENTS IN THE WAY WE FIND FORM THAT COULD BE USED IN ORDER TO FIND THE PERFECT WAY TO JOIN NEW UNITS. FACADES ON A BOX STRUCTURE CAN BE MADE TO MAKE THE ILLUSION OF A MORE INTRICATE TYPE OF FORM WHICH COULD BE USEFUL FOR THE FORM OF THE DEVELOPMENT AS A WHOLE. THE FORM SHOULD BE SO THAT PLENTY OF SOLAR PANELS COULD BE PLACED PERFECTLY ON THE SURFACE TO RETAIN ENOUGH SUNLIGHT IN ORDER FOR THE UNIT AND DEVELOPMENT TO BE COMPLETELY NET-ZERO WHILE BEING ABLE TO EXPAND ON THE AESTHETICS OF EACH UNIT.

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WHILE CONCRETE WAS A READILY AVAILABLE AND USEFUL AS A MATERIAL BACK IN 1967 IN ORDER TO FULFILL SAFDIE’S PREFABRICATED REPETITIVE MODULE DESIGN, IT WOULD NOT BE THE BEST CHOICE TODAY OR IN THE FUTURE. MANY ARE NOT ATTRACTED TO THE DEVELOPMENT BECAUSE OF THE USE OF HEAVY CONCRETE BRUTALIST TYPE ARCHITECTURE. NEW ADVANCEMENTS IN MATERIALS TO WORK WITH INCLUDE 3D PRINTED CONSTRUCTION WHICH HAVE LOWER LABOR COSTS, FASTER CONSTRUCTION, AND INCREASED ACCURACY WORKING WITH CONCRETE/CEMENT, WAX, FOAM, AND POLYMERS. THERE ARE ALSO FAST ENGINEERED WAX MOULDS TO BE USED TO FABRICATE CAST AND SPRAY-ABLE MATERIALS. THIS TYPE OF EASILY PREFABRICATED CONSTRUCTION ALONG WITH THE LATEST INSULATED GLASS TECHNOLOGIES PROVIDE THE PERFECT RECIPE FOR LIGHTWEIGHT, EASY TO WORK WITH, COST EFFECTIVE, AND AESTHETICALLY APPEALING PRE-FABRICATED UNITS.

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HABITAT WAS LIMITED TO ITS HEIGHT BECAUSE EACH UNIT ULTIMATELY ADDED WEIGHT TO THE UNIT UNDERNEATH IT. NEW ADVANCEMENTS IN STRUCTURE SUCH AS CARBON FIBER PROVIDE A COST EFFICIENT SUBSTITUTE TO STEEL AND CONCRETE. IT IS ONETHIRD THE WEIGHT AND HAS FIVE TIMES THE STRENGTH OF STEEL WHICH WOULD MAKE FOR VERY THIN MEMBERS CAPABLE OF HOLDING MUCH MORE WEIGHT. IT ALSO HAS A HIGH STIFFNESS, TENSILE STRENGTH, CHEMICAL RESISTANCE AND TEMPERATURE TOLERANCE WHICH WOULD REQUIRE MUCH LESS CONSTRUCTION COST AND FIREPROOFING. ANOTHER NEW STRUCTURAL TECHNOLOGY THAT COULD BE USED WOULD BE 3D PRINTED STRUCTURAL METAL CONNECTORS THAT ARE 40% LIGHTER AND 75% SMALLER WHICH CAN REDUCE CONSTRUCTION WASTE, WEIGHT AND COST.


Fig. 73 Image of architectural project “Interchangeable Habitation” by Jonas Ersson. With his precedent being Habitat 67, he incorporated metabolism and made the units interchangeable. He incorporated sustainability options and made areas of the unit open to nature. I wish to take the idea further as to incorporate more of the original idea of village and luxury living for an affordable price. I feel the form of a project such as this should be more clean, and sophisticated.

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TRANSITION OR TRANSFORMATION SUCH AS THAT OF METABOLISM FOR HABITAT SHOULD BE INCLUDED IN ITS DESIGN. I BELIEVE THAT WHEN OWNING A PRE-FABRICATED HOME, ONE SHOULD BE ABLE TO TAKE IT WHEREVER NEEDED. THESE RESIDENTIAL DEVELOPMENTS SHOULD BE ALL OVER THE WORLD. UNLIKE A MOBILE HOME, IT IS DESIGNED TO BE ON THE TWENTY-SECOND OR FIFTY-THIRD FLOOR OF A BIGGER COMMUNITY. IT WOULD BE AS EASY AS MOVING OR STORING A CONTAINER. ANYWHERE IT WOULD BE, IT WOULD CONTRIBUTE TO THE WHOLE OF THE NEXT DEVELOPMENT.

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HABITAT WAS A COMMUNITY SAFDIE FOUGHT TO COMPLETE FOR THE EXPO ‘67. ALTHOUGH FUNDING TOOK AWAY MANY MAJOR IDEALS OF THE COMMUNITY, IT TURNED OUT TO BE A GREAT HOUSING DEVELOPMENT STILL AS POPULAR AS EVER. THE UNITS ARE ON A WAITING LIST AND SO MANY WANT TO BE ABLE TO LIVE THERE. IF THE UNITS HAD BEEN ABLE TO BE EXPANDED UPON, THE DEVELOPMENT WOULD TRULY BE MUCH LARGER THAN IT IS NOW. WITH ALL THE NEW ADVANCEMENTS WITH STRUCTURE AND MATERIALS, THIS WOULD EASILY BE MADE POSSIBLE WITH A NEW HABITAT. ALTHOUGH SAFDIE HAS DESIGNED MANY DIFFERENT HABITATS WITH DIFFERENT UNIT FORMS, THEY ALL STILL SEEM TO HAVE STRUCTURE AND MATERIALS THAT LIMIT THE OVERALL DEVELOPMENT FROM TRANSITION. I BELIEVE IF A NEW HABITAT TOOK INTO PRACTICE ALL THESE THINGS POSSIBLE, IT WOULD CONCLUDE AS A GREAT HOUSING DEVELOPMENT THAT MOST ANYONE COULD AFFORD AND WANT TO TAKE PART IN.


BIBLIOGRAPHY


ALBRECHT, DONALD, SARAH WILLIAMS. GOLDHAGEN, AND MOSHE SAFDIE. GLOBAL CITIZEN: THE ARCHITECTURE OF MOSHE SAFDIE. BENTONVILLE, AR: CRYSTAL BRIDGES MUSEUM OF AMERICAN ART, 2010. PRINT

ANTONY, SEBASTIAN. “MIT’S CARBON FIBER ‘LEGO BRICKS’ CAN BE FASHIONED INTO AIRPLANES, ROCKETS, BRIDGES.” EXTREME TECH. N.P., 19 AUG. 2013 WEB.26 NOV. 2016. <HTTPS://WWW.EXTREMETECH.COM/EXTREME/164221-MIT- DEVELOPS-CARBON-FIBER-LEGO-BRICKS-THAT-CAN-BE-FASHIONED-INTO- AIRPLANES-ROCKETS-BRIDGES>.

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D’ALIMONTE, MICHAEL. “17 THINGS YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT THE LARGEST EVENT IN MONTREAL HISTORY.” MTL BLOG. N.P., 26 NOV. 2015. WEB. 20 NOV. 2016. <HTTP://WWW.MTLBLOG.COM/2015/11/THE-SECRET-HISTORY-OF-EXPO-67-YOU- PROBABLY-KNOW-NOTHING-ABOUT/>.

ERSSON, JONAS. “INTERCHANGEABLE HABITATION.” ARCH2O.COM. N.P., 26 JUNE 2015. WEB. 07 JAN. 2017. <HTTP://WWW.ARCH2O.COM/INTERCHANGEABLE-HABITATION- JONAS-ERSSON/>.

“EXPO 67.” EXPO 67 - DEMOCRACY IN MONTREAL - ARCHIVES DE MONTRÉAL. N.P., N.D. WEB. 22 NOV. 2016. <HTTP://WWW2.VILLE.MONTREAL.QC.CA/ARCHIVES/ DEMOCRATIE/DEMOCRATIE_EN/EXPO/DEMOCRATISATION/MODERNITE-TRADITION/ PIECE20/INDEX.SHTM>.

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GITE, B. E., AND SUVIDHA R. MARGAJ. “CARBON FIBRE AS A RECENT MATERIAL USE IN CONSTRUCTION.” ENGINEERINGCIVIL.COM. N.P., N.D. WEB. 16 DEC. 2016. <HTTP://WWW.ENGINEERINGCIVIL.COM/CARBON-FIBRE-AS-A- RECENT-MATERIAL-USE-IN-CONSTRUCTION.HTML>.

“HABITAT PROJECT MATRIX - CONCEPT.” HABITAT PROJECT MATRIX - CONCEPT. MCGILL UNIVERSITY, N.D. WEB. 3 NOV. 2016. <HTTP://CAC.MCGILL.CA/MOSHESAFDIE/ HABITAT/MATRIX-CONCEPT.HTM>.

HANLEY, STEPHEN. “3D PRINTING CAN REDUCE CONSTRUCTION COST, WEIGHT AND WASTE.” GREEN BUILDING ELEMENTS. N.P., 31 MAY 2015. WEB. 5 JAN. 2017. <HTTP://GREENBUILDINGELEMENTS.COM/2015/05/31/3D-PRINTING-REDUCES- BUILDING-COSTS-WEIGHT-AND-WASTE/>.


MTLTIMES. “MARTIN DUBÉ.” MONTREAL TIMES - MONTREAL’S ENGLISH WEEKLY NEWSPAPER. N.P., 12 JULY 2016. WEB. 10 OCT. 2016. <HTTP://MTLTIMES. CA/MARTIN-DUBE-TIME-MACHINE-MONTREALS-CABARET-DU-CASINO/>.

PALMER, HARRY, AND SYLVAIN ST-ONGE. “MONTREAL BIOSPHÈRE.” OPENBUILDINGS. N.P., N.D. WEB. 28 OCT. 2016. HTTP://OPENBUILDINGS.COM/BUILDINGS/ MONTREAL-BIOSPHERE-PROFILE-39427

PLOURDE-ARCHER, LÉA. “THE QUIRKY BUILDINGS OF MONTREAL: REMNANTS OF EXPO 67.” UNTAPPED CITIES. N.P., 26 MAR. 2015. WEB. 1 NOV. 2016. <HTTP:// UNTAPPEDCITIES.COM/2013/02/08/QUIRKY-BUILDINGS-MONTREAL-EXPO-67/>.

SAFDIE, MOSHE. MOSHE SAFDIE. MILLENNIUM. MULGRAVE, VIC.: IMAGES GROUP, 2009. PRINT.

SANCHEZ, JOSE. “POLYOMINO 2 – ACADEMIC RESEARCH.” JOSE SANCHEZ COMPLETE WORKS. N.P., 20 JULY 2015. WEB. 08 JAN. 2017. <HTTP://PLETHORA- PROJECT.COM/ COMPLETEWORKS/2015/07/20/POLYOMINO-2/>.

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SAFDIE, MOSHE, AND DAVID KETTLE. BEYOND HABITAT. CAMBRIDGE, MASS.: MIT, 1970. PRINT

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WIKIPEDIA. “CONSTRUCTION 3D PRINTING.” WIKIPEDIA. WIKIMEDIA FOUNDATION, 29 NOV. 2016. WEB. 28 DEC. 2016. <HTTPS://EN.WIKIPEDIA.ORG/WIKI/ CONSTRUCTION_3D_PRINTING>.

WIKIPEDIA. “EXPO 67.” WIKIPEDIA. WIKIMEDIA FOUNDATION, N.D. WEB. 14 NOV. 2016. HTTPS://EN.WIKIPEDIA.ORG/WIKI/EXPO_67

ORIGINAL ARCHITECTURAL DRAWINGS PROVIDED BY: SAFDIE ARCHITECTS

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“THEMATIC GUIDES - CANADIAN CORPORATION FOR THE 1967 WORLD EXHIBITION - LIBRARY AND ARCHIVES CANADA.” LIBRARY AND ARCHIVES CANADA. N.P., 22 APR. 2015. WEB. 19 NOV. 2016. <HTTP://WWW.BAC-LAC.GC.CA/ENG/DISCOVER/ POLITICS-GOVERNMENT/PAGES/THEMATIC-GUIDES-CANADIAN-CORPORATION.ASPX>.

Habitat 67 - Thesis Prep 793a Alicia Reyes  

Habitat 67 - Thesis Prep 793a Alicia Reyes USC Thesis prep 2016. Discrete / Mereological Architecture Directed by Jose Sanchez

Habitat 67 - Thesis Prep 793a Alicia Reyes  

Habitat 67 - Thesis Prep 793a Alicia Reyes USC Thesis prep 2016. Discrete / Mereological Architecture Directed by Jose Sanchez

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