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VII International Student Congress of Food Science and Technology by Raquel Torrijos Caparrós, Juan Manuel Quiles Beses is licensed under a Creative Commons Reconocimiento- No Comercial- Sin Obra Derivada 4.0 Internacional License.

ISSN: 2341-2240 Editing in Valencia by: Asociación Valenciana de Estudiantes y Profesionales de Ciencia y Tecnología de los Alimentos Raquel Torrijos Caparrós, Juan Manuel Quiles Beses AVECTA 2020

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INDEX SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE ............................................................................................................................................. 6 ORGANIZING COMMITTEE .......................................................................................................................................... 6 WELCOME ......................................................................................................................................................................... 7 GENERAL INFO ................................................................................................................................................................ 8 SCIENTIFIC PROGRAMME ........................................................................................................................................... 9 INVITED SPEAKERS ...................................................................................................................................................... 13 USE OF MICROORGANISMS IN AGRICULTURE .................................................................................................... 14 THE ECOSYSTEM OF PACKAGING IN THE MEAT AND FOOD INDUSTRY ....................................................... 15 APISOL – HONEY & FRUIT INNOVATION ............................................................................................................... 16 EUROPEAN LEGISLATION ON PLASTIC MATERIALS INTENDED TO COME INTO CONTACT WITH FOOD, WITH A SPECIAL FOCUS ON BIOPLASTICS ............................................................................................................ 17 CIAM - NEXT GENERATION OF THE AGRONOMIC R+D ...................................................................................... 18 IN VITRO MEAT: AN ALTERNATIVE FOR THE FUTURE?..................................................................................... 19 IMPACT OF NUTRITIONAL AND TEMPERATURE STRESSES ON YEAST FERMENTATIONS........................ 20 USE OF AIR-COUPLED ULTRASOUND FOR CONTACTLESS CHARACTERIZATION OF FOODS .................. 21 ORAL PRESENTATIONS ............................................................................................................................................... 22 INFLUENCE OF DRYING TEMPERATURE ON ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OF CIDER BY-PRODUCTS ..... 23 GREEN TECHNOLOGY EXTRACTION FOR THE RECOVERY OF BIOLOGICAL INTERESTING COMPOUNDS FROM FISH BY-PRODUCTS ........................................................................................................................................ 24 TRANSCRIPTIONAL CHANGES IN THE ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN AFTER ENS SHORT-TIME EXPOSURE IN WISTAR RATS .................................................................................................................................... 25 HYDROGEL CHARACTERIZATION FROM COMERCIAL CARRAGEENANS FOR FOOD APPLICATIONS .... 26 OCCURRENCE OF HUMAN ENTERIC VIRUSES AND CRASSPHAGE IN RAW SEWAGE AND SECONDARY EFFLUENTS ................................................................................................................................................................... 27 EFFECTS OF CONTROLLED DEFICIT IRRIGATION ON QUALITY AND COMPOSITION IN OLIVE OIL........ 28 DETERMINATION OF FOLIAR IRON BY SMARTPHONE ...................................................................................... 29 APPLICATION OF ACCELERATED SOLVENT EXTRACTION TO RECOVER PROTEINS AND ANTIOXIDANT COMPOUNDS FROM SEA BASS DOWNSTREAMS ................................................................................................. 30 EFFECT OF ELDERLY GASTROINTESTINAL CONDITIONS AND FOOD INHERENT CHARACTERISTICS ON PROTEIN DIGESTIBILITY ........................................................................................................................................... 31 CORN STARCH ENZYMATIC MODIFICATION AND ITS APPLICATION AS IRON CARRIER IN GLUTEN FREE BISCUITS............................................................................................................................................................. 32 MULTI-MYCOTOXIN ANALYSIS IN NUTS PRODUCTS USING ULTRA-HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY COUPLED TO ORBITRAP HIGH RESOLUTION MASS SPECTROMETRY .................... 33 AN ASSESSMENT OF TOCOPHEROL ACCUMULATION DURING MATURATION AND POSTHARVEST STORAGE OF CITRUS.................................................................................................................................................. 34 EXTRACTION, OPTIMIZATION AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF PECTIN FROM WATERMELON RINDS 35 BIOPRESERVATION OF TOMATOES AND ORANGES WITH ACID LACTIC BACTERIA ................................. 36 THE SUITABILITY OF POTATO CHIPS INDUSTRY BY-PRODUCTS FOR BIOBASED THERMOPLASTICS PRODUCTION ............................................................................................................................................................... 37

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EFFECT OF HYDROCOLLOIDS ON STARCH SUBJECTED TO THERMAL TREATMENTS .............................. 38 WHAT IS TWEETED ON “GLUTEN-FREE”? A CO-OCCURRENCE NETWORK APPROACH ............................. 39 DIPLOTAXIS ERUCOIDES, NEW COOKING CONCEPT ........................................................................................... 40 SUPPLEMENTATION WITH CHIA FLOUR IN STARCH FORMULATIONS AS NUTRITIONAL STRATEGY FOR GLUCOSE HOMEOSTASIS CONTROL .............................................................................................................. 41 EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN OF LACTIC ACID BACTERIA FERMENTED WHEY DIGESTION AND IN VITRO INTESTINAL ABSORPTION MODEL ......................................................................................................................... 42 HOW CONSUMERS UNDERSTAND THE CONCEPT OF SUSTAINABILITY? ...................................................... 43 ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF TRICHODERMA STRAIN AND THEIR METABOLITES PRODUCTS ................. 44 BIOACTIVE EXTRACTS FROM POSIDONIA OCEANICA WASTE BIOMASS. COMPARISON BETWEEN WATER-BASED AND ORGANIC-SOLVENT EXTRACTIONS ................................................................................ 45 TRANSCRIPTIONAL

APPROACH

ON

MYCOTOXINS

AND

CAROTENOIDS

EFFECTS

IN

THE

MITOCHONDRIA OF THE BLOOD BRAIN BARRIER IN VITRO ............................................................................ 46 INK OF OCTOPUS (OCTOPUS VULGARIS) LIKE A SOURCE OF ANTICANCER COMPOUNDS: ANTIPROLIFERATIVE / PRO-APOPTOSIS AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY POTENTIAL ............................................. 47 IMPACT OF LOW PRESSURES HOMOGENIZATION ON THE PHYSICO-CHEMICAL AND RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF RICE FLOUR .................................................................................................................................... 48 POSTER FOOD CHEMISTRY/ANALYSIS .................................................................................................................. 49 DETERMINATION OF BENZOATE AND SORBATE IN SAUCES BY HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY .................................................................................................................................................. 50 A COMPARATION OF QUALITY PARAMETERS AMONG COMMERCIAL TIGER NUT MILK (PDO AND NON-PDO) ..................................................................................................................................................................... 51 TOMATOS WASTE (SOLANUM LYCOPERSICUM) FORMULATED AS A FUNCTIONAL FOOD ENRICHED WITH TWO STRAINS OF LACTOBACILLUS HOLD PROMISE TO PREVENT THE DIABETES IN A NATURAL WAY ............................................................................................................................................................................... 52 PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF FOUR ROUND AND FOUR PEAR CHERRY TOMATO........ 53 CALORIC ASSESSMENT ON MENUS IN A UNIVERSITY CAFETERIA ................................................................ 54 OPTIMIZATION OF A METHOD FOR ASSESSING THE POTENTIAL ANTI-INFLAMMATORY BIOACTIVITY OF DRY-CURED HAM ACTIVE PEPTIDES ON THP-I HUMAN CELL LINE.......................................................... 55 SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF CA, CU, FE, K, MG, MN, MO, SE AND ZN IN DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS BY ENERGY DISPERSIVE X-RAY FLUORESCENCE SPECTROMETRY .............................................................. 56 GENERATION OF MEATY FLAVOUR COMPOUNDS UNDER MILD CONDITIONS SIMULATING THE DRY CURING PROCESS ....................................................................................................................................................... 57 CHLOROPHYLL DETERMINATION BY SMARTPHONE ........................................................................................ 58 TOTAL ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY OF THE DIET OF PATIENTS WITH RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA ................ 59 OPTIMIZATION OF ULTRASOUND ASSISTED EXTRACTION OF PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS FROM MORINGA OLEIFERA LEAVES .................................................................................................................................... 60 CRITERIA FOR HYDROSOS QUALITY INDEX. APPLICATION TO EXTRA VIRGIN OLIVE OIL AND PROCESSED TABLE OLIVES ...................................................................................................................................... 61 SMARTPHONE DETERMINATION OF AZO DYES USING ARATTA-POSSETO EXTRACTION METHOD ...... 62 INFLUENCE OF ALKALIZING SALTS AND PROCESS CONDITIONS ON FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES OF COCOA POWDERS ....................................................................................................................................................... 63

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INFLUENCE

OF

ETHYLENE

IN

DEGREENING

OF

NADORCOTT

MANDARIN:

CHANGES

IN

CHLOROPHYLLS AND CAROTENOIDS CONTENT ................................................................................................ 64 MODELLING OF KINETICS OF SILICA MICROPARTICLES INCORPORATION-EXCRETION IN DIGESTIVE TUBE OF C. ELEGANS: INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESENCE ................................................................................... 65 ANALYSIS OF CAROTENOIDS AND VOLATILES IN FRUITS OF ORDINARY NAVEL SWEET ORANGE AND ITS NOVEL RED-FLESHED KIRKWOOD MUTANT ................................................................................................ 66

POSTER FOOD TECHNOLOGY ................................................................................................................................... 67 ULTRASONICALLY ASSISTED EXTRACTION OF FERROCHELATASE ............................................................. 68 INFLUENCE OF PORK LIVER DRYING ON THE ENZYME ACTIVITY OF FERROCHELATASE AND THE FORMATION OF ZINC PROTOPORPHYRIN ............................................................................................................. 69 INFLUENCE OF ULTRASOUND ON THE FORMATION OF ZINC PROTOPORPHYRIN IN PORK LIVER......... 70 PULSED ELECTRICAL FIELDS (PEF) PRETREATMENT TO ENHANCE THE EXTRACTION OF PIGMENTS FROM TETRASELMIS CHUII MICROALGAE ............................................................................................................. 71 STABILITY OF ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY TO COOKING AND IN VITRO GASTROINTESTINAL DIGESTION OF A GELATIN COATING ENRICHED WITH TOMATO BY-PRODUCT HYDROLYSATE APPLIED ON FRESH PORK LOIN AND ITS EFFECT ON THE FINAL PRODUCT QUALITY ................................................................... 72 STUDY AND CHARACTERIZATION OF PORK MEAT AFTER ENZYMATIC TREATMENT WITH PAPAIN ... 73 DESIGN OF REDUCED-FAT CHOCOLATE BY USING SUNFLOWER-BASED OLEOGELS ............................... 74 USE OF LASER-DIFFRACTION-FINGERPRINT TO CHARACTERIZE MEAT TEXTURE ALONG ITS MATURATION .............................................................................................................................................................. 75 CHEMOMETRICS ANALYSIS OF THE KEY PEPTIDE OXIDATIVE PHENOMENA DURING THE RIPENING OF SPANISH DRY-CURED HAM ................................................................................................................................ 76 IMPACT OF DRYING TEMPERATURE AND ULTRASOUND APPLICATION IN THE QUALITY OF ARTICHOKE BY-PRODUCTS: ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES AND FIBRE .......................................................... 77 EFFECT OF AIR DRYING TEMPERATURE AND ULTRASOUND APPLICATION IN THE STABILIZATION OF ARTICHOKE BY-PRODUCTS ..................................................................................................................................... 78 EFFECT OF CHIA BY-PRODUCTS AS BREADMAKING INGREDIENTS ON NUTRITIONAL BREAD QUALITY ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 79 PRODUCTION OF BIOACTIVE MOLECULES BY YEASTS DURING WINE FERMENTATION AND EVALUATION OF THEIR EFFECT AGAINST DIFFERENT STRESSES.................................................................. 80 INFLUENCE OF ALKALIZING SALTS AND PROCESS CONDITIONS ON ALKALIZED COCOA POWDER PROPERTIES ................................................................................................................................................................. 81 EFFECT OF THE ADDITION OF DIFFERENT LEVELS OF BICARBONATE DURING CHOCOLATE SPONGE CAKES PREPARATION ON THEIR PHYSICOCHEMICAL AND SENSORY PROPERTIES.................................. 82 COMPARISON OF STEADY SHEAR VISCOSITY AND OSCILLATORY COMPLEX VISCOSITY ON THICKENED PUREES: APPLICATION OF THE COX-MERZ RULE ....................................................................... 83 TEXTURAL CHANGES IN PUFFED CORN CAKE CAUSED BY MOISTURE ADSORPTION .............................. 84 NON-INVASIVE CHARACTERIZATION OF POTATO DRYING BY USING CONTACTLESS ULTRASOUND . 85 TEXTURAL ANALYSIS OF PUFFED CORN CAKE: EXPERIMENTAL TEST AND MODELING......................... 86 APPLICATION OF PULSED ELECTRIC FIELDS FOR PROTEIN EXTRACTION FROM FISH BY-PRODUCTS AND ITS EFFECT ON ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY ................................................................................................... 87

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PULSED ELECTRIC FIELDS TREATMENT OF MICROALGAE PHAEDOACTYLUM TRICORNUTUM BIOMASS FOR ENHANCEMENT OF NUTRIENT EXTRACTION ........................................................................... 88 POSTER FOOD SAFETY ................................................................................................................................................ 89 CYTOTOXIC EFFECTS OF ZEARALENONE METABOLITES ON SH-SY5Y CELLS AND DETERMINATION OF THEIR AMOUNT IN CELL CULTURE MEDIA .................................................................................................... 90 ENTOMOPHAGY .......................................................................................................................................................... 91 ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF PERACETIC ACID AGAINST PENICILLIUM VERRUCOSUM AND ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS .......................................................................................................................................................................... 92 CHARACTERIZATION OF ISOLATED PROBIOTICS OF SAMPLES OF BREAST MILK AND OF NEWBORN BREEDS ......................................................................................................................................................................... 93 ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF EXTRACTS FROM LACTIC ACID BACTERIA IN GRAPE ................................... 94 EFFECT OF PRESSURE AND TREATING MEDIA ON THE SUPERCRITICAL CO2 INACTIVATION OF BREVUNDIMONAS DIMINUTA .................................................................................................................................... 95 ULTRASONIC ASSISTED SUPERCRITICAL FLUID TREATMENT FOR THE INACTIVATION OF CLOSTRIDIUM BUTYRICUM SPORES IN LIPID EMULSIONS ................................................................................. 96 INACTIVATION OF E. COLI IN LIPID EMULSIONS WITH PULSED ELECTRIC FIELDS .................................... 97 MULTI-MYCOTOXIN CONTAMINATION IN MOROCCAN BEVERAGE INFUSION .......................................... 98 INSULIN/IGF-1 PATHWAY IMPLICATION ON CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS LIFESPAN EXTENSION BY PLANT STEROL AND GALACTOOLIGOSACCHARIDES ENRICHED BEVERAGES .......................................... 99 ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF YELLOW MUSTARD BRAN AGAINST PENICILLIUM, ASPERGILLUS, AND FUSARIUM ................................................................................................................................................................... 100 PULSED ELECTRIC FIELDS AS STRATEGY TO MITIGATE AFLTATOXIN CONTENTS IN FRUIT JUICES .. 101 EVALUATION OF MICOTOXINS BY LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY-TANDEM MASS SPECTROMETRY IN RICE SAMPLES. .......................................................................................................................................................... 102

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Congress Coordinator: Giuseppe Meca. Scientific Committee Coordinator: Antonio Cilla & Reyes Barberá.

Scientific Committee Houda Berrada Reyes Barberá Sáez Ester Carbó Valverde María José Esteve Mas Isabel Fernández Segovia Guadalupe Garcia Llatas José Vicente Gil Ponce Pedro V. Martinez Culebras Salvador Pérez Garrido Giuseppe Meca Hortensia Rico Vidal Francisco Barba Orellana Amparo Gamero Lluna Vicente Monedero Lara Manyes Font Yelko Rodríguez Carrasco Vicenta Devesa Susana Rubio Arráez

Department of Preventive Medicine-Toxicology Area (UV) Department of Preventive Medicine-Nutrition and Food Science Area (UV) Department of Vegetal Biology-Edaphology Area (UV) Department of Preventive Medicine-Nutrition and Food Science Area (UV) Department of Food Technology (UPV) Department of Preventive Medicine-Nutrition and Food Science Area (UV) Department of Preventive Medicine- Food Technology Area (UV) Department of Preventive Medicine- Food Technology Area (UV) Department of Physiology (UV) Department of Preventive Medicine-Nutrition and Food Science Area (UV) Department of Microbiology and Ecology (UV) Department of Preventive Medicine-Nutrition and Food Science Area (UV) Department of Preventive Medicine- Food Technology Area (UV) Department of Food Biotechnology (IATA-CSIC) Department of Preventive Medicine-Nutrition and Food Science Area (UV) Department of Preventive Medicine-Nutrition and Food Science Area (UV) Department of Conservation and Food Safety (IATA-CSIC) Institute of Food Engineering for Development (UPV)

Organizing Committee Giuseppe Meca Antonio Cilla Tatay Raquel Torrijos Caparrós Ana María Perez Adrián Ruth Martín Navarro Juan Gómez Martí Maria Amparo Vallés Bellver Juan Manuel Quiles Beses Noelia Pallarés Barrachina Carlos Luz Mínguez Tiago de Melo Nazareth Raquel Carbonell Sanz Lara Navarro Galbis Inés Girón Guzmán Inés del Carmen Gil Jorge Carla Navarro Molina Víctor D’Opazo Taberner Abigail Fuentes Espinoza

Department of Preventive Medicine - Nutrition and Food Science Area (UV) Department of Preventive Medicine - Nutrition and Food Science Area (UV) Food Science and Technology PhD (UV) and AVECTA’s President Master in Food Quality and Safety and AVECTA’s Vice president Food Science and Technology Student and AVECTA’s Secretary Food Science and Technology Student and AVECTA’s Treasure Food Science and Technology Student and AVECTA’s Assistant secretary Department of Preventive Medicine - Nutrition and Food Science Area (UV) Food Science and Technology PhD (UV) Food Science and Technology PhD (UV) Food Science and Technology PhD (UV) and (PUCPR) Food Science and Technology Student Food Science and Technology Student Food Science and Technology Student Food Science and Technology Student Food Science and Technology Student Master in Food Quality and Safety Student Food Science and Technology Student

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Welcome It is our great pleasure that the VIIth edition of the Congress of Students of Food Science and Technology is celebrated at University of Valencia, Faculty of Pharmacy, Spain. The new attractive program is divided in two sessions, from one hand we will have the first day completely dedicated to the Food and Science Technology company talks and on the other hand the second day will be dedicated to the student talks focused on several aspect related to the Food Science as, Nutrition, Food Chemistry, Food Microbiology, Food Technology, Food Analysis and Food Biotechnology. We want to extend a warm welcome and heartfelt respect to all invited speakers, and also to the participants of this congress. This congress has been held in Valencia since 2014 and we are proud of the results achieved from academically and socially point of view. The number of the poster presentations increased, and the scientifically contents are progressing every year. The congress is divided in invited plenary lectures, oral and poster sessions, organized to favor meetings and interaction between participants with the aim of integrating different disciplines and put together scientist and experts of different fields of Food Safety, Food Technology, Food Chemistry and Nutrition and Food Analysis including several sessions on advances in applied research throughout the food chain, industrial and networking actions. We hope that this congress will provide an important forum for Spanish and international colleagues to appreciate the current state of the art in Food Technology research and will be a unique opportunity for discussion of solutions to today’s and tomorrow’s challenges. Finally, we would like to address our grateful thanks to our students of the Valencian Association of Students and professionals of Food Science and Technology (AVECTA) that greatly helped us to organize this congress: without their enthusiastic participation, we couldn’t now host the Seventh International Edition. On behalf of the Organizing and Scientific Committees we would like to wish you an interesting and enjoyable Conference in one of the most attractive Spanish corners, with fruitful discussion and exchange of professional points of view from experts coming from different countries around the world.

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General info

General map of Valencia

General map of Campus de Burjassot

Pharmacy Faculty Avenida de Vicente Andrés Estellés s/n 46100 Burjassot. Valencia. Subway: Line 4 Stop V. Andrés Estellés Autobús: Líne 63 Stop V. Andrés Estellés

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Scientific Programme 27/02/2020 08:30- 09:30 – Registration 09:30- 10:00 – WELCOME CEREMONY First Session Chairwoman: Amparo Gamero (Universtiy of Valencia) Food Companies Use of microorganisms in agriculture 10:00F.J. Soriano 10:30 Biológica Nature S.L.U. The ecosystem of packaging in the meat and food industry 10:30A. Aguilar 11:00 Embutidos Martinez, Spain APISOL – Honey & Fruit Innovation 11:00R. Parrilla 11:30 APISOL S.A. (Honey packer and fruit products manufacturer) 11:30- 12:00 – Coffee break Second Session Chairman: Yelko Rodríguez (University of Valencia) Food Companies European legislation on plastic materials intended to come into contact with food, with 12:00- a special focus on bioplastics 12:30 S. Collazo AIMPLAS (Centro Tecnológico del Plastico) CIAM – Next generation of the agronomic R+D 12:30V. Máñez 13:00 CIAM (Centro de Innovación Agronómica – Grupo Alimentario Citrus) Invited Speaker In vitro meat: An alternative for the future? 13:00J. Ruiz-Carrascal 13:30 Full professor-University of Extremadura. Blog author: “La margarita se agita” Oral communications of students 13:30- Influence of drying temperature on antioxidant properties of cider by-products 13:40 B. Llavata, R. Torres, R. Peña, J.A. Cárcel Grupo de Análisis y Simulación de Procesos Agroalimentarios. Departamento de Tecnología de Alimentos (Universitat Politècnica de València), Spain Green technology extraction for the recovery of biological interesting compounds from 13:40- fish by-products 13:50 F.J. Martí-Quijal, M.J. Ruiz, F.J. Barba Nutrition, Food Science and Toxicology Department (Universitat de València), Spain Transcriptional changes in the electron transport chain after ENs short-time exposure 13:50- in Wistar rats 14:00 A. Cimbalo, M. Alonso-Garrido, G. Font, L. Manyes Laboratory of Food Chemistry and Toxicology (Universitat de València), Spain 14:00- 15:00 - Lunch Third Session Chairman: Giuseppe Meca (University of Valencia) Oral communications of students 15:00- Hydrogel characterization from commercial carrageenans for food applications 15:10 C. Fontes-Candia1, A. Ström2, L. Gómez-Mascaraque3, A. López-Rubio1, M. Martínez9


Sanz1 1 Food Safety and Preservation Department (IATA-CSIC), Spain; 2Applied Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (Chalmers University of Technology), Sweden; 3Department of Food Chemistry & Technology (Teagasc Food Research Centre), Ireland Occurrence of human enteric viruses and crassphage in raw sewage and secondary effluents 15:10E. Cuevas-Ferrando1, I. Falcó1, A. Pérez-Cataluña1, W. Randazzo1,2, G. Sánchez1 15:20 1 Department of Preservation and Food Safety Technologies (IATA-CSIC), Spain; 2 Department of Microbiology and Ecology (University of Valencia), Spain Effects of controlled deficit irrigation on quality and composition in olive oil J.M. García-Garví1, J. Clemente-Villalba1, L. Sánchez-Rodríguez1, F. Hernández2, A.A. Carbonell-Barrachina1 15:20 1Department of Agro-Food Technology, Research Group “Food Quality and Safety” 15:30 (Escuela Politécnica Superior de Orihuela, Universidad Miguel Hernández de Elche), Spain; 2Department of Plant Science and Microbiology, Research Group “Plant Production and Technology” (Escuela Politécnica Superior de Orihuela, Universidad Miguel Hernández de Elche), Spain Determination of foliar iron by Smartphone 15:30- K.U. Antela1, M.L. Cervera1, A. Morales-Rubio1, M.J. Luque2 15:40 1Department of Analytical Chemistry (University of Valencia), Spain; 2Optics Department, Physics Faculty (University of Valencia), Spain Application of Accelerated Solvent Extraction to recover proteins and antioxidant compounds from sea bass downstreams 15:40B. De la Fuente, H. Berrada, F.J. Barba 15:50 Nutrition, Toxicology and Food Science Area, Faculty of Pharmacy (University of Valencia), Spain Effect of elderly gastrointestinal conditions and food inherent characteristics on protein digestibility 15:50E. Hernández-Olivas, S. Muñoz-Pina, A. Andrés, A. Heredia 16:00 Instituto Universitario de Ingeniería de Alimentos para el Desarrollo, IUIAD-UPV (Universitat Politécnica de València), Spain Corn starch enzymatic modification and its applications as iron carrier in gluten free 16:00- biscuits 16:10 A. Aleixandre, Y. Benavent-Gil, C. M. Rosell Instituto de Agroquímica y Tecnología de Alimentos (IATA-CSIC), Spain Multy-mycotoxin analysis in nuts products using Ultra-High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled to Orbitap High Resolution Mass Spectrometry 16:10A. Narváez1, Y. Rodríguez-Carrasco2, L. Castaldo1, L. Izzo1, A. Ritieni1 16:20 1 Department of Pharmacy (University of Naples “Federico II”), Italy; 2Laboratory of Food Chemistry and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy (University of Valencia), Spain An assessment of tocopherol accumulation during maturation and postharvest storage 16:20- of citrus 16:30 F. Rey, M.J. Rodrigo, L. Zacarías Instituto de Agroquímica y Tecnología de Alimentos (IATA-CSIC), Spain 16:30- 17:30 POSTER SESSION 21:00 SOCIAL DINNER

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28/02/2020 Fourth Session Chairwoman: Houda Berrada (Universtiy of Valencia) Invited Speaker Impact of nutritional and temperature stresses on yeast fermentations 09:00J.M. Guillamón 09:30 Food Biotechnology Department (IATA-CSIC), Spain Oral Communications of Students Extraction, optimization and chemical properties of pectin from watermelon rinds 09:30D.A. Mendez, M.J. Fabra, A. Martínez-Abad, A. López-Rubio 09:40 Food Safety and Preservation Department (IATA-CSIC), Spain Biopreservation of tomatoes and oranges with acid lactic bacteria 09:40- V. D’Opazo, C. Luz, G. Meca 09:50 Laboratory of Food Chemistry and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy (University of Valencia), Spain The suitability of potato chips-industry by-products for biobased thermoplastics production P. Brites1, G. Oliveira1, I. Vilarinho1, I. Gonçalves1, C. Nunes1, P. Ferreira2, M.A. Coimbra3 09:50- 1 CICECO – Aveiro Institute of Materials, Department of Chemistry (University of Aveiro), 10:00 Portugal; 2CICECO – Aveiro Institute of Materials, Department of Materials and Ceramic Engineering (University of Aveiro), Portugal; 3LAQV-REQUIMTE, Department of Chemistry (University of Aveiro), Portugal Effect of hydrocolloids on starch subjected to thermal treatments 10:00M. Santamaria, R. Garzon, C.M. Rosell 10:10 Instituto de Agroquímica y Tecnología de los Alimentos (IATA-CSIC), Spain What is tweeted on “gluten-free”? A co-occurrence network approach 10:10- P. Puerta1, L. Laguna1, L. Vidal1, G. Ares2, S. Fiszman1, A. Tárrega1 10:20 1Institute of Agrochemistry and Food Technology (IATA-CSIC), Spain; 2Instituto Polo Tecnológico de Pando, Facultad de Química (Universidad de la República), Uruguay Diplotaxis erucoides, new cooking concept J. Clemente-Villalba1, D. Ariza2, J.M. García-Garví1, P. Sánchez-Bravo1, L. Lipan1, L. Noguera-Artiaga1, F. Hernández3, Á.A. Carbonell-Barrachina1 10:20- Department of Agro-Food Technology, Research Group “Food Quality and Safety” 10:30 (Escuela Politécnica Superior de Orihuela, Universidad Miguel Hernández de Elche), Spain; 2David Ariza Freeland Cook, Spain; 3Department of Plant Science and Microbiology, Research Group “Plant Production and Technology” (Escuela Politécnica Superior de Orihuela, Universidad Miguel Hernández de Elche), Spain Supplementation with chia flour in starch formulations as nutritional strategy for glucose homeostasis control 10:30- R. Selma-Gracia1,2, C.M. Haros1, J.M. Laparra2 10:40 1Institute of Agrochemistry and Food Technology (IATA-CSIC), Spain; 2Molecular Immunonutrition Group. Nutrition Precision in Cancer Unit. Madrid Institute for Advanced Studies in Food (IMDEA Food), Spain Experimental design of lactic acid bacteria fermented whey digestions and in vitro intestinal absorption model 10:40C. Feito, E. Romano, C. Luz, R. Torrijos, G. Meca, L. Manyes, L. Escrivá 10:50 Laboratory of Food Chemistry and Toxicology, Facultu of Pharmacy (University of Valencia), Spain 10:50- 11:30 – Coffee break

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Fifth Session Chairman: Francisco Barba (Universtiy of Valencia) Invited Speaker Use of air-coupled ultrasound for contactless characterization of foods 11:30J.V. Garcia-Pérez 12:00 Department of Food Technology (Universitat Politècnica de València) Oral Communications of Students How consumers understand the concept of sustainability? P. Sánchez-Bravo1, E. Chambers2, L. Noguera-Artiaga1, E. Sendra3, E. Chambers2, Á.A. Carbonell-Barrachina1 12:00- 1Department of Agro-Food Technology, Research Gorup “Food Quality and Safety” 12:10 (Miguel Hernández University of Elche), Spain; 2Center for Sensory Analysis and Consumer Behavior (Kansas State University), United States; 3Department of Agro-Food Technology, Research Group “Industrialization of Food from Animal Origin” (Miguel Hernández University of Elche), Spain Antifungal activity of Trichoderma strain and their metabolites products C. Stracquadanio1, G. Magnano di San Lio1, S.O. Cacciola2, G. Meca3 12:10- 1Department of Agricultural Science, (Mediterranean University of Reggio Calabria), Italu; 12:20 2Department of Agriculture Food and Environment (University of Catania), Italy; 3 Departamento de Medicina Preventiva, Facultad de Farmacia (Universitat de València), Spain Bioactive extracts from Posidonia oceanica waste biomass comparison between waterbased and organic-solvent extractions I. Benito-González1, A. López-Rubio1, A. Martínez-Abad2, A.R. Ballester3, I. Falcó1,4, L. 12:20- González-Candelas3, G. Sánchez1, M. Martínez-Sanz1 12:30 1Food Safety and Preservation Department (IATA-CSIC), Spain; 2Department of Analytical Chemistry, Nutrition and Food Sciences (University of Alicante), Spain; 3Food Biotechnology Department (IATA-CSIC), Spain; 4Microbiology and Ecology Department (University of Valencia), Spain Transcriptomical approach on mycotoxins and carotenoids effects in the mitocondria of the blood brain barrier in vitro 12:30M. Alonso-Garrido, V. Ghisi, L. Manyes 12:40 Laboratory of Food Chemistry and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy (University of Valencia), Spain Ink of octopus (Octopus vulgaris) like a source of anticancer compounds: antiproliferative/pro-apoptosis and anti-inflammatory potential M.S. Hernandez-Zazueta1, Á.A. Carbonell-Barrachina2, P. Taboada-Antelo3, E.C. RosasBurgos1, J.M. Ezquerra Bauer1, J.S. Garcia-Romo1, R. Campos-Vega5, I. Luzardo-Ocampo4, M.G. Burboa-Zazueta4, H.S. Santacruz-Ortega6, A. Burgos-Hernández1 12:40- 1 Department of Research and Postgraduate in Food (University of Sonora), Mexico; 12:50 2 Department of Agrifood Technology (University Miguel Hernandez de Elche), Spain; 3 Department of Particle Physics (University of Santiago de Compostela), Spain; 4 Department of Scientific and Technological Research (University of Sonora), Mexico; 5 Department of Chemistry (The Autonomous University of Querétaro), Mexico; 6Department of Polymers and Materials Research (University of Sonora), Mexico Impact of low pressures homogenization on the physico-chemical and rheological properties of rice flour 12:50- S. Boulemkahel1,2, E. Betoret1, L. Benatallah2, C.M. Rosell1 13:00 1Institute of Agrochemistry and Food Technology (IATA-CSIC), Spain; 2Intitut de la Nutrition, de l’Alimentation et des Technologies Agroalimentaires (Université des Frères Mentouri Constantine), Algérie 13:00 – CLOSING AND AWARD CEREMONY 12


INVITED SPEAKERS

13


USE OF MICROORGANISMS IN AGRICULTURE

F.J. Soriano

Biológica Nature S.L.U.; C/ Velluters nº 12. 46394, Ribarroja del Turia, Valencia, España Departamento de Ciencias Aplicadas y Tecnológicas. Facultad de Veterinaria y Ciencias Experimentales. Universidad Católica de Valencia. San Vicente Mártir; C/Guillem de Castro, 94. Valencia 46001 fsoriano@biologicanature.com

Modern agriculture meets the challenge of ensuring the production of food products in order to satisfy the requirements of a global population in continuous growth. One of the factors that contributes to achieve the production objectives is the use of chemical fertilizers and plant protection products. For decades, the indiscriminate use of this sort of agricultural inputs has entailed serious environmental issues, such loss of biodiversity, development of resistances and secondary pests, mineralization and soil pollution, contamination of aquifers and surface water sources, as well as a possibility of affecting the health of consumers. The new European legislation, increasingly restrictive regarding the use of this kind of formulated products, combined with the demands of large food supply chains and the awareness of consumers, has created the necessity of using new types of fertilizers and plant protection products by producers. As an alternative, the application in crops of beneficial bacteria and fungi allows for profitable productions, with the demanded health guarantee and in a safe and environmentally friendly manner. The use of these microorganisms aids in essential nutrients absorption by plants, produce biostimulant effect, activate plant natural defence system, exert biocontrol activity against pest and diseases, while helping to maintain the soil biodiversity and fertility. Investment in human and economic resources by universities, research centers, technological

14


THE ECOSYSTEM OF PACKAGING IN THE MEAT AND FOOD INDUSTRY

A. Aguilar

Embutidos Martinez, Spain; aaguilar@embutidosmartinez.es

Packaging has become one of the most important technologies in the society nowadays, due to the fact of the practical way it is used to prevent food from spoiling and to enhance the product shelf life. Moreover, it is vital consider, how an accurate and sophisticated choice of packaging strategies play an important role in the reduction of food wasting. Apart from these facts, packaging itself, has a wide range of disciplines that create a solid structure able to provide desirable properties in the packaging system, such as the type of material, indicated to guarantee the gas barrier properties, the structural designs, to assure the resistance through long trips or keeping the product under low storage conditions. Furthermore, it is indispensable to analyze how a visual design has to be created to appear ergonomic and be attractive for the consumer. Therefore, in this chapter we will describe how packaging deals with fresh pork-meat and minced meat product issues, in a company of reference in the meat industry.

15


APISOL – HONEY & FRUIT INNOVATION

R. Parrilla Valladolid

APISOL, S.A. (HONEY PACKER AND FRUIT PRODUCTS MANUFACTURER) Spain; Avenida Blasco Ibáñez s/n – Montroy, Spain. rparrilla@apisol.es

Apisol was founded in 1912. First generation was the great grandfather of current Managing Director starting the business as beekeeper. 2 nd generation developed 2 new projects focused on recycling wax for beekeepers and export of honey on bulk achieving in 1987 an exporting award. 3 rd generation started serving packed honey for supermarkets and developed quince jelly and marmalades for Mercadona achieving in 2005 a food quality award. 4 th and current generation has started the international expansion of the company. Apisol products are currently present in Europe, Asia and Africa. Mission: Apisol believes in maximum satisfaction of the five components: Clients and Consumers, Worker, Supplier, Society and Property. Vision: We provide solutions in quality and price by being specialists and leaders in the food chain in a sustainable way. Values: Being proud of what we do, working with involvement, transparency and integrity. Innovation is our present and future. Blending traditional products such as honey and quince to create new solutions is a challenge we are proud to face.

16


EUROPEAN LEGISLATION ON PLASTIC MATERIALS INTENDED TO COME INTO CONTACT WITH FOOD, WITH A SPECIAL FOCUS ON BIOPLASTICS

S. Collazo

AIMPLAS Instituto Tecnológico del Plástico, València Parc Tecnològic, Carrer de Gustave Eiffel, 4, 46980 Paterna, Valencia

At European level, any material intended to come into contact with food, including bioplastics, fall under the scope of the Food Contact Materials (FCM) legislation. On the one hand, the Framework Regulation states the main principles applying to every single FCM, aiming to ensure the effective functioning of the internal market while protecting public health and consumers’ interests. On the other, most bioplastics are subject to the Plastics Implementation Measure, which specifically regulates different aspects related to these materials, such as compositional requirements, requirements on documentation or requirements on the verification of the compliance with the migration limits. Due to the plastic packaging area for food use is in continuous growth, it is vital to know the practical way of the fundamental aspects for the interpretation and application of the legislation of plastics in contact with food.

17


CIAM - NEXT GENERATION OF THE AGRONOMIC R+D

V. Mañez Folgado

CIAM (Centro de Innovación Agronómica_Grupo Alimentario Citrus), Avda. dels Gremis, Parcela 28. Pol. Ind. Sector 13, Ribarroja de Túria, 46394 València, Spain. vmanez@gac.es

Grupo Alimentario Citrus was founded in 2000 with a really clear goal: make a revolution in healthy food by offering to consumer fresh, innovative and high-quality products. Our activity as a food company covers the whole production chain, from the field to consumer’s table. And to target it we have 25 crop fields and seedbeds that represents 5.000 crop hectares, located through Spanish Southeast and Canary Islands. All those vegetables are processed in our 9 processing plants, 6 of them based in Spain: Carlet, Ribarroja de Túria, Antequera, Aranda de Duero, Tenerife y Murcia; and 3 in other European countries: Thurland (Germany), Hünenberg (Switzerland) and Casaleggio (Italy). In order to improve the efficiency in our fields, in 2016 we inaugurated CIAM, our Agronomic Research Centre placed in Montserrat (Valencia). It is a place designed to revolutionize the private R&D in agricultural area, developing projects with industrial application both internal and external for other companies. Our facilities let us having a total control of climate chambers, greenhouses and open field crops in an area of more than 30 hectares. Since our Agronomic Research Centre started working four years ago, we have developed different projects and direct application trials. We launched a technologically advanced babyleaf crop system that brings more benefits than the open field growing. We have been the first center to produce and commercialize microgreens nationwide. We have also carried out hydroponic cultivation projects in a controlled environment and with LED light and contributed to the validation of new sensor systems for saving water in the open field. In addition, we have collaborated together with the Faculty of Pharmacy of the Valencia University, in the publication of scientific documentation.

18


IN VITRO MEAT: AN ALTERNATIVE FOR THE FUTURE?

J. Ruiz-Carrascal

Edificio Institutos Universitarios; Campus Universitario s/n; 10003 CĂĄceres; SPAIN (University of Extremadura, IPROCAR) jruiz@unex.es

Sustainability, health, moral dilemmas, animal welfare, climate change, outbreaks, waste, resistance to antibiotics ... The list of potential problems that have been linked to the production and consumption of meat and meat products is long and assorted. And yet, in most developed and developing countries, meat occupies the first position in the ranking of what the consumer spends in the shopping list, and its production and consumption looks like keep growing. We like meat very much, and a large part of the world’s population, despite all the potential problems associated with its consumption, is not willing to give it up. However, it is possible that these limiting factors model both the volume of consumption and the peculiarities of the types of meat that will be consumed in the future. Alternatives to traditional animal proteins can find a place to satisfy our carnivorous cravings, but minimizing the potentially negative implications of the more traditional forms: imitation plant meats, insects, by-product utilization, species selection... Among those, in- vitro or artificial meat has gained a great popularity, even though there is no option yet in the market and no forecast to have it within the next 1-2 years. What is artificial meat, how is it produced, what’s in it, how does it look like and do it even taste like meat? Are there any challenges in relation to nutrition and food safety? How far are the scientists, when will we be able to buy it - and are we willing to? In this scenario, the integration of the gastronomic perspective with technology based on scientific knowledge, is allowing to achieve the development of a product that, in not many years, will be in many restaurant menus and shelves of supermarkets.

19


IMPACT OF NUTRITIONAL AND TEMPERATURE STRESSES ON YEAST FERMENTATIONS

J.M. Guillamón

Departamento de Biotecnología de Alimentos, Instituto de Agroquímica y Tecnología de Alimentos (IATA-CSIC), Paterna (Valencia), España guillamon@iata.csic.es

Winemaking is one of the oldest biotechnological processes carried out by human. The unconscious use of microorganisms for the fermentation processes has shaped the evolution of these microorganisms, which show clear signs of adaptation or domestication. Our group is interested in understanding the mechanisms involved in adaptation that have shaped the yeast genome conferring properties of biotechnological interest. Different –omics techniques as well as evolutionary analysis are used to understand adaptation of yeasts of industrial interest to stresses. In this presentation, our insights gained in two of the most important environmental and nutritional stresses (low temperature and nitrogen availability) during wine fermentation will be shown. Low temperature alcoholic fermentations (10-15ºC) are becoming more frequent due to the winemaker’s tendency to produce wines with more pronounced aromatic profile. However, this temperature is far from the optimum range for the main fermentative yeast S. cerevisiae, affecting both the yeast growth and fermentation rates. Nitrogen is an essential nutrient for yeast during wine fermentation. The deficiency of nitrogen is one of the major reasons of sluggish or stuck fermentation. Therefore, it is of great interest to characterize the nitrogen requirement of S. cerevisiae industrial strains. Curiously, our data reinforce the connection between both stresses. Low temperature firstly impacts on plasma membrane fluidity, affecting primarily to cellular nutrient uptake. Thus, low temperature and nutritional stress share many adaptive mechanisms in yeasts during industrial fermentations. Our approach has been to identify key physiological, metabolic and molecular mechanisms involved in the overcome of both stresses, and use this information for the design of rational genetic improvement strategies to obtain more robust and adapted yeast strains to grow during stressful industrial conditions.

20


USE OF AIR-COUPLED ULTRASOUND FOR CONTACTLESS CHARACTERIZATION OF FOODS

J.V. Garcia-Perez

Department of Food Technology, Universitat Politècnica de València, Cami de Vera s/n, 46022, València, Spain jogarpe4@tal.upv.es

Smart or Virtual Processing, Industry 4.0, Machine learning, Artificial Intelligence or Big Data analysis are current opportunities for the food industry. But are current analysis techniques for food characterisation ready to support the food industry in the upcoming digital revolution? These new challenges require the analysis of a large number of samples in order to extract the maximum amount of information in order to optimise food processing and quality whilst ensuring safety. Food composition can be accurately analysed in the laboratory by using chemical and biochemical procedures, while texture is easily assessed by using instrumental techniques. However, the conventional analysis of both composition and texture is destructive and time consuming, since samples are disintegrated either during the analysis or when undergoing their previous and necessary preparation. In this context, the research of nondestructive and non-invasive sensors for the analysis of internal food properties without alteration is of paramount importance, although only few novel non-destructive testing technologies have the ability to penetrate deep into a material and retrieve valuable information on the inner structure or composition. Thus, this works explores the recent advances on NonDestructive Testing (NDT) of foodstuffs using air-coupled ultrasound. For that purpose, firstly, the advantages of the use of ultrasound, a kind of mechanical wave, against the electromagnetic waves (X-Rays, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Computed Tomography, etc…) were shown. Secondly, the work illustrates the difference between conventional and air-coupled ultrasound. Finally, some examples of the application of air-coupled ultrasound to characterize compositional of textural properties of foods were exposed.

21


ORAL PRESENTATIONS

22


INFLUENCE OF DRYING TEMPERATURE ON ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OF CIDER BY-PRODUCTS

B. Llavata, R. Torres, R. Peña, J.A. Cárcel

Grupo de Análisis y Simulación de Procesos Agroalimentarios, Departamento de Tecnología de Alimentos, Universitat Politècnica de València, Camino de Vera s/n, E46022, Valencia, Spain. beallaca@etsiamn.upv.es

By-products generated in the food industry can have great nutritional value, so their revaluation represents an interesting sustainable alternative. This is the case of the by-products generated in the cider industry, rich in antioxidants, vitamins and fibre. The drying of these products is essential for their stability and subsequent use, but drying conditions, such as the use of high temperatures, can damage the quality of the final product. Thus, the aim of this work was to study the influence of different temperatures (40, 60, 80, 100 and 120 ° C) in drying time and in the antioxidant properties of cider by-product. For this purpose, the antioxidant capacity, vitamin C, total phenolic compounds were studied. A clear influence of the temperature could be observed; the increase of drying temperature from 40 ° C to 120 ° C meant 83.9% reduction of drying time. It was also observed, that drying produced a decrease of the antioxidant properties comparing to fresh samples. Regarding the influence of the drying temperature, at 80 ° C it was obtained the lower degradation vitamin C and total phenolic compounds, and at 100 ° C it was observed the maximum antioxidant capacity. This fact could be related with an optimum combination of temperature and drying time. Therefore, from the results obtained it can be state that the drying of the cider by-product between 100 and 80 ° C could be a good balance between the drying time and the final quality of the product.

Keywords: magaya, drying time, antioxidant capacity, vitamin C, total phenolic compounds

23


GREEN TECHNOLOGY EXTRACTION FOR THE RECOVERY OF BIOLOGICAL INTERESTING COMPOUNDS FROM FISH BY-PRODUCTS

F.J. Martí-Quijal, M.J. Ruiz, F.J. Barba

Nutrition, Food Science and Toxicology Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitat de València, Avda. Vicent Andrés Estellés, s/n, 46100, Burjassot, València, Spain francisco.j.marti@uv.es

Among all the food production processes, aquaculture constitutes an important sector, with a great amount of by-products produced. Therefore, there is a need of green extraction technologies for the valorization of fish by products. One of these green technologies is Pulsed Electric Fields (PEF)- assisted extraction. It consists of the application of high voltage pulses in short duration times, creating pores in the cell membrane which increase the permeability and facilitate the extraction of intracellular compounds. This technology allows reducing the use of organic solvents and reducing the time of extraction, being a good environmentally friendly process. Therefore, the aim of this study is the use of PEF for the extraction of protein and bioactive compounds from fish by-products, in particular fish head. For that purpose, a Response-Surface Methodology (RSM) was used, using as factors the specific energy (50-300 kJ/kg), field strength (1-3 kV/cm) and time of extraction (0-24 h), and optimizing for several interesting responses, like bioactive compounds or amino acid extraction. After the optimization, the results differed according to the studied response. The optimal conditions to recover the highest amount of proteins were: i) specific energy of 270 kJ/kg, ii) field strength of 3 kV/cm and iii) time of extraction of 24h. For the extraction of hydroxyproline, related with the extraction of collagen, the optimal parameters were 300 kJ/kg, 3 kV/cm and 24h, which were similar to the optimal conditions for total proteins. Respect to the essential amino acids, the optimal conditions were a little bit different, mainly specific energy, which was lower (182 kJ/kg, 3 kV/cm and 22h). As it has been observed, the application of PEF on fish byproducts can be useful for fish by-products valorization.

Keywords: pulsed electric fields, fish by-products, essential amino acids, proteins, hydroxyproline

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TRANSCRIPTIONAL CHANGES IN THE ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN AFTER ENS SHORT-TIME EXPOSURE IN WISTAR RATS

A. Cimbalo, M. Alonso, Font, G., L. Manyes

Laboratory of Food Chemistry and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Valencia, Burjassot, Spain. alscim@uv.es

Enniatins (ENs) are depsipeptide mycotoxins produced by Fusarium fungi which are known for their capacity to modulate cell membrane permeability and disruption of ionic gradient, affecting action potential parameters and cell homeostasis. This work focused on the evaluation of the acute toxicity of ENs A, A1, B, B1 at different concentrations after 8 h exposure in three selected organs (stomach, liver and kidneys) in a total of 14 Wistar rats (control=4, median dose: 5, high dose: 5). For this purpose, genes related to the electron transport chain and mitochondrial processes were considered: ND1, CO1, Sdha and ATP5. In stomach, qPCR analysis has shown that the main differences in gene expression have been reported in medium-dose treated rats with the down-regulation for all the genes analysed while in the higher one, only ND1 and CO1 have reported a significative up-regulation. Results in liver showed a considerable interindividual variability in gene expression among all the animals employed. No variation has been found for ND1 and CO1 but in contrast, Sdha and ATP5 were up-regulated only for the higher dose. More noticeable results have been detected in kidneys for all the genes analysed. Both ND1 and CO1 were down-regulated in medium and high treatment but however, the medium one resulted more effective than the higher. As regard to Sdha and ATP5, changes in gene expression depend on doses employed. In summary, the transcriptional analysis showed that the expression of the electron transport chain pathway related genes was altered after ENs exposure, particularly in kidneys. Nevertheless, more studies in vivo are needed to confirm their toxicity on vertebrate organisms.

Keywords: oxidative phosphorylation, in vivo, qPCR.

Acknowledgments: This work was supported by Generalitat Valenciana PROMETEO project (CPI-18-342) and grant (GVPROMETEO2018-126).

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HYDROGEL CHARACTERIZATION FROM COMERCIAL CARRAGEENANS FOR FOOD APPLICATIONS C. Fontes-Candia1, A. Ström2, L. Gómez-Mascaraque3, A. López-Rubio1, M. Martínez-Sanz1 1

Food Safety and Preservation Department, IATA-CSIC, Avda. Agustín Escardino 7, 46980

Paterna, Valencia, Spain; 2Applied Chemistry, Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden; 3Department of Food Chemistry & Technology, Teagasc Food Research Centre, Moorepark, Fermoy, Co. Cork, Ireland cynthiafontes@iata.csic.es

Carrageenans are widely used in the food industry due to their texturizing properties, highlighting their thickening and gelling capacity being of special interest their use for the production of hydrogels. Hydrogels are three-dimensional, hydrophilic, polymeric networks capable of holding large amounts of water. Hydrogels are used as control release systems and as additives for satiety control and texture modification in food formulations The formation of carrageenan hydrogels is a complex process that depends on the proportion and location of sulphate groups, the carrageenan concentration and the presence of counter ions, amongst others. These factors will determine the viscosity of solutions and the strength of the hydrogels formed. In this context, hydrogels from commercial carrageenans (κ-C, ι-C, λ-C) were prepared with and without the addition of salts (KCl and CaCl2). The effect of carrageenan and salt concentration on the hydrogel strength were evaluated through a response surface design and a detailed structural characterization was carried out by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and rheology. The low amount of sulphate substitution in κ-C enabled intramolecular association, giving rise to strong hydrogels. On the other hand, ι-C, λ-C produced much weaker hydrogels and required the addition of salts to induce intramolecular association by ionic cross-linking. SAXS results suggested the formation of similar structures of double helices in κ- C and ι-C with the addition of salts; however, distinct network structures were attained. Based on these results, the gelation mechanism for each commercial grade was proposed, which will be particularly useful for the design of hydrogels with target properties for their use in food-related applications.

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OCCURRENCE OF HUMAN ENTERIC VIRUSES AND CRASSPHAGE IN RAW SEWAGE AND SECONDARY EFFLUENTS E. Cuevas-Ferrando1, I. Falcó1, A. Pérez-Cataluña1, W. Randazzo1,2, G. Sánchez1 1

Department of Preservation and Food Safety Technologies, IATA-CSIC, Av. Agustín Escardino 7. 46980 Paterna. Valencia, Spain. 2Department of Microbiology and Ecology, University of Valencia. Av. Dr. Moliner, 50. 46100 Burjassot. Valencia, Spain.

Wastewater represents the main reusable water source after being adequately sanitized by wastewater treatment plants. In this sense, only bacterial quality indicators are usually checked to this end, and human pathogenic viruses usually escape from both sanitization procedures and controls, posing a health risk on the use of effluent waters. In this study, influent and effluent water samples from a WWTP in Valencian Region were processed over a twelve-month period for norovirus GI, norovirus GII, hepatitis A virus (HAV), rotavirus (RV) and human astroviruses (HAstV) occurrence assessment. Also, the viability of some RNA enteric viruses was evaluated by two different methods in order to assess the potential infectivity risk of both influent and effluent water samples: an in situ capture PGM assay which displayed the presence of norovirus GI, norovirus GII, RV and HAstV in 58.3, 75, 50 and 100 % of the influent water samples and in 25, 8.3, 66.7 and 50% of the effluent water samples, respectively; and a viability PMAxx RTqPCR after direct extraction that detected norovirus GI, norovirus GII, RV and HAstV in 83.3%, 100%, 91.7% and 100 % of the influent water samples, respectively, and in 58.3%, 50.0%, 75% and 58.3 % of the effluent water samples. In general, both viral occurrence and concentration values obtained through the PGM assay were lower than those obtained with the direct extraction. Finally, recent studies have concluded that crAssphage bacteriophage is particularly well suited to tracking human wastewater contamination and pollution risk assessment in water matrices. Therefore, a quantitative PCR was performed for crAssphage occurrence in all water samples collected for this study. CrAssphage showed higher mean viral concentration titres than the aforementioned RNA enteric viruses. All the WWTP water samples were positive for crAssphage, and overall, up to 2.16 log10 lower viral concentration values were displayed in the effluent samples compared to the influent samples.

27


EFFECTS OF CONTROLLED DEFICIT IRRIGATION ON QUALITY AND COMPOSITION IN OLIVE OIL J.M. García-Garví1, J. Clemente-Villalba1, L. Sánchez-Rodríguez1, F. Hernández2 A.A. Carbonell-Barrachina1 1

Universidad Miguel Hernández de Elche (UMH), Escuela Politécnica Superior de

Orihuela (EPSO), Department of Agro-Food Technology, Research Group ‘Food Quality and Safety’, Ctra. Beniel, km 3.2, 03312-Orihuela, Alicante, Spain; 2UMH, EPSO, Department of Plant Science and Microbiology, Research Group “Plant Production and Technology”. josemiguel.garcia.gavi@gmail.com

Olive tree is one of the most important crops in Spain, especially in the South. The increase of consumers demands for this product, mainly due to with its healthy properties, has changes the traditional cultivation of olive trees: from rainfed to fully irrigation, and from intensive to superintensive cultivation. Due to climate change, lack of rainfalls and the decrease of water reserves, is important to create techniques that improve water savings to prevent a shortage of water for agriculture in the future. One of the techniques focused on the reduction of irrigation water during fruits and vegetables farming is called regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) and consists of the imposition of water deficits in specific phenological stages, which are less sensitive to water stress, without affect the crop yield or its economic benefits. Four RDI has been applied in this study, at same stage of fruit development, to know the effect of irrigation in the composition, nutritional, physical, chemical and sensory quality of fruit obtained. Olive oil samples were from superintensive plantation, located in Seville, and treatments were applied in four rows, divided into 4 blocks, one for each treatment. Results shown that is possible generate hydroSOStainable products, environmentally friendly, with an increment of functional compounds, and increasing the benefits for consumer (health) and for producers that could earn extra benefits by producing higher quality food.

Keywords: Olea europaea, olive oil composition, volatile compounds, antioxidant activity, water management.

28


DETERMINATION OF FOLIAR IRON BY SMARTPHONE K. U. Antela1, M. L. Cervera1, A. Morales-Rubio1, M. JosĂŠ Luque2 1

Department of Analytical Chemistry, Research Building, University of Valencia, 46100

Burjassot, Valencia (Spain). 2Optics Department, Physics Faculty, University of Valencia, 46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain) Kevin.urbano@uv.es

Iron chlorosis is a condition due to iron deficiency in the plant. This condition, induces a homogeneous yellowing of the leaf that keeps nerves green, may compromise the plant´s health and productivity. Leaf colour and iron content are correlated. In this paper, we use image capture by a colorimetrically characterized Smartphone to measure leaf colour and we have studied the relaionship bettween colour and the iron content of the leaf. In this way, if it were possible to correlate the color of the leaf with the iron content, a simple, fast, economical and accessible method for the determination of foliar iron could be used. Three different methods of determining iron in the leaf have been studied, total iron by calcination, extraction by ophenantroline and extraction by HCl, concluding that the method wich best correlates the iron content with iron chlorosis is that of active iron extraction with the use of HCl. Likewise, it has been studied which CIELab color descriptor is better related to the active iron content of the plant. CIELab descriptors of leaf colour were computed from the triestimulus XYZ values measured by a spectroradiometer and from the RGB values of the colorimetrically characterized Smartphone. Lightness, L*, proved to be the parameter best related to the active iron content, and the relationship between both variables was modelled by a power equation. We compared the iron content predictions obtained by the models derived from the sepectrocolorimeter and from the Smartphone with the values obtained by extraction with HCl. The results indicate that the use of a Smartphone for the determination of iron is statistically comparable to the determination of active iron in the plant with the use of HCl and, therefore, can be used for the quantification of iron with biological activity in the leaf.

Acknowledgement: AEI-FEDER Project CTQ2016-78053-R, GVA-PROMETEO-2019-056

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APPLICATION OF ACCELERATED SOLVENT EXTRACTION TO RECOVER PROTEINS AND ANTIOXIDANT COMPOUNDS FROM SEA BASS DOWNSTREAMS

B. De la Fuente, H. Berrada, F. J. Barba

Nutrition, Toxicology and Food Science Area. Faculty of Pharmacy. University of Valencia. Av. Vicent Andrés Estellés s/n. 46100. Burjassot, Valencia, Spain; francisco.barba@uv.es

Fish downstreams or by-products are defined as fish raw materials left over from the main product processing. The increase of fish production for human consumption has involved a large amount of underutilized fish downstreams, thereby creating a negative economic and environmental impact. An interesting strategy to reduce these problems is using fish by-products as raw material for the recovery of healthy compounds. In these sense, several chemical and enzymatic hydrolysis treatments have been tested. However, fish processing industries still face important limitations as the use of toxic solvents, time consuming and high costs. In this study, Accelerated Solvent Extraction (ASE) technique and the Response Surface Methodology (RSM) were applied to heads, viscera, skin, and tails from Mediterranean sea bass. Distilled water at different pH values (4-10) was used as a solvent. The extraction time (5-15 min) and temperature (20-60 oC) were also evaluated at a constant pressure (1500 MPa). After extraction process, total protein content (Kjeldahl method) and total antioxidant capacity (TEAC and ORAC assays) were determined in the obtained extracts. For each sea bass downstreams studied, the results showed that both the amount of protein and the antioxidant capacity of the extracts varied greatly depending on extraction conditions. For all samples, 15 minutes was the optimal extraction time for protein (121 – 297 mg/extract), TEAC (214 - 914 μM Trolox Eq) and ORAC (946 - 1751 μM Trolox Eq) while some differences in the appropriate temperature were observed. In addition, these preliminary results pointed out that neutral pH as the optimum extraction medium pH for viscera, skin, and tails. The optimal extraction conditions provided by the RSM should be performed to be confirmed. Keywords: fish downstreams, accelerated solvent extraction, protein, antioxidant compounds Acknowledgements: The authors would like to acknowledge the EU Commission for the funds provided by the BBI-JU through the H2020 Project AQUABIOPROFIT ‘Aquaculture and agriculture biomass side stream proteins and bioactives for feed, fitness and health promoting nutritional supplements’ (Grant Agreement no. 790956). 30


EFFECT OF ELDERLY GASTROINTESTINAL CONDITIONS AND FOOD INHERENT CHARACTERISTICS ON PROTEIN DIGESTIBILITY

E. Hernández-Olivas, S. Muñoz-Pina, A. Andrés and A. Heredia

Instituto Universitario de Ingeniería de Alimentos para el Desarrollo (IUIAD-UPV). Universitat Politècnica de València Camino de Vera s/n, 46022, Valencia, Spain. evherol@doctor.upv.es

It is expected that in the first five decades of the 21st century, population aged over 65 doubles from 11 to 22%. Thus, life quality along aging becomes a growing global concern. Certain gastrointestinal (GI) could appear in elderly people leading to maldigestion and malabsorption of macro and micronutrients. Under these GI conditions, proteins digestibility can be compromised contributing to sarcopenia in elderly. Besides the influence of host-related GI conditions, proteolysis can be also affected by food inherent properties such as origin, structural matrix or interactions of proteins with other macronutrients within the food matrix. Thus, the aim of this study was to in vitro evaluate the effect of GI conditions own of elderly on proteolysis extent in a total of 23 different foods belonging to 6 categories (fish, meat, egg, dairy products, cereals and legumes). Proteolysis extent was evaluated by means of GC-MS quantifications of free amino acids released during the in vitro digestion of the 23 foods under elderly and healthy adult (control) GI conditions. Results show that proteolysis extent ranged from 36 to 100% under control conditions. Thus, the foods of each category with the highest protein digestibility were the entrecote (meats), sea bass and salmon (fish), milk and yogurt (dairy), hard-boiled egg, quinoa and oatmeal (cereals), and white beans and chickpea (legumes). Also note, the higher proteolysis achieved during digestion in vegetal foods, compared to those of animal origin, with the exception of chia seeds and soybeans. Elderly GI conditions, however, significantly reduced proteolysis extent in almost all foods (ranging from 26 to 67%). A negative correlation was found between protein digestibility and protein content under these in vitro studies. This study provides relevant information to understand protein digestibility in different food matrices groups and could be useful to design functional foods and to make clinical recommendations for elderly.

Keywords: Protein, digestibility, elderly, in-vitro digestion

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CORN STARCH ENZYMATIC MODIFICATION AND ITS APPLICATION AS IRON CARRIER IN GLUTEN FREE BISCUITS

A. Aleixandre, Y. Benavent-Gil, Cristina M. Rosell

Instituto de Agroquímica y Tecnología de Alimentos (IATA-CSIC), Paterna, España. C/Agustin Escardino, 7. Paterna-46980. Valencia (España). andrea.aleixandre@csic.es

Iron deficiency anemia is the most common nutritional deficiency in the world. To solve this problem fortified foods are used. Porous starches are modified starches with a large number of micropores. These porous materials have been employed as carriers of different compounds due to their absorption capacity, but it remains unknown their viability as vehicles of minerals like iron. The aim of this project was to evaluate enzymatically modified corn starch as iron carrier in gluten free biscuits for decreasing the deficiencies such as iron-deficiency anemia. Conditions for porous starch iron fortification were optimized. Evaluation of starch as iron carrier was made in an in vitro digestion system. To study their behavior in a food matrix, biscuits fortified with iron porous starch were prepared and compared with biscuits fortified with iron sulphate and control biscuits. Their digestion was carried out in an in vitro digestion system, analysing their digestibility and iron release. Regarding the optimal iron fortification, only the starch state and previous granules hydration had significant impact on iron retention. A significant effect was observed when fortifying biscuits with iron, decreasing its digestibility, and that effect was associated to fortification and no to the use of porous starches as carriers. Conversely, the presence of porous starches had a significant effect in the release of iron. The samples fortified with ferrous sulphate released all the iron in the mouth stage. In those fortified by porous starches, there was greater retention, since it could be observed that it was not released in the buccal stage, detecting greater amount of iron released at the end of the digestion. Results indicated that corn starch enzymatically modified might be an adequate vehicle of minerals like iron and could be used for fortifying gluten-free cookies.

Keywords: porous starches, iron, biscuits, in vitro digestion.

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MULTI-MYCOTOXIN ANALYSIS IN NUTS PRODUCTS USING ULTRA-HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY COUPLED TO ORBITRAP HIGH RESOLUTION MASS SPECTROMETRY A. Narváez1, Y. Rodríguez-Carrasco2, L. Castaldo1, L. Izzo1, A. Ritieni1 1

Department of Pharmacy, University of Naples “Federico II”, Via Domenico Montesano

49, 80131 Naples, Italy. 2Laboratory of Food Chemistry and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Valencia, Av. Vicent Andrés Estellés s/n, Burjassot, València 46100, Spain alfonso.narvaezsimon@unina.it

Nuts are rich sources of unsaturated fatty acids and proteins that include different edible seeds, but almonds (Prunus dulcis), walnuts (Juglans regia) and pistachios (Pistacia vera) stand as the most popular ones. The annual production of nuts rose up to 47% over the last decade as a consequence of its popularity in current diets. Therefore, the uptrend of nuts production demands high quality standards that ensure a safe consumption. Since nuts are matrices susceptible to fungal growth, mycotoxins could be potentially present in ready-to-eat products. Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by several fungi genera such as Fusarium, Aspergillus and Alternaria, among others, and can exert severe adverse health effects in humans. Although current legislation only regulates aflatoxins in nuts, different mycotoxins could also be expected. Hence, the aim of this work was to develop a QuEChERS- based extraction followed by an UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap HRMS analysis in order to quantify twenty mycotoxins in ready-to-eat almonds (n = 17), pistachios (n = 15) and walnuts (n = 22). Results showed the presence of at least one mycotoxin in thirty-four out of the fifty-four samples (63%). Almond samples contained diverse Fusarium mycotoxins, being alpha-zearalanol the most prevalent one ranging from 3.7 to 4.5 ng/g (mean concentration = 3.9 ng/g). Aflatoxin B1 was also found in one sample at 0.45 ng/g, but under the established limit (2 ng/g). Similarly, pistachios samples resulted to be extensively contaminated by several Fusarium mycotoxins, remarking the occurrence of betazearalenol in concentrations from 1.0 up to 8.6 ng/g (mean concentration = 3.4 ng/g). Lastly, walnuts samples showed a wider variety of toxins, with frequent presence of alternariol ranging from 0.3 to 1.6 ng/g (mean concentration = 0.7 ng/g). The results obtained highlights the occurrence of several mycotoxins in ready-to-eat nuts products that should be taken into consideration for exposur assessment.

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AN ASSESSMENT OF TOCOPHEROL ACCUMULATION DURING MATURATION AND POSTHARVEST STORAGE OF CITRUS

F. Rey, M.J. Rodrigo & L. Zacarías

Instituto de Agroquímica y Tecnología de Alimentos-CSIC (Carrer Catedrático Agustín Escardino Benlloch, 7. Valencia, España). floreyrob@iata.csic.es

Tocopherols are lipid-soluble molecules belonging to the chemical group of tocochromanols and, together with tocotrienols, constitute vitamin E compounds. These compounds are potent antioxidants and play essential functions in human nutrition. According to the degree of methylation four subforms are distinguished: ζ-, β-, γ- and α-tocopherol, being α-tocopherol the most active form of vitamin E. Although the pathway of vitamin E biosynthesis and key genes of main steps have been recently dilucidated in model plants, its biosynthesis and accumulation in Citrus fruits remain unexplored. The aim of this work was to initiate a physiological and molecular characterization of tocopherol biosynthesis in Citrus fruits. To that end, changes in tocopherol accumulation in flavedo and pulp during maturation of fruits of main Citrus species: lemon (Citrus limon), orange (C. sinensis), mandarin (C. reticulata), grapefruit (C. paradisi) and pummelo (C. maxima), were determined. Moreover, it is well known that different stress conditions might enhance vitamin E biosynthesis to prevent plant tissues from oxidative damage. Then, the potential role of tocopherol accumulation in the response of Citrus fruit to postharvest cold storage (2ºC) and in the susceptibility to develop chilling injury symptoms was also studied. γ- and α-tocopherols were detected in fruit tissues of all the species analyzed, but α-tocopherol was the most abundant subform. Tocopherol content was always higher in the flavedo than in the pulp and their levels were maintained or increased during maturation whereas in the pulp decreased. Differences in tocopherol content were also detected among species (and cultivars within a specie), but the accumulation pattern in both tissues during fruit maturation were similar. Transcriptional changes in the expression of relevant genes involved in the biosynthetic pathway such as VTE2, methyltransferases VTE3 and VTE4, and tocopherol cyclase VTE1 in tissues of the selected species will be also presented and discussed.

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EXTRACTION, OPTIMIZATION AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF PECTIN FROM WATERMELON RINDS

D.A. Mendez, M.J. Fabra, A. Martinez-Abad, A. Lopez-Rubio

Food Safety and Preservation Department, IATA-CSIC, Avda. Agustín Escardino 7, 46980 Paterna, Valencia, Spain daamendezre@unal.edu.co

Considering the high amounts of agricultural residues and the increasing interest to valorize them, different ways to obtain interesting compounds have been promoted. Watermelon rinds have a high potential as a source of pectin, considering their carbohydrate content as its main compound. Pectins are polysaccharides extensively used in the food and pharmaceutical industry as gelling, thickening and stabilizing agents, among others. Likewise, their implicit properties can be different depending on the source, extraction process, and chemical modifications, making it a versatile polymer with a high potential for different applications. In this study, the effect of pectin extraction from watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) waste fruit rinds was investigated. The extraction parameters (constant solid-liquid ratio (1:20 g/ml), temperature (70-95 ºC), time (30-90 min) and pH (1-3), were optimized using a three factor, three level Box-Behnken response surface design and validated at the optimum point based on yield. The responses evaluated were yield (Y%), esterification degree (DE%), anhydrouronic acid (AUA%), methoxy content (MeO%), carbohydrate content and molecular weight. FTIR analysis was performed to characterize the different pectins obtained. The pectin yields obtained from the different extractions ranged between 2.03% and 12.19%. Maximum yield was obtained at 95 ºC, 90 min and pH 2 conditions. The models were satisfactory adjusted to the responses with an insignificant lack of fit test value p>0.05, and R 2 of 97.91%, 99.55%, 90.24%, 92.62%, and 99.31%, for Y%, DE%, MeO%, AUA%, and Mw respectively. FTIR displayed the bands ascribed to the functional pectin groups, thus confirming that the main compound was pectin, and could also be used to verify the purity of the extracts. The models showed a good correlation with the experimental data and were confirmed with validation experiments, thus supporting their use to adapt the extraction conditions to obtain different types of pectins, depending on the intended application.

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BIOPRESERVATIĂ“N OF TOMATOES AND ORANGES WITH ACID LACTIC BACTERIA

V. Dopazo, C. Luz, G. Meca

Laboratory of Food Chemistry and Toxicology. Faculty of Pharmacy. University of Valencia. Spain. dotavic@uv.es

Fungal contamination in food is becoming one of the major concerns for the industry, because of fungi ability to affect in every step of the food production. Nowadays synthetic compounds are being used to protect the food from the contamination, but those substances are harmful for humans therefore there is a growing trend of investigating safer techniques of preservation like the use of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). In this research 9 LAB were tested against fungi from Aspergillus, Alternaria, Fusarium and Penicillium genera by overlay, agar diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration-minimum fungicidal concentration (MIC-MFC) methods. Furthermore, an identification of antifungal and enzymatic compounds was performed on MRS fermented by the LAB strains. Finally, the biopreservation capability of the most active LAB fermented mediums was tested in tomatoes inoculated with P. expansum and A. flavus also for oranges inoculated with P. expansum and P. digitatum. Results shown MIC ranged from 1.6-100 mg/mL and MFC from 3.1-100 mg/mL. Lactobacillus plantarum TR-7 and Lactobacillus plantarum TR-71 strains were overall the most active against the fungi tested. The study of the enzymatic activities from the fermented mediums identified leucine arylamidase and valine arylamidase activities, related to mycotoxin degradation. Fermented mediums also contained antifungal compounds like acetic acid, different phenolic acids and pyrazines in significant concentrations. Tomatoes inoculated with P. expansum and treated with fermented medium shown a decrease in the fungal grow of 1.98 and 3.89 log10 spores per gram of tomato for Bn17 and Bn16 respectively compared to a MRS control. In oranges treated with fermented medium and inoculated with P. digitatum at day 34 a reduction of 50% of the fungal grown was achieved by both treatments compared to the control. Nevertheless, no biopreservative activity was obtained for tomatoes inoculated with A. flavus and oranges with P. expansum.

Keywords: LAB, fungi, antifungal activity, fermented medium.

36


THE SUITABILITY OF POTATO CHIPS INDUSTRY BY-PRODUCTS FOR BIOBASED THERMOPLASTICS PRODUCTION P. Brites1, G. Oliveira1, I. Vilarinho1, I. Gonçalves1, C. Nunes1, P. Ferreira2, M. A. Coimbra3 1

CICECO – Aveiro Institute of Materials, Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, 3810

193, Aveiro, Portugal; 2CICECO – Aveiro Institute of Materials, Department of Materials and Ceramic Engineering, University of Aveiro, 3810-193, Aveiro, Portugal; 3LAQV-REQUIMTE, Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, 3810-193, Aveiro, Portugal paulodavid@ua.pt

Starch, when dispersed in water and exposed to temperature conditions, gelatinizes and originates thermoplastic materials, offering potential to be used on bioplastics production (1). Nevertheless, it generates brittle and hydrophilic materials. In this work, the influence of waxes and oil content on the relative humidity, melt tenacity, mechanical, and wettability properties of thermoplastic starch-based formulations was studied. Starch, waxes, and oil were recovered from potato washing slurries, potato peels, and frying residues, respectively. Both starch/waxes and starch/oil compounds show higher humidity content than the control samples. Low concentration of waxes increases in twofold the melt flow rate (MFR) of thermoplastic starch, promoting its fluidity. Contrarily, the highest waxes amount studied decreases the formulations MFR, leading to more rigid materials. With oil, an opposite behaviour was observed. When submitted to injection moulding process, both starch/waxes and starch/oil specimens show higher elasticity and stretchability than the control samples, while maintaining their tensile strength. Moreover, the addition of waxes or oil increases the surface hydrophobicity of starch-based formulations. Starch/waxes and starch/oil formulations appear as a promising approach to develop biobased materials with improved mechanical performance and water tolerance, offering a strategy to simultaneously valorise potato chips industry by-products.

1. O. Martin, E. Schwach, L. Averous, Y. Couturier, Starch- Stärke, 2001, 53, 372;

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EFFECT OF HYDROCOLLOIDS ON STARCH SUBJECTED TO THERMAL TREATMENTS

M. Santamaria, R. Garzon, C.M. Rosell

C/ Agustín Escardino, 7. Paterna-Valencia (Instituto de Agroquímica y Tecnología de Alimentos) España. crosell@iata.csic.es

To meet consumers demands of convenience foods, freezing/thawing processes are frequently applied to control the crystallization and recrystallization of ice. Nevertheless, those physical technologies might affect food constituents. Starch is a very common food constituent, particularly in bakery products, because of that it results of great interest to understand starch behavior when suggested to freezing/thawing. At the same time, hydrocolloids are additives extensively used to manage water migration. The aim of this study has been to evaluate the impact of diverse hydrocolloids of food grade, on the starch properties when subjected to thermal treatments. The effect of different gums (xanthan gum, guar gum, hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose) on wheat starch was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and it was used to study the thermal transitions. The starch gelatinization was delayed by the hydrocolloids tested. Guar gum and xanthan gum decreased the temperature of vitreous transition, and increased the freezing enthalpy. The thermal properties of wheat starch were modified, therefore the study confirmed that the hydrocolloids evaluated affected the starch functionality, but further studies are needed to understand their effect in more complex matrixes.

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WHAT IS TWEETED ON “GLUTEN-FREE”? A CO-OCCURRENCE NETWORK APPROACH P. Puerta1, L. Laguna1, L. Vidal2, G. Ares2, S. Fiszman1, A. Tárrega1 1

Institute of Agrochemistry and Food Technology (IATA-CSIC), Spain 2Instituto Polo

Tecnológico de Pando, Facultad de Química, Universidad de la República, Uruguay ppuerta@iata.csic.es

A growing demand for gluten-free products has been observed among both celiac and nonceliac consumers. The use of social networks could present a new way to explore consumers’ opinions and perceptions towards these products. Among social media platforms, Twitter has become one of the most popular and dynamic microblogging services, having the potential to provide spontaneous and direct opinions from users about a given topic. In this context, the objective of this work was to analyse the content of messages posted on Twitter regarding “gluten-free” using co-occurrence networks. A total of 16386 tweets in Spanish containing the terms “sin-gluten” and “gluten-free” were collected with rtweet package from R software. The content of the tweets was analysed in terms of co-occurrences using VOSviewer software, which creates semantic networks showing clearly the most cited terms and their connections. The networks obtained revealed that users mainly share information about products, occasions, social situations and places, and also related to product characteristics, sensations, diet and health. Five product categories, which are critical for the lack of gluten in their composition (bread, cake, cookie, beer and pizza), were importantly mentioned in the tweets. In general, these gluten-free products were differently associated to recommendations about how and where to get them (recipes, ingredients, brands, supermarkets and restaurants). These results showed that the analysis of tweets content by means of co-occurrence networks was suitable for providing insights into what consumers freely express regarding gluten-free on Twitter.

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DIPLOTAXIS ERUCOIDES, NEW COOKING CONCEPT J. Clemente-Villalba1, D. Ariza2, J. M. García-Garví1, P. Sánchez-Bravo1, L. Lipan1, L. NogueraArtiaga1, F. Hernández3, Á. A. Carbonell-Barrachina1 1

Universidad Miguel Hernández de Elche (UMH), Escuela Politécnica Superior de Orihuela

(EPSO), Department of Agro-Food Technology, Research Group ‘Food Quality and Safety’, Ctra. Beniel, km 3.2, 03312-Orihuela, Alicante, Spain; 2David Ariza Freeland Cook; 3UMH, EPSO, Department of Plant Science and Microbiology, Research Group “Plant Production and Technology” jesus.clemente@hotmail.com

WEP (wild edible plant) refers to plants that grow without human action and use only natural resources. Diplotaxis erucoides is a WEP of the Brassicaceae family, growing as weed in Europa in the Mediterranean region. It contains glucosinolates, which are hydrolyzed by myrosinase rendering isothiocyanates; these compounds are responsible for its characteristic aroma and flavor, similar to that of mustard or wasabi. The aim of this study was to characterize Diplotaxis erucoides plant through volatile, sugar, organic acid profile and descriptive sensory analysis to develop sustainable and healthier alternatives than commercial mustard and wasabi. Two Diplotaxis erucoides products were prepared (i) cream and mayonnaise. Allyl isothiocyanate represented more than 80% of the total content of volatile compound. The sugar and organic acid content of Diplotaxis and its base products was very low respect to commercial mustards and wasabis. In the sensory analysis of the Diplotaxis-base dishes, it is was characterized as lacking intensity of spicy; this was due to the myrosinase activity decreases as the temperature increases. In addition, Diplotaxis-base dishes had a high intensity of aftertaste, herbaceous taste and intense odor/aroma of Diplotaxis. Diplotaxis erucoides could be a sustainable and healthy substitute for commercial wasabi and mustards, due to the taste is similar to commercial products and the sugar content is much lower,

Keywords: allyl isothiocyanate, glucosinolate, mustard, pungency, wasabi

40


SUPPLEMENTATION WITH CHIA FLOUR IN STARCH FORMULATIONS AS NUTRITIONAL STRATEGY FOR GLUCOSE HOMEOSTASIS CONTROL R. Selma-Gracia1,2, C.M. Haros1, J.M. Laparra2 1

Institute of Agrochemistry and Food Technology (IATA-CSIC), Av. Agustín Escardino 7 Parque Científico, 46980 Paterna-Valencia, Spain 2Molecular Immunonutrition Group. Nutrition Precision in Cancer Unit. Madrid Institute for Advanced Studies in Food (IMDEA Food), Madrid, Spain moises.laparra@imdea.org

Control of glucose homeostasis is of great interest preventing major risk factors and pathological manifestations in worldwide nutrient-associated metabolic diseases. For example, raw maize starch intake is the only nutritional therapeutic option for glycogen storage disease patients. However, this approach provides optimal glucose levels in variable time frame. In this sense, recent of our own research has shown positive effects of quinoa starch improving glucose release as well as benefits from defined ingredients found in chia’s flour (i.e., protease inhibitors or mucilage content) influencing the kinetics of glucose release. The use of simulated gastrointestinal digestion methods coupled to bicameral systems have been proved effective to characterize differences in nutrient release allowing to obtain apparent diffusion coefficients (Dapp) with physiological implications. This study compared the kinetic of glucose release from quinoa starch and maize. The specific structural features (amylose/amylopectin content, granule size) of quinoa starch favoured a 2-fod higher Dapp than maize favouring an increased amount of available glucose for absorption. Inclusion of flour from chia significantly delayed glucose diffusion from quinoa (by 30%), but did not affect that from maize starch, reducing glucose availability by 18%. Collectively, these data suggest allowing us to hypothesize a more physiological control of insulin peaks after quinoa starch intake. In conclusion, these studies open the door to develop new formulations for extending normoglycaemia for patients suffering disorders affecting glucose homeostasis tailoring nutritional intervention strategies.

Keywords: Glucose homeostasis · Maize · Quinoa · Chia · Starch

41


EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN OF LACTIC ACID BACTERIA FERMENTED WHEY DIGESTION AND IN VITRO INTESTINAL ABSORPTION MODEL

C. Feito, E. Romano, C. Luz, R. Torrijos, G. Meca, L. Manyes, L. Escrivá

Laboratory of Food Chemistry and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Valencia, Burjassot, Spain. cefei@alumni.uv.es

Microbial fermentations have long represented a way of natural biopreservation of raw materials. The use of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains origins bioactive compounds, such as organic and phenolic acids, peptides and bacteriocins that, released during human gastrointestinal digestion, have antifungal, antimicrobial, antioxidant, cardioprotective, immunomodulatory and anticancer activity. The objective of this study is to design a digestion and absorption experimental model to evaluate the bioaccesibility and in vitro bioavailability of bioactive compounds present in LAB fermented whey. To determine bioaccesibility, a simulated gastrodigestion system that reproduces the physiological conditions of the mouth, stomach and intestine is used. 10 ml of control or fermented whey extract are mixed with 6 ml of artificial saliva (KCl, KSCN, NaH2PO4, Na2SO4, NaCl, NaHCO3, urea, α-amylase, mucin; pH=6.8), 0.5 g of pepsin solution (1 g pepsin, 25 ml HCl 0.1N) and 80 ml of distilled water, and incubated 2h (37.5°C, slight agitation, pH=2). The resulting gastric digest is mixed with 1.25 g of pancreatin/bile salts solution (0.1g pancreatin, 0.625 g, 25 ml NaHCO3 0.1N) and incubated 2h (37.5°C, slight agitation, pH=6.5). The obtained intestinal gastric digest (pH=7.2) is centrifuged and the supernatant is frozen (-80°C) for lyophilization prior liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. The bioavailability of previously purified bioactive compounds from fermented whey extract is evaluated by a validated in vitro model of intestinal epithelium. Caco- 2 cells will be cultured (225000 cells/well) and differentiated in Transwell plates until complete development of the barrier function (≈day 21), verified by the daily measurement of transepithelial electrical resistance. Then, purified compounds are added to the apical area of the in vitro system. Both the apical and basolateral fractions are collected at different times (0, 1, 2, 3, 4h) and analyzed by LCMS/ MS to determine the fraction of bioactive compounds that potentially cross the intestinal barrier. Keywords: fermentation, lactic acid bacteria, digestion model, bioaccesibility, bioavailability in vitro. This work was supported by Generalitat Valenciana PROMETEO project (CPI-18-342) and grant (GVPROMETEO2018-126). 42


HOW CONSUMERS UNDERSTAND THE CONCEPT OF SUSTAINABILITY?

P. Sánchez-Bravo1, E. Chambers V2, L. Noguera-Artiaga1, E. Sendra3, E. Chambers IV2, Á. A. Carbonell-Barrachina1. 1

Department of Agro-Food Technology, Research Group "Food Quality and Safety, CSA”.

Miguel Hernández University of Elche. Carretera de Beniel, km 3.2, 03312 Orihuela, Alicante, Spain. 2Center for Sensory Analysis and Consumer Behavior, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, 66502, United States. 3Department of Agro-Food Technology, Research Group "Industrialization of Food from Animal Origin, IPOA”. Miguel Hernández University of Elche. Carretera de Beniel, km 3.2, 03312 Orihuela, Alicante, Spain. paola.sanchezb@umh.es Water is the most essential resource for food production and socioeconomic development worldwide. Currently, industry and agriculture are the most water consuming activities, yielding water stress in crops, high level of pollution in certain countries, and intensifying the scarcity of water in areas where its use is not sustainable. For this reason, the concept of hydroSOStainablility is becoming popular. This term defines those products grown under irrigation strategies that involve optimized water management for crops irrigation, as for example, regulated deficit irrigation. Besides, consumers are increasingly demanding foods produced under sustainable practices and they aim to get involved in the process of enhancing food sustainability. Under such premises, a study was carried out with more than 3600 consumers in 6 countries (Brazil, China, India, Mexico, Spain and USA). Participants were asked questions organized into different levels: general sustainability, water sustainability, and sustainability of different food categories. Furthermore, consumers were asked about a logo development for hydroSOStainable products. In general, results showed that consumers thought that a sustainable product is “environmental friendly”, “healthier”, has “few chemicals” in their production, and “have better quality”. More than 30% of US and Spain consumers were not willing to pay more for sustainable products. This percentage decreased to 20% in China, Mexico, and Brazil and was lowest in India (~14%). In all countries, consumers think that the food categories in which during their growing/making it is possible to save more water are “grains and grains products” and “vegetables, nuts and beans”. On the other hand, consumers do not associate processed products with significant water consumption. The logo was positively rated by consumers. Thus, it was found that it is necessary to inform consumers on the real impact of water consumption and to provide confidence in the hydroSOS brand. Keywords: water footprint; hydroSOS; environmental friendly; food categories; consumers behavior.

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ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF TRICHODERMA STRAIN AND THEIR METABOLITES PRODUCTS C. Stracquadanio1, G. Magnano di San Lio1, S.O. Cacciola2 and G. Meca3. 1

Department of Agricultural Science, Mediterranean University of Reggio Calabria, Localitá

Feo di Vito, 89122, Reggio Calabria, Italy. 2Department of Agriculture Food and Environment, University of Catania, V. S. Sofia 100, 95123, Catania, Italy. 3Departemento de Medicina Preventiva, Facultat de Farmacia, Universitat de Valencia, Av. Vicent Andrés Estellés s/n, 46100, Burjassot, Valencia, Spain. claudia.stracquadanio@unirc.it

Trichoderma spp. are used as biocontrol agents against pathogen of plants. The antagonistic properties are based on the activation of multiple mechanisms such us mycoparasitism, production of antibiotics and hydrolytic enzymes, competition for nutrients. The antagonistic ability was evaluated by dual culture assay. Especially, two methods were followed. In the first method, a plug of Trichoderma was placed at the periphery of the PDA plates, another plug of the same size of the fungal pathogen was also placed at the periphery in the opposing end of the same Petri dish. In the second method, plugs of pathogen and antagonist were placed into double Petri dishes, in the same condition of the first method; this second method assesses the possibility of inhibition due to the volatile substances produced by Trichoderma. The percentage inhibitory of radial growth (PIRG) was determined. The liquid culture of Trichoderma strains were extracted with ethyl acetate and they were tested against pathogens with disk diffusion test at different concentrations (0, 1, 10, 25, 50 and 100 mg/ml) after 48 h it was measured the inhibition zone. Also the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration and the Minimum Fungicidal Concentration (MIC & MFC) were evaluated. Each Trichoderma isolate inhibited the radial mycelial growth into all pathogens. The PIRG obtained values of 67 and 75 % for the first method, but the second method doesn’t show inhibition on all pathogens tested. So, this proves that the inhibition is not due to the secretion of volatile substances. The inhibition zone is visible on all pathogens and it is greater with increasing concentration, in some cases exceeding 25 mm. These results were confirmed by the MIC & MFC values, with values ranged from 0.09 to 3.13 mg/ml and from 0.78 to 6.25 mg/ml for MIC and MFC, respectively.

Keywords: Trichoderma, metabolites, biological control

44


BIOACTIVE EXTRACTS FROM POSIDONIA OCEANICA WASTE BIOMASS. COMPARISON BETWEEN WATER-BASED AND ORGANIC-SOLVENT EXTRACTIONS I. Benito-González1, A. López-Rubio1, A. Martínez-Abad2, A.R. Ballester3, I. Falcó1,4, L. González-Candelas3, G. Sánchez1, M. Martínez-Sanz1 1

Food Safety and Preservation Department, IATA-CSIC, Calle Agustín Escardino Benlloch 7, 46980 Paterna, Valencia, Spain. 2Department of Analytical Chemistry, Nutrition and Food Sciences, University of Alicante, 03690 San Vicente del Raspeig, Alicante, Spain. 3Food

Biotechnology Department, Calle Catedrático Agustín Escardino Benlloch 7, 46980, Paterna, Valencia, Spain. 4Microbiology and Ecology Department, University of Valencia. Avda. Dr. Moliner, 50. 46100 Burjassot. Valencia, Spain isaacbg@iata.csic.es

Posidonia oceanica waste biomass has been valorised to produce extracts by means of different methodologies and their bioactive properties have been evaluated. Water-based extracts were produced using ultrasound-assisted and hot water methods and classified according to their ethanol-affinity (E1: ethanol-soluble; E2: non-soluble). Moreover, a conventional Soxhlet protocol with organic solvents (toluene:ethanol) was applied, yielding E3 extracts. Compositional and structural characterization confirmed that while E1 and E3 extracts were mainly composed of minerals and lipids, respectively, E2 extracts were a mixture of minerals, proteins and carbohydrates (mainly glucose, xylose, galacturonic acid and galactose). All the extracts showed remarkably high antioxidant capacity, as determined by ABTS (>200 µmol TE/ g extract) and β-carotene bleaching assays (with remarkable bleaching inhibition, which is especially relevant for food by-products). This was not only related to the presence of phenolic compounds in the extracts but also to effect of proteins and polysaccharides. All E2 and E3 extracts inhibited the growth of several foodborne fungi such as Penicillum digitatum and Botrytis cinerea, while only E3 extracts decreased substantially the infectivity of feline calicivirus and murine norovirus. These results show the potential of P. oceanica waste biomass for the production of bioactive extracts with interest for the development of bioactive food ingredients.

45


TRANSCRIPTIONAL APPROACH ON MYCOTOXINS AND CAROTENOIDS EFFECTS IN THE MITOCHONDRIA OF THE BLOOD BRAIN BARRIER IN VITRO

M. Alonso-Garrido, V. Ghisi, L. Manyes.

Laboratory of Food Chemistry and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Valencia, Spain. Pumpkim “Delica� (Cucurbita maxima) is well known for its high concentration on carotenoids, its dietary benefits and antioxidant activity. Mycotoxins are common toxins present in food and feed with an extended toxicity profile in humans and animals. Carotenoids and mycotoxins accumulate in a wide range of tissues and organs and both possess the capability to penetrate the blood brain barrier. Previous transcriptional studies on aflatoxins and enniatins, individually and combined with pumpkin extract on human differentiated epithelial cells ECV 304 at 2h exposure, showed an overall protective effect of carotenoids for mitochondrial genes expression. Based on these data, ochratoxin A, zeralenone, beauvericin and enniatins (individually and combined) and joint exposure to pumpkin extract were tested. Treatments were designed as follows: (a) treated cells only with mycotoxin mixtures (100 nM each mycotoxin), (b) with pumpkin extract (500 nM) and mycotoxin mixtures (100 nM), (c) non-treated and (d) pumpkin extract treated cells. Global results confirmed protection of the mitochondria by carotenoids in individual mycotoxin treatments, while mycotoxin mixes did not show a clear pattern. In conclusion, carotenoids generally antagonize mycotoxins, protecting the mitochondria and thus the brain by slowing down the blood brain barrier degeneration and protecting against neurodegenerative diseases.

Keywords: qPCR, blood brain barrier, ECV 304, mycotoxins, carotenoids.

Acknowledgements: This work was supported by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation (AGL2016-77610-R and BES-2017-081328).

46


INK OF OCTOPUS (OCTOPUS VULGARIS) LIKE A SOURCE OF ANTICANCER COMPOUNDS: ANTI-PROLIFERATIVE / PRO-APOPTOSIS AND ANTIINFLAMMATORY POTENTIAL M.S. Hernandez-Zazueta1, Á.A. Carbonell-Barrachina2, P. Taboada-Antelo3, E.C. Rosas-Burgos1, J.M. Ezquerra-Bauer1, J.S. Garcia-Romo1, R. Campos-Vega5, I. Luzardo-Ocampo5, M. G. Burboa-Zazueta4, H.S. Santacruz-Ortega7, A. Burgos-Hernández1 1

83000 Sonora (Department of Research and Postgraduate in Food, University of Sonora) Mexico.

2

03312 Alicante (Department of Agrifood Technology, University of Miguel Hernandez de Elche) España.

3

15782 Santiago de Compostela (Department of Particle Physics, University of Santiago de Compostela) España. 483000 Sonora (Department of Scientific and Technological Research, University of Sonora) Mexico. 576010 Santiago de Querétaro, Querétaro (Department of Chemistry. The Autonomous University of Querétaro) Mexico. 783000 Sonora (Department of Polymers and Materials Research, University of Sonora) Mexico. martinlife95@gmail.com This study was to take advantage of the fishing by-products, where compounds have been identified

as a product of the secondary metabolism of marine organisms with potential pharmacological application, especially against chronic degenerative diseases, such as cancer. For its search, the isolation and characterization of the main compounds present in the freeze-dried octopus (Octopus vulgaris) ink were performed, showed an anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative/pro-apoptotic response. To achieve this, biological assays with colorimetric (spectrophotometer) and fluorometric (microscopy and flow cytometry) techniques were used, and for chemical / structural elucidation, chromatographic (liquid-liquid phase transfer, open column and TLC) and spectrophotometric (FT-IR, 1H-RMN, 13C-RMN and MS-MS) techniques to determinate selected compounds were performed. The results exhibited that, a compound (present in a fraction eluted with Hex/AcOEt) showed an IC50 of 47 μg/mL on nitric oxide production in LPS-stimulated macrophage cells; the evaluation of inflammatory proteins modulation (Mouse Cytokine Array Panel A, Proteome Profiler, Antibody Array, R&D Systems), suggest a down-regulation of different cytokine implicated in the pro-inflammatory response (IL-2, IL-7, IL-16, IL-23 and CCL-17), and addition on the NF-kB protein complex. Especially, this interaction with membrane proteins (IL-23 receptors) was linked to be observed (on the basis of microscopic fluorescence) in colon and prostate cancer cells were treated with the same compounds (at its GI50 of 52 and 27 μg/mL, respectively), exhibiting a morphological membrane changes (apoptotic bodies and evidence damage in DNA and Factin polymerization) concerning cellular collapse into the first 4 h after the treatment; also, this is confirmed, revealed percentages pro-apoptosis against both cancer cell lines (in and Annexin V/IP

test). However, 1H and

13

C NMR, FT-IR and MS-MS analysis suggested the presence of

compounds with sterol base and cyclic ester type. Consequently, it’s proposed to keep investigate this type of compounds as possible drugs in the treatment of degenerative diseases. 47


IMPACT OF LOW PRESSURES HOMOGENIZATION ON THE PHYSICOCHEMICAL AND RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF RICE FLOUR S. Boulemkahel1,2, E. Betoret1, L. Benatallah2 & C.M. Rosell1 1

Institute of Agrochemistry and Food Technology (IATA/CSIC), C/Agustin Escardino, 7, Paterna 46980, Valencia, Spain. 2Laboratoire de Génie Agro-Alimentaire, Institut de la Nutrition, de

l'Alimentation et des Technologies Agroalimentaires (INATAA), Université des Frères Mentouri Constantine 1, 325 Route de Ain El Bey, Constantine 25017, Algérie Boulemkahel.souad@gmail.com

Physical treatments of raw materials are seen as environmentally friendly alternatives for modulating functional features of food ingredients. Homogenization at low pressures allows the reduction of the solid particles into smaller particles.

It has been demonstrated that this

technology can modify the properties of a large number of molecules by modifying their ability to interact with a tissue or compound, and consequently influencing its stability. The objective of our study was to investigate the effect of low homogenization pressures (0, 30 and 50 MPa) and the number of passes (0, 1, 2 and 3 passes) on physico-chemical and rheological properties of long rice flour (cv Basmati). Particle size distribution, bulk density, water holding capacity, oil absorption capacity, thiol groups content and pasting properties have been determined. The homogenization pressures reduced effectively the particle size distribution and the bulk density of rice flour samples. The application of homogenization pressures increased the water holding capacity of samples. The oil absorption capacity and thiol groups content of homogenized samples increased with homogenization pressures compared to untreated samples. Pasting properties of samples under different treatment conditions decreased with the application of homogenization pressures. The effect of number of passes on the properties of rice flour was different depending on the pressure applied. The application of low homogenization pressures led to the disintegration and modification of the large molecules, increasing availability of binding sites, and partial gelatinization of starch granules, leading to flours with different performances. Overall results confirm the potential of low homogenization pressures for modifying rice flour properties, and in consequence its further application.

48


POSTERS FOOD CHEMISTRY/ANALYSIS

49


DETERMINATION OF BENZOATE AND SORBATE IN SAUCES BY HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY S. Ballester1, C. Honrubia2, Y. MartĂ­n3 1

Food Science and Technology Student, 2Gastronomic Science Student, 3Department of Analytical Chemistry. Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Valencia, Spain. bagosa@alumni.uv.es

Sorbic acid (E200) and benzoic acid (E210), as well as their salts, are widely used as food preservatives to protect from biological alterations by inhibiting the growth of molds and yeasts. Their combined addition in sauces is used to take advantage of their synergistic effect and to reduce the added concentration of both compounds. Chromatography is a technique widely used in the determination of additives due to its great specificity and sensitivity. The objective of this work is the determination of sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate in different sauces by liquid chromatography, using a C18 stationary phase, after their assisted extraction with ultrasound, centrifugation and filtration. For the optimization of chromatographic separation, different mobile phase compositions were tested. The mobile phase acetate buffer (pH 4.2)/acetonitrile 75:25 allowed the rapid separation of sorbic and benzoic acids in less than 5 min. In the extraction of the analytes from different samples (BBQ, cocktail, yogurt and brava sauces) different extraction and centrifugation times were tested, as well as different options to carry out the pre-injection filtration into the chromatograph. Finally, the recommended procedure consisted in weighing 5 g of the sample, introducing it in an ultrasonic bath for 5 minutes and then centrifuging it at 6000 rpm. A portion of the obtained supernatant was then filtered and 20 ÂľL was injected into the chromatograph. The proposed methodology was applied to the analysis of BBQ sauce by the students of Chemical Analysis of the 2nd year of the Degree in Food Science and Technology, as part of their corresponding laboratory classes.

Key words: Additives, sauces, determination, chromatograph

50


A COMPARATION OF QUALITY PARAMETERS AMONG COMMERCIAL TIGER NUT MILK (PDO AND NON-PDO) J. Clemente-Villalba1, P. Hurtado1, H. Issa-Issa1, J. M. García-Garví1, F. Hernández2, Á. A. Carbonell-Barrachina1, M. Cano-Lamadrid1, D. López-Lluch3 1

Universidad Miguel Hernández de Elche (UMH), Escuela Politécnica Superior de Orihuela (EPSO),

Department of Agro-Food Technology, Research Group ‘Food Quality and Safety’, Ctra. Beniel, km 3.2, 03312-Orihuela, Alicante, Spain; 2UMH, EPSO, Department of Plant Science and Microbiology, Research Group “Plant Production and Technology”; 3UMH, EPSO, Departament of Agrienvironmental Economics. jesus.clemente@hotmail.com

Chufa is the sativus botanical variety of Cyperus esculentus L. (Cyperus esculentus L. var. Sativus Boeck). A refreshing drink made from chufa is known as “Horchata de Chufa” (tiger nut milk) which is mainly produced in the province of Valencia (Spain). The major portion of chufa produced in Valencia is typified and commercialized as “Chufa de Valencia” under the Chufa of Valencia Protected Designation of Origin (PDO). The aim of this study was to characterize the commercial tiger nut milk samples (n = 10) to stablish a comparative among them, and between PDO (n = 5) or non-PDO (n = 5). Volatile composition and sensory analysis (descriptive and hedonic) were performed. PCA with dendrogram and Penalty analysis were used to correlate volatile compounds and sensory analysis with samples. As to volatile compounds, thirteen volatile compounds were isolated. Limonene (mean value = 346 µg·L-1) and benzaldehyde (mean value = 100 µg·L-1) were the majority volatile compounds. It is worth mentioning that no significant differences were observed in PCA correlation of volatiles between PDO and non-PDO samples. In the descriptive sensory analysis there were significant differences in 7 out of the 14 attributes analyzed. The dendrogram shows that there were no differences between PDO and non-PDO samples. After penalty analysis, it was perceived that PDO samples obtained less attributes that could be improved than the non-PDO samples. In this sense, only 40% of PDO samples presented improvement requirements compared to 80% of non-PDO samples. The main conclusion reached in the comparison between samples of tiger nut milk with PDO and non-PDO was that there were no significant differences between the two groups of samples in PCA of volatiles compounds and descriptive sensory analysis; although the results in penalty analysis PDO samples presented higher acceptable sensory attributes than non-DOP samples. Keywords: Cyperus esculentus L., volatile compounds, PDO, PCA, penalty analysis

51


TOMATOS WASTE (SOLANUM LYCOPERSICUM) FORMULATED AS A FUNCTIONAL FOOD ENRICHED WITH TWO STRAINS OF LACTOBACILLUS HOLD PROMISE TO PREVENT THE DIABETES IN A NATURAL WAY

P. Daliu

University "Frederico Secondo", Department of pharmacy, Napoli. patriciadaliu@live.com

Effective utilization of food waste as secondary source for the new product development is an emerging area of interest. Considering the worldwide presence of the tomato processing industry, we proposed to analyze the potential of tomato pomace as source of the bioactive constituents with anti diabetes preventive properties as a strategy to increase the levels of these compounds in the diet. Our point of view has been to evaluate how the fermentation by acid lactic bacteria ( L. Plantarum and L. Rhamnosus, ) could improve the available amount of lycopene since, as shown by recent literature, it exists a relationship between gut microbiota lactobacillus and type two diabetes condition. An alfa amylase inhibitory assay was performed with the tomatos peels extract and moreover on Oral Glucose tolerance test (OGGT ) was conducted in human. The results obtained regarding the glycemic profile showed good activity of the tomatoes pomace compared with the control (only 20 mL of glucose standard), at 90 and 120 min from the load, which on average decreased from 100.8 mg / dL to 82.2 mg / dL. In addition data obtained by HPLC-DAD present as how fermentation can improve the lycopen content (0.55 mg/g) by comparing the result with the control (extraction without fermentation) which was 0.05 mg/g. The maximum inhibition activity of Îą-amylase was observed at 250 Îźg/ml concentration at nearly 78,5 %. Controlling diabetes by natural food without side effects is a challenge but all this synergic evidence hold positive promise in the future.

Keywords: tomatos waste, functional food, diabetes, gut microbiota.

52


PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF FOUR ROUND AND FOUR PEAR CHERRY TOMATO J.M. García-Garví1, J. Clemente-Villalba1, H. Issa-Issa1, F. Hernández2, A.A. Carbonell-Barrachina1 1

Universidad Miguel Hernández de Elche (UMH). Escuela Politécnica Superior de Orihuela (EPSO). Departamento Tecnología Agroalimentaria. Grupo “Calidad y Seguridad Alimentaria” (CSA).

Carretera de Beniel, km 3.2. 03312-Orihuela, Alicante, España; 2UMH, EPSO, Department of Plant Science and Microbiology, Research Group “Plant Production and Technology”. josemiguel.garcia.gavi@gmail.com

Tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) is one of top ten crops with mayor production in the world, being Spain is the eighth world producer. Tomato is a very appreciate fruit due to its content of potassium, phosphorus, Vitamin C, and its antioxidant capacity (mainly due to lycopene, natural carotenoid responsible of characteristically red color on tomato). One of the most consumes varieties is lycopersicum var. cerasiforme, known as cherry or cocktail tomato, especially for its small size that makes it perfect to use in salad or fittings. The aim of this study was characterizing and compare eight varieties of tomato, four pear varieties (Seychelles, Angelle, Santiplum and Dolcetini) and four round varieties (Katalina, Sweet star, C-95 and Karelya) by analyzing different morphological parameters, volatile composition, sugars and organic acids. In the analysis of volatile compounds, where aldehydes were the chemical group with the highest number of compounds contributes, differences in 2-isobutyl thiazole (being higher in Seychelles and C-95) or 1-peten-3-one (typical tomato flavor compounds related with fresh tomato flavor) were found. Despite of morphological differences, concentration of sugars or organic acids was similar between samples. It could be important for industries, in the case of having to make changes between varieties used in manufactured products as sauces.

Keywords: cherry tomato, morphological characteristics, color, titratable acidity, total soluble solids.

53


CALORIC ASSESSMENT ON MENUS IN A UNIVERSITY CAFETERIA

R.A. González-Santana, C. Gómez-Urios, J. Blesa, A. Frígola, M.J. Esteve

Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Food Sciences, Toxicology and Legal Medicine.University of València, Avda Vicent Andrés Estellés, s/n 46100 Burjassot, València. rakel3086@hotmail.com

Overweight and obesity affect a third of the world's population, according to WHO estimates 38% of the world's population will be overweight and another 20% will be obese by 2030. Excessive caloric intake is one of the aspects related to weight gain in Spain and the main caloric intake is made with the midday meal (1). The recipes, the menu and the dishes offered by a university catering service during the meal for 5 days were photographed. The DIAL program was used for the caloric assessment of all possible combinations of starter and main course together with the contribution of bread, desserts (fruit or dairy) and drinks (soda, beer and wine). The assessment was carried out according to the recommendations of Moreiras et al. (2). A total of 54 combinations of dishes are valued together with the average caloric intake of bread, dessert and a caloric intake. As a starter they are served: salads, rice, pasta and legumes; and as a main course: meat, fish, eggs and processed products, with chips or vegetables as a side dish option. Of all the possible combinations and for men and women respectively, 7.4% and 24.1% are in the appropriate range of caloric intake, below 87% and 51.8%, and above 5.6% and 24.1%. The different combinations of dishes result in a caloric intake that does not exceed the recommended requirements, most of the time being below these. The addition of bread, dessert or drinks to the menu can significantly increase the caloric intake.

Keywords: Caloric intake, menu, university.

References: [1] Koliaki et al. (2018), Healthcare,Vol. 6, No. 3, p. 7; [2] Moreiras et al. (2015), Tablas de composición de alimentos. Guía de prácticas, 18ª ed. Madrid: Pirámide, 257-9.

54


OPTIMIZATION OF A METHOD FOR ASSESSING THE POTENTIAL ANTIINFLAMMATORY BIOACTIVITY OF DRY-CURED HAM ACTIVE PEPTIDES ON THP-I HUMAN CELL LINE

A. Heres, L. Mora, V. Devesa and F. Toldrá

Instituto de Agroquímica y Tecnología de Alimentos (CSIC), Avenue Agustín Escardino 7, 46980, Paterna (Valencia), Spain. alejandergo@iata.csic.es

Inflammation is part of the host immune defense mechanism against biological, chemical and physical agents that affects a local area of injury or infection and promotes the tissue recovery. However, uncontrolled production of pro-inflammatory molecules leads to tissue damage and loss of immune function. Chronical inflammatory conditions, such as inflammatory bowel diseases, are frequently related to obesity, type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular pathologies, which are leading causes of mortality worldwide. Activated macrophages are the major source of free radicals that releases proinflammatory cytokines in order to initiate the inflammatory response and unspecifically combat microbial invaders. Notwithstanding, it has been demonstrated that natural food compounds such as active peptides, fatty acids, sterols or polyphenols, can act as nutraceuticals, palliating these proinflammatory tendencies. Specifically, dry-cured ham peptides, generated along processing and gastrointestinal digestion, have shown to display antihypertensive, antioxidant, antidiabetic and hypocholesterolemic bioactivities, among others. Recently, it has been demonstrated that peptides generated in Spanish dry-cured ham have also potential anti-inflammatory bioactivity, but such promising results need to be supported with further approaches as well as its mechanism studied for a better understanding of efficacy and bioavailability. In view of the limited data about the effect of these peptides on human cells, this study proposes an optimized protocol for evaluating antiinflammatory bioactive peptides on macrophages derived from THP-I human cell line.

Keywords: nutraceuticals; bioactive peptides; multifunctional peptides; anti-inflammatory activity; THP-I human cell line.

55


SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Se AND Zn IN DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS BY ENERGY DISPERSIVE X-RAY FLUORESCENCE SPECTROMETRY L. Herreros-Chavez1, A. Rosales-Valencia2, M. L. Cervera1, A. Morales-Rubio1

50 Dr. Moliner St., 46100 Burjassot (University of Valencia, Department of Analytical Chemistry) Spain, 2Circuito Interior Oriente SN (Universidad Autónoma de Sinaloa) México. Lidia.herreros@uv.es

A fast and green methodology has been developed for the determination of elemental composition in dietary supplements (DS) using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF). Fifteen samples, presented as tablets, capsule and powder, were analyzed for know their inorganic elemental composition including Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Se and Zn. Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES) was employed as reference technique to quantify elemental profile of the samples after their microwave assisted acid digestion. Due to the high dependence of the ED-XRF signal with the sample matrix, external calibrations were performed employing inorganic salts and the ED-XRF signals of analytes were presented in front of their theoretical concentrations. Concentrations obtained by external calibration ED-XRF were compared with the results quantified through ICP-OES and provides accurate results with a determination coefficient of 0.99. It was also compared the concentration obtained by ICP-OES with the concentration indicated in the package label of each sample. A coefficient of determination of 0.98 between concentrations obtained by ICP-OES analysis and the concentration indicated in the label package were found and a 0.98 of determination coefficient between the concentration obtained by ED-XRF and the concentration indicated in the label package.

Authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support of the Ministerio de Ciencia, Innovación y Universidades-FEDER (EU) Project CTQ2016-78053-R and Generalitat Valenciana Project PROMETEO 2019-056.

56


GENERATION OF MEATY FLAVOUR COMPOUNDS UNDER MILD CONDITIONS SIMULATING THE DRY CURING PROCESS

L. Li, C. Belloch, M.Flores

Instituto de Agroquímica y Tecnología de Alimentos (IATA-CSIC), Avda. Agustín Escardino 7, 46980 Paterna, Valencia, SPAIN. leili@iata.csic.es

Meat and meat products contain important nutrients for the human body, protein, B vitamins and mineral substances. The attractiveness of meat products to consumers is the olfactory sensation, especially the aroma of the cured meat (Flores, 2018). In dry cured meat products, many odour notes have been reported, but the elucidation of the mechanism of meat flavour formation has remained a challenge for the meat industry. To study the generation of volatile compounds with impact on meat aroma, a media model containing amino acids and additives (NaCl, nitrate/nitrite, ascorbate, glucose, etc) in composition similar to dry sausages ripening stages (Corral, Leitner, Siegmund, & Flores, 2016) were applied. The model simulated the physicochemical conditions (pH, Aw and temperature) during the ripening stages initial, first drying and second drying (Olivares, Navarro, Salvador, & Flores, 2010). The model media were incubated at 25° and 37°C and the generation of meaty aromas was studied during 35 days. Samples were taken at different times (0, 5d, 10d, 15d, 20d, 30d and 35d) to measure changes in pH and Aw, and volatile compounds generation. The volatile compounds were evaluated in the media headspace using solid phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The study revealed differences among the media and conditions regarding the volatile compound production.

57


CHLOROPHYLL DETERMINATION BY SMARTPHONE P. Martinez-Lopez1, L. Herreros-Chavez1, A. Morales-Rubio1, M J. Luque2 and M.L. Cervera1 1

Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Valencia, 50 Dr. Moliner

St., 46100, Burjassot, Spain; 2Department of Optics, Faculty of Physics, University of Valencia, 50 Dr. Moliner St., 46100 Burjassot, Spain. pamarlo3@alumni.uv.es

The colour of the plant is indicative of its state of health, and chlorophyll, the main photosynthetic pigment involved in photosynthesis, is the cause of this colour. Therefore, the determination of chlorophyll acquires a very important role and a research objective. The extraction of chlorophyll is complicated and must be done by controlling various variables such as temperature, luminosity and solvent used. There are several techniques to detect and quantify the chlorophyll content of the leaf, such as visible ultraviolet spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy or high-performance liquid chromatography. Given the complexity of chlorophyll extraction, a series of portable equipment has emerged, that allows direct in situ measurement of the chlorophyll content in the leaf without causing any damage to the plant or using reagents, thus minimizing the environmental and economic impact, and nevertheless they are expensive. This work investigates how to determine the chlorophyll content in the leaf using the colour parameters of an image taken with a Smartphone, and studies the correlation of these parameters with values obtained through a portable equipment SPAD-502 and the concentration of chlorophyll obtained through the extraction and detection by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. Models generated employing Smartphone images provided calibration determination coefficients from 0.88 till 0.97 with a root mean square error from 2.8 till 4.3 Âľg cm-2, and 4.7 till 5.3 SPAD units. There is a good correlation between concentrations predicted by the models employing RGB, Lab and LhC and the concentrations quantified by reference methods obtaining determination coefficients from 0.86 till 0.98.

Acknowledgement: AEI-FEDER Project CTQ2016-78053-R, GVA-PROMETEO-2019-056

58


TOTAL ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY OF THE DIET OF PATIENTS WITH RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA N. Mejía1, L. Olivares-González1, R. Rodrigo1,2,3 1

Departamento de Fisiopatología y Terapias de la visión, Centro de investigación Príncipe Felipe, Calle Eduardo Primo Yúfera, 3, 46012 Valencia., Spain, 2CIBER de Enfermedades Raras

(CIBERER), Madrid, Spain, 3Unidad Mixta de Nutrición, Endocrinología, Dietética Clínica del IIS La Fe-Universidad de Valencia nataliamch89@gmail.com

Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) encompasses a group of hereditary degenerative retinal dystrophies, characterized by the degeneration of photoreceptor cells of the retina (rods and cones). Evidence suggests that an inappropriate oxygen level that lead to oxidative stress can contribute to its pathogenesis. Antioxidants could reduce the damage of cone photoreceptor cells in retinitis pigmentosa by reacting with the free radicals. Micronutrients with antioxidant properties present in ocular tissue include vitamins E, C and A, which show interrelated roles in defense mechanisms against free radicals. To evaluate the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of the diet consumed by patients with RP.

Besides, we determine whether RP patients meet the recommended daily

requirements of nutrients with antioxidant properties and compare it with control subjects. An analytical, cross-sectional and observational study was conducted in which 57 adult individuals participated, divided into two groups: 19 control subjects and 38 patients with RP. For the dieteticnutritional evaluation, two food surveys were used: a 24 hour reminder and a food consumption frequency questionnaire. We determined oxygen radical absorption capacity for each food using the DIAL 3.0.0.5 program. It was observed that dietary TAC values in the RP group did not follow a normal distribution. A significant difference in the TAC values was observed between the two groups. Mean value of TAC for the control group was 11318 ± 1480 mmol TE/g/day, while for the RP group was 19112 ± 2712 mmol TE/g/day (Mann-Whitney test value p = 0.033). Our data suggest that the diet in RP patients has a greater antioxidant contribution than in the control group. This suggests that RP patients are more concerned about ingesting sufficient amounts of foods with antioxidant properties that may contribute to improving their visual function.

Key words: Retinitis pigmentosa, antioxidants, total antioxidant capacity.

59


OPTIMIZATION OF ULTRASOUND ASSISTED EXTRACTION OF PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS FROM MORINGA OLEIFERA LEAVES Luna Pollini1, Carmela Tringaniello1, Federica Ianni1, Francesca Blasi1, Jordi Manes2, Lina Cossignani1 1

University of Perugia, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Via San Costanzo, 06126 Perugia

(Italy), 2Laboratory of Food Chemistry and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Valencia, Av. Vicent AndrĂŠs EstellĂŠs s/n, 46100 Burjassot, Spain luna.pollini@studenti.unipg.it, lupo2@alumni.uv.es

Nowadays, Moringa oleifera is arousing great interest, thanks to its numeorus health benefits and properties. In fact, Moringa is a traditional plant from South-East Asia and Africa, mostly known for its nutrional properties, where it is used as food supplement against malnutrition. Recently, the identification of a large number of bioactive compounds present in M. oleifera leaves has been evaluated. The aim of this work was the study of the impact of ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) on the recovery of phenolic compounds from Moringa leaves. In the first part of the research, experimental design approach with MODDE 5.0 software has been carried out in order to evaluate some parameters, such as solvent, liquid/solid ratio, temperature, time on total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity. The optimization of the extraction allowed to establish the solvent composition as the most influent factor, in fact methanol:water (50:50, v/v) improved the recovery of phenolic compounds. DPPH and FRAP assays also well correlated with the increased TPC values. Besides, HPLC-DAD (liquid chromatography with a diode-array detector) and UHPLC-MS/MS (ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometer) analysis have been performed to quantify and identify flavonols, respectively. The obtained results confirm that UAE represents a powerful and useful extraction technique for phenolics compounds from vegetable matrices. Furthermore, Moringa leaves could be considered a great source of bioactive compounds for the development of nutraceuticals and functional foods.

Keywords: Moringa oleifera leaves; Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction; optimization; phenolic compounds; HPLC

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CRITERIA FOR HYDROSOS QUALITY INDEX. APPLICATION TO EXTRA VIRGIN OLIVE OIL AND PROCESSED TABLE OLIVES P. Sánchez-Bravo1, L. Noguera-Artiaga1, E. Sendra2, Á. A. Carbonell Barrachina1. 1

Department of Agro-Food Technology, Research group “Food Quality and Safety”, Escuela

Politécnica Superior de Orihuela (EPSO), Universidad Miguel Hernández de Elche (UMH), Carretera de Beniel, km 3,2. 03312 Orihuela, Alicante (Spain). 2Department of Agro-Food Technology, Research Group "Industrialization of Food from Animal Origin, IPOA”. Miguel Hernández University of Elche. Carretera de Beniel, km 3.2, 03312 Orihuela, Alicante, Spain. paola.sanchezb@umh.es Water, especially in arid and semiarid regions, is increasingly a disputed commodity among different productive sectors, so that, the pressure for a more sustainable use of water in agriculture will grow. In this sense, the main strategies to cope with water scarcity are the use of improved, innovative and precise deficit irrigation management practices able to minimize the impact on fruit yield and quality. Deficit irrigated fruit crops can improve fruit quality by raising the dry matter percentage and the levels of healthy bioactive compounds. The aim of this paper was to develop a certification index or hydroSOS quality index for extra virgin olive oil and processed table olives from orchards under regulated deficit irrigation (RDI). Different indicators in 3 quality areas [(i) fatty acids, (ii) phenolic compound contents, and (iii) sensory attributes] were identified as showing characteristic or typical responses under RDI conditions. Each of the indicators was assigned marks or scores and a case study was described. It can be concluded that an EVOO or a processed table olive are hydroSOStainable foods, if they meet 2 conditions: (i) fulfill the conditions established in the hydroSOS irrigation index and (ii) fulfill the requirements of the hydroSOS quality index. At this last respect, for EVOOs, increases in fruitiness, bitterness, pungency, total phenolic compounds, oleuropein and oleic acid and a decrease in linoleic acid are necessaries. Similarly, for table olives, increases in green-olive flavor, aftertaste, oleic acid and a decrease in linoleic acid. Keywords: Fatty acids; regulated deficit irrigation; saving water; sensory attributes; total phenolic compounds.

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SMARTPHONE DETERMINATION OF AZO DYES USING ARATTA-POSSETO EXTRACTION METHOD K. U. Antela1, M. L. Cervera1, A. Morales-Rubio1, M. JosĂŠ Luque2 1Department

of Analytical Chemistry, Research Building, University of Valencia, 46100 Burjassot,

Valencia (Spain). 2Optics Department, Physics Faculty, University of Valencia, 46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain) Kevin.urbano@uv.es

The use of additives is common for the preparation of various food products; being some of them food dyes. These food dyes can be classified as natural or artificial and the legislation regulates the maximum permitted content of the lasts. The analytical control of Azo dyes, a type of artificial food dye, is very important since these compounds can produce attention deficit disorders and hyperactivity in children, and they can also cause cancer. The aim of this work is to determine azo dyes in food samples with a Smartphone, by using the Arata-Posseto method for extraction of azo dyes employing natural wool. The method can extract these dyes from an acidified solution by using wool and can be subsequent retroextracted by using a base like NH3. This work tries to determine azo dyes from food samples, directly taking a photo of the wool containing the dye extracted. Firstly, different light conditions that could affect the colour, as angle and focal distance, were studied to take the photo. On the other hand, a calibration curve was performed using wool stained with different amounts of dye. Finally, a study of selectivity of the wool to extract dyes from food samples was carried out. To compare results obtained from image treatment of the wool in food samples, the concentration found through the absorbance measured by a diode array spectrophotometer taken before the extraction of the solution was employed. Statistical treatment shows that results of both methods are comparable.

Acknowledgement: AEI-FEDER Project CTQ2016-78053-R, GVA-PROMETEO-2019-056

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INFLUENCE OF ALKALIZING SALTS AND PROCESS CONDITIONS ON FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES OF COCOA POWDERS D. Valverde1, M. Puchol1,2, B. Behrends3, E. PĂŠrez1, C. Palomares2, N. Kuhnert3, J.M. Barat1 1

Polytechnic University of Valencia. Food Technology department, PhD Student. Camino de Vera s/n 46022, Valencia, Spain; 2Olam Food ingredients, Cheste; 3Jacobs University, Kuhnert Group, Campus Ring 1, 28759, Bremen, Germany davalga1@doctor.upv.es Alkalization is an optional step of the cocoa production chain that aims to darken the color of the

product, increase its solubility and reduce its characteristic astringency, bitterness and acidity. In the process, important degradations in cocoa polyphenols and other types of compounds have been reported. In this work, we test different alkalizing salts (KOH, NaHCO3 and K2CO3) with the objective of determining the best salt with relation to their effects on the functional characteristics. Each of these salts was evaluated with soft, medium, strong and ultrastrong alkalized conditions (changing pressure, temperature, time and alkali concentration (3 and 6%)). All samples were characterized according to their antioxidant activity (FRAP) and phenolic profile (HPLC-MS). Identification was performed using a data base of chemical structures. Results showed that around 80 polyphenols were identified and qualitatively determined. A general analysis revealed that alkalization induced an important reduction of the total amount of the identified polyphenols and that the lost was more intense as the alkalization degree was increased. However, it was observed an increment of the total polyphenol amount from medium to strong level of alkalization. It could be related to the release or formation of some of these 80 polyphenols due to the effects of the treatment. Out of the three tested alkali agents, KOH was the most aggressive to cocoa, while K2CO3 was the softest one. These results were supported by the antioxidant activity and by the analysis in detail of the concentration of various specific compounds. From this analysis, it was observed that KOH and NaHCO3 were able to induce the increase in concentration of different polyphenols (vitexin and hyperoxide), while K2CO3 did not have those effects. In general, K2CO3 is the best alkali at soft conditions, while NaHCO3 is an interesting option for the strongest ones. Keywords: cocoa powder, alkalization, alkalizing salts, polyphenols, process conditions

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INFLUENCE OF ETHYLENE IN DEGREENING OF NADORCOTT MANDARIN: CHANGES IN CHLOROPHYLLS AND CAROTENOIDS CONTENT

M.L. Vera, M.J. Rodrigo & L. Zacarías

Instituo de Agroquímica y Tecnología de Alimentos (IATA-CSIC), Valencia, Spain lauve3@alumni.uv.es

Nadorcott (Citrus reticulata Blanco) is mid to late season mandarin appreciate for its high quality, particularly the attractive intense orange coloration of the rind and the extraordinary sweet flavor. This variety, discovered in Morocco, is the result of cross-pollination between an unknown variety x Murcott mandarin. A feature of Nadorcott is the slow rate of natural fruit degreening in the orchard that allows a late harvesting. Mandarin fruits, as other Citrus species, are non-climacteric, evolving extremely low ethylene production during their maturation. However, it is well known that postharvest application of ethylene accelerates fruit degreening/colouration, which is a common commercial practique in many varieties of Citrus fruits. Whether the slow rate of fruit degreening in Nadorcott mandarin is due to an altered response to ethylene is currently unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the response of Nadorcott mandarin to the ethylene-induced fruit degreening. The ethylene treatment (0, 1 and 10 ppm) was performed for 2 weeks at 21°C in fruits harvested at three maturation stages according to the external colour: mature-green (before the initiation of natural degreening), turning (when the process was already initiated) and yellow-pale orange fruit. Interestingly, ethylene accelerated rind coloration in a dose-dependent manner and the effect was progressively lost with the process of the maturation. These results indicated that the slow rate of fruit-degreeing in Nadorcott mandarin appears not to be due to an impaired response to ethylene after harvest. Changes in ethylene-induced rind colouration and in chlorophylls and carotenoids contents in fruit at the three maturation stages will be presented and discussed.

Keywords: mandarin, degreening, ethylene, chlorophyll, carotenoids.

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MODELLING OF KINETICS OF SILICA MICROPARTICLES INCORPORATIONEXCRETION IN DIGESTIVE TUBE OF C. ELEGANS: INFLUENCE OF FOOD PRESENCE

S. Verdú, M. Ruiz-Rico, J.M. Barat, R. Grau

Departamento de Tecnología de Alimentos. Universidad Politècnica de València, Spain saveram@upvnet.upv.es

The effect of food on incorporation and excretion of silica particles into digestive tube was studied in this experiment using the biological model C. elegans and image analysis techniques. Experiment was based on two blocks of 24h each: exposure and elimination. During the exposure phase, two groups of worms were exposed 24h into liquid medium with presence of silica particles, ones with and without food. During elimination phase, worms were transferred to medium without particles. Worms were analysed by means of image analysis during both phases with the aim of quantifying properties of particle distributions into nematodes´ digestive tube along time. The proportion of worm carrying particles were not different during exposition phase with presence of food. However during elimination phase, absence of food generated high proportion of particle carriers. The properties of particle distribution like length and start point was also similar during exposure phase. Contrarily, the absence of food produced particle accumulations due to deceleration of excretion because relaxation of digestive tube. After elimination phase, food absence produced resistence of particles into digestive tube. According to these results, ingestion of silica particles had not retention effects in nematode when a flux of food was provided, however, particles was not easily excreted when the food flux was interrupted.

Acknowledgments: Authors thank the financial support from University Polytechnic of Valencia by the programme “Ayudas para la Contratación de Doctores para el Acceso al Sistema Español de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación, en Estructuras de Investigación de la UPV (PAID-10-17)”

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ANALYSIS OF CAROTENOIDS AND VOLATILES IN FRUITS OF ORDINARY NAVEL SWEET ORANGE AND ITS NOVEL RED-FLESHED KIRKWOOD MUTANT J. Zacarías1, J.L. Rambla2,3, A. Granell2, M.J. Rodrigo1 and L. Zacarías1 1

Instituto de Agroquímica y Tecnología de Alimentos (IATA-CSIC), Paterna, Valencia. Spain.

2 3

Instituto de Biología Molecular y Celular de Plantas (IBMCP-UPV-CSIC), Valencia, Spain.

Department of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences. University Jaume I (UJI), Castellón de la Plana, Spain jaizagar@iata.csic.es

Accumulation of lycopene is an unusual feature in Citrus fruit restricted to few mutants of grapefruits, pummelo or sweet oranges. In addition to providing an attractive reddish coloration to the fruit, lycopene is a carotenoid with potent antioxidant capacity. Then, lycopene-accumulating Citrus fruits offer additional health-related benefits for consumers and a promising challenge for the market. A new red-fleshed mutant called ‘Kirkwood’, derived from ordinary Washington Navel orange, has been selected and propagated under Spanish growing conditions. To gain further knowledge on the organoleptic and quality characteristics of this red fleshed-orange, we have studied the volatiles profiling in the pulp of ordinary (Navel) and mutant (Kirkwood) oranges during fruit maturation, in relation to their carotenoid content and composition. The pulp of mutant fruits accumulated large amounts of colorless carotenes, phytoene and phytofluene, moderate amounts of lycopene. By GC/MS we detected 95 and 88 VOCs (volatiles organic compounds) in the pulp of both cultivars at breaker and mature stage, respectively, that were grouped in monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, norisoprenoids, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, esters, furanes, acids and aromatics. Most of the changes in VOCs during maturation were similar in both genotypes, showing an increase in esters and norisoprenoids, and a decrease in alcohols, aldehydes, ketones and some norisoprenoids. Nevertheless, some changes in VOC profiling showed a cultivar-specific pattern. In general, the main differences in VOCs content between the pulp of the red-fleshed and ordinary oranges were restricted to a lower level of sesquiterpenes and higher content of some norisoprenoids in the mutant. It is particularly remarkable the high accumulation of the norisoprenoids, geranylacetone and 6-methyl-5hepten-2-one in Kirkwood, which may be potentially derived from linear carotenes. The potential impact of specific VOCs to the flavor of the red-fleshed mutant will be discussed.

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POSTERS FOOD TECHNOLOGY

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ULTRASONICALLY ASSISTED EXTRACTION OF FERROCHELATASE B. Abril1, J. V. Pedrero1, R. Bou2, J. Benedito1 and J.V. García-Pérez1. 1

Department of Food Technology, (Universitat Politècnica de València, València,) Spain. 2IRTA Research Institute, (Food Technology, Girona), Spain blaabrilgis@gmail.com

Zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP) is a natural colorant responsible of the typical color of dry-cured Italian Parma ham, in which the iron atom of the porphyrin ring has been replaced by a zinc atom. This reaction is catalyzed by the enzyme Ferrochelatase (FeCH), which is naturally present in the pork liver. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using ultrasound to intensify the extraction of FeCH from pork liver. For that purpose, FeCH extraction was carried out from frozen pork liver in standard buffer at 4ºC, by conventional magnetic stirring (CV, 30 min) and by high power ultrasound assisted extraction (PUS, 400W). Continuous and pulsed (0.5s on/0.5s off) ultrasonic application was tested at different extraction times (1, 2.5 and 5 min). Enzyme activity was evaluated by quantifying the obtained ZnPP from exogenous substrates (Protoporphyrin IX and ZnSO4) at 37ºC and 120h. The results showed that the application of ultrasound proved to be an effective method for the extraction of the enzyme, significantly (p<0.05) increasing the reaction rate of the extracts and the ZnPP yield. When US was applied in continuous mode, it was observed that the ZnPP formed from the enzymatic extract increased 24.6% for 1 min of US application, 14.9% for 2.5 min and 13.9% for 5 min, compared to conventional extraction. The US pulsed application influenced the 5 min treatment by increasing the product formed by 10.3%, compared to the conventional method. Both the application time and the continuous/pulsed mode proved to be determining factors in the extraction performance. Among all the conditions tested, the optimal one was to apply ultrasound continuously for 1 min. Therefore, ultrasound is an interesting intensification technique, which allows to improve the extraction of FeCH from the pork liver, providing a higher concentration of extracted enzymes and saving time with respect to the conventional extraction method.

Keywords: Ferrochelatase, Zinc protoporphyrin, ultrasound, pork and liver.

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INFLUENCE OF PORK LIVER DRYING ON THE ENZYME ACTIVITY OF FERROCHELATASE AND THE FORMATION OF ZINC PROTOPORPHYRIN B. Abril1, J. F. Alba1, E. Sánchez-Torres1, R. Bou2, J. Benedito1 and J.V. García-Pérez1 1

Department of Food Technology, (Universitat Politècnica de València, València,) Spain. 2IRTA Research Institute, (Food Technology, Girona), Spain blaabrilgis@gmail.com

Ferrochelatase (FeCH) is an endogenous enzyme present in pork liver. This enzyme catalyzes the formation of Zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP), which is a natural colorant responsible of the typical color of dry-cured Italian Parma ham. ZnPP can be used for the development of a new generation of drycured meat products, as well as to avoid the use of nitrates and nitrites in Spanish dry-cured ham processing. This works explores the effect of drying temperature on the FeCH activity of dehydrated pork liver and the formation of ZnPP during drying. For that purpose, pork liver was dried at temperatures from -10 to 70 ºC using forced air. Thus, the dried pork liver and the Zinc Sulfate and Protoporphyrin-IX were the FeCH source and the reaction substrates, respectively. The enzyme kinetics at 37ºC were monitored from 15 min to 2 h by measuring the concentration of ZnPP, which was evaluated by fluorimetry (emission 420 nm, excitation 590 nm). In order to compare the impact of drying on the FeCH activity, the reaction was also carried out using fresh pork liver as the enzyme source. Pork liver drying caused a significant (p<0.05) decrease in the FeCH activity (up to 93%) compared to that found on fresh liver. This decrease would be related to the reduction of the FeCH concentration and was dependent on the drying temperature. Therefore, samples dried at 0 °C were the ones that showed for the lowest enzymatic activity reduction (82% less enzyme activity that fresh liver). Moreover, ZnPP was formed during liver drying, in amounts that depended on the drying temperature, being 10ºC the optimum for the ZnPP formation, obtaining 0.2 µmol of ZnPP/g of liver. Therefore, although drying reduces the FeCH enzymatic activity, it can be an interesting alternative for liver preservation and presents the advantage of promoting spontaneous ZnPP formation.

Keywords: Ferrochelatase, Zinc protoporphyrin, drying, fluorimetry and liver.

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INFLUENCE OF ULTRASOUND ON THE FORMATION OF ZINC PROTOPORPHYRIN IN PORK LIVER B. Abril1, S. Benedicic1, R. Bou2, J.V. García-Pérez1 and J. Benedito1. 1

Department of Food Technology, (Universitat Politècnica de València, València,) Spain. 2IRTA Research Institute, (Food Technology, Girona), Spain blaabrilgis@gmail.com

The red color of some hams elaborated without nitrates and nitrites, such as Parma ham, is due to the formation of the Zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP) pigment. ZnPP is a stable pigment, which can be formed anaerobically in meat. The objective of this work was to improve the production of ZnPP in pork liver, increasing the yield and reducing the time necessary to form ZnPP, by using ultrasound (US). For this purpose, the formation of ZnPP was performed under anaerobic conditions using an ultrasonic bath. For each hour of extraction, US were turned on for the first 30 min and off for the remaining time, which avoided enzyme denaturation and allowed a constant temperature of 37 °C to be maintained. Kinetics of ZnPP formation were performed for 6, 12, 18, 24 and 48 h and subsequently the amount of ZnPP formed was measured by fluorescence (420 nm excitation and 590 nm emission). Control experiments were carried out without US. The results showed that the application of US proved to be an effective method for intensifying the formation of ZnPP. Applying US, the maximum ZnPP formed (216.07 mg of ZnPP / kg of liver) was reached at 12 hours, while in the control experiments (no US) the maximum (209.05 mg of ZnPP / kg of liver) was reached at 24 hours. Therefore, US increased the formation of ZnPP by 3.4% and reduced the process time by 12 hours. In conclusion, US application greatly improves the formation of ZnPP in pork liver, increasing the yield and reducing the formation time, compared to the conventional technique.

Keywords: Zn-protoporphyrin, pork, liver and ultrasound.

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PULSED ELECTRICAL FIELDS (PEF) PRETREATMENT TO ENHANCE THE EXTRACTION OF PIGMENTS FROM TETRASELMIS CHUII MICROALGAE Fadila Al Khawli1, Marialena Kokkali2, Francisco J. Martí-Quijal1, María J. Ruiz, Francisco J. Barba1, Emilia Ferrer1, Katerina Kousoulaki2 1

Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Food Science, Toxicology and Forensic

Medicine, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitat de València, Avda. Vicent Andrés Estellés, s/n 46100 Burjassot, València. 2Department of Nutrition and Feed Technology, Nofima AS, 5141 Bergen, Norway

Marine microalgae, such as Tetraselmis chuii (T. chuii), have become well-known over the last decades as a good source of several nutrients and bioactive compounds. Carotenoids (Cr) and chlorophylls (Chl), the major pigment species in microalgae, have shown the interest due to their food colorants, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory role among others. Thus, these pigments have been widely used in cosmetics, food and pharmaceutical applications. However, the extraction of pigments was based on the application of traditional methods (maceration and thermal extraction using different solvents). Green solvents or binary water with organic solvent mixture was used, reducing the amount of solvent. In addition, in order to enhance the extraction efficiency of valuable compounds from microalgae, the application of pulsed electrical fields (PEF) for the extraction was proved. PEF assisted technology, which is a non-thermal treatment of very short duration (several nanoseconds or milliseconds) with electrical pulses amplitudes from 100V/cm to 10KV/cm, was used as an effective tool for the extraction of valuable compounds from microalgae. The effect of the pretreatment of dried T. chuii using PEF as well as the effect of extraction time and type of solvent on the amount of Cr, chlorophyll A, chlorophyll B and total chlorophyll was evaluated. Extraction time and solvent were tested at two levels each one (4h vs 24h & water vs DMSO, respectively), while treatment with PEF was tested at three-level factor (No treatment, PEF1: 1KV/cm and 400 pulses, PEF2: 3KV/cm and 45 pulses). The Cr and Chl content was estimated spectrometrically according to the method described by Lichtenthaler and Buschmann (2001). It was shown that the higher amounts of all pigments were extracted after PEF2 treatment and incubation of 24h using DMSO as solvent. In conclusion, PEF treatment, extraction solvent and time affected significantly the amounts of pigments extracted from T. chuii.

Keywords: Microalgae, Tetraselmis chuii, Pulsed electrical fields, carotenoids, chlorophyll.

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STABILITY OF ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY TO COOKING AND IN VITRO GASTROINTESTINAL DIGESTION OF A GELATIN COATING ENRICHED WITH TOMATO BY-PRODUCT HYDROLYSATE APPLIED ON FRESH PORK LOIN AND ITS EFFECT ON THE FINAL PRODUCT QUALITY M. Arnal1, P. Talens1, M. Gallego2, F. Toldrá2 and L. Mora2 1

Departamento de Tecnología de Alimentos. Universitat Politècnica de València. Camino de Vera

s/n, 46022, Valencia (Spain); 2Instituto de Agroquímica y Tecnología de Alimentos (CSIC). Avenue Agustín Escardino 7, Paterna, 46980, Valencia (Spain) miarsa@etsiamn.upv.es

Pork meat is one of the principal food of Spanish cuisine, being this country the second largest producer worldwide. The tomato processing industry produces tons of by-products that are mainly composed of skin and seeds. These seeds contain about 28% of proteins which have been described as a good source of bioactive peptides. The antioxidant activity is one of the most studied bioactivities since the compounds with this activity could improve the products quality by preventing or delaying the lipid and protein oxidation and, in addition, they could positively influence on health because they can regulate the oxidative stress of cells. The main aim of this work is the study of the effect of cooking and in vitro gastrointestinal digestion on the antioxidant activity of a tomato by-products hydrolysate applied as a coating on fresh pork loin, as well as to study its protective effect on meat quality during 13 days of cold storage. For this, the cubes of meat with and without coating were cold stored for 13 days and at different times of storage, the samples were cooked and subjected to in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. Subsequently, the antioxidant activity of all samples was measured using ferric reducing power (FeRP) and ABTS radical scavenging capacity (ABTS) assays, as well as lipid oxidation was evaluated by the TBARS method. The results showed that the coated samples had a higher antioxidant activity than the controls when measured by the FeRP assay, whereas non-significant differences were observed using the ABTS assay. On the other hand, a significant increase in the antioxidant activity was observed after cooking and simulated gastrointestinal digestion in both tests. Furthermore, enriched coating protected pork loin against lipid oxidation.

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STUDY AND CHARACTERIZATION OF PORK MEAT AFTER ENZYMATIC TREATMENT WITH PAPAIN M. Díaz1, S. Verdú1, A.J. Pérez2, J.M. Barat1, P. Talens1, R. Grau1 1

Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, Departamento de Tecnología de Alimentos. Camino de Vera

s/n 46022, Valencia, Spain. 2Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, Departamento de Informática de Sistemas y Computadoras. Camino de Vera s/n 46022, Valencia, Spain. midiapo1@etsiamn.upv.es

In this work, physical properties of meat, such as texture, visual appearance and sensorial, were evaluated in order to know the effects of inoculation of a proteolytic enzyme such as Papain. For it, commercial pork loin was used, which was subsequently cut into pieces of approximately 2x2x2cm. The samples were inoculated with papain enzyme by a sequence of injections. A heat treatment was also carried out on the samples to study the structural differences between those that were inoculated with the enzyme and those that were not. Texture was evaluated by TPA (Texture Profile Analysis), employing a TA-TX2 texture analyser. Images of the heat-treated samples were taken before and after the texture analysis and analysed using the Fiji software. A sensory analysis was also performed, evaluating the hardness and appearance of the samples. Two tests were used, a triangular similarity and intensity scale. The moisture determination was also carried out by the oven drying method. Results clearly evidenced the effect of the enzyme. Differences on physical and structural behaviour, as well as, the effects of the heat treatment on the samples were evident, so most of the panellists had no doubts about the greater softness of the treated samples. Acknowlwdgmentas: The authors thank the “Ministerio Español de Ciencia e Innovación” for the financial support provided through the RTI2018-098842-BI00 Project.

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DESIGN OF REDUCED-FAT CHOCOLATE BY USING SUNFLOWER-BASED OLEOGELS

E. Gómez, F. Nicolás, A. Salvador, T. Sanz, M. Espert

Instituto de Agroquímica y Tecnología de Alimentos (IATA-CSIC) Agustín Escardino, 7, 46980 Paterna (Valencia), España Evigoa@alumni.uv.es

Consumption of saturated fatty acids at higher amount increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases, obesity and diabetes. For instance, edible oil structuring has found increasing attention as alternative mechanism for providing structure without saturated and/or trans fats. This study aims to replace a percentage of these fats by using sunflower oil-based oleogel applied in a chocolate formulation. Oleogels composed of sunflower oil (98 – 99.5%) and different concentration/type of hydrocolloid were used in chocolate formulation in whose composition 50% of the cocoa fat has been replaced by oleogel. Chocolates were composed of cocoa (12%), milk powder (25%), sugar (32%), lecithin (1%), cocoa fat (15%) and oleogel (15%). These chocolates were compared with other chocolate without oleogel (control chocolate). Physical properties have been evaluated in order to determine the most suitable system that will be used in the manufacture of the chocolate. Texture of the different systems were carried out applying a penetration test, and melting behavior were determined using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Results showed that chocolate hardness was related to hydrocolloid percentage; there was an increased in hardness as the hydrocolloid concentration increased. Moreover, the presence of the oleogel in the chocolate lowered the melting temperature of cocoa fat. In conclusion, the application of these oleogels have important implications for the design of improved high – fat bakery foods, although supplementary sensory analysis would be required.

Keywords: fat replacement, chocolate, oil structuration, physical properties, hydrocolloid

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USE OF LASER-DIFFRACTION-FINGERPRINT TO CHARACTERIZE MEAT TEXTURE ALONG ITS MATURATION S. Hernández1, S. Verdú1, A.J. Pérez2, J.M. Barat1, P. Talens1, R. Grau1 1

Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, Departamento de Tecnología de Alimentos. Camino de Vera

s/n 46022, Valencia, Spain. 2Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, Departamento de Informática de Sistemas y Computadoras. Camino de Vera s/n 46022, Valencia, Spain. serhert1@etsiamn.upv.es

The capacity of the image technique based on the recognition of laser dispersion patterns for the continuous characterization of meat maturation process has been evaluated in this paper. This technique is based on exerting coherent laser light on the sample, generating patterns of light. Process of meat maturation is a dynamic process, so a continuous analysis is a crucial aspect for its control. To carry out the experiment, commercial beef fillets were used. In order to increase the changes that the meat undergoes during its maturation, an exogenous enzyme, papain, was superficially added. During 26 hours, regular measurements were taken in order to analyze, in parallel, the texture and variation of the laser pattern. Texture analysis was performed using the Warner-Bratzler shear method. For image analysis, a laser was located bottom of the sample. The images taken record the laser patterns from which descriptions are extracted, processed that characterized, being analyzed by multivariate statistical analysis. Results showed how the analysis of the laser dispersion patterns allows to characterize the maturation state of the meat. This provides information about its texture in a continuous and non-destructive way. In addition, they showed how the application of the enzyme increases the speed of changes in meat, but also the formation of a surface gel that minimizes changes in laser patterns. Descriptors obtained from image analysis were correlated with the texture values of the samples, obtaining theoretical models that minimized the surface gel effect. Acknowledgments: The authors thank the “Ministerio Español de Ciencia e Innovación” for the financial support provided throught the RTI2018-098842-B-I00 Project.

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CHEMOMETRICS ANALYSIS OF THE KEY PEPTIDE OXIDATIVE PHENOMENA DURING THE RIPENING OF SPANISH DRY-CURED HAM

C. Li, L. Mora, M. Gallego, M. C. Aristoy, F. Toldrá

Instituto de Agroquímica y Tecnología de Alimentos (CSIC), Avenue Agustín Escardino 7, 46980 Paterna (Valencia), Spain ftoldra@iata.csic.es

Peptidyl post-translational modifications (PTMs) (i.e. deamidation, oxidation, etc.) of Spanish dry-cured ham have been reported, but their contribution to the oxidative susceptibility of ham muscle during ripening process has not been fully investigated yet. In present study, peptide oxidative phenomena in Spanish dry-cured ham (Biceps femoris muscle) was evaluated at different ripening-drying stages (9, 12, 15, 18 and 24 months of processing) by profiling the lipid, protein and peptides oxidation as well as major peptidyl PTMs. The results indicated that the amount of protein carbonyls reached the maximum level at 12 months of processing, while TBARS value significantly increased (P < 0.001) with prolonged ripening-drying period. Furthermore, peptide profile assisted by multivariate analysis revealed that some peptides were deamidated and oxidized during ripening times. Myosin light chain (MYL1 and MYL3) sequences showed high oxidative susceptibility mainly due to the oxidation of methionine and proline residues as well as acetaldehyde adduct formation on peptidyl lysine or histidine residues.

Keywords: Dry-cured ham; Ripening drying; Oxidative stress; Peptidome; Deamidation; Glycation; Oxidation; Chemometrics

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IMPACT OF DRYING TEMPERATURE AND ULTRASOUND APPLICATION IN THE QUALITY OF ARTICHOKE BY-PRODUCTS: ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES AND FIBRE B. Llavata1, A.A. Borsini2, F. Mas3, J.A. Cárcel1 1

Grupo de Análisis y Simulación de Procesos Agroalimentarios, Departamento de Tecnología de Alimentos, Universitat Politècnica de València, Camino de Vera s/n, E46022, Valencia, Spain.

2

Laboratorio de Preservación y Envases, Universidad Nacional de Misiones, Facultad de Ciencias

Exactas, Químicas y Naturales, Posadas, Misiones, Argentina. 3Grupo de Investigación de Economía Internacional y Desarrollo. Dpto de Economía y Ciencias Sociales. Universitat Politècnica de València, Camino de Vera s/n, E46022, Valencia, Spain. beallaca@etsiamn.upv.es The artichoke is a vegetable rich in antioxidants, fibre and vitamin C. Its processing generates a large number of by-products, mainly bracts and stems, which also have great nutritional interest. After a stabilization process, such as drying, these by-products can be incorporated as powder ingredient in other foods to improve their nutritional value. However, the use of high drying temperatures or the ultrasound application during drying can modify its final quality. In this sense, the aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of the drying temperature (40, 60, 80, 100 and 120 ° C) and the application of ultrasound (20.5 kW/m3), in the total phenolic compounds, antioxidant capacity, vitamin C and properties of the alcohol insoluble residue of stems and bracts. The results showed that drying reduced antioxidant properties in both by-products, stems and bracts. Regarding the influence of drying temperature, the greater retention of vitamin C and antioxidant capacity was be found at higher temperatures instead of moderate ones. This can be related with the shorter drying time at high temperature, which can contribute to preserve better the antioxidant properties. On the other hand, the application of ultrasound resulted in a lower retention of the phenolic compounds probably due to some structural damage produced by vibration. As for the alcohol insoluble residue, a higher yield was found in the bracts compared to the stems. Nevertheless, the swelling capacity, water retention capacity and fat retention capacity resulted greater in stems than in bracts. The drying temperature negatively affected these properties, finding the higher figures at moderate temperatures. In this sense, no significant influence of ultrasound was found. The results obtained indicated that the drying of the by-products at a temperature around 80 ° C could lead to a good quality of the final product. Keywords: phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, vitamin C, fibre, swelling capacity, water retention capacity, fat retention capacity 77


EFFECT OF AIR DRYING TEMPERATURE AND ULTRASOUND APPLICATION IN THE STABILIZATION OF ARTICHOKE BY-PRODUCTS B. Llavata1, A.A. Borsini2 J. Bon1, J.A. Cárcel1 1

Grupo de Análisis y Simulación de Procesos Agroalimentarios, Departamento de Tecnología de Alimentos, Universitat Politècnica de València, Camino de Vera s/n, E46022, Valencia, Spain.

2

Laboratorio de Preservación y Envases, Universidad Nacional de Misiones, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Químicas y Naturales, Posadas, Misiones, Argentina. beallaca@etsiamn.upv.es

The efficient re-use of the large amount of waste generated in the food industry sometimes needs a previous step of stabilization, and drying is one of the most used techniques for this purpose. It is know that high temperatures and the application of ultrasound during drying can significantly accelerate this process. In this sense, the aim of the present study was to analyse the influence of temperature and ultrasound application in the drying kinetics of the main by-products produced in the artichoke processing, bracts and stems. Thus, drying experiments were carried out in a connective dryer (1 m/s) at 40, 60, 80, 100 and 120 ° C. Additionally, another set of drying experiments of bracts were carried at 40 ° C with ultrasound (20.5 kW/m3). During experiments, samples weight was recorded every 10 minutes until reach constant weight. To quantify the influence of temperature and ultrasound, the drying kinetics were modelled using a diffusive model based on Fick's second law. The results showed that the increase of temperature from 40 to 120 ° C meant 86.8% time reduction for the leaves and 82.6% for the stems. Regarding ultrasound application at 40 ° C, the time shortening was 36.46%. All these reductions were reflected in a significant increase in effective diffusivity (De) and the mass transfer coefficient (k). The influence of temperature on De was quantified through the determination of the activation energy with an Arrhenius type equation obtaining a value of 24.9 and 7.0 kJ/mol for bracts and stems respectively, which show a greater influence of temperature in drying bracts than in stems.

Keywords: drying kinetic, ultrasound, effective diffusivity, mass transfer coefficient, activation energy

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EFFECT OF CHIA BY-PRODUCTS AS BREADMAKING INGREDIENTS ON NUTRITIONAL BREAD QUALITY K. Miranda-Ramos1,2, M.C. Millán-Linares3, C.M. Haros1 1

Cereal Group, Institute of Agrochemistry and Food Technology (IATA-CSIC),

Av. A. Esardino 7, Parque Científico, 46980, Paterna Valencia, Spain; 2Faculty of Chemical Engineering, University of Guayaquil, Cdla. Universitaria Salvador Allende Malecón del Salado entre Av. Delta y Av. Kennedy Guayaquil, Ecuador;3Protein Vegetable Group, Instituto de la Grasa (IG-CSIC), Ctra. de Utrera, km. 1, Campus Universitario Pablo de Olavide - Building 46 41013, Sevilla, Spain. cmharos@iata.csic.es

Chia seeds and their by-products could enrich the bakery products due to their high amount of protein with balanced profile of essential amino acids, minerals, dietary fibre and essential fatty acids. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the replacement of wheat flour by chia ingredients -chia seeds (WS), whole chia flour (WF), semi-defatted chia flour (SDF) and low-fat chia flour (LFF)- on nutritional and/or functional properties of bread. The bread formulas studied were: control bread made with refined wheat flour and bread with WS, WF, SDF or LFF at 5% or 10% in flour basis. Chia ingredients could cover between 5% and 19% of the daily protein requirement according to PRI (Popular Reference Intake – EFSA/FAO) for children and adults without limiting essential amino acids, considering an intake of 100g of bread/day. Breads with 10 % of SDF and LFF had better contribution of protein to the PRI and could cover 8-9g/day of the adequate intake (AI) for dietary fibre (~33-34% of AI, intake of 100 g of bread/day). In addition, a better ratios ω-6:ω-3 were found in formulations with LFF (8:1) or SDF (5:1) than in control sample (17:1). High phytate levels were found in bread containing chia by-products, which affect the mineral bioavailability of Fe, as was predicted by phytate/mineral molar ratios. The molar ratio Phy:Zn<5 in chia breads predicted a high bioavailability of Zn, contributing to the diet in 48-75% of the daily intake of Zinc taking in account 100g of bread/day. Breads formulated with chia ingredients presented lower GI than white bread, which their intake could produce benefit for the control of overweight/obesity and to prevent disorders preceded by metabolic syndrome.

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PRODUCTION OF BIOACTIVE MOLECULES BY YEASTS DURING WINE FERMENTATION AND EVALUATION OF THEIR EFFECT AGAINST DIFFERENT STRESSES

S. Muñiz-Calvo, R. Bisquert, A. Planells, J.M. Guillamón

Departamento de Biotecnología de Alimentos, Instituto de Agroquímica y Tecnología de Alimentos (IATA-CSIC), Paterna (Valencia), España guillamon@iata.csic.es

Microorganisms are responsible of the production of different bioactive molecules that are present in food and they have beneficial properties for health even in low quantities. Melatonin (MEL) or N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine is a biosynthesized indolamine hormone from L-tryptophan in mammals, plants and fungi. This hormone has been recently found in beverages and food fermented products such as orange juice, bread and beer. It is considered a bioactive compound due to its antioxidant capability. Likewise, hydroxytyrosol is a natural polyphenol antioxidant that exists in olive oil in a minor amount, but it has been described that can be also synthesized by yeasts during wine fermentation. Since Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the main responsible for this process, the direct relationship with the production of the compounds has recently been studied. However, the conditions and the genes involved in the production are still under investigation. In this work, we aim to obtain different yeast strains that produce hydroxytyrosol, serotonin, N-acetyl serotonin and melatonin to evaluate the physiological effect on yeast cells growing under different stresses. We assess yeast growth performance under oxidative, osmotic and temperature pressures in monoculture and in competence experiments during fermentation.

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INFLUENCE OF ALKALIZING SALTS AND PROCESS CONDITIONS ON ALKALIZED COCOA POWDER PROPERTIES M. Puchol1,2, E. PĂŠrez1, C. Palomares2, J.M. Barat1 1

Polytechnic University of Valencia. Food Technology department, Doctoral Student. Camino de Vera s/n 46022, Valencia, Spain; 2Olam Food ingredients, Cheste marpucmi@alumni.upv.es

Cocoa powder is an important raw material in the food industry. Natural cocoa powder is characterized by a light brown color, an acid and astringent flavor and a low solubility. To dark the color, modify the sensory attributes and improve the solubility, cocoa can be submitted to an alkalization process. During this alkalization process different alkalizing salts and process conditions can be used. Depending on these variables, cocoa quality parameters (i.e. color, pH, antioxidant capacity, polyphenol content and sensory characteristics) might be modified. The present study aims to evaluate the influence of alkali type (KOH, NaHCO3 and K2CO3), its concentration (3 and 6%) and the process conditions (time and temperature) used during cocoa cake alkalization on the physicochemical and sensory properties of the obtained alkalized powders. In a first step, the effect of different alkalizing salts was tested. Each of these salts were evaluated with soft, medium and strong alkalized conditions (changing pressure, temperature and time), using 3% of alkali. Results showed that type of alkali and process conditions had a significant effect on color, pH, antioxidant capacity, polyphenol content, and sensory perception of the powders. Secondly, the influence of the alkali content was studied adding 6% of alkali instead of 3%. The results showed that alkali content had a significant impact on cocoa properties. The higher the alkalization level, the darker the color, the lower the polyphenol and the antioxidant capacity, and the lower the cocoa and chocolate flavor of the samples. As a conclusion, the alkalization conditions, the type of alkali an its concentration exhibit an important influence on the final physicochemical characteristics of the alkalized cocoa powder.

Keywords: cocoa powder, alkalization, alkalizing salts, process conditions

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EFFECT OF THE ADDITION OF DIFFERENT LEVELS OF BICARBONATE DURING CHOCOLATE SPONGE CAKES PREPARATION ON THEIR PHYSICOCHEMICAL AND SENSORY PROPERTIES M. Puchol1,2, E. Pérez1, C. Palomares2, J.M. Barat1 1

Polytechnic University of Valencia. Food Technology department. Camino de Vera s/n 46022, Valencia, Spain; 2Olam Food ingredients, Cheste. marpucmi@alumni.upv.es

During cocoa alkalization process, sodium or potassium carbonate are usually used as alkali. These salts should be included in the list of ingredients of cocoa-derived products such as bakeries. There is a new trend consisting of providing products with “clean labels”. Thus, reducing or avoiding the use of alkalizing salts in the list of ingredients of sponge cakes could be seen with good eyes by consumers. In this context, the objective of the present work is to study the effects of the replacement of alkalized cocoa powders (prepared with K2CO3) by a combination of natural (phase I) or medium alkalized cocoa powders (phase II) with an extra dose of sodium bicarbonate (indispensable ingredient of sponge cakes) during the dough formulation. In was also our aim to compare the properties of these cakes with those of control ones prepared with natural cocoa powder (N), soft alkaline (AS), medium alkaline (AM) and strong alkaline (AF) powders. Physicochemical (moisture, color, volume, texture and imagen analysis) and sensory properties of all the sponge cakes were analyzed. The results of this work demonstrate that it is possible to obtain a sponge cake with a coloration and flavor similar to that obtained with AM cocoa, using N cocoa and 1.5-1.8 fold the amount of bicarbonate used as a leavening agent. Since anomalous flavors appear when the amount of bicarbonate is greater than 2 times that used in control recipes, getting AF-like cakes from N powders was impossible. However, these features were obtained using AM powder and extra content of bicarbonate (1.8 fold) without affecting the sensory properties. Keywords: sponge cake, cocoa powder, alkalization, sodium bicarbonate, color, sensory attributes.

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COMPARISON OF STEADY SHEAR VISCOSITY AND OSCILLATORY COMPLEX VISCOSITY ON THICKENED PUREES: APPLICATION OF THE COX-MERZ RULE S. Ribes, M. L. Castells, S. Verdú, J. M. Barat, R. Grau, P. Talens Departamento de Tecnología de Alimentos, Universitat Politècnica de València, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia, Spain surillo@upv.es Rheological properties have been considered as important analytical tools to provide fundamental insights on the structural organisation of foods. Nevertheless, several limitations can be observed depending on the assay. For instance, steady-state shear assays have limitations related to slippage and migration of sample constituents (Gunasekaran and Ak, 2000). On the contrary, dynamic rheological tests are conducted by small amplitude oscillatory measurements that are nondestructive experiments. However, these assays are not appropriate in practical processing due to the low rates and strain at which the tests are applied (Augusto et al., 2013). In this context, the Cox– Merz rule has been used to correlate the steady shear viscosity and oscillatory complex viscosity of different products. In this study, the steady-state shear and viscoelastic properties of pea-thickened purees has been evaluated as well as the applicability of a linear and a power modified Cox–Merz rule. For this purpose, the samples were formulated with two commercial starch based thickeners (Nutavant® and Nutilis®) at different concentrations to achieve honey- and pudding-like consistencies. Steady-shear tests were conducted at 25 ºC within the 0.1-50 s-1 range for 5 minutes, and small amplitude oscillatory shear tests were performed at 25 ºC from 0.1 to 50 Hz at a fixed strain in the linear viscoelastic region (0.1% and 0.2 % for honey-like and pudding-like consistency, respectively). The Cox-Merz rule models described the experimental values well, for non-thickened and for thickened samples at both levels, with complex viscosity and apparent viscosity properly superimposed. Linear model fitted the experimental data better than power model. The results show that rheological characteristics of native and modified pea purees can be determined by either steadystate shear experiments or small amplitude oscillatory studies. Acknowledgments: The authors thank the “Ministerio Español de Ciencia e Innovación” for the financial support provided through the RTI2018-098842-B-I00 Project.

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TEXTURAL CHANGES IN PUFFED CORN CAKE CAUSED BY MOISTURE ADSORPTION V. Sanchez-Jimenez1, M. Rincon2, E. de la Hera2, A. Martin-Ginel3, J. Benedito1, J.V. Garcia-Perez1 1

Department of Food Technology, Universitat Politècnica de València, Cami de Vera s/n, 46022,

València, Spain. 2Cerealto Siro Foods, i+dea España Innovation Center, Pol. Ind. Los Llanos de San Pedro, Ctra. Ávila, 40400, El Espinar, Segovia, Spain. 3Institute of Physical and Information Technologies (ITEFI), CSIC, Serrano 144, 28006, Madrid, Spain virsanji@upvnet.upv.es

The water activity (aw) of snacks is considered a key-parameter to control its textural evolution throughout storage. The loss of crispness of porous and low-moisture snacks is related to the moisture adsorption and the water plasticization effect on mechanical properties, which results into a lower elastic modulus. The critical water activity (awc) is specific of each material and indicates the value of aw where its characteristic texture starts to decrease significantly. The objective of this study was to determine the adsorption isotherms of commercial puffed corn cakes at 23°C and establish its critical water activity in terms of textural properties. Saturated salt solutions (LiCl, CH3COOK, MgCl2, K2CO3, Mg(NO3)2 NaNO2, NaCl, KCl, KNO3) were used for obtaining a wide range of water activities (from 0.1 to 0.9). Once equilibrium was reached (up to 15 days), textural properties were measured by compression method using a texture analyser. GAB model fitted satisfactorily (explained variance of 93.6%) the experimental adsorption isotherms, reporting a monolayer moisture content of 0.173 g water/g dry matter. Commercial puffed corn cakes presented a water activity value close to 0.1. The increase of aw up to 0.4 promoted a slight increase of the elastic modulus, which was manifested in a significantly (p<0.05) higher maximum compression force (Fmax) (from15.7 to 16.9 N). Critical water activity was laid around 0.5, since higher moisture contents resulted in a noticeable reduction of the elastic modulus. Thus, Fmax of 9.3 N and 1.14N were achieved for water activities of 0.8 and 0.9, respectively.

Keyword: water activity, snack, isotherm and texture.

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NON-INVASIVE CHARACTERIZATION OF POTATO DRYING BY USING CONTACTLESS ULTRASOUND V. Sanchez-Jimenez1, L. Fariñas1, J. Camacho2, J. Benedito1, T. Gomez Alvarez-Arenas2, J.V. Garcia-Perez1 1

Department of Food Technology, Universitat Politècnica de València, Cami de Vera s/n, 46022,

València, Spain. 2Institute of Physical and Information Technologies (ITEFI), CSIC, Serrano 144, 28006, Madrid, Spain virsanji@upvnet.upv.es

Food industry demands novel technologies for non-invasive food inspection in the context of Industry 4.0 purposes. Recent advances on the development of highly energy efficient air-coupled ultrasonic transducer allows a contactless characterization of textural and compositional properties of a wide variety of foods. The aim of this study was to characterize the drying process of potato slices using air-coupled ultrasound. For this purpose, potato slices (3 mm thickness) were dried in a convection oven at 60ºC at different times (5, 10, 15, 40, 90 y 120 min). At each drying time, the ultrasonic signal propagated through the potato slice was recorded in triplicate using a pair of wideband ultrasonic transducers (250 kHz) separated 7.5 cm from the potato surface and further, its moisture content was experimentally measured. From the ultrasonic signal, the variation of time of flight and the transmission coefficient were computed by cross-correlation in the time domain and the frequency spectrum, respectively. The appearance of ultrasonic resonances on the potato slice, around a resonance frequency of 150 kHz regardless the moisture content, allowed a joint estimation of the sample thickness and the ultrasonic velocity. The reduction of moisture during drying, involved a reduction of the ultrasonic velocity from 950 m/s in the raw potato (78.0% of moisture) to 450 m/s for a moisture content of 5.1%. This works opens a potential application of the air-coupling ultrasonic inspection to monitor the drying of vegetable products at real time.

Keywords: potato, drying, air-coupled ultrasound, non-destructive and non-invasive testing.

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TEXTURAL ANALYSIS OF PUFFED CORN CAKE: EXPERIMENTAL TEST AND MODELING V. Sanchez-Jimenez1, M. Rincon2, E. de la Hera2, A. Martin-Ginel3, J. Benedito1, J.V. Garcia-Perez1 1

Department of Food Technology, Universitat Politècnica de València, Cami de Vera s/n, 46022,

València, Spain. 2Cerealto Siro Foods, i+dea España Innovation Center, Pol. Ind. Los Llanos de San Pedro, Ctra. Ávila, 40400, El Espinar, Segovia, Spain. 3Institute of Physical and Information Technologies (ITEFI), CSIC, Serrano 144, 28006, Madrid, Spain virsanji@upvnet.upv.es

Sensory characteristics of snacks linked to texture play a major role on the product quality. In this work, an experimental test to analysis the elastic properties of puffed corn cake is illustrated, as well as a mathematical model to compute the evolution of elastic modulus when the sample is subjected to a compression stress. The experimental textural test consists of compressing the puffed corn cake (strain 0.3) at 1 mm/s using a spherical probe of a diameter 25 mm, while the sample is supported in the base of a hollow cylinder (50 mm diameter, 2 mm thickness). In the commercial puffed corn cakes, two different zones were appreciated in the stress-strain profile. In the first one, a clear linear pattern was found with constant elastic modulus. As compression progressed, small fractures appear in the cake due to its fragility, which result in a progressive decrease of the elastic modulus from a critical strain (crit). This fact leads to the curvature of the stress-strain profile, which was computed by an n parameter. Due to the appearance of the small fractures was random, it was necessary averaging (n=30) the stress-strain curves to buffer the random behavior. Thereby, linear and polynomial equations were proposed to describe the first and the second zone, respectively. The models were fitted to the experimental stress-strain profile and the elastic modulus (E), the crit and the n parameter were identified from an optimization problem. The reliability of the model was evaluated in commercial cakes, which were stored at different relative humidity (from 10 to 90%).

Keyword: snack, mathematical model, texture, elastic modulus, and stress.

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APPLICATION OF PULSED ELECTRIC FIELDS FOR PROTEIN EXTRACTION FROM FISH BY-PRODUCTS AND ITS EFFECT ON ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY Min Wang1, Francisco J. Martí-Quijal1, María José Ruiz1, Francisco J. Barba1 1

Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Food Science, Toxicology and Forensic Medicine Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitat de Valencia, Valencia, Spain; minwang@alumni.uv.es

A great amount of by-products are produced from aquaculture processing. They are of great economic and biologic value due to their high content in proteins, lipids, etc., although usually they are discarded. Traditionally, conventional extraction, involving the use of temperature and solvents, have been used, although a long extraction time, and economic cost are required. Moreover, they can affect thermolabile compounds. In this study, pulsed electric fields (PEF) technology was applied for the extraction of protein from fish by-products. The PEF technology can be applied to create pores over the cell membrane in order to facilitate the release of interesting compounds, reducing fish waste and obtaining an economic benefit. As a by-product, viscera of see bass were selected for the experiment. The proteins were extracted assisted by PEF and total antioxidant capacity of the obtained extracts was measured. The response-surface experiments were optimized respect to specific energy (50, 175, 300 kJ/kg), field strength (1, 2, 3 kV/cm) and extraction time (0, 12, 24 h) as single factors; and protein content and ABTS/TEAC as response values. The results showed that the optimal conditions for protein extraction were specific energy 253.48 kJ/kg, field strength 1 kV/cm and extraction time 10 h 39 min. With these conditions, the proteins extraction rate was 87.06%. In terms of antioxidant activity (ABTS/TEAC), the optimal extraction conditions were specific energy 199.34 kJ/kg, field strength 3 kV/cm, extraction time 18 h. Using the previously mentioned conditions, the ABTS/TEAC value was 1181.61 M TE. When the extraction was optimized for the best protein and ABTS/TEAC value, the optimal conditions were as follows: specific energy 121.369 kJ/kg, field strength 3 kV/cm, extraction time 15 h 30 min, obtaining an extraction rate of protein of 79.89 % and ABTS/TEAC value of 1129.73 M TE. Keywords: response-surface method, fish by-products, viscera, proteins, antioxidant capacity Acknowledgements: the authors would like to acknowledge the EU Commission for the funds provided by the BBI-JU through the H2020 Project AQUABIOPROFIT ‘Aquaculture and agriculture biomass side stream proteins and bioactives for feed, fitness and health promoting nutritional supplements’ (Grant Agreement no. 790956). 87


PULSED ELECTRIC FIELDS TREATMENT OF MICROALGAE PHAEDOACTYLUM TRICORNUTUM BIOMASS FOR ENHANCEMENT OF NUTRIENT EXTRACTION Jianjun Zhou1, Francisco J. Martí-Quijal1, María José Ruiz1, Katerina Kousoulaki2, Marialena Kokkali2, Francisco J. Barba1 1

Universitat de València, Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Food Science, Toxicology and

Forensic Medicine Department, Avda. Vicent Andrés Estellés, s/n, 46100, Burjassot, València, Spain. 2

Department of Nutrition and Feed Technology, Nofima AS, 5141 Bergen, Norway jianz@alumni.uv.es

Microalgae, e.g., Phaedoactylym tricornutum, are promising alternative sources of several nutrients and bioactive compounds that are useful for human applications. P. tricornutum possesses hard cellulosic cell walls, which integrity may significantly limit its nutrient bioavailability, therefore, preprocessing to disrupt the cell wall is necessary to facilitate nutrient release. In this work, pulsed electric fields (PEF), as an alternative to conventional cell disruption methods, was applied to obtain the biological extracts from the P. tricornutum. The effects of PEF as pretreatment (3 kV/cm and 45 pulses or 1 kV/cm and 400 pulses), as well as the effects of extraction time (4/24 h) and solvent type (water/DMSO) on nutrient extraction from P. tricornutum was investigated. Multivariate General Linear Model (GLM) analysis revealed that the extraction of most of the nutrients studied was significantly affected (p≦0.05) by the applied treatments on the P. tricornutum. Results showed that the extraction amounts of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoids were significantly affected by the solvent, increasing their extraction when DMSO was used. PEF treatment increased the extraction amount of chlorophyll and carotenoids when the extraction time was 4 and 24 hours. The best PEF conditions were 3 kV/cm and 45 pulses. For the time of extraction, the best results were found at 24h, and regarding the solvent, was the DMSO the best one. The appearance of different results may be related to the electroporation theory, including membrane compression and the pore formation, which requires further mechanism research. These results indicates that the PEF treatment significantly affected the extraction of bioactive ingredients. Keywords: pulsed electric fields, Phaedoactylym tricornutum, microalgae, carotenoids, chlorophyll Acknowledgements: the authors would like to acknowledge the EU Commission for the funds provided by the BBI-JU through the H2020 Project AQUABIOPROFIT ‘Aquaculture and agriculture biomass side stream proteins and bioactives for feed, fitness and health promoting nutritional supplements’ (Grant Agreement no. 790956).

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POSTERS FOOD SAFETY

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CYTOTOXIC EFFECTS OF ZEARALENONE METABOLITES ON SH-SY5Y CELLS AND DETERMINATION OF THEIR AMOUNT IN CELL CULTURE MEDIA

F. Agahi, A. Juan-García, C. Juan

Laboratory of Food Chemistry and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Valencia, Av. Vicent Andrés Estellés s/n, 46100 Burjassot, València, Spain fojan@alumni.uv.es

Zearalenone (ZEA) is an estrogenic mycotoxin produced by several Fusarium species and has been found to be a common and widespread contaminant in cereal grains and animal foodstuff. αzearalenol (α-ZOL) and β-zearalenol (β-ZOL), are the two major metabolites degraded from ZEA. In order to clarify the importance of the existence of various mycotoxins and their impacts on human’s health, in this study is determined and evaluated the cytotoxic effect of single treatment and binary combination of α-ZOL and β-ZOL mycotoxins on undifferentiated SH-SY5Y neuronal cells by using MTT assay (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5diphenyltetrazoliumbromide). Concentrations assayed were from 0.39 to 100 µM for individual form and from 1.56 to 12.5 µM for binary combination for both mycotoxins, with dilution ratio of 1:2 and over 24, 48 and 72 h, to subsequently elucidate if the mixtures of these mycotoxins produced synergism, antagonism or additive effect. Additionally, LCESI-qTOF-MS equipment was used to determine the amount of mycotoxin recovered from the media after treatment and metabolites generated. IC50 values detected at all times assayed, ranged from 95 to 0.15 μM in individual form. Moreover, the result indicates that β-ZOL is more cytotoxic mycotoxin than α-ZOL when tested alone. The major effect detected in α-ZOL + β-ZOL combination was antagonism and the amount of mycotoxin more recovered in media in individual treatment was αZOL at all times and, in binary α-ZOL was above β-ZOL in all cases. Keywords: α-ZOL; β-ZOL; mycotoxins; cytotoxicity; SH-SY5Y Acknowledgment: This research has been supported by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness 324 AGL2016-77610-R and the Generalitat Valencian GVPROMETEO2018-126.

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ENTOMOPHAGY S. Ballester1, V. Ferrero2, M. GonzĂĄlez3, M.V. Fuentes4 1,2,3 4

Food Science and Technology Student

Department of Pharmacy, Technological Pharmacy and Parasitology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Valencia, Spain. bagosa@alumni.uv.es

According to FAO, entomophagy is defined as the consumption of insects by human beings â&#x20AC;&#x201C; a practice that has been spreading around the world for several years. According to EU Regulation 2015/2283, valid since the beginning of January 2018, in Spain, the rearing and sale of insects is allowed, but as foodstuffs to feed animals only, not for human consumption. However, the possibility of importing them from other countries for human consumption is permitted. Therefore, a new niche on the market has been established, as is the case with insect farms, where the mass rearing of insects has been regulated by law. However, the potential role of insects as vehicles and intermediate hosts of parasites is known, and, therefore, the study and the adequate application of hygienic-sanitary norms is of utmost importance. Thus, the safety in the rearing activity of these insects, just as their consumption by farm animals, will be guaranteed. Moreover, they must not pose a threat to public health through their direct or indirect consumption. In the latter case, when other animals are fed dry food based on insect flour. Currently, entomophagy is considered a possible substitute for other proteins of animal origin, due to its lower environmental impact in comparison to the rearing of other animals such as cows or pigs. However, further studies on the nutritional benefits and the viability of supplying enough food to the entire population are needed. Consequently, nowadays, the consumption of insects is a reality, but in some countries, such as Spain, the establishment of this new kind of food will take more time.

Keywords: Insects, parasites, entomophagy, food, parasitosis.

91


ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF PERACETIC ACID AGAINST PENICILLIUM VERRUCOSUM AND ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS

R. Carbonell, J.M. Quiles, G. Meca

Av. Vicent Andrés Estellés s/n, 46100 Burjassot, Spain (Laboratory of Food Chemistry and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Valencia) racar3@alumni.uv.es

Peracetic acid is a compound used in the food industry for the disinfection of food and foodcontact surfaces. Its mechanism of action is to oxidize lipid membranes, DNA, metabolites and proteins with sulfhydryl groups and double bonds. Its main advantages are its wide antimicrobial spectrum and that its decomposition products (CH3COOH, O2 and H2O) are substances with very little toxicity. This study aims to quantify the antifungal activity of peracetic acid in a liquid medium, against the toxigenic fungi Penicillium Verrucosum and Aspergillus Flavus, common contaminants of wheat and corn, respectively. Based on a 40 % peracetic acid standard, concentrations between 5.9 and 4000 ppm were tested using PDB culture medium and/or in 96-well sterile plates. The plates were kept in an oven at 25 ºC for 48 hours. Thus, the Minimum Fungicide Concentration (MFC) was established. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) was confirmed by sowing in PDA plate and incubation in an oven at 25 °C for 48 h. This assay provided an MIC for P. Verrucosum and A. Flavus, of 62.5 and 125 ppm, respectively. In contrast, the MFC of P. Verrucosum and A. Flavus was 93.8 and 187.5 ppm, respectively. In conclusion, the antifungal effectiveness of peracetic acid at moderate doses is evident, as well as its possible application in products contaminated by these fungi.

Keywords: peracetic acid, toxigenic fungi, antifungal activity, MIC, MFC

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CHARACTERIZATION OF ISOLATED PROBIOTICS OF SAMPLES OF BREAST MILK AND OF NEWBORN BREEDS C. González, C. Luz, G. Meca Laboratorio de Química de los Alimentos y Toxicología. Facultat de Farmàcia. Universitat de València. España cargona4@alumni.uv.es Probiotics are living microorganisms that after being administered in adequate amounts, can confer health benefits. A probiotic has to meet a series of requirements such as surviving the pH and biliary sales of the stomach and intestine, being able to adhere to the intestinal epithelium, not being pathogenic, not being toxic and being stable during storage. In this study, bacteria have been isolated from 22 samples of breast milk and feces from newborns using a selective medium of MRS at pH 2 and 1.5 g/ L bile under anaerobic conditions (37°C/24 h). Next, a characterization of the probiotic potential of the 7 strains resistant to these conditions was performed. Morphology, self-aggregation capacity, enzymatic activity (Api Zym Kit), production of organic acids and phenolic acids by fermentation of MRS broth, resistance to antibiotics, activity against pathogenic bacteria and antifungal properties were performed. The isolates were classified as Gram-positive bacteria with bacillary and cocoid morphology. Variability in the self-aggregation test of 15-45% was observed. The enzyme activity test evidenced values of Leucine arylamidase and Valine arylamidase in three of the isolates, and trypsin activity in two of them, both enzymes in concentrations of 40 nM and 5 nM, respectively. Analysis by HPLC-DAD and HPLC-MS-TOF of the fermented media showed contents in lactic acid (7.5-15.6 g/ L), acetic acid (3.0-7.8 g/ L), phenyllactic acid (0.05-1.46 mg/ L), benzoic acid (0.007-1.24 mg/ L) and dihydroxycinnamic acid (0.005-1.25 mg/ L), among other phenolic acids in lower concentration. All fermented media had antimicrobial activity against Salmonella enterica, and three of them also inhibited the growth of other pathogens such as Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes. These also showed a broad spectrum of antifungal activity against the genera Fusarium, Penicillium and Aspergillus in solid medium. Keywords: breast milk, probiotic, antimicrobial activity, antifungal activity.

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ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF EXTRACTS FROM LACTIC ACID BACTERIA IN GRAPE

I. Girón, V. Dopazo, C. Luz, T, Raquel, G. Meca

Laboratory of Toxicology. Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health. Food Sciences, Toxicology and Legal Medicine. Faculty of Pharmacy. University of Valencia. igiguz@alumni.uv.es

The study of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and their ferments is interesting from the point of view of Food Science and Technology for possible technological applications in the preservation of aliments against fungi. This study has evaluated the potential antifungal activity of these extracts and their ability to preserve a food matrix such as grapes. A total of four ferments from tomato and fish LAB were tested against five species of contaminating fungi from grapes belonging to the genera Aspergillus and Botrytis. C haracterization of antifungal activity was performed using agar diffusion test and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC)-Minimum Fungicidal Concentration (MFC) determination. Finally, the preservative properties of the mediums were evaluated on red grapes inoculated with the five fungi. Fermented mediums showed MIC ranged from 3.1- >100 g/L and MFC from 6.3 - >100 g/L. Greatest effectivity was achieved in the treatments to Botrytis cinerea and Aspergillus carbonarius with MFC values from 3.1 to 25 g/L, and MFC from 6.3-50 g/L, respectively . I n food test, the highest effectiveness was obtained in grapes inoculated with A. ochraceus , where treatments had a significant reduction with 1.56 – 0.58 de log10 spores per gram of grapes compared to MRS control. For A. carbonarius, y B. cinerea only some of the ferments showed efficacy in treatment. Treatments on inoculated grapes with A. niger y A. tubigensis didn’t show efficacy. Results were statistically analyzed by the Tuckey test carried out with a confidence level of 95%. As the results have been favorable for this study, tests will be performed with other fruits in the future to find more applications.

Keywords: Biopreservation, lactic acid bacteria, toxigenic fungi, grape, shelf life, antifungal activity.

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EFFECT OF PRESSURE AND TREATING MEDIA ON THE SUPERCRITICAL CO2 INACTIVATION OF BREVUNDIMONAS DIMINUTA A. Gómez-Gómez1, E. Brito-de la Fuente2, C. Gallegos2, J.V. García-Pérez1 and J. Benedito1 1 2

Dpto. Tecnología Alimentos (Universitat Politècnica de València, Valencia) España

Product and Process Engineering Center, Global Manufacturing Pharmaceuticals (Fresenius-Kabi Deutschland GmbH, Bad Homburg), Germany angegom9@gmail.com

The pasteurization of lipid emulsions has gained interest due to its application in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Several authors observed a strong protective effect against inactivation treatments when the microbial cells were in complex physicochemical systems, compared to simple solutions. Although supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) treatments in liquid products have been widely studied, there are almost no references for oil emulsions. Therefore, the feasibility of the pasteurization of lipid emulsions using SC-CO2 was studied and compared to a conventional thermal treatment. For that purpose, B. diminuta inactivation was studied; SC-CO2 treatments were performed at two different pressures (100 and 350 bar) at 35ºC and the thermal treatment was conducted at 50ºC. To study the effect of the oil content, inactivation experiments were performed in a 20% oil-in-water emulsion and in distilled water (0% oil). The initial microbial load was 107- 108 CFU/mL. Higher inactivation levels of B. diminuta were obtained in the SC-CO2 treatments at 35ºC, regardless the pressure applied, than in the thermal treatment at 50ºC. The inactivation rates increased with the pressure rise in the SC-CO2 treatments. For the same treatment time (70 min), the inactivation increased from 5.1 at 100 bar to 6.4 log-cycles at 350 bar. In terms of the effect of the treating media, B. diminuta was more resistant to the SC-CO2 treatment in the lipid emulsion than in water. At 350 bar, 35ºC and 30 min, 5.7 log-cycles reduction were achieved in water (0%) while only 2.8 log-cycles were obtained in the emulsion. These results show the potential that the SC-CO2 technique has for the pasteurization of lipid emulsions. However, the oil content in the emulsion increases the protection of microorganisms against the SC-CO2 treatments and more intense treatments are required compared to fat-free media.

Keywords: Brevundimonas diminuta, supercritical CO2, oil content, emulsion Acknowledgements: this study was funded by Fresenius Kabi

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ULTRASONIC ASSISTED SUPERCRITICAL FLUID TREATMENT FOR THE INACTIVATION OF CLOSTRIDIUM BUTYRICUM SPORES IN LIPID EMULSIONS A. Gómez-Gómez1, E. Brito-de la Fuente2, C. Gallegos2, J.V. García-Pérez1 and J. Benedito1 1 2

Dpto. Tecnología Alimentos (Universitat Politècnica de València, Valencia) España

Product and Process Engineering Center, Global Manufacturing Pharmaceuticals (Fresenius-Kabi Deutschland GmbH ,Bad Homburg) Germany angegom9@gmail.com

Heat treatments involve the application of high temperatures and long times to inactivate vegetative cells and spores. Alternatively, methods of inactivation, such as supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2), have been studied. However, SC-CO2 could be an extremely time-consuming process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of combining SC-CO2 and high power ultrasound (HPU) to inactivate Clostridium butyricum spores and to assess the effect of the temperature (60,70,80 and 85ºC at 550 bar) and the pressure (100, 350 and 550 bar at 85ºC). C. butyricum spores were inoculated in a 20% oil-in -water emulsion (104-105 spores/mL). SC-CO2 and SC-CO2 + HPU treatments were carried out in a supercritical CO2 plant with an embedded ultrasound system (35 ± 5 W; 30 kHz). C. butyricum inactivation level was significantly (p<0.05) higher in the SC-CO2 treatment, compared to the thermal one. Only a reduction of 0.7 log-cycles was achieved in 10 min in the 85ºC thermal treatment, while spores were completely inactivated (more than 4 logcycles reduction) with the SC-CO2 treatment (85ºC, 550 bar,10 min). HPU had a significant (p<0.05) effect on the C. butyricum spore reduction, since the emulsion was sterilized in only 3 min (85ºC, 550 bar). The inactivation was higher as the temperature increased. At 60ºC, a reduction of 1.43 logcycles was achieved in 50 min, while at 80ºC the complete inactivation was achieved in 20 min. On the contrary, no significant (p>0.05) differences in the level of inactivation was found between 350 and 550 bar at 85ºC. The application of HPU to the SC-CO2 treatment drastically shortened the process time. In addition, pressures higher than 350 bar did not enhanced the spores inactivation for the studied treatment conditions. This could stand for a reduction in the cost of the process and an increase in the product quality.

Keywords: Clostridium butyricum, spores, supercritical CO2, ultrasound, lipid emulsion.

Acknowledgements: this study was funded by Fresenius Kabi

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INACTIVATION OF E. COLI IN LIPID EMULSIONS WITH PULSED ELECTRIC FIELDS A. Gómez-Gómez1, E. Brito-de la Fuente2, C. Gallegos2, J.V. García-Pérez1 and J. Benedito1 1 2

Dpto. Tecnología Alimentos (Universitat Politècnica de València, Valencia) España

Product and Process Engineering Center, Global Manufacturing Pharmaceuticals (Fresenius-Kabi Deutschland GmbH, Bad Homburg), Germany angegom9@gmail.com

Pulsed electric fields (PEF) technology represents one of the most promising alternatives for non-thermal microbial inactivation, through the electroporation of the microbial cell membranes. A laboratory scale continuous flow unit was used to study the effect of PEF on E. coli inactivation. The PEF process involved the application of a high intensity electric field (20, 25 and 30 kV/cm) as a sequence of pulses of short duration (5µs) and 50 Hz. E. coli was inoculated in a 20% oil-in-water emulsion, with an initial microbial load of 107- 108 CFU/mL, which was driven by a peristaltic pump through two electrodes inside the treatment chamber. The flow of the pump was set to obtain a total time of treatment of 90, 130 and 170 µs. The experiments were performed at two input temperatures of the emulsion (15 and 25ºC). Therefore, the effect of the field strength, the total time of treatment and the input temperature on the inactivation was evaluated. The level of inactivation was significantly (p<0.05) higher for the highest intensity of the electric field (30 kV/cm), the longest treatment times (130 and 170 µs) and the highest input temperature (25ºC). The maximum inactivation level achieved was of 2.9 log-cycles for the most intense treatment (30 kV/cm, 170 µs and input temperature of 25ºC). Therefore, PEF treatment has demonstrated its capacity for microbial inactivation in lipid emulsions, notwithstanding the protecting effect that the high oil content provides to microorganisms. Higher initial temperatures or the combination with other non-thermal technologies could be alternatives to increase the level of inactivation.

Keywords: Escherichia coli, pulsed electric fields, lipid emulsion.

Acknowledgements: this study was funded by Fresenius Kabi

97


MULTI-MYCOTOXIN CONTAMINATION IN MOROCCAN BEVERAGE INFUSION A. El Jai1, A. Zinedine1, C. Juan2 1

Applied Microbiology and Biotechnologies Group, BioMare Laboratory, Faculty of Sciences,

Chouaib Doukkali University, 24000 El Jadida, Morocco. 2Laboratory of Food Chemistry and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Valencia, Av. Vicent Andrés Estellés s/n, 46100 Burjassot, València, Spain Leaves, flowers, roots, barks, fruits or seeds of certain herbs and plants, which may be aromatic or not, are usually used to prepare beverage infusion. It is a typical product consumed historically as a medicinal product, and nowadays as a digestive effect, which others diuresis, enhancement of immune defense, as an energizer and to prolong life. However, during harvesting, handling, storage and distribution, these parts of plants are subjected to contamination by various fungi, which may be responsible for spoilage and production of mycotoxins. Aflatoxins (AFs) and ochratoxin A (OTA) have been widely studied, nevertheless, emerging Fusarium mycotoxins mainly enniatins (ENs) and beauvericin (BEA) have been studied in the last decade. Very limited information has been provided regarding the occurrence of mycotoxins in Moroccan medicinal plants. The presence of AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2, OTA, ENA, ENA1, ENB, ENB1 and BEA was studied in samples of infusion beverage largely used in Morocco. One hundred and eleven samples of green tea (Camellia sinensis) and fortyone medicinal and aromatic plants (Rosmarinus officinalis, Matricaria chamomilla, Origanum vulgare, Verveine officinale, Mentha, Myrtus communis and Lavandula Intermedia) purchased from different markets in Rabat area (Morocco) were extracted with a based on a dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction procedure, and mycotoxins identification and quantification was carried out by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Analytical results showed that 57% of green tea samples and 90% of medicinal and aromatic plants (MAP) were contaminated by at least one mycotoxin. The most detected mycotoxins were AFG1 in MAP (25%) and green tea (3%). The multi-presence of mycotoxins was also observed, it was in 52% of MAP analyzed. It was observed that the contamination levels in positive samples were below the maximum limits set by European Pharmacopoeia for certain mycotoxins in plant material. Keywords: Multi-mycotoxin, Green tea, medicinal plant, Morocco, mass spectrometry Acknowledgment: This research has been supported by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness 324 AGL2016-77610-R and the Generalitat Valencian GVPROMETEO2018-126.

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INSULIN/IGF-1 PATHWAY IMPLICATION ON CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS LIFESPAN EXTENSION BY PLANT STEROL AND GALACTOOLIGOSACCHARIDES ENRICHED BEVERAGES G. López-García1, A. Alegría1, R. Barberá,1, P. Martorell2, S. Genovés2, A. Cilla1 1

Nutrition and Food Science Area, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Valencia, Burjassot, Valencia, Spain. 2ADM BIOPOLIS, ADM Nutrition, Parc Científic Universitat de València, Valencia, Spain Antonio.cilla@uv.es C. elegans is an adequate model for ageing studies due to its short lifespan and highly conserved

molecular pathways such as insulin/IGF-1 signalling (IIS). The inhibition of ISS- by the union of ligands to the daf-2 receptor- promotes the translocation to the nucleus of daf-16 transcriptional factor, which induces the expression of longevity genes. Plant sterols (PS) have shown to extend C. elegans lifespan by inhibition of IIS pathway, but the effect of galactooligosaccharides (GOS) remains unknown. To evaluate if two PS (0.6 %, w/v) enriched milk-based fruit beverages without (MfB) or with (MfB-G) GOS (1.2 %, w/v) could extend C. elegans lifespan through the ISS pathway. Age-synchronizing eggs from wild-type, daf-16 and daf-2 mutant strains of C. elegans were transferred into plates containing nematode growth medium (NGM) (control) or NGM containing an 1% (v/v) of MfB or MfB-G and incubated for 28-60 days (20 ºC) depending on the strains used. Nematode survival was recorded every two days manually and with an automated system based on image analysis. MfB increased nematode mean lifespan in wild-type strain by a 33% vs. control using both methods. MfB-G showed slight differences in the mean lifespan increasing evaluated by manual (27%) and automatic (19 %) methods vs. control. In daf-16 strain, MfB and MfB-G did not extend mean lifespan: 11–13 and 11–12 days, respectively vs. control (13 days) for both methods. Similarly, beverages were not able to extend the mean lifespan of daf-2 strain showing lower values (29 and 28 days for MfB and MfB-G, respectively) than control (40 days). Both PS enriched beverages extend the longevity of C. elegans probably by the inhibition of IIS pathway. The use of an alternative platform that allows performing longevity studies in C. elegans automatically vs. manually has been confirmed. Acknowledgements: This study belongs to the national project AGL2015-68006-C2-1-R, financed by the Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (MINECO) and the Fondo Europeo de Desarrollo Regional (FEDER). Gabriel López-García holds a grant (ACIF/2016/449) from the Generalitat Valenciana (Spain).

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ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF YELLOW MUSTARD BRAN AGAINST PENICILLIUM, ASPERGILLUS, AND FUSARIUM

L. Navarro, R. Torrijos, J. Mañes, G. Meca

Laboratory of Food Chemistry and Toxicology. Faculty of Pharmacy. University of Valencia. Spain. lanagal@alumni.uv.es

Natural antimicrobials extend the shelf life of products without altering their organoleptic characteristics meeting the consumers’ demand for additive-free, safe and healthy foods. Mustard is highly appreciated for its culinary uses and the antimicrobial properties of oriental mustard (Brassica juncea) have been studied for their content in glucosinolates which, when hydrolyzed, produces isocyanates, among which the Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) excels for its antifungal properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of yellow mustard (Brassica alba) against toxigenic fungi. First, a solid medium test was prepared where four matrices were used/using four different matrices: Yellow Mustard Seed (YMS), Fermented Yellow Mustard Seed (YMSF), Yellow Mustard Bran (YMB) and Fermented Yellow Mustard Bran (YMBF), to evaluate their inhibitory ability against various fungi of the genera Penicillium, Fusarium and Aspergillus. YMB gave the highest inhibitory activity in all cases, so only this matrix was maintained to test Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Fungicide Concentration (MFC) as well as stability tests. From the MIC-MFC's trials, P. cambemberti and P. roqueforti presented a 0.3 g/L MIC and a 0.6 g/L MFC, on the other hand, the fungus that showed the most resistance was F. proliferatum with 9.4 g/L MFC. For the stability tests, the same fungi were tested at different temperatures: 4 °C, 25 °C, and 50 °C for 24 h, 48 h, 72 h and 168 h, the compound showed stability and therefore inhibition in both 4 °C and 25 °C for more than 168 h, except in the genus Aspergillus at 25 °C which only maintains its antifungal activity and capacity for 72 h without reaching 168 h. At 50 °C it loses all antifungal activity. These results open a wide range of possibilities for the use of yellow mustard bran as an antifungal additive in the food industry.

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PULSED ELECTRIC FIELDS AS STRATEGY TO MITIGATE AFLTATOXIN CONTENTS IN FRUIT JUICES

N. Pallarés, H. Berrada, A. Orts, E. Ferrer

Laboratory of Toxicology and Food Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Valencia, Avda. Vicent Andrés Estellés s/n, 46100 – Burjassot (Valencia), Spain. noelia.pallares@uv.es

Innovative food processing techniques such as pulsed electric fields (PEFs), which produce low impact in the nutritional components and sensory properties of foodstuffs comparing with traditional thermal processes are being investigated nowadays by the industry, as the demand of fresh-like products is increasing. PEFs technology is based on the application of short electrical pulses (usually 1–20 μs), with a high field strength (15-80 kv / cm) in a time range of 50 ns to several milliseconds to samples placed between two electrodes and consist an effective alternative to inactivate microorganisms at lower temperature. This technique has already found application in the decontamination and shelf-life extension of fresh fruits and vegetables industry. To the best of our knowledge, few information is available in bibliography about the effect of PEFs technique as tool for reducing mycotoxins levels in food. Vijayalakshmi et al., (2018) studied it use for AFs reduction in potato dextrose agar model system and observed reduction percentages up to 77%. The aim of the present work is to investigate the mitigation effect of PEFs on AFs contents in fruit juice and smoothie samples. For this, the purchased samples spiked with AFs at concentration of 100 µg/L were treated by PEF under conditions of field strength of 3 Kv /cm and specific energy of 500 KJ/kg. After the treatment, the mycotoxins were extracted using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method (DLLME) and determined by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/ MS-IT). The reductions observed were up to 70% for AFB2 and AFG1, in both juice and smoothie samples. The same treatment applied to H2O samples produced similar reductions, showing that for these samples, matrix effect did not affect PEFs results. For that, PEFs is presented here as good strategy to mitigate AFs contents in these samples. Keywords: pulsed electric fields; aflatoxins; mitigation strategy; DLLME; HPLC-MS/MS-IT

Acknowledgments: This research was supported by the Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (AGL2016-77610-R) and by the pre-PhD program of University of Valencia “Atracció de Talent” (UV-INV-PREOC16F1-384781).

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EVALUATION OF MICOTOXINS BY LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY-TANDEM MASS SPECTROMETRY IN RICE SAMPLES. J. Troestch1, C. Juan2 1

Natural Resources Research Center, Autonomous University of Chiriquí, 0427 David, Chiriquí, Panamá; 2 Laboratory of Food Chemistry and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Valencia, Av. Vicent Andrés Estellés s/n, 46100 Burjassot, Valencia, Spain. jose.troestch1@unachi.ac.pa

Mycotoxins affect a wide variety of foods, through contaminated crops, mainly cereals (corn, rice, wheat, etc.), once present, cannot be decontaminated, due to their stability. Its toxic effects constitute a risk for animal and human health generating a problem for global food security. Rice is the main nutritional source for a third of the world's population, and possible source of mycotoxins, so different regulations have been established for the most frequent, such as ochratoxin A (OTA) and aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1, G2). For its determination, liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) due to its specificity, sensitivity, reproducibility and multi-analyte capacity, is the chromatographic technique most used. The objective has been to review in the literature which analytical methodology has been applied recently, the origin of the analyzed samples and type of rice-based samples. A total of 19 investigations have been compiled between 2012 and 2019, observing a variety of extraction procedures and clean-up applied. The samples were from 13 countries, the majority being Asian (52.6%) and European (31.6%). The most used extraction and clean-up method was QuEChERS (36.8%) and immunoaffinity columns (21%). The highest incidence was observed in samples from Iran and Italy; followed by 71-75% in samples from China, Malaysia and Côte d'Ivoire. Presented values higher than the European normative for AFB1 (2μg / Kg) samples from Côte d'Ivoire, Pakistan and Morocco, these and Malaysia for total aflatoxins (4μg / Kg); for OTA (5μg / Kg), samples from Côte d'Ivoire and Morocco surpassed them. These findings reveal that rice for human consumption, in Africa and Asia, may have a high incidence of mycotoxins. Studies that use LC-MS/MS are scarce in regions of high consumption such as Latin America (10%), where ELISA, HPLC-FLD or thin layer chromatography methodologies are the most used techniques, so future research is still required.

Keywords: rice, mycotoxin, LC-MS/MS, QuEChERS, cereal.

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VII International Student Congress of Food Science and Technology  

VII International Student Congress of Food Science and Technology  

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