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CONTENTS 1.0 Ideation 1.1 Measured Drawing Set - Document Wallet 1.2 Volume - Sketch Model 1.3 Sketch Design Proposals 1.4 Reflection - Document Wallet 2.0 Design 2.1 Introduction to Proposal 2.2 Digitization + Design proposal v.1 2.3 Precedent research 2.4 Design proposal v.2 2.5 Prototype v.1+ Testing Effects: 2.6 Reflection 3.0 Fabrication 3.1 Fabrication Introduction 3.2 Design Development + Fabrication Prototype V.2 3.3 Design Development + Fabrication Prototype V.3 3.4 Final Prototype Development +Optimization 3.5 Final Digital Model 3.6 Fabrication Sequence 3.7 Assembly Drawing 3.8 Complete Second Skin 3.9 Reflection 4.0 Reflection 5.0 Appendix 5.1 Credits 5.2 Bibliography



0.0 INTRODUCTION Personal space varies between every individual, affected by situation, crowd and our own perception of our surroundings.

In this project, the notion of personal space coupled with individual distance becomes physically defined. Free movement for the user’s comfort is emphasized upon, including the limitation of sight towards the user from external sources.

As such, the user is able to retain their sense of protection and comfort during particular activities. Designed to encase light within its premises, the form is seen differently as dependent on angles from which it is seen.



1.0 IDEATION Material system: Panel & Folding Object for analysis: Document Wallet Work mode: Individual




The document wallet is a storage folder which retains small documents such as receipts and notes, in one place. Its outer covering is composed of polypropylene material which allows it to be waterproof.

Regarding the plan and following technical drawings, the object’s outline is first traced on to paper as accurately as possible with scale 1:1 (all in mm).

Measurements were recorded after, using a scale rule in order to reassure the accuracy of scale and overall dimensions and proportions.







Separation tabs attached to the outer casing radiated from the centre, with flexible cavity to allow for movement of folder tabs. It has a linear attachment on the edges. REAR ELEVATION

The folded partitions at the sides allow for flexible movement, including expansion and contraction. This enables considerate opening and closing of the folder. Tabs also regard capabilities in organisation.









Close-up shots of panel/fold system, which

1. Using the Line and Polyline commands to layout the outer covering of the wallet, serving as a base. Control point curve tool also creates symmetrical curves accordingly.

2. Control Point Curve and trimming the curves with Rectangle and circle tools to form a single-sided element. From here, the Pull command is used to ‘pull’ the edges, utilising points and mesh the polyline creation.

3. Use ArrayPolar in combination with the Line command to form repetition of the partitions. Also allows for adjustments to the positioning of separation tabs.


is most distinct within partition space and regarding its attachment to the sides.



The wallet consists of 12 tabs and 13 compartment (pockets). For the folding mechanism to be effective and efficient, with regard to open/closing capabilities, the side edges of each separator are glued to a jagged edge.

The base; in which the lid envelops the Elastic strap

front opening of the object securely.

Area of

as a second

glue on


[Overall form

to secure

composed of basic


geometric shapes

Plastic integrated as

including rectangle

a major structure;

and triangle.]

being a weatherproof


material so it is fairly

internal space



resistant and durable.

Segmented ridge as ergonomic feature. Adds safety due to less sharp edges.

Separate Ridge opens 360 degrees.

Complexity increases due to visual features.


All 3 parts appear to be initially 2-dimensional but combine to form a 3-dimensonal element when attached.


In the 180 degree opening, the separation tabs give a multitude of layers to make up internal volume. That also forms segments which create spatial boundaries within the document wallet.

Pockets glued to internal edges of the plastic have a slightly angled fold.

Without the elastic strap, the material of polypropylene causes the case to automatically open to a 180 degree angle before sagging due to self-load.

Jagged/zigzag formation

Pocket tabs; separation.

Folding mechanism analysis below; up to 180 degrees when open. It is overall a small and compact storage folder.

[Tension in the upper pocket’s edge]

Pockets angle more inwardly when Pocket separators improve storage convenience and capacity, making it

Thick outer layer gives

easier to organize.

sturdiness to case.

opened. Increased flexibility and

Inner pivot mechanism maintains

Lid can rotate 360 degrees. Can be left

becomes easier to store items.

point of 180 degrees rotation within.

open on its own if outer tabs fold inward.



Transition of the document wallet. Components that were taken were the partition sheets and the flat outer case covering.

1) For the ‘outer case’, planar forms were created by cutting out squares and folding them diagonally. Overlapping was linear and plain in terms of effect and twisting these forms were limited. These folded forms though a organised figure with bottom support resembled the wallet more than a linear form as well as creating spatial boundaries and volume.

Components were recreated with material of similar thickness: canvas and watercolour paper of 300gsm.

2) The paper was folded in opposite directions consecutively in order to recreate the effect of side partition sheets of the wallet. In order to raise the volume and to portray a sense of ‘personal space’, some of the forms were forced to bend inwards, creating a shell-like and defensive figure.







The inspiration acting as basis for further study of variations for the panel and fold system. The flexibility of the seemingly rigid system, amplified by its folding, knows no bounds. Figure 1. Moranak Ranjec Fashion. 2017.



HUSK / COCOON / WINDSWEPT / OVERLAY / ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Inspiration: Personal space is something innate in every person. Even those who love coming into close physical contact with their loved ones need their space, but wish to imply this without offending others or telling them. Concept: The head and the upper parts of the body are what most people use when conversing to another person directly in front of them. Most body language comes from the gestures of hands and eyes. This concept wishes to emphasize attention towards those parts of the body, but at the same time, grant a sense of acknowledgment that personal space is needed from the other person.

Serves to portray the user’s open mindedness while maintaining a bit of distance.

In response to personal space: A trailing panel form that curves inward allows the wearer to keep peace with those they interact with; they are not aggressive, nor are they overly passive. This exudes positive confidence. The small inclusion of an extrusion can help defend from the occasional, sudden unwarranted contact.




Inspiration: Over here, the feelings of healthy introverts are taken into consideration. Often excessive quietness or solitude can lead others to gain the wrong impression of introverts. Sometimes they are without desire to shun others, but are unable to clearly express this. Concept: The forms here create a system that represents wings in an abstract form. One side is akin to an armored wing, whilst the other is a more open form, though it covers parts of the face from certain viewpoints. It provides option as to whether the person wants to expose their facial expressions to others, or if they prefer to cage it in themselves for the time being. Serves to shield the user, dependent on circumstances.

In response to personal space: A skeletal-like structure from via the continuous folding of panels seems to give off a sense of tact; it does not hide the wishes of the wearer. Personally, the dominant arm is very important, and this system prevents harm to come to either arm.



[A more curved alternative, representing smoothed glacier ice.]


Concept: Both the front, back and sides of personal space and preferred distance are taken into consideration. This could be more useful for those who wish to force others to maintain a distanceperhaps establish a higher sense of authority, or keep away. Serves to intimidate others with the user’s presence.

Inspiration: Forms of the document wallet was found to have been quite harsh; the combination of the material combined with repetition of partitions could cause surface wounds if careless. This current sketch focuses on anti-socialism and the unwillingness to hide it. This is a time when there is both confidence and intimidation present in a person.

In response to personal space: Certain areas become more dangerous, especially during night time. This could very well serve to actively defend or lessen the intention of aggression from others.



In this module, allowing for analysis diagrams was beneficial to the creation of panel and folding forms for future Rhino components. It also served as a starting point as to experiment with different mediums for translation of analytical diagrams. The measurements were supposed to have objective truth to it as taken, according to Heath and Jensen’s 300 years of Industrial Design (2000).

Measuring according to proportion also assisted with a more accurate 1:1 scale of drawing, and made Rhino workflow efficiency faster than expected. Because of similar components to the document wallet, regarding modelling, using duplication commands such as polar array assisted with replicating parts efficiently.

The object for analysis has allowed greater depth in exploration of ideas of the capabilities of the system, consequently affecting the ideas for the sketch designs toward the end. Furthermore, Sommer’s Personal Space (1969) excerpt has provided the understanding on how to define personal space concepts from person to person, which also depends on social circumstances and surroundings. This has assisted with the rationale behind the sketch design proposals.




2.0 DESIGN Material system: Panel & Folding Work mode: Group Yuting Yang, Nurul Syahirah Muhamad, Joo Liew



The wearer initially was to conform to the following characteristics: Introvert/ Extrovert young adult female who was able to essentially twist the form to allow them to adhere to specific surroundings and deal with unwanted situations easily.


At this stage, further investigation into personal space concepts and individual distance was more greatly explored. Various activities such as faceto-face communication and crowded areas were taken into account. The upper body part was decided upon as it was the most significant of instinctive space and distance portrayed by the majority. From Sommer’s reading of Personal Space (1969), specific social situations were taken into account, influencing future sketch design proposals.



1) The initial model concept. A cocoon or husk concept was first considered but later brought to concern it appears too clothing-like (jacket). Therefore more analysis was required to create a more abstracted form.


2) Addition and subtraction removal of various parts of the model, further addressing personal space and trial-and-error of various components to create a more abstract form. This regards a more exposed form of personal space.

3) Twisting and folding becomes more distinct to cater for a wider range of user types, particularly introverts and takes into consideration the physical build of the wearer, especially around the upper body part.

The concentration of personal space is depicted within the following sketches, firstly for an introverted female and the other for an extraverted female. The current concept allows mobility of the physical form in order to allow the user to adhere to specific environmental situations, as well as provide comfort to their moods during external interaction and communication.


Personal space is more heavily explored and defined during this phase.


Full-body views with regard to relative size of the human model. Size as intended to provide personal space to introverts sufficiently, particularly for the upper body.

From here it is decided that an introverted user is able to use this second skin, and is most suited to one of relatively small build. This stage of the concept visualizes that the structure is able to twist, which allows minimization of individual distance but allowing for maximization of internal personal space. The front extrusion depicts the idea of occasional defensive mechanism, though this was to have been more suited to an extravert in a crowded social situation.




The model is formed with the notion of external interference impeding on personal space and also an attempt to find maximum closure beneficial to our second skin.


Currently the constraint of personal space is approximately 450 mm from the user, particularly regarding the back portion of the head. It is assumed that this second skin is optimal for people who feel discomfort from sides which do not appear front-on, as in, they mostly rely on peripheral vision. FRONT LEFT RIGHT REAR


The model is intended to provide approximately 1 feet of personal space for the wearer. Internal spatial volume of the model was reconsidered and larger amendments made to convey this coverage more effectively. However, a way to allow the form to sit on the body required further exploration. ISOMETRIC


The previous extrusion has been transferred upwards in attempt to have possibilities of framing of views for the user, blocking them and external subjects from interaction.

Panelling tools in Rhino was used to digitally realize the concept from Workshop 3. The textures inside the second skin protrude away from the user so as to increase ergonomic capabilities of the model. The triangulated panels created uneven surfaces, similar to a natural shell structure in real life.


We explored methods to create a more wearable form within this stage of progression. Prevention of pain infliction upon the user was taken into consideration so internal pattern layout was adjusted into variable alternatives, making the model more subjected to ergonomic changes. Smaller folded panels were also considered to provide larger curvature.


Using 2D triangle forms with offset curves in the surface for lighting gaps were combined to create a spacious form for the introverted wearer. The triangles also established a diamond effect, which appeared organized and visually systematic in nature, reflecting a common personality trait among introverts.


However, the defense mechanism option of the second skin needed to be addressed further, so more investigation was required. A more crystallized form with rough jagged structures at the bottom was intended to defend against others but prevent inflicting pain on oneself.


Jagged texture was a similar feature to the initial sketch proposals, however gaps on the doubly curved surface were an issue to compensate for on the this part of the second skin.



PIERRE HUYGHE - PUPPET THEATER MOS, 2004. The puppet theater is built with polycarbonate triangulated panels and has a lighted sight effect. This creates an airy suspension of the form, making it appear lightweight or almost luminescent. Consisting of triangles allows planar surface curvatures and interlocking folds to form rigidity in the structure, Panels are bolted as connection system and forces dissipate across the surface by this connection. Ceiling panels have a similar feature to skylights and works as keystones on arches for structural stability.

Figure 3. Mos Architects puppet Theatre


Figure 2. Mos Architects Puppet Theatre

The twisting panels creates an enclosed space and maximizes internal volume. Multiple components are joined to form a 3-dimensional self-supporting frame.

Conformity of triangles allow for curvature flexibility, especially along folding lines.

From the precedent, we derive a similar pattern in order to maximise our own concept of multiple curvatures acting to create a flexible form with sufficient spatial volume to the personal space constraint.


Separation of panels in certain areas can create an interesting visual effect, that is not completely uniform as in that it has irregularity.

A skylight concept is adopted, in order to focus on the potential visual effect the final form may give us, hence positioning of gaps were considered in future concept sketches.



1) From the first design development concept, we extracted a minor part of the model. Lofting + ptPanelGrid (Tribasic) formed the planar triangular pattern to create a case structure.

2) A more curved form derived from similar aspects as (1). Circular formation allowed due to additional planar surfaces.

3) Regarding the precedent analysis and (2), the form is further amended. This time a net mesh was experimented with to allow enclosure of the wearer from their surroundings, to imbue the comforting effect of the user’s own personal space.

4) We attempted to amplify the jagged form structure, around upper edges with a smoother, rounded bottom layer. This was done to enhance the notion of slightly more aggressive defensive mechanisms whilst holding physical comfort for the wearer.


With relation to the above sketches, and the diagram of the rib extrusion(right), various connections were analysed as to how the form would be able to ‘sit’ on the body or support itself. The connection would be designed to act as a mediator between the developed form and the wearer, The introverted wearer is intended to feel as though they are consoled by the support of the connection points.


Additional development of the rib extrusion was taken into consideration. Intended to have connected with the wearer’s body via the upper arm or shoulders/ neck.

The Equation

Combination of the jagged cylindrical form acts in symbiosis with the smoothed husk version from development version 1. This established a more intimidating structure albeit evened thorough the presence of the smoother form. Intended to have conveyed a seemingly mild nature of the introverted user but with the requirement that there is secure protection from unwanted interaction or communication with outsiders.


Evolution of developmental forms


Variation within identical personal space



A range of sense effects were explored here, although it is later narrowed down to one: the sight effect, similarly to the precedent researched.

The overall structure of the form is studied accordingly, as well as testing material for auditory senses (crackling of paper material) and scent (incense absorption through the paper). Physical comfort (touch effect) was also considered, with the second skin becoming almost form-fitting to the wearer themselves.


Transparency effect (sight): The introvert’s characteristics are more defined; they may prefer solitude but need the light to resume their regular activities (eg work).

Possible materials considered: Polypropene, mount board (white with gloss finish), acetate or perspex. This is done to replicate the impression of a skylight.

A matte texture finish would have caused a diffusion of light, which would provide the impression of a frosted glass skylight instead of a clear one. Over here we explore alternations with light and its temporary and permanent effects.

Gloss finish was considered to create a momentary blinding effect, which would appear at irregular angles as light bounces off erratic folding patterns.

Ambience of gaps within frosted and opaque material were considered along this stage.



“Lost in Parameter Space” by Scheurer & Stehling (2011) mentioned a certain subject’s abstraction would allow for complexity despite the simplicity in a small description or portrayal of a concept. This influenced our design development greatly, leading to considering choices that would contain the most defined yet subtle symbolism of the sight sense. Properties of various materials also assisted with the solidification of the concept from the previous module as it was further developed and certain aspects being more thoroughly investigated in Rhino. Few complications that arose were that doubly curved surfaces were not developable, as hinted by Pottmann (2007) in his excerpt that rounded surfaces become somewhat planar if they are from ‘surface that can be built from paper’. The precedent however, had resolved our concern with the issue of rounded surfaces combined with rigid geometric patterns. Reduction of the created form was mostly used to enable us to create several different components and separate these into individual parts which could potentially be joined under careful consideration. As we had complications with narrowing down to one specific sense, testing out all senses on several different prototypes optimized our choices for further enhanced development, heading towards the fabrication of personal space in a physical definition.




3.0 Fabrication Material system: Panel & Folding Work mode: Group Yuting Yang, Nurul Syahirah Muhamad, Joo Liew



After the second module, the concept was reviewed and required to explore spatial volume in greater detail. This was necessary in order to create a self-supporting object and needed to amplify the distinction between personal space and individual distance.

In the third module we solve for alternate options and revamp the previous M2 versions through refining functional distributions within the concept.

An approximate distance of 1 feet for personal space was maintained throughout refinement and more carefully considered throughout every aspect possible; this potentially influences the subtraction of minor components of the rear and the side edges of the model from the previous module. This enhanced focus towards the front but enabled limited outsider vision, as according to our review on sensory effect: sight.



• Small pyramid units were folded from paper, and the individual units were combined to formulate a major structure. • There were a few considerations on multiplying the triangles to form a more hexagonal shape to consider as a single unit. • Connection tests were constructed in order to create a firm structure that would maximise personal space whilst maintaining a distinct panel-fold system visual. • More consideration into how the overall form would allow spatial volume to create the personal space was required.


• Scale 1:1 prototype was made utilising origami paper and a combination of triangular panel sections. • From here, we realized there was large potential for maximising the structure’s effect on outsiders’ sight and considered the flexibility of the panel-fold system. • Placement of the prototype on the body allowed us to determine the issue of spatial volume being the main priority and concern. • This prototype occured before the developed digital prototype realization.



Hexagons were decided as the final basic shape to retain as it was most similar to a circle. It could form a rigid grid whilst remaining bias to orientation changes and less likely to distort compared to other shapes.

The honeycomb structure was realized to provide higher aesthetics and give the internal volume for the user with enhanced comfort. Etching and labelling was required to prevent confusion, alongside additional tabs where required. The social circumstances and activities of the wearer needed to be considered whilst pursuing these modifications to our concept.


The fabricated physical prototype was not rigid enough around the side edges due to large gaps, however it sat on the shoulders with stability.

The order of shapes and patterns were altered accordingly, so as to create an unwrapping sequence , taking into account initial panelling and then the visualization of folding to reduce complications as suggested in readings of Architecture in the Digital Age (2003).


The prototype is most suitable for the following conditions: Introverted female who is doing her work in a lecture room or library, and needs the form to be relatively hard for outsiders to view the face of the user. Thus indirectly signalling external distraction is unwelcomed.





Method of modelling within Rhino: • Pt grid surface domain variable command and then allow Point Attractor to allow varying of panelling grid. • Pt offset point at 30mm - 50mm; point attractor changes unit depth. • Pt panel 3D custom to create hexagonal shape. • For the holes of each hexagon unit, use Pt grid custom variable command. Point attractors alters the hole size (0.2 - 0.8 size range). Shape is hexagonal.

Submission for laser cutting: After the model was created in Rhino, we grouped individual layers and units and then unrolled using Unrollsrf. We then labelled each component onto the laser cut template (although tabs not included at first; this was added later as precaution). This was done to keep the project as organised as possible, with numerous units and sent to the laser cutter with necessary etches/cutting lines.


Photo sequence, respectively: 1) Each unit joined along edges. 2) Clipped. 3) Connection using glue along edge surface. 4) Layers are joined.

Regarding connections, pieces were glued edge to edge. Without the tabs, stability was weakened. Clips were used as temporary connection measure before gluing for permanence to ensure accuracy. With relation to the feedback we obtained, the prototype still appeared flat and planar. The larger holes along the lower areas made the prototype relatively flimsy. As a result we considered more changes: rearranging hexagons from the current grid structure to a honeycomb structure style, changing direction/size of the holes to emphasize lighting effect and confirm stability. Including to compose the overall model to have more depth so as to create the initial shell-like structure.


Mount board samples. The material caused the prototype to fail as it was incredibly rigid and possibly too heavy for the wearer when combined. The material was also unable to fold flexibly enough which caused structural failure.


Ivory card at 290gsm allowed for sufficient stability and rigidity, alongside efficient folding. It was deemed most appropriate to fulfill conditions for personal space.

Fabrication was optimized by unrolling and adding tabs and labels accordingly. Surface structure underwent alterations to mark the completion of internal spatial volume conditions for personal space definition.



Personal space concept is revisited and is user-specific with situational-specific conditions: Optimal for those insecure with exposing the back of the heads. In a possibly dark environment in which required a light source to gather for themselves, as such the second skin has a clear view at the front to enable the user to do their work.


Load comparison of the structure sitting on the body, as dependent on the way the model is being worn. At certain positions, the prototype falls forward, unable to support itself. This required more later modifications.


In plan view, it serves as a net structure which obstructs viewing from external sources, allowing the wearer to feel protected.

Natural light aspect was mostly taken into account for this prototype and not electrical light. The overall form produces sufficient multi-layered light as it gathers it internally.


Light is dispersed within the structure. At this stage, prototype effect tests were underwent to examine its reflective features and improve upon the visual effect and also to increase aesthetic quality.


Photoshoot (Perspective; no human model)


Photoshoot (no human model)


Photoshoot (skylight feature consideration)


INSPIRATION Inspiration from lecture slides. The skylight feature was mostly taken into account from the Puppet Theatre precedent, however, the realization of a honeycomb smoothly curved surface was realized from the respective influence.









3.6 FABRICATION SEQUENCE Volume increase was required by enlarging the depth of the structure overall. Triangulated surface for the hexagonal unit allowed for increased stability. The depth for the units increased and interlocking regions for the hexagonal unit created a better structural system with more rigidity and solidity.


Double surfaces: We needed to modify this by creating greater depth to fit the brief, which required 3D volume.

PtGridVariable: Curve Attractor. Allows variation of every hexagonal unit and form a unique diagonal hexagon solid.


21 points needed for UV lines. Range of 15 to 25 was considered but the optimal size for the second skin was 21. Holes not too small nor big, with regard to visual aesthetic and structural stability.

We created our own hexagonal pattern using PtPanel3D.

PtGridManage3D: Customizes hexagonal solids to retrieve a honeycomb structure.

Emphasis on 3D volume creates a comfortable atmospheric effect for the user.

The honeycomb structure has more stability for load and no holes which cause failure of the form.

Issue with the previous prototype was that some surfaces were flipped internally which caused inconsistencies in the structure.

Triangulate Mesh command overcame this issue as it polygonised the surfaces and made it flatly developable.

For the holes along the surface, PtPanelGrid combined with the Pt2DManage command created hexagon shapes which could be later placed in an etch or cut line accordingly. Point attractor varied each shape of the holes.

Regarding fabrication sequence, each unit is printed, laser cut, folded and glued as row by row, then joining the entire structure. Again, temporary clips were used in order to ensure correct panelling connections were consistent. Tabs were glued ‘outwardly’ because this was actually the internal surface edge and would therefore be invisible when all units would be attached to each other.


Evolution of the model; from a single panel-fold unit to a grouped component.




Assembly and fabrication requirements: 1) For every unit (shown in red) join the surfaces together to become one polysurface, label accordingly and then Unrollsrf command to unroll in Rhino. 2) Labeled each unit and unrolled each accordingly to layer. 3) Apply tabs where necessary and check for consistencies; having the curves for the hole within the hexagons. 4) Before submission to the laser cutter, label each unit accordingly and colour code with the cut and etched lines complying with the submission requirements.

5) Mylar sheets (reflective material) were applied along the internal volume of the model to enhance the visual light effect and create a soft wave pattern within the shell, as seen in photoshoots in future pages.

(Right: Example of template optimized for laser cut print)



Photoshoot (No human model; confirmation of light effect and reflective material effect)


Array of light from offset of surface spaces at different angles.


Photoshoot (Confirmation of workability on human user optimized)



Final Photoshoot



For the M3 module, the design development required completion towards inconsistencies within the prototypes and overall final physical models. As stated in Lisa Iwamoto’s (2009) excerpts, 3D CAD programs such as Rhino allow for extensive realization for fabrication of physical forms despite restrictions and risk of distortion within technological capabilities. Being able to utilize a laser cutter was highly beneficial to effieciency of the workflow, including accuracy of the printing-- which formed a ‘perfect’ edged model, that such accuracy cannot be achieved by human hand. A precise and clean model has been established by technological means and its features enhanced accordingly.



4.0 REFLECTION Utilizing digital design within our project was incredibly crucial to the course. We have been taught to learn expressions of ideas that can achieve clean and precise visual aesthetics that are able to suit to a constraint form and function. Digital modelling and physical model prototyping has allowed for added perception that design possibilities can potentially be as infinite as the imagination. The fabrication course has revealed a more enhanced medium that signifies more experience in this aspect will be needed as times become more modernized. The project has also enabled me to further engage with my peers and build good communication and cooperation skills with a project team. Everyone had pulled their weight in the group and contributed fairly, which was a relatively pleasant experience despite regular technical difficulties with the technology we were to utilize. Panelling tools in Rhino was something very different to what I had experienced in 3D programs as I dealt with sculpting before, but never the rigidity of polygonising curved forms. As such, this area was almost foreign to me. The subject delivers a strong impression that digital design and fabrication requires us to realize solutions that can be developed and solutions that, can also be developed, albeit with greater difficulty. In the first module, the object analysis has allowed me to gain greater understanding of the panel and folding system. Additionally, systems that appear simple in real life are actually quite complicated when broken down into different components and layers to dissect for analysis. Panel and folding was found to be associated with paper, folding origami and the like, however we considered different options and worked on feedback to gain further insight. Although Ivory card material was chosen as the optimal decision in the end, this was due to fitting towards constraints in the brief as top priority.

Light workability within a dark room, as per the constraint.


Regarding prototype sensory effect testing, as a group we formed many ideas though we decided on sight focus to adhere most to the social situation of working within a dark area with a distinct light source, whether mechanical or natural. In Scott Marble’s “Building the Future” (200*) excerpt, we realized that ‘imagining risks’ could have meant the risks within the workmanship of the material, relating to its properties and complications of whether or not the material can be optimised for the function of the model.

Digital design may not become a full-time replacement for the human hand however it does provide more systematic and organized results, as well as allow engagement for more efficient and effective workflows. Digital design and fabrication has enabled us to produce clean and ‘perfect’ outcomes, though it cannot be a current substitute for the emotional ‘imperfect’ characteristics and ergonomics that human hands add to the design, which allows human users to relate more to the project. Digital design has assisted times with the acceleration of finding the ‘right’ notion or conceptual idea to suit to a form and function description most, instead of building physical prototypes for a long duration of time. Also, it was found that sketching on paper for developed concepts proved more difficult for others to visualize and realize the ideas as development grew more enhanced. Using Rhino enabled us to quickly discover issues and repair it just as efficiently, as compared to a longer time period required to repair a physical model with an inaccurate or unclean outcome. Production of such project models are read to be fabricated quickly instead of by human hand however some components which act as a greater enhancement to our final physical model had to be crafted through realistic means. The use of mylar sheets stuck inside the panel units to enhance the reflection of light within the shell structure was constructed and cut and trimmed by human hand. Furthermore, in the third module, it is discovered to be more efficient to trim and remove edges or flipped surfaces where the program has been unable to reverse the effect. Electrical lighting also had to be inserted by human craftsmanship within the model to fulfill the aspect of the brief where light sources are concerned.







5.2 BIBLIOGRAPHY READINGS: Enric Miralles,Carme Pinos, 1988/1991, “How to lay out a croissant� El Croquis 49/50 Enric Miralles, Carme Pinos, En Construccion pp. 240-241 Heath, A., Heath, D., & Jensen, A. (2000). 300 years of industrial design : function, form, technique, 1700-2000 / Adrian Heath, Ditte Heath, Aage Lund Jensen. New York : Watson-Guptill. Cheng,R. 2008. Inside Rhinoceros 4 / Ron K.C. Cheng. Clifton Park, NY : Thomson/Delmar Learning, c2008. Sommer, R. 1969. Personal space : the behavioral basis of design / Robert Sommer. Englewood Cliffs,

N.J. : Prentice-Hall, c1969.A

Scheurer, F. and Stehling, H._2011_:Lost in Parameter Space? IAD: Architectural Design, Wiley, 81 4 ,July, pp. 70-79 Asperl et al, 2007,Surfaces that can be built from paper/ In H.Pottmann, A.Asperl,M.Hofer, A.Kilian(eds) Architectural Geometry, p534-561, Bentley Institute Press Kolarevic, B 2003, Architecture in the Digital Age - Design and Manufacturing/Branko Kolarevic. Spon Press, London Marble, S, 2008. Building the Future: Recasting Labor in Architecture/ Philip Bernstein, Peggy Deamer. Princeton Architectural Press. pp 38-42 Rifkin, J 2011, The third Industrial Revolution. Palgrave Macmillan.pp107-126 INSPIRATIONS: Figure 1. (2017). Morana Kranjec - collection. [online] Available at: [Accessed 27 May 2017]. Figure 2. Zhan, X. (2012). Pinterest. [online] Pinterest. Available at: pin/137782069819354156/ [Accessed 27 May 2017]. Figure 3. Barker, K. (2017). [online] Available at: [Accessed 27 May 2017].



Digital Design & Fabrication Project  

ENVS20001 final module University of Melbourne Joo Liew 831400

Digital Design & Fabrication Project  

ENVS20001 final module University of Melbourne Joo Liew 831400