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Urban Growth Strategy

PROJECT PUHINUI mitigation and buffering for the growth of the urban

jonathan cristal | zoe wood | santiago jassu | saja yacoob


Contents introduction

auckland city masterplan

3

context

4 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

site analysis

archaeology

infrastructure land cover

landuse capability hydrology

slopes and elevation aspect

development

site constraints

vision

ecological

agricultural economical

final note references

introduction

residential

19 20 22 24 26 28 29

Auckland was founded in September of 1840. The Auckland region has had substantial urban development over time and has become home to 1.4 million people, It has developed into New Zealand’s largest city and is home to one third of the country’s population. Auckland city is growing, with a projected growth of one million people in population over the next 30 years Auckland city has propsed a city masterplan and developed unitary plan which overlooks where to house these occupants, maintain the prosperity of Aucklands wealth and growth and also portray a city that is desirable, welcoming and livable. Auckland city began to shape during the land wars and the construction of the much needed rail lines, allowing for economic development. Transforming Auckland from bare land into the largest urban area in New Zealand took time and the many geographic factors have had influence on Auckland’s development and given it shape. Historically, the development of Auckland’s urban form has been characterised by growth in sprawl, shrubs and low density development, accompanied by the need of motor vehicles to get around. However in the twenty first century there has been growth in the proportion of new housing developments that are medium density and apartments. To accomodate Aucklands growth this project proposes a Regional Growth Strategy Plan (RGSP) for an area that is located outside of Auckland City’s Metropolitan Urban Limit (MUL). The project brief requires to recognize and analyse the sites main landscape factors, elements and patterns within the site and the larger Auckland region. The project asks to propose a RGSP which illustrates and demonstrates landscape architecture with design approachs that doesnt only enhance ecological performance but also identifies innovative forms to locate an urban growth settlement.


SITE ANALYSIS context The project site was chosen to the south western of Aucklands City Business District. Puhinui or Wiri is located in south Auckland in the manukau district Wiri our site is a mostly industrial-commercial focused suburb. It neighbors one of New Zealands most valuable infrastructure to its west, Auckland International Airport and also is necked by the state highway 20A that runs by it to its east. Main site elements were Airport constraints, archaeological, aspect, elevation, hydrology, infrastructure, LCDB (Land Cover Database) and LUC (Land Use Capability). Analysis of these elements helped drive the projection of this assignment.

new zealand

auckland

puhinui

site context all maps scaled @ A3


archaeology

infrastructure

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airport railway roads offsile train station roads on site buildings on site

archaelogical points geology lines walkways

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There are many Archaeological points within the area that need to be taken into consideration. There are 3 craters sited around the Puhinui area. A cluster of three small maar craters like these is unique in the Auckland volcanic field. All of the land within the Puhinui Study Area is ancestral Maori land, with a long occupational history. Council commissioned an archaeological survey of the entire study area to document the full extent of the archaeological sites present within this area. The archaeological survey identified a large number of archaeological sites, most of which are located close to the coast or within the Crater Hill area. The archaeological survey also identifies “archaeological landscapes” where there is a high probability of further archaeological sites being present, given past known occupation. The Crater Hill area is identified as an archaeological landscape of exceptional significance, containing 56 individual archaeological sites.

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The site is directly neighbored to the west by one of Auckland City’s most valuable infrastructure and New Zealands largest airline hub, Auckland International Airport. The airport provides one of the sites largest constraints preventing maximum urban growth potential as flight paths hinder development to sprawl within certain areas of the site. The main access within in the site is state highway 20B (Puhunui road) that links the airport all the way to Auckland southern settlements. Price road runs perpendicular to Puhunui road and also intersects with it to provide access down the middle of the site to Puhunui Reserve which lays south of the site. There is a proposed rail route supposed to run in parallel to Puhunui road connecting Auckland CBD to the airport and Manukau central via train. all maps scaled @ A3


land cover

landuse capability

Urban Growth Strategy

PROJECT PUHINUI mitigation and buffering for the growth of the urban

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Land Use Capacity (LUC) is based on the assessment of soil, slope rock types, present type and strictness of vegetation and erosion. As the cities grow subdivisions or industrial or commercial land is often converted from existing farmland. Areas with lower LUC are then protected so it can continued to be used for food production. Horticulture and agriculture continue to be part of cultural practices of the Puhinui area so it is important to ensure our new developments integrate that. With vigilant management and attention of the different type of agriculture and horticulture both urban living and farming can co-exist. Also development based on soil type’s good quality soil will be continued to be used as agricultural use.

jonathan cristal | zoe wood | santiago jassu | saja yacoob

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Mapping areas of vegetation heightened the lack of connectivity and patches within the site. Urban development has removed vegetation connectivity through the South Auckland region. Through the development of Puhinui there is potential to vegetate the land and increase the biodiversity and connectivity across the wider context. Most of the area is broadleaf indigenous and deciduous Hardwoods. There are a lot of mangroves around the coastal edge.

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hydrology

slopes and elevation

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river buffer mangere catchment pahurehure catchment manukau coastline rivers stormwater mangement

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GIS shows two catchments within the Puhinui area beinging Mangere and Pahurenure, a 20m buffer has been applied to the river and coastal edges for the protection and prevention of aany ecological damage. Floodplains where used to avoid major development, they are often undesirable due to the availability of flat land and fertile soils, developing these areas would increase the potential risk of flooding which will cause undesirable development so they are best kept for recreational space and revegetation purposes.

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The site is generally leveled and flat. Elevation rises range between 0-40 meters above sea level with most of the land levelled near 20 meters. Hills and slopes over 8 degree should be avoided for building development sites and erosion these areas have potential for revegetation use.

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aspects

site constraints

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Considerations were made for the aspect in the design. All south and west facing hills have been identified as being unsuitable fo building foot prints as they face towars Aucklands dominant wind direction. These areas will be rebuffered and vegetated to improve ecology and all other aspects have been considered for the support movement of site

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built up areadeciduos hardwoods transport infrastructure urban parkland buffered zone crater hill matukuturua lava field puhinui intertidal banks puhinui volcanic explosion pukaki lagoon outstanding features maori land historic heritage

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Constraints provided a limitation and hindrance to the development of the site. Although it does not prevent site development. A majority of the constraints were ecological features including the coastal edges and outstanding significant natural features that were considered highly sensitive to develop design too. As mentioned in the infrastructure analysis the airport constraints sprawled through the majaority of the site. and provided a hinderance to maximize urban potential. Airport lighting ran through the middle of the site aswell as the flight paths noise. The 56-60 decibel area allows use for commercial, residential, hospitals, libraries, nurseries, nursing homes, geriatric homes and open space like parks. The 61-65 decibels high noise areas and do not allow any housing or developments it used for more agricultural use. The Puhunui Reserve and industrial pollution were also considered a constraint as shown on the map.

heavy air 0 DB 1-55DB 56-60DB 61-65DB airport noise

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How could we use the effects of mitigation to strengthen ecology to encourage clean growth in puhinui?


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development vision

Our vision for Puhinui aims to develop an urban-rural character; envisioning a sustained ecology whilst developing a vibrant urban environment. This vision is designed through the process of 5 developed stages that aims to help and maintain a reasonable sustained growth naturally and economically with Puhunuis adjacent neighboring suburbs. The stages are as follows: Stage 1 – Expansion and pulling of the airport commercial zone on the west side of the site with the rebuffing of 20m to the coastal edges and 15m to the rivers and pulling of Wiri’s residential housing on the north-eastern end to bring valuation and interest to the site . Stage 2 – Additional rebuffing of the landscape through the revegetation of plants and trees on all sloped hills over 8 degrees and rezoning of all agricultural land in preparation for future developments. Stage 3 – The vision to fully rebuff all envisioned ecological areas will be complete with the revegitation of all the hills related to the predominant winds of Auckland city (south, south western and western hills). Installation of low residential zoning will be put on Puhunuis current reserve. Stage 4 – Two smaller commercialized zones will be installed nearer to Puhunuis main residential site to attract business and growth of economy within the area. These business will support farmers markets to increase valuation to Puhunuis remaining agricultural zones. Stage 5 – Zoning the rest of the Puhunui site with residential housing to accommodate with Aucklands expanding population will be deployed as a final development of the site. This 5 stage process is aimed to be fully developed strategy plan within the first 10-15 years of site development with the intention to reach the visions maximum potential within 5-10 years after development. Our vision strategy was developed and inspired from the understanding and need of mitigation and rebuffing of Puhunuis site constraints with the knowing of Aucklands requirement of expanding.


ecological The ecological footprint and character of Puhinui site is a rural aspect which we look to attain and only improve. Our inspiration came from the idea to mitigate site constraints and pull through the reserve to not only keep it to one specific part of the site but throughout the entire Puhinui development, to restore, attain and maintain Puhinuis ecological character. The development through the stages progress and does not happen all immediately to enable and encourage a consistent moderation that grows through the growth of Auckland city and Auckland airports visions. Our development is to rebuff the areas to protected a wide range of wildlife and plant species as well as blocking out some noise and air pollution ,trap sediment, and enhance filtration of nutrients and pesticides by slowing down runoff that could enter the local surface waters. With Puhinuis rich archaelogical environment a coastal walk will be installed to educate people about the native plants, soils, animals and other wildlife within the area, as well as making it a perfect tourist attraction right by the airport.

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agricultural Agriculture was an important aspect of this sites development as a majority of Puhinuis current development is agricultural land. The decision to mitigate and reduce a portion of the agricultural zoning was thought through the necessity development of an urban strategical plan to the sites region. The reduction of land space for Puhinui aims to not reduce the production use of agriculture through the site. A majority of the agricultural zoning will be placed on flat land and on the sites highest elevation which sprawls through the middle of the developed site to maximize agricultural development. Puhinuis agriculture placement through the middle of the site helped mitigate a majority of the sites constraints we believed was a hindrance to Puhinuis urban development. The reduced space through the stages looks to only increase production output for agriculture as maximization through minimal land would only enhance production management. A farmers market in stage 4 will also help create an attractable productive agricultural zone that will also provide a likely attractable economy

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commercial Our plan for commercial use is to expand or stretch it out from the airport. The larger commercial zone will be the sites main business district with close linkages to Auckland airport and Manukau central business district. The pulling of the commercial zones from the airport will help support Auckland airports growth and will provide a vibrant business model within the Puhinui site to attract developers and contribute to the Auckland economy. With the interest of development to the site smaller commercial nodes will be developed to sustain the growing community of Puhinuis agricultural and residential zones. This will all help maintain a moderated strategic growth to the site in support of its growth plan. The placement of Puhinuis main commercial zone was thought to act as a noise barrier and mitigate noise problems that may have deemed unsuitable for housing residential development. The idea was also initiated to attract valuation to the sites land, this is also relevant to the smaller commercial zones placed on the Puhinui reserve.

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residential With the requirement to provide for Auckland’s population growth, a residential development plan within the Puhinui region is adequate to purposely fit Auckland’s expectancy. Placement for the residential zone was thought by wanting to make Puhinui a livable, attractable site – a relation to Auckland’s master plan vision. This was done through the elimination process of mitigating constraints as mentioned and identifying desirable residential landscapes within Puhinui. The first stage of development initially contribute to Auckland’s growth expectancy whilst maintaining a developed interest to Puhinuis site, these medium density housing will house approximately 3,500residents at 600sqm. As development is progressed more priority is focused to Puhinuis lower development as it deemed a more attractable decision to replace the reserve and install housing development. High density housing will be placed nearer to commercialized areas whilst lower density houses will be spread through to the remnants of Puhinuis existing reserve. In total a maximum of 18,452 people will be expected to be accommodate in our Urban Growth Strategy Plan.

stage1

low residential housing = max housing expectancy =

371,609.663 sq m. 1,157 people

med residential housing = max housing expectancy =

1,148,785 sq m. 5,361 people

high residential housing = max housing expectancy =

297,657.51 sq m. 11,938 people stage2

total residential housing = total housing expectancy =

stage3

1,818,052 sq m. 18,452 people

stage4

stage5


Final note

references Auckland Airport Homepage - Auckland Airport. (n.d.). Auckland Airport Homepage - Auckland Airport. Retrieved April 6, 2014, from http://www.aucklandairport.co.nz/

The driver behind our design is to approach Puhinui with a sustained and mitigated strategy which met the brief requirements. The pressure to accommodate Aucklands growth expectancy while maintaining a plausible, ecological environment both naturally and economically provided a difficult but interesting task. As a team our interest was to help grow the airports economy to help provide to Auckland’s growing economy, whilst mitigating site constraints to strengthen the sites ecology. We believed that through the eliminating process of mitigating the sites constraints we developed a successful staged plan which helped provide to Aucklands growth and desirable livable city stated in the master plan as well as providing an ecologically sustained urban environment for the Puhinui site. With the installation of a farmers market and reduced agricultural zoning, Puhinuis rural character still remains intact while providing vibrant commercial opportunities within the residential areas. Our process through our GIS analysis identified logical moves that intertwined with the sites ecology and landscape. The response resulted in a positive, enhancing character that protected but at the same time would help Auckland grow.

Auckland Council. (n.d.). The Auckland Plan. Retrieved April 6, 2014, from http://www.aucklandcouncil.govt.nz/EN/planspoliciesprojects/plansstrategies/theaucklandplan/Pages/theaucklandplan.aspx?utm_source=shorturl&utm_medium=print&utm_ campaign=Auckland%2BPlan Auckland Council. (n.d.). Manukau City District Plan. Retrieved April 6, 2014, from http://www.aucklandcouncil.govt.nz/EN/ planspoliciesprojects/plansstrategies/DistrictRegionalPlans/manukaucitydistrictplan/Pages/home.aspx Auckland Council. (n.d.). City Centre Masterplan. Retrieved April 6, 2014, from http://www.aucklandcouncil.govt.nz/EN/ planspoliciesprojects/plansstrategies/ccmp/Pages/home.aspx?utm_source=shorturl&utm_medium=print&utm_campaign=CCMP#ad-image-0



Unitec Puhinui Project One Studio 5 Ebook Urban Growth Strategy Mitigation Buffering Urban Growth