Page 1

RUIN REPLACE

The Invisible Ruin

JOHN E. RAHILL


N

1908 Figure-Ground Scale: 1” = 200’


N

2018 Figure-Ground Scale: 1” = 200’


“You cannot simply put something new into a place. You have to absorb what you see around you, what exists on the land, and then use that knowledge along with contemporary thinking to interpret what you see.� Tadao Ando, The Architect Says, 76


RU¡IN the physical destruction or disintegration of something or the state of disintegrating or being destroyed


RE¡PLACE

to put (something) back in a previous place or position.


TABLE OF CONTENTS

The Ruin of Saint Louis...........................9 Figure-Ground...................................23 The Blind Wall and the Eroding Block.............35 Replacing the Void..............................59


The Ruin of St. Louis RU·IN the physical destruction or disintegration of something or the state of disintegrating or being destroyed1

“I like ruins because what remains is not the total design, but the clarity of thought, the naked structure, the spirit of the thing.” Tadao Ando2

9


RUIN|REPLACE

Saint Louis has ruins. Like many other cities in the “Rust Belt,” it has become known for its decay. Founded by the French, Saint Louis is a city of significant historical impact, particularly for the United States in its era of westward expansion. Because of this, the city had come to symbolize “Manifest Destiny,” it was given the nickname “The Gateway to the West.”3 However, the second half of the 20th century was not kind to the Gateway City; in less than half a century, it had lost more than half of its population. This had the devastating effect of blight, and left the figure-ground - the building fabric of the city - a ruin. It is a shadow of its former self. In 1950, the city had an estimated population of 800,000. Today, it has barely more than 300,000.4 This is the context in which St. Louis will be examined. It is a city that has experienced ruin and decline, yet yearns for growth.5 In order for growth to occur in an environment such as St. Louis, the question of how to deal with the ruin is paramount. For St. Louis to grow, the ruin must be replaced with the past as context.  

10


The Ruin of St. Louis

10 18 20 18 30 18 40 18 50 18 60 18 70 18 80 18 90 19 00 19 10 19 20 19 30 19 40 19 50 19 60 19 70 19 80 19 90 20 00 20 10

1000000 900000 800000 700000 600000 500000 400000 300000 200000 100000 0 18

Population

St. Louis, Missouri, USA

Date Data from the US Census Bureau

11


RUIN|REPLACE

In order for a proper discourse to be established, the ruin must be defined. The dictionary describes it as a “the physical destruction or disintegration of something or the state of disintegrating or being destroyed.”6 Using this as a general truth, we can assume that any building that is not being used, maintained, or occupied to be a ruin. A ruin no longer has a purpose. St. Louis is dotted with ruins throughout its landscape. As of 2015, the city of St. Louis had nearly 11,000 vacant or abandoned properties. In November 2017, this number included One AT&T Center – the largest skyscraper in St. Louis.7 Ruins are a symptom of decline and stagnation. Because of this, most ruins are torn down only to leave a void in the figure-ground. In this sense, the figure-ground is also a ruin; it is in a state of disintegration. If this decline is to be reversed, the voids in the figure-ground must be filled.

12


The Ruin of St. Louis

At 588 ft, One AT&T Center is the tallest building in St. Louis. As of 2018, the building is empty.

13


RUIN|REPLACE

Population of Downtown East:8 2000:

806

2010: 3721 2015: 4126

14


The Ruin of St. Louis

The Downtown East, Downtown West, and Carr Square neighborhoods were selected for several reasons. In regards to Downtown East and Downtown West, they were chosen because they represent the historical heart of the St. Louis region. Here, the figure-ground has both the most history and is the most scarred. Indeed, the figure-ground ceases to exist once the two neighborhoods meet Carr Square. Furthermore, Downtown St. Louis the fastest growing neighborhoods in the city. As a result, there is a demand for mixed-use program such as housing, shopping, restaurants, and entertainment. Not only does downtown St. Louis have tremendous potential for future growth, but it also has the space to do so. Despite being the heart of the St. Louis region, these neighborhoods have been subject to much erasure over the last century. Even Washington Avenue - one of the city’s primary arteries - is dramatically different from what it was a century ago.

15


SAINT LOUIS, MISSOURI9


RUIN|REPLACE

A Confluence of Neighborhoods The site is located at the meeting point of three distinct neighborhoods. The two most significant neighborhoods are Downtown East and Downtown West - they are the historical heart of the St. Louis region. However, the third neighborhood is Carr Square, which is much different demographically from the other two. A glance at the demographics reveals it is an area with a large amount of inequality.10 Indeed, it could be argued this is representative of the entire St. Louis region - a region that has long been associated with racial inequality, economic disparity, and an overall lack of diversity.

18


The Ruin of St. Louis

Carr Square Dr. Martin Luther King Drive

Downtown East

Intersection of Neighborhoods Scale: 1” = 3000’ N

19

Mississippi River

Downtown West

North Tucker Boulevard

Washington Avenue


RUIN|REPLACE

Income by Household While there is a variety of incomes found in the area, there is a large section of the population below the poverty line.

16%

Downtown East

14% 12% 10% 8% 6% 4% 2% 0%

Downtown West 16% 14% 12% 10% 8% 6% 4% 2% 0%

Carr Square 35% 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0%

20


The Ruin of St. Louis

Percent by Race

Mixed 1%

Percent by Age

Downtown East

Asian 3%

Total Population: 4126

60+ 0-9 11% 7%

10-19 2%

50-59 11% White 49%

Black 45%

20-29 33%

40-49 10% 30-39 26%

Hispanic 2%

Downtown West

Mixed 0%

White 53%

Total Population: Asian 3933 50-59 6% 8%

10-19 1% 60+ 0-9 6% 6%

40-49 15%

Black 39%

20-29 37%

30-39 27% Hispanic 2%

Hispanic Mixed White 0% 3% Asian 0% 1%

Carr Square

Total Population: 2778 50-59 8%

60+ 10%

0-9 21%

40-49 11% 30-39 14%

Black 96%

10-19 20% 20-29 16%

Data from the US Census Bureau, 2015 Estimate 21


Figure-Ground FIG·URE-GROUND a property of perception in which there is a tendency to see parts of a visual field as solid, well-defined objects standing out against a less distinct background.11 in the architectural context, the figure-ground is a type of map traditionally used in the analysis of urban form. A drawing that traditionally depicts the buildings as figures against a visually contrasting ground.12

“If you think you can’t make the world a better place with your work, at least make sure you don’t make it worse.” Herman Hertzberger13

23


RUIN|REPLACE

1908 Section, Washington Avenue Scale: 1” = 1000’

st t We Eas wn n to tow n n w Do Dow

Mi

N

1908 Isometric Scale: 1” = 1000’

pi

ip

ss

i ss

In 1908, St. Louis was home to almost 700,000 people, and was the 4th largest city in the United States.14 This was reflected in the built environment at the time, which was much denser than it is today.15

24

r

ve

Ri


Figure-Ground

2018 Section, Washington Avenue Scale: 1” = 1000’

st t We Eas wn n to tow n n w Do Dow

s

Mi

N

2018 Isometric Scale: 1” = 1000’

i

pp

si

s si

r

ve

Ri

In 2018, the city of St. Louis has an estimated population of around 300,000. It stands as the 61st largest city.16 While the city is much taller, it is much less dense. Almost the entire built environment of 1908 has been demolished, and most of it has yet to be replaced.17

25


RUIN|REPLACE

1908 Washington Avenue18 26


Figure-Ground

2018 Washington Avenue 27


RUIN|REPLACE

North 15th Street

North 14th Street

North 11th Street Morgan

North 10th Street

North 9th Street

1908 Figure-Ground19 Scale: 1” = 400’

Locust Street

North 8th Street

N

North 7th Street

Co

Pi

Olive St

28

Cole Street

Linden St

Saint Charles Street

Lucas Avenue

Washington Avenue

North 12th Street

North 13th Street

Franklin Avenue

Gay Street

North 13th Street


Figure-Ground

North 15th Street

North 14th Street Cole Street

Linden St

Lucas Avenue

North 11th Street

North 10th Street

Convention Plaza

Saint Charles Street

Washington Avenue

North Tucker Boulevard

North 13th Street

Dr. Martin Luter King Drive

Gay Street

North 13th Street

North 9th Street Locust Street

North 8th Street

N

North 7th Street

2018 Figure-Ground20 Scale: 1” = 400’

Co

Pi

Olive St

29


RUIN|REPLACE

As one can see, the figure-ground has been ravaged. While the destruction of underutilized and abandoned buildings is not inherently bad, it is not beneficial if there is nothing done to replace or improve upon what was demolished. In this sense, the destruction is nothing short of erasure. Downtown St. Louis has recognized this, and desires a return to the feeling of the past; this need not be a literal interpretation. In the Garment District, for example, there are efforts to recreate the feeling of early twentieth century St. Louis - much of which is destroyed. In order to capture this feeling, one would need to rebuild the program of that time period. Thus, there is a need for restaurants, city living, shopping, and entertainment.21 Logically, it is safe to assume much of this restoration would fill the voids in the figure-ground.

30


Figure-Ground

North 15th Street

North 14th Street Cole Street

Linden St

Lucas Avenue

North 11th Street

North 10th Street

Convention Plaza

Saint Charles Street

Washington Avenue

North Tucker Boulevard

North 13th Street

Dr. Martin Luter King Drive

Gay Street

North 13th Street

North 9th Street Locust Street

North 8th Street

1908/2018 Overlay Scale: 1” = 400’

N

North 7th Street

Co

Pin

Olive St

31


RUIN|REPLACE

“St. Louis has a rich history in the fashion industry. From the late 19th century until the end of WWII, the city was second only to New York in terms of garment manufacturing.” Saint Louis Fashion Fund

The St. Louis Garment District is a shadow of its former self. While it is the location of the St. Louis Fashion Fund, it is no longer comparable to New York City in terms of fashion and garment manufacturing.22

32


Figure-Ground

Gay Street Dr. Martin Luter King Drive

Linden St

Lucas Avenue

Saint Charles Street

Washington Avenue

North Tucker Boulevard

North 13th Street

North 11th Street N

Convention

33

Garment District 1908/2018 Scale 1” = 200’


The Blind Wall and the Eroding Block E·RODE to gradually destroy or be gradually destroyed.23

“What motivates me is work on disappearance, on the limits between a presence and an absence of the architecture.” Dominique Perrault24

35


RUIN|REPLACE

The city’s deliberate destruction of its downtown urban fabric is still ongoing today. This is the result of many societal forces that arose during the 20th century. Such forces as the Modern Movement, the rise of the automobile, and “White Flight” had a dramatic effect on the urban fabric of the American Rust Belt, and have consistently resulted in the erasure of the figure ground.25 In St. Louis, this erasure begins by tearing down pieces of existing city blocks. As the individual buildings that make up the blocks are erased, they leave behind an imprint on the buildings around them. These imprints can be seen on the “blind walls” of the neighboring structures. By cross referencing these blind walls with the Sanborn Fire Maps, one can speculate on what was there before.

36


The Blind Wall and the Eroding Block

North 15th Street

North 14th Street

North 11th Street Convention Plaza

North 10th Street

North 9th Street

N

Locust Street

North 8th Street

Instances of The Blind Wall Scale: 1” = 400’

1908

2018

North 7th Street

Oliv

37

Cole Street

Linden St

Lucas Avenue

Saint Charles Street

Washington Avenue

North Tucker Boulevard

North 13th Street

Dr. Martin Luter King Drive

Gay Street

North 13th Street


RUIN|REPLACE

2017

2018

38


The Blind Wall and the Eroding Block

North 14th Street

Linden St

North 11th Street Convention Plaza

North 10th Street

Lucas Avenue

Saint Charles Street

Washington Avenue

North Tucker Boulevard

North 13th Street

North 9th Street Locust Street

North 8th Street

North 7th Street

Street

N

Chestnut Street

North Broadway

1908

2018

39

Convention Plaza

Olive Street

Pine Street

923 Locust Street, St. Louis Scale: 1”6th= 400’ North

Dr. Martin Luter King Drive

Gay Street

North 13th Street


RUIN|REPLACE

514 North Tucker Boulevard

1101 St Charles Street

1109 Locust Street

1112 Locust Street

1125 Locust Street

1314 Dr Martin Luther King Drive

40


The Blind Wall and the Eroding Block

The blind wall is a symptom of erosion. They reveal the ghost of the ruined figure-ground.

41


RUIN|REPLACE

According to the 1908 Sanborn Fire Maps, the building that was here was 8 stories, 102’ tall, and was of brick construction. Also, the building was not fire proofed with an automatic sprinkler, which may have been a contributing factor in its demise around 1996.26 In 2018, 514 North Tucker Boulevard remains a parking lot in the Garment District/Downtown West.

42


The Blind Wall and the Eroding Block

North 15th Street

North 14th Street

North 11th Street Convention Plaza

North 10th Street

N

North 8th Street

Locust Street

514 North Tucker Boulevard North Scale: 1” = 400’

1908

North 7th Street

2018 43

9th Street

Cole Street

Linden St

Saint Charles Street

Lucas Avenue

Washington Avenue

North Tucker Boulevard

North 13th Street

Dr. Martin Luter King Drive

Gay Street

North 13th Street


RUIN|REPLACE

In 1908, there were two buildings here that were 4 stories, 54’ tall. They were not fireproofed and were of Brick construction. At some point in the last century, the buildings had been demolished in favor of a parking lot.

44


The Blind Wall and the Eroding Block

North 15th Street

North 14th Street

North 11th Street Convention Plaza

North 10th Street

North 9th Street Locust Street

North 8th Street

1101 St Charles Street Scale: 1” = 400’ North 7th Street

N

2018 45

Convention Plaz

Olive Street

Pine Street

1908 North 6th Street

Cole Street

Linden St

Saint Charles Street

Lucas Avenue

Washington Avenue

North Tucker Boulevard

North 13th Street

Dr. Martin Luter King Drive

Gay Street

North 13th Street


RUIN|REPLACE

At this site, there were two buildings that were 4 stories, 54’ tall. They were also not fireproofed and were of Brick construction. By at least 1996, the buildings had been demolished and replaced with a parking lot, and it remains this way today.26

46


The Blind Wall and the Eroding Block

North 15th Street

North 14th Street

Linden St

North 11th Street Convention Plaza

North 10th Street

Lucas Avenue

Saint Charles Street

Washington Avenue

North Tucker Boulevard

North 13th Street

North 9th Street Locust Street

North 8th Street

1109 Locust Street Scale: 1” = 400’ North 7th Street

N

47

2018

Convention Plaz

Olive Street

Pine Street

1908 Nor th 6th Street

Dr. Martin Luter King Drive

Gay Street

North 13th Street


RUIN|REPLACE

In the early 1900’s, this void was filled with three flats that were three stories high. Like the others, they were not fireproofed and were of Brick construction. By early 1990s, the buildings had been demolished. Today they serve as a parking lot for the surrounding buildings.26

48


The Blind Wall and the Eroding Block

North 15th Street

North 14th Street

Linden St

North 11th Street Convention Plaza

North 10th Street

Lucas Avenue

Saint Charles Street

Washington Avenue

North Tucker Boulevard

North 13th Street

North 9th Street Locust Street

North 8th Street

1112 Locust Street Scale: 1” = 400’ North 7th Street

N

2018 North 6th Street

49

Convention Pl

Olive Street

Pine Street

1908

Dr. Martin Luter King Drive

Gay Street

North 13th Street


RUIN|REPLACE

In 1904, this space was occupied by two buildings. One of the buildings was a two story fire engine house, and the other was a 3 story flat. By the 1990’s, both buildings had been removed and replaced with parking space.26

50


The Blind Wall and the Eroding Block

North 15th Street

North 14th Street

Linden St

North 11th Street Convention Plaza

North 10th Street

Lucas Avenue

Saint Charles Street

Washington Avenue

North Tucker Boulevard

North 13th Street

North 9th Street Locust Street

North 8th Str1125 eet

Locust Street Scale: 1” = 400’

N North 7th Street

2018 51

North 6th Street

Convent

Pine Str

Olive Street

1908

Dr. Martin Luter King Drive

Gay Street

North 13th Street


RUIN|REPLACE

What happens if the block never stops eroding? A void in the figure-ground can only be defined if there are solids around it. If the eroding of the block continues, and all evidence of its existence is erased, then the void shall also cease to exist. An example of this type of erasure can be seen a few blocks away, near the intersection of North Tucker Boulevard and Dr. Martin Luther King Drive. In 1908, the figure-ground here was filled. Today, only four of the buildings remain, and it is difficult to speculate on what was there using only the existing context.

52


The Blind Wall and the Eroding Block

Gay Street

Linden St

Lucas Avenue

Washington Avenue

North Tucker Boulevard

1314 Dr Martin Luther King Drive Scale: 1” = 200’

N

North 11th Street

1908

2018 53

Cole Street

Dr. Martin Luter King Drive

North 13th Street


RUIN|REPLACE

With so little remaining context, it is difficult to revisualize block; the void has become too dominant.

54


The Blind Wall and the Eroding Block

Here, there is an instance of the blind wall which has an imprint from what was a neighboring building. This is one of the few instances on the block that would suggest the figure-ground used to be denser. What was once a thriving neighborhood block has been reduced to a parking lot.

55


RUIN|REPLACE

56


The Blind Wall and the Eroding Block

Isometric of the 1908 City Blocks Scale: 1” = 150’ N

10’-20’

20’-30’ 57

30’-40’


Replacing the Void RE·PLACE to put (something) back in a previous place or position27

“We don’t have preconceived ideas; we analyze, we read, we step into projects knowing we’re not the first ones there.” Elizabeth Diller28

59


RUIN|REPLACE

The question of how to fill the block is of great importance. There are three studies that will be used to determine the program. Each study will answer a question. What is there? The first study examines the program of the surrounding neighborhood and speculates on what is needed. What was there? The second study examines what was once there but is now destroyed. This will reveal the invisible ruin. Who is there? The third study examines demographics. While it has already been established that downtown is growing, it is important to take into account the groups that will be affected.

60


Replacing the Void

Bus Stop

North 14th Street

Wave Taco

Gateway Wholesale Candy & Tobacco

627’

Dr. Martin Luther King Drive

379’

392’

Task Force Security Inc.

North 13th Street Hair Braiding

132’

172’

Gay Street

Convention Plaza

Lucas Avenue

174’

141’

368’ North Tucker Boulevard

Commercial N

Residential 61

Site Plan 2018 Scale 1” = 100’


RUIN|REPLACE

62


Replacing the Void

There are four existing buildings on the site: African Hair Braiding, Task Force Security, Wave Taco, and Gateway Wholesale Candy & Tobacco. Each one of these buildings is a remnant of a once prosperous city block. Consequently, they are also the only remaining indicators of the invisble ruin. Their presence presents two distinct choices that must be made during the design process; to destroy and replace, or to incorporate and replace. The first choice would be to demolish the existing in favor of new, independent buildings. While this is the easier option, it is not in the interest of the invisible ruin. Indeed, their demolition would condemn the invisible ruin to erasure. The second option is to incorporate them into the design. This would allow for new programming to replace the void in the figureground, and leave indicators of the invisible ruin.

63


RUIN|REPLACE

What is there? The Existing Fabric

Housing

Restaurant

Office

Retail/Mixed Commercial

Entertainment

Infrastructure

In order to gain an understanding of what new programming is needed, the programming of the surrounding urban fabric must be understood. This study focuses on the intersection of Washington Avenue and North Tucker Boulevard. This intersection is central to the surrounding neighborhoods. The study utilizes the plan and the isometric. This is because the area has many high-rise structures, and much of the programming is stacked.

64


The Blind Wall and the Eroding Block

North 15th Street

North 14th Street

Cole Street

Gay Street

North 13th Street

North 11th Street

Convention Plaza

North 10th Stree t

North 9th Street

Locust Street

Street Level Programming 2018 Scale: 1” = 400’ N

North 8th Stree t

North 7th Stree t

65

Dr. Martin Luter King Drive

Linden St

Lucas Avenue

Saint Charles Street

Washington Avenue

North Tucker Boulevard

North 13th Street

Ol


RUIN|REPLACE

What is there?

Housing

Commercial

Housing in downtown St. Louis rarely occurs at the street level. Instead, housing is elevated above the street, with commercial programming occupying the ground level. This has the benefits of activating the street and providing an extra layer of privacy to downtown residents.

66


The Blind Wall and the Eroding Block

Dr

.

Ga

y

Co

nv

en

ti

on

St

Ma

re

rt

Pl

et

in

Lu

th

er

Ki

ng

h

rt

No

ck

Tu

u

Bo

rd

va

Isometric Programming 2018 Scale: 1” = 200’ N

67

e

a

nv

er

iv

az

Co

le

Dr

en

ti

on

Pl

az

a


HOUSING

COMMERCIAL


RUIN|REPLACE

What was there?

Housing: 240,000 sq ft Courtyard: 30,100 sq ft Liquor/Convenience Store: 11,000 sq ft Boutique/Shopping: 11,000 sq ft Palace Theatre: 11,000 sq ft Restaurants: 6,500 sq ft Salon: 600 sq ft Total: 310,200 sq ft

This examination reveals the blocks were mixeduse in 1908. The majority of the program consisted of housing - specifically “Black Tenement� housing. While it is no longer the case today, the area was once home to a segregated black community. The blocks were also programmed with restaurants, a boutique, shopping, a salon, and a liquor/convenience store. However, what is most interesting is the presence of the Palace Theatre, which no longer exists today.29

70


Replacing the Void

North 14th Street Salon Boutique

Restaurant

Liquor Store

Restaurant

Gay Street

Morgan

Lucas Avenue

North 13th Street

Franklin Avenue

Palace Theatre

Restaurant

North 12th Street

Commercial N

Residential 71

Site Plan 1908 Scale 1” = 100’


RUIN|REPLACE

What was there?

Another element of the 1908 figure-ground is the presence of interior courtyards. At 30,100 sq ft, they not accounted for 10% of the program, but were also an important element of the 1908 city block’s public/private relationship. In essence, the street side served the public realm, and the courtyards served the private realm. Furthermore, these courtyards were much more intimate spaces, espcially considering they were only seen and utilized by the block’s inhabitants. Becuase of this, it would be prudent to incorporate them into the proposal.

72


Replacing the Void

Gay Street

Morgan

Lucas Avenue

North 13th Street

Franklin Avenue

North 14th Street

North 12th Street

N

1908 Courtyard Spaces Scale 1” = 200’

Dr. Martin Luther King Drive

North 14th Street

Gay Street

North Tucker Boulevard

Lucas Avenue

North 13th Street

North Tucker Boulevard

N

73

New Courtyard Speculation Scale 1” = 200’


RUIN|REPLACE

Who is there?

As discussed earlier, the demographic study reveals several things about the site. Most importantly, it reveals the vast differences between the Downtown East and Downtown West neighborhoods when compared to Carr Square. Indeed, in Carr Square there is an incredible 69% of inhabitants at or below the poverty line, which is defined as having an annual income of less than $23,000. This divide is further exemplified by the fact the neighborhood is 96% black, highlighting the severe inequalities in the area. While the Downtown East and Downtown West neighborhoods are more economically and racially diverse, there is still a considerable number of individuals below the poverty line. Both Downtown East and Downtown West have 25% of their respective populations in poverty. Also of note is the consideration of age. In Downtown East and Downtown West especially, around 60% of the population is between the ages 20 and 40, with 30% being the case for Carr Square. This is important to consider when designing space; individuals between these ages are the most active, are developing their careers, and starting families. This demographic prefers walkability and for goods and services to be in close proximity.

74


Replacing the Void

Combined Demographics of Downtown East, Downtown West, and Carr Square

Population: 10,837

Percent by Age

60+ 9%

0-9 11%

50-59 9%

10-19 8%

40-49 12% 20-29 29% 30-39 22%

Income by Household 20% 18%

16% 14% 12% 10%

8% 6% 4% 2% 0%

Data from the US Census Bureau, 2015 Estimate 75


North Tucker Boulevard, looking south towards Washington Avenue and the Downtown East and Downtown West neighborhoods. This area represents the fastest growing neighborhood in St. Louis.


North Tucker Boulevard, looking north towards the Carr Square neighborhood. Here the figure-ground disintegrates a reflection of the neighborhood’s poor economic condition.


RUIN|REPLACE

Proposed Programming of Masterplan Housing: 200,000 sq ft Courtyard: 40,000 sq ft Parking: 40,000 sq ft Shopping and Clothing Retail: 40,000 sq ft Restaurants/CafĂŠ/Bakery: 25,000 sq ft Community Theatre: 15,000 sq ft Pharmacy: 10,000 sq ft Total: 370,000 sq ft

78


Replacing the Void

As stated before, the program that will fill the block will be determined by the three studies. As of 2018, there are a great number of sitdown restaurants and offices along the nearby Washington Avenue. There is also a considerable amount of housing elevated above the street, but this is not enough for the areas growing population. However, the area is lacking in more causal eating spaces such as cafÊs or bakeries. Also, outside of the Culinaria there is no dedicated pharmacy in the neighborhood, and despite the areas history as the Garment District, there is little in the realm of clothing retail. In the early 1900’s, the block was filled with mixed-use programming - namely housing, restaurants, and shops. However, the most prominent piece of programming was the Palace Theatre, which has since been destroyed. Another element of the 1908 urban fabric was the interior courtyard, which allowed for the creation of more quieter, more intimate spaces. These spaces are a major component of the invisible ruin. Lastly, the demographic study reveals a population that is mostly young with a large percent below the poverty line. This contributes to the need for mixed-use, affordable housing. Altogether, the proposed programming would be housing, interior courtyards, clothing retail, restaurants, a pharmacy, a cafÊ, a bakery, parking, and a community-oriented theatre. The approximate square footage would be determined by what was there before and modified according to present-day needs. The program would then be broken down according the size of the individual blocks.

79


RUIN|REPLACE

The programming will be broken down according to the area of each block. The first phase of the masterplan will take place at 801 North Tucker Boulevard. This is where the figure-ground truly begins to disintegrate and become the invisible ruin.

80


Replacing the Void Phase 3:

Phase 4:

1311 Convention Plaza

1314 Dr. Martin Luther King Drive

Housing:

80,000 sq ft

Housing:

60,000 sq ft

Courtyard:

15,000 sq ft

Courtyard:

15,000 sq ft

Shopping:

10,000 sq ft

Shopping:

10,000 sq ft

Restaurant:

10,000 sq ft

Restaurant:

10,000 sq ft

Parking:

10,000 sq ft

Parking

10,000 sq ft

Total:

105,000 sq ft

Total:

125,000 sq ft Bus Stop

North 14th Street

Dr. Martin Luther King Drive

379’

392’

North 13th Street

132’

172’

Gay Street

Convention Plaza

Lucas Avenue

174’

141’

North Tucker Boulevard

Phase 1:

Phase 2:

801 North Tucker Boulevard

1235 Gay Street

Housing:

30,000 sq ft

Housing:

30,000 sq ft

Theatre:

15,000 sq ft

Clothing Retail

10,000 sq ft

Clothing Retail:

10,000 sq ft

Pharmacy:

10,000 sq ft

Parking:

10,000 sq ft

Parking:

10,000 sq ft

Courtyard

5,000 sq ft

Courtyard:

5,000 sq ft

Bakery:

2,500 sq ft

Total:

65,000 sq ft

Café:

2,500 sq ft

Total:

75,000 sq ft

N

81

Site Plan 1908 Scale 1” = 200’


RUIN|REPLACE

Phase 1 of Masterplan

Units by Demand for Phase 1 of Masterplan Luxury Affordable Normal

Normal

Elderly

3,000 sqft

Luxury

Single

Affordable

9,000 sqft Affordable

Luxury

Family

18,000 sqft

Normal

The housing will be broken down according to the demographics of the area. The three main type of units will be family housing, single housing, and elderly housing. From there, these units will be further sorted into affordable housing (40%), normal housing (50%), and luxury Housing (5%). The goal is to create a place that allows people of different ages and backgrounds to interact.

82


Replacing the Void

Program Relationship for Phase 1 of Masterplan

Family Housing 18,000 sqft

Courtyard 5,000 sqft

Elderly Housing 3,000 sqft

Single Housing 9,000 sqft

Parking 10,000 sqft

CafĂŠ: 2,500 sqft

Clothing Retail 10,000 sqft

Community Theatre 10,000 Bakery: 2,500 sqft

83


RUIN|REPLACE

801 North Tucker Boulevard: The Invisible Ruin

84


Replacing the Void

801 North Tucker Boulevard Housing:

30,000 sq ft

Theatre:

15,000 sq ft

Clothing Retail:

10,000 sq ft

Courtyard:

5,000 sq ft

Parking:

5,000 sq ft

Bakery:

2,500 sq ft

Café:

2,500 sq ft

Total:

75,000 sq ft

North 13th Street

172’

North T ucker

Gay Street

Convention Plaza

174’

Bouleva

rd

N

85

801 North Tucker Boulevard Scale 1” = 50’


RUIN|REPLACE

801 North Tucker Boulevard: Replacing The Invisible Ruin

86


Replacing the Void

Elderly Housing

Family Housing

Affordable Housing

Courtyard

Luxury Housing

Normal Housing Affordable Housing Clothing Retail Parking

CafĂŠ

Bakery

Theatre

North Tucker Boulevard

North 13th Street

Proposed Programming in Section

87


88


ENDNOTES

1.

Dictionary.com, LLC. 2018.

2.

Dushkes, Laura S. 2012. The Architect Says. 151.

3.

Toft, Carolyn Hewes with Lynn Josse. 2002.

4.

U.S. Census Bureau. 2010.

5.

Alive Media Group. 2018.

6.

Dictionary.com LLC. 2018.

7.

Brown, Lisa. 2017.

8.

Heuer, Alex. 2013.

9.

Google Earth. 2017.

10.

Cedar Lake Ventures, Inc. 2015.

11.

Dictionary.com LLC. 2018.

12.

Koetter, Fred, and Colin Rowe. 1984.

13.

Dushkes, Laura S. 2012. The Architect Says. 59.

14.

U.S. Census Bureau. 1910.

15.

Sanborn Company. 1903, 1904, 1908.

16.

U.S. Census Bureau. 2018 estimate.

17.

Cadmapper, LLC. 2018

18.

Toft, Carolyn Hewes with Lynn Josse. 2002. 46.

19.

Sanborn Company. 1908

20.

Cadmapper, LLC. 2018

21.

Alive Media Group. 2018.

22.

St. Louis Fashion Fund. 2018.

23.

Dictionary.com LLC. 2018.

24.

Dushkes, Laura S. 2012. The Architect Says. 145.

25.

Gordon, Colin. 2008. 24, 150.

26.

Google Earth. 1996.

27.

Dictionary.com, LLC. 2018.

28.

Dushkes, Laura S. 2012. The Architect Says. 153.

29.

Sanborn Company. 1908.

89


BIBLIOGRAPHY

Alive Media Group. 2018. "Exploring Downtown: Arts, Shopping, & Dining." Guided Saint Louis. St. Louis: Alive Group, Spring Edition, No Date.

Media

Altman, Maria. 2016. St. Louis Takes New Look At Old Problem: What To Do With Vacant Land and Abandoned Buildings. June 15. Accessed March 27, 2018. http://news.stlpublicradio.org/post/st-louis-takes-new-look-old-problemwhat-do-vacant-land-and-abandoned-buildings#stream/0. Brown, Lisa. 2017. For Sale: 1 Empty 44-Story Office Tower In Downtown St. Louis. November 17. Accessed March 27, 2018. http://www.stltoday. com/business/local/for-sale-empty--story-office-tower-in-downtown-st/ article_9a0207c8-3ae6-5cad-940d-61aaaadfb2b3.html. Cadmapper, LLC. 2018. St. Louis Area. 39°37’38”N and 90°11’40”W. Accessed April 15. https://cadmapper.com/ Cedar Lake Ventures, Inc. 2015. Statistical Atlas: Overview of St. Louis, Missouri (City). April 18. Accessed April 4, 2018. https:// statisticalatlas.com/place/Missouri/St-Louis/Overview. Dictionary.com, LLC. 2018. Dictionary.com. No Month No Day. Accessed March 26, 2018. http://www.dictionary.com/. Dushkes, Laura S. 2012. The Architect Says. New York City: Princeton Architectural Press. Google Earth. “St. Louis, MO, United States.” 39°37’38”N and 90°11’40”W. August 7th, 2017. April 4th, 2018. Google Earth. “St. Louis, MO, United States.” 39°37’38”N and 90°11’40”W. March 26th, 1996. April 4th, 2018. Gordon, Colin. 2008. Mapping Decline: St. louis and the Fate of the American City. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press. Print. Heuer, Alex. 2013. “Is Living in Downtown St. Louis Living Up To Expectations?” St. Louis Public Radio. August 8. Accessed April 15, 2018. http://news.stlpublicradio.org/post/living-downtown-st-louis-livingexpectations#stream/0 Koetter, Fred, and Colin Rowe. 1984. Collage City. Cambridge, Massachusetts, and London, England: The MIT Press. Sanborn Company. 1903, 1904, 1908. Sanborn Fire Insurance Maps. St. Louis, MO. Saint Louis Fashion Fund. 2018. About the St. Louis Fashion Fund. No Day. No Month. No Year. Accessed April 5th, 2018. https://www. saintlouisfashionfund.org/. St. Louis, MO. 2015. City of St. Louis Selected to Leadership Institute's Best Practices on Tackling Vacant and Problem Properties. March 16. Accessed March 27, 2018. https://www.stlouis-mo.gov/government/departments/ mayor/ news/tackling-vacant-and-problem-properties.cfm. Toft, Carolyn Hewes with Lynn Josse. 2002. St. Louis: Landmarks and Historic Districts. St. Louis, MO. Landmarks Association of St. Louis, Inc.


Profile for John Rahill

Ruin|Replace - The Invisible Ruin  

Final Submittal for the Spring 2018 Design Thinking Seminar. St. Louis has been in decline since the mid twentieth century, and this has le...

Ruin|Replace - The Invisible Ruin  

Final Submittal for the Spring 2018 Design Thinking Seminar. St. Louis has been in decline since the mid twentieth century, and this has le...

Advertisement