Page 1

L I N C O L N   L A N D


L I N C O L N   L A N D

review A collection of visual and written work

by students of Lincoln Land

Community College.


Lincoln Land Review

Lincoln Land Review is published once a year by:

Lincoln Land Press c/o Arts and Humanities Lincoln Land Community College P.O. Box 19256 5250 Shepherd Road Springfield, IL 62794-9256 Printed in the United States by MultiAd Copyright 2012 by Lincoln Land Review. All rights reserved. No part of this periodical may be reproduced without the consent of the publishers. Submission Information:

We are looking for high quality writing, digital media, and fine art submissions from students of Lincoln Land Community College. We will accept work year round with a deadline of April 1, 2013 for next year’s edition of The Lincoln Land Review. Instructors or students may submit students’ best artwork, fiction, poetry, creative non-fiction, academic non-fiction (properly formatted, cited, and scrupulously proof-read) via electronic attachment to For each work that is submitted, be sure to fill out a hard copy information and permission-to-publish form and send it along as well. Forms may be found and printed from our website: Editors reserve the right to make corrections or slight changes in written works accepted. Preference is given to essays, stories, research papers, etc. that are under 20 pages long. Please contact one of the editors at the Review email address if you have questions. Student Cover Art: Amanda Wanless, “The Piano” Lincoln Land Review (Print) ISSN 2152-4467 Lincoln Land Review (Online) ISSN 2152-4475

Lincoln Land Review


Editors’ Note

We are pleased to present our fourth edition of The Lincoln Land Review. We always strive to feature work across the curriculum, and this year, we have two pieces from the economics field—a poignant reminder of our tumultuous economic climate. In addition, we have chosen a diverse collection of writings from poetry and creative nonfiction to academic and informal course responses. Additionally, we have selected the best of our students’ digital media, painting, graphic design, and sculpture to highlight the strength of our visual media program.

Finally, we present the five winners of our third annual Lincoln Land Review “best of” competition: Digital Media and 2012 Review Cover Amanda Wanless: “The Piano” Fine Art Jensine Williams: “Twice in a Blue Moon” (not available for photo)

Academic Nonfiction Sam Greenwalt: “Deflationary Consequences of the Great Depression” Academic Nonfiction Amanda Hamilton: “Prince of Denmark” Poetry Jessica Larson: “Hope in a Morning’s Bloom” Creative Nonfiction Kyle McCarty: “Black Friday Rule” This edition can also be found online at our website, There, one can also watch short interviews with local authors, musicians, poets, and others interested in keeping the arts and humanities a vital and present force here in central Illinois. This magazine is only possible with the support of the LLCC community, most specifically, The Lincoln Land Press. Thank you, Press founders Ryan Roberts and John Paul Jaramillo. We are so grateful for the production expertise of Graphic Design Manager Greg Walbert and for the promotion assistance of Lynn Whalen, Executive Director of Public Relations. Eileen Tepatti, Vice President Academic Services and David Laubersheimer, Dean of Arts and Humanities support us behind the scenes as well, and kudos to all faculty and support staff who guide students in their continuing academic and creative experiences. LLR Editors:

Deborah Brothers Alison Stachera Thom Whalen

John Paul Jaramillo Eric Stachera


Faculty Editors

Lincoln Land Review

Deborah Brothers John Paul Jaramillo Alison Stachera Eric Stachera Thomas Whalen

Table of Contents W

r I t


e n

W o

r k

Bradley Bates Walking Among the Giants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Chris Bruley the Colors of a Black Sand Beach in Hawaii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Sam Greenwalt Deflationary Consequences of the Great Depression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Amanda Hamilton Prince of Denmark . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Hannah Hedinger Hyperinflation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Jessica Larson Hope in a Morning’s Bloom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Brian R. Markley Making elephants out of Snowhills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Emily Martinie Victimized but Won . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Kyle McCarty Black Friday rule. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59

Lincoln Land Review


Yvonne Oliea the Bar of nothing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 A. Jarod Pobst Picture of Sadness. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 Anne E. Reis A Strong and Gentle Man . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 Sarah Skorczewski-Kiliman thy Mother’s Glass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 Audrey Weiskopf-Trees Can true Love Survive the Battle?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 V


u A L

W o

Fine Art and Digital Media

r k

Megan Andresen DollFace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Wicked Dreams 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Sarah Arnish Book Silk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Spencer Day remember the Daze. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Brett Freeman Xiombarg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Andrea Henderson taylor Swift typography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Cody Jones Lovecow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Wish You Were Here. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Hye Young Kim travel Sisters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47


Lincoln Land Review

Nino Lograsso Craterface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 Cayti McCormick Mopped. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 Pat Mutchler My Art My Way . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Danielle Paoni Lights out . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Alex Rumble Surfin’ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 Michelle Thomson the kitchen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Amanda Wanless the Piano. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 Cassandra Yates the raining Secret . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

Lincoln Land Review

Walking Among the Giants



Professor Liesl Smith, Com 099

Like eternal lanterns in the night sky, stars shine ever so brightly in far off distances. These seemingly tiny pinpricks of light are much more than they appear. They are massive balls of super-heated gases that act as furnaces as their cores undergo a process known as nuclear fusion. This process is able to create colossal amounts of energy to burn for millions, if not billions, of years. Stars can be divided into classes based on such elements as temperature, mass, and luminosity. Within these classes are two monsters that make our sun look like a quiet speck of light. These "giants" are defined as stars whose radii lie between ten to one hundred times that of our sun. Giants are further divided into "Red Giants" and "Blue Giants." Red and Blue Giants may appear to be alike to us earthlings, but these two beasts could not be further apart. Although Red and Blue Giants have just about the same radius, their surface temperatures are vastly different. Red Giants' surface temperatures are anywhere from 3,000 - 4,000 Kelvin (Kelvin (K) is a unit measurement of degrees based on absolute zero [-273 degrees Celsius]). The hotter the star, the higher the star’s energy. When a light wave's energy increases, its wavelength increases. Certain wavelengths are associated with certain colors on the light spectrum, red being cooler temperatures and blue being hotter temperatures. This is what makes the star shine in a reddish color. Red Giants are not all that bright, yet we still see these heavy-weight champs from Earth with relative ease due to the sheer size of Red Giants. Think of one of these giants like an enormous dim light bulb. Although the bulb is very far away, we are still able to see it based not on its energy output but on its massive size. On the other hand, Blue Giants' surface temperatures can reach a scorching 25,000 to 30,000 K. With so much thermal energy being radiated from these giants, they appear to us as blue stars. We all have seen a very hot fire before and were told that the hottest part is the blue flame. The same can be said for Red and Blue Giants. The difference in temperature comes from the amount of mass that the star contains. Red Giants are less densely packed with matter; whereas, Blue Giants have very densely crammed matter. Basic physics and chemistry tell us that the more we compress matter, the higher the temperature climbs. So although they share the same radius, Blue Giants reach much higher temperatures because of the enormous amount of matter


Lincoln Land Review

that is very densely packed together; conversely, Red Giants are lower in temperature due to less mass being compacted. Inside the sweltering core of every star, the birth of elements takes place. This process is directly affected by the mass of the star. The more massive the star, the heavier the elements. So it only seems logical that Red Giants produce lighter elements whereas Blue Giants form heavier elements. The interior of a Red Giant is far from a calm place. Hydrogen atoms are constantly whizzing around, knocking into one another, and forming helium atoms. This is the process known as fusion. It will continue to produce lighter elements such as lithium, carbon, and oxygen. Because the Red Giant cannot reach any higher temperatures, it will cease to create any new heavier atomic nuclei; whereas, Blue Giants contain extra mass that is able to reach these critical levels of thermal energy to fuse heavier atoms together. The Blue Giant will continue where the Red Giant left off and create much heavier atoms. After forming oxygen, it begins to produce neon, iron, and most of the heavier elements. Stars are where all primary elements, such as hydrogen, helium, and lithium, fuse into the elements that make up all we know of our universe. The very calcium in our bones was produced inside of a star. There are many more Red Giants out there to produce the basic elements, but we truly owe our known universe to Blue Giants for creating most of the heavier, as well as necessary, elements that make life possible. Every star must meet its end. Some live long lives for billions of years while others only live for millions. This difference can be found between Red and Blue Giants. Red Giants will burn much longer whereas Blue Giants will fade out much more quickly. Red Giants are very massive, but they lack very dense conditions. What is meant by this is that while the Red Giant's radius far exceeds our own sun’s, a Red Giant's mass is not much greater. This is quite the advantage for a star without a death wish. Due to its mediocre mass (in relative terms, these things are still colossal!), it can sustain a steady state for billions of years at a time. Red Giants burn their fuel more slowly than Blue Giants. Blue Giants, on the other hand, cannot sustain a steady rate of burning. Blue Giants have so much mass that gravity keeps compressing matter even after making oxygen inside its core. This massive force attempting to squeeze the life out of the star will continue to force the star to burn its fuel at much faster rates. Now it is on the path to destruction. A Blue Giant's fuel source is a finite material that once gone will force the star to explode in one of the most colossal explosions in the universe: a supernova. Because of this process, Blue Giants will only live for a couple

Lincoln Land Review


millions of years. Rather long for us humans to grasp, this lifespan is actually very quick in terms of stars. Red Giants will live out their lives and grow old while Blue Giants will live fast and die young. Giant stars provide us with the essential elements needed to create the world we know and love. The iron in our blood and inside our Earth's core, the oxygen in our atmosphere as well as in our lungs, and the neon in signs that line city streets, all come from giant stars. Red Giants and Blue Giants fill our night sky, fusing new atoms for future generations. The only thing these two monsters have in common is their size. Once this is set aside, we see that these giants undergo completely different processes, have completely different functions, and live out completely different lives.


Lincoln Land Review

the Colors of a Black Sand Beach in Hawaii CHRIS BRULEY

Professor Alison Stachera, COM 099

Kehena Beach is a tropical paradise hidden inside the lush rainforest of the east coast of the big island Hawaii. Kehena is a refuge, a place of escape. It is a place of pure meditation and enjoyment. Wondrous colors of Kelly green, lime, and deep green sharply placed on a wet, black sand, is the background for a vast display of life. There are blue and gold Macaw parrots, which glide through the beach and perch in the trees, seeking human interaction. People are dancing to drums and songs that echo from the cliff face. Children are running in bright and ragged tiedyed shirts. Frisbees that have been chased by dog and man are scattered across the beach. Smells of salty ocean water mingle with the pungent aroma of sweet sensimilla smoke curling through the air. My most memorable and beloved moments of my illustrious life are still living in the coconut-covered beach Kehena. Hawaii is not known for its swimming beaches, but the beautiful Kehena Beach is one of them, hidden away from the bustle of everyday life and tourist attractions of the Hawaiian Islands. Kehena is like an oasis, a vacation from a vacation. Kehena has a real local kind of feel. There are no restrooms, no food, no hotels or resorts that would mark its location. There is only a lonely mile marker sign and a miniscule parking lot off a red cinder road that winds up and down along a panoramic postcard coastline. Most of the new people to the beach are brought there by locals. The only way to realize this is a place of interest would be to see the cars parked on top of the high cliff overlooking the beach at an off the beaten path location. The trail to get to the beach is quite precarious: with jagged lava rock sharp as glass and steep cliff faces three to four feet high one must navigate to reach the soft sandy destination. Several tree roots hanging vertically off of a one hundred foot cliff is an alternate route used by a few daring individuals. I have heard the roots creak and crack from the agony of my weight. I used this route several times, mostly going up. It is more frightening descending than ascending. Once you arrive at the bottom, you will realize it is well worth the hike. Once you reach the black sands you are in the womb of the island. You are nestled by bright

Lincoln Land Review


green ferns, towering coconut palms, the deep blue ocean, and the cliff covered in dense green foliage. The palms offer plenty of shade from the big Hawaiian sun. Open your eyes and see the horizon with the colors of a Los Angeles sunset, without the smog. Take a look at the clouds as soft as a goose down comforter, and as solid as the heft of a fresh coconut. Open your eyes and take in the never-ending ocean washing over the warm black sand. If you are lucky enough, you can see the dolphins swimming by, jumping several feet in the air as they spin and flip. The ocean is very rough with a fierce current and requires an experienced swimmer to jump in. If the water is calm and you are cautious, you can snorkel and see the sea turtles as well as the tropical, iridescent, brightly colored fish close to the beach in the warm Pacific Ocean. When the high tide comes in, the beach is nearly covered by sea water. Kehena has a natural ambience that is renewed constantly and is ever changing. The black sand is transformed into different shaped and sized hills by the turbulent ocean, similar to the rolling wind manipulating sand dunes in a desert. Kehena makes the perfect palette for a picture, painting, or a group of people enjoying the land. The people of Kehena are a very diverse group that could not be stereotyped or classified as Kehena Beach type people. The people who frequent the beach are of a wide variety: Hawaiians, locals, hippies, Rastas, world travelers, people with vacation homes nearby, and even a few tourists. There is definitely a multicultural, international presence. Kehena is a clothing-optional beach, with little judgment. Everyone has an open mind for the most part, and gets along just fine without competition or trying to name themselves or others. The majority are locals and fit together like a family. Kehena is one of the friendliest beaches in Hawaii. On any given warm sunny day, there are tanned bodies jumping off a cliff into the ocean with perfect timing, riding a wave back to the perch on top of the sharp lava rock, to do it all over again. I still picture my friend Kaya in the crest of a thirty foot coconut tree, harvesting fruit to give to the thirsty souls who crave the young sweet taste of a naturally cool, fresh coconut. Kaya would climb tall trees all day, some as tall as forty feet or more, then he would give the “cocos� away free, when most other locals would sell them. Another friend, Charlie, was about seventy years old and sounded like a frog that smoked too many cigars in his day. It brings a feeling of carefree laughter to think of him. Charlie’s sense of humor was crude and borderline dark. But even when little five-foot Charlie was


Lincoln Land Review

broke and had little to offer, he always had a huge smile and a laugh, something to brighten the dullest of moments. The people of Hawaii have personality and character like no place I’ve been before. They acted as if they were super heroes with the job of bringing enjoyment, or main characters in an action novel that were tainted with a little badness or a flaw that only made them more interesting. The people at Kehena Beach look out for each other and they look out for tourists as well, like a family cares for its own. Innumerous lives have been saved from the wrath of the ocean. I have seen newcomers screaming for help and pulled from the ocean by the local resident swimmers. Someone is always watching. When you show up to Kehena, you get smiles from the faces you know, and smiles from the faces you don’t. Kehena Beach is a good, fun place. In time you can become a Kehena Beach local. Here in Kehena, all become one—like when separate notes on a guitar combine to make one unified chord. Every Sunday there is a drum circle in Kehena Beach. Giant drums, intricately hand carved from solid fruit tree trunks are carried up and down the steep trail. Polynesian drums, African drums, Indian drums, more drums, and various percussion instruments are heaved up and down the treacherous trail of Kehena. It is like an ancient gathering of tribe’s people. People chant obscure catchy words that are exaggerated by the drums and percussion instruments, along with the woodwinds, acoustic guitars, and brass horns. You never know what to expect on a Sunday at Kehena: rainbow family songs, Indian chants, a Bob Marley song, an acoustic funk jam, maybe just a single drum playing a heartbeat. Sometimes it can be chaotic and offbeat, but most of the time, it sounds really good. When it does sound bad, all you have to do is walk down the beach, and it becomes a distant drone. My good friend Randy Lanakila is usually there, shaking his dreadlocks and beating the drum methodically with a purpose. Lanakila is often playing a berimbau, a unique tribal instrument constructed of a stick, a gourd, a wire, and a rock. It sounds like a mix between a warping piano key and a note like a bending drum beat. It sounds quite nice and feels like a native call. Bring your drum. Being at Kehena Beach just feels like you are in another world, a fantasy. It is not only the beauty of the people, the ocean, and the sounds of culture that inspire a person to be creative or comfortable, such as an artist’s muse, but the shimmering wind on the coconut palms, the spirit of the island itself, the spirit of Pele, the goddess of the fire and volcano. All of the wonderful events of the Hawaiian

Lincoln Land Review


Islands combine to become an entity, a living breathing being. When you really take it all in, Hawaii keeps calling you back. Whenever I hear a thunderous rain, or even see a picture, it is as if a part of me is missing. Kehena Beach is a special place that will always be in my memories. Everyone who is capable should try to experience the Aloha of Hawaii.


Lincoln Land Review

Deflationary Consequences of the Great Depression SAM GREENWALT

Professor Art Meyer, ECO 132

Since the Great Depression, there has been plenty of debate among economists concerning the specific economic forces that drove such a great and lasting downturn in the economy. However, when the debate comes to the causes that initially spurred the crisis, there seems to be general agreement that deflation had some of the most prevalent aftershocks. Deflation can best be defined as “a situation in which the prices of most goods and services are falling over time so that inflation

is negative” (Frank et al. 129). In the following discussion, I will offer brief insight

into what helped bring about the experienced deflation during the Depression. Most importantly, though, I will attempt to highlight a number of these economic after-effects that together with deflation formed a chain-link system of cause and effect that steadily continued to dampen the U.S. economy through the initial recession. Following the Great War, there was a common movement among both industrialized and non-industrialized nations to re-adopt the previously suspended international gold standard. According to Harold James in his essay, “The Gold Standard, Deflation, and Financial Crisis in the Great Depression: An International Comparison,” 28 out of 48 currencies issued by the League of Nations were backed in gold by 1925 (73). Although seemingly made to alleviate the stress of chaotic monetary trends during the time, this move eventually proved not only counterproductive, but also exceptionally detrimental from a real gross domestic product standpoint for the adopting countries. For the United States in particular, the readoption of the gold standard saw its negative impact begin to take off when combined with the then-newly adopted monetary policy. In his lecture titled, “The Macroeconomics of the Great Depression: A Comparative Approach,” Ben Bernanke points out that in order to “curb stock market speculation,” the Federal Reserve enacted policy that “sterilized” newly increased gold reserves while simultaneously contracting the money supply (6). In simple macroeconomic terms, the resulting dollar mimicked that of a good which experiences a leftward shift of

Lincoln Land Review


supply and the automatic increase in equilibrium price that ensues. With an increase in the value of currency, one can easily imagine what was to follow: the higher value dollar equated to a decrease in prices, and deflation set in. The events that were to follow the onset of deflation I feel can best be comprehended on a smaller scale using the following fictitious example: Imagine Bob has $100 in a checking account at The National Bank. With the rising value of the dollar, Bob panics and figures it would be smarter to keep his money hidden safely under his mattress where The National Bank wouldn’t be able to use it to make loans to businesses such as The Coffee House. While Bob and others like him are recovering their money from banks, they certainly aren’t going to blow it on things like coffee from The Coffee House. All the while, the real interest rate begins to rise due to deflation. The decrease in business for The Coffee House plus pressures from higher interest rates causes them to come up short for the month’s loan payment to The National Bank. Unfortunately, The National Bank has also panicked, enacting policy change to increase its reserves. Under this new policy, the bank is unable to cut The Coffee House any slack, so they foreclose. However, the building that The Coffee House had put up for collateral isn’t worth nearly as much due to deflated prices, so the bank is out even more money. Not surprisingly, the newly-short-changed National Bank is also forced to go under. Now, what happens to the businesses with workers like Bob that used to get their loans from banks like The National Bank? As evident in this example, the true cost of deflation goes beyond the mere existence of a higher value dollar. Though not an exact portrait of the case during the Depression, as this tended to vary depending on whether the borrower or lending agency took action first, variations of this scenario branched from the widespread deflation and greatly contributed to both the deepening and stagnation of the business cycle trough. To address the concluding question of the example scenario, one must arrive at the deflationary impact on real wage and unemployment. The connection between these two begins with the cause which, in this case, was the rising of the real wage. However, it’s important to note that deflation alone wasn’t the sole root of this unneeded increase. As Bernanke explains, the imperfect adjustment of nominal wage, typically referred to as being “sticky,” worked in conjunction with deflation to produce the detrimental rise in real wage (Bernanke 21). Now, with no


Lincoln Land Review

background on the issue, one could certainly beg the question: “Why would a rise in wage prove detrimental?” The answer lies in what exactly is meant by “imperfect.” Basically, in order for the real wage to adjust correctly, nominal wage must react according to the change in price level. Alas, such was not the case upon the start of the Depression. Instead, as price level fell due to deflation, the nominal wage failed to adjust, holding “imperfectly” constant (“Chapter 6” 208). The discrepancy of course bolstered the real wage, which drove private firms, already under great pressure due to the higher real interest, to let go of workers that they simply couldn’t afford to pay. Fewer workers in turn meant less output, causing a drop in real GDP and the subsequent deepening of the recession. Working hand-in-hand with the nominal wage issue was the debt-deflation that fueled the banking panics similar to those in the example scenario. James explains debt-deflation as the “increase in the real value of nominal debt obligations brought about by falling prices” (James 89). Essentially, the debt deflation was two-fold, as it began to “squeeze” (as Bernanke terms it) both borrower net-worth at first and then the financial lending institutions themselves (Bernanke 18). Beginning with the borrower, one can logically consider the falling value of collateral. With prices so greatly affected by the deflation, borrower collateral began to lose its weight in terms of its ability to offset a lended amount. This equated to a decrease in net worth and, in turn, the unlikelihood of procuring a loan (Bernanke 17). Moreover, those that had loans out were now forced to pay back in deflated dollars, which of course proved anywhere from difficult to impossible. At this point, the issue had started to come full circle. Banks were seeing a drop in issuance of loans, and as those borrowers under pressure began to default, accumulated debt held by the banks themselves translated into real assets. These now-deflated real assets decreased lending ability due to the pressure they placed on bank capital, which eventually led to panic and subsequent runs on the banks themselves (James 88). Almost ironic in a sense is the fact that the initial monetary tightening policies of these financial lending institutions during the initial onset of the Depression had an adverse effect, coming back and “squeezing” the institutions themselves after going through the chain of defaulting borrowers. What’s been discussed above is a far cry from encompassing the total economic impact of deflation on the deepening of the initial recession of the Great Depression, as the “slippery slope” effect produced certainly spread through

Lincoln Land Review


nearly all channels down to the lowest elemental level of the U.S. economy. However, the general consequence of deflation can almost entirely be summarized by one word: panic. The idea can be likened to the term “self-preservation” used to

describe U.S. gold policy in the text Roosevelt, the Great Depression, and the Economics of Recovery published by the University of Virginia (“Chapter 1” 15). Moreover, the panic or “self-preservation” that boosted deflation was the same that continued to spider-web deflationary effects not only across the country but around the world as a whole. The proof itself is in the numbers, as in regards to wholesale price alone, deflation reached 11% in a short year period from January 1929-1930 (James 77). While naturally the exact extent of deflation and how it was brought about during the Depression will continue to be argued for years to come, the profound impact it had will forever be an economic lesson burned in history that should always provide a glimpse of what the economy must be prepared to withstand and overcome. WORKS CITED Bernanke, Ben S. "The Macroeconomics of The Great Depression: A Comparative

Approach." Journal of Money, Credit and Banking. Vol. 27.1 1995. 1-28.

Business Source Elite. Web. 4 Mar. 2012.

"Chapter 1: Financial Crisis." Roosevelt, the Great Depression, and the Economics of Recovery. 8-22. University of Virginia Press, 2005. Academic Search Complete. Web. 4 Mar. 2012. "Chapter 6: Employment, Hours, and Earnings in the Depression: An Analysis of

Eight Manufacturing Industries." Essays on the Great Depression. 206-246. Princeton University Press, 2004. America: History and Life with Full Text. Web. 4 Mar. 2012.

Frank, Robert H., Ben Bernanke, Louis Johnston, and Robert H. Frank. Principles of Macroeconomics. Boston: McGraw-Hill Irwin, 2009. Print.

James, Harold. "Chapter Three: The Gold Standard, Deflation, and Financial Crisis in the Great Depression: An International Comparison." Essays on the

Great Depression. 70-107. Princeton University Press, 2004. America: History and Life with Full Text. Web. 4 Mar. 2012.


Lincoln Land Review

Prince of Denmark: Assessing Hamlet’s Leadership Potential AMANDA HAMILTON

Professor Marlene Emmons, COM 112

Frederick Douglass, an American author and statesman, once said “We have to do with the past only as we can make it useful to the present and the future” (“Frederick Douglass”). Hindsight is a view of past events, with all mistakes and successes clearly distinguished. As Douglass says, it is valuable for both the present and the future. We see clearest when we look back rather than ahead. It would be even more valuable to have foresight as clear as hindsight. Evaluating leaders would be easier and more successful with such clear foresight. Yet, hindsight can become foresight if used correctly. Leading business scholars study leaders past and present and use the information to develop strong leaders for the future. They glean information from the past (hindsight) and predict how it will shape the future, creating foresight. When choosing leaders, hindsight and foresight can be invaluable.

In Shakespeare’s play, Hamlet, the character Hamlet was a potential king for

Denmark if he had not died. However, since Hamlet never became king, we must use hindsight to view the man before he reached leadership and turn this hindsight into foresight of the kind of leader he would become. It is possible to trace the path he walked and guess where it would have led him. When one looks at skills and character traits found in effective business leaders, we see that Hamlet is lacking. By looking at these leadership skills we can look ahead to Hamlet’s future and predict that if he had lived to be king and continued with behavior and attitudes displayed in the play, he would have made a poor leader for Denmark. Hamlet is the prince of Denmark, grieving for his father’s death. He is upset over the hasty, incestuous remarriage of his mother to his uncle, Claudius, who is now king. The ghost of Hamlet’s father tells Hamlet that Claudius killed him and demands that Hamlet seek revenge for the murder. Hamlet pretends to be insane as a scheme to confuse the court while he tests the truth of the ghost’s words and plots his revenge. Hamlet is a man of thought and delays taking action against his uncle for various reasons. When Hamlet kills Polonius, the king’s advisor, he flees to England. He returns to find that a former love interest, Polonius’ daughter Ophelia, died

Lincoln Land Review


after going insane from grief over her father’s death. Her brother, Laertes, wants revenge against Hamlet and plots with Claudius to kill the prince with a poisoned sword in a duel. During the duel, Gertrude dies by drinking poisoned wine Claudius intended for Hamlet. Hamlet and Laertes are both wounded by the poisoned sword, and before he dies, Hamlet kills Claudius. The kingdom is left in the hands of Fortinbras, the prince of Norway. Fortinbras ordered an honorable funeral for Hamlet, saying, “For he was likely, had he been put on,/ To have proved most royal” (5.2.38081). Fortinbras expected Hamlet to be king and to rule well. The prince of Norway was not the only one who expected to see Hamlet on the throne. Hamlet himself knew he was likely to be king. He once mentioned to a friend that his uncle “popped in between the/ election and my hopes,” implying that Hamlet anticipated and wanted the throne after his father (5.2.64). According to Shakespearean critic, J. Dover Wilson, Shakespeare intended the government in Hamlet to follow English systems, which meant Hamlet should have inherited the throne after the death of his father and Claudius was not the legal ruler (155). Another critic, Philip Edwards, suggests that Shakespeare intended the king to be elected as was done in Denmark at the time, making Claudius king by the legal choice of the people (3). Either way, Hamlet was a candidate for the kingship of Denmark after the death of his father and would have been again a candidate when his uncle died. Claudius himself expects Hamlet to receive the throne when he dies and tells Hamlet “You are the most immediate to our throne” (1.2.109). By the time we meet Hamlet in the play, he should be well-prepared to lead a country whether he expects to receive the position by inheritance or election. His skills as a leader should be developing—if not already in place. In this light, it is not unfair to evaluate a man’s leadership potential before he is king. Hamlet expects to be a king, but as a future leader, it is also important for Hamlet to know his strengths and weaknesses. In a study of successful leaders, Warren Bennis, an author and educator in leadership studies, found that many leaders could identify their strengths and weaknesses, working to improve their weaknesses and using their strengths to the best advantage of the organization (Managing People

89-90). In his book, On Becoming a Leader, Bennis devotes a whole chapter to selfknowledge, reiterating that leaders develop self-knowledge by learning from their mistakes and successes and choosing to change because of this knowledge (56). Kent M. Keith, author and chief executive officer of the Greenleaf Center for Servant


Lincoln Land Review

Leadership describes why it is important for leaders to have self-knowledge: They know that they are not perfect, and yet they can perform at a high level; they know they have their own emotions and biases, and yet they can make wise and fair decisions. By building on their strengths and accepting their weaknesses, they are ready to build on the strengths and accept the weaknesses of others. They are less likely to judge, and more likely to encourage. They appreciate the importance of teams, in which each person is encouraged to contribute his or her strengths to the task at hand. They realize that every person and every job counts, and they treat every employee as a partner and colleague. (35-36) Possession of self-knowledge is not enough; effective leaders use this knowledge to support others in the organization. Hamlet exhibits a sensitivity to his weaknesses that shows promise for this trait of self-knowledge. He spends much of his time looking inward: “Am I a coward? . . . This is most brave, / That I, the son of a dear father murdered, / Prompted to my revenge by heaven and hell./ Must like a whore unpack my heart with words/ and fall a-cursing like a very drab” (2.2.510, 521-25). He questions his courage, recognizing that he is thinking overmuch, but needs to take action. Later he contemplates suicide, criticizing himself for not having the courage to do it, yet acknowledging that it is his conscience that keeps him from it (3.1.83). He recognizes that he has enough moral courage to resist the urge to kill himself. Hamlet identifies weakness in himself, but where does he use this knowledge to enhance the community around him? Keith says such leaders are “less likely to judge and more likely to encourage” (36). Hamlet doesn’t make allowances for the weaknesses in others. Of his mother’s hasty remarriage, he says, “Frailty, thy name is woman” (1.2.146), and several other times sends her verbal jabs to emphasize his displeasure in what he sees as a weakness of character. To his friend Horatio, he speaks disparagingly of Claudius’ intemperate drinking (1.4.8-12). When he kills Polonius, he talks as if Polonius got what he deserved for his weakness of interfering: “Thou wretched, rash, intruding fool, farewell! . . . Thou find’st to be too busy is some danger” (3.4.32, 34). There are many incidents that show Hamlet has no respect for Polonius. This does not sound like he is “accepting the weaknesses of others” (Keith 36). Rather, he is frequently scathing toward other people. Hamlet does, indeed, have a keen sense of weaknesses and strengths—especially the weaknesses of others.

Lincoln Land Review


There is little evidence that he uses his knowledge to make a positive impact. Hamlet belittles and insults Ophelia both in the scene where Polonius and the king are eavesdropping (3.1.90-149) and while the court watches a play (3.2.110-147). Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are friends of Hamlet’s, yet Hamlet chooses to see them as scheming participants in his uncle’s plot, and he orchestrates their death (5.2.5758). As members of the court who are not royal, Ophelia, Rosencrantz, and Guildenstern all should see Hamlet as a positive leader by this point. Instead, he is superior and judgmental. Hamlet doesn’t learn from the people he judges in order to improve his leadership—something he could do by observing the behavior and actions of people around him, or by listening to their advice and criticism. Not only will good leaders gather information from themselves but, according to Bennis, these leaders also accept information from others and use it to change who they are and how they act. “The trick is getting the best feedback possible, being open to it,

and changing for the better because of it” (Managing People 90). Similarly, Keith says that leaders should listen to other people in order to find the best possible

way to help them succeed as followers (37). Listening to criticism, seeking advice from knowledgeable sources, and listening to the opinions of others can help leaders see the best way to operate an organization. Hamlet does not like taking advice from other people. When the ghost of old Hamlet wants the prince to come away and speak to it alone, Hamlet’s friends try to tell him it is a dangerous idea (1.4.80-81). Hamlet refuses to be guided by them (1.4.82-85). Later, Horatio warns Hamlet not to fight Laertes, “You will lose, my lord,” and even offers to help him get out of the duel (5.1.187, 195). Hamlet brushes him aside and will not take his advice. Throughout the play, there is not an instance where Hamlet seeks advice or takes anyone’s admonitions seriously. He always keeps his own counsel, infrequently telling even his friends how he intends to get revenge. Literary critic Salvador de Madariaga says that “Hamlet is egocentric” (172). This behavior and aversion toward advice and learning can in part be explained by Hamlet’s pride. He is too proud and too self-centered to accept outward criticism. On the other hand, Fortinbras, the prince of Norway, takes the advice of his uncle and does not attack Claudius and Denmark to regain his land (2.2.60-76). In the end, Fortinbras is the one who still lives and rules Denmark, not Hamlet. Fortinbras, as a leader, can see the wisdom of following advice.


Lincoln Land Review

This self-knowledge and seeking of advice contribute to an overall necessity for a leader to continue learning. Bennis says that “Almost all leaders have a bias toward change, and they learn from experience that you can’t get positive change unless you’re open to feedback and look around as you walk through life” (Managing People 90). One has to wonder if Hamlet is willing to learn anything in this way. Hamlet’s inward focus and refusal to change could be seen as someone who shouldn’t be blamed for his mistakes because he is a victim of circumstances. A

good leader, according to Bennis, will “learn from adversity” (Managing People

91). A leader is constantly choosing to learn from everything-- including himself, his experiences, and other people. It may be too soon after Hamlet’s unfortunate circumstances to judge his willingness to learn from them—indeed, he is in the middle of his hardships when we first meet him. At this point, however, it appears that Hamlet is not choosing to learn from difficulty. If Hamlet is not willing to seek counsel in his own private affairs, there is little hope that he would take advice when ruling a country. There may be another reason besides pride that explains why Hamlet doesn’t accept advice. When one looks at Hamlet’s communication style, you see that he not only rejects advice and communication from others, but he himself communicates very little. Bennis refers to an “open style” of leadership that encourages communication

between followers and leaders (Managing People 92). Openness means a leader is willing to communicate, answer questions, and make himself approachable and accessible to followers. Hamlet is not approachable, but perhaps he has good reason. When Hamlet pretends to be insane, Claudius and Gertrude employ his friends, Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, to spy on him and find out why he acts strangely (2.2.19-26). Polonius tries to see if Hamlet is insane out of denied love for Ophelia by spying on him as well (2.2.156-167). After the queen’s early pleas to stop grieving, no one tries to outright talk to Hamlet about the issues at hand (1.2.19-20). Everyone knows that Hamlet will not tell them what is wrong, so they must find out by devious means. Hamlet may hesitate to trust so many people willing to spy on him. He feels betrayed by his mother when she remarries and as a result is embittered toward all women, making him suspicious of Ophelia as well (1.2.146). Claudius has killed his father and tries to kill Hamlet by the end of the play. In light of the betrayal he has experienced, it may be wise that Hamlet doesn’t trust most people enough to communicate and accept advice from them. Many have not proven trustworthy.

Lincoln Land Review


As a result, he doesn’t communicate. He tells only a few friends that his madness is feigned (1.5.172-183). When Rosencrantz and Guildenstern talk to him on behalf of the queen and king, he tells them he is depressed, but gives no details because he knows that, ultimately, he is speaking to his parents and not his friends (2.2.263278). Neither does he act openly with Ophelia, possibly suspecting (rightly) that she is a tool of her father, Polonius. Trust is an integral part of open, two-way communication. It is not surprising that this type of communication is scarce in Denmark. In Hamlet’s situation, it is difficult to know who is reliable. Hamlet chooses to trust his friend Horatio sometimes, telling him about his feigned madness and how he arranged the deaths of Rosencrantz and Guildenstern (1.5.168-175, 5.2.48-55). Even so, we have already seen he does not accept Horatio’s advice. He also trusts his mother by revealing his father’s murder and his fake insanity to her, asking her to keep it a secret from Claudius (4.1.181-88). She keeps this trust. Those he chooses to trust, he chooses carefully and well. Perhaps too carefully, to the extent that he rejects people who could support him. Ophelia might have been loyal to him if given a chance. Rosencrantz and Guildenstern were misguided to trust Claudius. They willingly tell Hamlet they are part of a scheme, showing concern for him and a desire to help (2.2.38-39, 261). Like Ophelia, they might have helped if they only knew they were needed. Hamlet had reason to be cautious when placing his trust, but the same could be said of those around him. Hamlet had an unstable record for trustworthiness. Rosencrantz and Guildenstern trusted Hamlet as a friend and he rashly plotted their deaths instead of testing their reliability and including them in his plans (5.2.39-46). Ophelia seems to have trusted Hamlet in the beginning, but he deceived her with his insanity act and later kills her father. Polonius and Laertes do not trust Hamlet and caution Ophelia to stay away from him (1.3.23-31, 104-108). Polonius also suspects that Hamlet’s insanity is not completely true (2.2.204-5). Gertrude trusts her son implicitly—until she thinks he is going to kill her during a conversation in her room (3.4.21-22). Claudius suspects that Hamlet is a threat and plots to kill him (4.7.59-66). This lack of trust could be a problem for Hamlet as a future leader. According to Bennis, trust “is the one quality that cannot be acquired but must be earned. It is given by co-workers and followers, and without it, the leader can’t function” (On Becoming 41). Hamlet could complain that those around him have not earned his trust, but they could say the same of him. Hamlet is not the only victim when it comes to misplaced trust.


Lincoln Land Review

A lack of mutual trust between Hamlet and those around him contributes to Hamlet’s mental state. It is only fair to remember, Hamlet is dealing with some difficult issues. He summarizes the issues himself in a conversation with Horatio about Claudius: “He that hath killed my king and whored my mother,/popped in between th’ election and my hopes” (5.2.62-64). His father has been murdered by his uncle, his mother is committing incest, and that same uncle has taken his throne. Any one of those issues is enough to cause emotional turmoil in Hamlet. Some critics argue that Hamlet’s madness is not an act, but true madness that springs from this turmoil. Shakespearean critic Patrick Cruttwell analyzes Hamlet’s mental state in relation to his moral choices in his article "The Morality of Hamlet—‘Sweet Prince’ or ‘Arrant Knave’?” According to Crutwell, “If one imagined Hamlet as a real person, outside the theatre and the play, then clearly his moral responsibility would be greatly lessened if he could be thought of as all the time mentally and emotionally disturbed” (235). If Hamlet is going insane, he is not capable of leading a country. Someone so unstable could not be relied upon to govern well. However, Hamlet’s insane moments are, Crutwell says, “an extravagance of behavior which could scarcely be overacted” (235). When compared with his moments of sanity, the insanity displayed by Hamlet is too exaggerated to be real. In that case, Hamlet as king is not such an alarming thought. Or is it? One would rather believe he cannot prevent his actions. Crutwell states, “If, then, we conclude that Hamlet is not a neurotic, he is a normal man in a situation of intense strain, what effect will this have on the moral question? It must clearly make Hamlet a good deal more culpable when he misbehaves” (235). Therefore, Hamlet is aware of his actions and is making decisions based on high stress and emotions. This is nearly as dangerous for a country as a king who is insane. A leader should not be emotionally detached from issues, but dwelling on emotions can interfere with sound decisions. Author and Professor at the Harvard Business School, Joseph L. Badaracco, Jr. says that “Emotions play a complicated role in good reflection. If they are too strong, they can make reflection impossible” (176). Reflection is one of Hamlet’s greatest strengths, but he also exhibits strong emotions that may keep him from using his reflection to the best advantage. These emotional thought processes are seen in Hamlet’s soliloquies, which frequently end with either a questionable decision or none at all. At one point he contemplates suicide, pouring out his grief and frustration with his family situation, yet not reaching a decision about what ac-

Lincoln Land Review


tion should be taken (1.2.129-159). In his famous Hecuba speech, Hamlet laments his cowardice and ends by deciding to use a play to trick Claudius into revealing he murdered Hamlet’s father (2.1.487-544). When this scheme comes to fruition; the actual proof that his scheme worked is vague. It is convincing to Hamlet, who sees what he wants to see (3.2.261-65). In this light, the decision to test Claudius with a play is not sound; the scheme doesn’t work well and is a result of emotional decision. Hamlet later thinks of suicide again, dwelling on his misery (3.1.56-90). In this speech, Hamlet himself sees the problem with his emotional thought devoid of action: “And thus the native hue of resolution/ Is sicklied o’er with the pale cast of thought,/ And enterprises of great pitch and moment / With this regard their currents turn awry/ And lose the name of action” (3.1.84-89). He recognizes the problem and once again does nothing about it. Hamlet’s emotions get in the way, causing him to think without acting and act without thinking. Badaracco says that wise leaders think carefully before making decisions. On

the other hand, successful leaders often take risks (Managing People 90). There is a

difference between risky choices and rash choices. A leader taking risks thinks through the consequences of the decision, choosing to do it only when he is convinced the possible result is worth the risk. A rash decision is made when the leader doesn’t consider the consequences of the decision. Hamlet makes rash decisions more often than risky ones. On a whim he decides the best way to test the ghost and catch his father’s murderer is by acting insane (1.5.174). On impulse, he follows the ghost of his father (1.4.63). In a conversation with his mother, Hamlet suddenly stabs Polonius hiding behind a curtain thinking he is Claudius (3.4.25). When he finds that Rosencrantz and Guildenstern carry a letter from Claudius telling the king of England to kill Hamlet, Hamlet assumes his friends knew the contents of the letter and contrives to have them killed (5.2.38-47). On observing Ophelia’s funeral, Hamlet decides to rival Laertes in a display of over-zealous grief (5.2.261-573). Each one is a rash decision. Badaracco says that “Good leaders, even the most confident and accomplished, know how high the stakes are, for themselves and others, when they make important decisions, and they are alone in making the final call” (177). Hamlet does make his decisions alone. He is also unconcerned about the effect upon those around him, or even upon himself. Being careful while making decisions is important, but just as important is having the right decision at the end of the deliberation. That right decision requires


Lincoln Land Review

the leader to have sound ethics. Hamlet displays some sense of right and wrong. He agonizes over the question of suicide partially because he believes it to be wrong. His mother’s incest bothers him. Crutwell argues that Hamlet seeking revenge is, according to Elizabethan times, a “moral duty” (237). All of these are strong indications that Hamlet is concerned about right and wrong. These are moral scruples, but what about his treatment of other people? How does Hamlet act out his moral standards? In a book about bad leadership, Barbara Kellerman, Research Director of the Center for Public Leadership, says “Bad leadership falls into two categories: bad as in ineffective and bad as in unethical” (32). Kellerman’s definition of callous leadership describes Hamlet: “the leader and at least some followers are uncaring or unkind. Ignored or discounted are the needs, wants, and wishes of most members of the group or organization, especially subordinates” (43). According to Kellerman’s definition, it is especially subordinates who are ignored by callous leaders (43). Hamlet is a prince, outranked only by the king and queen. Ophelia, Rosencrantz, Guildenstern, Polonius, and Laertes are all people who could be considered subordinates. By this time in his development toward leadership, Hamlet should see these people as followers for whom he is responsible. Hamlet, however, is insensitive in his treatment of nearly everyone with whom he comes in contact. He chooses to begin his feigned insanity by frightening Ophelia, a girl who has previously seen him as a lover (2.1.76-83). He confronts his mother, revealing that her new husband was his father’s murderer and ranting about her infidelity. She begs him to stop: “O, speak to me no more./ These words like daggers enter in my ears./ No more, sweet Hamlet” (3.4.94-96). Hamlet ignores Gertrude’s pain while he speaks, only stopping when the ghost appears and tells Hamlet he has deviated from his purpose (1.4.110-115). Hamlet kills Polonius without regret, showing no sympathy for the unfortunate mistake and not sparing a thought for Ophelia, who is now fatherless (1.4.30-31). He is unconcerned about the deaths of his friends, Rosencrantz and Guildenstern— deaths he contrived—saying, “They are not near my conscience” (5.2.57). In a desire to be the best at everything, Hamlet ruins Ophelia’s funeral by trying to out-grieve her brother Laertes: “Forty thousand brothers/ Could not with all their quantity of love/ Make up my sum” (5.1.258-60). Overall, Hamlet feels no one’s pain but his own. This problem alone, regardless of Hamlet’s other deficiencies, can make him an ineffective leader.

Lincoln Land Review


At the heart of a leader’s ethics is his view of other people. That view affects every decision he makes. The decisions made by a leader will have either a positive or a negative impact on the whole community. Many scholars agree that consideration for followers is necessary to make an organization function well. In his essay, “Fairness as Effectiveness: How Leaders Lead,” author and professor of psychology at New York University, Tom R. Tyler states, “Studies show that people value the respect that others show for their rights and their status within society. . . . More than any other issue, treatment with dignity and respect is something that authorities can give to everyone with whom they deal” (121). If the characters of Hamlet were interviewed, it is not likely that any could say they felt respected by Hamlet. Good leaders “serve as models and mentors,” creating a learning environment where everyone involved is encouraged to grow and develop (Managing People 93). Hamlet as an example to be imitated by others is a frightening concept. Some of his traits, his intelligence and thoughtfulness, would be admirable qualities for a developing leader to imitate. His treatment of people would not be a valuable trait to imitate. Hamlet is, however, so little trusted by those around him, it is possible that no one would consider imitating his actions. He never makes an attempt to deliberately mentor anyone. This trait most likely develops naturally from a leader who practices good leading principles. Like trust, it is a product of good leadership. Hamlet has not yet attempted to develop these qualities for himself, so it is not surprising that he is not serving as a model for others. It is disappointing that Hamlet overlooks this when so many people are looking toward him for direction. One of the most powerful traits of effective leaders is a desire to serve: “A servant-leader is simply a leader who is focused on serving others. A servant-leader loves people, and wants to help them” (Keith 9). Hamlet lacks this servant-leader mindset. Throughout history, it is not uncommon for leaders to lack this quality when leading through a monarchy. The best leaders, however, whether in a democracy or monarchy, serve the people they lead. We have already seen that Hamlet has little or no concern for the people closest to him. Most disturbing of all is the glaring absence of any concern for the people of Denmark. Hamlet expects to be their king. Why no mention of them? He never argues that he wants to rule better than Claudius. It never occurs to him that the citizens are also struggling with the loss of his father and the subsequent transition between rulers. Buried deep in his own pain and anger, Hamlet never surfaces to look at the many people he seeks to lead.


Lincoln Land Review

It is lamentable that someone so intent on ruling has not spared a thought for those whom he will impact the most. Hamlet has many deficiencies as a prospective leader, yet he still has some qualities in common with good leaders. One quality Bennis describes is the ability to concentrate: “These are people who have very few interpersonal skills, but have a concentration that is almost alarming—their caliper eyes focused primarily on their work, on the company, on the goals, on the mission. Offhand, I wouldn’t have expected them to be that effective. But they were extraordinarily effective with their people and within their worlds” (Managing People 91). Hamlet may not be good with people, but he shows an intense focus on his goals. He may take a while to decide what those goals are and how he should accomplish them, but once he chooses a path he centers his attention on it, even to his death. There is only one instance where he is distracted from his purpose. He gives a lengthy lecture to Gertrude about his displeasure with her unfaithfulness to his father and remarriage to his uncle (1.4.53-109). The ghost has to return and tell Hamlet he is distracted from the plan of revenge on Claudius alone (4.1.110-111). If Hamlet channeled this focus to a productive end, it would be a step toward effective leadership. As already mentioned, Hamlet is not devoid of a moral sense and may not have always been oblivious to the needs of people around him. He shows strong affection for his dead father (1.2.186-87). His concern for his mother shows a love for someone other than himself. Ophelia intimates that Hamlet was once a different man than the insane one she now sees: “O, what a noble mind is here o’erthrown!/ The courtier’s, soldier’s, scholar’s, eye, tongue, sword,/ The expectancy and rose of the fair state,/ The glass of fashion and the mold of form,/ Th’ observed of all observers, quite, quite down!” (3.2.150-54). She refers to what we know is false insanity, but it gives us a description of the Hamlet she knew before these times. He was intelligent, an observer, a soldier, scholar, fashionable, and the prospective leader of the country. She thought well of him, and his friends also seem to have a good opinion of him at the beginning of the play. Each of those positive qualities Ophelia saw in Hamlet could have contributed to a good leader. Hamlet had potential to be great. Potential that never develops remains only potential and is wasted. Hamlet is a tragedy, especially when one looks past the literary definition of the word and sees Hamlet for what he could have been. Ultimately, Hamlet wanted to be king but did not attempt to become a good

Lincoln Land Review


leader. He doesn’t use self-knowledge and is not willing to listen and learn from experiences and people around him. He carefully chooses to trust a few people, but never attempts to take his trust to a larger circle of people. While he trusts few people, Hamlet himself proves to be untrustworthy. He allows emotions to sway his decisions and often chooses rashly. His questionable ethics surface when one looks at the way he treats people. Leading by serving is never considered. All his admirable traits must be used in tandem with the traits he refuses to develop if Hamlet wishes to be a good leader. Without a changed perspective, he would have been a poor leader for Denmark. He did not need to study leadership point by point. The initial step would have been to look outward and find value in the people around him— both those below his station and those willing to stand next to him for support. The rest would have followed. A good leader is one who humbly learns to see, using clear hindsight and careful foresight to improve the future for those he serves. Any sight at all is indispensable. Hamlet refused to see.

WORKS CITED Badaracco, Jr. Joseph L. Questions of Character: Illuminating the Heart of Leader-

ship Through Literature. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 2006. Print.

Bennis, Warren. Managing People is Like Herding Cats. Provo, Utah: Executive Excellence Publishing, 1997. Print.

---. On Becoming a Leader. 8th ed. Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley, 1994. Print. Cruttwell, Patrick. "The Morality of Hamlet—‘Sweet Prince’ or ‘Arrant Knave’?” Stratford-Upon-Avon Studies No. 5. Rpt in. Shakespearean Criticism. Ed.

Laurie Lanzen Harris. Vol. 1. Detroit: Gale, 1984. 234-237. Web. 14 Feb. 2011.

Edwards, Philip. Introduction. Hamlet Prince of Denmark. By William Shakespeare.

Ed. Philip Edwards. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1985. 40-61. Rpt. in Shake-

spearean Criticism. Ed. Michelle Lee. Vol. 59. Detroit: Gale, 2001. Web. 14 Feb. 2011.

"Frederick Douglass." Xplore Inc, 2011. Web. 5 May 2011.


Lincoln Land Review

Keith, Kent M. The Case for Servant Leadership. Indiana: Greenleaf Center for Servant Leadership, 2008. Print.

Kellerman, Barbara. Bad Leadership: What it is, How it Happens, Why it Matters. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 2004. Print.

Madariaga, Salvador de. “On Hamlet.” Hollis and Carter. 1948. Rpt. in Shakespearean Criticism. Ed. Laurie Lanzen Harris. Vol. 1. Detroit: Gale, 1984.

171-175. Web. 5 Feb. 2011.

Shakespeare, William. Hamlet. The Complete Pelican Shakespeare. Ed. Stephen Orgel and A. R. Braunmuller. New York: Penguin Putnam, 2002. 13471391. Print.

Tyler, Tom R. “Fairness as Effectiveness: How Leaders Lead.” The Quest for Moral

Leaders. Eds. Joanne B. Ciulla, Terry L. Price, and Susan E. Murphy. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, 2005. 113-130. Print.

Wilson, J. Dover. “What Happens in Hamlet.” Cambridge UP. 1935. Rpt. in

Shakespearen Criticism. Ed. Laurie Lanzen Harris. Vol. 1. Detroit: Gale,

1984. 154-160. Web. 5 Feb. 2011.

Lincoln Land Review




Professor Art Meyer, ECO 132

Inflation can be a serious problem in any economy. It causes prices of goods and services to rise and the purchasing power of money to fall, which can drastically alter the standard of living in countries that are affected by it. But as bad as normal inflation is, the situation can unfortunately get much worse. Hyperinflation – as the name suggests – is escalated inflation, and it has an extremely negative impact on economies that are affected by it. Many countries all over the world have experienced hyperinflation at one time or another, severely weakening their economies. Michael K. Salemi, an economics professor at the University of North Carolina, writes however, that hyperinflation is largely a 20th century phenomenon, first making frequent appearances when governments began switching their currencies from gold and silver to paper. So what exactly is hyperinflation? Salemi describes hyperinflation as being the state of the economy when the monthly inflation rate reaches levels greater than 50 percent. He provides an example of this, saying, “at a monthly rate of 50 percent, an item that costs $1 on January 1 would cost $130 on January 1 of the following year.” As strange as it may sound, hyperinflations are actually caused by governments themselves when they print excess supplies of paper money. More specifically, as Salemi writes, “hyperinflations are caused by extremely rapid growth in the supply of ‘paper’ money.” He goes on to say that governments print such large amounts of money in an attempt to pay for large amounts of government expenditures. So, in essence, governments cause hyperinflation by printing excessive amounts of money to pay for all of their expenditures. As previously stated, many countries have experienced hyperinflation in the 20th and 21st centuries. One of the better known cases, that of Zimbabwe in 2007-2008, is a notable example for several reasons. According to an article by Steve H. Hanke and Alex K. F. Kwok in the Cato Journal, Zimbabwe actually

had the first hyperinflation of the 21st century and the 30th case of hyperinflation in the world’s history. Most of the world’s recorded cases of hyperinflation occurred in the 20th century, especially in Europe after the two World Wars.


Lincoln Land Review

Zimbabwe’s hyperinflation also has the distinction of being the second highest hyperinflation of all time, the first being in Hungary after World War I (Hanke and Kwok). Hyperinflation first began in Zimbabwe in March of 2007. By November of the following year, the inflation rate had reached 79.6 billion per month. According to Hanke and Kwok, after the inflation reached that incredibly high rate, the people of Zimbabwe began refusing to use Zimbabwean currency. This refusal to use Zimbabwe’s money actually helped to stop the hyperinflation rather quickly, in addition to government intervention and the closure of the Zimbabwe Stock Exchange. Hanke and Kwok report that “within weeks the entire economy spontaneously ‘dollarized’ and prices stabilized.” Another famous example of hyperinflation is that of Germany during the period between World War I and World War II. Robert H. Hetzel gives a detailed account of this in his article, “German Monetary History in the First Half of the Twentieth Century,” which was published in the Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond’s Economic Quarterly. According to Hetzel, the German government attempted to finance World War I using bonds, expecting them to be paid back after France was defeated. France won the war, however, leaving Germany with a huge amount of debt. In addition, since Germany was the losing side, they had to pay reparations to the Allies, which further increased their debt. Hetzel states, “Unable to cover its expenditures . . . the German government ran deficit exceeding 50 percent of its expenditures from 1919 through 1923.” And so, to cover these deficits, the government began printing more money. The increase in money led to inflation, which soon skyrocketed and catapulted Germany into a state of hyperinflation. Hetzel says, “By the end of November 1923, [the markdollar exchange rate] had fallen to 4,200,000,000,000 to 1” Shortly after this, the German government began passing a series of economic reforms, and within several years managed to bring hyperinflation to a halt. The German economy took a long time to recover, however, and this in turn opened the door for leaders like Adolf Hitler to take power (Hetzel). In both Zimbabwe and Germany, hyperinflation had major impacts on these countries’economies, even after the hyperinflation had been stopped. According to Salemi, hyperinflations can result in a reallocation of wealth – from the public, to the government. They can also “cause borrowers to gain at the ex-

Lincoln Land Review


pense of lenders.” Salemi illustrates this by saying, “the hyperinflation destroyed the wealth of the stable classes in Germany and made it easier for the National Socialists (Nazis) to gain power.” In addition to these consequences, hyperinflation also lowers an economy’s efficiency, since people shy away from money transactions. Because money has so little value in a state of hyperinflation, people become more inclined to barter for goods than to use money to buy them. This causes money to have even less value, perpetuating the cycle of hyperinflation (Salemi). Hyperinflation has severe, long-term consequences on economies that are affected by it. It is usually caused by governments running up deficits and then attempting to pay the deficits by printing more money. Although hyperinflations have been happening for centuries, they became much more frequent in the 20th century with the introduction of paper money. They can be avoided, however, if governments spend money within their means and stop running up budget deficits.

WORKS CITED Hanke, Steve H. and Kwok, Alex K. F. “On the Measurement of Zimbabwe’s Hyperinflation.” Cato Journal 29.2 (2009): 353-364. Web. 26 Feb. 2012.

Hetzel, Robert L. “German Monetary History in the First Half of the Twentieth Cen-

tury.” Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond’s Economic Quarterly 88.1 (2002):

n. pag. Web. 12 March 2012.

Salemi, Michael K. “Hyperinflation.” Library of Economics and Liberty. Liberty Fund, Inc. 2008. Web. 26 Feb. 2012.


Lincoln Land Review

Hope in a Morning’s Bloom JESSICA LARSON

I remember the rain and its humble song undulating down to coax the floras to open and be nourished by the morning light that glows in the people’s hearts. Their eyes stare into the bright, golden sky that glosses light onto the Mayan Mountains. I watch the radiant sun dissolve the hazy scene, cleansing the droplets from a butterfly’s wings, freeing it from the dew’s burdensome weight while I think of the people’s courage in Belize. Under the shade the people flourish despite poverty gripping their shoulders, faithful to live with what little they have as the early sun shines on their children. Then two parrots glide amidst the bright sky, their silhouettes passing in front of the rising sun, free to soar over miles of jungle as the pair advance west along the river. Then a spirited breeze rustles the fronds of a palm that acquires their freedom from a tangled mesh. Belize now free from Britain’s rule sways in liberty like these graceful fronds. This land of green transforms into life. And I see the hope in a morning’s bloom.

Lincoln Land Review

Making elephants out of Snowhills



Professor Greg Murray, COM 112

Setting is critical to a story, especially the short story. A good writer gives greater depth to that short piece by presenting a brief, clear picture of the factors creating that setting. In “Hills Like White Elephants,” Ernest Hemingway takes it a step further and makes the setting as multi-dimensional as the situation his characters face: pregnancy and the possibility of abortion. The reader, forced to draw from personal experience and knowledge to understand the source of the characters’ conflict, helps to fill in the details that would damage the flow of the story if written out. A casual reader might assume that 1920s Spain is the setting of this story, but the location is only one part of a more complex world. The setting, if created partially by the reader, becomes unquestionably more realistic. In “Hills,” the tension becomes a living thing, feeding and being fed by the reader’s anxiety. The reader’s own details are the hook, making the story too real to be ignored and the characters’ world more than just the sum of its scenery. The tension created by Hemingway’s interplay of visual imagery, dialogue, and the reader’s experience is the true setting of “Hills Like White Elephants.” Visual imagery and location clues are a small part of “Hills,” in comparison with the dialogue that makes up the bulk of the story, but support the setting with more than just a mental picture of the surroundings. The story opens with a description of a train station on the rail line between Barcelona and Madrid, immediately using that locale to lay the foundation of heat in the reader’s mind. References such as “there was no shade and no trees . . . in the sun” (1) and “the line of hills . . . were white in the sun and the country was brown and dry” (1) bring the oppressive heat of Spain’s Ebro Valley to life and contrast sharply with the images of fields and mountains in the distance; “The hills across the valley of the Ebro were long and white [snowcapped]” (1). The physical descriptions serve additional purposes, however, as a metaphor for the heated argument lurking beneath the surface of Jig and the American’s seemingly idle chatter as well as the imagined relief just out of reach in the mountains, relief from the tension


Lincoln Land Review

that they know must eventually erupt. Jig’s shifting moods are reflected in which area she looks to as she talks, or refuses to talk, with the American about whether to abort their child. “The girl looked across at the hills on the dry side of the valley” (5) adds a subtle layer of additional tension to the setting while enhancing the reader’s insight into Jig’s increasing frustration with the conversation by drawing comparisons to that inhospitable scene. That discussion, if not always explicit, dominates the story and stokes the heat between them through its rhythms and the parallels the reader must draw from personal experience to understand the conversation. Conversations, like the people involved in them, have a personality all their own. The tone, rhythm, and wording mimic the mood, attitude, and thoughts of the speakers. When combined with the sharp pictures created by Hemingway, as well as the reader’s memories of similar conflicts, the dialogue magnifies the already oppressive heat. Terse exchanges such as, “’They look like white elephants,’ she said. ‘I’ve never seen one,’ the man drank his beer. ‘No, you wouldn’t have’’’ (1), call to mind the nonsense discussions that seem to precede a truly spectacular argument. The shifting cadence of their conversation mirrors Jig’s scattered thoughts as she alternately tries to avoid and work through her situation with equal effort: “I wanted to try this new drink: That’s all we do, isn’t it—look at things and try new drinks?” (2). The point where Jig, overwhelmed by the whole thing, asks, “Would you please please please please please please please stop talking?” (5) adds a level of frustration to the dialogue that again bolsters the tension necessary for the setting to flourish. Hemingway uses these bits of conversation to enhance the feeling of impending confrontation, similar to the puffs of magma-heated steam that warn the observant Hawaiian to pack an overnight bag and bid fond farewell to the plastic lawn ornaments. The setting is constantly reinforced by these mini-eruptions, keeping the heat on the reader’s mind without bogging the story’s flow down in excessive visual repetition. In a way similar to those islanders having the wisdom to watch out for parboiled palm trees, Ernest Hemingway makes his reader use personal experience to look for the subtle clues that complete this snapshot of two lives. The truth of the situation Jig and the American are in, like the volcano that is the source of those bursts of heat, explodes as experience and context reveal the never spoken of abortion issue to the careful reader.

Lincoln Land Review


Experience is crucial to receiving the full impact of “Hills Like White Elephants” and completes the setting that, although seemingly fleshed out, has only been a skeleton until then. A reader’s mind adds the final details to Hemingway’s world and allows this couple to draw breath, giving life to their words and the conflict that defines their world. This underlying conflict is never mentioned anywhere in the story, except through subtle clues alluding to a simple operation the American wishes Jig to undergo. The American describes it as, “really not anything. It’s just to let the air in” (3) and “not really an operation at all,” (3) making it sound like Jig was going to stop by the podiatrist to get a blister popped. The reader must call upon knowledge gained from experience, or observations that are not in every person’s cache, to hear the words behind the ones being spoken. Intentionally or not, Hemingway tells a tale that not everyone will understand. To the experienced reader, however, the sudden realization of Jig’s true dilemma brings the previously uncomfortable exchanges of “That’s the only thing that bothers us. It’s the only thing that’s made us unhappy,” (3) into a new, darker light. The reader’s views on abortion can intensify the feelings engendered by realizing that it is the topic, but are actually secondary to the duality the reader feels. The human urge to watch others fight or to watch the suffering of others is what traps the reader in the position of unseen observer, a self-created prison of contradictions. The tension created by those conflicting desires, in conjunction with remembered situations from the reader’s past, puts the final setting piece in place. The reader cannot help but feel as trapped as Jig, unable to do much but offer token resistance to the headlong rush towards a decision about the abortion. Places can be escaped, and people can be left behind, but memory is an implacable enemy. Hemingway uses it like a spice, adding extra flavor to the landscapes he presents and subtle undertones to the dialogue that drives “Hills Like White Elephants.” He doesn’t forget that memory is an enemy though, making the reader fill in the intentional gaps in the conversation. Each one of those gaps is a snare, dredging up memories readers would rather have left in the quiet recesses of their minds, rather than just the ones necessary to complete the mental picture of the story. In the same way that Jig and the American grow increasingly agitated, the tension of their situation builds in the reader, creating a setting as tangible as the paper “hills” is printed on. The strongest prisons are


Lincoln Land Review

the ones we create ourselves. Hemingway merely hands us the materials and convinces us to build the picture he describes. We, as readers, write the critical descriptions that are the keystone of that cell from our own memories. From that point on, the visuals, dialogue, and the reader’s own remembered conflicts flesh out a world entirely different than that being described before. Only in a world that intimate, can a reader see the distant mountains and feel Jig’s desire to still see them as white elephants.

Lincoln Land Review


Megan Andresen DollFace


Lincoln Land Review

Megan Andresen Wicked Dreams 2


Lincoln Land Review

Sarah Arnish Book Silk


Lincoln Land Review

Spencer Day Remember the Daze


Lincoln Land Review

Brett Freeman Xiombarg


Lincoln Land Review

Andrea Henderson Taylor Swift Typography

Lincoln Land Review


Cody Jones Lovecow


Lincoln Land Review

Cody Jones Wish You Were Here

Lincoln Land Review


Hye Young Kim Travel Sisters


Lincoln Land Review

Nino Lograsso Craterface

Lincoln Land Review


Cayti McCormick Mopped


Lincoln Land Review

Pat Mutchler My Art My Way

Lincoln Land Review


Danielle Paoni Lights Out


Lincoln Land Review

Alex Rumble Surfin’

Lincoln Land Review


Michelle Thomson The Kitchen


Lincoln Land Review

Amanda Wanless The Piano

Lincoln Land Review

Cassandra Yates The Raining Secret



Lincoln Land Review

Victimized but Won EMILY MARTINIE

Professor Deborah Brothers, LIT 111

A woman stares at the welcome mat before her home’s entrance, seized with anxiety for what’s next on this list of abuse she endures on a day to day basis. She opens the light blue front door, walks down the narrow hallway to the living room, and drops the heavy groceries neatly placed in paper bags on the marble countertop. Hands still full, she tries to catch the glass bottle of vodka rolling out of the bag. It is about to fall and burst into a million, unrecoverable pieces on the hard granite floor. Sweat starts to drip from her forehead and down the bridge of her nose. Simultaneously, her stomach starts to make unwelcome swirls of fear inside her. She knows the inescapable will happen. A heavy stomping down the stairs sounds in the other room. “What have you done you stupid whore?” asks the man. “I’m so sorry. I didn’t mean to!” she says. Without even thinking, the burly black haired man she calls her husband strikes her hard against her face, and blood begins to drip from the cut his ring made. She was lucky this time, she says to herself. Every day is a struggle for her because she knows what her life should be like, yet she feels stuck in a helpless, embarrassing place. Violence against women is not a new phenomenon. It has happened in all

cultures, to all ages, and in all societies. In The Color Purple by Alice Walker, the main character, Celie, goes through similar scenarios such as the one above. However, Walker’s depiction of Celie learning how to break the cycle gives hope to women who are being abused. Walker handles themes of violence against women without making them sit solely in the role of the victim.

The Color Purple is set approximately from 1910-1940 in rural Georgia. Celie

is faced with hardships throughout her life and is numb to all of it because that is all she has known. As a young child, her own “Pa” abuses her physically, sexually and mentally. Pa makes Celie cut his hair, and while doing so abuses her. Celie says about Pa, “While I trim his hair he look at me funny. He a little nervous too, but I don’t know why, till he grab hold of me and cram me up tween his legs” (113). Suffering abuse and victimization by her Pa and other men is not uncommon for Celie. It makes her have a very low sense of worth and not speak up for herself, which is

Lincoln Land Review


why her release from the role of a victim is so empowering. The turning point for Celie is when she meets Shug. Celie falls in love with Shug from the first time she saw her picture saying, Shug is “The most beautiful woman I ever saw. She more pretty than my mama. She bout ten thousand times more prettier then me” (6). She thinks Shug is this amazing, beautiful woman who is confident and admirable. In the novel, Shug helps Celie understand sexuality and love, and to gain a better point of view on God, enabling Celie to gain self-confidence and self-worth. All throughout Celie’s life she never thinks of sex as something enjoyable because it has always been forced her and is hurtful. When Shug and Celie start to have intimate moments that are both emotional and physical, it starts a spark in Celie that she didn’t know existed. Shug tells her, “I love you, Miss Celie,” (114) before she kisses her. Celie’s relationship with Shug shows her that she can be loved by someone, experience sexual contact, and doesn’t have to just “survive” this life that she has been born into. Shug changing Celie’s point of view on God is one of the major turning points for her. Celie always thinks of God as a man, but being hurt by men so much tarnishes her view of God. Shug says to Celie, “I believe God is everything. . . . Everything that is or ever was or ever will be. And when you can feel that, and be happy to feel that, you’ve found it” (197). When Celie begins to have a new understanding of God, it helps her realize what actually matters in this world. She starts to become aware of nature and the people around her. Shug says, “It come to me: that feeling of being part of everything, not separate at all. I knew if I cut a tree, my arm would bleed” (197). Having this new outlook on life really helps Celie change into her own person, and it is when she begins to feel like she is a part of something. One thing Celie always feels a part of is her sister’s love. Nettie is the only person Celie ever truly loves or feels close to until Shug. One day after Nettie is visiting Celie, Celie’s husband follows Nettie home and tries to take advantage of her. When she resists, he says she will never have contact with Celie again. Consequently, Celie never receives a letter from Nettie. Shug Avery is the one who finds out Mr. ___’s been hiding Nettie’s letters and she aids Celie in finding them. Shug uses the trickster tactic when getting the letters from Mr.___. Celie says about Shug, “All of a sudden Shug buddy-buddy again with Mr.____. They sit on the steps, go down Harpo’s. Walk to the mailbox” (121). When Shug is using this trickster tactic, it really hurts Celie’s feelings until she finds out it is only to see what Mr.___ has been


Lincoln Land Review

hiding from her. Reading the letters from Nettie gives her intensified hate towards Mr. ___ for keeping them from her. Although, it also gives her peace of mind that her sister is all right, and gives her the hope to carry on until she can see her again. Starting to become her own person, Celie decides to move with Shug to Memphis, and it’s there that she gets her first taste of freedom. Mr.___ doesn’t like this idea and tells her he won’t give her one dime of his money, but it gave Celie a chance to stand up for herself. Celie says to Mr. ___, “Did I ever ask you for money? . . . I never ask you for nothing. Not even for your sorry hand in marriage” (204). This is a major step for Celie because she finally gets away from her abusive husband Mr.____ (Albert) and takes her life into her own hands. Once Celie is living in Memphis, she realizes there isn’t much she has to do in her spare time because all she ever is permitted to do is cook, clean and take care of children. Shug tells her to start making pants, which begins to be an activity Celie really enjoys. She makes Shug a pair, then Shug starts to brag to Grady and Squeak about the pants. Celie says, “I sit here thinking bout how to make a living and before I know it I’m off on another pair pants” (216). Celie finally finds a way to escape her oppressions through sewing, and that is very inspiring. To Celie, it is sort of like rebelling because she has always thought women weren’t supposed to wear pants. This plays a major role in Celie getting out of the role of the victim because it gives her an improved sense of self-worth. Celie transforms from an underappreciated, sexual object that is beaten, into

a woman with a mind of her own who doesn’t let people take advantage of her. The

Color Purple by Alice Walker is an inspiring story of a woman who is abused by men all of her life, but rises above it all. Walker designed the story in such a way that the theme of violence doesn’t have women just sit in the role of the “victim,” but gives them hope of a better future.

WORK CITED Walker, Alice. The Color Purple: a Novel. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1982. Print.

Lincoln Land Review

Black Friday rule



Professor John Paul Jaramillo, LIT 150

It’s 11:45 PM on Thanksgiving Day when I check into the emergency room at Memorial Medical Center. The waiting room is surprisingly empty. I expected the barely-stuffed chairs to be packed with prospective patients but there are only three groups of people in line ahead of me: a pregnant lady in a wheelchair, a group of people who haven’t bothered to unzip their heavy winter jackets and two guys in full hunting gear. I don’t question their camouflage. I’m thankful there are so few people because I need to be in and out as quickly as possible. At this point I am still clinging to the desperate delusion that I might be able to go back to bed before I have to work the first of my two shifts on the sales floor of Best Buy on Black Friday. I check my phone every minute and a half to update my calculations on how much sleep I would get if I made it home in ninety minutes. The number on the right hand side of the equal sign is always “nowhere near enough.” I woke out of a sleeping pill-induced coma half an hour earlier to root around for something to eat and came up with a granola bar. Half asleep, I bit into it and some evil, demonic oat made a beeline for a cavity I had vainly been fighting off for weeks. That stupid, horrible, awful oat lodged itself perfectly, almost purposefully, so that my next bite would shove it deep inside my tooth with a terrible cracking noise followed by a high-pitched yelp and the dull thunk of one of my knees hitting the hardwood floor of the kitchen. I poked at the tooth with my forefinger and felt a shard of it give. A dull pain started to fill my jaw. This was going to require trained professionals and I needed to start getting ready for work in four hours. * On the sidewalk of the strip mall that Best Buy anchors, between the military recruiters’ office and PetSmart, a group of twenty-somethings is using a portable generator to power a space heater and a karaoke machine. Who knows how early they got there to get a spot so close to the doors. They’re prepared for the cold and welcoming strangers into their tent at midnight to sing. Another group powers an Xbox 360 and a thirty-two inch tube television with a long power cord running out to the parking lot and into a jacked-up, rusted


Lincoln Land Review

out Bronco. They have rickety end tables set on either side of their lawn chairs and warm themselves with a couple of Salamander heaters. The guys are huddled around the television and slouched in the familiar gamer’s position like a bad yoga pose. Their makeshift bachelor pad looks the same as any of a thousand others across Springfield but this one is on a sidewalk and missing the beer cans and bong. Maybe they are out in the Bronco. The first family in line staked their claim sometime just before midnight on Wednesday when store workers were still pulling stockpiled product and setting up line queues. They’ve been the first in line for eight years now. It’s their Thanksgiving tradition. Other family members bring them a picnic dinner and they play a football game or two in the parking lot Thursday afternoon. The line will reach the Factory Card Outlet by the time the doors open at five o’clock. Three years ago it wrapped around the building and to the loading area behind Deals. Now, even with its chief rival Circuit City out of business, Best Buy’s line will be half as long as it was before what then-CEO Brian Dunn called “sudden, catastrophic changes in the economy.” Catastrophe aside, people are singing— poorly—in the cold, cold night. * I sit in the massaging chair at the CVS pharmacy across from the hospital at 1:15. I’m waiting for the lone technician to finish filling the prescriptions for the baby in line ahead of me. Right now I hate that baby. If I fall asleep right now I’ll get an hour and forty-five minutes of shut eye. Hopefully the Vicodin will help. I have a type two tooth fracture. The tooth is cracked (type one,) nerve is exposed (type two,) but no pulp is showing (type three). I can deal with the pain— fantastic pills on the other side of the counter are waiting to be put into little bottles for me—but the lack of sleep seems insurmountable. I text message my boss who is likely still sleeping to complain about the situation but I don’t seriously contemplate calling in sick. You never call in sick on Black Friday. During the lead up to my first one several years back I heard a story about the commission days when a TV salesman skipped his dad’s funeral to work the sale. Management would have understood but when the workers were still on commission, Black Friday was a good chunk of their yearly pay. Sorry, Dad. *

Lincoln Land Review


Old school “doorbusters” were still big that first year. The line outside the store would rush through the doors and ask where the deals were by frantically shouting “DVD player!” or “laptop!” The limited quantity of some insanely priced piece of electronics would be neatly arranged in a pile somewhere in the store waiting to be picked clean by the heathen hordes like a cow thrown into a tank of piranhas. “Stack ‘em high and watch ‘em fly!” management used to say. Management at Circuit City forgot about the loading bay doors that year. Adjacent to the main entrance to the store, the loading bay provided easy access for all the people waiting for the store to open in their nice, warm cars. The people who’d been waiting in the cold for hours in the real line didn’t like that much. It was interesting. Crowd control is key. Retail salespeople are trained to respect customers as individuals with unique needs during the rest of the year but the crowd on Black Friday isn’t unique. It’s a hive-minded bull in a china shop. It plows through the store spastically in a confused, exhilarated throng. It bucks its heels, twists around and snorts looking for The Deals. You can see that insane glimmer in the people’s eyes as they’ve finally made it into the building after days of waiting in some cases and suddenly wonder “now what?” Mismanagement of the crowd can destroy you. At best a customer ends up in the wrong department because they shouted “TV!” and went “over there!” Those people just yell at you. At worst the crowd breaks through the door because they can’t wait any longer and trample a temporary worker to death. * Jdmimytai Damour was the poor man’s name. He was a custodian at a WalMart in Long Island, NY. In 2008 he tried to help hold the main doors of the store shut as The Crowd pressed into them. He fell to the ground when the doors busted. The savage masses trampled over his body as they stormed into the store. He died an hour later. Retail workers of the world agreed: “the deals weren’t even that good.” * I arrive at the store a little before four in the morning. Sleep did not come but the Vicodin did. I have a Tylenol with Codeine too, like icing on a psychopharmacological cake. The parking lot is packed. Several cars snake slowly through the aisles on the prowl for a better spot that does not exist. I stop at the first open space I find, which is somewhere in the vicinity of Barnes and Noble. There’s just enough


Lincoln Land Review

time for one more song on the iPod before I have to cross the threshold into that mad world outside. I think it’s Flogging Molly’s “Devil’s Dance Floor” but my memory is a little hazy. Whatever it is, I play it as loud as the radio will go. I trek through the lot with my last cigarette before the insanity and down my third Starbuck’s Double Shot. The morning of my first Black Friday at Best Buy the general manager arranged for free Red Bull. They handed cans to everyone who would take one at the pre-opening meeting. One employee used his to chase the four Rock Star energy drinks he’d already drank. He was vibrating at that point and couldn’t maintain eye contact with anyone. He probably could have passed through walls. I walk to my department toward the back of the store. My boss and the general manager are there checking email and making last minute plans. My boss gamely asks if I’m up for it and I nod. The GM asks how I’m doing and I giggle. The pain pills are doing their job. In three days’ time my body will have acclimated to them, the fracture in my tooth will have worsened and I will be unmanageably cranky. Right now I’m full of a “can do” attitude, though, and every joint in my body feels like it’s made of cotton. Bossman decides it will be best if I just work the cash register during the initial push and I agree. The GM leads a quick morning meeting in which he promises the sea of blue shirts the most fun, exhilarating and frustrating shift we’ve ever had. “If you’ve never been through one of these before, you’ve never seen anything like it.” He says every department will be overrun with customers so don’t bother to call for help. “Nobody’s going to come,” he laughs. Every Black Friday veteran in the store laughs too because laughing is preferable to any other reaction we might have. The local news sets up their camera just inside the doorway to film the seemingly endless stream of shoppers that will file into the store. Some of them will hoot and holler but the camera won’t capture the kinetic energy filling the place. The air is thick with it. Employees are nervous or jacked up on energy drinks. I retreat to my register where I can’t see the door. I hear the noise start off in the distance and know that, in the words of Hunter S. Thompson, the pigs are out of the tunnel. * It takes half an hour for the line outside to make it all the way into the store. The sky beyond the big bay window at the front of the building is still pitch black. The entirety of the store is packed shoulder to shoulder like the Brewhouse on a

Lincoln Land Review


Friday night and not a bit of this should be happening. Every single one of us should still be in bed right now. The noise of the store is amazing. You can’t hear the sound of the TVs, the home theater systems, boom boxes, car stereos, computer speakers or even the overhead music system. There’s just the electric din of all those voices drowning out everything else. * Over in the digital camera section a lady complains about having to wait in line. The salesperson has no idea how to respond: “I apologize, ma’am? It’s an extremely busy day.” The customer isn’t happy with his apology and continues to complain until the gentleman in line behind her interrupts. The salesperson can’t explain to the lady how unreasonable it is to not expect a line on Black Friday but another customer can (with more colorful words, too.) An older lady tells a manager that it’s Best Buy’s fault she’s out shopping. “You shouldn’t run sales like this when you know it’s going to be so busy.” She demands to go to the front of the line and the manager declines. A gentleman pulls another manager and complains that so many of the items in the ad had limited quantities and he didn’t get any of them. He demands a rain check for every item in the ad that has sold out. The manager points out the notso-fine print in the ad that reads “No rain checks.” The gentleman persists and the manager has to walk away. * I finally finish with the line of people in front of my register and duck into the break room. It’s impossible to make it even to Arby’s for food so the company caters meals during Thanksgiving weekend. I try rolling up a piece of turkey cold cut but it’s too much for my broken tooth. I jealously watch other employees down Cheetos and Doritos and other hard, crunchy junk food that have suddenly become the most delicious delicacies in the world. * The sun is finally up. This is when the day seems winnable. Survivable. Everything up to this point has been a retail aberration. It’s a barely-constrained bolt of insanity that jump starts the holiday season. On one Friday the store will do more business than the entire month of July. It’s still abnormally busy but the sun is up now. It feels like real time has resumed. I go back to the sales floor and a shift that, volume aside, will feel like a reg-


Lincoln Land Review

ular workday. I’ll tell people the difference between the types of TVs. I’ll tell them what cables they will need. I’ll tell them what is involved in hanging their new TV and what we will and will not do with our installations. I will explain to them that the insanely priced items are all gone now but a lot of good prices are still available. Somehow I survive until ten o’clock and can finally go home. I did it. After three hours of sleep, a trip to the emergency room and an army of shoppers inexplicably “just looking,” I can finally clock out. I zip up my jacket and leave the break room while avoiding eye contact with anyone. I breeze past customers who mutter “I think he works here” and don’t look back until I make it to my car lest I turn to salt. I get home at eleven and the cat is still in bed. I hate her for just a second. She looks at me and yawns. “You have no idea, kid” I say and close the curtains tight. I turn on the space heater and toss everything I’m wearing to the floor. I can root around for the tie clip and name badge later. I lie down in bed and black out for five hours. I’m due back at the store at four P.M.

Lincoln Land Review

the Bar of nothing



Professor Alison Stachera, COM 098

One evening, I had one of the worst customer service experiences in my entire life which taught me to think before acting. I had just gotten off from work at a hotel on the east side of town. That evening, I decided instead of going straight home, why not stop at the Subway shop, grab a sandwich, stop at one of the local bars downtown and grab a cold beer. I chose a bar just around the corner from the Subway because last time I visited, the female bartender was nice and we had good conversation. Once I arrived, I noticed there were only a few people. I sat next to a man who wore glasses. He appeared middle aged. Probably a state worker, I thought to myself. As soon as I sat down at the bar, I noticed a man behind the bar make his way downstairs. He probably was going downstairs to retrieve something. I said to myself, while waiting, why not eat my sandwich and then order an ice cold beer? On the other side of the bar, I noticed a bottle of Tabasco sauce beckoning me to come get it and put it on my sandwich, so I promptly got up, retrieved it, and sat the sauce next to my sandwich. The man returned, who now I safely assumed was the bartender. I waited for the bartender to take my drink order. He ignored me. I glanced at the bar patron. The man who wore the glasses said, “He is crazy.” As I picked up the Tabasco sauce, the bartender snapped his head like a serpent and appeared to hiss at me as if I spat on him. He then stared at the Tabasco sauce and then back at me. The way he looked at me stopped me in my tracks. I asked him if he had a problem with me using his sauce. He said, “Yes,” and promptly snatched it out of my hand. The man sitting right next to me quickly got up to leave. He probably was thinking, “It’s on now.” I took a deep breath and asked for a drink. The bartender ignored me again. Finally, I asked whether he was going to take my drink order. He said, “No,” gestured his pale hand, told me to get out, and then turned his back on me. I was stunned. The bar room went dark. I felt like I had seconds to figure out what my next move would be. While doing that, he was taking everybody else’s drink order. “Yes ma’am, a scotch and water coming up,” he said to a woman standing on the right side of the bar. “A Heineken, Budweiser on draft, and a Stella with a squeeze of lemon?” he chuckled while asking an unidentified man. The bartender smiled and sauntered his way around the bar


Lincoln Land Review

and continued taking drink orders, except for mine. I began to sweat. I felt invisible to everyone around me. My first response was to do a “clean sweep”; knock all the condiments and whatever was in front me onto the floor. Then I was going to throw the drink next to me in the bartender’s face, or leap across the bar and give my best ass kicking nobody has seen in the last twenty years. But I paused. I pulled out my cell phone and called my brother and yelled in the phone as loud as I could. I screamed to my brother that this bartender was waiting on every white person in the bar but not me. Then the bar fell silent. There was a white man sitting to my left who eventually piped in. He said, “What do you expect? Walking around that man’s bar and grabbing his stuff?” Frustrated with rage, I turned and snarled, “I would not come in this bar, bring food and not order anything.” The man quickly apologized, turned and then faded away. After I got off the phone, I protested by pulling out my sandwich and slowly eating it, daring him to throw me out, daring him to call the police. I briefly imagined the bar crowd throwing me out of swinging doors as if we were in an old western movie. We—the bartender and I—locked eyes and had a stare down that felt like forever. He said, “You not leaving, huh?” Again, he turned his back away from me. It occurred to me to start yelling out the best curse words I could come up with, punctuated with the word “asshole.” After calming down, and coming to my senses, I packed up my things and left. The reason I did not attack the bartender was because he appeared to be drunk, but mostly, he was quite old. An old white man. He looked my daddy’s age; about eighty years old. He had salt and pepper hair with fine wrinkles like cellophane paper. I am also planning on being a registered nurse. To be a nurse, I have to be an upstanding citizen. Imagine me, standing in front of a judge, attempting to feebly explain away my violent outburst. The judge might say, “Ms. O, this is why we have laws. You could have filed a civil complaint against Mr. Old Bartender. To assault an elderly man was uncalled for and unjustified. I will fine you $10,000 in damages, 30 days in jail and six weeks of


erve… ,“ his voice

trails off. Was the bartender a racist? Maybe. But, as I said before, it was imperative to carefully think first before acting. However, this is easier said than done. I would have won that battle but lost the war. After spending time in jail, paying legal fees, fines and derailing my future, it just wasn’t worth it.


Lincoln Land Review

Picture of Sadness A. JAROD POBST

Professor Eric Stachera, LIT 110

“Funeral Blues” by W.H. Auden Stop all the clocks, cut off the telephone, Prevent the dog from barking with a juicy bone, Silence the pianos and with muffled drum Bring out the coffin, let the mourners come. Let aeroplanes circle moaning overhead


Scribbling on the sky the message He Is Dead, Put crêpe bows round the white necks of the public doves, Let the traffic policeman wear black cotton gloves. He was my North, my South, my East and West, My working week and my Sunday rest,


My noon, my midnight, my talk, my song; I thought that love would last forever: I was wrong. The stars are not wanted now: put out every one, Pack up the moon and dismantle the sun, Pour away the ocean and sweep up the woods;


For nothing now can ever come to any good.

In pondering what makes a poem a poem versus ordinary verse, one may use those definitions offered by some of poetry’s greatest writers. Thomas Hardy, for example, described poetry as “emotion put into measure.” (Kennedy & Gioia 328). Robert Frost thought of poetry as “a way of remembering what it would impoverish us to forget.” (328). W.H. Auden succeeds at doing both in his poem, “Funeral Blues” through his abundant and careful use of imagery. Moreover, Auden’s use of imagery allows us to better understand the speaker’s desire to honor a passed loved one, as well as relate to a feeling of desolation when the reality of their absence sets in.


Lincoln Land Review

The numerous images in the first stanza of “Funeral Blues” help the reader to understand a person who wants to respect someone he or she lost. The speaker first asks us to “Stop all the clocks, cut off the telephone, /Prevent the dog from barking with a juicy bone” (1-2). We understand immediately that something deserving of our attention is underway, but we aren’t yet made aware of what it is. Auden suggests that this moment calls for time to stand still or that, at least, the sounds of the ticking clock and ringing phone should cease. The reader is then told to “Silence the pianos,” suggesting that this is not a time for play, but rather, a time to pay attention. The act of doing all these tasks is obviously unrealistic, but it necessarily reinforces the importance of the moment in our minds. It is not until the last line in this stanza that we are made aware of what is so important. As if to stop us in our tracks after three lines of curious hyperbole, the speaker announces that it is time to “Bring out the coffin, let the mourners come” (4). The speaker has us visually quiet the world item by item, line by line, and just as we have arrived at total silence, lets us know exactly why. Someone very important has died. In the second stanza, Auden shifts his tone and subsequent imagery from quiet reverence to commemoration, causing us to picture a somewhat extravagant ceremony where someone very significant is being honored. The lines, “Let aeroplanes circle moaning overhead /Scribbling on the sky the message He Is Dead” (5-6) permit the reader to see just that: a plane writing a message in the sky to the world that someone has died. Auden’s choice to use to words “He” (my emphasis) in the message, rather than someone’s actual name, also lends to the idea that this person is so important that it is not even necessary to print his name, as everyone should already know it. The speaker requests “crêpe bows round the white necks of the public doves” (7) and asks that “traffic policeman wear black cotton gloves.” (8), to create a scene where everything from ordinary doves to policeman is wearing black mourning garments in order to give tribute to this person. Auden may specifically note the doves’ “white necks” to create a visual contrast between the black bow and the white neck of a dove. He may also wish to mute the beauty of their pristine whiteness out of respect for this loved one. The speaker continues to convey his intense feelings through imagery in the third stanza by showing how this man meant all things to him. The speaker equates this man to the cardinal directions with the metaphors, “He was my North, my South, my East and West,” (9) expressing that there was no direction in which this man was not present. The speaker refers to him as both, “My noon,” and “my

Lincoln Land Review


midnight,”(11) relating to us that he had some sense of presence any time of day. Together, the images of direction and time of day suggest that this deceased person was both time and space to the speaker. As this person is everything to the speaker, it is reasonable that without him, all things are now pointless. The speaker finally turns our attention to images of beautiful things that are no longer wanted, if not needed, in the absence of this loved one. The speaker has us imagine all the lights in the night sky being snuffed out one by one as though they are now useless with the phrase, “The stars are not wanted now: put out every one,”(13). In that same manner, the speaker ironically disregards enormous parts of our world and beyond as petty items that can simply be swept away or easily extinguished. The speaker asks the powers that be to, “Pack up the moon” (14) and “sweep up the woods;” (15) because even though these items are massive and complex parts of our world and universe, they are, by comparison, ancillary to the great man that has passed. The author ends with, “For nothing now can ever come to any good.” (16) letting us know bluntly that all things wondrous and great are no longer of any interest. In sixteen short lines, Auden’s speaker is able to relate the ideas of reverence, honor, importance, and desolation in regards to a deceased loved one without ever uttering the word “sad” or any of its synonyms. Auden gives us a visual and seemingly audible tour through the mind of a person experiencing a crippling loss. He does this by first silencing our world so that we may offer our own respect for this person who meant so much to the speaker. Auden then honors the fallen man by painting scenes of “aeroplanes” circling overhead and man and creature, alike, dressed in mourning garb. Finally, our own minds are emblazoned with images of magnificence turned to nothingness and the resulting futility in all things that once meant something. Auden could not have used the word “sadness” or any other lachrymose terminology in “Funeral Blues” because words alone would neither have appropriately honored the speaker’s loved one, nor adequately conveyed the speaker’s own heartache. Rather, he permanently imprints the images onto our minds and into our memories as a fitting and lasting tribute. WORKS CITED

Auden, W. H. "Funeral Blues." An Introduction to Poetry. Ed. X. J. Kennedy and Dana Gioia. 13th ed. New York: Longman, 2010. 135. Print.

Kennedy, X. J., and Dana Gioia, eds. An Introduction to Poetry. 13th ed. New York: Longman, 2010. 328. Print.


Lincoln Land Review

A Strong and Gentle Man ANNE E. REIS

Professor Eric Stachera, COM 099

The Greatest Generation gained another bright star in heaven. On Christmas Eve, December 24, 2010, my grandpa, Albert Garber, left his temporary home to set sail for an eternal journey. Grandpa left me on an earthly shore, with a treasure chest full of memories, life lessons, funny stories, and wisdom. During his lifetime, Grandpa experienced the Depression and World War II. He served on the U.S.S. Iowa and was a part of history when his crew transported Franklin Roosevelt to meet with Winston Churchill and Josef Stalin. My grandpa was a decorated World War II veteran, but he did not want anyone to know. He did not realize that he was an inspiration to me. He did not consider himself to be a hero. One of the most influential people in my life was my grandpa. Grandpa encouraged me to be humble. My grandpa never liked to talk too much about his experiences during World War II. I did not realize until after he died that he received several significant awards, including a Philippine Presidential Unit Citation. When I asked Grandpa about his time in the Navy, he said that “War was not anything to brag about.” He said that “People get caught up in hero worship. A person is a hero when he or she takes care of another human being. Do something in your life that will help other people.” Grandpa demonstrated these words by taking care of my Grandma when she developed dementia. Grandpa helped my Grandma to clean and dress herself, and he took her to have her hair fixed every week. Whenever Grandma wanted to eat, no matter what time of the day or night, Grandpa would take her to the place of her choice. Grandma asked the same questions over and over, but Grandpa did not lose his patience with her. One of the most difficult challenges Grandpa faced was when Grandma had to be taken to a nursing home for the rest of her days. Grandpa’s health declined because he spent so much time caring for Grandma. As a result, Grandpa had to be placed in a convalescent home for a while. As Grandpa and Grandma prepared to leave each other, Grandpa said to Grandma, “I won’t be able to take you to McDonald’s or pizza places anymore. You have to go somewhere new to live. I will miss you so much. Remember that I will always love you, no matter where you go.” He kissed Grandma’s hand. Grandpa was not embarrassed that he said those words in front

Lincoln Land Review


of me. Grandpa said, “Love endures all things.” Grandpa cherished Grandma. Grandma’s move to the nursing home greatly affected Grandpa. Grandpa’s life partner of sixty-one years moved to a place where Grandpa needed permission to visit her. The day that Grandpa said goodbye to Grandma remains fresh in my mind. Grandpa showed me that real love requires patience, compassion, and sacrifice. Pain and suffering do not destroy love, because love between two people forms a bond that cannot be broken. I also learned the value of a dollar and to appreciate everything I had through my Grandpa. My Grandpa was a teenager during the Depression. He saw his father lose the family farm and most of the family’s possessions. Food was scarce, and Grandpa talked about drinking tea and eating bread, nothing more. He urged me not to waste food. For example, whenever Grandpa ate with me, and he noticed that I did not clean my plate, he told me that “Good food should not go to waste. You never know when you may have your next meal. Money was spent on the food that you wasted. Eat your vegetables because they will help you to grow and build strong bones. You have too much good food to let it go to waste.” Grandpa told me to be careful about buying too many material things. One of his favorite quotes was from a minister that he knew who said: “Show me how you spend your money, and I’ll show you who your god is.” Grandpa taught me that it was better to give than to receive. He once said, “Loving others and being loved by others is more important than any present a person could give or receive.” He donated money to charities: Native Americans, blind children, homeless veterans, disabled veterans, Boys Town, diabetes research, Alzheimer’s research, cancer research, Navy Memorial, National Wildlife Federation, Appalachian families, and to his church. He loved his church very much. He paid for flowers to be placed in the church twice a year, and on December sixth of 2010, he made a special effort to pay his church pledge for the upcoming year. My grandpa loved music. I loved to hear Grandpa sing and hum tunes that he knew. I remember begging him to sing “White Christmas” in the same way that Bing Crosby sang the song. Grandpa also sang, “Come on eleven! Baby needs a new pair of shoes!” each time that he threw dice when he and I played a board game of Parcheesi. Sometimes, out of the blue, he started singing, “Fairy tales can come true. They may happen to you, when you’re young at heart. Happy trails to you until we meet again.” He sang songs from Burl Ives, Sons of the Pioneers, the Statler Brothers, Johnny Cash, Gene Autry, and Eddie Arnold. Grandpa even loved the Bea-


Lincoln Land Review

tles. He tried to sing “Hey, Jude,” but the lyrics were not quite the same as the original: “Hey, Jude, don’t let it go.” Grandpa also sang silly songs. One of my favorite songs that Grandpa sang was a Spike Jones song from the forties that spoofed Hitler: “The Fuhrer says we is the master race, so we ‘heil’ (spit), ‘heil (spit) in the Fuhrer’s face. Now to love the Fuhrer is a sad disgrace, so we ‘heil’ (spit), heil (spit), in the Fuhrer’s face!” Grandpa sang that tune and included the sound effects. Whenever he sang that song, I forgot about my troubles. Sometimes, Grandpa tried to sing hymns when my grandma played on the piano. One of his favorite hymns was “How Great Thou Art.” Both of my grandparents appreciated music; however, my grandpa influenced me to play the piano. Grandpa said that he had “tunes in his head” that he wished he could play, but he did not have the training. He encouraged me to take piano lessons because Grandpa said that the piano was one of the “most beautiful instruments” to play. I wanted to play the piano because I wanted to teach my Grandpa how to play a simple tune. Grandpa loved to hear Schubert’s “Serenade.” When I finally learned how to play that melody, Grandpa sat in his chair, closed his eyes, and hummed while I played. He commented, “You played that so pretty.” Grandpa taught me to appreciate all musical genres. Grandpa also had a wonderful sense of humor. He loved to tell jokes. Grandpa recalled an incident in his Navy days, when a crew member wanted some vacation time and shouted, “Give me Liberty, or give me death!” Grandpa and his mates were supposed to be sleeping at the time, and an officer overheard the remark. “Who said that?” the irate officer demanded. In the dark, a crew mate answered: “Patrick Henry! Who the (expletive) did you think it was?” Whenever he told jokes, my face brightened. Grandpa made me realize that life did not need to be taken seriously all of the time. He provided me with perspective. Whenever I had a bad day at school, or I wanted a break from the “real world,” Grandpa would perform the “disappearing thumb act,” in which he would make his thumb disappear and reappear before my eyes. Grandpa was the sunshine that broke through clouds on a gloomy day. In other words, Grandpa knew how to make me smile when I felt sad. He was my very best friend. On the day before Christmas of 2010, my mom received a phone call that Grandpa died. I remember feeling guilty about not saying goodbye to him or telling him how much I loved him. When I heard the news, I was at a restaurant in Disney World. How ironic it seemed for me to be in “the Happiest Place on Earth.” I stood

Lincoln Land Review


in a place called the “Rainforest Cafe.” I looked at the large tank full of fish, and I felt like I was a small fish, swimming in the tank, trying to find where to go. I was lost and scared. I wondered what life would be like without Grandpa. I remembered that Grandpa would not want me to be sad for him but to rejoice for all the laughter, music, and life lessons we shared. I learned how to be a better human being by the example my Grandpa set. From Grandpa I learned that I should be grateful for life and generous to others. I will miss my Grandpa for as long I live. I keep Grandpa’s legacy in my heart, and I will not forget the impact he had on my life. He was the sweetest and most charming person I ever met. “Happy trails to you, Grandpa, until we meet again.”


Lincoln Land Review

thy Mother’s Glass SARAH SKORCZEWSKI-KILIMAN Professor Deborah Brothers, LIT 111

Not every mother has had a daughter, but every daughter has, at one point in her life, had a mother. This seems, at least in the stage of childhood fraught with embarrassment and dramatic outbursts, to be an inescapable burden sentenced without pity to even the most angelic individuals. Mothers often get hit the hardest with pre-tolate teenage emotions while they attempt to guide their daughters through the frustrating times that they have been through years before. And, hopefully, the daughters meet young adulthood with a new understanding of just how important their mothers were in shaping them. Whether the mothers are overbearing, under-caring, or completely sane and stable, this dynamic is, generally, universal, as one often morphs into the figure of her mother without meaning or, often, a desire to do so. Because this commonality is so prevalent from culture to culture, writers often use it as a tool with which to frame a story. While the narrative might be about a particular event in the past, social commentary about the present, or a dystopian warning about the future, one of the best ways to look at a society is in the complex way a mother and daughter look to each other. Such can be seen in the relationship between Martha

and Sarah Carrier in Kathleen Kent’s The Heretic’s Daughter. While the setting of the novel creates a backbone around the Salem Witch Trials, Sarah’s ruminations about her mother create the tendons, joints, and arteries that flesh the story into something more human, something more relatable, and it is only in understanding their relationship that the novel becomes not only a classic coming-of-age story, but also an account of what it means to come of age as a woman of any era.

The opening letter of The Heretic’s Daughter has an aged Sarah Carrier

framing the story of her youth to her Granddaughter. Her tone is that of acceptance, of a past with which she has had to come to terms. She writes that she “hope[s] to sweep away the terror and the sadness and to have [her] heart made pure again by God’s grace” (xiii). She has written down the tale that has troubled her heart for nearly sixty years, and she goes to her death knowing that she was good and right in her life, regardless of any misgivings she had had previously. She writes with maturity, with strength, and without fear. While this letter may seem as a way

Lincoln Land Review


to wade into the story without shocking the readers, the letter’s purpose remains hidden until the end of the book when its themes are echoed. Before the reader can understand this hidden meaning, however, she must first know the players involved. The chaptered narrative begins with young Sarah Carrier’s perspective on her family. One of the earliest comparisons she makes between herself and her mother, Martha, is of a distant parent and questioning child. “At times I suspected my mother had no tender feelings for any of us” (6), she observes while also stating that she often stared at her mother for lengthy sets of time: “It was as though my staring robbed her of some essential part of herself, some part that she held in reserve even from those closest to her” (7). Sarah searches her mother for an understanding, something to connect herself to the only woman she has as a role model. Her mother seemingly blocks the attempt, uneasy of what such a connection would bring. In this instance, Sarah is holding out a figurative hand to her mother, and her mother is batting it away. This motif of one of the pair attempting to step toward the other while the second retreats equally away is one that plays an important role in studying the relationship between the two. Both as described as stubborn, willful, and unafraid to go against what others desire from them. It is this commonality that creates the motif, as what one desires, the other will willfully decline. This can be seen in mirror image in chapter four of the novel. Martha takes Sarah for a walk, just as Martha’s mother did when Martha was young. She takes her to a nearby meadow at which she allows Sarah to ask any question, say any thoughts, and display any emotion without being penalized for it. “She opened her eyes and her gaze turned to me in a questioning way,” the future Sarah writes, “. . . but I did not open my mouth to speak” (129). This time it is Martha who holds out the figurative hand to Sarah, and Sarah proudly retreats into herself, not wanting Martha to know any part of her. However, in this instance, the reason for the retreat is different than when the roles were reversed. Sarah retreated from Martha because of resentment at her mother’s distant nature, whereas Martha had retreated from being unready for Sarah’s questioning gaze. She saw herself in Sarah’s strong will just as, surely, her own mother had looked at the young Martha with similar eyes. She was unready for Sarah to know her secrets.

Secrets are used to connect many characters throughout The Heretic’s

Daughter. When Margaret first tells Sarah the secrets of harlots and the sins of her


Lincoln Land Review

father, Sarah is honored to be part of the inner circle with such precious knowledge (60). And the secret that Martha shares with Sarah is the first time that both are willing to put aside their wills and understand each other fully. As the two set out to hide the historical book, Sarah initially hopes that Martha is running away and taking Sarah with her. The hope is crushed and Sarah is filled with conflicting emotions about the upcoming loss of her mother and ignorance about the books’ importance. It is only when she finds out that even her father does not know the book exists that she instantly connects with Martha. “I stood in disbelief that such a secret could be kept, wife from husband, and that she had shared this secret with me” (179). Sarah asked a question, and Martha answered it. The pair is united in the secret—Sarah now strong enough in Martha’s eyes to know it, and Martha caring enough in Sarah’s eyes to include her. The union is sealed with one of the first kindly physical gestures between the two. Martha kisses her hand and motions as if sewing the secret closest to their hearts, a metaphor for the emotional closeness that they have now found. This emotional closeness is important for the development of their relationship, as the next time Sarah can talk to her Mom is through the bars of their distant prison cells. Had the two not had this physical contact that cemented their emotional understanding of each other, the fact that each was kept a touch away from the other would have less impact to the reader. From the point of contact in the woods to the same point of contact before Martha’s hanging is the only time that the narrative gives any indication that the two understood each other without even having to speak. When Andrew is near death in the prison cell and Martha offers advice to Sarah before falling into tears, Sarah understands why she cannot speak any more on the matter. She describes the tears as “the bitter kind that comes when a child is to depart the earth before the one who gave him birth” (264). Some may argue that this maturity is merely the aged narrator Sarah giving her new perspective on the matter, but it is also evident that the bond created in their secret and kind gesture in the woods has given them a peace of mind about each other. Sarah accepts that her mother had reason for the way she raised her, and Martha accepts that she has helped Sarah get through the surly phase that she had also gone through, and as a mother can go to her death with peace that Sarah will be forever strong like she is. When Martha goes to her death, she goes strong, proud, and knowing that she lived a good, honest life. She remains not stubborn, but strong-willed. She does

Lincoln Land Review


not walk, weakened and frail, up the stairs to her execution to spite the others in the room (286). She does so because she is at peace with how she lived her life. She understands that outside forces will always create roadblocks or influences that affect the course of one’s life. But she keeps her head held high knowing she met each with her own ideas and stayed good in the grotesque face of evil and misfortune. She touches Sarah once more, this time passing her strength and wisdom to her daughter so that she may too come to terms with her life and continue living it in a good and honest way. And it is this act made with maturity, with strength, and without fear that is the bookend to the tone of the novel’s opening letter. Martha passes this onto Sarah, and Sarah grows into a strong woman just like her mother. She becomes so by writing down the narrative of things hard to discuss and, so often by other people, pushed to the past and forgotten. She writes this down in a book, and, when it is an appropriate time, she sends it to her granddaughter who has “always had the greatest share of a grandmother’s love” (xi). She goes to her death knowing that she had hardships and was forced to make decisions of loss and regret, but that she made them with whatever strength of will that she had at that point in her life. She goes to death with her head held high. She walks up the stairs to her death unashamed. She leaves the world just as she was always meant to be—her mother’s daughter. WORK CITED Kent, Kathleen. The Heretic's Daughter. New York: Back Bay Books, 2008. Print.


Lincoln Land Review

Can true Love Survive the Battle? AUDREY WEISKOPF-TREES

Professor Deborah Brothers, COM 111

My Prince Charming swept me off my feet and even stole me from my homecoming date as a freshman. But, that wasn’t the only thing he stole. This boy named Matt stole my heart. At the young age of fourteen, I was in love. Matt was everything I had ever wanted in a man. He was a year older and a stud on the Varsity football team. What wasn’t there to love about him? We had a steady relationship with few problems at the time. But I knew there would be challenges ahead, like any relationship. These are what make relationships stronger. I am currently facing one of the biggest challenges in our relationship. Today, I am still in love with this man who swept me off my feet just four years ago. He has always been an avid supporter of the United States Marine Corps, and I knew he aspired to be a Marine someday. In May of my senior year, Matt decided he was ready to join the Marine Corps. He wanted to be a part of “the few and the proud,” one of the most noble brotherhoods. Of course, I supported his dreams because I would want him to do the same for me. But I knew this was the beginning of a very difficult journey to cope with, a military relationship. I was apprehensive about what the Marine Corps entailed when I first found out that Matt joined. I am not someone who is very familiar with the military given that my immediate family is not involved in the military. But, like many civilians, I generally hear about the military through the news when something bad has happened. That definitely instilled fear within me, knowing that this military lifestyle and the positives and negatives revolving around it would soon become a reality for me. I received bits and pieces of information from Matt about the Marine Corps, and I have become more comfortable with the idea through this. He told me about boot camp, active duty and length of active duty, where he could be stationed, deployments, and leave. Unfortunately, the idea of death goes through my mind often. With the military being in Iraq for ten years now, soldiers dying over there for this country has happened more than it should. Matt is a very head strong person and constantly reminds me that nothing is going to happen to him, and he is going to fight for this country and his family. He considers me part of his family. He is fighting to keep us safe and to

Lincoln Land Review


come home safe to us. I know that this career is a very rewarding and necessary career in America, and I am proud to be with such a brave man. The problem that I am facing seems to be a very difficult but important task in maintaining a solid relationship with someone in the military. I want to learn how to cope with the stress of distance in a military relationship. With many sources, I will hopefully find some useful coping mechanisms as a way of solving this problem to a degree. I have already learned that no matter how good a person is at coping with this issue, it is such a difficult task that even the strongest break down sometimes. This shows me that this problem can never be solved completely, but there are ways to minimize the stress of the problem. Matt will be leaving for boot camp December fifth of this year. Boot camp lasts three months with little to no communication with the “outside world.” He is able to write letters when he has time, which I am assuming will be rare. After returning from boot camp, he will have less than ten days to be with family before he is required to return for Infantry School in San Diego, California. He will be on active duty for five years in the infantry of the Marine Corps. He gets time off called leave where he can come home at certain times. It is usually for short periods of time though. He will be deployed two times during those five years and will most likely be stationed on the west coast when he is not overseas. This will leave us with very little time together. In a relationship, spending little time together can cause stress. Obviously, constant stress is bad for one’s health. Therefore, it is significant that I find a solution to this problem so I can cope with the stress and anxiety of it all especially the constant distance between us. In all the sources, communication was mentioned as a key coping mechanism for handling the anxiety of being so distant from your significant other in a military relationship.

In Marshèle Carter Waddell’s book Hope for the Home Front, she talks

about the battle that women go through emotionally and physically when their husbands or significant others are in the military and gone frequently. Waddell has been married to a US Navy Seal for more than twenty years and has traveled to many different geographical areas for his military job. Waddell is a woman with great faith in God which seems to be her main source of strength. She is a woman that faces all of the same burdens such as fear, anxiety, separation, and loneliness, but she has found ways to cope. She knew that she needed to be strong for her children. Waddell shows me that the most important things in a


Lincoln Land Review

military relationship are faith, communication, and love. They are the strongest ways of coping and they truly seemed to help her throughout the twenty years or more of a military lifestyle. Marshèle Carter Waddell says, “Keeping the faith can be a struggle, a downright bloody brawl at times. When my heart melts with fear, I flee to God. I hightail it into the mighty fortress of His Word, into the strong tower of His Name. The moment I am in His arms, I feel the poison of fear begin to drain from my spiritual veins” (28). Faith is what Waddell relies on for her strength. She looks to the man upstairs, which is really the answer in any difficult situation, if you are a believer. God is always there to listen and be there in times of need. I now know that I need to develop a much stronger faith than I have now if I intend on making it through this difficult journey. There are a lot of ways to cope, but without faith, I believe that you have nothing. It is a foundation that can and should be built upon and put first. Waddell also talks about the sinful nature that all humans are inclined to. We are all inclined to do wrong and temptation can arise from that. Waddell says, “Certain temptations knock more loudly on my door when my husband is away. The absence of my best friend plus months of mental monologue make a sure equation for one thing: the temptation to turn my attention away from God and toward myself” (76). She was guilty of this like many people. But, she got herself together in times of temptation and found God again because she knew temptation was just Satan’s evil work, once again. The article “Relational Maintenance during Military Deployment: Perspectives of Wives of Deployed US Soldiers” written by Andy J. Merolla, is about the separation during deployments and the many challenges presented during them. He did a study to analyze this by interviewing wives of deployed military men. “Content analysis yielded twenty-four forms of relational maintenance” (Merolla 4). This shows that there are multiple ways to cope with the separation and distance. I just have to find the mechanisms that work best for me. Merolla has a great understanding through his study of what kind of relational maintenance a military deployment and separation needs. I now know that support from those around me and dedication are huge factors in overcoming the many struggles along this journey. In order to round out the research, I decided to interview women who had direct experience. My first personal interview was with a woman named Breclyn.

Lincoln Land Review


She has been traveling with her husband and the military for fifteen plus years. Her husband is in the Navy. They have the strongest relationship because of what they go through and have gone through in the past. They have moved multiple times to where Rick (husband) is stationed and they live the military family lifestyle every day. They also have three boys and are living in Japan as of right now. I know Breclyn is an expert on this topic because her family has stuck together through fifteen years of Navy military life. In our email exchange, Breclyn mentions that being reunited is very difficult since both have become so independent during the separation. She was the only source to mention this difficulty of being reunited. Breclyn says, “This requires patience from both of us. When Rick is gone for long periods of time, the duties and responsibilities that we once shared, I may have been doing solo. I have to be patient with things not being done exactly the way I like or expect while Rick transitions into being a regular participant in our family’s daily routines. With his position in the Navy, he is used to saying something or “giving an order” and people reacting immediately and without any opposition. This, of course, is not how our household is run. Rick has to learn not to expect the same reaction from me and the boys that he is used to receiving from his sailors.” So, both Breclyn and Rick have to get used to being together again and learn some patience as well. She also mentions that they cherish the time that they are together and make the most of it. She says, “We drop the unnecessary activities and focus on one another. We are not overly social with others once our family is reunited. We do not hang out with friends as much. Some obligations in our everyday life are pushed off. Instead we will do family activities and play. Of course this only lasts so long and then it is life back to normal. But we try to spend several days with just the five of us and pack as much fun in as possible.” They are very family oriented when Rick is away, and they are interacting with other military families frequently as a way of coping. But, they do take a break from everyone else and focus on their family when they are reunited. After fifteen plus years of doing this, Breclyn and Rick have a very stable relationship and supply a stable environment for their children. They are a great example. I learned not only how to handle things when distance is a factor but also how to handle things when reunited. I think that is a key part of maintaining a good relationship.


Lincoln Land Review

The second personal interview was with Lauren Brown. She is in a much different situation than Breclyn; therefore, I chose to write about both of them as a way of showing differences in perspectives and coping mechanisms. Lauren was married to a man who was in the National Guard and they were separated quite often. She has two children and is very knowledgeable on how to cope with this problem. Lauren and her husband are no longer married due to difficulties at the end of his deployment. But Lauren developed great strategies for coping and is a strong, independent woman today. I elaborate so much on Lauren’s story because I feel so connected with it for some reason. It may be because Lauren was new to this military lifestyle just like I will be very soon. She did not know what to expect but instead had to learn as she went through it. The coping mechanisms she used were support, communication, and her husband. Her ways of coping can now become some mechanisms I use as well. She is an inspiration to me and I hope to deal with the distance and stress in a military relationship as well as she did. In the interview, Lauren, says, “While I’m sure every spouse handles the distance and feels the stress differently, my anxiety came from three distinct sources. I had a two-year-old at home, I was in my first trimester of pregnancy and feeling quite pukey, and I lived in the country (believe it or not, the alone feeling of that country home was the worst part of it all).” Lauren had a lot on her plate when Tom left for Afghanistan. He was to leave for twelve months and she had to manage as a “single,” pregnant mother. Lauren talks about how she was prepared mentally for his deployment. Lauren has always been an independent and strong woman, so this came as no surprise for me. Lauren made her husband tell her what to expect with this deployment such as how often they would talk, what his conditions would be like, etc when they found out months before that he was going to be deployed. “I was an independent person with a close family, friends, and a secure job. I was not young, at home alone, or dependent on Tom fully for finances or companionship. I had already established myself as fairly independent, and Tom had been gone before for trainings and conferences—just never twelve months in a war zone.” This is empowering and makes me want to find that independence as well. “I would say that it wasn’t the distance that was the hardest part for me, Audrey. It was the danger of the situation he was engulfed in. I could handle the distance.”

Lincoln Land Review


Unlike Lauren, distance will be difficult for me but like she says, the danger of the situation is much more difficult to cope with. The feeling of not knowing whether your significant other is safe can be daunting. “Tom was my third coping mechanism. He was patient, showed concern about what was happening in my life and at home, sent me thoughtful gifts (not typical of Tom), and put up with my endless questions.” This shows the dedication that they had in their relationship and the love they shared, even being so distant from each other. A few other ways she would handle her stress and anxiety is exercising and allowing herself to cry every now and then. Like I said earlier, even the strongest people break down sometimes. I think crying can sometimes help, ironically. “Oh, and making sure he remained part of the big moments was oddly another way I coped. Lizzie would color him pictures and we’d hold them up to the Skype camera for him to ooh and ah over. The ability to make him a part of some of the big things—and the little things, too—really did ease some of the stress.” All of the sources have some similar coping mechanisms as well. Waddell says, “The better days were also the days when the mailman delivered a letter from mark. Simply walking to my mailbox was a highlight of my day filled with anticipation and hope. Mark numbered his letters to insure that I would open and read them in the order he had written them. Admittedly, email revolutionized our long distance romance, shrunk the silent canyon of gaping communications between us, and made a mouse my best friend” (149). So, communication was an important aspect in their relationship. It was a way for them to still feel connected in a relationship that was so unconnected at the time. The study that Merolla did on wives of US deployed soldiers also found communication to be a key factor. Communication can help you maintain “satisfaction and a sense of connection” with each other (7). He also says, “one of the most common forms of routine and strategic maintenance is “couples merely being together” (Dainton & Stafford 267), has reinforced the importance of face-to-face communication for the maintenance of relationships” (7, 8). Seeing each other on a web cam can help you feel together. So, seeing your significant other and communicating, possibly through Skype, can strengthen a relationship as well. This communication aspect was further verified with Breclyn whose husband has been in the Navy for fifteen plus years. Breclyn says, “At times the dis-


Lincoln Land Review

tance can be challenging. I think that communication is the key to a successful relationship with the obstacles the military sometimes provides. I have to make a point to communicate the important details of our lives as well as the day to day details.” Rick feels more involved with the kids and the family when they communicate. In the interview with Lauren, who was married to a man in the National Guard, she also emphasized communication as a definite coping mechanism. “I couldn’t talk to Tom every day, but we emailed daily and we had weekly Skype calls. I looked so forward to those phone calls, even though the connection was shaky at best. Still, seeing him in his private quarters and seeing for myself that he was healthy and safe was a relief I needed every week.” Lauren, like Merolla, shows that face-to-face communication as well as e-mailing is an effective way to keep in touch and feel connected in each other’s lives. The last thing Waddell mentions that I have a strong interest in is love. She says, “in any marriage, but especially in a military marriage, love must run more deeply than the physical senses. Love must live at a deeper level, below what is felt, past what is seen, and beyond what is heard. A women’s love for a military man must pulsate from the very heart, from a place in the soul that neither sees, touches, nor hears anything physical” (153). In Merolla’s article, he mentions another necessary part of a relationship, dedication. I believe that dedication and love have a strong bond. If you are not dedicated to the person you love, then that love does not prosper. You absolutely have to be dedicated to this person. It is how you keep a relationship together in a hard situation like this one. It takes hard work and hard work takes dedication to deal with the day-to-day stress of separation from your loved one. Merolla says, “Perhaps then, in the context of deployment separations, the concepts of support, coping, and maintenance can be profitably nested within the larger domain of deployment adaptation. Some scholars have proposed that deployment stress is mitigated when partners maintain relational satisfaction and a sense of connection with one another” (7). I think Merolla is saying that having support from other people and your significant other who is deployed, as well as finding coping mechanisms, can help with adapting to his deployment. Being with family and friends can help keep you busy and keep your mind off the separation. So, it is good to have a support system. “Most women (82%) said they rely upon family, friend, and peer support to help them manage deployments” (Merolla 18).

Lincoln Land Review


In the interview with Breclyn, she found support through the other military families since she lives so far away from her own friends and family. It is difficult to seek comfort from family and friends at such a great distance. So, Breclyn is comforted by the military families and friends she makes at each place her husband is stationed. In the interview with Lauren Brown, she also finds support as a coping mechanism. She says, “Family and friends were my first coping mechanism. My family took care of me, as did my friends. They included us on weekends to keep us busy. His family was helpful too, checking on me frequently.” So a good support system is one important thing to keep in mind. They are the ones who help keep your mind off the separation. From researching this upcoming problem in my life, I feel that my eyes have been opened to the difficulties that many families and women go through. It is actually inspiring to know how many women make it on their own and deal with the distance in such an independent way, many times for their kids, but not always. I feel like I have truly answered my question to this problem. Like I had mentioned before, even with coping mechanisms, times can be tough but you just have to stay dedicated and push through it. I have learned that the most important thing is love and dedication, the second is faith, the third is communication, and the fourth is support. My support will be my family, first and foremost. I have an amazing family and I know that they will never leave my side. The second source of support will be my friends because they are always great in comforting me and talking anytime. The third source of support will be other people, such as Lauren and Breclyn, who have been through this situation before and can give more tips on how to manage. As there are multiple ways to handle the stress and anxiety of the distance in a military relationship, these mechanisms seem most logical for my life and I intend on using them. Everyone probably uses some similar coping mechanisms but has his or her own unique way of coping as well. Before this paper, I was lost as to a solution to this problem. It is amazing how other people’s perspectives on things can help one find the things one truly needs in life, especially answers when you most need them. WORKS CITED Brown, Lauren. “Interview on Distance in a Military Relationship.” Personal Interview. 9 November 2011. E-mail.


Lincoln Land Review

Kriener, Breclyn. “Interview on Distance in a Military Relationship.” Personal Interview. 10 November 2011. E-mail. Merolla, Andy J. “Relational Maintenance during Military Deployment: Perspec-

tives of Wives of Deployed US Soldiers.” Journal of Applied Communication Research, Vol. 38, No. 1. Rutledge, Taylor and Francis Group, February 2010. 4-26. 8 November 2011.

Dainton, M., & Stafford, L. (1993). “Routine Maintenance Behaviors: A Comparison of Relationship Type, Partner Similarity and Sex Differences.” Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 10, 255-271.

Waddell, Marshele Carter. Hope for the Home Front. Birmingham: New Hope Publishers, 2003. Book.

Student Contributor Notes Lincoln Land Review


Written Work Academic nonfiction, Creative nonfiction and Poetry Bradley Bates

Walking Among the Giants Bradley’s interest in the natural world and his aspiration to complete a degree in

astronomy are evident in his essay written for Professor Liesl Smith’s Com 099 course. Originally from Glenarm, Illinois, Bradley is currently majoring in physics. Chris Bruley

the Colors of a Black Sand Beach in Hawaii Chris describes Kehena Beach on the big island of Hawaii in his essay completed for Professor Alison Stachera’s COM 099 course. Chris grew up in Los Angeles, California and he is currently majoring in automotive technology but is interested in the visual and written arts. He hopes to attain a career in classic car restoration and custom car fabrication. Sam Greenwalt

Deflationary Consequences of the Great Depression Sam’s essay, written for Professor Art Meyer’s ECO 132 course, focuses on the causes and effects of the great depression, blending history and current economic theory. Currently an agriculture science major from Carlinville, Illinois, Sam has the future goal of attaining an MS in environmental engineering. Amanda Hamilton

Prince of Denmark Amanda analyzes Shakespeare’s classic character and his leadership potential as head of government in an essay written for Professor Marlene Emmons’ COM 112 course. After LLCC, Amanda plans on transferring to Millikin University to major in English with an emphasis in creative writing.


Lincoln Land Review

Hannah Hedinger Hyperinflation

Hannah defines and analyzes hyperinflation in her essay for Professor Art Meyer’s ECO 132 course. She is from Chatham, Illinois and plans on transferring to Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville to pursue a degree in social work. Jessica Larson

Hope in a Morning’s Bloom Jessica’s poem was inspired after a biological field study trip to Belize. She says she wrote the poem to help create awareness about Belize and the faithful people she observed. Amanda plans to transfer to the University of Illinois at Springfield in the fall and aspires to attend veterinary school. Brian R. Markley

Making elephants out of Snowhills Brian’s essay written for Professor Greg Murray’s COM 112 course interprets Hemingway’s classic short story. Brian is from Orlando, Florida and now lives in Clinton, Illinois. He is currently majoring in psychology. Emily Martinie

Victimized but Won Emily’s response closely analyzes the theme of victimization in Alice Walker’s novel The Color Purple for Professor Deborah Brothers’ LIT 111 course. She is from

Springfield, Illinois and is pursuing her associate’s degree. She hopes to major in business or literature. Kyle McCarty

Black Friday rule Kyle’s creative non-fiction essay, written for Professor John Paul Jaramillo’s Lit 150 creative writing course, leads the reader through one of the busiest shopping days of the year in retail, Black Friday. Currently, Kyle is pursuing his bachelor’s degree in computer science where, as he states: he explores the combination of computing, literature and storytelling.

Lincoln Land Review


Yvonne Oliea

the Bar of nothing Written for Professor Alison Stachera’s COM 098 course, Yvonne’s essay narrates a poor customer service experience. Yvonne considers herself a “renaissance

woman” who enjoys learning for learning’s sake. She attended Lanphier High and currently studies nursing. A. Jarod Pobst

Picture of Sadness Jarod’s essay carefully explicates and analyzes imagery in W.H. Auden’s poem “Funeral Blues” for Professor Eric Stachera’s LIT 110 course. Originally from Oran, Missouri, Jarod is majoring in accounting. He plans to transfer to the University of Illinois at Springfield, complete a bachelor’s degree in accounting, to become a CPA. Anne E. Reis

A Strong and Gentle Man

Written for Professor Eric Stachera,s COM 099 course, Anne’s essay recounts her relationship with her grandfather and his positive influence upon her life. Anne went to Glenwood High School in Chatham and is pursuing an associate of science degree. Sarah Skorczewski-Kiliman

thy Mother’s Glass

This is Sarah’s second appearance in the Review, previously winning our 2010 “Best of” award with her short story, “Sto, Lat. Sto, Lat.” Her current essay written

for Professor Deborah Brother’s LIT 111 course responds to the theme of motherhood in Kathleen Kent’s novel, The Heretic’s Daughter. Originally from

Nashville, Illinois, Sarah is currently majoring in literature and working to complete an associate of arts degree. She aspires to study creative writing as well as anthropology.


Lincoln Land Review

Audrey Weiskopf-Trees

Can true Love Survive the Battle? Audrey’s essay, written for Professor Deborah Brothers’ COM 111 course explores the concept of love and commitment in a military household. Audrey is an LLCC Phi Theta Kappa Honor Society member and she plans to pursue a career as a registered nurse.

Visual Work Fine Art and Digital Media Megan Andresen DollFace

Wicked Dreams 2 Megan is majoring in Graphic Design at LLCC. Her works “Wicked Dreams 2” and “Doll Face,” were created in Professor Thom Whalen’s Spring 2012 Art 116 course. Megan attended high school at the Illinois School for the Deaf and plans on completing a four year degree. In addition to art, she enjoys fishing and hiking. Sarah Arnish Book Silk

Sarah attended Rochester high school before coming to Lincoln Land. She created her product design “Book Silk” in Professor Thom Whalen’s Art 116, Graphic Design 1 course. Spencer Day

remember the Daze Spencer created his book project “Remember the Daze” in Professor Thom Whalen’s Graphic Design 1 course this past spring. He attended Rochester high school and is majoring in graphic design here at LLCC. In his free time, Spencer studies photography, and eventually wants to own his own photography business. Brett Freeman


Brett is most interested in working as an illustrator and comic book creator, and this is evident in his black and white work “XIOMBARG.” Brett attended Glenwood

Lincoln Land Review


high in Chatham before attending LLCC and taking Printmaking II with Professor Leslie Stalter. Andrea Henderson

taylor Swift typography Andrea plans to transfer to a university to get her B.A. and become an interior de-

signer. When not creating art, Andrea enjoys photography. She created “Taylor Swift Photography” for Art 116 in Spring 2012 for Professor Thom Whalen. Cody Jones Lovecow

Wish You Were Here

Cody has two pieces of art in this year’s Review: “LoveCow” and “Wish You Were

Here.” He created both in Professor Thom Whalen’s Art 112 course. Cody is an art major and attended high school in Rochester, IL. Hye Young Kim

travel Sisters

Hye Young produced her painting “Travel Sisters” in Professor Al Shull’s Painting II course this past spring. Although she now lives in Springfield, Hye Young is originally from Korea. Nino Lograsso


Nino attended Southeast high school before coming to LLCC where he took Professor Thom Whalen’s Printmaking/Drawing course and created his work “Craterface.” Cayti McCormick


Cayti is pursuing an associate in graphic design at LLCC. Her work called “Mopped” was created in Professor Thom Whalen’s course in silk screen. Pat Mutchler

My Art My Way Pat Mutchler created “My Art My Way” in Professor Leslie Stalter’s 3-D Design course this year. She has been attending LLCC since 2010. Pat is married with two children and enjoys working in drawing, graphic design, and ceramics.


Lincoln Land Review

Danielle Paoni Lights out

Danielle wants to receive her M.A. in art therapy. She has attended LLCC for this past year, and created “Lights Out” in Professor Al Shull’s Painting II course this spring. Danielle is married to Chris Paoni, and in addition to painting, she enjoys rock climbing and playing piano. Alex Rumble Surfin’

Alex enrolled in Professor Thom Whalen’s spring silkscreen course where he created “Surfin’.” Alex graduated from New Berlin high school and is unsure of his ultimate career goals, but he enjoys spelunking in addition to creating art. Michelle Thomson the kitchen

Michelle is a single mom of two, pursuing a B.A. in communications. Her hobbies include singing, bike riding, and drawing. Her piece, “The Kitchen,” was created in Drawing I with Professor Leslie Stalter. Amanda Wanless the Piano

Amanda took Digital Photography from Instructor Clay Stalter this spring, and

from this course, produced this year’s cover image for the Review. Amanda grad-

uated from New Berlin high school and plans to pursue a B.A. degree. She enjoys photography, music, creative writing, special effects make-up, and haunted houses. Cassandra Yates

the raining Secret Cassandra created “The Raining Secret” this spring in Professor Thom Whalen’s ART 116. Cassandra grew up in New Berlin and will be attending Western Illinois University in fall 2012.

2012 Lincoln Land Review  

The Lincoln Land Review draws upon the college’s long tradition publishing academic and literary student work. For 37 years, The Harvester f...

Read more
Read more
Similar to
Popular now
Just for you