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SUSTAINABLE TOURISM DISSERTATION SAMPLE

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TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction .....................................................................................................................................3 TASK 1 ...........................................................................................................................................3 a) 1. List of stakeholders in the development of Chumbe Island ................................................3 a) 2, Benefit to stakeholders from tourism development planning .............................................4 b) 1 Advantages and disadvantage of public and private sector partnership in tourism development planning at India.....................................................................................................5 b) 2 Advantages and disadvantage of public and private sector partnership in tourism development planning at Chumbe Island.....................................................................................6 TASK 2............................................................................................................................................7 a) The main features of tourism development planning at various levels...................................7 b) Evaluation of interactive planning systems and processes in sustainable tourism development ................................................................................................................................8 c) Methods of measuring tourism impact at Chumbe Island.......................................................8 TASK 3............................................................................................................................................9 a) The concept of sustainable tourism and its significance..........................................................9 b) Factors that prevent sustainable tourism in Chumbe Island .................................................10 c) The stages involved in planning for sustainability and analyzing the issues involved in it . 11 TASK 4...........................................................................................................................................11 a) Conflicts of issues and suitable methods for resolving the conflicts.....................................11 b) The implication for attempting to balance supply and demand.............................................12 c) Moral and ethical issues of enclave tourism..........................................................................12 TASK 5..........................................................................................................................................13 a) Comparing recent issue connected with tourism development............................................13 b) Recommendations to develop tourism in India and Chumbe Island in future......................13 CONCLUSION..............................................................................................................................14 REFERENCES .............................................................................................................................15

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INTRODUCTION Travel and tourism is among the extremely growing industry having maximum share in the economic development. Further, the sector initiates large number of economic advantages like it drives foreign trade, stimulate foreign and national investment. In addition to this, travel and tourism sector encourages the development of infrastructure and other services that benefit international visitors as well as local residents of tourist destination. Furthermore, in year 2014, the contribution of tourism sector was up to 10% of foreign GDP. In addition to this, it generated 277 million jobs and helped to a large extent in reducing unemployment at global level (Economic Impact of travel and tourism, 2015). Therefore, to preserve the ample number of advantages spurred by travel and tourism sector, it is significant for stakeholders of the sector to ensure sustainable tourism. It further means progress in tourism sector without causing harm on the environment. By considering the sustainability aspect, travel and tourism sector should assure that their operational activities and consumers have affirmative impact on the environment, economic system and society (Bramwell and Lane, 2008). In this report, various aspects of sustainable tourism will be elaborated. The learning will be shown regarding the significance of sustainable tourism on the development of Chumbe Island. It is privately owned island located in East Africa. In this report, advantages and disadvantages of public and private ownership in tourism development will also be explained.

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TASK 1 a) 1. List of stakeholders in the development of Chumbe Island Stakeholders are those individuals or groups that can be affected or affect the tourism of Chumbe Island (Byrd, 2007). It is important for tourism organization to consider the interest of stakeholders in order to ensure smooth functioning. Stakeholders of cited destination are as follows: 

Government: It plays a key role in the functioning of tourism industry. Government can control the activities of tourism entities for the best interest of country. Major concern of government is to maximize their income in mode of tax and enhance contribution of travel and tourism sector in GDP. Therefore, government will promote tourism sector by building infrastructure for the tourism in Chumbe Island.

Environmental groups: There are large number of environmental groups that are working for protecting environment from the negative impact of tourism in Chumbe Island. Main aim of these groups is to minimize the over exploitation of resources. For instance, Chumbe Island Coral Park Ltd is a body that works for safeguarding coral reefs of the region (Carlsen, 2011).

Tourist: They have main interest in the growth and development of tourism. They spend their money to experience the natural beauty, cultural heritage etc of a tourism destination. Main aim of them is to get maximum value for the money paid on getting travel experience of Chumbe Island (Buckley, 2012).

Local residents: It represents those individuals living in Chumbe Island that get their source of livelihoodfrom the expenditure done by tourist. Main concern of such stakeholder is to ensure positive impact on their livelihood from tourism.

Tourism companies: The success of tourism companiesin Chumbe Island. depends upon growth of tourism. Major concern of these entities is to boost tourism and enhance their profitability (Edgell, 2013).

a) 2, Benefit to stakeholders from tourism development planning TOLL-FREE NO: +44 2038681671 WHATSAPP NO: +44 7999903324

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The stakeholders are those individuals or groups that can be impacted by the tourism development planning. Therefore, they must be considered in planning process. . Explanation of which is as follows:

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Government: Tourism development will assist government in economic development of the country (Erkuş-Öztürk and Eraydın, 2010). Government can increase its income from taxation. Tourism organization will pay service tax while tourist will pay Vat on the goods and services purchased at Chumbe Island. International tourist will improve foreign currency reserve of the country.

Environmental groups: Tourism development planning will help in protecting the interest of these groups. Eco-friendly tourism can be encouraged so as to prevent nature from any kind of negative harm (Ham and Weiler, 2012).

Local citizens: Tourism development will increase the tourism of region which is leading to enhance more job opportunities for the local population. Income of local citizens will be increased from tourism that will result in improving their life style.

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Tourist: Visitors can get desired level of travel experience from tourism development planning. It will further help in furnishing superior quality of services and products to the visitors of Chumbe Island (Hall, 2011).

b) 1 Advantages and disadvantage of public and private sector partnership in tourism development planning at India. Public private partnership refers to coordination and cooperation between government bodies and privately owned companies for sustaining mutual interest related to the tourism growth and development (Dodds and Graci, 2012). It further involves sharing of resources, infrastructure, technology, knowledge, power etc for attaining mutually beneficial goals and objectives. Advantages 

Value for money: Public private partnership helps in building value for money. Therefore, tourism project can be developed with improved focus on quality with the identical amount of expenditure. For instance: public and private sectors are collaborated to redevelop tourism at Uttarakhand (-Oyola and et.al., 2012).

Risk sharing: Risk involved in tourism project is divided in between public and private sector. Therefore, risk can be managed at lower cost. For instance: tourism development at Jammu and Kashmir involves various risks like terrorist attack etc that may result into loss of investment in tourism project, infrastructure development etc. However, this risk is shared in partnership (Pomering, Noble and Johnson, 2011).

Output based specifications: Public private partnership leads to enhance innovation to a large extent (Liburd and Edwards, 2010). Resources, talents, knowledge and skills of both the sector are combined to generate fruitful outcomes.

Cost efficiency: Such partnership helps in enhancing the cost efficiency of the project which is also output of improved rivalry, risk sharing and innovation in the sector. Further, burden of cost is shared among both the parties (Michalena and Tripanagnostopoulos, 2010).

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Higher capital cost: This partnership may also result into higher capital cost because of loan and other borrowings taken by private sectors. This may result into an increase in the overall cost of project.

Difference in objective: Major disadvantage in public and private partnership is related to clash of interest of both the parties (Public and private partnership in tourism. 2015). Main aim of private bodies is to build market image and increase revenue while, public sector has objective of gaining social recognition and ensures to protect the interest of various stakeholders.

Insecurity: Public and private sectors enter into partnership contract in which they agree to share profits and losses. However, inefficiency or lack of cooperation may have negative impact on the overall tourism project (Michalena and Tripanagnostopoulos, 2010).

b) 2 Advantages and disadvantage of public and private sector partnership in tourism development planning at Chumbe Island. There is a partnership between the revolutionary government of Zanzibar and Chumbe Island Coral Park Ltd. This alliance has large number of advantages and disadvantages for the Chumbe Island: Advantages 

Optimum utilization of resources: Partnership in private and public sector in travel and tourism sector will result in proper utilization of resources. Further, resources like, human, natural, heritage, capital, technology and heritage etc can be used in an effective and efficient manner (Chen, Chen and Lee, 2011).

Reduction on the public treasury: Partnership helps in minimizing the need of capital on infrastructure development projects that results to decrease in treasury. Therefore, private sectors will also contribute in the development of infrastructure and allow public to invest fund in other areas (Anderson, 2011).

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Establish quality standards: Synergy effect due to public private partnership helps in improving the quality of services. Both the parties can conduct research at their level that will help in bringing innovations and developments (Crysta, 2011).

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Disadvantage 

Short term rigidness: In public and private partnership, both the parties depend upon each other for various activities which further leads to short term rigidity. Therefore, it becomes difficult for both the parties to consensus at particular subject and adjust with the changing conditions (Carlsen, 2011).

Loss of government control: Partnership in tourism sector consists of sharing risk, cost and profit among the private and public sector. However, this may weaken the control of government on capital decisions.

Political uncertainty and labor issues: Issues in political stableness of East Africa and regional government of Tanzania can impact the entire functions of public private partnership. Further, rigid labor laws made by government can also cause adverse impact (Hjalager, 2001).

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TASK 2 a) The main features of tourism development planning at various levels Tourism development planning is conducted at all the authoritarian level, international, national, regional and local level. However, features and requirements of tourism development may vary at every level. Explanation of which is as follows: 

International: Tourism development planning at international level is mostly concerned with encouraging the number of international visitors. It further involves improving the international transportation services like, connecting Chumbe Island with different countries through air routes (Iroegbu, 2006). supportive policies that assist international tourism can be encouraged. Further, for marketing international tourism, multi country promotional program and strategy can be used.

National: Development planning at national level is majorly focused on developing infrastructure and other facilities for the local and international visitors. It further aims at connecting Chumbe Island and other famous tourist destination of Tanzania by developing and improving major routes. Thereafter, it involves marketing at national level. Main concern is to enhance the economic development of nation (Lovelock, 2013).

Regional: Tourism development planning considers policies framed by the regional government of Zanzibar West. Major focus of tourism planning is to promote tourism at the regional level. It further aims at economic development of tourism attraction points of the region.

Therefore, infrastructure development is ensured at the regional level

(Mehmetoglu, 2004). 

Local: Local level also plays an important part in tourism development planning. Its major focus is to develop tourism without causing damage to the local attraction points. Further, tourism is major source of livelihood of local population of the Chumbe Island. Therefore, tourism development planning should ensure to create positive impact on the local residents of destination (Michael, 2014). Thereafter, it should generate employment for the local individuals. However, major concern at local level lies on minimizing negative impact of tourism on local destination. Further, training and education are

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provided to local individuals in order to enhance the alternative livelihood that will help when there is downfall in tourism. b) Evaluation of interactive planning systems and processes in sustainable tourism development Interactive planning refers to the combined and participate planning process conducted by the key stakeholders of travel-tourism sector.

In this process, view points, thoughts,

knowledge of them etc. are combined into tourism planning and development. It further assists in obtaining consent of members on a specific decision that is likely to generate fruitful outcomes on tourism industry (Tourism Planning. 2012). Main aim of interactive planning is to make continuous improvement in the tourism services of Chumbe Island and enhancing mutual interest of all the stakeholders. Further, interactive planning will assist in encouraging international and domestic tourism of cited destination. It will further help in ensuring eco-friendly and sustainable tourism. Further, more focus will be provided on conserving the natural resources of Chumbe Island. Major advantage of interactive planing is that it helps in conducting cost benefit analysis so that cost of developing tourism plan does not exceed the benefit. Further, it will help in boosting the travel demand of cited destination. However, interactive planning may be affected by difference in opinions of the stakeholders (Williams, 2006). c) Methods of measuring tourism impact at Chumbe Island There are large number of impact of tourism in terms of varied factors which are described below: 

Economic impact: Tourism affects directly on economic growth and development of Chumbe Island. It further contributes to the GDP and GNP of country. Tourism is a leading service sector of the country which gives contribution of more than $1 billion USD in revenue (Economic Impact of travel and tourism. 2015). Likewise, it also contributes in the reduction of unemployment in the country. Tourism impact can be studied by monitoring improvement in GDP, disposable income of residents etc. Other than this, pro poor benefit can be used to state the impact of tourism on improving the living standard of poor people.

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

Social impact: Tourism has positive impact on the social aspect of country like, improving the living standard of local population as well as conserving the heritage, culture and customs of Chumbe Island. Tourism will help in encouraging the demand of local food, craft and other services. Social impact can be measured with surveys, etc . In addition to this, Cambridge economic impact model can be used that determines number of

visitors

and

their

expenditure

in

cited

destination

(Michalena

and

Tripanagnostopoulos, 2010). 

Environmental impact: Natural attractions are the main factors that drive tourism. Main aim of visitors is to provide experience of wildlife, marine life, national parks etc. Impact of tourism and tourist can be measured through shift in pollution level, deforestation etc. Further, environmental impact model can be used to determine the positive and negative impact of tourism on its surroundings (Hall, 2011).

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TASK 3 a) The concept of sustainable tourism and its significance The concept of sustainable tourism deals with reducing the adverse impact of tourism on the surrounding environment, locality and being responsible while fostering revenue and employment for national economy (Dodds and Graci, 2012). As per the World Tourism Organization, sustainable tourism also includes meeting the social responsibility of safeguarding environment, fulfilling earnestness towards nature and involvement of local communities in developing tourism. There are many benefits of sustainable tourism to Chumbe Island which are explained below: 

Competitive advantage:

Cited destination is awarded for its conservation project.

Richness in natural resources is main reason that drives international and domestic travelers. Sustainable tourism will help destination in retaining competitive benefits in the respect of tourism in the long run. 

Preservation of environment: Sustainable tourism will help in maintaining cultural heritage for the present and future generation. It will help in protecting coral reefs that is major reason for the tourist’s visit (Chen, Chen and Lee, 2011).

Improved well-being of local citizens: Sustainable tourism will have positive impact on the local population as it will increase tourist flow which will directly enhance the income level of local individuals. Further, it will lead to increase in job opportunities, cross cultural integration etc (Liburd and Edwards, 2010).

b) Factors that prevent sustainable tourism in Chumbe Island 

Lack of awareness: Lack of knowledge about the significance of sustainable tourism can adversely impact the motive of sustainable tourism (Iroegbu, 2006). Further, local bodies do over exploitation of resources for enhancing their revenue from tourism business. Therefore, government of country should provide proper training and education on the significance of sustainable tourism so that they can boost their business without misusing resources.

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Heavy expenditure and low profit: Employment of sustainable development plan includes heavy expenditure. This further increases the cost of tourism project. Further, this amount is recovered by government in the mode of service tax, Vat etc. Therefore, it increases the outlay for the tourism organization, tourist etc. Therefore, they resist the concept of sustainable tourism in Chumbe Island (Overview of Chumbe Island. 2012).

Poor coordination: Ineffective and poor coordination among the government authorities and stakeholders of the target sector leads to non-attainment of the objective of sustainability.

Economic consideration: The major consideration of major stakeholders working in tourism sector is to enhance the profitability. However, with the consideration on sustainability they have to compromise the economic benefit. Therefore, they do not favor sustainable tourism in positive manner (Carlsen, 2011).

c) The stages involved in planning for sustainability and analyzing the issues involved in it There are various stages that are involved in planning sustainable tourism development at Chumbe Island which are elaborated below: 

Objective: It is the initial stage of tourism development where stakeholders of sector determine the key objective and modes of attaining them. For example, major concern of sustainable development is to safeguard the coral reefs of Chumbe Island, reduce over exploitation of marine resources and over use of land as well as other resources.

Policy: It is the next step which involves implementation of effective policies to attain the targets of sustainable development. It provides overall directions to the efforts of the stakeholders of tourism. However, designed policy for sustainable development should not be rigid and upgraded as per the requirement of tourism industry (Edgell, 2013).

Plan: It refers to determine a set of actions that helps in the smooth attainment of aforementioned objectives. The plan should take into consideration the varied needs and interests of stakeholders of tourism. Thereafter, it should confirm with the policy framed by government to promote e-tourism (Bramwell and Lane, 2008).

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

Strategy: The strategy helps in attaining the plans and policies of sustainable tourism. It will help in ensuring adoption of viable steps that reduce the adverse impact of tourism on the natural beauty of Chumbe Island.

TASK 4 a) Conflicts of issues and suitable methods for resolving the conflicts Chumbe island has planned for an enclave development consisting of 400 luxury apartments with a private beach for the site that is commonly used by the fishermen for landing their catch and storing nets (GĂśssling, Hall and Weaver, 2009). However, the site is also used for an important local festival thus, development of the apartment may also result in arising different conflict of issues. The foremost conflict of the issues arises is that fishermen are opposed to the development as the place where development has been planned is the place of livelihood of the numerous fishermen. They catch fishes as well as repair and build the boats at that place. Thus, major conflict of interest arises among the local fishermen. Therefore, to overcome such conflict, government must focus on initiating different education and learning programs for the fishermen so that they may create awareness regarding the other field through which they can earn their livelihood. However, authorities must also focus on various activities that will support fishermen in developing their mindset (Hunter and Shaw, 2007). b) The implication for attempting to balance supply and demand Chumbe island is the leading tourist destination existing within the Tanzania that is famous for their ecological activity. However, it is a privately owned island that features attractive location and places to be visited by the tourist and travelers that is Clumbe Reef Sanctuary. In the above situation, where destination is planning for developing luxury apartment must focuses on improper balance of the tourist and travelers within the destination. Therefore, management of Chumbe island must focus on analyzing the past ratio of travelers and visitors who have visited the island (Buckley, 2012). Different implications for attempting the balance between demand and supply of visitors and tourists at the time of enclave development include implication of limits by the owners of the TOLL-FREE NO: +44 2038681671 WHATSAPP NO: +44 7999903324

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Chumbe island. Therefore, consistency in quality of services can be ensured. (Lansing and De Vries, 2007). For this, management must estimate the overall number of visitors that prefer to visit the destination so that they can manage tourists by identifying their numbers. For instance: management can impose control on the inbound visitors so that they can manage the supply and demand with continuing the development of luxury apartments. c) Moral and ethical issues of enclave tourism As per the situation of enclave development, it has been identified that there are different moral and ethical issues that impact sustainable development of the destination. From the above outlined scenario, main moral issue that arises within the enclave tourism is related to the cutting of trees. With the development of 400 luxury apartments within the island, it may result in cutting the forests and tress that is the key factor for which Chumbe island is being famous for (Girard and Nijkamp, 2009). Such development activities are beneficial for the island as it results in enhancing and developing travel and tourism sector so that large number of visitors get attracted towards it. On the other hand, it is beneficial for the travel and tourism sector but it also results in impacting negative on the environment condition of the Chumbe island. Therefore, in order to overcome the evaluated issues of enclave tourism, authorities who are in-charge of the activities must focus on different ways and approaches through which they can minimize issues.

TASK 5 a) Comparing recent issue connected with tourism development These are the major issues faced by Chumbe Island in fostering tourism growth and development which are as follows: 

Socio-cultural issues: With the boost in tourism at Chumbe Island, various changes in the societal norms and values are identified. Tourists have lack of understanding regarding social values of Tanzania. Therefore, they unknowingly or knowingly cause negative impact on the cultural norms of country (Anderson, 2011).



Increase in illegal activities: Number of illegal activities in Chumbe Island and nearly regions of Tanzania are increasing rapidly. Therefore, large number of cases like, drug

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smuggling, illegal alcohol importing, black marketing of diamonds have been increased that are affecting tourism image of the destination. In the contrast, the problems faced by emerging country like India are as follows: 

Poor infrastructure: India is a developing nation. It majorly faces issue of poor infrastructural development. This puts negative impact in case of foreign visitors who prefer high tech facilities. The low level connectivity to tourist destinations through train and air routes can also impact the tourism (Lansing and De Vries, 2007).

Lack of availability of funds: High level of unemployment, poverty, recession and inflation are some economic abuse that impact the growth of tourism sector. Therefore, government cannot invest significant funds in the development of such sector.

b) Recommendations to develop tourism in India and Chumbe Island in future Following are the recommendations that can boost the growth of tourism sector in both the aforementioned tourist destinations. These are, 

For the growth of tourism in Chumbe Island, government of country can set environmental benchmarks that will also result in environment friendly tourism (Overview of Chumbe Island, 2012).

Improvement in transportation facility can increase tourism opportunities in India. Ozone friendly recreational facilities can be developed.

To overcome economic issue, government can increase wealth tax, capital gain and consumption of leisure products and services. Multi country promotion will help in encouraging the international tourism. Local individuals can be trained and educated to take jobs in the sector and promote sustainable tourism (Hunter and Shaw, 2007). Tourism can be marketed in peak seasons whereas in other season, measures can be taken to safeguard the environment.

By imposing limits on international tourist, illegal activities and black marketing can be reduced.

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CONCLUSION From the aforementioned report, it is concluded that sustainable tourism is an important aspect that helps in meeting tourism demand without damaging environment. Chumbe Island has ample number of growth opportunities in tourism sector. Public-private partnership in tourism development planning helps in risk sharing, enhancing quality of services etc. Recent issues of illegal activities can affect the present as well as future tourism of country.

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Lansing, P. and De Vries, P., 2007. Sustainable tourism: ethical alternative or marketing ploy?. Journal of Business Ethics. 72(1). pp.77-85. Liburd, J. J. and Edwards, D. eds., 2010. Understanding the sustainable development of tourism. Oxford: Goodfellow. Lozano-Oyola, M. and et.al., 2012. Sustainable tourism indicators as planning tools in cultural destinations.Ecological Indicators. 18. pp.659-675. Mehmetoglu, M., 2004. Tourist or traveller? A typological approach. Tourism Review. 59(3). pp.33 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 39. Michael, C., 2014. The Geography of Tourism and Recreation: Environment, Place and Space. Routhledge publishes. Michalena, E. and Tripanagnostopoulos, Y., 2010. Contribution of the solar energy in the sustainable tourism development of the Mediterranean islands.Renewable Energy. 35(3). pp.667-673. Pomering, A., Noble, G. and Johnson, L. W., 2011. Conceptualising a contemporary marketing mix for sustainable tourism. Journal of Sustainable Tourism. 19(8). pp.953-969. Williams, A., 2006. Tourism and hospitality marketing: fantasy, feeling and fun. ournal of Place Management and Development. 8 (6). PP.482â&#x20AC;&#x201C;495. Online Economic Impact of travel and tourism. 2015. [Online]. Available through: <https://www.wttc.org/-/media/files/reports/economic%20impact%20research/economic %20impact%202015%20summary_web.pdf>. [Accessed on 29th January 2016]. Overview of Chumbe Island. 2012. [Online]. Available through: <http://www.escpau.fr/ppp/documents/featured_projects/tanzania.pdf>. [Accessed on 29th January 2016]. Public

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