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Central Asian Institute of Applied Geosciences

Monitoring and study of glacier systems in Kyrgyzstan under conditions of climate change and related geo-hazards B.D.Moldobekov, R.A.Usubaliev July 11-24, 2013 Huaraz, Peru


Glaciation of mountain ranges in Kyrgyzstan (according to V.A.Kuzmichenko)


Representa<ve glaciers  in  Kyrgyzstan  which  are  monitored  

Adygene glacier  

Golubin glacier  

л-­‐к Кара-­‐Баткак  

West Suek   glacier  

Enilchek glacier  

Ak-­‐Shiyrak glacier  

Abramov glacier  

                         objects  of  CAIAG’s  research                              objects  of  research  by  other  organisa6ons  


Time varia6on  of  average   annual  temperature  of  air   at  weather  sta6on  “Tien-­‐ Shan”         Time  varia6on  of  average   annual  amount  of   precipita6on  at  weather   sta6on  “Tien-­‐Shan”  

The pictures  show  that  6me   varia6ons  of  main  clima6c   elements  (temperatures  of  air   and  precipita6on)  at  Tien-­‐ Shan  are  asynchronous  which   are  adverse  to  posi6ve   development  of  present   glacia6on  

y =  Основнойx  -­‐  Основной   R²  =  Основной  

МС "Тянь-­‐Шань"  температура  воздуха,  в  град.   Linear  (МС  "Тянь-­‐Шань"  температура  воздуха,  в  град.)  

y =  -­‐Основнойx  +  Основной   R²  =  Основной  

МС "Тянь-­‐Шань"  атмосферные  осадки,  в  мм   Linear  (МС  "Тянь-­‐Шань"  атмосферные  осадки,  в  мм)  


y =  Основнойx  -­‐  Основной   R²  =  Основной  

МС "Сары-­‐Таш"  температура  воздуха,  в  град."   Linear  (МС  "Сары-­‐Таш"  температура  воздуха,  в  град.")  

At the  Gissar-­‐Alai   glacial  nival  belt  the   amount  of   precipita6on  is  2-­‐3   6mes  more  than  in   lower  zones.  But  the   air  temperature   increase  is  seen  in  the   glacier  regime,   especially,  in  the   abla6on  areas  that   leads  to  major  reduce     of  glacier  size.    

y =  Основнойx  +  Основной   R²  =  Основной  

МС "Сары-­‐Таш"  годовые  атмосферные  осадки,  в  мм   Linear  (МС  "Сары-­‐Таш"  годовые  атмосферные  осадки,  в  мм)  

Time variation of average annual temperature and precipitation amount at weather station “Tien-Shan”


30 25 20 15 10 5 0

А,%

152 162 197 210 360 400 525 570 690 1113 Загрязненность, г/м2 Change of albedo of glacier surface depending on contamination of the surface Uneven contamina6on   of   the   glacier   surface   with   eolian   silt   makes   for   different   albedo   of   the   glacier   surface   (pic.   ).   The   picture   shows   that   if   silt   is   more   than   200g/m2     ,   the   albedo   of   glacier   surface   decreases   up   to   11-­‐18%.   It   is   a   very   important   indicator   for   glacial   and   hydrological   studies   as   the   most   typical   contamina6on  of  Tien-­‐Shan  glaciers  is  within  the  limits  of    200  to  500  g/m2    .    


Monitoring of  atmospheric  dust   Tasks  of  the  sta6on:   -­‐  study  of  meteorological   parameters  and  dust  par6cle   concentra6on  in  the  atmosphere   for  30  grada6ons  of  par6cle  sizes   which  are  regularly  measured  in  1   minute  6me  interval.     -­‐  collec6on  of  mineral  aerosols,   par6cles  of  which  is  over  2   micrometers  in  size  for  further   mineralogical,  chemical  and   isotopic  research.    


Results of  studies  of  dust  samples  and  related  meteorological  parameters  and   values  of  dust  concentra6on  in  the  atmosphere  will  serve  for  addressing   issues  re  paleoclimate  change  in  Central  Asia,  impact  of  present  dust  transfer   to  the  atmosphere  on  clima6c  condi6ons,  glacial  and  hydrological  systems.    

In future,  it  is  planned  to   install  a  dust  monitoring   sta6on  at  the  high  al6tude   sta6on  of  Merzbacher  and,   likely,  Adygene  glacier.    


Average retreat of Tien-Shan glacier snouts for the period of 1943-2000, m/year

Western Tien-Shan

from <2,7-3,0 to 4,5-6,0

Northern Tien-Shan

from 4,0-6,7 to 8,5-11,8

Issyk-Kul valley

from 2,0-4,9 to 5,4-6,0

Internal Tien-Shan

from 5,6 to 7,7

Central Tien-Shan

from 3,3-4,3 to 8,3-9,5

Dendrite glaciers

from 0-5 to 10-27


Sary-Djaz river basin Glacier number and area changes in the SJR1990-2010

Region

River sub-basins

Area of region, km2

Cou nt

Glaciers area, km2

 

Glaciers area change (1990-2010)

1990

2010

Abs. (km2)

Rel. (%)

North

Koiluu, Upper stream of the Sary-Jaz

2818.9

348

487.4±9.7

455.8±9.1

-31.6±13.4

6.5±2.7

East

Inilchek, Kaiyngdy

2329.8

318

926.8±18.5

912.8±18.3

-14.0±26.0

1.5±2.7

South

Below-Jangart, Jangart, Jaman-Suu, TaldyBulak, Uch-Chat, Koikap

1662.9

146

130.1±2.6

124.1±2.5

-6.0±3.6

3.4±2.7

West

Ak-Shyirak, Uch-Kol, Terekti, Kichi-Terekti

4389.8

498

510.7±10.2

485.2±9.7

-25.5±14.1

5.0±2.7

11201.4

1310

2055±41.1

1977.9±39.6

-77.1±57.0

3.7±2.7

Total


Gissar-­‐Alai ranges  

Reduction of glaciation area in the basins of Ak-Buura and Aravan rivers (km2) Topographic Geometrical parameters

map

obtained using:

scale:1:25 000,

Satellite

Alteration

image, 2000 s  

1965 Number of glaciers   Minimal area of (glacier) polygon in vector layer, km2  

265

311

46

0,004

0,0005

0,004

Maximal area of (glacier) polygon in vector layer, km2

13,25

8,26

4,99

174,17

123,50

50,66

0,66

0,40

0,26

Total area of all (glacier) polygons, km2 Average area of (glacier) polygons, km2    


Glacier areas and glaciation change rates in some river basins on northern slopes of Turkestan and Alai ranges

S, km2 River basin   1957   1980   Shahimarda 39,46   n   246,2 Sokh   6   129,7 Isfara   4   415,4 Total   6  

30,14 214,6 3   125,0 5   369,8 2  

2001

Average annual rates of glaciation degradation, % % 1957-19 1980-2 reduction   80   001  

28,19

28,6

1,03

0,31

198,25

19,5

0,56

0,36

120,99

6,8

0,16

0,15

347,43

18,3

0,58

0,27


Высокогорная геонаучная станция Готтфрида Мерцбахера


In 2010  6  stakes  were  drilled     In  2011  9  stakes  were  drilled    

Abla<on stakes  on  Southern   Enilchek  glacier   Abla<on  stakes  of  2012  


Speed of  surface  mo6on  and  retreat  of  glacier  snouts  of  western  and   southern  Enilchek  


Glacier study under the CAW Project (CAIAG, GFZ    и  Friburg  University,  Switzerland)   •  The  aim  of  the  Project    ”Central  Asian  Water”  is  to   study  main  components  of  water  resources  in   Kyrgyzstan.  One  of  them  is  concentrated  on  glaciers.   Glacier  research  was  held  both  using  in-­‐situ  methods   through  installa6on  of  abla6on  stakes,  measurements   of  topographic  parameters,  GPS  measurements  and     through  interpreta6on  of  satellite  images.     •  Outcomes:  Under  the  CAW  Project  in  2010-­‐2012,   research  was  conducted  on  Golubin  glacier  and  Ak-­‐ Shiyrak  massif.  Abla6on  stakes  were  installed  and   values  of  abla6on  and  snow  accumula6on  were   measured.   •  Together  with  GFZ  partners  the  width  of  ice  was   measured  with  the  georadar.  By  results  of  satellite   image  interpreta6on  the  values  of  glacier  tongue   retreat  were  obtained.    


Diagram of  abla<on  values  

West  Suek  glacier  

Golubin glacier  

Glacier №354  (Ak-­‐Shiyrak  massif)  


Abramov glacier  monitoring    

Volume of  abla<on  (cm)  

Volume of  abla<on  on  Abramov  glacier   within  08/2011  -­‐  08/2012  

1 3   5  

Numbers of  abla<on  stakes  

2 4   6  


412 m

1850-­‐1900  =  0,014  sq.km/year   1900-­‐1936  =  0,013  “Abramov  glacier  regime”   1936-­‐1967  =  0,027    G.Glazyrin,  G.Kamnianski       1967-­‐1970  =  0,077      F.Pertsiger,  1993.   1970-­‐1973  =  +0,18   1973-­‐1974  =  +0,007   1974-­‐1984  =  0,024   1978-­‐1986  =  0.064    CAIAG   1986-­‐2007  =  0,018   2007-­‐2012  =  0,014  

1986

753 m . 2007 2009 2012

2011

Glacier Abramov

0

0.5

kilometers

1

1978


Balance by  results  for  2011  –  Aug  2012   Accumula6on:  +63g/cm2,  abla6on:  -­‐  293  g/cm2   Discharge  (abla6on)  in  2012:  0.59  m3/sec  or  0,018  km3/year  


Merzbacher lake  has  a  big  area  from  2,5-­‐2,6  to  4,5-­‐5,0  sq.km  and  is  at  the  average  al6tude  of  

3350m. In  different  years  before  outburst  the  lake  accumulates  from  120  mln.cub.m  to  237  mln.cub.m   of  water.    

 

Lake  outburst  happens  almost  every  year,  some  years  –  twice  a  year.  Stream  from  the  lake  goes     through   englacial   channels.   In   its   turn,   openness   of   channels   depends   on   water   volume   in   the   lake   as   in   the   process   of   channel   opening   a   big   role   is   played   by   surfacing   of   lake’s   dam   under   pressure   of   lake   water.   If   it   exceeds   the   ul6mate   value,   channels   open   and   lake   water   is   discharged.   Surfacing   of   the   lake’s  dam  is  one  of  the  principal  possible  causes  of  Merzbacher  lake  outburst.     Merzbacher  lake  dam  a‡er  outburst  on  16.07.  2011  г.    and  its  gradual  watering  

A‡er water  discharge  depending  on   the  state  of  flow  channels,  the  lake   basin  is  filled  at  once  or  a‡er  some   6me.       Iden6fica6on  of  the  6me  of  filling   has  big  importance  for  making   forecast  of  outburst  date.  But  the   mechanism  of  plugging  of  subglacial   flow  channels  remains  understudied   so  far.    


Verhnee Lake  is  smaller  than  Merzbacher  lake  and  established  on  moraine  glacial  complexes.  In   the   middle   of   90-­‐s   XX   century   Verhnee   lake   almost   fully   disappeared.   One   of   the   reason   of   its   disappearance   was   a   quick   shi‡   of   floa6ng   part   of   the   Northern   Enilchek   glacier   tongue.   But   it   is   quite   possible   that   glacier   advance   was   related   with   dynamic   oscilla6ons   and   relaxa6on   self-­‐ oscilla6on.  Presently,  lake  forma6on  is  intensively  developing  again  towards  the  retrea6ng  glacier.      

Verhnee lake  before  1997  

Present view  


Degrada6on of  Petrov  glacier  tongue  and  increased  area  of  lake  a‡er   retreat  of  glacier  (Mountain  glacier  massif  of  Ak-­‐Shiyrak)   23  


High mountain  outburst  lakes   Classifica<on  of  modern  glacial  and  nival  lakes  in   Kyrgyzstan  

Glacial and nival lakes

Moraine and glacial lakes Lakes inside of moraine depressions

Thermo karst lakes

Glacial lakes

Glacier-dammed lakes

Supraglacial lakes

Englacial lakes

Subglacial lakes


Representa6ve glaciers  and  a  network  of  automa6c  weather  sta6ons  in  Kyrgyzstan    

Golubin glacier  

West Suek   glacier  

Abramov glacier  

Ak-­‐Shiyrak glacier  

Representa6ve glaciers  in  Kyrgyzstan   monitored  by  CAIAG  


Спасибо за внимание! Thank you!

BD Moldobekov: Monitoring glacier systems in Kyrgyzstan under climate change and related geo-risks  

Slides for presentation given to High Mountains Adaptation Partnership in Huaraz, Peru on 13 July 2013.

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