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Glacial Flooding & Disaster Risk Management Knowledge Exchange and Field Training July 11-24, 2013 in Huaraz, Peru

Establishing   a   Collaborative   Effort   to   Assess   the   Role   of   Glaciers  and  Seasonal  Snow  Cover  in  the  Hydrology  of  the   Mountains  of  High  Asia   R.  Armstrong,  M.  Williams,  A.  Barrett,  M.  J.  Brodzik,  F.  Fetterer,  Siri  Jodha  S.   Khalsa,  A.  Racoviteanu,  A.  Rasmussen,  B.  Raup,  A.  Wilson,  U.  Horodyskyj   Objectives   The  Contribution  to  High  Asia  Runoff  from  Ice  and  Snow  (CHARIS)  project  is   systematically  assessing  the  role  of  glacier  ice  melt  and  seasonal  snow  melt  in  the   freshwater  resources  of  High  Asia.  This  assessment  is  crucial  for  accurate   forecasting  of  availability  and  vulnerability  of  water  resources  in  this  region.  In   collaboration  with  Asian  partner  organizations,  we  are  deriving  critical  regional-­‐   scale  information  for  planning  downstream  irrigation,  hydropower  generation  and   general  consumption.  Realistic  forecasts  of  water  resources  in  these  regions  are  not   possible  until  we  better  understand  the  current  hydrologic  regime.   Methods   We  are  applying  a  suite  of  satellite  remote  sensing,  reanalysis  and  ground-­‐based   data  as  input  to  snow  and  ice  melt  models.  Gridded  maps  of  snow  and  glacier   area/elevation  are  input  to  a  temperature-­‐index  melt  model.  Runoff  from  snow-­‐   covered  grid  cells  is  the  product  of  cell  area  and  melt  depth  from  the  melt  model.   Glacier  melt  is  estimated  similarly,  once  snow  has  disappeared  from  glacierized  grid   cells.  The  melt  model  is  driven  by  daily  mean  temperature  from  reanalysis  data.   Analysis  and  Validation   We  are  comparing  seasonal  melt  volume  time  series  generated  from  temperature-­‐ index  models  with  measured  river  discharge  volumes  and  comparing  the  regional   scale  results  with  local  sub-­‐basin  studies  based  on  energy  balance  modeling   approaches.  We  are  also  evaluating  the  accuracy  of  the  melt  model  results  using   innovative  isotopic  and  geochemical  tracers  to  identify  and  quantify  the  sources  of   water  (ice  melt,  snow  melt,  rainfall  and  ground  water)  flowing  into  selected  rivers   representing  the  major  hydro-­‐climates  of  the  study  area.  With  our  Asian  partners,   we  are  assessing  the  performance  of  the  various  melt  models.  Results  of  this  study   can  be  applied  to  future  efforts  to  evaluate  the  socio-­‐economic  impacts  of  water   uses  and  their  vulnerability  to  changes  in  flow  magnitude  and  timing.   CHARIS  People  &  Partners   Project  personnel  are  located  principally  at  the  University  of  Colorado:   - Richard  Armstrong,  Principal  Investigator,  Senior  Research  Scientist  and  Fellow   of   CIRES.    Leads  the  project  with  a  perspective  gained  from  more  than  30  years  in   snow  and  ice  research,  including  extensive  glacier  mass  balance  studies.  

- Mark  Williams,  Professor  of  Geography  and  Fellow  of  INSTAAR.   As  Co-­‐   Investigator,  Mark  oversees  field  collection  and  laboratory  analyses  of  water   samples  for  isotopic  and  geochemical  content,  and  conducts  hydrologic  mixing   models  using  these  data  sources.  Mark  has  extensive  fieldwork  experience  in   High  Asia.   - Andrew  Barrett,  Associate  Scientist.  Focuses  on  snow  cover  mapping  and   assessing  reanalysis  temperature  and  precipitation  data.  Andy,  too,  has  High   Asia  field  work  experience.   - Mary  Jo  Brodzik,  Senior  Associate  Scientist/Statistician.    Provides  research   programming  support  in  the  areas  of  satellite  data  processing,  glacier  mapping,   DEM  generation  and  statistical  methods  for  time-­‐series  trend  analysis.   - Florence  Fetterer,  Project  Manager.  Coordinates  project  activities  including   implementing  project  partner  agreements  and  arranging  workshops.   - Siri  Jodha  Singh  Khalsa,  Research  Scientist.  Remote  sensing  scientist  and  GIS   expert.  Oversees  DEM  generation  and  evaluation,  and  assembles  the  MODIS  snow   cover  product  for  use  in  the  snowmelt  runoff  models  and  trend  analysis.   - Adina  Racoviteanu,  Project  consultant.  Expertise  in  remote  sensing  and  GIS  for   glacier  change  detection  and  mass  balance  monitoring,  with  an  emphasis  on   mapping  debris  covered  glaciers.  Adina  has  extensive  High  Asia  field  work   experience.   - Al  Rasmussen,  Project  consultant.  Expertise  in  glacier  mass  balance  and   hydrologic  modeling.  University  of  Washington.   - Bruce  Raup,  Senior  Associate  Scientist.  Oversees  the  evaluation  and  use  of   existing   and  new  outlines  for  derivation  of  glacier  hypsometries,  and  ensures  that  new   glacier  outlines  are  inserted  into  the  NSIDC  GLIMS  Glacier  Database.  Bruce  has   glacier  field  work  experience.   - Alana   Wilson,   Graduate   student.   Collects   and   analyzes   water   samples;   helps   establish   sampling   protocols   with   South   and   Central  Asian   partners.   Alana   has   fieldwork  experience  in  High  Asia.   - Ulyana  Horodyskyj,  Graduate  student.  Fieldwork  to  obtain  spectrometer  and  other   measurements  with  which  to  validate  satellite-­‐derived  albedo  estimates  and  snow-­‐ cover  maps.  Ulyana  has  fieldwork  experience  in  High  Asia.    

Improving  our  understanding  of  water  resources  in  High  Asia  is  a  trans-­‐national   activity,  so  we  are  working  directly  with  researchers  at  institutions  in  nine  different   nations  where  ice  and  snow  resources  are  located  (Bhutan,  Nepal,  India,  Pakistan,   Afghanistan,  Kazakhstan,  Uzbekistan,  Kyrgyzstan,  Tajikistan).  These  countries   contain  the  headwaters  of  the  Brahmaputra,  Ganges,  Indus,  Syr  Darya  and  Amu   Darya  rivers.  We  collaborate  with  Asian  research  institutions  to  develop  a   consensus  regarding  the  research  methodologies  and  data  gathering  required  to   achieve  project  goals.  This  collaboration  includes  joint  research  activities,  such  as   cooperative  field  studies  and  model  development,  as  well  as  capacity  building  

(technical  training,  graduate  student  support,  workshops)  that  will  enhance  the   scientific  understanding  of  the  regional  hydrology  among  our  Asian  partners.    


The  current  list  of  partner  institutions  (as  of  13  June  2013)  is:   • Kathmandu  University,  Nepal   • Jawaharlal  Nehru  University,  India   • Sharda  University,  India   • Pakistan  Water  and  Power  Development  Authority  (WAPDA)   • Karakorum  International  University,  Gilgit,  Pakistan   • Kabul  University,  Afghanistan   • Institute  of  Water  Problems  and  Hydropower,  Bishkek,  Kyrgyzstan   • Institute  of  Water  problems,  Hydropower  and  Ecology,  Dushanbe,   Tajikistan   • Institute  of  Geography,  Almaty,  Kazakhstan   • Royal  University  of  Bhutan   Summary   CHARIS  is  leading  a  trans-­‐national  effort  to  improve  our  understanding  of  regional   water  resources  in  High  Asia.  While  transferring  knowledge  and  skills  to  Project   Partners  we  also  engage  in  joint  research  activities,  such  as  cooperative  field   studies  and  model  development.  We  will  freely  share  the  data,  tools  and  techniques   that  are  developed  by  CHARIS.  

Siri Jodha Khalsa: Collaborative effort to assess role glaciers & seasonal snow hydrology High Asia