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INTRODUCTION This series of books are for the student who desires to become a creative musician through the study of improvisation. Each book deals with a specific scale, or a specific chord progression. Scale application is at the heart of improvisation. There are countless guitar players who only know one scale, the minor pentatonic. Every solo they play has the same sound. This of course will result when only one scale is used to the total exclusion of all others. Each scale creates its own unique tonality or colour. Application of all scales is vital to the art of improvisation, and it is that which defines a creative musician.

This series of books teaches you several fingerings of each scale, and how to link them, so that when soloing you're able to move seamlessly from one position to the next. The most important and least understood aspect covered by these books is the application of the scales. This entails knowing over which chords the scales can be used.

This particular text deals with the diminished and wholetone scales. Along with exercises to develop the scales, there are licks which you can insert into your own solos. There's an in depth discussion of the scales application over chord progessions, and how to use the scales over the major key turnaround. Audio files along with backing tracks for you to play along to are included. Tab is supplied along with music notation.

TUNING NOTES To be sure that you're in tune with the backing tracks, tune your guitar to the guitar tuning on track one.

This text was written by Joe Willis, a professional session guitarist of many years experience at the cutting edge of the music business. He has played and worked with many of the biggest names in the world of music including, Tom Jones, Ray Charles, Cilla Black, Lulu, Dusty Springfield, Rick Wakeman, Englebert Humperdink, The Everly Bros, Irene Cara, and jazz icons, Kurt Edelhagen, Jan Luc Ponty, Attila Zoller, Dave Brubeck, Stan Getz, Art Farmer, Michel Colombier to name just a few.

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Also in this series Soloing With The Major And Natural Minor Scales Soloing With The Pentatonic Scale Soloing With The Harmonic Minor Scale Soloing With The Melodic Minor Scale Soloing With The Diminished And Whole Tone Scales Soloing With Arpeggios Soloing Over The Major And Minor II - V - I The Blues From Basic To Advanced Modern Chord Progression And Rhythm Changes

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CONTENTS Page

Audio Track

Introduction And Tuning Notes...................................................................2..................1 Chapter Construction.......................................................................................................6 1 Example 1.1.......................................................................................................6 Example 1.2.......................................................................................................7

The Whole Step Diminished Scale..............................................................8 Example 1.3.......................................................................................................8 Examples 1.4 1.5..............................................................................................9 Example 1.6.......................................................................................................10 Chapter 2

Example 2.1.......................................................................................................10 .................2 Example 2.2.......................................................................................................12.................2 Example 2.3.......................................................................................................13.................2 Example 2.4........................................................................................................13.................3 Examples 2.5 2.6...............................................................................................14.................3 Example 2.7........................................................................................................15.................3 Example 2.8........................................................................................................15.................4 Example 2.9.......................................................................................................17.................4 Example 2.10.....................................................................................................18.................4 Example 2.11......................................................................................................19.................5 Example 2.12.....................................................................................................20.................5 Example 2.13.....................................................................................................22.................5 Example 2.14.....................................................................................................23.................6 Examples 2.15 2.16...........................................................................................24.................6 Example 2.17.....................................................................................................25.................6

Chapter Harmonized Whole Step Scale ....................................................................26 3 Examples 3.1 3.2...............................................................................................26.................7 Example 3.3.......................................................................................................27.................7 Example 3.4.......................................................................................................28.................7 Whole Step Diminished Licks......................................................................28 Example 3.5.......................................................................................................28.................8 Examples 3.6 through 3.9..................................................................................29.................8 Examples 3.10 through 3.13..............................................................................30.................8 Example 3.14.....................................................................................................31.................8 Chapter The Half Step Diminished Scale..................................................................31 4 Example 4.1.......................................................................................................31

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Audio Track

Harmonized Half Step Scale.........................................................................31 Examples 4.2 4.3..............................................................................................32 Half Step Diminished Licks..........................................................................32 Example 4.4.......................................................................................................33.................9 Turnarounds With Passing Diminished...................................................35 Example 4.5.......................................................................................................36.................10 Example 4.6.......................................................................................................39.................11 Chapter The Whole-tone Scale.....................................................................................42 5 Examples 5.1 5.2...............................................................................................42 Harmonized Whole-tone Scale.....................................................................43 Examples 5.3 through 5.6...................................................................................43 Examples 5.7 5.8...............................................................................................44.................12 Example 5.9........................................................................................................45.................12 Example 5.10.....................................................................................................46.................13 Example 5.11.....................................................................................................47.................13 Examples 5.12....................................................................................................48.................14 Examples 5.13 5.14...........................................................................................49.................14 Whole-tone Licks..............................................................................................50 Example 5.15.....................................................................................................50.................15 Coda .....................................................................................................................54

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CHAPTER ONE

CONSTRUCTION

Two scales commonly used in jazz improvisation and composition are diminished and whole tone scales. The diminished scale can be used over altered dominant seventh chords and diminished chords. The whole tone scale is used primarily over augmented chords. However, it can be used over dominant flat five and dominant sharp five chords. Let us begin with the diminished scale. The diminished scale has two forms. One alternates whole steps and half steps, the other, half steps and whole steps. Ex1.1 shows both forms built from C. Ex1.1a starts with a whole step, Ex1.1b starts with a half step. Ex1.1

C whole step diminished

a)

C half step diminished b)

On examination of the scale you'll see that it's constructed from two diminished 7th arpeggios. C whole step diminished has a Cdim7 arpeggio on degrees 1, 3, 5, 7, and Ddim7 on degrees 2, 4, 6, 8. C half step diminished has Cdim7 arpeggio on degrees 1, 3, 5, 7, and D bdim on degrees 2, 4, 6, 8. The scale is an eight-note scale, unlike the major and the three minor scales which have seven notes. The scale is symmetrical, meaning, its intervalic definition is regular, i.e. alternating whole steps and half steps or vice versa. By contrast, the major and minor scales have asymmetrical intervalic definition. Whenever a scale is asymmetrical there are twelve of them, as in twelve major scales and twelve of each minor. When a scale is symmetrical, there are less than twelve. For example, the chromatic scale is a symmetrical scale constructed from half steps. Every chromatic scale, regardless of its starting note, contains the same notes, this means there is only one chromatic scale, with twelve possible start points. Since the scale is symmetrical, there are also less than twelve of them. The intervalic definition of the scale is such that everything repeats at the interval of a minor third. Try this, play C whole step diminished scale, now move the scale up a minor third and play E b whole step diminished, with the same fingering.

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Construction cont'd

Chapter One

E b diminished has the same notes as C diminished. Move the scale up another minor third to G b diminished, this scale also has the same notes. Move the scale up another minor third to A diminished, once again, the same notes. When analysing Ex1.2 it is evident that C, E b, G b and A diminished scales are all the same scale starting on different degrees. Ex1.2

C whole step diminished

a)

E b whole step diminished b) G b whole step diminished c)

A whole step diminished

d) Given that C, E b, G b and A whole step diminished scales are the same, means that C # , E, G and B b diminished scales are the same, as they are also a minor third apart. D, F, A b and B scales are the same, since they also are a minor third apart. The same applies to the half step scale. Since C, E b, G b and A half step diminished scales are a minor third apart, they also have the same notes. This means that C #, E, G and B b half step scales are the same, and D, F, A b and B half step scales are the same. Each half step scale contains the same notes as the whole step scale a half step above, i.e. B half step scale contains the same notes as C whole step scale. So, in reality, there are only three diminished scales. 1) The scale that can begin with C, E b, G b or A. 2) The scale that can begin with C #, E, G or B b. 3) The scale that can begin with D, F, A b or B. This can be a little confusing at first but, after having played through the exercises and example licks you will have a clear understanding of the scale and its application. The main principle to grasp is, everything repeats at the interval of a minor third. 7


THE WHOLE STEP DIMINISHED

Chapter One

Since there are two forms of the scale, they must be covered separately so that you gain an understanding of each, and their application. We'll begin with the whole step form. First of all let's learn some fingerings. Ex 1.3

This scale, when played from its first note is G diminished. Played from its third note B b diminished. Played from its fifth note D b diminished and from its seventh note E diminished. Move the above scale up a half step results in G#, B, D, and F diminished. Moving the scale up another half step results in A,C, E b and G b diminished. Move up one more half step and we have the same scale/s as in Ex1.3 a minor third higher. Which of the four names you attach to the scale is determined by the chord/s over which it is played. The scale is named in relation to the root of the chord. The name of the scale played over Gdim7 will indeed be G diminished, the same scale played over B bdim7 will be B b diminished etc. Any fingering of the scale can be repeated a minor third higher. Try this, play Ex1.3, now play the same fingering starting on B b in the sixth position, and again starting on D b at the ninth position, and once again starting on E at the twelfth position. You have just played the same scale in four positions, each one a minor third apart. Or alternatively, you could consider each position as a different diminished scale. On the following page you have a three octave version of the scale. In contrast to the vertical fingering of Ex1.3, this fingering moves horizontally up and down the fingerboard and is very useful in terms of linking the vertical fingerings.

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Whole step scale cont'd

Chapter One

Ex1.4

The following example shows two vertical forms linked together. Ex1.5

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Whole step scale cont'd

Chapter One

Here's another vertical example, this time starting on the fifth string. Ex1.6

CHAPTER TWO Okay, now that you have some scale fingerings, let's begin work on the scale with some exercises played on A diminished, using the fingering from Ex1.3. track 2

Ex2.1

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SOLOING With The Diminished & Wholetone Scales