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INTRODUCTION This text deals with one of the most essential, yet least understood, subjects of music: modern chord progression. The text delivers an in depth explanation of the principles which control modern harmonic progression. On completion of this study, the student will possess the knowledge and understanding required for the creation of chord progressions in Jazz, Blues, Rock, Classical Pop etc . The following subjects are discussed in great detail in a relaxed easy to understand approach.

Intervals

Melodic minor scale

Chord structure

Diminished chord function

Modes

Song form

Diatonic harmony: triads and seventh chords

The turnaround

Diatonic chord extensions

Modal interchange

Diatonic chord progression (major key)

Modulation

Harmonic resolution: cadence

Modal chord progression

The major key II - V - I progression

The basic blues progression

Minor key harmony: natural minor scale

The jazz blues progression

The minor key II - V - I progression

Jazz rhythm: comping

Relative minor to major

The minor key blues

Harmonic minor scale

Different blues forms

Secondary dominant seventh chords

Half step connections in the blues

Chord substitution

Chord patterns in the blues

Chord function

Rhythm changes

TUNING NOTES To be sure that you're in tune with the backing tracks, tune your guitar to the guitar tuning on track one.

This text was written by Joe Willis, a professional session guitarist of many years experience at the cutting edge of the music business. He has played and worked with many of the biggest names in the world of music including, Tom Jones, Ray Charles, Cilla Black, Lulu, Dusty Springfield, Rick Wakeman, Englebert Humperdink, The Everly Bros, Irene Cara, and jazz icons, Kurt Edelhagen, Jean Luc Ponty, Attila Zoller, Dave Brubeck, Stan Getz, Art Farmer, Michel Colombier to name just a few. 2


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Introduction And Tuning Notes...................................................................2..................1 Chapter Intervals................................................................................................................10 1 Examples 1.1 1.2..............................................................................................10 Examples 1.3 through 1.5.................................................................................11 Examples 1.6 through 1.7.................................................................................12 Examples 1.8 through 1.9.................................................................................13 Chord Structure................................................................................................13 Examples 1.10 1.11..........................................................................................14 Chord Formulas.................................................................................................14 Major group........................................................................................................14 Minor group........................................................................................................15 Dominant group..................................................................................................16 Symmetrical chords............................................................................................18 Compound intervals...........................................................................................18 Example 1.12......................................................................................................18 Major Scale Modes...........................................................................................18 Example 1.13 modes of C major........................................................................19 Diatonic Harmony.............................................................................................20 Diatonic triads....................................................................................................20 Example 1.14......................................................................................................20 Diatonic seventh chords.....................................................................................20 Example 1.15.....................................................................................................20 Example 1.16......................................................................................................21 Diatonic Chord Extensions............................................................................21 Example 1.17......................................................................................................21 Practising modes................................................................................................22 Chapter Diatonic Chord Progression..........................................................................23 2 Examples 2.1 through 2.3...................................................................................23 Harmonic Resolution......................................................................................24 Sub-dominant cadence.......................................................................................24 Examples 2.4 2.5..............................................................................................24 Dominant cadence..............................................................................................24 Examples 2.6 through 2.8..................................................................................25 V7 - I................................................................................................................25 Example 2.9.......................................................................................................26 IIm7 - V7..........................................................................................................26 Examples 2.10 through 2.12..............................................................................26 IIm7 - V7 - I.....................................................................................................27

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Examples 2.13 2.14..........................................................................................27 Example 2.15.....................................................................................................28 Example 2.16 major key diatonic chord function all keys................................29 Improvising With The Major Scale...........................................................30 Chapter The Natural Minor Scale...............................................................................31 3 Example 3.1.......................................................................................................31 Example 3.2 diatonic triads...............................................................................31 Example 3.3 diatonic seventh chords................................................................31 Example 3.4.......................................................................................................32 Relative Minor To Major...............................................................................32 Examples 3.5 3.6..............................................................................................32 Examples 3.7 3.8..............................................................................................33 Parallel Scales....................................................................................................34 Examples 3.9 3.10............................................................................................34 The Harmonic Minor Scale...........................................................................34 Example 3.11.....................................................................................................34 Examples 3.12 3.13...........................................................................................35 Secondary Dominant Seventh Chords.......................................................35 Examples 3.14 through 3.16..............................................................................36 Example 3.17.....................................................................................................37 Soloing over secondary dominant chords..........................................................37 Example 3.18.....................................................................................................38................2 Secondary dominant sevenths in all keys..........................................................39 Chapter Minor Key Cadence.........................................................................................40 4 Example 4.1.......................................................................................................40 V7 - Im..............................................................................................................40 Example 4.2.......................................................................................................40 IIm7 b5 - V7 - Im................................................................................................40 Example 4.3.......................................................................................................41 Improvising over the minor II - V - I.................................................................41 V7 - V7...............................................................................................................42 Examples 4.4 through 4.7..................................................................................42................3 Examples 4.8 4.9..............................................................................................43................4 Any chord may follow the tonic chord...............................................................44 Example 4.10......................................................................................................44................5 Chord patterns....................................................................................................44 Examples 4.11 through 4.13...............................................................................44................6 Example 4.14......................................................................................................45................6 Chord Substitution...........................................................................................46 Example 4.15.....................................................................................................46 Substituting IMaj7..............................................................................................46 Examples 4.16 4.17...........................................................................................46

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Sub-dominant minor cadence.............................................................................48 Example 4.18......................................................................................................48 Substituting IVm.................................................................................................48 Examples 4.19 through 4.21...............................................................................48 Substituting V7...................................................................................................49 Examples 4.22 through 4.24...............................................................................49 Substitute dominant definition..........................................................................49 Examples 4.25 4.26...........................................................................................50 Examples 4.27 4.28..........................................................................................51 Example 4.29......................................................................................................52 Examples 4.30 4.31...........................................................................................53 Example 4.32.....................................................................................................54 Chapter Functional Concepts .......................................................................................55 5 Primary dominant function................................................................................55 Examples 5.1 through 5.3..................................................................................55 Secondary dominant function............................................................................55 Example 5.4.......................................................................................................55 Scales for secondary dominants.........................................................................56................7 Extended dominant function..............................................................................56 Example 5.5.......................................................................................................56 Example 5.6.......................................................................................................57................8 Substitute dominant function............................................................................57 Examples 5.7 5.8..............................................................................................57................9 Examples 5.9 5.10............................................................................................58................10 The Melodic Minor Scale ..............................................................................58 Example 5.11.....................................................................................................58 Minor seventh function......................................................................................59 Examples 5.12 through 5.14..............................................................................59................11 Examples 5.15 through 5.17..............................................................................60.................12 Examples 5.18 5.19...........................................................................................61................13 Extended Secondary Dominants.................................................................62 Example 5.20.....................................................................................................62 Substituting V7 b9...............................................................................................63 Examples 5.21 5.22...........................................................................................63 Passing diminished............................................................................................63 Example 5.23.....................................................................................................64 Chord patterns cont'd.........................................................................................64 Deceptive cadence.............................................................................................65 Example 5.24.....................................................................................................65 Example 5.25.....................................................................................................66 Chapter Song Form...........................................................................................................66 6 The Turnaround................................................................................................66 Diatomic turnaround..........................................................................................66 Example 6.1.......................................................................................................66 Turnarounds with secondary dominants............................................................67 5


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Examples 6.2 through 6.5..................................................................................68 Turnaround with substitute dominants...............................................................68 Example 6.6.......................................................................................................68 Turnarounds with passing diminished...............................................................68 Examples 6.7 6.8...............................................................................................68 Minor key turnarounds......................................................................................69 Examples 6.9 6.10.............................................................................................69 Practising turnarounds.......................................................................................69 Modal Interchange...........................................................................................69 Example 6.11......................................................................................................69 Example 6.12.....................................................................................................70 Example 6.13.....................................................................................................71 Modal interchange application...........................................................................72 Examples 6.14 through 6.16..............................................................................72 Examples 6.17 through 6.19..............................................................................73 Examples 6.20 6.21...........................................................................................74 Example 6.15a...................................................................................................75................14 Example 6.17a...................................................................................................75................15 Example 6.20a...................................................................................................77................16 Example 6.21a...................................................................................................78................17 Chapter Modulation..........................................................................................................79 7 Examples 7.1 7.2..............................................................................................79 Example 7.3........................................................................................................80 Types of modulation...........................................................................................80 Direct modulation (major key to major key).....................................................81 Examples 7.4 7.5...............................................................................................81 Examples 7.6 through 7.8..................................................................................82 Example 7.9.......................................................................................................83 Pivot chord modulation (major key to major key)............................................83 Examples 7.10 7.11...........................................................................................83 Example 7.12.....................................................................................................84 Transitional modulation (major key to major key)............................................84 Example 7.13.....................................................................................................84 Direct modulation (major key to minor key).....................................................85 Example 7.14.....................................................................................................85 Pivot chord modulation (major key to minor key)............................................85 Example 7.15.....................................................................................................85 Direct modulation (minor key to major key).....................................................85 Example 7.16.....................................................................................................85 Pivot chord modulation (minor key to major key)............................................85 Example 7.17.....................................................................................................86 Direct modulation (minor key to minor key)....................................................86 Example 7.18.....................................................................................................86 Pivot chord modulation (minor key to minor key)............................................86 Example 7.19.....................................................................................................87 Common modulations........................................................................................87

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Modal Chord Progression..............................................................................88 C ionian modal progression...............................................................................88 Example 7.20.....................................................................................................88.................18 C dorian modal progression...............................................................................89 Ex7.21................................................................................................................89................19 C phrygian modal progression...........................................................................89 Ex7.22................................................................................................................89................20 C lydian modal progression...............................................................................89 Ex7.23................................................................................................................89................21 C mixolydian modal progression.......................................................................89 Ex7.24................................................................................................................89................22 C aeolian modal progression.............................................................................90 Ex7.25................................................................................................................90................23 C locrian modal progression..............................................................................90 Ex7.26................................................................................................................90................24 Chapter 8 The Blues.............................................................................................................91 Example 8.1.......................................................................................................91 Minor pentatonic over the blues........................................................................91 Example 8.2......................................................................................................91 Major scale over the blues.................................................................................92 Example 8.3......................................................................................................92 The Jazz Blues Progression..........................................................................93 Example 8.4.......................................................................................................93 Examples 8.5 through 8.7..................................................................................94 Examples 8.8 8.9...............................................................................................95................25 Example 8.10.....................................................................................................96................26 The Cycle Blues.................................................................................................97 Example 8.11......................................................................................................97................27 Example 8.12 ....................................................................................................98 Jazz Ryhthm.......................................................................................................98 Ex8.13................................................................................................................98 The jazz comp...................................................................................................99 Examples 8.14 8.15...........................................................................................99................28 Chapter Jazz Blues Variations ......................................................................................100 9 Major key variations..........................................................................................100 Examples 9.1 through 9.3..................................................................................100 Examples 9.4 through 9.6..................................................................................101 Examples 9.7 9.8 ..............................................................................................102 The Minor Blues................................................................................................102 Example 9.9.......................................................................................................102................29

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Minor key variations.........................................................................................103 Examples 9.10 9.11.........................................................................................103 Different Blues Forms ...................................................................................104 Examples 9.12 9.13.........................................................................................104 Examples 9.14 9.15..........................................................................................105 Example 9.16....................................................................................................106 Half Step Connection.....................................................................................106 Example 9.17....................................................................................................106 Example 9.18....................................................................................................107................30 Examples 9.19 9.20.........................................................................................108................31 Chord Patterns Revisited.............................................................................110 Examples 9.21a through 9.21f..........................................................................110 Example 9.22....................................................................................................111................32 Chapter Rhythm Changes.............................................................................................112 10 Example 10.1....................................................................................................112 Examples 10.2 10.3.........................................................................................113 Example 10.4....................................................................................................114 'A' section variations........................................................................................115 Examples 10.5 10.6.........................................................................................115 Example 10.7....................................................................................................116 The bridge.........................................................................................................116 Examples 10.8 through 10.10...........................................................................116 Example 10.11...................................................................................................117 Soloing over the A section ...............................................................................117 Example 10.12..................................................................................................117................33 Examples 10.13 10.14.....................................................................................118................34 Examples 10.15 10.16......................................................................................119................35 Example 10.17..................................................................................................120................36 Chapter Slash Chords......................................................................................................121 11 Examples 11.1 11.2..........................................................................................121................37 Examples 11.3 through 11.6.............................................................................122 Examples 11.7 through 11.10...........................................................................123 Examples 11.11 through 11.14..........................................................................124 Examples 11.15 through 11.17.........................................................................125 Example 11.18..................................................................................................126................38 Pedal Point.........................................................................................................126 Example 11.19...................................................................................................126................39 Progressions utilising pedal point.....................................................................126 Example 11.20a through 11.20e.......................................................................127................40 Progressions with descending bass lines..........................................................127 Example 11.21a through 11.21c.......................................................................128................41

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Page Slash chord fingerings......................................................................................129 Slash chord fingerings......................................................................................130 Coda.....................................................................................................................131

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Also in this series Soloing With The Major And Natural Minor Scales Soloing With The Pentatonic Scale Soloing With The Harmonic Minor Scale Soloing With The Melodic Minor Scale Soloing With The Diminished And Whole Tone Scales Soloing With Arpeggios Soloing Over The Major And Minor II - V - I The Blues From Basic To Advanced Modern Chord Progression And Rhythm Changes

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CHAPTER ONE

INTERVALS

Before commencing any study of chord progression, it's essential that you have a thorough understanding of the rudiments of music, i.e. music notation and key signatures. Also essential is a clear understanding of intervals. This is where we'll begin. An interval is the distance in pitch between two notes. The smallest movement of pitch in western music is a semitone. On the piano a semitone move is from any note to the nearest note ascending or descending. Moving by two semitones is a whole tone. Musical scales are constructed by mixing tones and semitones. The arrangement of the scale intervals is referred to as the intervalic definition of the scale. All scales have their own unique intervalic definition. Here's the intervalic definition of the major scale.

TONE

TONE

SEMITONE

TONE

TONE

TONE

SEMITONE

The intervalic definition of the scale remains the same in all keys. The key in which the scale is based is determined by its first note (the tonic). Let us construct the major scale on the tonic C. From C count up a tone to the second note D. From D count up a tone to the third note E. From E count up a semitone to the fourth note F. From F count up a tone to the fifth note G. From G count up a tone to the sixth note A. From A count up a tone to the seventh note B. From B count up a semitone to the octave C. C major scale Ex1.1

Here's G major scale constructed with the same intervalic definition. G major scale Ex1.2

The major scale consists of seven different notes, one on each successive line and space of the stave and each has a different letter name. The eighth note (octave) is added since it gives a feeling of resolution and completion when the scale is played. Just to be sure that the foregoing is perfectly clear, here's the scale constructed in the key of A b. 10


Ab major scale

Intervals cont'd Ex1.3

Chapter One

Scale notes are referred to as scale degrees. Note, the fourth degree of this scale must be D b rather than C # since the third degree has the letter name C. The definition of the major scale stipulates that each degree of the scale must fall on the next successive line or space and receive the next successive letter name. Intervals are analysed against the major scale. The scale degrees are numbered I through VII with the Roman numeral system. Ex1.4

The name of an interval is found by counting the note names included by the two notes. For example, from E to G is a third, because there are three note names included: E F G. From D to B is a sixth because there are six note names: D E F G A B. Ex1.5

Since there are different types of intervals, they are - for the purpose of identification - given specific names. MAJOR

INTERVAL

MINOR

INTERVAL

PERFECT

INTERVAL

AUGMENTED

INTERVAL

DIMINISHED

INTERVAL

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Intervals cont'd

Chapter One

The specific type of interval (be it major, minor etc.) can be found by referring the interval to a major scale constructed upon the lower note of the interval. The lower note of the interval is the tonic of that major scale, and the upper note is calculated from the tonic. If the upper note is contained within that major scale it is a major interval, except in the case of unisons, fourths, fifths and octaves, these are perfect intervals. In Ex1.6 the lower note of each interval is C, meaning that each interval is analysed against C major scale. The interval C to D is a major second because D is the second note of C major. The interval C to G is a perfect fifth because G is the fifth note of C major. Ex1.6

When the upper note of an interval is contained within the scale based on the lower note, it will always be either major or perfect, as above. If the upper note of an interval is not contained within the major scale, one of the following interval names will apply. 1) An interval a semitone smaller than a major interval is a minor interval. 2) An interval a semitone smaller than a minor or perfect interval is a diminished interval. 3) An interval a semitone larger than a major or perfect interval is an augmented interval. Ex1.7

Since C is the lower note of each interval in the following chart, C major scale is then the reference scale.

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Intervals cont'd

Chapter One

Ex1.8

In music theory to invert means to change the point of reference. Any interval, chord or scale can be inverted. As stated, when naming an interval the point of reference is the lower of the two notes. Ex1.9 shows a major third interval from F up to A. Since F is the lower note of the interval it is the point of reference. To invert the interval simply raise the lower note F by an octave. 'A' becomes the lower note and therefore the new point of reference. After inversion the interval is a minor sixth from A up to F. Ex1.9

CHORD STRUCTURE The most commonly used chords in all types of music are constructed from intervals of thirds. Chords of three notes are triads. Chords of four notes are seventh chords. Every type of chord has its own formula, meaning every chord has its own unique intervalic definition which is drawn from the major scale based on the root of the chord. For example, when constructing any type of chord with a G root, its formula is taken from G major scale. When constructing any type of D rooted chord, its formula is taken from D major scale etc. The root is the note after which the chord is named, i.e. G is the root of G7, F is the root of F6. 13


Chord structure cont'd

Chapter One

The formula for all major triads is 1 3 5. To construct C major triad take from the following C major scale the first, third and fifth degrees: CEG. C is the root, E is a major third above the root and G is a minor third above the third. Ex1.10

tonic

octave

Cmaj7 is a seventh chord also constructed from thirds. The formula for all major seventh chords is 1 3 5 7. Take CEGB from the above C major scale and you have Cmaj7. As previously stated, chords can be inverted. When the root of a chord is the lowest note in the chord structure, the chord is in root position. When inverting the chord, the lowest note (root) is raised an octave, the third is now the lowest note, the chord is now in its first inversion. Raise the third an octave and the fifth is the lowest note, the chord is in its second inversion. Raise the fifth and the seventh is the lowest note, the chord is in its third inversion. Ex1.11 shows Cmaj7 in root position and its three inversions. Ex1.11

The most commonly used triads, seventh chords and extended seventh chords follow. Each chord belongs to one of three main groups: major, minor or dominant seventh. Since all chords are constructed on a C root, all formulae is drawn from C major scale.

CHORD FORMULAS MAJOR GROUP

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Chord structure cont'd CHORD

MAJOR GROUP CONT'D FORMULA

STRUCTURE

15

Chapter One SYMBOL


Chord structure cont'd

Chapter One MINOR GROUP CONT'D

CHORD

FORMULA

STRUCTURE

16

SYMBOL


Chord structure cont'd

Chapter One DOMINANT GROUP CONT'D

CHORD

FORMULA

STRUCTURE

17

SYMBOL


Chord structure cont'd CHORD

SYMMETRICAL CHORDS FORMULA

STRUCTURE

Chapter One SYMBOL

COMPOUND INTERVALS Intervals within the compass of one octave are referred to as simple intervals. Intervals greater than an octave are compound intervals. On examination of the following scale, note that scale degrees within an octave are numbered 1 through 7, see the upper numbering. Scale degrees above the seventh are numbered 8 through 15, see the lower numbering. Note, 9, 11 and 13 are the same notes as 2, 4 and 6 respectively. Ex1.12

It should be understood that degrees 2, 4 and 6 of the major scale (and each of its modes) become 9, 11 and 13 respectively when they occur an octave higher, as in Ex1.12. Since the interval from the tonic to either 9, 11 or 13 is greater than an octave, defines 9, 11 and 13 as compound intervals. In certain modes, simple intervals 2 and 4 are flat or sharp, therefore, so are their compound intervals. For example, the compound interval of b2 is b9, the compound interval of #4 is #11. MAJOR SCALE MODES Scales are inverted by applying the same process used to invert chords. Inverting a scale creates a different start point. Since there are seven notes in the major scale, there are seven start points available. The scale is in tonic position when played from its tonic to an octave higher. It is in first inversion when starting on its second note, second inversion when starting on its third note, and so on. Each inversion is referred to as a mode. Modes are relative to their parent scale in so far as they contain the same notes in the same order but, each has a different start point. Each has its own unique intervalic definition based on its start point. For the purpose of identification, each mode has its own name of Greek origin. Following, are the seven modes of the major scale in the key of C.

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Major scale modes cont'd

MODES OF C MAJOR

Ex1.13

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Chapter One


DIATONIC HARMONY

Chapter One

Diatonic means belonging to the scale. Only the seven notes found in a major or minor scale are diatonic to that specific scale. Any note that is not contained in that scale is non-diatonic. Diatonic chords are constructed on each degree of a scale by stacking scale notes which are a third apart. Every type of scale and mode will produce its own fixed set of diatonic chords, which, are numbered according to the scale degree on which they occur, i.e. the chord constructed on degree one is the one chord. The chord constructed degree five is the five chord etc. DIATONIC TRIADS As previously stated, triads are chord consisting of three notes. Diatonic triads are constructed by placing a third and fifth onto the top of each scale degree /root. The third and fifth are calculated from the root of the chord being constructed. When constructing the one chord count up the scale from and including C to E for the third. Count up the scale from C to G for the fifth. Place the third and fifth onto the top of the root C. You now have a C major triad. When constructing the five chord count up the scale from G to B for the third, from G to D for the fifth. Place the third and fifth onto the top of the root G. You now have a G major triad. Diatonic triads of C major

Ex1.14

Note, the I, IV and V chords are major, while II, III and VI are minor . The VII chord is diminished. This positioning of the chords is the same in all major scales. The difference between major and minor chords is the third. In major the interval from root to third is a major third. In minor from root to third is a smaller interval of a minor third. Both chords have a perfect fifth. The diminished chord has a minor third and a diminished fifth. DIATONIC SEVENTH CHORDS To construct the seventh chords, simply place the seventh onto the top of each triad. To find the seventh, count up the scale from the root of the chord being constructed to its seventh degree. Each chord symbol now includes the figure seven. Note, the VII chord is no longer diminished, the addition of the seventh creates a minor seventh flat five chord. Bdiminished seventh requires an A b for its seventh, which is non-diatonic. Diatonic seventh chords of C major Ex1.15

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Diatonic harmony cont'd

Chapter One

The chord construction process applied to the major scale will apply when constructing diatonic chords of any other type of scale. To be sure the foregoing is perfectly clear, here's the diatonic seventh chords in G major. Since the key signature is placed at the beginning of the stave, it is unnecessary to place sharp symbols before the note F in the chord structures. The key signature indicates which notes are sharp or flat. Ex1.16

Compare the diatonic chords in the key of C major with the chords of G major above. You'll note that two chords are diatonic to both keys: Cmaj7 and Am7. This is a common occurrence. Here's another example, since there are three minor seventh chords in the major key, any one minor seventh is diatonic to three keys, i.e. Dm7 functions as IIm7 in the key of C, IIIm7 in B b and VIm7 in F. DIATONIC CHORD EXTENSIONS You will have seen in the preceding chord formulas that several formulae feature 9 or 11 or 13. These are diatonic extension of the chord. This is how it works. To build a diatonic seventh chord, say G7, extract the four note formula 1 3 5 b7 (G B D F) from the major scale to which G7 is diatonic, which is C major. After extraction there are three scale notes remaining, A C and E. These are the diatonic extensions of G7. Extension A becomes the 9th of G7, the chord changes its name accordingly to G9. Extension C is the 11th of G7, again the chord changes its name accordingly to G11. Extension E is the 13 of G7, again the chord name changes accordingly to G13. In certain modes extensions are altered: b9 #9 #11 b13. Each mode is related to a diatonic chord. For example, C ionian mode is related to Cmaj7. The mode can be thought of as a melodic expression of its related chord complete with its diatonic extensions. In the following examples the chord notes are written as semibreves (whole notes). The remaining three notes of the mode are chord extensions 9, 11 and 13. The extensions being written an octave down from where they appear in the chord structure does not change their relationship to the chord. Ex1.17

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Diatonic extension cont'd

Chapter One

PRACTISING MODES Each mode should be looked upon as a separate scale related to a specific chord, so that when soloing you're able to relate the correct mode to each chord. It's obvious that one must be totally familiar with each mode if they're to be used successfully. Practise each mode as detailed below. Start with those that are used the most: Ionian, Dorian and Mixolydian. Since the modes are derived from the major scale, you don't have to learn a whole new set of mode fingerings. All seven modes are within each major scale form you use, simply play the major scale from each degree. If your not familiar with the major scale see my book "Soloing With The Major And Natural Minor Scales" from this series. 1) Practise each mode as follows. Take form one major scale and play it from its second degree, this is the dorian mode form one. Play it in all positions moving chromatically up the fingerboard and then descend chromatically. Repeat the process with each mode. 2) Play each mode over the cycle of fourths.

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Modern Chord Progression & Rhythm Changes  

This text deals with one of the most essential, yet least understood, subjects of music: modern chord progression. On completion of this stu...

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