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University of Puerto Rico at Humacao English Department Edpe 4006 – Practice Teaching Secondary Level

Teacher Work Sample Juan Ponce de León Bilingual School Humacao, PR Cooperating Teacher: Mrs. Sara Troche

Joany Morales Fiol March 24, 2014 7th Grade Conversational English Practice Supervisor: Dr. Aníbal Muñoz


Table of Contents

Contextual Factors

…………………………………………….......1

Learning Goals

………………………………………………...3

Assessment Plan

………………………………………………...4

Assessment Plan Table

………………………………………………...5

Design for Instruction

………………………………………………...7

Thematic Unit Overview

……………………………………………….10

Activities

……………………………………………….17

Instructional Decision Making

……………………………………………….18

Analysis of Students’ Learning

……………………………………………….20

Whole Class

……………………………………………….20

Subgroups

……………………………………………….21

Individuals

……………………………………………….23

Reflection and Self Evaluation

……………………………………………….23

Appendixes

……………………………………………….26


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Contextual Factors My practice teaching is being done in the Juan Ponce de León Bilingual School. It is an intermediate level school located in the center of the town of Humacao. This school is part of the Humacao Educational Region and Las Piedras School District. There are 362 students enrolled in the school, 22 teaching professionals and 14 non-teaching professionals. The school is located next to the Escuela Libre de Música of Humacao. This has been a big influence in the students’ interest in extracurricular activities. This is also seen as soon as anyone enters the school office of the Juan Ponce de León Bilingual School where the waiting area is full of the students’ instruments. Because this school is well known for its academic excellence, the community is very engage with the school. The school is also very engage with the community. They participate and organize many activities to help the community such as raising funds for cancer patients, helping to find adoptive families for abandoned animals, and many more. I am teaching a Conversational English class to a 7th grade. The classroom is one of the few who has air conditioning in the school. The classroom is arranged in tables in order to teach according to the aims of the class that is to help the students develop more oral communication proficiency in the English language. The materials of the classroom were given by the Department of Education because the school belongs to a bilingual program. The programs supplied laptops with a computer programs in which the students will also be reinforced in their grammatical skills taking in consideration their individual needs. There is also internet in the classroom. Due to the fact that the laptops are only for the usage of the computer program installed, the students use their cellphones as translators or to look for any information for the class. It is very viable the integration of technology in this class. My practice group is 7-5. This group is composed of 13 females and 11 males of between 11 to 13 years old. They all get along really well. In this group there are no student identified as a


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special education student. This doesn’t mean that the students don’t have any problems. There are students in the group that need individual instruction in order to understand the skills being taught and therefore complete the tasks assigned. The majority of the students come from different elementary schools. Some students have more background knowledge of certain skills or themes than others. This is sometimes good because they can help their classmates to understand but sometime I need to go faster because I can’t let them without challenging them. All of these contextual factors have instructional implications. Due to all the activities in which the students participate in the school and outside of the school, there are occasions in which the students don’t arrive to the classroom and the class could be suspended. This affects the lesson planning because then I have to decide whether to teach the next class very fast to cover two days in one, or to minimize the activities. Also, because the school building is old, the school has problems with the electricity. Sometimes the power goes off and therefore there is no air conditioning in the classroom and no usage of technology. For these cases I should always have another plan using low technology. When assessing the students, I should also take into consideration that my class is Conversational English. The students can learn any skill established by the Grade Level Expectations of the Department of Education on the English Language, but emphasizing on oral discussions and oral assessments.


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Learning Goals According to the Puerto Rico Education Department Grade Levels and Expectations (PRDE) of the 7th grade, at the end of this thematic unit the students should: 

Use reading strategies, literary analysis, and critical thinking skills to construct meaning and develop an understanding as well as an appreciation of a variety of genres of both fiction and nonfiction. (Reading)

Following this goal, this thematic unit will focus on working with figurative language. The goals of this thematic unit are in alignment to the PRDE mentioned above. The students should gain an understanding of figurative language in order to be prepared for the next unit that will be on Poetry. The particular goals of this thematic unit are: 

Goal #1: After given a reading selection, the students will be able to identify the figurative language presented on the reading selection with 90% of accuracy.

Goal #2: After identifying the figurative language presented on a reading selection, the students will be able to analyze the intended meaning of the writer for using figurative language in the reading selection.

Goal #3: After being able to define, identify and analyze examples of figurative language, the students will be able to write their own examples of figurative language with 95% of accuracy.

While the students identify, interpret and write their own figurative language examples, they will be achieving a high level of understanding and appreciation as expected by the Department of Education of PR. Taking as reference Norman Webb’s Depth of Knowledge Taxonomy, the students will be passing through different levels of thoughts through this unit.


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First they will have to identify and define the types of figurative languages. These skills are part of the Recall level, the first one in Webb’s Taxonomy. Then the students will have to interpret what is the intended meaning of the author when using the figurative language in diverse literary pieces. These skills are part of the second level of Webb’s Taxonomy, the Skill-Concept level. Then by the end of the unit, the students will be able to write their own examples of figurative language. For this, they will be passing through level three and four of Webb’s taxonomy which are strategic and extended thinking. During these levels the students will be creating, constructing, analyzing, and applying the concepts learned. Also through each activity, the students will be integrating skills they have already learned throughout the school year in order to meet the standards established. These learning goals are established taking into consideration the reading standard of the Grade Level Expectations of PR for the 7th grade English class, R.7.6 that establishes that the students should identify imagery and elements of poetry. Learning how to identify figurative language in reading selections will help them develop enough understanding of how they can use these element I order to write simple poems as established on the standard W.7.4 that establishes that the students should use poetry and sensory elements to develop simple poems. For this unit they will have to master adjectives and adverbs in order to describe using figurative language.

Assessment Plan The learning goals of this thematic unit were focused on facilitating the students to understand and write examples of seven different types of figurative languages (imagery, metaphor, simile, personification, hyperbole, alliteration, and onomatopoeia). The students will


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be assessed for each type of figurative language being taught. Also, the students will be assessed by doing a creative video in which the students will apply all they have learned throughout the unit. They will be evaluated by answering a test to know if they learned after the unit was conducted. This test will be the same as the diagnostic in order to compare what the student knew before the unit and after the unit.

Assessment Plan Table Learning Goals Learning Goal #1 After given a reading selection, the students will be able to identify the figurative language presented on the reading selection with 90% of accuracy.

Assessments Pre-test: Diagnostic Test

R.7.6 Identifies imagery and elements of Poetry.

Post-test: Special Project

Formative Assessment: Worksheets & Debate

Format of Assessments Diagnostic Test: Students will answer a multiple choice to identify the figurative language presented on sentences, a match with the definitions and will write their own examples of each figurative language. Debate: Students will debate what type of figurative language is presented on the examples presented. Worksheets: Handouts with examples where the students will identify what figurative language is presented in each one. Special Project: The students will identify the figurative language presented on the lyrics of a song.

Adaptations The students will be divided in two groups. Each member of the group will debate with a member of the other group to identify what figurative language is being presented in each example. While the students work with the handouts, I will be giving individualized instructions to those who need it. The students will select a song and will identify 5-10 examples of figurative language.


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Learning Goals Learning Goal #2 After identifying the figurative language presented on a series of examples, the students will be able to analyze the intended meaning of the writer for using figurative language in the each example. R.7.1 Analyzes text, establishes purpose, recognizes author’s purpose, and distinguishes text features to enhance comprehension.

Learning Goal #3 After being able to identify and analyze examples of figurative language, the students will be able to write their own examples of figurative language with 95% of accuracy. W.7.4 Uses poetry and sensory elements to develop simple poems.

Assessments Pre-test: Diagnostic Test

Formative Assessment: Class discussions with examples & Worksheets Post-test: Special Project

Format of Assessments Diagnostic test: Students will answer a multiple choice to identify the figurative language presented on sentences, a match with the definitions and will write their own examples of each figurative language. Class discussions: After given some examples the students will orally analyze the intended meaning of the writer. Worksheets: Handouts with examples of figurative language where the students will write the intended meaning of the writer.

Pre-test: Diagnostic test Formative Assessment: Class discussions & Practice in their notebooks Post-Test: Group Work Activity

Special Project: Students will analyze the figurative language presented on a song. Diagnostic Test: Students will answer a multiple choice to identify the figurative language presented on sentences, a match with the definitions and will write their own examples of each figurative language. Class discussions: After each discussion the students will orally construct examples of figurative language.

Adaptations The classroom discussions will be done using power point presentations for them to analyze the meaning cooperatively in oral discussions. While the students work on their own with the handouts, I will be giving individualized instruction to those who need it. After the students have selected a song and identified the figurative language presented, they will analyze the intended meaning for each example they had identified.

Students will write their examples on the board and the students will orally correct if it is well written or not. Students will work individually in their notebooks writing their creative examples. Students will be work in groups of 4 and will create an example of each type of


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Learning Goals

Assessments

Format of Assessments Practice: In their notebooks, the students will write their original examples of figurative language. Group Work Activity: The students will work in groups and will write an example for each type of figurative language.

Adaptations figurative language being discussed taking as reference a picture given by the teacher. They will write them on a card board to publish them.

Design for Instruction For this thematic unit I gave my students a diagnostic test in order to know how much they know of the figurative language topic. The skills tested on the diagnostic were the definitions of each type of figurative language, identifying figurative language in given examples and writing their own examples. I did not include in the diagnostic analyze the intended meaning of the writer because I thought that in order to analyze it, they should learn how to identify and define each one and have a well understanding of them. In Figure 1, you can observe that 37% of the students could match at least three from six types of figurative language with their definition. This means that I will have to give the students a definition for each type of figurative language with examples for them to understand the definitions. In Figure 2, you can observe that only 29% of the students were able to identify at least six figurative languages from 12 exercises. This tells me that I will have to give them a lot of examples for them to be able to differentiate on type of figurative language from another. In Figure 3, you can observe that 37% of the students were able to create at least two examples of figurative language, where they were asked to write four. I am sure they can write more


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examples but they need to understand the definition and identify them in order to internalize the information to be able to write their own examples. As part of the diagnostic, I gave the students a series of questions for them to reflect on how they felt after answering the diagnostic test. The majority felt confused and frustrated because they did not understand anything that they were answering. A few of them recognized some of the information because they had heard then or studied them in previous years. Because this is a difficult topic, I will need to integrate examples from where they can identify figurative languages in their daily life, such as songs, commercials and movies.

Defining Types of Figurative Language

37%

63%

Skilled Skilless

FIGURE 1


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Identify What Type of Figurative Language is Presented 29%

Skilled Skilless

71%

FIGURE 2

Write Their Own Examples of Figurative Language

37%

63%

Skilled

Skilless

FIGURE 3

After analyzing the results of the diagnostic test I came to the conclusion that in order for the students to understand each type of figurative language presented on this thematic unit, I will


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have to discuss them individually. For each type of figurative language I will give them the definition with some examples. Then they will identify in a series of examples if that type of figurative language is presented and then to analyze the intended meaning of the writer for using that type of figurative language. After they have understood to identify and analyze a type of figurative language they will be able to write their own examples correctly. Those types of figurative languages that are similar could be discussed together for the students to understand the difference between them. An example could be metaphors and similes. Imagery and personification could be discussed separately. Onomatopoeia, alliteration and hyperbole can be discussed together because the students are familiar with these terms and could easily identify them with some explanation.

Thematic Unit Overview

Day

Goal

Objectives

Activities

Materials

Dispositions

Day 1 Metaphors and Similes

Learning Goal #1

After discussing the definitions of metaphor and simile, the students will be able to write examples and share them orally.

Students will watch two YouTube videos in which they present examples of metaphors and similes in songs the students recognize. Then the students will create their own examples and will share them orally with their classmates.

YouTube Videos: http://youtu.be/jN 104uji--Y

Creativity: Students will write their own original examples.

http://youtu.be/iZy AokXrS6I Laptop Projector Internet


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Day

Goal

Objectives

Activities

Materials

Dispositions

Day 2 Metaphors and Similes

Learning Goal #1

After given an example, the students will differentiate if the example is a metaphor or a simile and will complete a metaphor or simile by debating in groups.

Students will be divided in two groups. Each group member will debate with another on a given example in order to identify if it is a metaphor or a simile or to complete the given metaphor or simile.

Example sentence strips

Leadership: Students will select the member that will represent them.

After given a handout, the students will identify the writer’s purpose on given metaphor and will also write their own metaphor with 97% of accuracy.

In the first part of the handout the students will write what the writer means when he writes the metaphors presented. In the second part the students will create metaphors using the pairs of words given to construct them.

Day 3 Metaphors

Learning Goal #2 and Learning Goal #3

Creativity: Students will complete a metaphor or a simile originally.

Copies of Handouts

Diversity: The students can complete the metaphors or similes differently. Creativity: Students will write their own metaphors. Diversity: Students will write the meaning the metaphors have according to their background knowledge.


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Day

Goal

Objectives

Activities

Materials

Dispositions

Day 4 Metaphors

Learning Goal #2

After given a metaphor, the students will identify the intended meaning of the writer and will illustrate it with a drawing.

The teacher will give the students a metaphor. The students will write what they understood is the intended meaning of the writer and they will illustrate the meaning of the metaphor in a drawing.

White paper Crayons Markers Metaphors

Creativity: Students will draw an illustration of what they think is the intended meaning of the writer for writing the metaphors.

Day 5 Metaphors and Similes

Learning Goal #1 and Learning Goal #2

After given an example the students will be able to identify if it is a metaphor and a simile or determine the meaning of the example by playing a jeopardy game.

Diversity: Students will write the meaning the metaphors have according to their background knowledge. The students will Jeopardy Game: Creativity: be divided into 6 http://www.supert The students groups where eachertools.com/je will review in they will compete opardy/usergames a creative in a jeopardy /Feb201106/game game. game where they 1297119259.php will identify is the Diversity: sentence is a Laptop The students metaphor or a Projector will answer simile or identify Internet according to the intended what they meaning of the know. metaphor or simile.


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Day

Goal

Day 6 Imagery

Learning Goal #1

Day 7 Imagery

Learning Goal #2

Objectives

Activities

After The students will discussing see examples of the imagery in definition of sentences, and Imagery, the then they will students will identify what be able to imagery is being identify the presented in some imagery examples in an presented on oral discussion some using a power examples in point an oral presentation. discussion. After given The students will a sentence, work in groups of the students three. Each group will add will receive a descriptive sentence with no words to figurative change the language. The given students will add sentence into descriptive words an example in order to change of imagery the sentence to an and then imagery example they will not changing the draw an sentence illustration meaning. Then to present it. They will draw a picture with the exact descriptions they used.

Materials

Dispositions

Power Point Presentation

Diversity: Students will discuss what imagery is presented in each example according to what they understood.

Sentences with no figurative language.

Creativity: Students will change a sentence using Imagery, a type of creative writing.

White Cardboard Markers Crayons


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Day

Goal

Objectives

Day 8 Imagery

Learning Goal #2

After writing their imagery examples, the students will share them orally.

Day 9 Imagery

Learning Goal #3

Day 10 Personification

Learning Goal #1 and Learning Goal #2

Activities

The students will go in front of the class to present their drawings and to share their imagery examples. The classmates will identify the intended meaning of the presenters for using that imagery. After given The students will a sentence, answer a the students worksheet in will re-write which they will the sentence rewrite a sentence using by using imagery. imagery by The students will answering a be assigned worksheet. homework to write a poem using at least 4 examples of imagery to describe one thing. After In a power point discussing presentation the what students will look personificati at examples of on is, the personifications students will in which they will answer a identify the multiple writer’s purpose. choice orally Then they will to identify answer some which multiple choice sentence has exercises in the personificati same presentation on and the where they will intended identify meaning of personification the writer. examples.

Materials

Dispositions

Students drawing of examples of Imagery.

Diversity: Each group will present something different and will interpret a different meaning from each imagery example.

Worksheet on Imagery

Creativity: Students will write their examples of imagery and their poem using imagery.

Power Point Presentation on Personification

Diversity: The students will answer what is the intended meaning of the example of personification according to their background knowledge.


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Day

Goal

Objectives

Day 11 Personification

Learning Goal #3

After given an image, the students will write an example of personificati on to describe the picture.

Day 12

Learning Goal #1

Hyperbole, Alliteration and Onomatopoeia

Day 13 Hyperbole, Alliteration and Onomatopoeia

Learning Goal #1, Learning Goal #2 and Learning Goal #3

Activities

The teacher will give each student a picture. The student will write an example of personification to describe the picture. Then They will share it orally with their classmates. After given After discussing some the definitions sentences, and examples of the students hyperbole, will be able alliteration and to identify onomatopoeia the hyperboles, student will alliterations answer a and worksheet that onomatocontains exercises poeias by for them to answering a identify what worksheet. figurative language is presented. After The teacher will discussing give some what examples on the hyperboles, board where the alliterations students will have and to identify what onomatokind of figurative poeias, are language does it the students contains and why will be able did the writer to write their used it. Then they own will write their examples. own examples of hyperbole, alliteration and onomatopoeia in their notebooks.

Materials

Dispositions

Pictures

Creativity: Students will create their original personification examples.

Worksheet on Hyperbole, Alliteration and Onomatopoeias

Diversity: Students will answer the worksheet according to their background knowledge and what they understood in the discussion.

Examples on the board Students Notebooks

Diversity: The students will answer what is the intended meaning of the example background knowledge. Creativity: Students will create their original examples on hyperbole, alliteration and onomatopoeia.


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Day

Goal

Objectives

Activities

Materials

Dispositions

Day 14 Figurative Language

Learning Goal #1, Learning Goal #2 and Learning Goal #3

After discussing 7 types of figurative language, the students will be able to review for the unit test.

The students will review for the unit test by identifying the figurative language presented on each example, analyzing the intended meaning of each example and writing their own examples.

Review on Figurative Language Worksheet

Creativity: Students will write their own examples of figurative language.

Day 15 Figurative Language

Learning Goal #1, Learning Goal #2 and Learning Goal #3

Day 16 Figurative Language

Learning Goal #1 and Learning Goal #2 a

After The students will reviewing answer the Unit the 7 Test on Figurative figurative Language by languages answering a discussed, multiple choice, a the students match, and will answer writing their own a unit test. examples. After The students will discussing 7 present their types of special project in figurative which they had to languages, select a song and the students identify the will present figurative a creative language video with presented and the examples of analysis of each figurative one in a creative and the way. analysis of them presented on a song.

Test on Figurative Language Handouts

Students Videos Projector Laptop Evaluation Rubric

Diversity: The students will analyze the intended meaning of each figurative language according to their background knowledge. Creativity: Students will write their own examples of figurative language.

Creativity: Students will write their own examples of figurative language. Leadership: Students will work in groups. Diversity: Students will select different songs and will present them in different ways.


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Activities For the post-test activity I decided to construct a special project. In this project the students will work in groups of four. The students will select a song of their preference and will search for the lyrics. Then they will identify 5-10 figurative language examples presented on their selected song. Then they will analyze the intended meaning of the writer. The students will present the song in a creative way by singing, dancing, or presenting images related to the song in a video. In this video they will include their analysis of the figurative language examples found. The students will share their videos with their classmates. I decided to do this special project because it gives the students a chance to internalize the information and to apply what they have learned enhancing their creativity. Also this special project is based on Social Constructivism. While the students analyze corporately the song they will be gaining understanding from each other. I believe this will be the most effective way to ensure that they understood what was being presented through the unit. Technology is a very important key in this thematic unit. I included examples of figurative language presented on videos with music they like in order to have them connect the definitions with examples related to them. I also used games on the internet that enhance the figurative language skills. I also have planned in case the power goes off due to the problems of electricity of the school. You can also see the integration of technology in the special project where they will have to hand in a video. This will get them involve in creative activities and not on traditional searching for information and writing environment that teachers use.


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Instructional Decision Making In this thematic unit there where not so many changes at the time to implement it. First of all I decided to cancel a Jeopardy Game in which the students had to identify and give examples of similes and metaphors because of their awful behavior. It took me 15 minutes to start the class so I decided to give them a quiz. In the quiz the students had to write 10 examples of metaphors and 10 examples of similes. After I tabulated the results, I came to the conclusion that the students scored an average of 77% in the quiz, so I decided to continue with the following theme. In Appendix V there is an example of a student’s quiz. Another decision I took in this unit was that in order to help the students understand Imagery and to give them a push, I decided to give them a handout with some sentences for them to add descriptive words in order to create their own examples. I believe that if I had assigned the students to write their own examples they probably would take more time trying to understand if they were doing it right or wrong. In Appendix VI there is an example of the handout answered by a student. After the students had worked in groups and created their examples of Imagery and drawing a picture related to the example, I decided to paste them on our class wall in order to publish their works because they showed a lot of creativity. After this activity, I realized that the students were really enthusiastic with the theme so I decided to assign them to write a poem using imagery. The students’ works were incredible and creative. In Appendix VIII, there are examples of both activities. When we discussed personification, I realized that the students understood it very well because they had studied it in previous classes. So I decided to give them the multiple choice presented on the Power Point Presentation, which you would be able to see on Appendix XV,


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and assign them to write 2 examples on their notebooks. After I corrected their notebooks, I decided to keep on with another theme. In Appendix IX, you can see personification examples written by a student. Also, after discussing hyperboles, alliterations, and onomatopoeias, I realized that the students understood them really well. I decided to just let them write an example of each one in their notebooks to make sure they understood. In Appendix X, you can see the examples of one student. Then we played a Jeopardy game in which the students had to identify the examples on hyperbole, alliteration, or onomatopoeia. The examples used for this Jeopardy game are presented in Appendix XI. After discussing the 7 types of figurative languages presented on this thematic unit, I decided to give them an activity in which they could work in groups in order to clarify any doubts. The students were assigned a word with which they had to write an example of each figurative language and draw something related. They did it very well. Examples of this activity are presented on Appendix XII. In order to assess if the students were prepared for the test, I gave them a test review. The students did very well. I decided to dismiss some students from the test because they scored 100% in the review. I decided this because with the review they demonstrated me that they understood really well the material of this thematic unit. As part of the students’ evaluations, I gave them the unit test and a special project. The students worked really well on both activities. In Appendix there are examples of the test and in Appendix XVI there is a DVD with an example of a video.


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Analysis of Students Learning Whole Class In order to determine if the students learned or not from this thematic unit I decided to give them a diagnostic test with which I wanted to know how much they knew of the definitions of each one, if they could identify them in a sentence and if they could create their own examples. After answering the diagnostic test we discussed each figurative language and practice with each one. At the end of the unit they answered the same test but adding another type of figurative language that wasn’t on the diagnostic. I added it because we had discussed it in class and practice a lot with it. In Figure 4 I present the results of the tabulations for the diagnostic and the unit test on each part.

Comparisson of the Results Between the Diagnostic and the Unit Test 300 250 Scores

200 150 100

Diagnostic Test Unit Test

50 0 Match the Definition Identify the Figurative Write own examples Language in the sentences Parts being evaluated FIGURE 4

In Figure 4 we can see that after the thematic unit the students had understood very well the figurative languages discussed. They have learned what is the definition of each one, to identify them in a sentence and to create their own examples. This is evidence that we have achieved two of the goals of this thematic unit. Both goals are identifying the figurative language


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in reading selections and writing their own examples. In order to prove that they achieved the goal left that is on being able to analyze the figurative language presented and identify what was the intended meaning of the author, the students answered a worksheet that is included in the appendix section. This handout was the review for the unit test. In Figure 5 I present a graph which establishes how the students did in that part of the review. That part of the review consisted on 5 sentences in which the students had to identify the figurative language and explain the intended meaning of the writer. The 5 exercises had a total of 5 points.

Analyzing Intended Meaning in Figurative Language Examples 4%

4% 33%

5 points

4 points 3 points 38%

2 points 1 points 21%

FIGURE 5

In Figure 5 we can see that the majority of the students could identify and analyze the intended meaning of writing when using figurative language in the examples. As seen in Figure 5, 92% of the students scored 3 points and higher from the 5 point exercise. This proves that they have achieved all the goals of this thematic unit. Subgroup I have divided the group in boys and girls in order to compare the results of the diagnostic and the unit test between both groups. From what I have observed this semester I have


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seen that the girls have a better behavior than the boys of the group. Also, the girls happen to be more responsible with the material given in class and the assignments. In Figure 6, I compare the results of the boys and girls in both evaluation forms.

Comparisson of Scores Between Boys and Girls in the Diagnostic and Unit Test 400 350

Scores

300 250 200

Diagnostic Test

150

Unit Test

100

50 0 Boys

Girls Students

FIGURE 6

After dividing the group in boys and girls, I gathered some data in order to compare who improved more after the unit. In the diagnostic test the boys scored a total of 30% correctly and in the unit test they scored a total of 80%. In the diagnostic the girls scored 44% correctly and in the unit test they scored 98% correctly. This tells us that the boys improved in a 50% and the girls in a 54%. Before I had gathered all the data, I thought that the boys did not improve as much as the girls because of their behavioral problems in the classroom and their lack of responsibility with the assignments. This proves me wrong. There is only a 4% difference in how much each group improved. With all of this information I can conclude that the behavior of the students in the classroom doesn’t affect their learning. The boys could be sometime irresponsible and misbehaved but they are still learning and achieving the goals of the unit.


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Individuals I selected two students that have different learning levels. To keep the students on behalf of anonymity, I decided to assign a number to each one. Student #1 is a very independent learner which scored 21/22 on the diagnostic test. On the other hand, Student #2 needs individualize instruction in order to comprehend what it is being taught and scored 3/22 on the diagnostic test. It was very important to give a pre assessment exercise in order to know what the students knew and what not. By giving a diagnostic test I realized that Student #1 knew a lot of the theme and since that moment I was thinking what to give her different than the others. The majority of the students scored similar as Student #2. Student #2 had demonstrated in the diagnostic test that he did not have any knowledge of the material that was going to be discussed in the thematic unit. I decided to discuss the material in order that the majority of the students could understand and having Student #1 helping her classmates. The students also had an opportunity to review and implement what was taught by doing a special project. In this special project everyone obtained 100%. This special project helped them understood better the figurative language being learned. At the end of the unit I gave them a review for the test which Student #1 demonstrated once again that she mastered the skills of the thematic unit. With Student #2 I had to explain and give more examples in the class and individually in order for him to understand. He did not hand in the review so he had to take the unit test. In the unit test, Student #2 scored 100%. Both students at the end of the unit had achieved the three goals established at the beginning of the unit.

Reflection and Self Evaluation The goal of this thematic unit in which the students were most successful was identifying the figurative language presented in a sentence. I am sure that they learned how to identify each


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figurative language discussed because I gave them many exercises for them to practice. I also gave them a special project in which they had to identify the figurative language presented in a song they had to select. Because they were working with something they liked, they engaged themselves in the learning environment. The goal of this thematic unit that was difficult to achieve but not impossible was to analyze the intended meaning of the writing when using figurative language in a sentence. It was a little difficult because if the student didn’t know how to identify well what figurative language was presented and also did not understand it, they sometimes got frustrated and didn’t want to work. In every example I always asked what was the writer thinking when writing the example and why did they think the writer used that type of figurative language. I scaffold them in order to help them understand that in order to appreciate the use of figurative language they needed to learn how to interpret it. This goal was also part of their special project in which after they had selected the figurative language in a song they had to analyze what that example meant. Even though scaffolding the students to learn how to analyze each example of figurative language presented on a reading selection was difficult, I think I could improve on my teaching strategies. It is something that is difficult because analyzing figurative language is very subjective. It all depends on the reader’s background knowledge. In order for them to be able to analyze the figurative language presented on a reading selection they must first understand the vocabulary being used. A way in which I can improve my teaching in this goal could be giving them examples with some choices of what the intended meaning of the author could be. Doing this the students can analyze each choice and determine which could be the best answer. Also I can use cooperative learning and make them work in groups in order to analyze what does the author means in a given reading selection. By this the students can benefit from their discussions


25

and discuss different points of views and take an agreement of the one they think is the best analysis of each figurative language presented. This thematic unit was not easy to develop because it takes time to explain each type of figurative language for the students to understand it well and learn how to apply it. It took time and a lot of effort but with this unit I grew as a professional. I planned and made decisions in order to make sure that the students were learning. It was hard working but at the end I saw my sacrifices and effort reflected on the achievements of my students. There are many things I could improve in this thematic unit, but it depends on the needs of the students.


26

Appendixes:

III.

Examples Metaphor and Similes …………………………………………………27 (students notebooks) Debate on Metaphors and Similes …………………………………………………28 (sentence examples) Metaphor Worksheet ……………………………………...………….32

IV.

Metaphor Picture Worksheet

………………………………………...……….33

V.

Example of Quizzes (metaphors and similes) Imagery Worksheet

…………………………………………………34

Imagery Examples with Drawings Imagery Poem Examples

…………………………………………...…….36

Examples Personification (students notebooks) Examples of Hyperboles, Alliterations, and Onomatopoeia (students notebooks) Jeopardy Game examples

…………………………………………………38

I. II.

VI. VII. VIII. IX. X.

XI. XII.

XIII.

Example of each type of figurative language with one word Test Review

…………………………………………………35

…………………………………………...…….37

………………………………………...……….39 ...………………………………………...……..40 .....……………………………………………...45 ……………………………….………………...46

XIV. Unit Test

……………………………….………………...48

XV.

…………………………………………………51

Personification PPT Outline

XVI. DVD Example Special Project

…………………………………………………53

XVII. Evaluation Rubric for Special Project

…………………………………………………54


27

Appendix I: Examples of Metaphors and Similes on student notebook


28

Appendix II: Examples used in the debate on Metaphors and Similes (4 pages) Write the simile that is in the sentence. 1. At the picnic, Dad was as hungry as a bear so he ate and ate and ate.

2. The ball was as flat as a pancake after the air was let out.

3. The pirate had manners like a savage.

4. The cake was supposed to be sweet, but it turned out as sour as a lemon.

5. Samantha turned as white as a ghost when she heard about the accident.

6. Grandma thinks Julio is going to be as tall as a skyscraper.

7. Jeremy's odd behavior made him appear as crazy as a loon.

8. Peter threw the javelin as straight as an arrow.

9. After Myra and I had an argument, she was 10. The answer to the riddle was as plain as as cold as ice toward me. day.

11. We were as happy as clams to find out there was no homework.

12. When the hiker saw the skunk in the woods, he stood as still as a statue in order not to be sprayed.

13. Paul's dad is kind, but he's as tough as nails.

14. After the baby's diaper was changed, she was as fresh as a daisy.

15. Tiffany's face is as sweet as a lullaby.

16. The young mother was as gentle as a morning breeze with her new baby.

17. The swamp alligators were larger than life. 18. Mrs. Nelson's little girl is as pretty as a picture.


29

Write the metaphor that is in the sentence. 1. Jeff is a volcano after hearing his brother borrowed his car without permission.

2. Mel has such great taste in furniture that I'm sure his home is beautiful.

3. Max beat me to a pulp in the debate.

4. The bull was boiling mad.

5. I would like to help you move, but my plate is full on Saturday.

6. Sam was a pig for eating so much for dessert!

7. Karen is my life.

8. I was a little cloudy as to what Mr. Haines was referring.

9. Mikey's answers as to where he had been were hard to swallow.

10. Joshua's brother is a rug rat.

11. The con artist used lies to lure his victims.


30

Select the choice that explains the meaning of the metaphor as it is used in the sentence. 1. Mel has such great taste in furniture that I'm 2. Mike drives too fast and is a road hog. sure his home is beautiful. The metaphor road hog: The metaphor great taste: Mike drives all over the road. Mel works in a furniture store. Mike eats too much in his car. Mel eats furniture. Mike doesn't like to drive. Mel knows how to pick out nice furniture. 3. Jeffrey is an ox. The metaphor is an ox.: Jeffrey is deaf. Jeffrey is weak. Jeffrey is strong. 5. Jeff is a volcano after hearing his brother borrowed his car without permission. The metaphor Jeff is a volcano: Jeff is angry. Jeff lives in Hawaii. Jeff has a triangle head. 7. Marcy was feeling blue after her dog was hit by a car. The metaphor : Marcy didn't like cars. Marcy was sad. Marcy wore blue pants.

4. Walter is a real couch potato. The metaphor couch potato: Walter is always busy with some activity. Walter is lazy. Walter likes to go outside and play. 6. Lori is the apple of her father's eye. The metaphor Lori is the apple: Lori is loved by her father. Lori's father is mad at her. Lori has an apple tree in her yard. 8. John is a giant in his class, towering a foot over his classmates. The metaphor John is a giant: John is short. John is from a fairy tale. John is tall.

9. Will is a couch potato, so I'm surprised that 10. Joshua's brother is a rug rat. he gets anything done. The metaphor rug rat: The metaphor couch potato: Joshua's brother looks like a rat. Will bakes potatoes. Joshua's brother fell on the rug. Will is lazy. Joshua's brother is a little boy. Will is energetic.


31

Complete the simile using words from the word bank. as beautiful as stiff as clean

as free

as strong

as sharp

as black

as cold

as pretty

as quiet

as snug

as sweet

as quiet

as free

1. Today feels __________________ as Alaska. 2. Now that school was over for the year, I was __________________ as a bird. 3. Jane Fowler's little girl is __________________ as a picture. 4. On the cold winter day, under the covers, I kept __________________ as a bug in a rug. 5. Her smile was __________________ as dawn. 6. After doing my chores, the house was __________________ as a whistle. 7. I was __________________ as a mouse in the library so I wouldn't disturb anyone. 8. The night sky looked __________________ as coal. 9. Our classroom was __________________ as a cemetery. 10. Your friendship is __________________ as jam. 11. Wags helps us pull the cart, and he is __________________ as an ox. 12. When the long flight was over, Mr. West felt __________________ as the wind. 13. Donald doesn't seem very smart, but he's __________________ as a tack. 14. Jesse's brand new fishing pole was __________________ as a board.


32

Appendix III: Metaphor Worksheet


33

Appendix IV: Student examples drawing pictures to demonstrate the intended meaning of the writer.


34

Appendix V: Quiz on Metaphors and Similes


35

Appendix VI: Imagery Worksheet


36

Appendix VII: Group Work Changing a sentence using Imagery and Drawing something related.


37

Appendix VIII: Example of Poems using Imagery by the students


38

Appendix IX: Examples of Personification on student notebook


39

Appendix X: Examples of Hyperbole, Alliteration, and Onomatopoeia in student notebook


40

Appendix XI: Examples for Jeopardy Game using Hyperboles, Alliterations, and Onomatopoeias (4 pages)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49.

The sheep went, “Baa.” The best part about music class is that you can bang on the drum. It is not unusual for a dog to bark when visitors arrive. Silence your cellphone so that it does not beep during the movie. Dad released a belch from the pit of his stomach. The bridge collapsed creating a tremendous boom. The large dog said, “Bow-wow!” Are you afraid of things that go bump in the night? My brother can burp the alphabet. Both bees and buzzers buzz. The cash register popped open with a heart warming ca-ching. The bird’s chirp filled the empty night air. Her heels clacked on the hardwood floor. The clanging pots and pans awoke the baby. If you want the red team to win, clap your hands right now! The cadets swelled with pride when they heard the clash of the symbols at their graduation ceremony. The dishes fell to the floor with a clatter. Nothing annoys me more than rapidly clicking your pen. The bride and groom were not surprised to hear the familiar sound of clinking glasses. The horse’s hooves clip-clopped on the cobblestones. Those clucking chickens are driving me crazy! The dim-witted pigeon repulsed us with its nerve crawling coo. If your going to cough, please cover your mouth. The prisoner was terrified to hear the crack of the whip. We roasted marshmallows over the crackling fire. The two-year old crashed into the cabinet. The cabinet opened with a distinct creak. Dissatisfied with her work, Beth crinkled up the paper and threw it in the trash. The swamp frogs croaked in unison. The teacher heard the distinct crunch of ruffled potato chips. Jacob could not sleep with the steady drip-drop of water coming from the sink. The root beer fizzed over the top of the mug. The flag flapped in wind. Did you forget to flush the toilet? Daryl gargled the mouthwash. The wounded soldier groaned. As Tom got closer, the dog began growling. Juan had a hard time hearing the teacher over his grumbling stomach. When Mom asked Tommy how his day went, Tommy just grunted. Vince gulped down the Mountain Dew. The patient sounded like he was hacking up a lung. If you have the hiccups, you should try drink a glass of water. The snake slithered and hissed. If you see anyone coming, honk your horn. The wolves howled at the moon. The new pencil sharpener hummed efficiently. They knew that the principal was coming because they heard the jingle of his keys. Someone is knocking on the door. That cat will keep meowing until you pet it.


41 50. John was disturbed by the strange moaning. 51. The cow aggressively mooed at the passing freight train. 52. Janet murmured the answer under her breath. 53. While lounging in the slop pile, the pigs oinked excitedly. 54. The hail pattered on the tin gutter. 55. When he saw the cheese, the mouse could not help but to peep excitedly. 56. The lunch lady plopped a scoop of something on Kristen’s tray. 57. Billy will cry if you pop his balloon. 58. After eating the knight, the dragon let out a puff of smoke. 59. Most cats purr if you pet them behind the ears. 60. The kind man shared his bread with the quacking ducks. 61. My favorite singers have raspy voices. 62. Tim would have stepped on the snake had he not heard the rattle of its tail. 63. The race-car driver revved his engine. 64. Our peaceful dinner ended when the phone began ringing. 65. I secretly ripped up the birthday checks that my grandmother sent me. 66. The lion’s mighty roar could be heard across the Savannah. 67. The earthquake rumbled the foundations of our house. 68. When the wind blew the leaves rustled. 69. He took off so quickly that his tires screeched. 70. When Reuben saw what he thought was a ghost, he shrieked like a woman. 71. I love the sound of bacon sizzling on a weekend. 72. You could hear the slap echo across the valley. 73. The thirsty dog slurped the dirty water from the puddle. 74. The young girl smacked her lips and spoke rudely. 75. Frank smashed the can on his head. 76. After making a rude remark, Jade snapped her fingers and rolled her neck. 77. Having never left the city, Juan eagerly sniffed the country air. 78. Tommy made me laugh so hard in the lunchroom that I snorted milk out of my nose. 79. The paintball splattered against the windshield. 80. Fat Pat did a cannonball in the pool and made a big splash. 81. Mr. Morton told the student to spit out his gum. 82. Angie sprayed her neighbor with the hose. 83. Mark tried sneaking in the house but the squeak of his shoes woke up Mom. 84. Jenna ran around the lunchroom squealing like a pig. 85. When he sat down, the young boy squished the unfortunate critter in his pocket. 86. The musician used a coin to strum the guitar. 87. Shaun loved the swish of the basketball net. 88. Mitchel gently tapped the ball into the hole. 89. Time just keeps on ticking. 90. Bobby threw his books down with a thud. 91. That thump made us jump. 92. If you see him, toot your horn. 93. The rain trickled down the gutter. 94. Birds tweeted long before Twitter did. 95. The lawyer chased after the wail of the sirens. 96. The bullet whizzed by his ear. 97. Bob’s big dogs woofed at the unfortunate mail main. 98. Beth’s little dog would not stop yapping. 99. Spaceman Spiff zapped the alien with his ray-gun. 100. Ronald zipped up his sleeping bag. 101. The race car zoomed past the finish line. Come and clean your closet.


42 The big bad bear attacked all the little bunnies in the forest. Shut the shutter before it makes you shudder. Go and gather the green leaves in the lawn. Please put your pen away and play the piano. Round and round she ran until she realized she was running round and round. Out with the only open tin of tuna. I had to hurry home because grandma wanted her waffles. The baron was busy as a bee. Garry gathered the garbage. Lazy lizards lying like lumps! Paula planted the petunias in the pot. Kim comes to cut colorful kites. Boil the butter and bring it by the bank. Orson’s owl out-performed ostriches. Larry’s lizard likes leaping leopards. hree grey geese in a green field grazing. Grey were the geese and green was the grazing. - Three Grey Geese by Mother Goose Great Aunt Nellie and Brent Bernard who watch with wild wonder at the wide window as the beautiful birds begin to bite into the bountiful birdseed. - Thank-You for the Thistle by Dorie Thurston Betty Botter bought some butter, but she said, this butter's bitter; if I put it in my batter, it will make my batter bitter, but a bit of better butter will make my batter better. - Betty Botter by Carolyn Wells A certain young fellow named Beebee; Wished to marry a lady named Phoebe; "But," he said. "I must see; What the minister's fee be; Before Phoebe be Phoebe Beebee" by Mother Goose I need not your needles, They’re needless to me, For kneading of needles, Were needless, you see; But did my neat trousers, But need to be kneed, I then should have need of your needles indeed. - Baker’s Reply to the Needle Salesman by unknown    

Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers. If Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers, where's the peck of pickled peppers Peter Piper picked? A good cook could cook as much cookies as a good cook who could cook cookies. Black bug bit a big black bear. But where is the big black bear that the big black bug bit? Sheep should sleep in a shed.


43     

I saw a saw that could out saw any other saw I ever saw. A big bug bit the little beetle but the little beetle bit the big bug back. Show Shawn Sharon's shabby shoes. How much wood would a woodchuck chuck; If a woodchuck would chuck wood? A woodchuck would chuck all the wood he could chuck; If a woodchuck would chuck wood. Silly Sally swiftly shooed seven silly sheep. The seven silly sheep Silly Sally shooed shilly-shallied south. These sheep shouldn't sleep in a shack.

         

Chuckee Cheese’s Coca-Cola Dunkin’ Donuts Krispy Kreme Mickey Mouse Porky Pig Fred Flintstone Donald Duck Spongebob Squarepants Seattle Seahawks

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35.

Charlie gazed hopelessly at the endless pile of bills stretching across the counter. That woman has no self-control. That was the easiest question in the world. Nothing can bother him. I can smell pizza from a mile away. I went home and made the biggest sandwich of all time. My dad is always working. Patty drank from a bottomless glass of Kool-Aid. Allie has a million pairs of shoes in her closet. Old Mr. Johnson has been teaching here since the Stone Age. Forget knocking it out of the park, Frank can knock a baseball off the continent. The lesson was taking forever. I’ve seen this movie at least 80,000 times. Vanessa never has anything interesting to say. These shoes are killing me. Shauna does everything for him. Christmas will never come. He walked down the road to nowhere. I’d rather French kiss a rattlesnake than miss a gym period. My dad knows everything about cars. Max is the fastest thing on two feet. Basketball is the only thing that ever mattered to him. Nothing can stop these guys. My mom is going to kill me. She can have any boy that she wants. Nobody can beat level six. You’ve made me the happiest man alive, Rita. The sight of them kissing is so gross that it makes me want to puke. We’ll be best friends forever. Now there is no star that is not perfumed with my fragrance. I will never say “never.”• Chris won’t drive her home because she lives on the other side of the universe. The only thing that he ever wants to do is play that game. Once I get you in my arms, I’m never going to let you go. John always knows the right thing to say.


44 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50.

Phoebe would be content anywhere. Nothing could ever go wrong with his plan. Pam was skinny enough to jump through a keyhole. Jasmine never forgets anything. Everyone knows that. Go to the park? That’s the best idea ever. I’d move mountains for her. Tanya never stops talking. I can’t do anything right. Janet worked her fingers to the bone. Jack was thirsty enough to drink a river dry. She is perfect in everyway. Your dad is the smartest guy in the world. We tried everything that we could. I could listen to that song on repeat forever.


45

Appendix XII: Poster with an example of each figurative language using one word in common.


46

Appendix XIII: Test Review on Figurative Language (2 pages)


47


48

Appendix XIV: Test on Figurative Language (3 pages)


49


50


51

Appendix XV: Power Point Presentation on Personification (2 pages)

  MRS. MORALES CONVERSATIONAL ENGLISH  7-5  MARCH 19, 2014

 

Personification is… Using human qualities or actions to describe an object or an animal.

The word “personification” actually contains the word “person,” and to personify an object means to describe it as if it were a person.

Examples:

Examples:

 

The trees danced back and forth in the wind. Examples: It was time to go home, but the bell refused to ring.

The warm fireplace seemed to be calling my name.

The angry sky roared and threw lightning around.

The gentle wind softly kissed my cheeks as I walked.

The delicious smell of cookies pulled me to the kitchen.

That chocolate ice cream was tenting me.

I can see that news travel quickly.

 

Let’s Practice! Which of the following is NOT an example of personification?

The sun peeked happily from behind the clouds.

The star I wished on winked at me.

The angry mirror showed every wrinkle on his face.

The sun was warm on the child's face.

Which of the following is an example of personification? 

The cookies smelled like a delicious cake.

The cookies smell delicious.

The delicious smell of cookies walked me to the kitchen.

The delicious cookies are a dream.

Which of the following sentences is an example of personification? 

The slimy eel slithered through the seaweed.

The stand of trees was a festival of color that fall.

The dandelions stood tall, proudly surveying the rest of the yard.

The snails crept along the sidewalk, moving as slowly as a glacier.

Which of the following is(are)an example(s) of PERSONIFICATION?


52

The wind whistled silently through the night.

The dog took the empty bowl and threw it over the fence.

The cat ran fast.

Bob jumped over the gate like Bill did before.

Which is an example of personification? 

The wind grabbed onto my arms.

The wind is like a thundering sea.

The wind is the sea.

The wind winds wondrously without a witness

Personification is: 

giving inanimate objects human like characteristics

a person, place, thing, or idea

a state of being

a regional variety of language

Which of the following is an example of personification? 

The moon is a bright yellowish orange tonight.

The desk chair broke when the books were set on top.

The moon shows us more about beauty than anything on earth.

Write 2 examples of personification in you notebooks.


53

Appendix XVI: DVD example of Creative Video Special Project


54

Appendix XVII: Evaluation Rubric Special Project

Criteria Selection of Song

Presentation of the song (Sing, Dance or Images) Presentation of figurative language presented on the song.

Analysis of Figurative Language presented on the song

Handed in on time

Written Report

Met (5-4 points) Student selected an appropriate song without sexual, discriminating or violent content.

The song was heard clearly.

Students presented 5-10 examples of figurative language presented on the song.

Student analyzed 510 examples of figurative language by explaining the intentions (meaning) of the writer.

Partially Met (3-2 points) Student selected a song with some sexual, discriminating or violent content. The song was heard with some difficulty.

Not Met (1-0 points) Students selected a song with a lot of sexual, discriminating or violence content. The song wasn’t heard.

Students presented examples figurative language presented the song.

Students presented less than 1 example of figurative language presented on the song. Student analyzed at least 1 example of figurative language by explaining the intentions (meaning) of the writer. (2-0 points)

2-4 of

on

Student analyzed 2-4 examples of figurative language by explaining the intentions (meaning) of the writer.

(10-7 points)

(6-3 points)

Video was send by email or handed in on a DVD on the due date.

Video was sent by email or handed in on DVD on the day after the due date. (14-8 points) Student handed in a written report with a few of its components (lyrics, 5-10 examples, analysis, handed in on time)

(20-15 points) Student handed in a written report with all its components (lyrics, 5-10 examples, analysis, handed in on time)

Points

Video was not sent or handed in on DVD on the day after the due date. (7-0 points) Student did not handed in a written report with all its components (lyrics, 5-10 examples, analysis, handed in on time)

TOTAL ______/50

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