THE JOINT MULTINATIONAL TRAINING COMMAND
d i g i t a l edition - 201 2
THE 7TH UNITED STATES ARMY Joint Multinational Training Command Training Journal Editorial views expressed are opinions of the author and do not reﬂect the oﬃcial policy or the position of the 7th U.S. Army JMTC, the U.S. Army, the Department of Defense, or the U.S. Government. This publication is distributed online at: www.eur.army.mil/jmtc/ Readers are encouraged to send letters, comments and all correspondence to: HQ 7th Army JMTC Building 127, Room 107, APO AE 09114 ATTN: Public Aﬀairs or via Bundespost: HQ 7th Army JMTC Lager Grafenwoehr, Geb. 127, 92655 Grafenwoehr ATTN: Public Aﬀairs Telephone: DSN 475-7776 or local commercial: +49 (0) 9641-83-7776 From the U.S.: 011-49-9641-83-7776 Cover/Back cover photos: Pfc. Stephen Solomon Photos, above: Courtesy of U.S. Army, Europe / U.S. Air Force, Europe Photo, right: Richard Bumgardner
JMTC TRAINING JOURNAL
JMTC Command Lt. Gen. Mark P. Hertling U.S. Army, Europe Commanding General Col. Bryan L. Rudacille 7th U.S. Army JMTC Commander
JMTC Public Aﬀairs Denver Beaulieu-Hains Public Aﬀairs Oﬃcer Christian Marquardt Michael Beaton JMTC Public Aﬀairs Specialists
TABLE OF CONTENTS 2
Shaping the International Training Environment: No one does it better
Real-world training on public, private land in the German Federal Republic
By JMTC Commander Col. Bryan L. Rudacille
By Sgt. Julieanne Morse, 129th Mobile Public Aﬀairs Det.
21 Warrior Leader Course graduates build multi-national friendships from the ground up
Shaping the international environment through training at Grafenwoehr
By Spc. Manda Walters, 129th Mobile Public Aﬀairs Det.
JMTC by the numbers: Infographics reveal how JMTC is truly one-of a kind.
Question and Answer: The state of multinational NCO development.
Funded Training opportunities available for NATO countries
By Spc. Manda Walters, 129th Mobile Public Aﬀairs Det.
Replication of the hybrid-threat: the many faces of JMSC’s OPFOR JMTC’s Multinational MRAP training and certiﬁcation drives on.
JMTC updates Soldier Competition Model 26 By Master Sgt. Robert Hyatt
By Capt. Tristen Hinderlitern, USAFE Public Aﬀairs
Build-down doesn’t stop training: Fiscal managers prepare for tough times
A cooperative eﬀort: Decisive Action Training and Air Mobility.
By Walter J. Mettler, 8th Air Support Operations Sqn.
JMTC Trainers export instrumentation for Immediate Response ‘12
Updated for 2012
By Spc. Manda Walters, 129th Mobile Public Aﬀairs Det.
NATO forces converge at GTA for Immediate Response ‘12
By Denver Beaulieu-Hains, JMTC Public Aﬀairs
By Capt. Tristen Hinderlitern, USAFE Public Aﬀairs
Replicating reality: connecting the services using technology
By Lt. Col. Rob Young, Chief of Operations Division, JMSC
Infographic: Training where your allies are
International Special Training Centre, Special Training for Special Forces By Maliea Carson, JMTC Public Aﬀairs
By Sgt. Julieanne Morse, 129th Mobile Public Aﬀairs Det.
Special Report: The Joint Multinational Simulations Center
By Michael Beaton, JMTC Public Aﬀairs
Interview with JMTC CSM Dennis C. Zavodsky
Special Feature: Afghan environment drives training adjustment in Europe
By Capt. Christopher Sims, 1-4 Infantry Battalion
Compiled by JMTC Public Aﬀairs
The Grafenwoehr Training Area illustrated map of capabilities.
By Sgt. Andrew Turner, 129th Mobile Public Aﬀairs Det.
The last word: EUCOM and NATO Leaders talk
By Walter J. Mettler, 8th Air Support Operations Sqn.
about JMTC and the future training in Europe.
introduction by jmtc commander, col. bryan l. rudacille
International Training Environment: No one does it better
A message from the JMTC Commander, Col. Bryan L. Rudacille. Adapting the Joint Multinational Training Command to the conflicts of an ever-changing world.
U.S., NATO, And allied forces build and sustain increased operational capacity during complex, mission-specific training rehearsals and exercises at JMTC. The Joint Multinational Readiness Center, referred to as JMRC, is adjacent to the Hohenfels Training Area, or HTA, which contains 163 square kilometers of maneuver space and facilitates challenging-realistic combat training from the individual-to-brigade level. The Joint Multinational Simulation Center, also known as JMSC, oﬀers state-of-the-art virtual, constructive and gaming training support to units throughout Europe, with reach-back capabilities to the U.S. and abroad. The Grafenwoehr Training Area, or GTA, which consists of 233 square kilometers of liveﬁre gunnery and maneuver area, has 44 modern, computerized ranges, and the Army’s only 360-degree combat outpost training facility.
JMTC TRAINING JOURNAL
The Training Support Activity Europe, or TSAE, provides home-station training support to units stationed in 18 cities and six countries, Germany, Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands, Kosovo and Romania. The 7th U.S. Army Noncommissioned Oﬃcer Academy, known as NCOA, is the the U.S. Army’s oldest and largest academy, developing U.S. and partnered nations’ junior leaders in Europe for more than 60 years. The Combined Arms Training Center, or CATC, provides advanced functional training to enhance a Soldier’s basic, tactical and technical competence at the individual level.
Full Spectrum Training Environment: 7th U.S Army JMTCâ€™s Road to War
A look into how the 7th U.S. Army Joint Multinational Training Command prepared for the first Full-Spectrum Training Environment rotation with the 173rd Airborne Brigade in Germany.
Kosovo Force Training
For more than a decade, NATO forces deploying to the Balkans in support of KFOR, the peace keeping force in Kosovo - have completed mission rehearsal exercises at the U.S. Armyâ€™s JMRC in Hohenfels, Germany.
Shaping the international environment through training at Grafenwoehr By Spc. Manda Walters, 129th Mobile Public Aﬀairs Detachment, South Dakota Army National Guard
“They now have the internal capability to conduct their own version of the course in their home country, using knowledge and proﬁciency acquired as a JMTC 7th Army WLC participant,” added Loveless. “We are using Poland’s training success as a model.” Peter Fodor, an International Agreements Specialist who arranges logistical support at JMTC, said there is an interchange of ideas, experience and culture at JMTC unlike anywhere else. “JMTC training transfers knowledge from experienced instructors to U.S. and multi-national students, and just as importantly, they learn from each other,” Fodor said. “Some of the Polish WLC graduates returned as assistant instructors, gaining new perspectives as leaders.” More than 6,000 multi-nationals visited the JMTC this year to prepare for Afghanistan deployments. However, in spite of the large number of forces trained here, there is a proposed reduction in U.S. European forces. “As we draw down U.S. forces in Europe, more emphasis is going to be placed on making sure countries here have what they need,” said Loveless. “JMTC is going to support multi-nationals by training them on the internal security of the EUCOM Theater.” He also said as personnel shifts occur in Afghanistan and Europe, and areas of focus may change, JMTC’s success-driven training structure will not.
Photo: Spc. Evangelia Grigiss
“The U.S. Army’s role of shaping the international environment is an investment we cannot aﬀord to forego,” said Gen. Raymond Odierno, U.S. Army chief of staﬀ, in a recent Army Senior Leadership post, where he stressed the importance of establishing and maintaining relationships with the international community. The JMTC is shaping the international environment by serving the military training needs of more than 40 European partners , alongside U.S. counterparts, the U.S. European Command, and the U.S. Army in Europe. JMTC supports NATO and non-NATO countries alike, with uniform best-practice training programs that are localized to the needs of European nations preparing for individual missions, internal defense, or deployments to Afghanistan. “Our programming is region and enemy speciﬁc,” said Col. Adam Loveless, JMTC chief of training. So for us to run a generic, non-speciﬁc program wouldn’t be eﬀective.” Some countries look to JMTC to help their Servicemembers gain proﬁciency in particular skill sets, such as counter-IED measures, advising Afghan military or leadership development. Poland is a prime example, with 260 of its nationals recently completing the Warrior Leadership Course, called WLC at JMTC’s NCOA.
JMTC TRAINING JOURNAL
STATISTICS COURTESY OF NATO, ISAF
the top 5 nations who contribute the most support to us troops in afghanistan are european-based.
Currently, all the U.S. military in europe donâ€™t fill up a typical u.s. football stadium. u.s. military personnel in europe: 80,718 penn state univ. stadium capacity: 107.82 jmtc military community at grafenwoehr and hohenfels, 10,325, fills approximately one-tenth, of the penn state stadium seats. The community would fit comfortably in the upper balcony.
OUT OF total number of european nations who appear in the top 20 list.
percentage of european troops serving in afghanistan who trained at a jmtc facility or was trained by a jmtc instructor.
number of nato countries.
current number of nato partner countries.
total number of nato and partner countries training at the jmtc in 2011.
by sept. 2012
Since 2009, international military students trained at the JMTC and the number continues to grow, demonstrating an expanding FACT need in the region. As of July 2012 there have been more than 1,200 International Military Students, with an expected total of 2,400 trained at JMTC facilities by the end of the fiscal year.
percentage of all nato european troops deployed to isaf trained at the jmtc in 2011.
number of nato troops trained by jmtc personnel in their own countries.
q and a
JMTC’s senior enlisted leader shares thoughts on multi-national NCO development By Army Sgt. Andrew Turner, 129th Mobile Public Aﬀairs Detachment, South Dakota Army National Guard
Command Sgt. Maj. Dennis Zavodsky is the senior enlisted leader for the Joint Multinational Training Command. For the past year, he helped partner militaries develop their Noncommissioned Officer Corps, or NCOs throughout Europe. In this interview, Zavodsky shares his experiences... What is the initiative for NCO development for multinational partners? “When we talk about NCO development, we are talking about the NATO Non-commissioned Officer Development Strategy. It outlines the requirements for our NATO partners and some of our aspiring members to have a functional Noncommissioned Officer corps. To put it into context, some of the countries within the U.S. Army Europe area of operations do not have a NCO corps at all. Other countries might only want to develop their NCO corps with additional training and professionalism to get them up to standard.”
Any training that happens in Europe is going to come through the JMTC, whether they are U.S. Soldiers or our multi-national partners.”
What examples do you have of successful training programs involved with multinational N C O development? “Poland made a conscious decision to develop its NCO corps after working with coalition partners in Iraq and Afghanistan. They started by sending 279 Polish NCOs to the Warrior Leader Course in Grafenwoehr. Poland now has more than enough graduates of the program to operate its own academy and is completely selfsufficient in NCO development.
What is JMTC’s role in all of this? “The JMTC is the only unified training command in the U.S. Army. We are responsible for all aspects in the training of our Soldiers in Europe. Up to 60 percent of the people trained at any given time come from foreign militaries, making JMTC the largest multinational training center in the world.
We like to use the Poles as the example, and ask them to use their regional influence with their European neighbors to encourage development of the NCO corps in other countries.”
Photos: 1. MSgt. Scott Wagers / 2. Paula Guzman / 3 and 4. Pfc. Stephen Solomon
JMTC TRAINING JOURNAL
What is the significance of building relationships with our multinational par tners? “The relationships established with our partnering nations are invaluable. It benefits all of us, not only for the fight that we are in right now but for future conflicts as well. As everybody knows, militaries transform and adapt. In the coming years, we’ll rely on our partners and their capabilities more than ever, so building relationships is essential. Our partner nations have unique histories and unique abilities to contribute to the whole.
I believe we are going to find our partners are capable of things that we’ll want to learn from them. An example would be the Bulgarian army. They have special operations forces with a wealth of knowledge and experience they share when they train with our forces. Having established relationships with our partners is going to pay huge dividends down the road.”
How does the development of NCOs with our European partners benefit the U.S. military? “About 85 percent of the non-U.S. contributors to the Afghanistan mission are trained at the JMTC here in Germany. When we look at partner-nation contributions, every European service member in Afghanistan is a major asset to the joint efforts in that region. Having capable partners certainly supports both American and European interests.”
What are your final thoughts and reflections? “Working with the NCO development of partner nations helps make our NCO corps better because helping others understand our system helps our NCOs understand how the corps got where it is right now.
See the first U.S. Soldier graduates from the Polish Land Forces Academy
“The JMTC is at the forefront in the strategy of active security. We will continue to be the focal point of introduction for the U.S. military system and training capabilities to our European partners. As Europe continues to transform, the JMTC will maintain a central role in the partnership and training of our allies and of multinational forces.” Command Sgt. Major Dennis C. Zavodsky
Command Sgt. Major Dennis C. Zavodsky joined the JMTC as the senior enlisted advisor April, 2011. Among his decorations, he has a Purple Heart, Combat Infantryman's Badge, the Expert Infantryman’s Badge, Master Parachutist’s Badge with Combat Jump Star, and Pathfinder Badge. Zavodsky also wears the Ranger’s tab. He has a Bachelors Degree in management.
It really makes you appreciate what we’ve built and accomplished here at JMTC during the past decade. Additionally, being here among our partners and allies makes you a better student of American history, whicha allows you to develop as a leader and Soldier.”
Funded Training opportunities for NATO countries By Spc. Manda Walters, 129th Mobile Public Affairs Detachment South Dakota Army National Guard
NATO countries may have funded training programs available to them that will provide support for advisory missions to Afghanistan. These programs include the Operation A1 Mentor Liaison Teams for both military and police advising, which consist of three phases. Phase One begins in the partner nation, where military personnel familiarize themselves with their NATO training requirements and begin initial training. Phase Two allows partner nations come to Grafenwoehr and Hohenfels training areas to conduct specialized training requirements aligned with established NATO requirements. And in Phase Three, final training is conducted on NATO-established criteria prior to assignments in Afghanistan. At JMTC, more than 3,400 multinationals have trained or facilitated OMLT and POMLT programming in the past year in preparation for deployments. For more information about these and other training programs, contact your U.S. Office of Defense Cooperation, or check out the Joint Multinational Readiness Center website: www.eur.army.mil/jmrc/
NATO $9 Million
EUCOM $4.6 Million
MARFOREUR $6 Million
1206 Authority $9 Million
JMTC external funding: The Four Reimbursables Since 2010, external funding has helped JMTC accomplish its mission. NATO contributes approximately $9 million per year, 1206 Authority contributes approximately $9 million per year, EUCOM contributes approximately $4.6 million per year, and MARFOREUR contributes approximately $6 million per year. (U.S. Air Force photo by Senior Airman Greg L. Davis)
JMTC TRAINING JOURNAL
Build-down doesn’t stop training, ﬁscal managers prepare for tough times Story by Army Sgt. Julieanne Morse, 129th Mobile Public Affairs Detachment South Dakota Army National Guard
“We’ve been spending money all in support of the war effort, all in support of providing training to our Soldiers, USAREUR Soldiers and multinational partners, to go down range, do the best job they can and complete the mission,” said Scott Jones, the Financial Manager at the Joint Multinational Training Command. Military budgets are under close scrutiny because of fiscal constraints. Like most organizations, the JMTC is preparing to provide the same quality training despite restraints. Right now, we are in a challenging year. We started the year under the Continuing Resolution Act, or, in laymen’s terms, means we did not have a budget,”said Jones. “The budget was passed at the end of February. We actually got our first funding for this fiscal year in April. So, if you go back and, say, you started the year in October, and it’s April when you are finally getting money, It’s very, very challenging.” Even with fiscal restraints, the JMTC is adapting to continue their mission for years to come. One of Jones’ goals is to provide a realistic projection of operational costs by prioritizing and putting the training requirements of USAREUR, U.S. European Command, and Department of the Army directives at the top.
“Right now, we are looking at what we train and how we train,” said Jones. “We have all of our sections within JMTC looking at and reassessing what they must execute as opposed to things we may have liked to have facilitated and done in the past.” JMTC receives funding from external sources to help accomplish their mission. Support from USAREUR, EUCOM, 1206 Authority, NATO and Acquisition Cross Service Agreements helps fund U.S. forces as well as multnationals from Albania, Bulgaria, Croatia Estonia, Latvia, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Slovenia, and Slovakia. Funding for multinational forces helps with the JMTC’s budget and contributes to the multinational training environment and the overall mission of the Army. During a recent visit to JMTC, retired Army Gen. Gordon R. Sullivan, the president and chief operating officer of the Association of the United States Army, said, the value of having a forward-based combat training center exceeds the cost. “This is a transcendent experience here because it is optimizing the human potential from other nations,” said Sullivan. The United States is an important part of the NATO. The U.S. Army’s presence here is part of that commitment.”
JMTC’s Grafenwoehr Training Area GTA supports live-ﬁre training from the most basic pop-up riﬂe and pistol qualiﬁcations to the most advanced battalion-level combined arms live-ﬁre training, allowing explosive obstacle reduction, close-air support,attack aviation, and artillery training. GTA continues to meet the needs of training units by facilitating driver’s training, situational training exercise lanes, land navigation and obstacle courses.
JMTC TRAINING JOURNAL
CAMP AACHEN GAAF
s p e c i a l f eature
Afghan environment drives training adjustment in Europe by Denver Beaulieu-Hains, JMTC Public Aﬀairs. Photos courtesy of ISAF Public Aﬀairs
Troops from 10 nations participated in a unique mission rehearsal exercise at Hohenfels during the 173rd Airborne Brigade Combat Team’s prep for deployment, March 4 - 24, 2012. The additional specialty training on newly ﬁelded energy-saving systems, the Advanced Medium Mobile Electric Power Source (AAMPS), a replacement generator for the Tactical Quiet Generator, which is a hybrid system and can be attached to solar panels prepared Soldiers for an improved quality of life downrange. As operations in Afghanistan continue to draw down, oﬃcials said deploying units like the 173rd ABCT decide on everything from tactical movements to sustainment, which is why the Army’s Rapid Equipping Force, known as REF, provided specialty training, through the Energy to the Edge, or E2E program, which supports small tactical units operating at remote locations with suites of energy harvesting, power management and distribution systems. The AAMPS have a longer shelf life and should increase energy eﬃciency by more than 20 percent, REF oﬃcials said. The unit is the ﬁrst to deploy with the new equipment. “We started to get questions and requirements from commanders deployed to Afghanistan,” said Col. Peter A. Newell, director of the REF. “They were looking for help with sustainment problems. They were located at Command Outposts and Forward Operating Bases that were at the tactical edge of the ﬁght.”
During the 173rd’s mission rehearsal exercise at HTA, trainers implemented changes to allow the brigade to increase its rotational free play in the replicated operational environment; introduce the Army’s stateof-the-art solution for sustainment of combat outposts and forward operating bases, and reinforce the tenets of Uniﬁed Land Operations. The 173rd’s pre-deployment training involved more than 5,500 personnel, including units from partnering nations such as Albania, Bosnia, Bulgaria, Croatia, Germany, Romania, Serbia and Slovenia. The scenario allowed the 173rd ABCT to train alongside its multinational partners from Jordan and the Czech Republic, who are also scheduled to deploy as part of the coalition in Afghanistan. “We immersed them into their operational environment for the entire rotation,” said Maj. Todd Poindexter, the JMRC’s counter-insurgency rotational planner. “Companies and platoons reported events up to battalion and brigade-level starting on ‘day one.’ What we saw is that they had a better understanding of the environment, and applied it to their targeting process to make sound operational decisions.” The changes he made allowed the unit to devise staﬀ processes for Afghanistan, because they understood the operating environment better,” said Poindexter.
(U.S. Air Force photo by Senior Airman Greg L. Davis)
JMTC TRAINING JOURNAL
Small COPs and forward operating bases may be more geographically isolated from headquarters, making resupply mission more diﬃcult, he said. Trainers say soldiers should see the correlation between their actions, for not only the abstract themes associated with the counter-insurgency missions, but for those critical resupply needs and conservation of power. “The least eﬃcient way to train a soldier is to train him when he is in theater,” said Newell. “The 173rd allowed us to catch someone in the right point of the timeline. It was the ﬁrst opportunity to actually train a unit at home station, look at the equipment during their CTC, or combat training center rotation, and actually take it into theater and put it to use.” “Introducing the training in Europe and at the JMRC was easy because everything is centralized and under the JMTC,” Newell said. The March 2012 MRE was the ﬁnal home-station training event for the 173rd ABCT before its deployment; however, the unit has trained for more than a year, using live, virtual and constructive capabilities oﬀered at the JMTC. “Sometimes you think you develop a way to improve governance or security. You think certain actions are going to create desired outcomes, but it doesn’t always work that way,” said Lt. Col. Robert E. Young, chief of Operations Division at the JMTC’s Joint Multinational Simulations Center, known as the JMSC, which provides virtual and constructive training support during exercises similar to the 173rd’s MRE. “It can be frustrating.” A new training tool available at the JMSC provides a method to train commanders and staﬀs on the com-
plexities of stability operations in a counterinsurgency environment and reinforces the combat skills needed for deployment and those trained at the HTA. “UrbanSim allows commanders and staﬀs to understand the complexities associated with developing and implementing a campaign plan,” said Young. “This desktop simulation is designed to expose leaders to the challenges found in the current operational environment early in the unit's training cycle, while replicating some of those complexities.” For example, on March 15, the 173rd ABCT assumed control of the operational environment at the Hohenfels Training Area from JMRC observers, controllers and trainers, replicating a standard procedure in Afghanistan. At the same time, real-world reporters toured the mock-Afghan town. There were no signs of combat. The town was quiet. A squad of soldiers walked into town for a peaceful meeting with government oﬃcials. “Things could have been diﬀerent,” said Maj. William J. Griﬃn, public aﬀairs oﬃcer at JMRC to the media. “The unit chose to use diplomacy ﬁrst, if they had come in knocking the doors down the town may have turned against them.” Griﬃn said the training is designed to show the unit there are consequences for every action. The day prior the 173rd ABCT had negotiated a school project that would allow the local population to give their children a proper education. “The one thing we did diﬀerent for this rotation was that actions they took on day one had aﬀects on day ﬁve,” said Poindexter. “All their actions had consequences whether positive or negative.”
JOINT MULTINATIONAL SIMULATIONS CENTER
Improving our foxhole everyday By Lt. Col. Rob Young, Chief of Operations Division, JMSC
During the past seven months of the ﬁscal year 2012, the JMSC planned, prepared, and executed 11 brigade and battalion-level Command Post Exercises, supported 288 training events that improved the combat readiness of more than 9,000 U.S. service members and close to 4,000 participants from 33 nations throughout Europe. We have seen an increase in the training support of 138 training events and are on the glide path to exceed our ﬁscal year 2011 training support measurements by 19 percent. We have arguably become very good with applying our current simulation tools to meet Commander training requirements. But, what tools and capabilities will we need to support future home-station training?
What can we do today, to improve our ability to support training tomorrow? Our leaders, mission command trainers, simulation experts, intelligence, and exercise design teams wrestle with these questions as we balance current training requirements with the development, testing, and implementation the next generation of training techniques and procedures. Meeting these challenges requires adaptable and agile trainers capable of creating innovative methods to improve current training and develop adequate solutions supporting future Commander training requirements. As we enter a time of increasing ﬁscal constraints, our need to create “tailor-able” training packages and design “good enough” solutions becomes increasingly important. As such, we have become more focused on training requirements, not technology. Some of our innovative approaches use low cost, desktop simulation, while others capitalize on exploiting existing capability or based on the restructuring and relocation of existing resources to meet future requirements. In addition, our ability to smartly and eﬃciently support our multi-national partners and enhance their training capacity is mutually beneﬁcial as we continue to support the U.S. Army in Europe’s plan for providing Theater Security Cooperation. This section contains a series of updates on how the JMSC continues to improve its foxhole every day to meet future training requirements. Photos/VBS 2 Screenshots by Michael Beaton, JMTC PAO
JMTC TRAINING JOURNAL
Mission command training: the use of low overhead simulation By Lt. Col. Ken Letcher, Chief of the Mission Command Program
The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staﬀ, General Martin Dempsey, recently wrote creativity, adaptability, critical-thinking, independent and rapid decision-making are the essential elements of mission command, which are needed to develop the force of the future and the Army of 2020. Through mission command, commanders blend the art of command with the science of control to integrate war-ﬁghting functions, achieve objectives, and accomplish missions. Field Manuals 3-0, 5-0, and 6-0 provide a guide for practicing and applying its principles. The JMTC’s Joint Multinational Simulation Center now oﬀers a Mission Command Program, also known as MCP, for U.S. forces and multi-national allies and partners. Using Low Overhead Drivers, or LOD, the new family of simulations is inexpensive, ﬂexible, andfacilitates home-station training when and where needed to support “crawl and walk” level exercises. The MCP, UrbanSim is a personal computer-based virtual training application, which allows personnel to practice MC in a constructive environment and instructors focus on key aspects of MC, such as, understaning the commander’s guidance, critical information requirements, and lines of eﬀort. During training, trainees direct battalion actions as they attempt to maintain stability, ﬁght insurgency, reconstruct the civil infrastructure and prepare for transition. UrbanSim requires few additional resources. The system requires one personal computer per team or trainee, and a facilitator who understands the tool, tactical scenario, and the doctrinal underpinnings of staﬀ operations. The MCP uses multiple small groups, instead of individuals to execute the simulation, and engages one facilitator per two groups. This technique increases teambuilding and facilitates doctrinal discourse on MC and associated staﬀ tasks during training. The return on investment increases training proﬁciency at the battalion-and-brigade staﬀ level, and in the uncertain future of hybrid threats and an ever more volatile security environment, any tools that prepare larger staﬀs for operations is value-added. Meanwhile, students said their understanding of the second-and-third order eﬀects, problem-solving in a complex and adaptive problem set, and overall understanding of cultural diﬀerences within their organization improved.
JOINT MULTINATIONAL SIMULATIONS CENTER
Building and sustaining partner capacity
By Mr. Tom Lasch, Chief, Models and Simulation Division, JMSC
What is it?
JMSC, in cooperation with the Polish Land Forces, or the PLF, conducts the BAGRAM series of exercises, a series of certiﬁcation exercises, mission-rehearsal exercises and computer-assisted exercises conducted at Kielce Military Training Center in Kielce, Poland, twice a year.
Photo courtesy of EUCOM public Affairs
What eﬀorts does JMSC plan to continue in the future?
As the Polish Land Forces simulation capabilities improve, resource requirements continue to reduce. During the past year, JMSC exercise planners trained PLF leaders to perform major exercise functions, empowering them to perform duties once performed by JMSC staﬀ during the exercise. Now, critical exercise functions performed in the areas of simulation operator training, information systems conﬁguration and network engineering support are conducted by the PLF. Recently, a newly introduced desktop media creation tool was integrated and used by exercise planners to accomplish exercise tasks. The PLF provides a higher ﬁdelity training environment, which is augmented by JMSC staﬀ. Future exercises will expand the role of the Polish simulation personnel in the areas of JCATS system administration and MES administration, as well as, network management. Using this approach, the JMSC has reduced BAGRAM support to the exercises by 25 percent during the past 18 months, while improving the overall quality of the event. This marks a signiﬁcant milestone, since the 2010 inception of the series. During the next planned Exercise, BAGRAM XII, the Polish contribution will increase by nearly 75 percent.
What has the JMSC done?
During the BAGRAM exercises, conducted over a 24-hour day, uses a Master Scenario Events List with supporting simulations, which the Polish Task Force White Eagle headquarters and their subordinate Battle Groups are trained and certiﬁed for missions in the Ghazni Province of Afghanistan for deployments with the International Security Assistance Force. The JMSC has supported the BAGRAM series since 2010. With a team of 27 personnel, JMSC provides The U.S. Army's standardized battle-command systems, such as, the Joint Conﬂict Tactical Simulation, also known as JCATS, Command Post of the Future, and Blue Force Tracker, in addition to exercise computers with Microsoft Enterprise Services, or MES, including email and Share Point technology. The exercise environment may also be stimulated by the use of Unmanned Aerial Systems.
JMTC TRAINING JOURNAL
Why is this important to the Army? The PLF is an important partner in the current conﬂict. Investments in Afghanistan helped the U.S. to leverage forces elsewhere in support of the contingencies in other regions. With improved partner capabilities and interoperability gained, the U.S. Army in Europe may leverage simulations and resources to other multinational partners and meet other global requirements.
JMSC: reaching out with solutions
Simulated Garrison Force Protection Exercise
It’s the challenge of every garrison force protection exercise: prepare for disaster while minimizing the effect on a community’s daily routine. U.S. Army garrisons in Europe may have found a solution. The Joint Multinational Training Command’s Christian Marquardt explains.
Photo: Staff Sgt. Adam Mancini
Real-world training on public, private land in the German Federal Republic By Army Sgt. Julieanne Morse, 129th Mobile Public Aﬀairs Detachment South Dakota Army National Guard
During a time of drawing down troop numbers in Afghanistan, the Joint Multinational Training Command continues to provide real-world training for future conﬂicts by using public and private land in Germany. Maneuver Rights Areas are foreign, public and private land areas where U.S. Forces may conduct training. NATO’s Status of Forces Agreement allows U.S. forces to conduct maneuver exercises on public and private property in Germany, with some restrictions and the proper coordination. Soldiers in the 4th Squadron, 2nd Cavalry Regiment based at Vilseck, Germany, recently conducted a reconnaissance mission on local MRAs, using Strykers to maneuver around the countryside near Weiden, Germany. They had to consider the German civilians who live in the area, while training to engage and destroy the enemy during their exercise. “Reconnaissance security tasks require a lot of maneuver space,” said Ernest Roth, the maneuver manager at JMTC. “There is just not a lot of maneuver land on Grafenwoehr training area.” Part of Roth’s job is to ensure German oﬃcials receive notiﬁcation prior to training on the vast amount of land. The three MRAs near Grafenwoehr contain approximately 135 square miles of land, with lowland farms, rivers and forested hills.
JMTC TRAINING JOURNAL
“I don’t know anywhere else in the world where you have this big of an area to maneuver,” said Capt. Nicolas Fiore, an assistant operations oﬃcer with the 2nd Cavalry Regiment. “It’s an unparalleled opportunity.” Capt. Alfred Dixon Jr., a squadron logistics oﬃcer with the 2nd Cavalry Regiment, said having access to oﬀ-installation training areas is essential because they provide unfamiliar man made and natural terrain for real-world training. “If you can’t get out of the gate and get to a foreign area, you don’t get the full beneﬁt of the training,” said Dixon. Fiore said training in these kinds of areas also aﬀords Soldiers the opportunity to train within another culture, making it necessary to learn about things like diﬀerences in road signs and various language barriers. Integrating real-world maneuver training prepares Soldiers for future conﬂicts by providing a full-spectrum training environment, ranging from counter insurgency to high-intensity conﬂict. “The Army Chief of Staﬀ has said that it is important that the army has balance - that it’s a balanced force,” said Roth. “For the last 10 years the major focus, rightly so, has been on COIN-related tasks. If you have not trained your high-intensity conﬂict tasks, atrophy sets in after a time.”
Photo: Marcus Rauchenberger
Warrior Leader Course graduates, building multinational friendships from the ground up By Spc. Manda Walters, 129th Mobile Public Aﬀairs Detachment, South Dakota Army National Guard
they all successfully complete deﬁned benchmarks set by the U.S. Army in Europe, including skills in leadership, training management, physical readiness, drill and ceremony, and war-ﬁghting. “The biggest reward is seeing the communications happen in spite of the varied backgrounds,” said Staﬀ Sgt. Yuri Armstrong, an NCOA group leader from Trinidad. “They execute orders without question and work together to solve problems,” he added. Armstrong said there are unique challenges involved in working as a team and solving problems. “We deploy as a NATO team. It’s important to train together so when we get down range we can work together more eﬀectively,” he said. The 7th Army Noncommissioned Oﬃcer Academy in Grafenwoehr, Germany is the also the largest NCO Academy in the U.S. Army and has been developing leaders for U.S. Army, Europe and our multinational NATO and allied partners for more than 60 years.
The procession of graduates onto the ﬁeld is orderly and disciplined as curling plumes of purple and yellow smoke enshrine the Leader Training Leaders sign post. A commemorative blast suggests the deep-seated history of the oldest NCO Academy in the U.S. Army. Four multinationals and more than 250 U.S. Soldiers graduated from the 7th Army Noncommissioned Oﬃcer Academy’s, or 7th Army NCOA, Warrior Leaders Course, also known as WLC, in a recognition ceremony April 27, 2012 in Grafenwoehr, Germany. Command Sgt. Major Jimmy Sellers, JMTC’s NCO Academy commandant says the demanding 18-day course challenges junior enlisted soldiers, which shapes them into leaders, Noncommissioned Oﬃcers that are ready to lead despite high-operational tempo and diﬃcult missions. Sellers said, WLC graduates may not share the same native language or ethnic background, however
s p o t l i g h t on jmsc’s continual evolution
Replication of the hybrid-threat: The many faces of JMSC’s professional Opposing Force (OPFOR) By Capt. Christopher Sims, 1-4 Infantry Battalion (Opposing Forces) Photos by Richard Bumgardner
To understand the actions of the OPFOR when replicating a hybrid threat, there are several principles and tactics outlined in the U.S. Army TC 7-100 series of manuals. One common misconception of the OPFOR is that it still applies a traditional Soviet-based orderof-battle when analyzing how to respond to threats, when in fact, the OPFOR in no way falls under such restrictions. Instead, they strive to array themselves within the battlefield geometry in such a way that allows easy transitions from the offense to defense, as well as linear and non-linear operations. The OPFOR employs weapons and firepower asymmetrically. Specifically, the OPFOR may employ operational shielding, dispersion of assets, communications discipline, advanced camouflage, extensive deception operations, and other methods to negate the technological advantages of their opponent and to achieve victories. Another major characteristic unique to OPFOR is the willingness to use terror and weapons of mass destruction. These are just some of the many aspects of the hybrid threat that an RTU must face. The OPFOR at JMRC also demonstrates advanced enemy capabilities that potential adversaries currently possess throughout the world. In the 2012 the OPFOR will begin using tactical unmanned aerial systems to conduct surveillance of the rotational unit, as well as secure or encrypted communications, human intelligence teams, and potentially utilize signal intelligence assets and employ improvised jamming systems to disrupt RTU systems and unmanned ground sensors to replicate enemy ground surveillance radars. Simultaneously, exercise planners can incorporate cyber warfare events into the exercise scenario to create challenging situations in the operational environment. In each DATE rotation, the OPFOR will replicate the organizational structure, methods, and capabilities of the hybrid threat. A variety of diverse conventional and irregular forces will synchronize efforts to challenge the RTU. Niche adversary capabilities will challenge RTU information systems and technologies. Adopting these new threat characteristics as identified in the TC 7-100 series of manuals ensures JMSC’s OPFOR is providing the most realistic and up-to-date training to units available.
When future rotational units come to the JMRC to train in a Decisive Action Training Environment, known as DATE rotation, they’ll face a challenging scenario against a daunting Opposing Force, also known as OPFOR. The evolving training environment no longer depicts conventional forces using only Soviet-based doctrine, nor the readiness exercises or counterinsurgency environments of Iraq or Afghanistan. Instead, the OPFOR applies principles designed specifically to defeat threats posed by countries of technological superiority. The hybrid threat is “the diverse and dynamic combination of regular forces, irregular forces, and/ or criminal elements all unified to achieve mutually benefitting effects”. While many historical conflicts resemble this strategy (see sidebar), the hybrid threat is increasingly relevant today. The capabilities and technologies available worldwide facilitate more synergy and synchronization between separate elements than ever before. To replicate the organizational structure of a hybrid threat, the OPFOR trains to fill a variety of roles and may portray the following groups simultaneously: armor, mechanized or light infantry conventional units, irregular forces such as insurgents, guerrillas, paramilitary, mercenaries, and criminal elements. The OPFOR controls the synergy among these diverse groups and adapts them to systematically stress an opponent.
JMTC TRAINING JOURNAL
OPFOR CASE STUDIES
Throughout the Chinese Civil War (1927-1950), Mao Tse-Tung forged a relationship with guerrillas and conventional forces, coordinating actions at the tactical level between adjacent units with some correlation at the strategic level. Modern advancements in communication capabilities have increased the ability to correlate strategy between diverse threat groups to coordinate and synchronize their efforts to a much greater extent than during Mao’s campaign. One contemporary example is the North Korean doctrine which employs “mixed tactics”, with more than 100,000 Soldiers trained to coordinate guerrilla warfare to shape conditions in support of the conventional forces. In the Lebanon War of 2006, Hezbollah incorporated aspects of both conventional and irregular warfare, transitioning from conventional to irregular forces in order to control the tempo of the battle and change the nature of the conflict.
Full Spectrum Training Environment: OPFOR
The hills and forests of the U.S. Army’s Hohenfels Training Area echos to a sound they haven’t heard in almost a decade. A sound that signals the future of Army training in Europe.
Cruise control: Italian soldier’s MRAP certiﬁcation at JMTC Story and photos by Michael Beaton, 7th U.S. Army JMTC Public Aﬀairs Early in the evening of Oct. 20, Italian combat engineer Cpl. Tizano Testa hurriedly clamored over the cab of a 19-ton, 18-foot high MaxxPro-Base armored ﬁghting vehicle while trying to install a night-vision camera on the roof. The soldier behind the wheel of the massive vehicle, Francesco Monteforte, was waiting to drive through the motor pool parking lot with the windshield armor down — essentially driving in a steel box without a window — and needed the camera to see. “The way you drive at home, there should be no diﬀerence if I attach it or not!” said Testa sarcastically. Within a few minutes the wind picked up and it began to rain. At this time of year the late afternoon light fades fast, making the task of getting the camera properly attached and functioning even more diﬃcult. “Can you see anything yet?” Testa called out in English, heavily accented in a Neapolitan-Italian dialect. He’s obviously impatient to get moving. As an afterthought, he adds a few sharp words in Italian intended for the camera. Finally, Monteforte calls out from inside the vehicle: “Wait! It’s good – I see! Avanti! Let’s go! Testa and Monteforte are two of the 32 students from the 21st Engineers, members of the Italian Combat Service Support Battalion based out of Caserta, located 40 miles north of Naples, who have come to the U.S. Army Europe Joint Multinational Training Command to attend a two-week intensive Mine Resistant Ambush Protected vehicle (MRAP) Driver/Operator certiﬁcation course. “Even though it’s already getting pretty dark, they shouldn’t be taking so long to get moving,” said Aubrey Gorden, the lead instructor and multinational training specialist in charge of JMTC MRAP driver’s certiﬁcation program. “But they’ll probably cut that time in half by tomorrow.
JMTC TRAINING JOURNAL
I’ve rarely taught a group with such a high learning curve – and I’ve been working with multinationals my entire career.” Gorden climbed into the passenger seat next to a conﬁdent and smiling Monteforte. Throughout the training an instructor rides in each vehicle with a group of students to ensure they are safely operating the vehicle, which involves backing, three-point turns, serpentine ﬁgure eights, quick stops and starts, obstacle navigation and real-life scenarios they may confront in combat. In order to receive their certiﬁcation and MRAP license, soldiers are required to log at least 50 miles of daytime driving and 30 miles at night using both night-vision video cameras and standard headlights separately. Prior to certiﬁcation, students must demonstrate proﬁciency driving the vehicle, know its capabilities, safety and general operating features as a passenger, as well as a driver, and identify the required tasks and warning gauges in order to keep up with the vehicle’s general maintenance. “Grafenwoehr has everything we need to really train a soldier well in such a short period of time,” said Anthony Orejel, a certiﬁcation instructor, referring to the training area’s terrain and road conditions. “The Italian language is a diﬃcult hurdle, of course, but we quickly got over it,” said Gorden with a chuckle. “We teach multinationals from virtually every corner of the world, but the nature of teaching is to learn, so we can adapt to how each group
of students learn best – that’s part of making any successful program work. The main thing is to ensure that all students we teach are properly certiﬁed and have the training to safely and expertly operate the vehicle in combat.” Since the program’s inception in 2009, the training has grown to cover not only driving various types of MRAPs but also safety, rollovers, recovery and maintenance. Initially, the course was intended for U.S. Soldiers only, but when NATO and allied multinational partners requested training JMTC was all too happy to open the program up to them. In the last three years JMTC has evolved into a place where U.S. Soldiers and their coalition counterparts from all over the globe learn how to work together. The MRAP is an armored ﬁghting vehicle outﬁtted with a sophisticated array of IED countermeasures and safety features. Italian Cpl. Fabiana Gatta had only praise for the MRAP’s performance on the range – no small ﬂattery from a citizen of a land famously known for its love of highperformance automobiles, renowned champion Formula-1 drivers and gridlocked city squares. “It’s pretty fast. Sitting up so high you sometimes don’t become aware how fast you are going until the instructor tells you to ‘slow it down!’ The steering is a lot smoother than you would imagine. I could even drive this through rush hour time in downtown Naples, no problem!” he adds with a laugh. “After this training I could get through with no dents, you know, that would be a ﬁrst for me in my town!” In October, JMTC hosted a Full Spectrum Training Exercise (FSTE) with over 5,200 U.S. and multinational troops taking part, one of the largest coalition exercises to take place in Europe since the last REFORGER (Return of Forces to Germany) in May of 1993. In 2011 alone, JMTC instructors trained over 22,000 multinational troops from 38 countries. “JMTC is the place for combined U.S. and multinational training and we are exceptionally good at it,” said Col. Curtis J. Carson, JMTC chief of staﬀ. “The conﬂicts faced today do not allow for a quick, seamless transition to eﬀective partnership except through training. That‘s why we’re building tomorrows coalitions today, right here at JMTC.”
Mine Resistant Ambush Protected vehicle
MRAP MaxxPro Base armored ﬁghting vehicle
Designed with a V-shaped hull that deﬂects the blast of an IED or land mine away from the vehicle, and suspension ﬂoors and seats that reduce injuries caused by an explosive’s shockwaves. The 10-ton MaxxPro’s armored body, like all MRAP vehicles is bolted together instead of welded to the vehicle’s chassis to facilitate quick repairs. MRAPs are equipped with run-ﬂat tires and the driver sits signiﬁcantly higher than in a conventional vehicle or humvee which allows Soldiers to see more of the surrounding landscape.
Horsepower...................330 at 2,400 rpm Range.......................................420 miles Height.........................Approx 104 inches Width......................................108 inches Length Overall........................233 inches Weight.....................................32,000 lbs Payload Max....................Up to 6,000 lbs Passengers............................................6
JMTC updates Soldier Competition Model Story and photo by Master Sgt. Robert Hyatt
As the Army continues to transform, Soldier competitions hosted by the Joint Multinational Training Command are also changing. Updates to these already rigorous competitions will set a new standard for developing leaders and providing new challenges for Soldiers who compete. “We took a hard look at the Best Warrior competitions to see what events we could change and that would challenge Soldiers and leaders on more than just combat skills,” said 1st Sgt. Russell Johnson, former operations noncommissioned oﬃcer in charge, who was an integral part in the ﬁrst steps of the change. “If we can add tasks like counseling and suicide prevention, we’ll really touch on more of what leaders and Soldiers must be prepared to do.” Also, oﬃcers are no longer precluded from competitions. Last year, at the direction of the U.S. Army Europe’scommanding general Lt. Gen. Mark Hertling, JMTC hosted the ﬁrst USAREUR Best Junior Oﬃcer Competition. The contest challenged 23 pre-command company grade oﬃcers in several tactical events as well as physical ﬁtness tests, ranges, and long distance marches with combat equipment. Historically, Soldier competitions consist of boards, essays, warrior tasks and drills. In the future, competitors will see challenges that deal with everyday Soldiering, said Johnson. Both Oﬃcers and Noncommissioned oﬃcers will encounter tasks to challenge their leadership skills in non-tactical environments -- some speciﬁcally focused on requirements existing in a garrison environment. “We want competition winners to be competent leaders, who perform well tactically and react well to other types of situations that can happen from day to day,” said Sgt. 1st. Class Rafael Monge, the current operations noncommissioned oﬃcer in charge. The Best Junior Oﬃcer competition was the ﬁrst step in developing a future range of competition was the ﬁrst of its kind in Europe, serving as a foundation for updating the Best Warrior competitions. “General Hertling’s guidance to me was not to make the competition a best ranger type competition,” said Lt. Col. William Brockman, chief of operations at JMTC.
JMTC TRAINING JOURNAL
“Competitors should be challenged physically and mentally with an emphasis on cognitive skills.” To challenge oﬃcers, competition planners integrate challenges and tasks routinely performed by oﬃcers, including garrison leadership requirements, and warrior tasks, Brockman added. New events may include inventory procedures and situational events such as reacting to incidents involving sexual assault, media engagements or suicide prevention. These situational events test oﬃcers on how they deal with current trends that are high priority issues across the Department of the Army, which are demonstrated in current trends. Noncommissioned oﬃcer competitions will also reﬂect additional non-tactical, leadership speciﬁc events. The events test competitors on the fundamentals of being a leader as well as a warrior, according to Monge. Some of the tests may be similar to those in the oﬃcer competition. Soldier competitions will remain primarily focused on warrior tasks and drills, however, essay questions and tests will assess basic knowledge Soldiers should possess, according to Monge. “This competition allows Soldiers from all of the Army’s jobs to compete and be successful,” he said. As competition planners look forward to the execution of the events, it’s training the winners for Army-level competitions that proves most exciting for contestants and trainers. “The winners of the USAREUR competitions go through an intense train-up to get ready for the Army level,” said Staﬀ Sgt Timothy Suh, a competition planner. “The training is challenging but Soldiers love training. When there is a clear goal associated with the training they get really excited.” Read more: http://www.dvidshub.net/image/488488/ us-army-europe-2011-best-junior-oﬃcer-competition #ixzz1uAjihTMM
The International Special Training Centre, Special Training for Special Forces For more than 30 years, the International Special Training Centre, also known as ISTC, formerly the International Long Range Reconnaissance Patrol School, or ILRRPS, at Weingarten, Germany, has provided high quality training in advanced and specialized skills to Oﬃcers and Noncommissioned oﬃcers from Special Forces of various NATO Nations. Since 1997 ISTC training has been conducted at the Generaloberst von Fritsch Kaserne in the town of Pfullendorf, Germany. ISTC is a testament to the contributions and commitment of nine member nations: Belgium, Denmark, Italy, Germany, Greece, the Netherlands, Norway,
Turkey and the United States. ISTC maintains lineage and past contributions with the United Kingdom, one of the key members of the ILRRPS. ISTC is viewed as a world-class Tactical Training center and consists of four training divisions conducting a total of 12 diﬀerent courses geared at training NATO SOF and selected conventional forces in advanced individual patrolling, emergency ﬁeld medical, close quarter battle, sniper, survival and NATO SOF Task Force level planning skills. The Oﬃcers, Noncommissioned oﬃcers and enlisted Soldiers assigned to ISTC now train more than 1000 NATO students each year.
Multinational Soldiers from seven nations prepare for MEDEVAC during a mass casualty by completing triage and patient stabilization at an airfield located adjacent to the International Training Centre, also known as ISTC, at Pfullendorf, Germany in May 2012. The course re-cycles each month and includes nine participating nations. (U.S. Army photo/Released)
A Multinational Soldier participates in the High Angle/ Urban Sniper Course offered April 30 - May 11, out of Lizum, Austria. The High Angle/Urban Sniper course is one of the International Training Centre's (ISTC) newest initiates and the first of its kind in Europe. The teams from BEL, NLD, and NOR take part in ISTC's training in advanced and specialized skills for officers and NCO’s from the Special Forces of various NATO nations. (U.S. Army photo/Released)
Multinational Soldiers from 12 countries practice urban movement skills together as part of a multi-team assault in Grafenwoehr as part of the Advanced Close Quarters Battle Course offered by the International Training Centre, also known as ISTC, in May 2012. ISTC regularly provides specialized training to U.S. and multinational NATO Soldiers in Pfullendorf, Germany. (U.S. Army photo/Released)
During a MASCAL exercise at Dinohausen Urban Training Facility in Pfullendorf, Multinational Soldiers from 12 countries conduct medical training at the International Training Centre (ISTC) this past May. ISTC has provided high quality training in advanced and specialized skills to officers and non-commissioned officers from the Special Forces of various NATO nations. (U.S. Army photo/Released)
A cooperative eﬀort: Decisive-Action Training and Air Mobility On October 5th, 2011, the sun over Hohenfels Germany was blotted out by a thousand parachutes of the 173rd Airborne Brigade Combat Team, referred to as 173rd ABCT, as they jumped into the ﬁrst ever Full-Spectrum Training Environment, called FSTE, rotation at Hohenfels, Germany. It was the ﬁrst exercise of its kind since 2003. The FSTE, a training event with an emphasis on conventional military skills, tasks and operations, which may have been lost after more than a decade of counter-insurgency operations, also known as COIN. During COIN operations units fall-in on an established combat outpost. The FSTE simulated operations in an austere environment and the various missions required to establish a ﬁghting position, relationships with the host nation and civil aﬀairs operations. The FSTE combined the fully-combat equipped U.S. Soldiers from the 173rd, Airmen of the 435th Air Ground Operations Wing, with the Polish 6th Airborne Brigade and other multi-national forces for conventional warfare. The Army has since renamed FSTE to Decisive-Action Training Exercise. During FSTE trainers said the 173rd had a unique mission as Europe’s sole-airborne infantry combat brigade. As the elite force tasked to mobilize to the EUCOM, they rely on air mobility to be timely, and surgically inﬁltrate anywhere in the world.
JMTC TRAINING JOURNAL
Coordination began six months prior to the masstactical airborne operation. The ﬁrst planning call was to the 37th Airlift Squadron located at Ramstein. Here, tacticians used on historical data and expert multi-ship airdrop training to plan for a 10-ship of C-130 aircraft capable of safely carrying a military force internationally, bringing the ﬁght right to the enemy's doorstep. Similar coordination with the multinational owned and operated Heavy Airlift Wing, based in Papa, Hungary, brought load plans for air dropping a narrow 36 foot platform with one 20,000 pound Howitzer and multiple tactical vehicles for moving the artillery immediately following the airborne operation. Air lifting an assault force of this size and their equipment would be impossible without the cooperation of our partner nations in Europe. "This exercise presented many unique planning challenges that are not ordinarily considered when training in the continental United States. We spent a lot of time and energy working with our host nation as well as neighboring countries in order to assure proper air space clearances and notiﬁcations," said Capt. Donavan Laskey, mission planner and pilot with the 37th Airlift Squadron recounts his coordination eﬀorts during this exercise. "Many of the nations we work with within Europe have distinct airspace requirements, we had to contact
Photos courtesy of USAFE Public Affairs
By Walter J. Mettler, Air Mobility Liaison Oﬃcer, 8th Air Support Operations Squadron
Photo by SPC Chris Hubert
the embassies to ensure we could transit their countries." Laskey said, planners had to overcome challenges associated with ﬂight times because of the distance between the three key locations Ramstein, Aviano and Hohenfels. "Scheduled take-oﬀ times had to be very exact and our jumpers had to be ready to load immediately," he said. "Through preparation, coordination and pre-briefs, our crews and the "This exercise presented many unique planning challenges that are not ordinarily considered when training in the continental United States. We spent a lot of time and energy working with our host nation as well as neighboring countries in order to assure proper air space clearances and notiﬁcations," said Capt. Donavan Laskey, mission planner and pilot with the 37th Airlift Squadron recounts his coordination eﬀorts during this exercise. "Many of the nations we work with within Europe have distinct airspace requirements, we had to contact the embassies to ensure we could transit their countries." Laskey said, planners had to overcome challenges associated with ﬂight times because of the distance between the three key locations Ramstein, Aviano and Hohenfels. "Scheduled take-oﬀ times had to be very exact and our jumpers had to be ready to load immediately," he said.
Air mobility CASE STUDIES
Air mobility has played a key role in decisive victory since World War II. During Allied Operation OVERLORD, General Dwight D.Eisenhower led allied forces to unity of eﬀort in the Normandy campaign. Thanks to unremitting Allied air oﬀensives, by the spring of 1944 air superiority was achieved throughout the European theater. Allied maritime superiority was assured with victory in the Battle of the Atlantic. These preconditions allowed synergy to emerge from the integration of air, land, sea, and special operations forces. During the night of June 5, tactical airlift forces carried pathﬁnders and airborne forces to begin the airborne operations. These airborne landings served to confuse the enemy and block key road junctions and bridges leading to the amphibious assault area. After 12 days into the ﬁght, more than 2,700 ships and 1,000 transport aircraft had landed 692,000 troops, 95,000 vehicles, and more than 228,000 tons of supplies.
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A cooperative eﬀort: Decisive-Action Training and Air Mobility hohenfels training area allows ground troops and aviation assets to train together.
Ten C-130 aircraft drop 1,000 paratroopers with kit and weapons into the Hohenfels training area in 25 minutes while one C-17 delivers 800 tons of the brigade’s vehicles, fuel, ammo and supplies throughout the duration of the exercise. Planning considerations included aircraft availability, adequacy, airﬁeld security, landing zones, drop zone proximity to the objective, enemy activity and the weather.
CONTINUED FROM PREVIOUS PAGE "Through preparation, coordination and pre-briefs, our crews and the jumpers were able to limit ground time and maximize time over the target...enabling the jump." There was an 11-ship formation that dropped the 1,000 troop-assault force with two lifts from Aviano to Hohenfels. The paratroopers used a two door masstactical exit procedure with all jumpers exiting as quickly as possible. There were two passes over the drop zone. "This exercise presented an outstanding opportunity to train, prepare, and test our capability to drop EUCOM's quick reaction force using only EUCOM assets," said Laskey. Air-drops are required in higher threat environments, if no airﬁelds exist, or when suﬃcient materials handling equipment isn't available. However, these are limitations. The additional weight and space required for parachute rigging and cushioning material reduces the amount of cargo or personnel each aircraft can deliver, he said. A "combat oﬄoad" from a moving aircraft is a viable alternative because it enables delivery of equipment without parachute rigging or the need for forklifts. Handling combat oﬄoads is one of the 435th CRG's key missions. The method facilitates speed and the vast number of potential-objective areas from where
JMTC TRAINING JOURNAL
forces can be employed. All three of these methods were demonstrated in October's Decisive Action Training at the only training facility which allows simultaneous air and land combat maneuvering, Europe's Joint Multinational Readiness Center. Europe's FSTE explored an entry operation into a ﬁctional country, Atropia. However, the reality is the 173 ABCT can perform their mission in Europe or deploy anywhere to support national objectives. To this end, U.S. and partner nation air mobility assets would undoubtedly deliver the unit as planned during the training. "The jump into the FSTE rotation validated the 173 ABCT's ability to assemble as a coalition Airborne Assault Force in Aviano and jump from one country into another country, using European assets," said Captain John Tato, the brigade's air operations oﬃcer. "This kind of training and experience gives the 173rd the ﬂexibility to jump as a coalition with multiple countries in Europe." "Only in EUCOM can this kind of multi-national partnership come together and train for theater engagement exploiting economy of force, proximity, and unity of command, all on a shoe string budget," he said. "The unique forcible entry capabilities of
“This exercise showcased the value of air mobility and validated its importance to the supply
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and sustainment of the war eﬀort. Timely airdrop resupply missions can sustain a Forward Operations Base (FOB) indeﬁnitely,” said Lt. Col Stacey Maxey, as he recounts his experience as an Air Mobility Liaison Oﬃcer (AMLO) in Afghanistan: “Our initial airdrops during Operation Enduring Freedom in 2008 was 15 million pounds.” By 2010, it had exceeded 60 million pounds and if on schedule, by 2011 will break 102 million,” he said. “This FOB had not used a ground method of delivery in more than a year; it didn't need to…it could be completely supported by air.”
EUCOM's joint air and land ﬁghting forces could not be realized without the invaluable training and cooperation from our partner nations. Together, we've got this covered." U.S. and NATO partnered nations regularly train at Hohenfels' Joint Multinational Readiness Center (JMRC). However, accomplishing the forcible entry, a key mission for the 173rd, ensured the sustainment needed to perform joint airborne inﬁltration, air-land delivery, and airdrop missions. According to capabilities speciﬁed in the Air Force Doctrine Document 3-17, Air Mobility Operations, there are two basic modes of airlift: air-land and airdrop. Both were executed during Europe's FSTE. The exercise design included a large contingency of the 173 ABCT at Hohenfels, with a smaller element at in Grafenwoehr, while the 30th Medical Command's command post exercise was happening simultaneously, with other units occupying additional training facilities at the nearby town of Amberg. The mission was tailored to meet the requirements of the 173rd and anticipated the battleﬁeld of the future. Planning considerations included the following: availability, adequacy, security of airﬁelds, landing zones, and drop zones near the objective area
and aircraft capabilities. Both airland and airdrop methods were conducted to ensure that the units training objectives were met. After the C-130 and C-17 formation airdropped the multi-national assault force on the drop zone, airlift was again used for the main body air-land deployment. It was the ﬁrst step in the 173rd's "Bayonet Resolve" operation order, after they secured a short take-oﬀ and landing runway on the eastern edge of the training area. This objective was critical in the delivery of more than 400 planned cargo missions to deliver about 800 tons of the brigade's assault vehicles, weapons, communications equipment and building materials. The 435 CRG provided airﬁeld operations support to include air traﬃc control, airﬁeld management,and download/upload of aircraft in and out of the ﬁeld as needed by the supported task-force commander. Europe's FSTE showcased the value of air mobility and validated it’s critical importance to the supply and sustainment of the war eﬀort.
jmtc’s "training support center in a box"
JMTC Trainers export instrumentation for Immediate Response ‘12 By Army Spc.Manda Walters, 129th Mobile Public Aﬀairs Detachment, South Dakota Army National Guard / Photos: JMTC PAO.
Immediate Response ‘12 hosts forces from nine nations including Albania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro, Slovenia, Serbia, Slovakia, and the U.S. , a total of approximately 700 multinational soldiers. Immediate Response ’12 is hosted in Croatia, one of ﬁve scheduled training exercises supported by Europe’s Training Support Activity Europe, or TSAE, this summer, beginning May 22. The TSAE regularly exports training aids and devices. “We bring everything they need for training to the deployed environment,” said Paul Lewis, plans and operations specialist for TSAE’s Regional Training Support Division Expeditionary, or RTSD-E. The package can be thought of as a training support center in a box.” A ten-person team from RTSD-E, deploys with seventeen 40-foot trucks hauling equipment and personnel necessary for an eight-building Military Operations in Urban Terrain (MOUT) setup and a fully operational deployed training support center. Included in the package is DISE, or Deployable Instrumentation Systems Europe, an instrumented training enabler which provides instant, digital three-dimensional feedback of training during the after action review (AAR) as U.S. Army units and multinational partners train during Immediate Response ‘12. Leading up to the exercise, TSAE participates in the Joint Event Life Cycle planning process, calls on current doctrine, lessons learned from previous exercises, and conducts an extensive analysis in an eﬀort to provide training aids, devices and simulators that enhances training to world-class standards.
JMTC TRAINING JOURNAL
allied strike in grafenwoehr
JMTC TRAINING JOURNAL
NATO forces converge on Grafenwoehr for Allied Strike 2011 By Capt. Tristen Hinderlitern, USAFE Public Aﬀairs
One example of training geared speciﬁcally toward support personnel was the Emergency Close Air Support Lane. In the scenario, a JTAC was incapacitated and participants had to determine which of the available radios communicates with the tactical operations center and which communicates with the aircraft overhead. He or she must then eﬀectively describe the enemy’s position to a pilot, using landmarks and units of measure. Personnel from NATO partner nations not only took part in the training – in some cases, they lead it. In fact, two of the eight primary training lanes were led by the U.S.’s partner nations, including the Urban Lane, run by Danes, and the Forward Operating Base Defense Lane, which was run by the Belgians. Belgian JTAC instructor 1st Lt. Bart “Kojak” Vantomme ran the FOB Defense Lane, which required JTACs to call in close air support to defend a base that was under attack by insurgents. Vantomme designed the scenario himself, which he said was based on personal experience in Afghanistan’s Kunduz Province in 2009. In addition to realistic scenarios, a measure of realism was added by the use of Close Combat Mission Capability Kit simulation rounds. These CCMCK rounds are low-velocity marking rounds, red from specially modiﬁed M4 and M16 riﬂes. The rounds are a wax-based dye, which visibly marks targets that have been hit. Every day, NATO partners fight beside their U.S. counterparts in conﬂicts such as Afghanistan, which makes it critical to train together, Berry said.
Aircraft screamed overhead as the execution phase of Allied Strike 2011 was in full swing capping months of extensive planning that brought together nearly 350 people from the U.S. and 14 NATO partner nations for the largest close air support exercise in Europe. “The planning eﬀort was massive,” said Capt. Ruven Yarbrough, exercise deputy director from the 4th Air Support Operations Group in Heidelberg, Germany. “It was a giant undertaking, but one that we could do. When every person involved devotes some of their time, and a few have the ability to set the structure and vision, it’s a completely achievable task.” The opening ceremony included a three-airmen jump out of a C-130J aircraft and a welcome address by Col. Nick Vite, commander of the 4th Air Support Operations Group, the unit sponsoring the exercise. “You’re the teacher as much as you are the student, and don’t forget that.” Vite told exercise participants This exercise is really dependent on what you bring to the ﬁght, as well as what we are bringing to the ﬁght.” This was the ﬁfth iteration of the annual exercise, which has grown exponentially each year. The exercise is designed to provide realistic training in all aspects of tactical air control and close air support. Several training lanes were geared specifically toward the Joint Terminal Attack Controllers (JTACs), while other lanes provided training for non-JTACs. “We simply cannot do this type of training without our support personnel,” said Lt. Col. Jon Berry, the exercise director and commander of the 4th Air Support Operations Squadron. “The fact is that they are just as likely – if not more likely – than operators at times, to be selected to do things such as convoy operations. We are absolutely adamant that our support side personnel are comfortable with their weapons and equipment, and that they have the time to gain the currency and proﬁciency with these things.”
“In order to be successful, we need to train like we ﬁght, and we are absolutely committed to doing just that.” Lt. Col. Jon Berry, exercise director and commander of the 4th Air Support Operations Squadron.
Photo: U.S. Air Force
JMTC TRAINING JOURNAL
Replicating reality: connecting the services using technology By Army Sgt. Andrew Turner, 129th Mobile Public Aﬀairs Detachment South Dakota Army National Guard
“The hardest part is ensuring that your network is compatible with multinational networks,” said Chief Warrant Oﬃcer Jack Gordon, network manager for JMTC’s Joint Multinational Readiness Center, or JMRC. About 12,000 Soldiers perform maneuvers and collective training at JMRC annually. Diﬀerent nations use diﬀerent networks, and certain conﬁgurations are required to link together multiple networks, Gordon added. Meeting these challenges head-on is essential to synchronize operations with partner nations. “This allows them to see how we train and how we ﬁght,” said Gordon. “When we do get into that environment where we’re ﬁghting alongside them, we have some familiarization with each other.” In addition, military units must also be able to adapt as new technology emerges. Boynton said communications technology makes a “generational leap” every 18 months, and technological advancement has to be considered when preparing for future networks. “The network cannot be static with deﬁnite end state,” Boynton said. “Operational units must have access to the latest network capabilities when they prepare to deploy and when they are in theater.” Communication equipment and networks must be ﬂexible enough to easily integrate new capabilities and technology as it becomes available. As the future battleﬁeld develops, network capabilities provide a foundation for diﬀerent nations to join in training events in preparation for future joint operations. “What we do is very important,” said Gordon. It supports the Army mission and so far has been successful.
The ability to communicate is essential in any joint eﬀort between nations. The U.S. military and its multinational partners in Afghanistan have beneﬁted from a communications network that the U.S. Army’s only overseas training command is using in Europe to train the forces. The Afghanistan Mission Network, called the AMN, replicates theater communications eﬀorts during training in ways not done before. Stacy Ware, the JMTC’s assistant chief of staﬀ (G6) for information management said units from Europe, U.S. and multi-nationals who are currently deployed to Afghanistan trained at Grafenwoehr and Hohenfels using the Afghanistan Mission Network (AMN), which has the capability to pull “near-real time” information from the network. The units trained before arriving in theater, making it easier to integrate into the area of operation and allowing them to meet mission requirements faster. “The beneﬁt is it allows us to train our U.S. Soldiers with our multinational partners in a more collaborative environment,” said Ware. “A unit preparing to go down range is going to see the same picture here that he’s going to see when he’s actually deployed.” The future battleﬁeld network might not be AMN speciﬁc, so JMTC has to look at what the future warﬁghting network will be and prepare to train accordingly. Chief Warrant Oﬃcer James Boynton, deputy communications oﬃcer at JMTC, explained commanders are recognizing the long-term importance of building levels of interoperability with partner nations, and the ability to deploy with little or no notice. “The cornerstone of this capability is the network,” said Boynton. “It is absolutely critical to connecting leaders and Soldiers at all levels, and achieving mission success.” Connecting leaders and Soldiers on a large-scale network presents unique challenges.
distingui s h e d v i s i t o r s t o th e jm tc
Gen. Raymond T. Odierno, the Chief of Staff of the Army arrives at the Joint Multinational Training Command in Grafenwoehr, Germany, for a candid discussion with the unit Commanders and Sergeant Majors throughout the JMTC Military Community. (U.S. Army photo by Denver Beaulieu-Hains/Released)
Sgt. Maj. of the Army Raymond F. Chandler III tells Soldiers to always be a professional, and says a Soldier should "live the Warrior ethos," during a Town Hall meeting at the Grafenwoehr Fitness Center during his visit to JMTC in Grafenwoehr, Germany, March 6. (U.S. Army photo by Spc. Phoebe Malkowicz/Released)
Italian Armyâ€™s Chief of Staff Lt. Gen. Claudio Graziano (Right) observes Soldiers as they conduct simulated convoy training in the Reconfigurable Vehicle Tactical Training (RVTT) March 6, 2012 in Grafenwoehr, Germany. (U.S. Army photo by Markus Rauchenberger/Released)
Secretary of the Army John M. McHugh observes medical evacuation exercise at the Combat Training Lane to during a visit Aug. 1, 2011 to the Joint Multinational Training Area in Grafenwoehr, Germany. (US Army photo by Spc. Trisha Pinczes)
U.S. Army (RET.) General Gordon R. Sullivan, 32nd Chief of Staff, is greeted upon arrival by U.S. Army Col. Jeffery Martindale, Commander of the Joint Multinational Readiness Center (JMRC) in Hohenfels, Germany Nov. 16, 2011. (U.S. Army photo by Spc. Gemma Iglesias)
The United Kingdom's Army Lt. Gen. Jacko Page (center, with arms folded), the Commander of Force Development and Training receives a capability briefing on Grafenwoehr Training Area's Range 118, March 12, 2012. (U.S. Army photo by Markus Rauchenberger/Released)
JMTC TRAINING JOURNAL
THE LAST W OR D
jmtc: “in quotes” Admiral James G. Stavridis
Commander, U.S. European Command and NATO Supreme Allied Commander Europe
JMTC is the linchpin
to achieving vital theater
objectives, and meeting our comprehensive security cooperation mission.” “JMTC is a national strategic asset, providing world-class training and support that enables a broad range of multinational Soldier training events ensuring U.S. and partner nation forces are well-prepared for ISAF operations and future global contingencies.”
st a v ri dis
“I see three areas to focus our efforts in the coming years: expanded
education and training; increased exercises, and better use of technology. ” “We must expand our exercise schedule, with a particular focus on our NATO Response Force. This would allow us to draw maximum beneﬁt from the recent United States’ decision to rotate units from an Americanbased Brigade Combat Team through Europe to participate in the NATO Response Force. Operationally, this would maintain and strengthen our transatlantic ability to work together. And politically, it would provide visible assurance to Allies.”
NATO Secretary General Anders Fogh Rasmussen at the Allied Command Transformation Seminar, Washington D.C., February 12, 2012
J M T C ’ S EUROPEAN REACH: 4 6 C O U NTRIES
“Prevent Conﬂict, Shape the International Environment, Win Decisively” At JMTC The Decisive Action Training Environment synthesizes the power of U.S. and multi-national partnerships to prepare for and prevent future conﬂicts, while shaping the international environment, and preserving stability in the region. At JMTC, Soldiers train for the future ﬁght as coalitions.
no one does multi-national training better than jmtc
A publication of the Joint Multinational Training Command, Grafenwoehr, Germany