Issuu on Google+

Holbeck Spa Building Design

james lewis

Urban Studio


Holbeck Spa Building Design

james lewis

Urban Studio


Holbeck in the 18th & 19th centuries was the cradle of the industrial revolution in Leeds, manufacturing machinery for companies across the world utilising the nearby beck known as ‘The Hol Beck’. Holbeck is now a rundown, unsafe, poor residential area, with over 45% of the population in poor health. My vision capitalises on Holbeck’s water re-branding the district as a symbol for healing and revitalisation, a Spa Town resembling that of Harrogate, as it was once known....

2


Contents

1 The Site

5

2 Site Development

21

3 What is a Spa?.....

35

4 Design Development

57

5 Detailed Design

125

6 Appendix

145

3


4


The Site

5


Adapting the redundant viaduct not only as a connector for people coming to Holbeck from the train station but also creating a pool on it as a major attraction, making it an ‘Aquaduct’ of sorts.

The Masterplan Hol

Creating a secondary route linking the green link to the route which runs along the Hol Beck has led to the positioning of the spa along this route, where historic Holbeck used to be, where the Hol Beck and Holbeck Brook converge as well as being located near the viaduct to utilise the ‘Aquaduct’.

6

Note: new development is shaded

k

Bec

The new square creates a connection with the grade I listed Temple Works, celebrating it as a public museum and creates a destination on this new public route.

This green link resolves a key issue of pedestrian links in Holbeck, connecting the residents to Holbeck’s industrial heritage, the Urban Village and beyond to the city centre.


Routes

7


Entrances? rin

Sp gw

Ho

ell

lb

k

Ro

ec

ad

La

ne

Hol

e

Lan

Bridge Road

Tri u

m

ph

Cl os e

ter Wa

k

Bec

Hotel Access

Bat

hR

oad

Hol Beck Brook

Cza

r St

reet

Sw

eet

8

Str eet

We st


Redirecting Road

The Hol Beck/ Brook

9


Connection to Hotel

10

The Aquaduct


Train Station to Hotel

Fish Farm

11


The Hol Beck watercourses

Bridge Road

k Bec Hol e Lan ter Wa

Bat

hR

Hol Beck Brook

oad

Asda

The locations of the underground watercourses 12


Despite popular belief, the Holbeck Brook (also known as Benyon Beck) appears to be the original line of the watercourse and was culverted between 1865 and 1890. It runs into the River Aire below the Asda headquarters as shown in the maps above. Based on the date the Holbeck Brook was culverted, it would only be 6-8m deep in the ground and would be cylindrical. The Hol Beck appears to be a constructed watercourse and was canalised in 1840’s. It drains via a culvert into the River Aire by Victoria Bridge. Hol Beck goes underground Both becks were used for the steam powered mills in the residing area.

Hol Beck Brook joins the River Aire below the Asda headquarters. 13


Holbeck to Leeds Historic Footpath

14


Connections ‘When everything is possible, when there are no restrictions to our imagination, then we must impose these limits on ourselves. Without these limits, without the concept of intellectual as well as physical restraint, we cannot hope to find architecture that has meaning.’ D.Chipperfield

Holbeck

City

A happy accident led to the discovery of a secondary route to the city along the Hol Beck reinforcing the concept of making the water a main feature of Holbeck. Developing a destination along the route perpendicular to the viaduct was the driving force of the scheme. 15


The Heart of the Matter RIBA Journal, November 2011

16


Community Hub

Spa

Health Centre

Library

Community Centre

17


Newcastle Geothermal Project Friday, 21 October 2011

18


Deep Geothermal Energy Capitalising on Holbeck’s underground aquifer water supply as was once done by the mills during the Industrial Revolution has provided to potential for the spa to exist in the first place and has led to an energy strategy to heat up the water using a Deep Geothermal process creates hot water for the whole of Holbeck for free.

Pool

Filter

Heat Exchange

Due to the fact the aquifer in Holbeck is not a natural hot spring, the heat and energy is generated using ‘Deep Geothermal Energy’ (a completely sustainable solution, currently being done by Newcastle University). Once the water is extracted, the water is the pushed 3-4km down through hot rock generating electricity and district heating which can supply up to 300-400 homes. The heat generating process has no variables such as weather and the only disadvantage is the cost off drilling so far into the ground.

10°C

Aquifer

80°C

Hot Rock

Holbeck

19


20


Site Development

21


Sketches

22


Sketches

23


Massing Model 1 The first model looks at the breaking up of the site based on the linear route to the Hol Beck without any particular uses in mind for each of the plots. It also looks at how to enter the spa itself and investigating the optimum site for it.

1:500

24


Massing Model 2 Geothermal Plant (120sq m min)

Spa

Library/ Adult Education

Spa Entrance/ Medical Facilities

Vertical Plant

1:500

25


Massing Model 3

1:500

26


Massing Model 4

Early sketch study of the sectional arrangement

1:500

27


Routes

Main access route Vehicular route Viaduct route Hotel route Subsidiary route

28


Uses

Library/ Community Centre Health Centre Spa Geothermal Plant Car Park Hotel

29


Sunlight Summer Solstice (June 21st)

7.00

12.00

19.00

12.00

19.00

Winter Solstice (December 21st)

7.00

30


Viaduct Sun Study September 21st

7.00

12.00

19.00

31


Sunlight

June 21st 12.00 32


Sunlight

December 21st 12.00 33


What is a Spa?.....

35


What is a Spa? A Spa is a machine for bathing. Even in ancient times, spas were highly technical buildings with practical and ritual traditions. It’s cultic origins are speculated to originate from Scythians (Iranian Nomadic herdsmen) who then teach the Greek baths, the Romans take inspiration from the Greeks and is adopted by many a different culture (Jews, Finnish, Russians) modified and the process is articulated based on their beliefs.

The Jewish people incorporated it into their beliefs, calling it the ‘original bath of immersion.’ Uncleanness the symbol of death, cleanness the symbol of recurring life. The Germans consider Spa to be a cornerstone of the country’s health service, whereas Britons still feel embarrased by the idea of being pampered. The immersion in water as a religious rite exists in the oldest cultures and all over the world, whether the aim is cleansing of one’s sins or purification as a prerequisite for rebirth.

Bathing is a ‘ritual purification with water.’ A ‘Water Temple’ for the mind and soul. Relaxation and social interaction (communal bathing) are integral to the Spa process.

The Roman Therme was a place of enjoyment for the people, therefore this term does not correspond to the concept of health resort in the present-day sense. Sweat -

opens pores and allows deep seated grime and dead cells to be flushed out.

Heat

-

causes an increase in blood circulation, bringing more oxygen and nutrients to the skin surface and damaged parts of the body.

Cold

-

stimulates circulation, the lymphatic and immune system.

Water & Steam are essential elements. 5 Senses; sight, smell, touch, hear, taste. Relieve suffering from rheumatism, arthritis, skin disease, joint pains.

36


From one extreme to another ‘German insurance firm organised sex party for salesmen’

Bath Thermae Spa

In 2007, one of the world’s biggest insurance companies organised an orgy with prostitues for its top salesmen at a Hungarian spa.

A 5 storey iconic leisure complex integrated into a tight group of grade I and grade II* 18th & 19th century buildings with a souped up sports complex feel to it.

37


Turkish Bath (Hammam) Hammam architecture is closely tied to the Mosque.

1. Exposure of body to hot dry air 2. Massaging / Shampooing 3. Ablution with warm & cold water 4. Drying & Cooling Frigidarium (Plunge & Cooling room) Tepidarium (Hot room) size 4x Calidarium (Hot room) size 2x Laconicum (Hot room) size 1x Lavatorium (Showers room) Apodyterium (Dressing Room) Dressing and cooling rooms are usually combined and lighted by a glass dome. Note, Plunge needs to be passed on way back to cooling room. Heating & Ventilation: Maintaining, in an economical and efficient manner, an excessively high temperature in the hot rooms, simultaneously with a supply of fresh air. Turkish bath Hammam have almost 100% humidity and the temperatures there are no more than 40째C 38

Tepidarium

Calidarium

Laconicum Shampooing & Massaging

Frigidarium

x4


39


Russian Bath (Banya) Banya is a Russian wooden bathhouse which these days would be known as a Sauna. In the earliest of Banya they would warm the bathhouse to extreme heat, then undress, and after anointing themselves with tallow, they take young reeds and lash their bodies. They actually lash themselves so violently that they barely escape alive. Then they drench themselves with cold water, and thus are revived.

day (about 60%) and the temperatures usually do not exceed 80째C. Russians pay special attention to the quality of steam: by throwing water on stones heated to extreme temperatures behind metal doors, they create steam droplets of exceptionally small size; this makes breathing easy and enjoyable.

Plunge

A single, well lighted and ventilated apartment heated by steam pipes to 80째C. x5

Russian Baths are often located adjacent to Turkish Baths but must be taken on their own rather than combining the two. Sauna Russians believe that hot and dry sauna will only dry your throat and skin. And high humidity baths with heavy drops of water in the steam are also not healthy Russian bath has the same levels of humidity as the air we breathe every 40


Finnish Bath (Sauna) The Finnish Sauna is a substantial part of Finnish culture. For Finnish people the sauna is a place to relax in with friends and family, and a place for physical and mental relaxation as well. Finns think of saunas not as a luxury, but as a necessity. The Finnish Sauna is the hottest type with only about 5-10% humidity, allowing for boiling temperatures (up to 100째C) to be tolerated and even enjoyed for short periods of time. Taking a sauna begins by washing oneself up and then going to sit in the hot room. Water is thrown on the hot stones topping the stove used to warm up the sauna. This produces steam which increases the moisture and heat within the sauna. When the heat begins to feel uncomfortable it is customary to jump into a lake, sea, or a swimming pool, or to have a shower.

Plunge

x3

Sauna

41


Japanese Bath (Sento) Sento is a type of Japanese communal bath house. Traditionally these bath houses have been quite utilitarian, with one large room separating the sexes by a tall barrier, and on both sides, usually a minimum of lined up faucets and a single large bath for the already washed bathers to sit in among others. Japanese find social importance in going to public baths, out of the theory that physical proximity/ intimacy brings emotional intimacy, which is termed skinship in Japanese. Others go to a sento because they live in a small housing facility without a private bath or to enjoy bathing in a spacious room and to relax in saunas or jet baths that often accompany new or renovated sentos. Sentos use heated tap water. 42

Sauna

Plunge

Sauna

Baths

Plunge

Baths

Changing

Entrance


Japanese Bath (Onsen) Another type of Japanese public bath is Onsen, which uses hot water from a natural hot spring. They are not exclusive: A Sento can be called an Onsen if it derives its bath water from naturally heated hot springs. A legal definition exists that can classify a public bathing facility as sento.

Geothermal Pool

Due to Japan being a volcanically active country, there are thousands of onsens (Japanese for ‘hot spring’). Onsen were traditionally used a public bathing places. Onsen come in many types and shapes, including outdoor and indoor baths. Japanese often talk of the virtues of “naked communion” for breaking down barriers and getting to know people in the relaxed homey atmosphere. Onsen is all about engaging with its natural surroundings. Onsen use geothermally heated water. 43


Roman Bath (Thermae) The architecture of the Romans was, from first to last, an art of shaping space around ritual. Roman baths were a focal centre for socialand recreational activity known as a ‘Bath Culture’. Romans elevated bathing to a fine art, which was a far more complex ritual than a simple immersion or sweating procedure.

shape and form of bathhouses. The Romans constructed ‘aqueducts’ providing enough water not only for domestic, agricultural, and industrial uses, but also for their leisurely pursuits. There were dozens of different communal pools, each with a different form and theme. Roman bathhouses contain a series of rooms which get progressively hotter.

The various parts of the bathing ritual: Undressing, bathing, sweating, receiving a massage and resting.

Ancient Roman baths used to draw on all surrounding springs as well as rain and groundwater.

Apodyterium (Entrance/changing) Figidarium (Cold room) Tepidarium (Warm room) Caldarium (Hot room) Some with a Laconium (Sweat room)

Libraries, reading rooms, lecture halls, gymnasiums, physicians offices, perfume selling booths and formal gardens as well as quieter rooms for conducting business became part of some bath complexes.

The segregation of the sexes and the additions of diversions not directly related to bathing also had direct impacts on the

Roman baths had 3 entrances for men, women and slaves.

44


Meeting Rooms

Themed Pools Library

Garden

Reception/ Meeting

45


English Bath (Public) In the 1800’s, outbreaks of Cholera and other diseases were common due to poor sanitary conditions in the city, improvements to hygiene were needed.

Self contained wash house

Back-to-back housing was designed without the provision to heat large quantities of water and privacy for bathing, therefore Public Bath houses were built throughout the city.

Mens 1st class Swimming Bath Mens 1st class Baths

Not just for bathing, but for steam rooms and swimming pools promoted health through spa waters (mostly sulphuric waters). Spectators Gallery

Records of 15 Leeds Bath houses exist located in areas of back-to-back housing. Facilities enjoyed by all ages, including schools for recreation.

Ladies Swimming Bath

Mens 2nd class Swimming Bath

Ladies Slipper Baths Mens Slipper Baths Turkish Bath

Widespread closure of Public Baths in 1960’s & 70’s and were replaced with Leisure Centers housing more facilities in more modern buildings.

Entrance Hall (Inner Courtyard)

Waiting Room Grand Street Frontage

These include 5-a-side, Squash, Badminton, Karate, Judo, Weight Training, Roller Skating. 46


Quadrangular System of Bath Planning Access from entrance placed centrally in street facade to inner courtyard, round which are grouped the subsidiary entrance leading to various departments of the building.

Self contained wash house

Mens 1st class Swimming Bath Mens 1st class Baths

Spectators Gallery

Ladies Swimming Bath

Mens 2nd class Swimming Bath

Ladies Slipper Baths Mens Slipper Baths

Internal arrangement determined by position of pool. Separate entrances for men & women / 1st & 2nd class, connected by spacious & well lighted corridors with an inner wall fro central ticketing office. In the winter months as a public hall, the 1st class swimming bath becomes an apartment affording seating accommodation for over 1000 people.

Turkish Bath

Entrance Hall (Inner Courtyard)

Waiting Room Grand Street Frontage

In most public baths & wash houses the swimming pools are heated by circulation pipes and the injection of live steam, the hot water required for the slipper baths being generated by means of multitubular heaters supplied with live steam. 47


Spa A-Z A aromatherapy

boosting blood flow to the skin.

The use of botanical scented oils to relax the body. The oils may be used typically in massage or facial treatments while inhaling their aroma can help relax the mind.

F flotation tank

Water therapy using mineral hot springs or sea water to relieve physical stress and improve circulation.

Small enclosed water tanks that have salts added to the liquid, letting you float with ease even if you can’t swim. Often you will be in total darkness and silence to allow your body and mind to relax and empty. A half hour float is said to be as beneficial as 8 hour’s sleep.

C chakras

G glycolic peel

From the Sanskrit for ‘wheel of life’, there are said to be seven chakras or energy centres in the body. Optimal health is believed to require the balancing of all seven, and massage is used to help this happen, often in conjunction with crystal healing, where crystals are placed on the appropriate body points to help balance energy flow.

In which glycolic acid is used to exfoliate skin by gently removing the upper dead layers of skin, usually as part of a facial or body wrap. Different strengths of peel are available, so take care as they vary from cosmetic with minor side effects, such as tingling and redness, to clinical strength, which requires a few days downtime but offers great facial resurfacing results.

D dead sea salts

H hot stone massage and hydrotherapy

Salts extracted from the Dead Sea that are added to baths or sometimes large pools to detox the body via the skin and to allow you to float easily, which then enables muscle relaxation and meditation.

Hot stone massage Smooth river stones are heated and used to massage your body, warming and relaxing the muscles to ease and remove tension and knots.

E endermologie

Hydrotherapy This is a treatment that involves water, including Jacuzzis, underwater jet massage, saunas, steam rooms and flotation tanks.

B balneotherapy

A form of mechanical massage that aims to break down cellulite by stretching the tightened fibres in the skin that cause the dimples, releasing trapped lymphatic fluid and toxins while 48


I inhalation therapy Essential oils, herbs and plant extracts are added to steam to allow you to inhale them during a facial or body treatment.

J javanese lulur and jet massage Javanese lulur A flower, herb and yoghurt rub that is applied to your body to smooth and moisturise skin. Then you take a shower, followed by a relaxing and pampering flower petal bath.

A Hawaiian massage technique that uses long overlapping stokes. It is the perfect choice if you don’t care for the more intense pressure point therapy. Lymphatic drainage massage A fingertip light pressure massage that works along the lymphatic vessels or your body and into the lymph glands to boost circulation, tackle fluid loss and increase energy levels.

M microdermabrasion

Jet massage Often used at a thalassotherapy (see under T) and hydrotherapy spas where sea or springwater is sprayed at high pressure at your body to boost circulation and lymphatic drainage, tackling cellulite.

Usually carried out with a handheld device that first fires small mineral salt crystals at your skin and then sucks them – and all those dead skin cells back up again. A little redness can occur but this usually subsides quickly. A great treatment for blocked pores, light scarring and breakouts.

K kneipp therapy

N naturopathy

This aims to boost circulation by alternating hot and cold water therapy. It usually includes putting your lower legs into warm water for a minute and them into ice cold water for a minute, repeating a number of times. The treatment boosts circulation and lymphatic drainage and can be a lower or full-body treatment with the aid of hot cabins, whirlpools and plunge pools.

The use of plant extracts and herbs to treat the mind, body and skin using baths, massages, inhalation and compresses and wraps.

L lomi lomi and lymphatic drainage massage Lomi lomi

O oxygen facials These deliver fresh oxygen to the skin via creams and infusions, firing the gas directly at you with a cocktail of vitamins and antioxidants. Oxygen facials are also usually deep cleansing and offer extraction to unblock pores and blackheads, making them beneficial for almost anyone living in the city. 49


Spa A-Z P paraffin wrap and pressure point massage Paraffin wrap Paraffin wax is heated and then brushed on to your skin before the area is wrapped in clingfilm to allow the skin to absorb the moisturisers in the wax. This treatment is common during manicures and pedicures to soften dry skin. Once cool, the wax is easily peeled off. Pressure point massage This aims to tackle muscle tension, release lactic acid knots in the muscles and to rebalance energy flow throughout the body. The technique involves the therapist pushing into the muscles with their fingertips, elbows and hands and does not normally involve long, traditional massage movements.

Q qigong An ancient Chinese healing system that aims to rebalance your energies. It can include tai chi movements as well as herbal poultices and massages, meditation and breath awareness.

R rasul and reflexology Rasul This is a humid and heated room where you apply different muds to your body to encourage your skin to detox while you relax and inhale the scented steam. The treatment is often offered as a couples option, letting you apply the mud to each other. 50

Reflexology A deep pressure-point treatment, usually on the feet, that aims to unblock energy pathways and aid good health.

S salt scrubs and seaweed Salt scrubs These combine sea salt with oils to exfoliate your body quickly and easily. They are often used as the first step of many body treatments, helping moisturisers, anti-ageing creams and wraps to work more effectively. Seaweed Often powdered and used in baths and wraps because it contains alginic acid, which binds to toxins to remove them from the body by encouraging you to sweat.

T Thalassotherapy A series of treatments, including massage and baths, using fresh seawater. This is usually offered at spas in coastal locations and is particularly popular in France.

U ‘u’ time Your spa time is also valuable you time, which means that while spas can be enjoyed with girlfriends and partners, they are best experience alone, letting you clear your head, be calm and centred and relax.


V vichy shower A series of overhead water jets that massage your body while you lie on a therapy bed. Often used as part of body wrap treatments as it allows removal of the wrap without you needing to shower. W watsu A Japanese fingertip massage carried out while you float in water with your therapist by your side.

X x factor As much as you may try to quantify and analyse your treatment, some therapists have that ‘X’ factor – sometimes called a healing hand, but often just the ability to connect with people as they treat them. If you meet a therapist with this rare gift, be sure to let them know and book them again.

Y yoga Many resort and destination spas offer yoga because it stretches the body through a series of asanas, or poses, letting you empty your mind and relieve stress.

Z zen A state of mind found within the Buddhist philosophy which means that you are centred, calm, controlled, relaxed and yet also energised. This is our aim at the end of any spa visit. 51


Precedent: Therme Vals - Peter Zumthor Vals, Switzerland 1996

Therme Vals water is supplied via a well to a local spring next to the hotel providing 370 litres per minute. Thermal water is conducted to the baths via 2 chrome pipes (10cm in diameter). The continuous flow of thermal water maintains the 360 cubic metre freshwater reservoir below the indoor pools. Water flows in unrestricted above the water surface where it comes into contact with the oxygen in the air for the first time. The iron dissolved in the water, oxidises precipitating a rust-red deposit on the floor on the 4m deep reservoir. The reservoir feeds the pools with thermal water, from which the iron content has been extracted. It flows through the brass outlets set into the walls and runs off again over long, narrow stone channels at the top of the steps to the pool. The pools are completely emptied, cleaned and refilled once a week, on different days for each pool.

8

9 4 5 2/3 6

Bathing level floor plan

52

1

7


Precedent: Therme Vals - Peter Zumthor 1. Indoor pool 2. Outdoor pool (winter) 3. Outdoor pool (summer) 4. Fire pool 5. Ice pool 6. Drinking stone 7. Flower pool 8. Sound bath - resonance room 9. Sweat & steam stone air humidity

Pump Room

Store Room

Hallway

Shower Room

Indoor Pool

Flower Pool

- 32°C - 36°C - 30°C - 42°C - 14°C - 29.8°C - 33°C - 35°C - 85 -100%

Transition Pool

Air-conditioning plant Water treatment room

Electricity plant

Inhalation

Rest Area

Water store Freshwater tank

Floor installation Heat generator

Pool ventilation

Technical Section

53


Precedent: Bath Spa - Nick Grimshaw Bath, England 2003

Bath Spa is the modern interpretation of the original spa, extrapolated up to form a 3 storey cube wrapped within a glass skin to reflect the surrounding buildings and topped with a roof top pool. The rooftop pool is supplied via a cylindrical tank with circulation wrapped around and is concrete with a hydrophobic and pore blocking ingredient to make it waterproof. A paint-on epoxy coating provides a further waterproof layer, although problems with it peeling occurred due to inprecise specification, coordination and application.

54


Precedent: Bath Spa - Nick Grimshaw

Glass balustrade Granite roof paving slabs Precast concrete roof edge with integral drainage channels

Roof-top pool 200mm thick reinforced concrete with waterproof additive Reinforced concrete mushroom columns cast in-situ with fibreglass formwork

Steam room glazing 15mm thick curved toughened/ laminated glass

1.35m

36째C 20mm Granite floor with underfloor heating 50mm insulation and 200mm reinforced concrete

NTS

55


Design Development

57


Sketches Balustrade above viaduct at 30째 also functioning as a solar water panel to heat up the water on the viaduct.

58


Sketches

A powerful architectural experience silences all external noise, making us aware of our fundamental solitude. 59


Concept Images

Aquaduct concept within masterplan context 60


Concept Images That is stone so this is glass

View of spiritual spa experience through one of the viaduct arches 61


Precedent: Mortensrud Church - Jenson & Skodvin Arkitektkontor Oslo, Norway 1998

The Mortensrud Church is an addition to the existing ground and is carefully designed so as not to interrupt the existing topography and vegetation. The main structure is a steel framework with a stone wall carrying the roof. A glass facade off the stone wall defines a narrow gallery around the church room. The stone in this wall is without mortar, thus letting light through creating a brilliant twilight effect. The stone wall is stiffened horizontally by steel plates that span between the columns. The glass facades are stiffened with propels made from steel plates inserted into the vertical joints between the glass panes and the horizontal steel plates in the stonewall. Basic contruction techniques used to great effect, creating rich architecture in a cost effective manner.

Drystone gable facing main entrance

62


Steel propel

820mm

114

processed geometries

mortensrud church

115

Glass facade

300mm

Stonewall

View from the nave of the alter.

Horizontal Section of facade (NTS)

63


Precedent: Kimbell Art Museum - Louis Kahn

64


Sketches

Barrell Vault Lighting & Stack Ventilation 65


Sketches

66


Sketches

67


Aquaduct

The role of the Aquaduct within the concept of a Spa? The Romans constructed ‘aqueducts’ providing enough water not only for domestic, agricultural, and industrial uses and thermae.

68


Aquaduct

250m

Hot spots needed in order to heat the 250m length of water.

Each hot spot could have a different theme.

69


Aquaduct 10m 100m

Cut down in size due to a lack of justification for a 250m long pool.

Due to the vast size of the Aquaduct (8m x 100m) it will be heated with hot spots every 10m meaning some areas will be cooler than others enforcing the Roman ethos of communal bathing. The outside temperature needs to be a minimum of 36°C and a possible cover may need to be attached overnight so the pool doesn’t freeze (particularly in winter). Due to its location it will be serviced solely by the Geothermal plant next to it whereas the remaining spa pools will be serviced via a separate plant room.

Lighting Study 70

Roof lights utilising solar panels

Main light to aid users locate hot spot


Aquaduct

1:100 71


Apodyterium (Entrance)

72


Corridors

Brushing against the stone as you walk past

Long and narrow forcing social interaction

Invite the sense of touch and create an atmosphere of intimacy and warmth 73


Pools

74


Pools

75


Steam Rooms The steam room ceilings should ideally be curved so that condensed steam can naturally run down the walls rather than dropping and possibly scalding someone.

Sauna = dry heat Steam = moist heat The stone would absorb alot of the heat and could possibly need insulating

The Viaduct is the ideal choice as I can then utilise it at higher and lower level 76


Light Well

A small room where one can immerse themselves in a small pool with a single beam of light (artificial or natural) to immerse in.

77


Pool Concept

Sculptor - Eduardo Chilida

78


Pool Concept

The water run off carves the ground creating pockets of spaces forming a labrynth using the water as navigation

79


Programme Analysis Programmatic Arrangement 1. Orientation and Entrance The building is organised so that it can be accessed directly off the main access route through a narrow and shallow corridor to discombobulate the senses before entering an entrance of grandeur. 2. Cafe & Garden The public Cafe is located adjacent to the reception and can be accesed without entering the Spa specifically. The garden is accessed from the cafe but also creates a semi-permeable boundary between the Spa and all subsidiary routes. 3. Changing & Spa The changing and spa are accessed at the lower level, making it more private. Once changed, the spa is entered through the arches at the lower level, making it quieter and light can be controlled easier. 4. Aquaduct The Aquaduct occupies the redundant viaduct and is accessed via a spiral staircase which wraps around an external chimney which is serving the pool. 5. Plant Room & Servicing The majority of the servicing is part of the Geothermal Plant which is next to the Spa as it is not only heating the water for the Spa but also for all of Holbeck, as well as producing energy.

80


Programme Analysis Briefing Areas

Ancillary Spaces

Changing Rooms Massage Rooms Steam Rooms

100sqm

8 x 5sqm

6 x 16sqm

Plant 25% of pool area and 10% of rest of build

Spa Pools

Aquaduct

Varying size depending on use

800sqm

81


Programme Analysis

1. 82

2.


Programme Analysis

3.

4&5. 83


Development Model

1:200 84


Development Model

1:200 85


Sketches

Ground Level Plan (1:200@A3) 86


Sketches

Lower Level Plan (1:200@A3) 87


Sketch Design

Site Plan (1:500@A3) 88


Sketch Design

Ground Level Plan (1:200@A3) 89


Sketch Design

Lower Level Plan (1:200@A3) 90


Sketch Design

Basement Level Plan (1:200@A3) 91


Sketch Design

Section 1 (1:200@A3) 92


Sketch Design

Sections 2 & 3 (1:200@A3) 93


Sketch Design

Internal axonometric of entrance & reception area 94


Development Model

1:200

95


Sketch Design

Ground Level Plan (1:200@A3) 96


Sketch Design

Lower Level Plan (1:200@A3) 97


Sectional Study Model A powerful architectural experience silences all external noise, making us aware of our fundamental solitude

1:100 98 8


Sectional Study Model

1:100 99


Materials Slate (Welsh Slate) Material choice is important for a few reasons. Not only does it need to compliment the grey engineering brick of the Viaduct, it needs to be able to cope with the different temperatures of the water and moisture in the air. It also needs to be both rough and smooth depending on how I want certain areas to seem and feel. Locally sourced. Strong & long lasting. Durable. Can be crafted to be rough or smooth. Fireproof. Low water absorbtion index. Can be slippery when wet.

100


Materials The Polyblock system (Insulated Concrete Forms) The system is in essence a hollow expanded anti-fungal polystyrene block that acts as formwork for a reinforced concrete infill and stays in place to thermally insulate the building. The thermal qualities and the tactile nature of the polystyrene blocks make them eminently suitable for swimming pools and their versatility means that the pool can either be lined or tiled. Walls are 50% lighter than equivalent sized brick walls allowing reduction in structural support systems. Plumbing and electrical services can run through the hollow core before concrete filling. Walls can be built up to 5 times faster than normal clay/ cement bricks.

101


Technology

Pool detail 102


Technology

Massage Chamber 103


Technology

Ventilation Strategy 104


Technology

Structural Strategy 105


Technology

Displacment Ventilation Integration 106


Technology

Junction between new and existing viaduct 107


Environmental Sections

Summer Day

60째

Air conditioning cools the spaces; fresh air enters through openable windows e.g summer afternoons

Displacement Ventilation used; air temperature is supplied at 3/4째C lower than the space temperature forming a lake of cool air at floor level.

Ventilation extracted to plant, heat reclaimed and discarded to outside Air temperature, moisture content and ventilation need to be carefully controlled

Controlled openings at high level allow warm air to leave and cool air to enter when external/ internal relationships facilitate this

Low level intake of fesh air Free cooling using natural ventilation

High level openings for warm air to leave Carbon Dioxide & Temperature sensors monitor and let air in or out accordingly.

Humid Air Environment Humid Air Environment

Humid Air Environment Hot Water

Heat Exchanger

Underfloor Heating Pressurised builders work duct

108

Aquifer extracted water


Environmental Sections

Summer Night

Displacement Ventilation used; air temperature is supplied at 3/4째C lower than the space temperature forming a lake of cool air at floor level.

Ventilation extracted to plant, heat reclaimed and discarded to outside Air temperature, moisture content and ventilation need to be carefully controlled

Controlled openings at high level allow warm air to leave and cool air to enter when external/ internal relationships facilitate this

Low level intake of fesh air Free cooling using natural ventilation

High level openings for warm air to leave

Carbon Dioxide & Temperature sensors monitor and let air in or out accordingly.

Humid Air Environment Humid Air Environment

Humid Air Environment Hot Water

Heat Exchanger

Underfloor Heating Pressurised builders work duct

Aquifer extracted water

109


Environmental Sections

Winter Day

Displacement Ventilation used; air temperature is supplied at 3/4째C lower than the space temperature forming a lake of cool air at floor level.

Ventilation extracted to plant, heat reclaimed and discarded to outside Air temperature, moisture content and ventilation need to be carefully controlled

Winter Trickle Vents

13째

Controlled openings at high level allow warm air to leave and cool air to enter when external/ internal relationships facilitate this

Carbon Dioxide & Temperature sensors monitor and let air in or out accordingly.

Boost Vent

Humid Air Environment Humid Air Environment

Humid Air Environment Hot Water

Heat Exchanger

Underfloor Heating Pressurised builders work duct

110

Aquifer extracted water


Environmental Sections

Winter Night

Winter Trickle Vents Displacement Ventilation used; air temperature is supplied at 3/4째C lower than the space temperature forming a lake of cool air at floor level. Ventilation extracted to plant, heat reclaimed and discarded to outside

Controlled openings at high level allow warm air to leave and cool air to enter when external/ internal relationships facilitate this

Carbon Dioxide & Temperature sensors monitor and let air in or out accordingly.

Air temperature, moisture content and ventilation need to be carefully controlled

Humid Air Environment Humid Air Environment

Humid Air Environment Hot Water

Heat Exchanger

Underfloor Heating Pressurised builders work duct

Aquifer extracted water

111


Overview of Proposed Massing

Sun in May at 2.35 112


Plans Route to Hol Beck

Route from Hotel under Arch

Shop Steam Room

Steam Room Cafe W.C

Kitchen Deliveries

Reception & Waiting Area

Geothermal Plant

Garden

Library/ Community Centre

Ground Level P Plan (1:200@A3) 113


Plans

8 1 2 1 10

1

4

3 9

4

12

5 7

Access to Aquaduct

11

6

Staff

Steam Room

Steam Room

Laundry Room & Access to Plant

Changing Rooms W.C

1. Corner Pools 2. Flower Pool 3. Light Well 4. Whirlpool 5. Dark Pool 6. Foot Pool

- 33°C - 33°C - 35°C - 33.5°C - 33°C - 35°C

7. Aquatherapy 8. Higher Pool 9. Main Pool 10. Fire Pool 11. Ice Pool 12. Turkish Baths (air humidity)

- 36°C - 32°C - 32°C - 22°C - 14°C - 85 -100%

Spa Level Plan (1:200@A3) 114


Plans

Wastewater Tank

Pressurised Builders Work Duct

Water Treatment

Freshwater Buffer Tank

Water Treatment

Geothermal Plant

Well to Aquifer

Basement Level Plan (1:200@A3) 115


Sections

Section 1 (1:200@A3) 116


Sections

Sections 2 & 3 (1:200@A3) 117


Steam Rooms

The Viaduct arches are ideal steam rooms as they are curved so that condensed steam runs down the walls (with flat ceilings the condensation can drip and possibly cause scalding). As hot air rises, each floor will be hotter meaning the user can choose their preferred temperature. The steam room needs to kept at a constant temperature of 43째C and the engineering brick will absorb and retain the heat therefore steam should never be turned off. The Steam rises up and condenses out.

Barrisol ceiling - a non flammable PVC sheet tightened under the effect of heat on the periphery of the walls making a vapour proof ceiling. Steam Injector

118


Steam Rooms

Triple floor Steam Room in Viaduct Arch 119


Visuals

Corridor to Changing Rooms 120


Visuals

Aquaduct 121


Visuals

122


Visuals

123


Detailed Design Special Study

125


Massage Chambers The Massage Towers will be naturally stack ventilated to prevent acoustic issues between the spa area and massage area, unlike the majority of the spa recovering the heat before disgarding.

The Massage Towers will be lit soley by the spa area passing through the light pockets scatter around the block.

Acoustic louvres for the displacement ventilation which creates a pool of cool air (3-4째C below space temperature) at low level

126


Sectional Model of Turkish Baths 1:100

127


Sectional Model of Journey down to Spa

1:100 128


Sectional Model of Journey down to Spa In great architectural spaces, there is a constant, deep breathing of shadow and light; Shadow inhales light Illumination exhales light

1:100 129


1:50 Section @ A1

Detail 01

130


Details Anti fungal polystyrene block

Shelf Angle Bolted onto Wall

Sika Watertight Concrete Powder Admixture

Aacon 2000 Stonework restraint fixing with M10 cast in socket expansion bolt

Displacement Ventilation In

Water In

Water Out

1:20

131


Aquaduct

Water In

Hot Spot

Water Out

35째C 36째C 37째C

1:50 Aquaduct Detail 132


New to Existing

1:50 Glazing Detail 133


New to Existing

Composite Insulation Metal Gutter

Rigid Insulation

Trapezoidal Steel Deck Plywood Deck 134

Plug Welded Connections


New to Existing

Glazing fixing

Adjustable fixing for irregularities in Viaduct 135


Construction Sequence

Existing Viaduct 136

Excavation of floors


Construction Sequence

Massage Towers

Primary Structure 137


Construction Sequence

Secondary Structure 138

Glazing


Construction Sequence

Water 139


3D Detail Study Key 1

2

3

4 5 6

8

140

7

1. Composite Insulated Metal Gutter Profile 2. Glazing Bracket 3. Fully Sealed Triple Glazing 4. Composite Insulated Metal Gutter Profile 5. Plywood Deck 6. Trapezoidal Steel Deck 7. Heat Recovery Displacement Ventilation Pipe 8. Translucent Glazing (Fibre Glass Tissue Between 2 Sheets)


3D Detail Study Microclimate parameters (dry and radiant air temperature, air speed, relative humidity) can influence wellness and health status of people working inside for long periods of time and must therefore be carefully monitored. The Spa area will be kept at 28째C rather than the standard 22째C and relative humidity should be maintained within the range of 55-65% and specific humidity should not exceed -1 0.016kg H2O/kg p.s. Air speed should not exceed 0.25ms because higher values contribute to increased evaporation of water, and thus a higher air relative humidity. Based on regulations, 4-5 air changes per hour is required for ventilation.

141


Exploded Details Detail of Steel Pin Joint Connection

142

Detail of Triple Glazing Bracket

1:5 @ A1


Exploded Details Detail of Composite Insulated Metal etal Gutter Profile

1:20 @ A1

Key 1. Triple Glazing 2. Parapet 3. Composite Insulated Metal Gutter Profile 4. Plywood Deck 5. Trapezoidal Deck 6. Plug Welded Beam 7. Ventilation Duct

1

2

3 4 5 6

7

143


144


Appendix

145


Hydronics Heat

37째C Aquaduct

32째C Exchange

To Aquaduct

HB1

HB2

HB3

Spa

From Aquaduct

HB1

HB2

HB3

Filter

10째C

80째C

Aquifer

Sealed System

Hot Rock

146

Spa


Hydronics

Sealed System

Rainwater

Fresh Water Supply

Aquifer

Building Water Heating Services

Circulated Water

Roof & Surface Water Collection

Meter & Stopcocks

Tank Low

Filtration & UV Disinfection

Overflow Valve back to drain

Fill feed / Make up

Tank Full

Rainwater Storage Tank

Purification Filter

Sanitary Use (W.C.s/ Kitchen)

Potable Water Outlets

Underfloor Heating

Meter

Hot Water Sanitary Use

Sewer

147


Services Key Water Storage Tank Water Supply Main Electrical Power Supply Runs Ventilation Ducts Soil & Waste Pipework & Stacks

Outside

Geothermal Plant

Aquifer

148

Water Lane


Services Compartmentation

Travel Distances

Fire Strategy (NTS) 149


Deep Geothermal Energy Engineers at Newcastle University will today begin an ambitious project to drill 2,000m under the heart of the city in search of renewable energy. In a landmark project that will reach new depths in an attempt to harness geothermal heat from the earth, the Newcastle team hope to eventually pump out water at a temperature of around 80 degrees centigrade. Drilling deep under the planned 24-acre Science Central – the site of the former Scottish and Newcastle Breweries – the team believe that boreholes here will prove capable of supplying an everlasting source of low-carbon energy hot enough to heat any domestic or commercial central heating system. Funded by the Newcastle Science City Partnership and the Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC), the £900,000 project is being led by Professor Paul Younger, Director of the University’s Newcastle Institute for Research on Sustainability, and involves experts from both Newcastle and Durham universities. “Our aim is to rise to the challenge of putting a novel form of deep geothermal energy at the very heart of city centre regeneration,” explains Professor Younger. “It’s an incredibly exciting project. If we’re right and we pump 150

up water at such elevated temperatures, it would mean a fully renewable energy supply for a large part of the city centre, massively reducing our reliance on fossil fuels and reinforcing Newcastle’s position as the UK’s most sustainable city – an accolade which the Toon has now won two years running. And unlike other renewables such as wind and solar, geothermal energy is available at all times, independent of the weather. Phil Steele, General Manager of Eldon Square, said: “We spend approximately £1.7 million per annum on energy and at present this demand is all met from fossil-fuel sources. We can now look forward optimistically to using deep geothermal energy to supply part or all of our future energy needs and we look forward to working with Newcastle University to develop this major scientific enterprise for the city.” This is the second time in 12 months the Newcastle team has explored the region for geothermal energy. Last year they pumped up water at a temperature of 40 degrees centigrade from a 1,000m twin-borehole at Eastgate, in Weardale, County Durham. If today’s geothermal project is successful it will pave the way for similar projects across the country where it is known similar deep fault lines exist such as Carlisle and the Craven Faults in West Yorkshire and Lancashire.


Tax Incremental Funding (TIF) Tax Incremental Financing is a means of funding public sector investment infrastructure judged to be necessary to unlock regeneration in an area, and which may otherwise be unaffordable to local authrities. An innovative finance mechanism to support local investment and growth. TIF uses future additional revenue gains from taxes to finance the borrowing required to fund public infrastructure improvements that will in turn create those gains. When a public project such as a new road system is constructed within a specific area, increases in the value of land as well as new property and business investment can occur. Resultant increased site value and investment generates increased tax revenues. These increased tax revenues are the ‘tax increment’. A pilot version of the scheme is already underway in Scotland, originating from the United States.

151


Cost Planning Gross Internal Floor Area (GIFA) = 2900 sqm Reception Cafe Shop Kitchen Changing Rooms Spa Rooftop Pool Other

£1,500 per sq m £1,050 per sq m £530 per sq m £2000 per sq m £1,000 per sq m £2475 per sq m £2325 per sq m £980 per sq m

Construction Costs (Rounded up) Contingency (5%) = Total Construction Costs = Professional Fees (10%) = Total =

£300,000 £6,300,000 £630,000 £6,930,000

Finance (10% of half) = (£6,930,000/2) x 0.1 = £346,500 Total Construction Cost = (Rounded up)

152

£7,276,500 £7,300,000

135 sqm 105 sqm 50 sqm 60 sqm 85 sqm 1350 sqm 630 sqm 485 sqm

£202,500 £1,155 £26,500 £120,000 £85,000 £3,34,1250 £1,464,750 £475,300

2900 sq m

£5,716,455 £6,000,000


Development Appraisal Gross Development Value (GDV) Maximise return (Using ‘Next Best’ use comparison method) Light Industry (due to the site being located in a highly industrial area) - 2900sqm at (£6.94 sqft x 10.76) = £74.67 sqm Price from http://www.showcase.co.uk/#&&/wEXAQURV29ya2Zsb3dIaXN0b3J5SUQFJDFiZTF Therefore: 2900 x 74.67 = £216,543 Yield = 8% 100/8 = 12.5 years purchase x maximum return £216,543 GDV = £2,706787.5 GDV = £2,750,000 (rounded up) Construction Costs = 2900 (GIFA) x £560 per sqm (based on Spons building prices p84) = £1,624,000 Contingency (5%) = £81,200 Total Construction Costs = £1,705,200 Professional Fees (10%) = £170,520 Total = £1,875,720 Finance (10% of half) = (£1,875,720/2) x 0.1 = £93,786 Developers Profit (10% of GDV) = £275,000 Letting Fees (9% of GDV) = £247,500 Sale Fees (2% of GDV) = £55,000 Residue for Land = GDV - (Constr Cost + Fees + Finance + Profit + Sale Fees) £2,750,000 - (£2,299,506 say £2,300,000) = £450,000 153


Architects Fee Proposal Total Construction Cost =

£7,300,000

RIBA Work Stage

154

Hours Per Team Member

Total Per Stage

% of Total

Associate Director (£100/hr)

Project Architect (£60/hr)

Architectural Assistant (£40/hr)

A

35 hrs £3,500

35 hrs £2,100

105 hrs £4,255

£9,855

2.5

B

70 hrs £7,000

35 hrs £2,100

17.5 hrs £755

£9,855

2.5

C

70 hrs £7,000

210 hrs £12,600

490 hrs £19,425.8

£39,025.8

9.9

D

140 hrs £14,000

437.5 hrs £26,250

962.5 hrs £38,590

£78,840

20.0

E

105 hrs £10,500

612.5 hrs £36,750

787.5 hrs £31,590

£78,840

20.0

F

105 hrs £10,500

350 hrs £21,000

700 hrs £28,024.2

£59,524.2

15.1


Architects Fee Proposal Tender (4.5%) =

£328,500 + VAT = £394,200

RIBA Work Stage

Hours Per Team Member

Total Per Stage

% of Total

Associate Director (£100/hr)

Project Architect (£60/hr)

Architectural Assistant (£40/hr)

G

105 hrs £10,500

105 hrs £6,300

70 hrs £2,910

£19,710

5.0

H

122.5 hrs £12,250

122.5 hrs £7,460

0 hrs £0

£19,710

5.0

J

122.5 hrs £12,250

122.5 hrs ��7,460

0 hrs £0

£19,710

5.0

K

210 hrs £21,000

280 hrs £16,800

52.5 hrs £1,620

£39,420

10.0

L

122.5 hrs £12,250

122.5 hrs £7,460

0 hrs £0

£19,710

5.0

Total Hrs / Team Member Total £ / Team Member

1207.5 hrs £120,750

2432.5 hrs £145,950

3,185 hrs £127,500 £394,200

100%

Total

155


References http://www.urbed.coop/journal_docs/Marshalls%20 Mill%20Design%20Statement-submitted%20 August%202004_lite.pdf

RIBA Journal November 2005, p38-40

RIBA Journal November 2011, p55-56

http://www.guardian.co.uk/travel/2002/jan/06/ restandrelaxation.germany.observerescapesection

www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/tech/geothermalenergy

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Public_bathing

www.ncl.ac.uk/press.office/press.release/item/deepheat-for-the-north2

www.harrogate.gov.uk/

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ancient_Roman_bathing

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banya www.drilcorp.com/news/90-newcastle-geothermalproject-update

www.japan-guide.com/e/e2074.html

www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-13470731

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sento

BD Magasine 4th August 2006, p17

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Onsen

Alfred Cross, Public Baths & Wash Houses (1906)

Hello Magazine

Peter Zumthor, Therme Vals (2007)

Michael Brawne, Kimbell Art Museum (1992)

Peter Zumthor, Atmospheres (2006)

www.inthevendee.com/swimming_pool/

Arquitectura Viva, no127, 2009, p48-51

www.abpbuildingproducts.co.za

156


en.barrisol.com gbr.sika.com/en/solutions_products/ construction/02a001/02a001sa04.html www.ancon.co.uk www.schueco.com https://www.eversheds.com/uk/home/articles/index1. page?ArticleID=templatedata%5CEversheds%5Carticl es%5Cdata%5Cen%5CLocal_government%5CLocal_ Government_briefing_note_25_2009 http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/Government/ Finance/18232/TIF

157


Holbeck Spa Building Design