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JACEK KRENZ

IDEOGRAMS of ARCHITECTURE Between Sign and Meaning

PELPLIN 2010


Review: Dr hab. inż. architekt Lucyna Nyka Dr hab. sztuki, dr inż. architekt Jacek Dominiczak

Edited by: Katarzyna Bogucka-Krenz © Copyright Jacek Krenz 2010

Cover design: Michał Krenz Ideograms on the cover: Vera Pereira, Tânia Quezado Layout: Marcin Lipiński, Iwo Mokwa

Published, printed and bound in Poland by Wydawnictwo „Bernardinum” Sp. z o.o. 83-130 Pelplin, Biskupa Dominika 11 tel. +48 58 536 17 57, fax +48 58 536 17 26 bernardinum@bernardinum.com.pl www.bernardinum.com.pl ISBN 978-83-7380-806-5 All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form or by any electronic or mechanical means, including information storage and retrieval systems, without written permission from the publisher or author, except in the case of a reviewer, who may quote brief passages embodied in critical articles or in a review.


The essence of knowledge is not to see or argue, but to interpret.. Michel Foucault, Les mots et les choses. Une archĂŠologie des sciences humaines (1966)


INTRODUCTION: BETWEEN A SIGN AND MEANING  7 THE TALE AND ARRANGEMENT: SIGN AND SYMBOL IN VISUAL COMMUNICATIONS  19 SEARCH FOR LANGUAGE  22 • Picture language, hieroglyphs  22 • Spatial phenomena Imaging  23 • Musical notations  24 • Choreography: motion notation  25 • Poetry in space  26 • Advertisement, poster, billboard   28 PICTORIAL ORGANIZING OF WORLD AND IMAGINATION  29

FEXPRESSION OF FORM: THE MEANING OF ARCHITECTURE  33 CREATOR AND RECEIVER: TIME, PLACE, INTERPRETATION  34 DENNOTATION MEANING IN ARCHITECTURE  38 CONNOTATION MEANING  42 • Prestige and status  42 • Ideals and aspirations  44 • Time: past, now and future  45 • Metamorphoses, citations and reinterpretations  47 • The sacred  49 • Nature  51 • Local identity  54 • Sentiments  56 • Art and new artistic expression  57 • EEnergy of shapes and the magic of numbers  61 • Energy of shapes and the magic of numbers  62 VIVID MEANINGS  64 • Originality  67 • Metaphor: game of meanings  68 • Symbol: participation and perception   70


THE IDEOGRAM AND INTERPRETATION  75 TOOLS: THE SKETCH AND THE IDEOGRAM  76 • The conceptual search for the principles of composition  78 • Picturing concepts: the principles of composition  80 TRANSFORMATIONS   84 MORPHOLOGY OF AN IDEOGRAM   85 WORKSHOP BASICS / PRESENTATION TECHNIQUES  91 • Graphic means  91 • Third dimension  93

PERCEPTION: BETWEEN INTENDED AND INTERPRETED MEANING  109 LEARNING FROM THE MASTERS  135 LE CORBUSIER: IDEOGRAPHIC IMAGES  136 STEVEN HOLL: CUTOUTS  141 AIRES MATEUS: HOLLOWS  148

IDEOGRAM IN ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN 157 IDEOGRAPHIC METHOD OF ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN   158 STUDENTS WORKS  163

RESUME  207 ANEX: AUTHOR’S WORK  209 BIBLIOGRAPHY  218 INDEX OF IMAGES  223 SUMMARY. IDEOGRAMS IN ARCHITECTURE  234 INDEX OF NAMES  237


Introduction: Between Sign and Meaning

Architecture needs meanings in order to become a valuable element of culture in the environment of space. In this book I would like to show the way that the ideograph is able to serve as a useful tool of getting to this point. Creation of the architectural form has always been the main field of my theoretical and practical interests. Subconsciously, through the admiration I felt towards the great works of various masters of painting and architecture as well as through my own attempts, I always wanted to get to the true meaning and understanding of the process of creation. I had a feeling that such most meaningful processes take place at the crossroads of different disciplines of Art. Their diffusion and mutual influence legitimates the important power of creation that concerns not only an individual piece of art but – in general – builds a lot of tendencies and styles. Many years I spent experimenting and sincere searching for the truth of things prove what now I can strongly state by conclusion: the essence of the impulse

of creativity which is the beginning of all meanings, can be looked for in the convergence of Arts – great works of Arts in one field draw their power of expression from the references provided by the other ones. A person whom I should thank here is Mr. Alexander Wallis, who turned my attention towards aspects of visual identification as well as the role of signs and all kinds of “inscriptions” appearing in the space of the city. Drawing and in particular ideographic drawing is a valuable tool that inspires and allows such creative interaction. In the book Architecture of the Meanings I pointed out that the essence of architectural forms derives from its semantic layer. Now I would like to concentrate at the stages preceding the emergence of the final form of design, and present methods and tools useful to build the sphere of meaning in architecture. The aim of this book is to show how the architectural concepts can be expressed and communicated through graphical signs – ideograms.


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Keywords: • • • • • • • • •

ideogram sign symbol meaning visual communication architectural form perception of architecture design concept architectural design

Abbreviations: GUT – Faculty of Architecture, Gdansk University of Technology, Poland ASP – Poznan Academy of Fine Art, Poland UBI – Departamento de Engenharia Civil e Arquitectura, Universidade da Beira Interior, Covilhã, Portugal


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Centro Comunitário dos Assentos, Igreja de Santo António, Portalegre, Portugal / João Luís Carrilho da Graça, 2008. Ideogram: JK


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Ideogram and interpretation

Tools: the sketch and the ideogram The conceptual search for principles of composition Picturing concepts: the principles of composition Transformations Morphology of an ideogram Workshop basics / presentation techniques Graphic means Third dimension

Drawing is to an architect, what writing is to a writer. With time, sketching becomes an almost intuitive activity, in the form of loose notes, an impulse which sets thought, sight and gesture in motion. Drawing accompanies each stage of the design process. It is not only an essential tool and medium, it also determines form, and helps define it. With the first lines, a gradual morphologisation of the idea takes place. The drawing is therefore a significant, possibly the most significant beginning of the process, which enables the creation of forms, to be followed by the verification of their rightness. It is the visual imagining of design thought and intention, their first two-dimensional

materialisation. All other representations, whether three-dimensional or the real model, come at a later. Drawing the architectural concept is a complex and multidirectional process. The intention is translated into lines, graphic traces are called to life to crystallise and give it a certain shape. What’s more, drawing which is treated as a way of exploring, trying out variants and searching for form, enhances the way we see with a cognitive reflection, thanks to which we may comprehensively evaluate the subsequent stages of development of a given concept. Each version brings hidden dimensions, ideas and things to the surface. Thanks to a sequence of associations and


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Architect’s conceptual work (travesty of Oscar Niemeyer drawing made by the author)

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The drawing is therefore not only a tool and graphic means, but also plays the role of a catalyst in the process of creating an architectural form. It helps the designer develop a concept, which evolves gradually, aided throughout the process by sketches. At times though, architects aim to remain as faithful as possible to the properties encompassed in a sketch, in order to leave a personal „handprint” on their work. comparisons evoked by the drawing, we may either develop the primary idea, or modify it thanks to feedback.

Tools: the sketch and the ideogram „Thinking with a pencil” is especially significant when operating with complex dependencies, which are studied during the dynamic design process. A drawing comments and registers specific stages in the course of designing, and then presents a final solution to the problem. It is also often successful in helping with the search for solutions. Particularly helpful here, are synthetic forms of drawing, such as the sketch and the ideogram. The ideogram helps find direction, builds the design intention based on the quintessence of form and meaning. The ideogram in sketch form comprises of an exceptional

potential thanks to its openness, which results from an unfinished, unspecified form: it stimulates the imagination and makes a variety of interpretations possible. Sketches, especially in the initial stage, are an invaluable aid, making possible the quick verification of the correctness of a given solution, its relation with surroundings, and its function and structure. A sketched form of plans and cross-sections allows for the integration of a building’s complex structure, and for the working out of a concept. Sketches and ideograms are also used to present a client with initial concepts, because they explain them well and support


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argumentation. Szkic od ideogramu różni się tym, czThe sketch is different from the ideogram in the same way a sign differs from a symbol. The sketch and sign represent the shape of an object, while the symbol and ideogram, fundamental qualities aside, attempt to additionally encompass a layer of meaning, to convey content. An ideographical drawing combines the activity of both brain hemispheres: the left ,which conducts verbal analysis; the right, which bases on thinking in images. The ideogram is a synthetic graphic sign, which simultaneously expresses shape and idea in the most basic way. It plays a significant role in the definition, the conceptual-visual crystallisation, and the communication of meanings contained in an architectural work. As a graphic sign, it is, in itself, a symbol, a mental shortcut in the place of a complicated whole. It is the quintessence, the core, and at the same time, an indicator for artistic expression. It is a generalised sign, but not a vague one, as it is simplified in such a way as to express, in the form of a keynote, the essence of the work. The classic definition of an ideogram speaks of a graphic (two-dimensional) record; however, the use of the ideographical method in creating architectural forms often

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necessitates the expansion of the workshop with other techniques, especial three-dimensional ones. Therefore an expanded definition seems more apt here: the ideogram is a visual representation of concepts, ideas or conceptions. However, on the design level, we can say the ideogram is a lapidary, conceptual guide in the process of creating architectural spaces, which allows one to not lose the central theme. At the same time it is a simple and effective means of communication between participants of the design process, which is why it programs future ways of perception to a great degree. As we will see further, ideograms can speak of the form they represent in a variety of ways. This depends on many factors which will be discussed; however, in general we may state that they indicate a degree of metaphorisation and a way of distributing accents of meaning. They can act as a symbolic representation of the architectural concept of a building, district or city, and even clarify aesthetic doctrines, such as Le Corbusier’s „Four Principles of Composition”, or Christopher Alexander’s „Fifteen Properties of Good Design”. In many languages, „drawing” and „designing” are closely related to the word „designatum”: design, diseñar, desenho (de – comes from; signum

Edwards B.: Drawing on the Right Side of the Brain. London: Harper Collins 2001.


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– sign); this points to the close relation between a drawing and a conceptual sign, which refers to its counterpart in reality.

The conceptual search for principles of composition Introducing order requires the evaluative identification and organisation of general concepts. Such a need stems from the longing for order, the desire to create a world in which this order, undisturbed by chaos and chance, would give a sense of certainty and security, continuity and sustainability. The set of concepts listed below, organised in antonymic pairs for clarity, where the first verse comprises of positive concepts and the second of negative ones, is a system of classifiers which are to be helpful in determining the quality and significance of the meanings we intend to write into an architectural form. All terms combine information with an evaluation. Such classifiers serve the designer and the recipient equally, as first they convert the intentions of the architect into words, and next they help the recipient decode these meanings as well as personal feelings and moods. It is on these grounds that both parties, the author of the design and its

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user, may fully evaluate the communicative value of the architectural statement, and even develop it further or add to it, e.g. by changing or adding colours, textures and forms at the finishing stage, or elements of the interior design during the furnishing stage of a given space. Every designer, as they gain experience, works out their own individual network of such meanings and classifiers. They are crucial in the creation of one’s own style of design and image as an architect. At this point, it is worth turning your attention to the significant role of opposing meanings on the right side, which are valuable because they can serve as indicators of measure and proportions for the chosen means of expression. They are the ones that indicate whether the boundaries of professional ethics (plagiarism), or simply good taste, have been transgressed.

The list of classifiers below is only a beginning and a proposition:

The role of antonymy in teaching architecture is discussed by Krzysztof Bizio in Antynomiczny character nauczania architektury. Ed. Jadwiga C. Żarnowiecka, Aleksander Owerczuk. Nauka, architektura, edukacja. Białystok. Wydział Architektury Politechniki Białostockiej 2006.


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+ -

originality extravagance

quotation imitation

+ -

pragmatism obviousness

fancifulness whim

+ -

cosiness stuffiness

openness strangeness

+ -

balance, harmony boredom

dynamic upset proportions

+ -

poetry, ambiguity mawkishness

prose, concreteness literality

+ -

majesty, grandeur pomposity, pathos

ordinariness not standing out

+ -

clarity, lightness tackiness

massiveness heaviness, squatness

+ -

simplicity crudeness

complexity complication

+ -

emotionality sentimentalism

conciseness dryness

+ -

classicism conservatism

innovation ignorance

+ -

rationalism lack of imagination

idealism irrationalism

+ -

fashion superficiality

timelessness orthodoxy

+ -

clarity obviousness

mysteriousness confusion


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+ -

open nature lack of privacy

privacy closed nature

+ -

order pedantry

creative chaos, loose disorder

+ -

durability inflexibility

transience temporariness

+ -

flexibility lack of adaptation

adapting to conditions resistance to change

+ -

egalitarianism mass/populism

hierarchism inequality

+ -

variety disorder

homogeneity monotony

+ -

consistence predictability

spontaneity lack of consistence

+ -

finesse lack of clarity

simplicity brutalism

Rain in architecture. An antonymic ideogram which shows, in a metaphorical way, an attitude towards rain. On the one hand architectural operations aim to protect from the rain, on the other, rainfall is a necessary source of water and it brings freshness and joy.3

3

Krenz J.: Rain in Architecture and Urban Design. [in:] Water in Urban Strategies. Bauhaus-Universit채t Weimar, Germany 2007.


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Picturing concepts: the principles of composition In the process of the visual reproduction of an idea, we reach for notions, signs and symbols. Foucault presents four figures which we will use here. They are: Conveniencia – appropriateness, order based on the association of and matching of things of similar properties within a system. Aemulatio – emulation, similarity. Analogia – a more subtle reproduction of the relation, opening to interpretation. Sympatia – the farthest proximity leading to a common identity. The above principles, together with the aesthetic categories listed in the preceding chapter, give indications for the conceptual search for the principles of composition. The last one lives by its own laws, including the correct use of, among others: scale, size, proportions and relations between elements. These principles are essential to the architect’s workshop, enabling the composition of forms in space and expression of established meanings

square | circle

concavity | convexity

superficiality | penetration

big | small, entity | fragment

rigid, solid, crude | soft, light, delicate 4 5

Foucault M.: op.cit., s.29. A broad discussion of aesthetic categories can be found in the pioneering work by Juliusz Żórawski, O budowie formy architecktonicznej. Warszawa 1973


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Margarida Silva, 2009 UBI

openness | enclosure Alexandre Costa, 2009 UBI

openness | enclosure Claudia Fonseca, 2009 UBI

clarity, legibility, simplicity | complexity, illusions, mystery transparency | opacity openness | enclosure unity | fragmentation order | disorder dynamic | static geometrisation | freedom connecting, combining | separating, symmetry | asymmetry rhythm | disturbed order macro | micro general | detail continuity | dispersing brightness | darkness fullness | emptiness contrast, emphasis | embedding, blending regularity | deformation depth | superficiality

Even a cursory reading of the above categories heightens awareness of how important a role bipolarity plays

dynamic

| static

Pedro Martins, 2009 UBI

in the principles of composition. It is one of the basic figures of human creativity and a significant property of our perception. Contrast gives notions clarity, helps in their ordering and classification. By emphasising the differences between notions, bipolarity makes it easier to capture and define meanings. It reveals indiscernible properties of the idea and the

unity

| fragmentation

object, enhancing them with a broader perspective.


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1. Okurayama Apartments. Yokohama, Japan / Kazuyo Sejima, 2008; 2. Serpentine Gallery Pavilion, Londyn, Great Britain / Kazuyo Sejima, Ryue Nishizawa, 2009. Drawings: JK

Principle of composition: meander. Indicates focal elements, organises them in a superior order in the form of a setup of smoothly connected internal and external spaces. Thanks to the freely flowing volume, walls and surfaces, the entire layout acquires an aesthetic homogeneity, while the irregular meandering allows each segment to be individualised to some degree, facilitating identification. A similar meander pattern, but more freely Kazuyo Sejima complied with Ryue Nishizawa in a plan of Serpentine Gallery Summer Pavilion in Kensington Gardens in London. According to authors the aluminum roof flows freely between trees as smoke.

1

2


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Workshop Basics / Idea Presentation Techniques Graphic means The ideogram can take on various forms, depending on the adopted drawing convention and technique. The basic „graphemes” needed to build an ideogram are: points, lines and surfaces, in their dynamic sequence. A line is the most elementary means of a graphic record. It determines direction, describes a plane, based on various configurations and principles of ordering (classification, rhythm, distances, etc.). A moving point creates a line. A shifting line creates a plane (the concentration of strokes gives a shaded surface). This dynamic relates to the basic stereotypes of perception which are based on the establishing of focal points (places), directions (roads) and surfaces (spaces). These stereotypes were created as the result of the multiple association of particular symbols with a particular category of phenomena. They exist in the individual as well as the collective consciousness or subconscious of all societies connected by a community. They are abbreviated, simplified, slightly evaluative, often symbolic images of the elements of environment.9

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Different tools and graphic techniques allow for the ideogram to acquire different forms of expression. Tools affect the thickness of the stroke as well as its properties (evenness, smoothness, roughness), while the method of drawing (spontaneous and vigorous or ordered strokes) will be the foundation for determining the style and mood of the drawing. By using a thick pencil, we obtain a distinct stroke, while a pen, marker or rapidograph give ordinary strokes of a rather homogenous thickness. Similarly, vigorous strokes can give a more bold effect than Kraków 09 line aqua 1x – vision of the future. / Andrzej Wielgosz, 2004

This is an abbreviated discussion of a complex problem. Frutigier discusses indepthly the elements of the geometry of ideograms and the relationships between elements in Man and His Signs. Carl G. Liungman presents an extensive catalogue of 2300 ideograms in Thought signs: the semiotics of symbols: western nonpictorial ideograms. The book is a very thorough source of ideograms of the western world, from Cro-Magnon engravings to contemporary graffiti. Large fragments are also available on the Internet: http://books.google.com/ books?id=8s1Gl2X-DlgC


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The Ideographic Interpretation of dance: JK 2008. The type of tool used affects the type of line and, in effect, the clarity of the ideogram: a/ pencil, b/ fountain pen, c/ crayon, d/ stick, e/ paintbrush, f/ palette knife

JACEK KRENZ, IDEOGRAMS IN ARCHITECTURE

a

d

b

e

Palao de las Artes, Walencja, Spain/ Santiago Calatrava, 1998. Ideogram: Ana Torres, Carlos Ferreira, UBI 2009

Guggenheim Museum, Nowy Jork / Frank Lloyd Wright, 1959. Ideogram: Elisiario Miguel, Igor Costa, Gonรงalo Ramos, UBI 2009

c

f

when drawing in a dry and constructional way. However, it should be noted that the recipient is also significant, and we should also keep them in mind when choosing the right technique and method of presentation. To attain a suitable degree of simplification, it is important to take note of means of expression, such as: contour, negative, mirror-image. We can also turn to effects obtained by using transformations: reducing a shape by extracting its main property, multiplication,


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Ways to translate the ideograms in the process of creation and the perception of architecture

The formula should be treated as a tool which opens roads along which the creation and perception of architecture may travel. The formula shows the levels of applying the ideographic method. The upper section refers to three (A, B, C) ways of using ideograms in the creation of an architectural form, the lower – in its perception. If we apply the formula to the facilities presented earlier, we may say that in the case of the Hotel Burj Al Arab in Dubai, the translation of the idea/notion into an ideogram, followed by the that of the ideogram into an architectural form, occurred directly (A). However, the idea of the Jewish Museum in Berlin was translated into an ideogram metaphorically

(C), while the ideogram served directly (A) as an outline for the building’s form. In the design of the Okurayama Apartments in Yokohama, the translation of both idea/notion into ideogram and ideogram into architectural form are systemic, treating the meander as a schema.


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Auditorium Parco della Musica, Rome, Italy / Renzo Piano, 1994-2002. a/ Sketch Renzo Piano, b/ Ideogram: Karolina Lepa, GUT, c/ view of the building complex

Renzo Piano’s sketch (a) represents a very simplified version of an extensive, multifunctional building complex, with three large concert halls of organic forms, resembling the sound boxes of instruments. The drawing reflects a direct likeness of the volumes and their location with respect to each other, the space around them – the loose, sketchy black lines and signs resemble musical notation. The synthetic ideogram (c) was created based on a recipient’s interpretation of the intention. The following has been outlined: spatial situation, the buildings’ silhouettes, their location. We see the line of the roofs of subsequent halls, situated around a central square. The lowest line indicates the location of the park, a harmonious counterpoint for the buildings which rise above it. The shapes resemble the waves of resounding sounds, as when playing music. The arrangement of the lines of the ideogram gives off the „musical” character of the place.

b

a

c


Perception: between intended and interpreted meaning

Perception: between intended and interpreted meaning

The ideogram is a simple and efficient means of communication between all participants of the design process. Its openness decides upon usefulness at the stage of initial decisions; at a time when only a main idea is suggested, it encourages further creative searching, proposes variants and directions for the design’s evolution. Later, thanks to its shortcut-like quality, it is also a useful and efficient tool of communication

while presenting design concepts to an investor. At the marketing stage, it is eagerly used in promotional material as the investment’s logo. Throughout the exploitation of the facility, it is a helpful figure in the structural and semantic deconstruction of the architectural form, and it generates and describes the relationship between the space and its user.

Ideograms representing simplified images of the following buildings: Palace of Culture and Science in Warsaw (Poland), Casa da Musica in Porto (Spain), Auditorium in Leon (Spain).

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Monument House, Joshua Tree National Park, California, USA / Josh Schweitzer, 1987-90. Ideogramy: Piotr Szulc, GUT

Ideograms metaphorically shows how the architectural form in mimetic way interprets a rocky desert landscape: the solid massiveness and colors refer to the rocks, and cutting holes in the walls reflect the natural terrain. Raw sculptural forms emphasize the spectacular scenery of the surroundings.

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Designing Using the Ideographic Method In the method presented below, the design process always begins with the identification of the recipient (investor profile) and the main theme, i.e. the semantic layer of the architectural form. The theme is arbitrary, however it is suggested that it be a motif inspired by culture (literature, film, music, etc.), in a word, one which will saturate the form semantically, and draw attention to architecture’s connection with a wide range of civilisational manifestations as well as its place in our lives and spatial environment. Students choose the person for whom they will design their “theme house”. They can be favourite or well-known artists 2

(writers, architects), actors, explorers as well as friends or family members. It is important to be able to designate the appropriate space for them, through the traits of their personality. When creating the ideogram, one should start by capturing the most important traits of the recipient and of the “theme house” – the object of the design assignment. This will result in the creation of two lists of primary traits, which will allow to define the design idiomatically. In analyzing the assignment, we attempt to express its characteristic traits through keywords. Next, these words are represented through graphic forms

Basista A.: Kompozycja dzieła architektury. Composition of a work of architecture. Kraków: Universitas 2006,p.6.


Ideogram in architectural design education

Student’s works Studios where I was teaching the described ideographic method of architectural design:: – Faculty of Architecture, Gdansk University of Technology, Poland (GUT) – Poznan Academy of Fine Art, Poland (ASP) – Departamento de Engenharia Civil e Arquitectura, Universidade da Beira Interior, Covilhã, Portugal (UBI)

The first four projects represent the houses for personality chosen by the student. [Ideograph: House for ... ] Next there are projects of the townhouse / terraced housing on the allocated areas of the city - each designed by a student on a particular plot. Models of individual houses were put together to form the model of the city on a scale of 1:100. [Ideograph: House on ...] The last group of projects concerns not so much architectural shapes as building facades, which were created based on the ideogram of the process. [Ideograph: The process of developing the form of the facade ...] Following pages present the works of students in the layout: the subject / author, description, design, ideographic study.

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Students by the model of the city in the Jacek Krenz design studio


Ideogram in architectural design education

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Anex: Author’s Works

Anex: Author’s Works

The impulse to write this book was the desire to share the experience of the methods I used to teach architectural composition. On this occasion I had the opportunity to look at the issues discussed through the prism of my own creative workshop and to verify after all these years, my earlier views and insights on the role of the ideogram as a design tool. Ideogram was always there: on the one hand, it was a base of the composition layout, on the other symbolically added semantic value of the proposed facilities. It was also invaluable assistance in communicating with investors. In discussing the theoretical issues I used examples of recognized works of world architecture, but also lessknown projects, for various reasons, significant for the subject, and student works, carried out under my direction.

The choice of examples resulted from the belief that in even the smallest task design meaning underlies the concept of architectural form. This fact, during the creative process, applies to any project, regardless of the degree of awareness and commitment to reflective thinking architect. I hope that the role of ideogram in this process was sufficiently highlighted and illustrated, and despite the obvious risk of argument, I would like to make a presentation of my selected works and projects. They will serve as an example in the analysis verifying theoretical paradigm applied to everyday practice. They will allow checking whether and to what extent, taking each task, the author as an architect used the language of meanings and symbols proposed by him as a teacher and theorist.


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Festus Arthotel in Sopot, Poland Jacek Krenz, 2005

Inspirations: paintings of Piet Mondrian. Ideogram: composition based of neoplasticism with deformation caused by the necessity to protect an existing tree.


Anex: Author’s Works

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House by the Mazury Lake, Poland Jacek Krenz, 2007

Inspirations: archetype of country house with modern tones. Ideogram presents the lamination of traditional plan.

a


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b

c

a/ ideogram, b/ plans of ground floor and attic, c/ model


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The Monument Cemetery of the Lost Cemeteries in Gdańsk, Poland

Hanna Klementowska, Jacek Krenz. 2002, Cooperation: Michał Krenz, Andrzej Wójcicki, Sculptors: Zygfryd Korpalski, Witold Głuchowski

Inspirations: basilica temple, tradition of necropolis. The monument commemorates the necropolis which no longer exists in the. It is dedicated to the citizens of Gdańsk who were once buried in one of the city’s 27 graveyards either destroyed during WWII or bulldozed on purpose after the end of the war. The monument was designed to resemble a temple. The main memorial is surrounded by broken gravestones representing all faiths, and includes a poem by the Jewish poetess Masha Kaleko (1912-1975), whose poetry was burned on the direct orders of Hitler in May 1933. Stone and light, the symbolic meaning The layout of the Cemetery of the Lost Cemeteries echoes a temple interior. The colonnade of trees creates an atmosphere reminiscent of the main nave and side aisles. The stone columns are in the shape of trunks, symbolizing withered trees long since dead, but thanks to the light which pervades from within are brought back to life. The granite slab placed on a foundation of broken fragments of gravestones forms both a sacrificial altar and a symbolic tomb. The inscription which is engraved around the granite comes from a poem by Masha Kaleko whose volumes of poetry were among the books burnt on the pyre in May 1933 on Hitler’s orders. Thus, from the ashes these poetic words will now speak again chiselled in stone to last. The lights set within the granite altar project upwards leading our thoughts to transcendence and thus binding the many burial places of various faiths into one metaphysical unity. These columns of light represent the firm faith of the people and seen within the light wisps of smoke from the votive candles remind us at the same time of the fragility of human life. Behind the altar there is a hedge cut into the shape of a semicircular apse which provides a final screen to this natural sanctuary. In the middle of the hedge there is an opening behind which we can see a wall of whitened stone - a symbolic passage for the dead who proceed towards eternity. The Living Memory The Cemetery of the Lost Cemeteries is meant to be a place of our common prayer commemorating all those generations who have lived and died in Gdańsk


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before us and whose place of burial no longer exists. It is a peaceful place for silent reflection, unifying all people regardless of their social status, race, nationality or religious adherence. Here the citizens of our town may ponder in peace the fate of their forefathers. Here they also may place the few remaining fragments which have been retrieved from the cemeteries which no longer exist. Thanks to the memories of individuals who will visit this place we will be able to recreate in our hearts a symbolic map of the common past of our town which - thanks to its close proximity to the sea and rich trading links - has always been the home to people of many different faith and nations.

Site plan sketch showing relation with the other monuments in Gdansk: Millenium Cross and Shipyard Workers Monument 1970

Site plany


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JACEK KRENZ, IDEOGRAMS IN ARCHITECTURE

St Mary Church in Waglikowice, Poland Jacek Krenz, Piotr Loch, 1989

Inspirations: traditional wooden country churches. Ideogram, based on the shape of cross express the symbol of faith and Christianity and as well as the structure of a building (plan and section).


Anex: Author’s Works

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Bibliography 1. Aires Mateus - arquitectura. Diogo Seixas Lopes (red). Wydano z okazji wystawy w Centro Cultural de Belém w Lizbonie 14.10. 2005- 15.01.2006. Almedina / Fundação Centro Cultural de Belém 2005. 2. Alexander Ch.: The Nature of Order. Berkeley: Center for Environmental Structure 2004. 3. D’Alleva A.: Metody i teorie historii sztuki. Kraków: Universitas 2008. 4. Arnheim R.: Sztuka i percepcja wzrokowa. Warszawa: WAiF 1978. 5. Ashihara Y.: Exterior Design in Architecture. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold 1970. 6. Basista A.: Kompozycja dzieła architektury. Composition of a work of architecture. Kraków: Universitas 2006. 7. Białostocki J.: Symbole i obrazy. Warszawa: PWN 1982. 8. Bizio K.: Antynomiczny charakter nauczania architektury W: Jadwiga C. Żarnowiecka, Aleksander Owerczuk (red.) Nauka, architektura, edukacja. Białystok: Wydział Architektury Politechniki Białostockiej 2006 9. Borucka J.: Inspiracje muzyczne we współczesnej architekturze. Rozprawa doktorska (promotor J. Krenz), Politechnika Gdańska, Wydział Architektury 2007. 10. Broadbent G., Bunt R., Jencks Ch.: Signs, Symbols and Architecture. Chichester: J. Wiley 1980. 11. Chermayeff I., Geismar T.: Watching words move. Chronicle Books 2006. 12. Cirlot J. E.: Słownik symboli. Kraków: Znak 2000. 13. Connor R.: Jazz and Architecture: Intersections of Rhythm, Proportions and Variations. Cincinnati: The School of Architecture and Interior Design University of Cincinnati 2006. 14. Day Ch.: Places of the soul. London: Thorsons Harper Collins 1990. 15. Dominiczak J.: Ukryte warstwy tożsamości miasta i zagadnienie metodologii projektowania. W: Tożsamość miasta odbudowanego. Autentyzm, integralność, kontynuacja. Polski Komitet Narodowy Międzynarodowej Rady Ochrony Zabytków ICOMOS. Gdańsk 2001. 16. Eco U.: Pejzaż semiotyczny. Warszawa: PWN 1972. 17. Edwards B.: Drawing on the Right Side of the Brain. London: Harper Collins 2001. 18. Faruque O.: Graphic Communication as a Design Tool. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company Inc. 1984. 19. Fikus M.: Przestrzeń w autorskich zapisach graficznych. Poznań: Wydawnictwo Politechniki Poznańskiej 1991. 20. Fiore Q., McLuhan M.: The Medium is the Massage: An Inventory of Effects. New York: Random House 1967. 21. Frutigier A.: Człowiek i jego znaki. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Do, Wydawnictwo Optima 2005. 22. Foucault M., Słowa i rzeczy (1966). Gdańsk: słowo/obraz terytoria 2006.


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23. Gajewski P.: Zapisy myśli o przestrzeni. Kraków: Wyd. Politechniki Krakowskiej 2001. 24. Gyurkowicz J.: Znaczenie form charakterystycznych dla kształtowania i percepcji przestrzeni – wybrane zagadnienia kompozycji w architekturze i urbanistyce. Kraków: Wyd. Politechniki Krakowskiej 1999. 25. Hawkes T.: Strukturalizm i semiotyka. Warszawa: PWN 1988. 26. Hays M.: Architecture Theory Since 1968. Cambridge, Mass: Mit Press 1998. 27. Holl S.: Intertwining: selected projects 1989-1995. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 1996. 28. Holl S., Pallasmaa J., Perez-Gomez A.: Questions of Perception: Phenomenology of Architecture. San Francisco: A+U Publishing, 2008, 29. Jaśkiewicz J.: O metaforze w architekturze i w innych sztukach pięknych. Warszawa: Wyd. Politechniki Warszawskiej 1991. 30. Jenks Ch.: Architecture of a Jumping Universe. London: Academy Editions 1995. 31. Karabeg D.: Ideograms in Polyscopic Modeling. W: Materiały konferencji Fourth International Conference on Information Visualisation, London, 19-21.07.2000. 32. Koolhaas R., Mau B.: S,M,L,Xl. New York: Penguin USA 1998. 33. Kotarbiński A.: O ideowości i ideologii w architekturze i urbanistyce. Warszawa: Arkady 1985. 34. Kozielecki J.: Koncepcje psychologiczne człowieka. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Akademickie Żak 2000. 35. Kozłowski D.: Projekty i budynki. Figuratywność i rozpad formy w architekturze postfunkcjonalnej. Kraków: Wyd. Politechniki Krakowskiej 1992. 36. Królicki Z.: Energia kształtów, Łódź, 1995. 37. Królikowski J. T.: Elementy semiotyczne dzieła architektury. Studia semiotyczne VIII (1978). 38. Le Corbusier: Poeme de l’Angle Droit. Paris : Wydanie autorskie 1955. 39. Le Corbusier Plans 1950-1951. Echelle-1 Fondation Le Corbusier. Paris: Codex Images International 2006. 40. Lenartowicz K.: O psychologii architektury. Monografia 138, Seria Architektura. Kraków: Wydawnictwo Politechniki Krakowskiej 1992. 41. Lenartowicz K.: Słownik psychologii architektury. Kraków: Wydawnictwo Politechniki Krakowskiej 2005. 42. Lillyman W. J., Moriarty M. F., Neuman D. J.: Critical Architecture and Contemporary Culture (Publications of the University of California Humanities Research Institute). Oxford Univ Press 1994. 43. Liungman Carl G.: Thought signs: the semiotics of symbols: western non-pictorial ideograms. IOS Press, 1995. (także: Google books). 44. Lopes D. S.: Form, Program, City. Public Architecture of Aires Mateus. Aires Mateus Monografia. darco 07, s. 35-214, marzec/kwiecień 2009. 45. Lurker M.: Przesłanie symboli w mitach, kulturach i religiach. Kraków: Znak 1994. 46. Martin E.: Architecture As A Translation Of Music, Nowy Jork: Princeton Architectural Press 1994. 47. MASSILIA: Annuaire d’études corbuséennes. Barcelona: Fondation Le Corbusier 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005.

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48. Mead M.: Culture and Commitment: A Study of the Generation Gap. The Bodley Head Ltd 1970. 49. Merleau-Ponty M.: Fenomenologia percepcji. Warszawa: Fundacja Aletheia 2001. 50. Misiągiewicz M. O prezentacji idei architektonicznej. Monografia 245, seria Architektura, Kraków: Wydawnictwo Politechniki Krakowskiej 1999. 51. Nesbitt K.: Theorizing a New Agenda for Architecture: An Anthology of Architectural Theory 1965-1995. Princeton Architectural Press 1996. 52. Niemeyer O.: Conversa de arquitecto. Rio de Janeiro: Editora Revan 2007. 53. Norberg-Schulz Ch.: Bycie, przestrzeń, architektura. Warszawa: Murator 2000. 54. Nyka L.: Od architektury cyrkulacji do urbanistycznych krajobrazów, Gdańsk: Wydawnictwo Politechniki Gdańskiej 2006. 55. Nyka L.: Wpływ przemian estetycznych początku XX wieku na współczesne relacje pomiędzy architekturą i naturą. Gdańsk: 1995. Rozprawa doktorska. Politechnika Gdańska, Wydział Architektury. 56. O’Brien J., Man Ho K., Elementy Feng shui. Poznań: Rebis 1993. 57. Quantrill M., Webb B.: The Culture of Silence: Architecture’s Fifth Dimension (Studies in Architecture and Culture, No 4). Texas A&M University Press 1998. 58. Quedes A.: The paintings and sculptures of Le Corbusier. Architecture SA, 01/02 1988. 59. Paiva F.: O Que Representa o Desenho? Covilha: Universidade da Beira Interior 2005. 60. Paiva F.: El Tiempo, Parametro Del Dibujo. Rozprawa doktorska. Bilbao: Universidad del País Vasco / Euskal Herriko Unibersitatea Facultad de Bellas Artes 2008. 61. Papp S.: Przestrzeń. Kraków: TAiWPN UNIVERSITAS 2002. 62. Perez-Gomez A.: Built upon love. Architectural Longing after Ethics and Aesthetics. Cambridge Massachusetts, London: MIT Press 2008. 63. Pęczek G.: Podejście Topologiczne w Architekturze na przełomie XX iI XIX wieku. Rozprawa doktorska (promotor J. Krenz). Gdańsk: Politechnika Gdańska, Wydział Architektury 2007. 64. Rasmussen S. E.: Odczuwanie architektury. Warszawa: Murator 1999. 65. Roth D. (Rot): Bok. Reykjavík: 1956-59. 66. Rowe C., Slutzky R.: Transparency. Basel; Boston; Berlin: Birkhäuser 1997. 67. Ruskin J.: Poetry of Architecture. Wydanie faksymilowe (1873). New York: John Wiley Brohan Press 1999. 68. Sławińska J.: Problematyka formalizmu i symboliki w architekturze współczesnej. Wrocław: Wyd. Politechniki Wrocławskiej 1993. 69. Steiner R.: Architecture as a Synthesis of the Arts. (wykłady z 1923) Rudolf Steiner Press 1998. 70. Strzemiński W.: Teoria widzenia. Kraków: WL 1958. 71. Swarabowicz R.: Przestrzeń zewnętrzna jako tworzywo architektury. Rozprawa doktorska (promotor J. Krenz). Gdańsk: Politechnika Gdańska, Wydział Architektury 2007. 72. Szmidt B., Ład przestrzeni. Warszawa: PIW 1981. 73. Sztafrowski M.: Architektura w krajobrazie. Gdańsk: Wydawnictwo Politechniki Gdańskiej 1984. 74. Tatarkiewicz W.: Dzieje sześciu pojęć: sztuka, piękno, forma, twórczość, odtwórczość, przeżycie estetyczne. Warszawa: PWN 1988.


Bibliography

75. Tatarkiewicz. W.: Historia estetyki, t.III – Estetyka nowożytna. Wrocław-WarszawaKraków: Arkady 1967. 76. Tempczyk M.: Świat harmonii i chaosu. Warszawa: PIW 1995. 77. Trzeciak P.: Historia, psychika, architektura. Warszawa: PIW 1988. 78. Tufte E.: Envisioning Information. Cheshire, CT: Graphics Press 2001. 79. Tzonis A.: Santiago Calatrava: The Poetics of Movement. New York: Universe Pub. 1999. 80. Wielgosz A.: O rysunku, obrazach, architekturze i utopii / About drawing, pictures, architecture and utopia. Poznań: Wydawnictwo Miejskie 2004. 81. Wittkower R.: Interpretacja symboli wizualnych. W: Symbole i symbolika. wybór i wstęp Głowiński M., s. 339-357. Warszawa 1991. 82. 11 Cities/11 Nations Contemporary Nordic Art and Architecture. Katalog wystawy. Leeuwarden 1990. 83. Znak we współczesnej przestrzeni sakralnej. Materiały III Międzynarodowej Konferencji Architektury Sakralnej, ARCHISACRA’95, Warszawa 1995. 84. Żórawski J.: O budowie formy architektonicznej. Warszawa: Arkady 1973.

Publications of the Author: 85. Krenz J.: Arte and Arche. On Art and Architecture. [w] A+U Magazine, Universidade da Beira Interior, Covilha, Portugalia 2009. 86. Krenz J.: Rain in Architecture and Urban Design. W: L. Nyka (red.) Water in Urban Strategies, Bauhaus-Universitat Weimar Niemcy, 2007. 87. Krenz J.: Metamorfozy miasta, trwanie / przetwarzanie / tworzenie / odtwarzanie. Współczesna architektura Gdańska w dialogu z historią / Metamorphosis of the City/ Duration / Processing / Creation / Recreation. W: Miasto historyczne w dialogu ze współczesnością /The Historic City in a Dialog with the Present Day. Gdańsk: Nadbałtyckie Centrum Kultury, Wydział Architektury Politechniki Gdańskiej 2002. 88. Krenz J.: Tożsamość miasta - między chaosem a złożonością. W: Romana Cielątkowska [redaktor]: Tożsamość miasta odbudowanego. Autentyzm, integralność, kontynuacja. Polski Komitet Narodowy Międzynarodowej Rady Ochrony Zabytków ICOMOS. Gdańsk 2001. 89. Krenz J.: Change and Continuity. W: The Urban Scene and the History of the Future. Washington: ACSA 1995. 90. Krenz J., Stopa M.: Semiologia w architekturze. Projektowanie przestrzeni o określonych cechach. Program, metoda i doświadczenia dydaktyczne. Zeszyty Naukowe Politechniki Gdańskiej 1983 nr 355, Architektura 23. 91. Krenz J.: Semiologia w architekturze. Treści symboliczne środowiska przestrzennego. Zeszyty Naukowe Politechniki Gdańskiej 1983 nr 355, Architektura 23. 92. Krenz J.: Architektura znaczeń. Gdańsk: Wydawnictwo Politechniki Gdańskiej 1997. 93. Kalendarz 2000. Dom na przełom wieku, dom na każdy miesiąc. Praca zbiorowa pod red. M. Radziwiłowicz i J. Krenza, Wydział Architektury Politechniki Gdańskiej 1999. 94. Krenz J., Kaufman M., Pęczek G.: Cyfrowa Architektura_cyfrowa edukacja. TRANSFORM. (R)ewolucja form we współczesnej architekturze. [w:] Architektura Murator, 2005 nr 10 = 133.

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Internet 95. Liungmann Carl G.: Thought signs: the semiotics of symbols: western non-pictorial ideograms. IOS Press, 1995. Obszerne fragmenty: http://books.google.com/ books?id=8s1Gl2X-DlgC 96. Online Encyklopedia of Western Signs and Ideograms. www.Symbols.com 97. The History of Visual Communication. http://www.citrinitas.com/history_of_viscom


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Summary. Ideograms in Architecture

Summary. Ideograms in Architecture

The aim of this debate is to show ways in which architectural concepts can be expressed and communicated through graphic symbols, ideograms. Knowledge in this field is exceptionally helpful in the process of designing architecture, and also has significant impact on the user’s perception of architectural forms. An ideogram is a synthetic graphic notation which combines the concepts of shape and idea in a  very basic way. It plays an important role in delineating and conveying meanings contained in an architectural work. An ideogram is, in itself, a symbol, a mental shortcut, the substitute of a complicated whole, which expresses the keynote of a work. This is especially significant when operating with complex relations between particular elements in the layers of an architectural facility, which need to be worked out during the design process. The study of such an issue is helpful in one’s approach to the creative process, and it furnishes the architect’s workshop with an efficient tool. The situation is comparable for the user of an architectural space. Analysing

ideograms in an existing building can successfully deepen or direct our perception. The semantic decoding of architectural forms fulfils many roles: facilitates the reading and interpretation of contained meanings, facilitates our movement within a space, and enables us to make use of its inherent functions more comprehensively. It is a  significant and efficient instrument in the communication process between creator-architect and recipient. Thus it seems all the more crucial that such an instrument be implemented consciously, so that it leads us to the essence of an architectural work and helps formulate the main idea in a clear fashion. The contemporary human being is facing entirely new challenges and experiences. They must cope in an expanded existential space on a daily basis, without prior upbringing or education as preparation. Establishing new channels of communication at the level of shortcut symbols is the key to creating a kind of alphabet of new space, composed of signs that did not exist in the dictionary of the old world. It is crucial that the


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environment be designed in a way which is clear and legible for the user. The mental reception of a  symbol helps in finding the form which exists in a catalogue of forms and meanings stored in our subconscious. An ideogram not only initially prepares us for the most appropriate reception and reading of the architectural form, but also tells us about our future behaviour during its use. By giving us a tool in the form of compressed information, it becomes a mediator facilitating, on the one hand, the conveyance of the architect’s message, on the other our own individual reading of this message. The ideogram becomes an interpretational road sign equally for the communicator (architect) and the recipient (user). Ideograms add an extra perspective to verbal information. Visual information contained in ideograms may combine two, usually distinct, orientations: scientific and artistic. The last years have witnessed so many changes in every stage of the architectural design process that this issue requires new research and new definitions. I  am developing them here, in order to apply ideograms in the research of spatial relations between certain elements, and the layers of an architectural work at different phases of the design process. As none of these questions can function without being situated in the history of the idea and philosophy of the symbol, the Reader will find

numerous references leading to clues on the road to the contemporary concept of architectural form. Deliberations in this work focus on the theory and practice of interpreting and constructing semantic layers in architecture from a hermeneutic perspective. Research is based predominantly on semiological and phenomenological theories of aesthetics. The iconographic material for individual analyses consists of contemporary architectural works, in which the semantic layer of the spatial form is clearly legible. The scope of research was limited almost entirely to architectural forms from around the world, built within the last two decades. Based on these analyses, I attempted to specify the phases of conceptual work with the ideogram, where this activity also encompasses certain layers of the facilities: structural, functional, constructional, and also semantic: social, cultural, aesthetic and philosophical. The main thesis, which is that architecture requires meaning in order to become a worthy cultural element of its spatial environment, therefore the ideogram is a  useful tool in reaching this goal, could not be developed fully without indicating the spatial context. Deliberations open with a  discussion of the role of signs and symbols in visual communication in general. It is only based on this knowledge that one may distinguish meanings conveyed by architecture. Reflections


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Summary. Ideograms in Architecture

on ways of interpreting architectural forms, with the help of ideograms, presented in further sections, may act as a point of departure for the formation of an alphabet of signs in contemporary architecture. This will show how the language of shapes in architectural form can be translated into a  synthetic discourse of signs, and how complex relations can be transposed into simplified operational algorithms. Presented are studies of the architectural form of particular architects, belonging to three different generations: that of Le Corbusier, Seven Holl and the Aires Mateus brothers, Manuel and Francisco. Next, a  discussion of issues concerning the perception of architectural form and the role of the ideogram in teaching design are illustrated by the works of students. Projects in which students used the ideographic method of searching for architectural form show the usefulness of this tool in creating forms which are

original and saturated with meaning. The semantic layer enhances the architectural work with content which connects it to a broad cultural trend, thus making it a significant element in our surroundings. An ideogram can serve as an intellectual aid at every stage of the design process. It is a useful tool in defining abstract notions and concepts, which can effectively be transmitted to spatial forms. Furthermore, it is exceptionally helpful in shaping social reception of architecture. In an age of dramatic technological developments which have expanded the concept of architecture and the realm of its realisation in ways not witnessed until now, a more in-depth understanding of the transformations at hand is becoming a necessary condition for the architect who wishes to consciously participate in the modifications taking place in architectural theory. This in turn may help in making more accurate decisions in composition.


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Index of Names Aires Mateus Francisco, 11, 135, 136, 148-155, 232, 236 Aires Mateus Manuel, 11, 135, 136, 148-155, 232, 236 Alexander Christopher, 159 Alsop Will, 48 Ando Tadao, 104, 105, 117 Apollinaire Guillaume, 27 Bach J.S., 24 Badowski Zbigniew, 128 Balanchine George, 59 Barozzi Veiga, 112 Bartók Béla, 147 Béjart Maurice, 59 Bellucci Monika, 170 Białostocki Jan, 139 Bizio Krzysztof, 78 Borucka Justyna, 59, 143 Breton André, 27 Brossa Joan, 26, 27 Budzyński Marek, 128 Bulanda & Mucha, 134 Calatrava Santiago, 52, 92, 124 Calvino Italo, 27, 37 Capriotti Juan, 92 Carrilho da Graça João Luís, 50, 66 Cino Zucchi Architects, 58 Cruz Regino, 53 Cunningham Merce, 59 David Paulo, 53 Day Charles, 57 Dominiczak Jacek, 39, 107 Duchamp Marcel, 27 Eco Umberto, 14, 37, 39 Edwards Betty, 77 Escher Maurits Cornelis, 37

Eshkol-Wachman, 25 Eusébio, 168 Evora Cesaria, 164 Ewy Jacek, 129 Feuillet Raoul-Auger, 25 Fikus Marian, 10, 35 Flynn John, 26 Foster Norman, 40, 41, 101 Foucault Michel, 4, 13, 80 Frutiger Adrian, 9, 91 Gajewski Piotr, 10 Gerencser Judit V., 132 Ghery Frank Owen, 115, 120 Głuchowski Witold, 214 Gombrowicz Witold,, 59 Graham Martha, 59 Guimard Hector, 23 Gyurkowicz Jacek, 218 Hans-Christoph Steiner, 25 Herzog i de Meuron, 43 Ho Kwok Man, 61 Hokusai Katsushika, 129 Holl Steven, 135, 136, 141-147, 232, 236 Hopkins Michael, 44 Huxley Aldous, 200 Ibos Jean Marc, 63 Ingarden Krzysztof, 129 Isozaki Arata, 53, 54, 113, 129 Ito Toyo, 56, 100 Jaśkiewicz Juliusz, 69 JEMS Architekci, 131 Jencks Charles, 87 Jolie Angelina, 164 Karabeg Dino, 9, 30, Kiera Agnieshka, 107 Klementowska Hanna, 115, 214 Knezevic Igor, 104 Kobro Katarzyna, 179 Korpalski Zygfryd, 214


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Index of Names

Kozielecki Józef, 84, 85 Kozłowski Dariusz, 92 Kozłowski Krzysztof, 133 Krenz Jacek 59, 72, 80, 85, 96, 103, 203, 204, 208-217 Krenz Michał, 96 Królicki Zbigniew, 62 Królikowski Jeremi, 39 Kuryłowicz Stefan, 130 Langham George, 61 Le Corbusier, 11, 43, 77, 135-140, 232, 236 Le Lionnais François, 27 Lenartowicz Krzysztof, 10, 39, 73, Libeskind Daniel, 43,46, 90, 93 Lipka Krzysztof, 59 Littman Max, 50 Liungman Carl G., 91 Loch Piotr, 216 Maki Fumihiko, 103 Makovec Imre, 38, 132 Mastenbroek Bjarne, 58, 122 Mathews Harry, 27 Mecanoo Architecten, 57, 119 Meier Richard, 127 Ming Pe Ieoh, 48 Misiągiewicz Maria, 10 Mitterand François, 43 Moczorat Marek, 106 Mondrian Piet, 210 Monroe Marilyn, 180 Moreira Pinto Luisa Miguel, 96 Nishizawa Ryue, 89 Norberg-Schulz Christian, 39 Nouvel Jean, 125 Nyka Lucyna, 53 Overhagen Jan van, 114 Paiva Francisco, 30 Perec Georges, 27

Perry Dean Rogers, 144 Pessoa Fernando, 178 Pęczek Grzegorz, 103 Piano Renzo, 55, 99 Pombal Marquês de, 46 Queneau Raymond, 27 Radziwiłowicz Marta, 106 Rietveld Gerrit, 58 Romeo Gracjana, 92 Rowe Colin, 137 Schmidt, Hammer & Lassen, 118 Schönberg Arnold, 90 Schultes Axel, 40, 41 Schweitzer Josh, 111 Sejima Kazuyo, 89 Sexton George, 40 Skidmore Owings & Merril, 53 Slutzky Robert, 137 Sławińska Joanna, 45 Sottsass Ettore, 102 Spreckelsen Otto von, 126 Staab Volker, 116 Sutton Valerie, 25 Swarabowicz Ryszard, 85, 210 Tönnies Ferdynand, 55 Troost Paul Ludwig, 51 Trzaska Mikołaj, 24 Tschumi Bernard, 123 Tulli Magdalena, 34 Tzara Tristan, 27 Venturi Robert, 87 Vitart Myrto, 63 Vulic Ivan, 51 Wallis Aleksander, 7 Wielgosz Andrzej, 91 Wójcicki Andrzej, 214 Wren Christopher, 48 Wright Frank Lloyd, 52, 92 Wright Tom, 88


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Zabuska Kalina, 214 Zawadzka Monika, 107 Zorn Friedrich Albert, 25 Żórawski Juliusz, 81

students Almeida Fabiana, 94 Almeida Ricardo, 172 Avila Luis, 95 Białek Tomasz, 88 Brenda Anna, 132 Burian Agata, 127 Campos Marlene, 180 Carvalho Joana, 97, 178 Coreia Mauro, 174 Costa Alexandre, 81 Costa Igor, 92 Cudna Bogna, 129 Czapiewska Agnieszka, 128 Dąbrowski Adam, 119 Denert Paweł, 116 Duarte Helder, 192 Dybek Dominik, 134 Fernandes Ricardo, 188 Ferreira Carlos, 92 Figueiredo Rui, 194 Fonseca Claudia, 82 Gonçalves Rui, 196 Guerra Jose, 96 Hermenegildo Tania, 200 Jakubowska Anna, 121 Kiewlicz Magdalena, 125 Koperska Marta, 122 Kowalski Kacper, 202 Łapińska Mirosława, 130 Lepa Karolina, 99 Lopes Emanuel, 170

Maciej Kaufman, 203 Maćkiewicz Maciej, 146 Malecki Tymoteusz, 126 Marques Filipe, 176 Marques Raquel, 184 Martins Pedro, 82 Marzec Ireneusz, 90 Matias Nino, 93 Medeiros Rui, 93 Mielczyński Tomasz, 131 Miguel Elisiario, 92 Neto Filipe, 94, 95 Peixoto Fabio, 94, 95 Pereira Vera, 166 Perlik Marta, 164 Piątkowska Ksenia Katarzyna, 124 Przewoźniak Magda, 203 Quezado Tânia, 198 Ramos Goncalo, 92 Rodrigues Ana, 200 Rodrigues Andreia, 190 Rompczyk Anna, 144 Ruas Pedro, 198 Samagalski Radosław, 113 Silva Daniel, 186 Silva Margarita, 82 Silva Tiago, 182 Śliwa Aleksandra, 115 Soares Ivo, 95 Sobańska-Jóźwiak Katarzyna, 129 Szulc Piotr, 111 Torres Ana, 92 Vicente Sérgio, 168 Wincek Jarosław, 123


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Ideograms in Architecture. Between Sign and Meaning  

The aim of this book is to show how the architectural concepts can be expressed and communicated through graphical signs – ideograms. This b...

Ideograms in Architecture. Between Sign and Meaning  

The aim of this book is to show how the architectural concepts can be expressed and communicated through graphical signs – ideograms. This b...

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