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Bright Forest Village 光の森

An Intergenerational Retirement Community 世代間交流型高齢者向けコミュニティ

Kenshi Nishino M.D., Ph.D., HTR Susan Rodiek, Ph.D. Chanam Lee, Ph.D. Jiajing Li, Ph.D. Candidate, Editor Aya Yoshikawa, Ph.D., Translator Texas A&M University 2018

Bright Forest Village 光の森

© Copyright 2018 by Susan D. Rodiek, College Station, Texas. All Rights Reserved. Printed by Lulu Xpress First Edition. ISBN 978-0-9824681-9-7

Texas A&M University College of Architecture Center for Health Systems & Design College Station, Texas 77843-3137

FOREWORD 序文 Solutions for Aging and Declining Birth Rate in Japanese Society


o meet the needs of an aging population, and enhance residents’ reasons for living, splendid city planning and facilities have been developed in various places in the U.S. At the same time, Japan’s birthrate has been declining more rapidly than the U.S. in recent years. To solve both issues of an aging society and a declining birth rate, appropriate solutions in facility and community development are required. In the 21st century, we have developed Artificial Intelligence with the demand for technological advance and convenience. However, such technological changes have caused many life-style diseases because of sedentary behavior. I believe that a nature-rich environment and excellent landscape will have great power to solve these issues, and asked the Departments of Architecture and Landscape Architecture at Texas A&M University for a solution. They delivered a marvelous solution to these issues, that will provide a great help to the people who want the answers in the future. Finally, I would like to express the deepest gratitude to all the colleagues who are involved in this project in the US and Japan.


アメリカでは高齢化の進展に対し高齢者の健康づくり、生き がいづくりを目的に素晴らしい施設や街づくりが行われて

来ています。一方、日本では高齢化に加え少子化が進んでおり、 少子化と高齢化という二つの課題を併せて解決する施設づくり、 街づくりが求められています。 21 世紀になり電子機器の発展と便利さを追い求める人々の気持 ちは AI を著しく発展させていますが一方でライフスタイルの増 悪による生活習慣病を多く発生させる弊害が増加しています。 我々はこれらの課題を解決する目的で施設や街づくりに豊かな 自然や素晴らしい景観を取り入れることが望ましいと考え、テ キサス A&M 大学の建築設計学部と景観学部とのコラボレーシ ョンにより、この新たな課題を解決できる素晴らしい答えを導 き出すことが出来ました。この事は将来様々な場所で発生する 課題の解決策として多くの人々に役立つと確信出来るものです。 このプロジェクトに関わったアメリカと日本、全ての関係者に 最高の感謝を申し上げたいと思います。

医師、医学博士、アメリカ園芸療法協会 認定正園芸療法士 西野憲史 医療法人ふらて会 西野病院 院長 理事長 社会福祉法人ふらて福祉会 理事長

Kenshi Nishino M.D., Ph.D., HTR President CEO, Nishino Hospital, Medical Corporation “Fraternity” President CEO, Welfare Corporation “Fraternity” American Horticultural Therapy Association, HTR

Back Row: Hao Huang, Aya Yoshikawa, Chanam Lee, Susan Rodiek, Hardik Jariwala Front Row: Jiajing Li, Manasa Hegde, Danna Ruan, Liang Zhao, Weishi Wang

Table of Contents 目次

1 Background & Research 背景と研究

03 Texas A&M University Participation

テキサス A&M 大学 参画 - Weishi Wang

05 Demography 人口の特徴 - Danna Ruan 07 Long-term Care System for Aging in Japan 高齢化が進む日本の介護保険制度 - Liang Zhao

08 Continuing Care Retirement Community (CCRC) Trends in Japan 09 11 13 15

日本における生涯活躍のまち (CCRC) の傾向 - Liang Zhao

Dr. Nishino's Work and Vision 西野氏の取り組みとビジョン - Manasa Hegde Furate Society Facilities 医療法人ふらて会施設 - Weishi Wang Design Principles デザイン原理 - Hardik Jariwala Evidence from Research 研究結果 - Hao Huang

2 設計要件と現地調査

Requirements & Site Analysis 19 Requirements 設計要件 - Hardik Jariwala 21 Site Analysis 現地調査 - Liang Zhao & Danna Ruan

Solutions 3 Design デザインソリューション 27 61 91 125

Seseragi no Sato Peaceful flowing water せせらぎの郷 Icho to Sakura Gingko and Cherry Blossom イチョウとサクラ Komorebi no Sato Sunlight Forest Village 木漏れ日の里 PHASE ONE – Selected Work – Spring 2017 第一段階 —選集—2017 年春学期

143 Acknowledgements 謝辞 - Hao Huang 145 References and image sources 引用文献と画像引用元 - Jiajing Li 147 Recommended resources 推奨文献 - Sinan Zhong

Background & Research 背景と研究





his is the story of a new approach to retirement living. How can we create a better lifestyle for people of all ages, to improve health, happiness, and the potential for a long life?  Everyone knows the importance of older people connecting with younger people, but it is difficult in the modern world.  This small book shows a new type of community, where people can experience nature, art, gardening, music, wonderful food, fun, and friendships.  Living in a special community that promotes healthy aging and physical activity, people of different generations can enjoy life more fully, while conserving natural resources.

これからご紹介するのは、退職後の新しい暮らし方についてのお話です。長い人生の中で、より 良い健康、幸福、長生きのためにライフスタイルを創り出すにはどうすればよいでしょうか?

この小冊子では自然とのふれあい、芸術、ガーデニング、音楽、質の良い食事、娯楽、友情が体感 できる新しいコミュニティをご紹介しています。優れたコミュニティは、自然を保護しながら、適 度な運動、異なる世代の人達との交流により健康的に歳を重ね、満喫した日々の暮らしを可能にし ます。 2

Texas A&M University Participation テキサス A&M 大学 参画 PHASES OF THE CCRC PROJECT In December 2016, Dr. Nishino invited Dr. Susan Rodiek and Dr. Chanam Lee from Texas A&M to help with the project, combining landscape and architectural design solutions. Students and faculty members are participating in three phases, with assistance from professional advisors.

PHASE ONE – January-May 2017

A total of 39 undergraduate students in Landscape and Architecture worked in large multidisciplinary teams to analyze the site and develop preliminary masterplans and housing clusters, then reviewed by Dr. Nishino on his visit to the US.

第1段階 - 2017年1月~5月

景観・建築設計学科の39名の学生が大規模な学際チームに参加。 現地の分析をもとに計画された準備段階のマスタープランと住居 施設は、米国を訪問した西野氏により審査されました。

PHASE TWO – May 2017 to May 2018 A total of 6 graduate students (3 Landscape and 3 Architecture) worked in 2-person multi-disciplinary teams, after visiting the project site in Kitakyushu. Students worked with the same faculty members and design advisors for one year, to refine the PHASE ONE masterplans, develop more detailed housing clusters, and design urban amenities such as the market square and main promenade.

第2段階 - 2017年5月~2018年5月

北九州市にあるプロジェクト建設予定地を訪問後、学生6名(景 観設計学科生3名、建築設計学科生3名)が二人一組の学際チー ムを結成。学生は一年間、同教授陣と設計アドバイザーの指導の もと第1段階のマスタープランを改良し、より詳細な住居施設の 設計と、マーケット広場や主要遊歩道などを含めた公共施設の設 計を施しました。

PHASE THREE – May 2018 onward Additional landscape and architecture students are involved in continuing development of this project, to increase the levels of innovation and detail in the design of additional amenities, and improve the quality of life for future residents.

第3段階 - 2018年5月以降


景観・建築設計学科生が新しく加わり、新たな価値を高め付随す る快適さを詳細に設計し、未来の入居者の生活の質の向上を目指 し、引き続きプロジェクトの開発が進められます。

生涯活躍のまち (CCRC) プロジェクトの経緯

2016年12月、西野氏がテキサス A&M 大学のスーザン・ロ ディアック氏とチャナム・リー氏に、景観と建築を含めたデザイ ンソリューションのプロジェクトを依頼。専門アドバイザーの支 援を受け、学生と教授陣が3段階にわたるプロジェクトに取り組 みました。


Demography 人口の特徴

Shrinking population

The total population in Japan reached its peak at 128.1 million in 2010 (General Government Statics Administration, GGSA, 2017). Since then, population in Japan continued to decline during the next 7 years. As of July 2017, the population declined to 126.5 million (GGSA, 2017). Japan has experienced net population loss, due to the decreasing rate of birth and working population. Japan's population is expected to continue its decreasing trend in the coming decades according to data published by National Institute of Population and Social Security Research.


日本の総人口は、2010 年に 1 億 2,810 万人となりピークに達しました (General Government Statistics Administration, GGSA, 2017)。 以 来 7 年 間、 減 少 の 一 途をたどっています。2017 年 7 月に総人口は 1 億 2,650 万人にまで減少しました (General Government Statistics Administration, GGSA, 2017)。出生率の低下 と就労人口の減少により、日本の人口は減少し続けています。国立社会保障・人口問 題研究所のデータによると、今後何十年は減少傾向が予測されています。

Japan's population by age 日本の年齢別人口

Aged society

Japan has the highest proportion of the elderly in the world. As of July 2017, 12.15% of the Japanese population were aged of 55-64 and 27.87% were 65 or above (CIA World Factbook, 2017). The proportion of those 65 or older is projected to reach approximately 33% by 2050 (CIA World Factbook, 2017). Japan is now considered as a super-aging nation (more than 20% of total population aged 65 or older), and facing many societal challenges that no other countries have experienced before. Indoor gathering activity 屋内での集会活動



日本は世界一の高齢社会を迎えています。2017 年 7 月現在、総人口の 12.25%が 55 ~ 64 歳、27.87%が 65 歳以上を占めています (CIA World Factbook, 2017)。2050 年までに、65 歳以上人口の割合は 33%に達す ると見込まれています (CIA World Factbook, 2017)。日本は超高齢化社会 (65 歳以上の人口の割合が全人口の 20%以上)に突入し、他国では前例を 見ない様々な社会問題に直面します。

Uneven population distribution in urban and rural area

Japan is a highly urbanized country with 90.7% of its population living in cities. Only about 5% of Japanese citizens still work in agriculture, and many of them have other part-time jobs in nearby urban areas to supplement their income. Metropolitan Tokyo-Yokohama, as the capital city, is the most populous city with 35 million residents (The Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communication Statistic Bureau, 2010). Like other large cities throughout the world, urban areas in Japan face many urban problems such as overcrowding and congestion. On the other hand, rural areas struggle with various economic problems resulting from population loss. The issue of severe population imbalance between urban and rural areas is among the top public policy agendas in Japan.


日本の都市人口の割合は 90.7%にのぼります(総務統計局 , 2017)。うち農業就業人口はわずか 5%で、 その多くは兼業農家として近隣都市でパートタイム等の仕事に従事し収入を補っています。東京・横浜都 市圏の人口は世界1位で 3,500 万人となり(総務統計局 , 2017)、他国の主な都市と同様、日本の都市 部では人口過密や交通混雑など、様々な問題を抱えています。一方で、地方では人口減少にともない、経 済問題を抱えています。都市と地方の深刻なアンバランスによる問題は日本が優先する社会政策課題のひ とつになっています。

Japan's population density map per prefecture 日本の都道府県別人口密度地図

Population trends in Kitakyushu

The total population in Kitakyushu reached its peak in 1979 with 1,068,415 residents and has continued to decline, reaching 950,646 as of 2017 (The Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communication Statistic Bureau, 2017) . The reasons behind the decline include natural changes/declines in births and deaths. In 2003, the rate of natural change fell into negative territory (rate of births was lower than deaths). Social change resulted from internal immigration in and out of the city. Social change had its first and second peak in 1968 and 1987. After 1987, the declining trend of social change has slowed down due to government policies to attract business and promote industries (Statistical Information Division, 2014). The improvement of social change provides a strong premise for this project, to attract people from other areas and other countries.


Population trend in Kitakyushu 北九州市の人口動向

北九州市の総人口は 1979 年に 106 万 8,415 人にピ ー ク を 迎 え た 後、2017 年 に は 95 万 646 人 ま で 減 少しました ( 総務省統計局 , 2017)。この現象の背景 には出生率と死亡率の自然増減の動きがあります。都 市への移住、または都市からの移住により社会変動が 見られ、2003 年にはこの自然変動はマイナスの領域 (出生率が死亡率を下回る現象)に到達しました。過 去にも同一現象が発生しており、社会変動は第一期の 1968 年、第二期の 1987 年に見られ 1987 年以降、 政府による企業誘致や産業支援等の政策により、社会 変動は減少しました ( 統計情報課 , 2014)。地方や海 外から人を引き込む政策は、社会変動改善に大きなき っかけになりました。


Long-term Care System for Aging in Japan 高齢化が進む日本の介護保険制度 Current Senior Care Trends in Japan

The prevailing care pattern for senior people in Japan is that the elderly are usually taken care by family members at home. However, with the rapid development of Japanese economy and changes in demographic profile, family's caring capacity for the elderly has declined which has resulted in: 1. Increase in nuclear family units and decrease in extended family units 2. Increase in the number of senior people and decrease in the number of housewives 3. Limited house space especially for urban residents As a result, senior care requires more comprehensive support services.


日本における高齢者の介護は自宅にて家族によるケアが一般的です。しかし近年日本の急速な経済発展と 人口動態の変化に伴い、家族による介護が困難になりつつあります。その理由として以下があげられます。 1.核家族化による拡大家族世帯の減少 2.高齢者人口の増加と専業主婦人口の減少 3.都市部の過密化による限られた介護スペース 上記の点から高齢者の介護には、より総合的な支援サービスが必要とされています。

Japanese senior lady 日本の高齢女性

Facility service in Japan 日本の施設サービス

Long-term Care Insurance System in Japan

In response to the drop in family care for the elderly, the Japanese government established a long-term care insurance system. People with different ages and different health conditions can be certified into five long-term care levels or two support need levels. Different types of long-term care services are available for each level. Generally, two types of services are available: 1. Home Care Services Medical professionals visit homes of individuals and provide them with health and personal care. 2. Facility Services Facility services include day care, short stay and daily-life care. Community oriented daily-life care is a better choice for seniors with dementia because they need a higher level of care and assistance.


家族による高齢者の介護減少に対応し、介護保険制度が導入されました。要介護認定は 年齢や健康状態によって5段階の介護レベル、2段階の要支援レベルに区分されます。 各レベルにより、異なる介護保険サービスが提供されています。一般的に2種類のサー ビスが存在します。 1.在宅介護サービス 医療スタッフが自宅に訪問し、必要な医療ケアを行います。 2.施設サービス 施設サービスではデイケア、短期滞在、日常ケアを行います。 高度なケアや支援を必要とする認知症高齢者には、地域密着型の日常ケアが推奨されて います。


Continuing Care Retirement Community (CCRC) Trends in Japan 日本における生涯活躍のまち (CCRC) の傾向 Introduction of CCRC

“A CCRC is a place that provides housing, residential services, and healthcare services to retired people” (Kubota & Babazono, 1997, p5). It offers long-term housing and medical care for residents to support the rest of their lives. For these services, they pay an initial entry fee and monthly fee in the following years. A typical CCRC has independent living, assisted living, and nursing home. The housing type can be single-family home, apartment, or condominium. Advantages for CCRCs are the home-like atmosphere and independent living style. Seniors can have the rest of their lives in a comfortable and familiar place with neighbors and professional medical services.

生涯活躍のまち (CCRC) の導入

「生涯活躍のまち (CCRC) は、退職者向けに住居、住宅サービス、医療ケアサービス を提供する場所です。」(Kubota & Babazono, 1997, P5)。生涯活躍のまちは、住 居者の長期的な住宅や医療ケアを提供します。入居にあたっては、初回入会料および 月額費用が発生します。 生涯活躍のまち (CCRC) には通常、自立出来ている人の住居、介護施設、養護施設が 含まれています。住居の種類は家族住宅、アパート、コンドミニアムなど様々です。 生涯活躍のまち (CCRC) のメリットは、家庭的な雰囲気と自立した生活スタイルが得 られることです。高齢者は隣人と馴染みある場所で、専門的な医療サービスを受けな がら心地よく暮らすことができます。

Daily life in a Japanese CCRC 生涯活躍のまち (CCRC) の日常

Lanier Village Estates アメリカの高齢者住宅

Suggestions to Develop CCRCs in Japan

Senior housing is desirable in Japan because of the increase in senior population, changes of care pattern, and limited living spaces. The development of senior housing is far behind the existing demand. The CCRC, which can provide good quality of medical care with affordable health care costs, is an important model of Japanese senior housing programs. Following are some of considerations to be taken into account to design a CCRC: 1. Safety and security for both indoor and outdoor environment 2. Community atmosphere 3. Local context and culture

日本における生涯活躍のまち (CCRC) への提案

日本では、高齢者人口の増加、医療ケアの変化、限られた居住スペース等 の理由から高齢者向けの住居施設が望ましいとされていますが、開発は現 在の需要に比べはるかに後れをとっています。手頃な医療費で質の高い医 療ケアを提供する生涯活躍のまち (CCRC) は、高齢者向け住居施設プログ ラムの重要なモデルになっています。 生涯活躍のまち (CCRC) の設計には以下のような配慮がなされています。 1.屋内外環境における安全と危機管理 2.コミュニティの雰囲気 3.地域背景と文化


Dr. Nishino's Work and Vision 西野氏の取り組みとビジョン

This project is being spearheaded by Dr. Kenshi Nishino. Dr. Nishino is a geriatric physician, Director and CEO of the Nishino hospital, and also a member of the Furate Corporation. He has been pioneering environment-related approaches to prevent and alleviate dementia at the Nishino hospital, following a course of treatments focused on art, music and horticultural therapy and the process of growing and preparing food. 本プロジェクトの取り組みは、西野憲史博士の指揮により推進されています。老年科医師で ある西野氏は、西野病院の理事長兼院長であり、医療法人ふらて会の役員を務めています。 これまで芸術、音楽、園芸療法、自家栽培や料理法による治療を実施、西野病院で認知症の 予防や軽減を目指し環境を重視したアプローチを開発してきました。

Nature, Food and Art 自然、食事と芸術 Exposure to sunlight, plants and fresh air is believed to have a positive effect on the dementia patients. The residents of the Nishino hospital enjoy gardening and spending time outdoors. Most of the vegetables and fruits used in the kitchen are grown by the residents in the garden. During our visit, we observed that knitting, embroidery, painting, sketching, paper quilling and cutting and crafts were also very common among the residents. Dr. Nishino holds an art display and competition every month to encourage his artistic residents. 日光、植物、新鮮な空気に触れることは認知症に効果があるとされています。 西野病院の入院患者は家庭園芸や屋外でひと時を楽しみます。西野病院で 提供する料理に含まれる野菜やフルーツのほとんどは、施設内や農園で栽 培したものです。編物、刺繍、絵画、写生、ペーパークラフト、工芸は入 居者の間で特に人気があります。また西野病院では優れたスキルを持った 入居者向けに、美術品の展示やコンテストを開催しています。

Internet of things bringing everything closer モノのインターネット (IoT) によってあらゆる物が繋がる

Dr. Kenshi Nishino with the site model 西野憲史氏とサイトモデル


Smart community スマートコミュニティ Dr. Nishino believes that we are living in an era where everything is and will be automated. In the upcoming years, there will be drastic changes in technologies related to healthcare facilities. Convenience and comfort will be major factors. All the devices involved will be connected through Internet of Things (IoT). Artificial Intelligence (AI) will be the center of everything. 西野氏は、今般あらゆるものが自動化傾向になりつつあると考えます。近い 将来、医療ケア施設に関連する技術は急激な変化を遂げることが予想されて います。それには、便利性や快適さが大きな要素になると考えられます。モ ノのインターネット(IoT)により、あらゆるモノが繋がり人口知能 (AI)が すべての中心になっていくと思われています。

Vegetable garden at the Nishino Hospital by the residents 西野病院の菜園

Artwork by a resident at the Nishino Hospital


Aim and scope of the project

Fresh vegetables grown by the residents at the Nishino Hospital



The project aims to create: • A new approach to how older people can age in place, with multiple levels of senior living. • A home for people of different ages, such as young couples and single mothers, whose children may enjoy interacting with the elderly residents. • Safety will be the prerequisite for all design proposals. • Mixed retail such as shopping, restaurants and a supermarket will fulfill residents’ needs and promote their active living, while bringing a sense of vitality to the village. • Building and surrounding areas will be designed to feel home-like with traditional yet modern architecture. • Indoor-outdoor connections and microclimate mitigation will encourage people to spend time outdoors. • A variety of outdoor areas will invite residents, visitors, and staff to interact with and be healed by nature. Abundant natural green spaces will support activities such as horticultural therapy, recreation, exercises, gardening and walking. Avenues lined with flowering trees will show the changing seasons and inspire people to feel close to nature.

•• 本プロジェクトでは、様々な介護レベルに合わせた高齢者向けの住宅を提供す るという新しい提案を生み出すことを目的とし、若い夫婦や高齢者との交流で きる子供を持つシングルマザー等、様々な年齢の人々のための住居です。 •• 安全性はもとより、ショッピングモール、レストラン、スーパーマーケットな ど様々な商業施設を設けることで住民のニーズに応え、コミュニティーに活力 ある暮らしを促進します。 •• 伝統と近代建築を取り入れた建物と周囲地域は、家庭的な雰囲気が感じられる よう設計されています。 •• また、屋内と屋外の繋がりによる細やかな気候調整で屋外での活動を促進して います。屋外エリアは入居者、訪問者、スタッフとの交流、自然とのふれあい の癒しの場となっています。 •• 広々とした自然のある緑地は、園芸療法、レクリエーション、運動、家庭菜園、 ウォーキングなどの活動をサポートしています。花を咲かせる並木道は、季節 の変化や自然との親しみを感じさせてくれます。


Furate Society Facilities ふらて会施設群

Nishino Hospital Introduction Location: Kitakyushu-shi, Fukuoka. Resident Capacity: 120 residents

Goals of Nishino Hospital 1. Providing medical care and supportive environment 2. Providing comfort and relaxation 3. Fully supporting healthy lifestyles


場所 : 福岡県北九州市 入院患者定員:120 人


1. 適切な医療と、優れた環境の提供 2. 一人ひとりにやさしさと、やすらぎの提供 3. 生涯にわたる健康の支援

Courtyard of Dr.Nishino's Hospital 西野医院の中庭

The Day Service Center and Nursing Care Center The Furate Society has developed medical facilities, a nursing care center, and a Day Service Center. The day services include bathing, meals, activities, and functional training in the daytime. It not only takes care of residents' every day, but also mitigates the sense of separation and maintains the mind and body function. The nursing care center provides all necessary services for daily living, including meals, bathing, activities, and emergency services. It is designed to support a healthy and bright life. Daycare center デイサービスセンター


医療法人ふらて会西野病院と社会福祉法人ふらて福祉会(以下、ふらて会) では、一般的な住居施設に加え、ケアハウス、デイサービスセンターを提供 しています。ケアハウスでは日常生活において食事、入浴、運動、緊急サー ビスなどにおける介護・介助を行い、入居者の健康的で活力のある生活をサ ポートしています。またデイサービスセンターではケアハウスでのケアに加 え、心身機能の維持と向上を目的としたサービスを提供しています。

Exterior Corridor 屋外廊下 Caption of image


Activities Being filled with tables, the lounge room is a common area with flexible partitions. Residents can hold an event to celebrate a festival or do daily activities in the area. For example, they can watch a movie, listen to music, do crafts, ceramic art, paper work, calligraphy, cook a dish, and dance. These hobbies help residents continue life after entering the community.


ラウンジ内の各テーブルには仕切りを配置するなど、 使いやすさが配慮されています。 施設内のラウンジにて映画、音楽、工芸、陶芸、ペ ーパーワーク、書道、料理やダンスなど様々なイベ ントをご用意しており、日々の暮らしにおいてさま ざまな活動を取り入れる事が可能です。

Activities in Hospital くつろぎのある共用スペース

Be Close to Nature There is a large healing garden surrounding Dr. Nishino’s hospital, and all residents are encouraged to be close to nature. A half-shaded corridor connects the indoor and outdoor spaces. A refuge hidden in the nearby mountainside provides a private sitting space, and a vegetable plot welcomes residents to participate in gardening. Surrounded by nature, residents feel the change of the four seasons and enjoy life happily every day. Courtyard 使い勝手の良い中庭


施設には “ 癒し ” を促す庭があり、自然とのふれあいを奨励しています。施設建物 と庭を繋ぐ廊下に天候を配慮した屋根を完備しており、山腹付近にひっそりとたた ずむ敷地には、“ 個 ” を意識した休憩スペースや入居者がガーデニングに参加でき る家庭菜園をご用意しています。自然に囲まれ、四季の変化を感じることで入居者 の暮らしに楽しみをもたらしてくれます。




Design Principles デザイン原理

Until recently, CCRC'S were not common, and older people had few options for long-term living. There is now a global demand for communities that incorporate home-like environments with adapatable design focused on older residents. The following principles can serve as guidelines for creating a caregiving environment for mentally and physically frail people. Designers can use the principles to help design a community that meets the needs of residents, while being accessible to neighborhood resources and services, and integrating the lives of older people with other generations. (Principles listed are from Carstens, 1993, p.15, and Wassum, 2013).

高齢者向けの長期的な生活の選択肢として、最近になりようやく生涯活躍のま ち (CCRC) が導入され、現在では “ 自宅のような環境 ” をコンセプトとし、高 齢者に適応したデザインを取り入れるなど世界的に需要が増しています。 心身に問題を抱える人のための環境創りのガインドラインが以下のように挙げ られています。設計者は以下の項目に沿って、老若男女問わず地域の施設や サービスへのアクセスや、入居者のニーズに合わせたコミュニティデザイン を支援することができます。(カースティン 1993年 p15, ワシューム  2013年に掲載された原理)

How can design principles improve the environment?


1. Promote a sense of autonomy, independence and usefulness


By supporting the needs of older adults, a community designed from evidence-based guidelines can potentially improve the health and wellbeing of older adults, while helping them adapt to age-related changes.

"Allows a resident to perform tasks for themselves. (e.g., easy access to facilities, comfort of ease and use, options for control of privacy, and opportunities for participation)"(Wassum R, 2013).

2. Allow personalization and control over the environment "Residents must be able to personalize, change, and control the environment to suit their own needs, abilities and personalities. (e.g., moveable furniture, space for gardens and associated amenities, and patios and/or balconies)"(Wassum R, 2013).

Activity garden for older people 高齢者向けに設計されたガーデニング


高齢者のニーズをサポートするための根拠に基づく(エビデンスベースの)ガ イドラインをもとに設計されたコミュニティは、加齢に伴う変化への適応をサ ポートしながら健康や幸福の向上を可能にします。

入居者の自立的活動を支援(使いやすさを意識した各施設へのアクセス、心地 良さや使いやすさ、プライバシーの確保、活動参加の機会など)


入居者のニーズ、能力、パーソナリティに合った環境を個々が選択、変更でき る環境を整えている(可動式家具、庭園スペース、娯楽施設、中庭やバルコニ ーなど)。

Flexible spaces for changing interests 好みに応じ様々な用途に使われるスペース

3. Provide adaptability of design


"Design must be able to accommodate the changing interests, preferences, and abilities of aging residents" (Wassum R, 2013).


4. Provide access to community services, facilities, & information


"Easy access to neighborhood resources, transportation, and information about services and events should be available". (e.g., convenient public transportation, safe and convenient walking routes to community facilities and on-site facilities for large and small events that welcome people from surrounding areas)(Wassum R, 2013).

高齢者が利用しやすい環境整備(公共交通機関、歩道、入居者向けの様々なイ ベント開催への参加可能なオンサイト設備など)に関する情報を得ることがで きます。

5. Adopt a "prosthetic approach" to design


"A prosthetic (supportive) environment allows the optimal functioning of the individual by offering support when needed, but promotes independence, challenge, and learning". (e.g., topography and length of walking routes, and recreational options that encourage participation by residents with cognitive and functional disabilities)(Wassum R, 2013).

自立をうながす環境とは、介護・介助を必要とする時にサポートを行うことで、 入居者の自主性、挑戦、学習を促進し、ひとりひとりの身体能力を最大限、引 き出す事を可能にします(徒歩ルートの距離や起伏、認知および身体障害を持 つ入居者へ娯楽の選択肢など)。

6. Provide variety and choice


"A variety of outdoor areas and activities should be available to residents. (e.g., formal and informal spaces, places for social interaction, privacy, and intimacy, as well as choices in scale of spaces" (Wassum R, 2013).

Access to neighborhood resource 施設周辺地域へのアクセス          

様々な屋外スペースや活動が提供されていること(公/私の空間や、社会交流、 プライベートな空間、あらゆる規模の空間を確保)。

Interstitial Spaces 間質領域 


Evidence from Research 研究結果

Introduction 前書き

Research has found that better living environments can improve the lives of older people. Some of the main evidencebased findings show the benefits of social integration, intergenerational interaction, access to nature and the outdoors, and smaller-scale housing with person-centered care. 研究によると、より良い生活環境は高齢者の生活の質を向上させ ることが解明されています。社会的統合、世代間交流、自然や屋 外へのアクセス、個を尊重した介護や小規模な住居がもたらす効 果は、科学的根拠に基づいた研究結果によって実証されています。

Kayoko Soman (second from right) watches kids play at a day care facility


Social integration delays memory loss

Social integration is the way an individual is involved in social exchanges with the family, social networks, or in their communities (Hooyman & Kiyak, 2008). One study tested whether social integration preserved memory function in late life, and found that social integration delayed memory loss among elderly Americans (Ertel, Glymour, & Berkman, 2008).


社会統合とは、個人が家族、社会ネットワーク、コミュニティでの社会的な 情報交換を行うことを言います (Hooyman & Kiyak, 2008)。社会統合が晩 年の記憶機能に有効か否かの研究で、米国における高齢者の物忘れを遅らせ ることが発見されました (Ertel, Glymour, & Berkman, 2008)。

Young and old play games happily ゲームを楽しむ高齢者と子供たち


Intergenerational interaction improves well-being

In a study by Hernandez and Gonzalez (2008), a group of students were interacting with slightly depressed elderly people. The results showed that those interacting with the students tended to lower their stereotyped perception of themselves, suggesting that intergenerational interaction also can improve the well-being of older people.


Hernandez and Gonzalez (2008) の研究によると、学生達と交流したうつ状 態気味の高齢者は、自身に固定概念を抱かない傾向にあることを発見しました。 この研究結果では、世代間の交流は、高齢者の福祉向上に有益であることを示 唆しています。

An elderly resident doing a puzzle with kids パズルをする高齢者と子供たち

Outdoor activity can reduce the stress level

Many studies show that contact with nature can promote relief from stress. For example, Rodiek (2002) found that older adults had improved cortisol level, which is a biological indicator of stress, after spending time in an outdoor garden, compared with an indoor classroom (Rodiek, 2002). Van Den Berg and Custers (2011) found that when allotment gardeners had to complete a stressful job before being assigned to gardening or reading, their cortisol levels decreased more in the gardening group than the reading group, as shown in Fig 1. A systematic review also found evidence for the beneficial effects of nature and gardening activities on older adults (Detweiler et al., 2012). Cortisol levels decreased more with gardening ガーデニングによるコルチゾール値の減少


自然と触れることで、ストレスは軽減されることは多くの研究結果から実 証されています。例えば、Rodiek 氏 (2002) は、屋内に比べ屋外の庭で 過ごした高齢者は(ストレスの生物学的指標である)コルチゾールや他の ストレス値が低いことが発見しました。また Van Den Berg and Custers (2011) の研究によると、読書をしたグループに比べ、園芸作業をした被験 者のコルチゾール値は減少しました(図1)。他の系統的調査でも、自然 との接触やガーデニング活動は、高齢者に有益であることが実証されてい ます (Detweiler et al., 2012)。

Older person planting flowers with the help of staff 花の植え付けをするスタッフと高齢者

Better quality of life in small-scale living facilities

In the small-scale living facilities, a smaller number of residents live together in a homelike, “household” environment, similar to a family home. A study found that family caregivers and nursing staff were more satisfied and reported more positive experiences with small-scale living facilities, compared to conventional wards in nursing homes (Verbeek, Zwakhalen, van Rossum, Kempen, & Hamers, 2012). The Green House Project helped introduce new models for long-term care in the US. A study (Kane, Lum, Cutler, Degenholtz, & Yu, 2007) explored the effects of this model on residents’ reported outcomes and quality of care, and found improved quality of life for nursing home residents.

A fireplace can make older person feel warm 高齢者がぬくもりを感じられる暖炉


小規模な生活施設では、少人数が共に暮らし家庭的でくつろげる世帯環境 を提供します。これは従来型の老人ホームに比べ、家族の介護者や看護ス タッフの間でより高い満足度が得られることが実証されています (Verbeek, Zwakhalen, van Rossum, Kempen, & Hamers, 2012)。米国では、グリ ーンハウスプロジェクトによって長期ケアの新しいモデルが紹介されまし た。研究 (Kane, Lum, Cutler, Degenholtz, & Yu, 2007) によると、この モデルの導入により、住人の報告結果や医療ケアの質において、生活の質 の向上が確認されました。

Share happy moments before dinner 夕食前の楽しいひととき


Requirements & Site Analysis 設計要件と現地調査





he site is located near the southern edge of the city of Kitakyushu in Fukuoka prefecture in western Japan, near a main highway between developed land and steep wooded hills. It is approximately 23 acres in size. It was formerly a golfcourse and much of the land was shaped as golf fairways following the topography. The site is rich with mature vegetation between the fairways. The site is within walking or golf cart distance from the Nishino Hospital.

この用地は、西日本福岡県北九州市の南端、造成地と急勾配にある森の丘の間を通る主要幹 線道路付近に位置しています。広さは約9万3千平方メートルにおよびます。かつてはゴ

ルフコースであり、土地の大半が地形に沿ってフェアウェイを形作り、フェアウェイ間は植生 が豊富です。西野病院からゴルフカートや歩いて行ける距離に位置しています。


Requirements 設計要件

Convenient lifestyle with many activities This village community will provide a variety of places where residents can mingle with visitors. There will be a Kids’ Park, a Fitness Center with tennis courts, restaurants, a supermarket, convenience store, fruit orchard, and many green spaces to relax and socialize, around the ''zocalo''(public square). This program shows the types of housing and other spaces that are being planned. 様々な活動のある便利な生活スタイル このコミュニティでは住人と訪問者が交流できる様々な場所を提供してい ます。キッズパーク、テニスコート付きフィットネスセンター、レストラン、 スーパーマーケット、コンビニエンスストア、果樹園、くつろぎと交流の 場となる多くの緑地があります。本プログラムでは住居施設と計画中の場 所を紹介します。


Condominiums (14%)

Memory Care (12%)

Detached Housing (4%)

Shared Housing (16%)

Assisted Living (22%)

Independent Living (32%)

Proportion of number of residents for each facility


Convenience Store コンビニエンスストア

Kids Park キッズパーク

Zocalo ソカロ


Context and Climate 環境と気候

3-kilometer service radius– Surrounding facilities 建設予定の住居施設から半径 3km 付近の主な施設

Introduction of the site

The project site is located in the City of Kitakyushu, Fukuoka Prefecture, Japan. Several medical and educational facilities are located within 3 kilometers from the site, which can serve future residents of our proposed community. Further, the Kitakyushu Expressway Route 4 and the Road 51 are adjacent to the site, providing convenient vehicular access to the site. In the future, part of Road 51 will be constructed to pass through on site. This new road will serve as the main arterial serving our proposed community and accommodating regional transportation demand. Therefore, this new road, along with the newly proposed transit stations on and near the site, will help bring visitors to the community.


本プロジェクトの現場は、日本の福岡県北九州市 に位置しています。建設予定の住居施設のある場 所から 3 キロ以内には医療施設や教育施設が立地 しています。また、北九州都市高速 4 号線と県 道 51 号線に隣接し、車によるアクセスが便利な 場所に位置しています。将来的には、4 号線に接 続する市道が、本プロジェクト敷地内に開通予定 です。開通予定の市道は、建設予定のコミュニテ ィの大動脈となると同時に地域の輸送需要にも貢 献、訪問者をもたらします。

Open Space Ocean Water Highway Road System Medical Facilities Educational Facilities





1 Kilometer Service Radius – Transportation and Landuse


1.86 Miles


Medical Facilities

建設予定の住居施設から半径1km 付近の交通と土地利用

Mixed Use Area Residential Area Open Space Educational Facilities Medical Facilities Industrial Area Proposed Road Highway Arterials Locals Bus Stations

3 Km



Recovery Nursing Home やすらぎ 4

Day Service Center 東風館 51

Nishino Hospital 西野病院 Care House and Day Service Center 恵迪館 Group Home for Dementia 00 0

2 Km 2

11 0.93


N 3 Km

Medical Facilities

1.86 Miles

00 0

1 2Km

1 0.93

N 3 Km 1.86 Miles

Average monthly rainfall

25in (645mm)

100% 90%

20in (508mm)

80% 70% 60%

15in (381mm)


10in (254mm)


5in (127mm)






Average monthly rainfall 月間平均降水量

Climate in Kitakyushu

The climate in Kitakyushu is moderate most of the year. Most of its rain falls during the monsoon season from June to September. January and February are dry with almost no rain. The lowest temperature is about 2°C which commonly happens during January, and the highest temperature can be up to 29°C typically in August. It is wet and hot from June to August, and dry and cold in January and February. During these months with uncomfortable weather conditions, outdoor activities need to be carefully planned and proper design strategies should be proposed to create more comfortable microclimate conditions in key outdoor activity areas. Prevailing winds blow from east and west throughout the season. Buildings, plants and other outdoor facilities should be located and designed to ensure proper wind circulation during the warm months and proper speed mitigation during the cold season. Regarding the sun paths, opportunities for the residents to enjoy the views of the sunrise and sunset should be provided within the site, through the proper placement of the buildings, utilization of rooftop and terrace spaces, and design of outdoor seating/viewing areas.


北九州市の気候は年間を通し温暖です。降水量は 6 月から 9 月にかけての雨季 に集中しています。1 月、2 月は降水量は最も少なく乾燥した気候です。最低気 温は摂氏 2 度(1 月)、最高気温は摂氏 29 度(8 月)が観測されています。6 月から 8 月は高温多湿、1 月から 2 月は低温乾燥の特徴がみられます。天候状 況により体調への影響が懸念される時期では、主な屋外の活動エリアにおいて、 過ごしやすい微気候を提供するなど、計算された綿密な設計が必要とされてい ます。また年間を通し、東と西からの卓越風があり夏季は東方から、雨季は西 方からの風を受けます。そのため、温暖な時期に適切な風の循環を確保し、ま た寒冷時期には風速緩和できる設計が必要となります。また施設は太陽の軌道 に合わせ、屋外座席・休憩エリア、屋根の上面やテラスの空間など適切な設計 を施しているため、入居者は日の出、日の入りを楽しむことができます。

Average Temperature 平均気温

Sun Path and Wind Analysis 太陽軌道および風況解析

0 mph > 0 mph > 3 mph > 7 mph > 12 mph > 17 mph > 24 mph > 31 mph > 38 mph


Secondary wind – E Sunrise

Noon Sunrise Sunset

Primary wind -- ESE

Primary wind -- WNW Sunset

Secondary wind – W


Site Inventory 現地の特徴 Topography 地形

Slope 傾斜

Legend 82


HP +82 M

0 – 2% LP +38 M

2% - 7%


> 7%

The highest point within site is +82 meters, and the lowest point on site is +38 meters. 敷地内の標高は 82 m~ 38m。

The overall terrain is moderate with more than 60% of the site being less than 2% in slope which can accommodate construction without any constraints. However, there are areas with steep slope with significant elevation changes. Around 10% of the site has slopes between 2–7% and is suitable for construction with some modifications. Around 8% of the site has greater than 7% slope which is considered not very desirable for construction. 全体の地形は標準的で敷地の 60%が傾斜2%、建設に適した地形です。しかし敷 地の約 10%は傾斜2%~7%と高低差が激しい場所が特定されていますが、若干 の傾斜修正を施すと建設に適した地形です。また本敷地の8%は傾斜7%以上とな り建設には適していない箇所となります。

Drainage 排水

Existing Vegetation 既存の植生

Legend Pasture open – 13%



Pasture grass – 70% Water flow direction

Trees – 11% Paved area – 6%

Existing drainage pattern follows the slope and surface water flows towards the east corner of the site.

About 83% of the land is covered with short and tall grass, and about 6% of the land is paved areas , which are suitable for construction.


本敷地の 83%は草木が繁茂し6%は舗装されており、建設に適した地形といえま す。

Site Context Views


Context views

Context views are significant elements to utilize in order to provide comfortable and enjoyable environment. For the site, surrounding natural views are perfect features to be brought into the site plan. Views toward Mount Adachi and sunrise are on the east corner of the site. Meanwhile, views towards sunset and existing forest are in the west corner and south corner.


視界は心地よく親しみやすい環境を提供するための重要な要素です。自然に 囲まれた眺めは、本プロジェクト設計に素晴らしい要素をもたらしてくれま す。敷地の東端では足立山と日の出が見え、敷地西南端では森林と日の入り を見ることができます。

1. View of the site towards forest edge 森林の端(境界)の眺め

Context views 現地の視界

2.View towards Mount Adachi on the east corner of the site 東側の足立山の眺め


Onsite elements

Within the site, an existing pond is located near the solar panels with a 計画敷地内には、太陽電池パネル付近の神聖な岩の近くに既に池があります。これら sacred stone standing next to the pond. These elements are considered as はこの場所の文化的な象徴となっています。建設中は、文化的な意味合いを強調する cultural symbols of the site. During the development, the pond and stone 池と岩は保護されます can be retreated to amplify their cultural meanings.

3 2 4


3. View of the pond 池の眺め 4.View of the sacred stone next to the pond 池付近の神聖な岩


Design solutions デザインソリューション



Seseragi no Sato Peaceful flowing water


Adapt to the pace of nature, it will heal your soul MANASA HEGDE HARDIK JARIWALA Landscape Architecture 建築設計 Architecture 景観設計 27



Master Plan

マスタープラン The word “seseragi” means babbling sound of a small stream. A series of small ponds along the promenade with naturalistic planting scheme is one of our main focus for this intimate intergenerational village and hence the name.

「せせらぎ」とは小川がさらさらと流れる 音を表しています。植林された遊歩道に沿 って連なる小さな池は、まさにその名前の 通り、心地良い世代間交流のコミュニティ の特徴を際立たせています。


計画分析 -循環路

Landuse Diagram

計画分析 -土地利用


Primary road/ City road Secondary road

Legend Commercial Public amenities Parking lots


Walking/ biking trails Promenade

Low density residential High density residential

Existing vegetation Proposed vegetation

Legend Residential MC - Memory care - 100 AL - Assisted Living - 100 IL - Independent Living - 100 CO - Condominiums - 50 SH - Shared Housing - 100 DH - Detached Housing - 10 Total no. of residents - 460 Services/ Activities FC - Fitness Center CH - Center House DS - Day Service Center SM - Super Market RS - Restaurant KI - Kiosk BUS - Bus Stop PT - Pottery Studio MB - Music Bar Outdoor Amenities ZO - Zocalo KP - Kids Park TC- Tennis Court P - Parking PG - Putting Green









AL 2f

SH 3f









1f, 2f







AL 2f







MB, PT 1f

SM 1f












DS 2f














N 0



40m 30

Promenade Conceptual Plans



Section A-A' 断面図 A-A’

LVL +80M

Mountain on the south Existing vegetation with side of the site walking and biking trails


Solar panels on the west side of the site

Existing vegetation with walking and biking trails

City road

Fitness center

Conceptual Master Plan

Conceptual Zocalo Plan

LVL +47M Existing vegetation with walking trails

Shared housing with outdoor community spaces

Central promenade with seasonal planting

Secondary road with existing vegetation buffer on the east

Mixed residential area ( AL, IL and SH) with landscaped courtyard spaces for community gatherings and existing vegetation as buffer from the vehicular road. 0



20m 32

Zocalo ソカロ

Circulation Diagram

“Zocalo” is a public square that is commonly seen in Mexico. Our design proposes a small mixed use, commercial district adjacent to the city road, consisting of a supermarket, restaurants, coffee shops, small food kiosks, a music bar and a pottery studio. It also features independent and assisted living housing on the second floor. Some of the open paved areas provide room for street vendors and farmers’ market. An intricately designed fountain is the central focus of the zocalo. 「ソカロ(Zocalo)」は主にメキシコでよく見られる公共広場です。 本デザインでは、スーパーマーケット、レストラン、コーヒーショッ プ、軽食、売店などが並ぶ市道のすぐ近くに小規模な多目的商業地区 が提案されました。また、2階には一般(自立型)住宅、軽介護施設 が設けられています。屋外の舗装エリアでは屋台や農産物の直売店向 けのスペースが提供されています。複雑なデザインの噴水はソカロ(公 共広場)の中心になっています。

Key Map



Legend Primary pedestrian circulation Secondary pedestrian circulation


Section of the zocalo along East-West axis (A-A')

断面図 A-A’

Parking with Supermarket entrance with Small food Central fountain space with seating and permeable paving shopping carts parked outside kiosks walkways around to reduce runoff

Restaurants and coffee shops Restaurant Wayfinding entrance signage with outdoor seating display 0


2.5 5



Music Bar, Pottery Studio




n ati


o td


e rs

Food Kiosks

Restaurant Parking

(AL above)

Restaurant Food Kiosks (IL above)



N Bus stop




30m 34

Main entrance of the community toward the commercial district 商業地区に向かうコミュニティの正面入り口



Drop-off area and supermarket with flexible space for street vendors




Outdoor restaurant seating facing the central square (zocalo) 公共広場(ソカロ)に面したレストランの屋外席




Central fountain with seating 座席配置と中央の噴水


Central Promenade プロムナード A promenade is a paved public walkway to be used for pedestrians and carts. It serves as the main circulation path connecting all land uses and destinations within the village. The promenade in this proposal transitions from urban to naturalistic forms. A series of ponds are designed along the promenade to enhance the walking experience and help manage and collect storm water.


プロムナードは、歩行者やカート利用者向けに舗装され た公共の遊歩道で、コミュニティ内のあらゆる土地利用 と目的地を繋ぐ主要な循環路となっています。本プロジ ェクトではプロムナードが都市と自然形態の橋渡しを しています。一連の池はプロムナードに沿って設計され ており、ウォーキングを促進すると共に雨水の集水と管 理に役立っています。

Entry from parking


Independent Living on the upper floor


Outdoor seating Center House

Food kiosks

Food kiosks

Outdoor seating

Outdoor seating



Entry from parking

Assisted Living Music Bar and Pottery Studio


Section of the promenade along S-N (B-B')

Bus stop


Entry Drop-off sculpture zone with cherry blossom trees

Supermarket with small food kiosks facing the zocalo

Central fountain with seating

Outdoor seating areas with Japanese Zelkova as shade trees

Cart Center house with cherry Outdoor parking blossom trees at the entrance pergola area seating

N Shared Housing


Pocket park with putting green




Independent Living

Convenience Store

Assisted Living

Shared Housing

Shared Housing

Memory care Healing Garden

Japanese Maples line the shared housing and convenience store entry

Promenade lined with Cherry blossom trees, Gingko trees and Japanese Maple trees. Pocket park in the rear provides small putting greens for golf. Benches with arm and back rest are provided along the pond.

Pond, housing the sacred stone with a gazebo seating, in front of the Independent living marks the end of the promenade. Sunrise can be viewed from here.

Site primary road with buffer from the highway 0



20m 44

Promenade view from the zocalo ソカロから見た遊歩道



Promenade view near the convenience store コンビニエンスストア付近の遊歩道 47


Promenade view near the pond and the wooden bridge 池と木橋付近の遊歩道 49


View of the sacred stone and the gazebo 神聖な岩のある庭とガゼボ





Drop-off Area

荷下ろし専用エリア Large enough to accomodate 4 parked vehicles for visitors, laundry truck, trash van and emergency care

訪問者、クリーニング店専用車、ご み収集車や緊急看護向けに自動車 4 台が駐車出来る十分なスペース

Special spaces 特別な空間

Eating Informally カジュアルに飲食 Space for dining next to activity area provides an informal place to eat with plenty of social interaction nearby

Caretaker Desk 介護デスク Conveniently located near the kitchen and entry for visual surveilance

Activity Area 活動エリア Located near the entrances, where residents spend most of their time

共用屋外エリアには座席、施設間を接続 する連絡通路付き遊歩道を設置

カウンター越しにやりとり出来る空間と、活動エ リア隣りのダイニングテーブルはカジュアルな食 事場所を提供



Shared outdoor area provides a place to sit outside and view the promenade with skywalk above


Key Plan 概念図

Second Floor Plan 二階平面図

Memory Care - Two Stories TOTAL 認知症ケア施設

First Floor Plan

Residential Units 住宅ユニット = 900 m2 階間取図 Common Area 共用領域 = 1320 m2 Total Floor Area 総床面積 = 2220 m2 0 3 12 units @ 16 m2 24 units @ 23 m2



Roof Plan 屋根伏図 56

Residents can safely wander in South facing garden 南向きで安全に散策できる庭

Interactive common spaces for multiple activities 様々な活動ができる交流共有スペース



A resident sitting beside large shoji windows viewing outdoors 大きな障子窓からの屋外の眺め


View through window 窓からの眺め

Access アクセス

Resident can have nature view while resting on bed and participate in outdoor activities

Provides easy access from bed to bathroom and decrease the number of falls and accidents

ベットで休みながら自然を眺めたり、屋外での活動 にも参加

ベットから浴室のアクセスを良くし、 転倒や事故を軽減

Without bath

Shelves with TV unit TV 付き棚

Residents can keep their personal belongings (family photo frame, religious figures) to recall their memories


Residents are given bath by care takers in the common bathing area

思い出を大切にしよりくつろぎを保てるよう、家族 写真や信仰用具など私物の保管が可能


WITHOUT bath - 16 m2 浴室無し - 16 m2

WITH bath - 23 m2 浴室付き - 23 m2

Bookshelves and TV unit allow residents' to personalize their rooms 便利な本棚と TV セットは、個室にくつろぎのある環境を演出


Icho to Sakura

Gingko and Cherry Blossom



Below the cherry blossoms of youth, the gingko shines with longevity… 若きサクラの花のした 長寿輝くイチョウの葉



Master Plan

マスタープラン Icho to Sakura is a mixed-use, multigenerational village, which provides housing, senior care and therapeutic environment to older adults, parents, students and children. The intergenerational village has different levels of senior care including independent housing, assisted living, skilled nursing and dementia care. The plan used evidence-based approach to provide a safe and pleasant place for the residents of all ages. It incorporates green and public spaces for the elderly and the younger generation to stay fit and healthy and, interact with each other. Residents have access to a wide range facilities for physical activity, social interaction, and relaxation; and those facilities are designed to make the residents feel at home. イチョウとサクラは、高齢者、父母、学生、子供向けに、住居、高齢者の ケア、治療環境を提供する多目的な世代間交流型コミュニティです。この コミュニティは、一般(自立型)住宅、軽介護施設、重介護施設、認知症 ケアなど、様々なレベルの高齢者向けケアを提供しています。 本プランは、あらゆる世代の入居者に安全で心地よい場所を提供できるよ う、証拠に基づくアプローチによりデザインされています。高齢者と若い 世代の入居者が健康を維持し交流できる緑と公共スペースが取り入れられ ています。入居者は運動、社会交流、レクリエーションなど、くつろぎを 感じさせる様々な施設を利用することができます。

Plan analysis - landuse 計画分析-土地利用 Commercial

Pocket Garden

Day Care

Low-Density Residential

Fitness Area

Parking Lots

High-Density Residential

Kid's Park

Legend Residential MC - Memory Care AL - Assisted Living IL - Independent Living CO - Condominiums SH - Shared Housing DH - Detachde Housing Total NO. of residents - 548 Services/Activities FC - Fitness Center CH - Center House DS - Day Service Center SM - Super Market RS - Restaurant GH - Guest House Bus - Bus Stop PG - Putting Green Plan analysis - circulation 計画分析-循環経路 Nodes Zocalo Primary Road Promenade 63

Secondary Road Walking/Jogging trails

Outdoor Amenities ZO - Zocalo KP - Kids Park TC - Tennis Court P - Parking

63 95 100 180 100 10


SH 2f























SH 3f

DS 2f

Putting Green










Tennis Courts





SM 1f

FC 1f




P Putting Green

CO 4f

Kid's Park

P MC 2f

N 0



50m 64

Section A-A' 断面図 A-A’ B



B' City Road




Tennis Court

30 Meter

Section B-B' 断面図 B-B’

service road


Shared Housing

Activity Node

Shared Housing

Activity Node

Assisted L


Day Service

Activity Node

Community Road

Assisted Living

Assisted Living

Activity Node


Assisted Living


service road

City Road


Site Plan - Zocalo

Secondary Road/Community Road



y Cit

a Ro




Terraces for natural views

Pedestrian bridge

Views around zocalo are natural and enjoyable including sunset, sunrise, city scenery and mountain view. Terraces and platforms are provided for people to enjoy the views.

West - Sunset 西-日の入り




Plan analysis - circulation 計画分析-循環経路

d oa yR

Drop off zone


“Zocalo” is a public square or plaza common in Mexico. The zocalo in Icho to Sakura is surrounded by a small commercial district adjacent to the city road, which consists of restaurants, a supermarket, and a center house on the ground floor and housing above. Buildings are proposed to have contemporary Japanese style. The outdoor dining and central lawn areas serve as relaxing public spaces. People can enjoy the views of natural environment or activities on the terraces and platforms provided on the upper floors. 「ソカロ(Zocalo)」は主にメキシコでよく見られる 公共広場です。イチョウとサクラのソカロは市道に隣接 した小さな商業施設エリアに囲まれた場所に位置してい ます。商業施設にはレストラン、スーパーマーケット、 2 階以上が住居施設となるメイン施設があります。屋外 のダイニングと中央の芝生エリアは落ち着いた公共の場 です。テラスや施設上階のデッキスペースでイベントや 自然を眺めて楽しむことができます。

ソカロ付近の眺めは、自然や日の出日の入り、 市街や山の景色など楽しみをもたらしてくれま す。また、テラスやデッキからは、素晴らしい 景色を一望することができます。


South- Kids Park 南-キッズパーク

8 N

East - Sunrise & Mount Adachi



North- Community & City scenery 北-コミュニティと街の景色








6 5



7 Legend 1. Center House (1f) & Independent Living (2f, 3f) 2. Restaurant (1f, 2f) 3. Supermarket (1f) & Independent Living (2f, 3f) 4. Outdoor Activity Platform 5. Outdoor Dining 6. Central Leisure Lawn 7. Pedestrian Bridge 8. Parking Lot 68

Outdoor dining areas and terraces in zocalo & connection to the promenade 大通りにつながる屋外ダイニングエリアとソカロのテラス



Cherry blossom inspired oval-shaped space in zocalo サクラの花がソカロのオーバルエリアを活気づける



Bamboo grove along the promenade プロムナード沿いの竹藪


Site Plan - Promenade

N 0




Legend 1. Bamboo Grove 2. Interactive Garden 3. Multigenerational Playground 4. Convenience Store & Coffee Corner




The promenade is the central walkway which provides linear green space in the community and connects with the zocalo. It also accommodates carts and bicycles. Along the promenade, four main activity nodes are proposed. Each node has a unique character and features, encouraging residents to have engaged in different types of outdoor activities and social interactions between different generations.


プロムナードは、ソカロ(公共広場)に繋がる緑豊か な線形空間となる中央遊歩道で、カートや自転車も行 き来することができます。プロムナードに沿って4つ の活動広場が提供されています。各活動広場は特色あ る環境を演出しており、世代を超えた様々な野外活動 や社会交流への参加を促しています。


Interactive garden view from the balcony of assisted living 介護施設バルコニーからの活気ある庭の眺め



Intergenerational playground 世代間交流の場



Intergenerational playground 世代間交流の場



Intergenerational playground 世代間交流の場


Convenience store and cafe with outdoor deck seating



View in the front of the building 建物正面の眺め



Furniture at Corner

コーナーに設置されたテーブルと椅子 Creates a homelike feeling, and is popular among residents because they can view other people passing by.

Varieties of Bedrooms

様々なベットルーム Four sizes of private bedrooms: standard class, deluxe class, super class and double room, offer different options.

Single Loaded Corridor

片廊下 It invites natural light inside, offers a good view of courtyard and expands the feeling of building area.

Work Station

作業台 Staff maintains a visual connection and protects the safety of residents. It is easy to access and work in dining area as well.


Welcome Lobby

エントランス Provide direct access to second floor from outside through south facing public area.

Fat Corridor

広々とした廊下 Varieties of corridor width provide alcoves to for residents to linger on.

Nature Barrier 自然により作られた囲い Bushes and screening help protect the privacy of residents.

Location of housing cluster 住居施設の位置

TV Lounge

TV ラウンジ The half open wall creates a semipublic space and prevents noise from interrupting other activities.

Bird's eye view 全景

Assisted Living

Two clusters per floor With 11 residents in each

Activity Room

多目的ルーム Residents can choose to join group activities or sit alone to look, enjoying sunlight and great view outside.

Open Kitchen

ダイニングキッチン Residents can join food preparation. Being adjacent to an outdoor terrace encourages residents to eat outside.

12 Units @20.2 m2 4 Units @30.8 m2 2 Double @32.8 m2 2 Unit @45.2 m2 Residential Unit: 520 m2 Common Area: 1087.4 m2 Total Floor Area: 1607.4 m2

SECOND FLOOR SIMILAR Southfacing terrace to get sunlight 日が差し込む南向きテラス


Continuous Balcony 長く続くバルコニー

Southeast facing continuous balcony provides an outdoor walking space for residents living in second floor. In addition, it provides enough sunlight, where residents can sit and watch activities on the promenade.

Place for Living 生活の場 Indoor activity space connects with outdoor balcony and courtyard. Residents can choose to join group activities or sit alone to look, enjoying sunlight and great view outside.

Get enough sunlight in winter 冬場でも十分な日の光が差し込む

Courtyard 87


Super class, 45.2 m2 スーパークラス

Double Suite, 32.8 m2

Southfacing Public Space



Deluxe class, 30.8 m2 デラックスクラス

Standard class, 20.2 m2 スタンダードクラス

North Facade 北側正面


Southeast Wing 施設の南東棟

Access to nature

自然とのつながり Semi-private courtyards connect to public promenade. Activities always happen in the entry garden and people like to watch in this space. Residents have a view of driveway and drop off area, a view of main lobby, and direct access to the indoors.

East Section 東側断面 89

Bird's Eye View 全景 90

Komorebi no Sato Sunlight Forest



Sunlight and shadow brings a peaceful feeling to life 日光と影のある空間は生活に 安らぎをもたらしてくれます

LIANG ZHAO Landscape Architecture 景観設計

HAO HUANG Architecture 建築設計


Master Plan

Komorebi no Sato is a peaceful intergenerational community with natural environments and diverse multi-functional spaces. It includes a mixed-used area, an intergenerational living area, a fitness area, memory care facilities, a kid’s park, and a tea house area. A proposed city road and a secondary service road serve as vehicular circulation that connects the community with the surrounding areas. A pedestrianfriendly promenade and nature trails provide safe and natural environments for residents to engage in distinctive activities. The sunlight filters through the preserved existing vegetation and new proposed trees that create a tranquil environment for everyday life.


Plan analysis - landuse 計画分析 -土地利用 Commercial

Teahouse Area


Low-Density Residential

Fitness Area

Memory Care

High-Density Residential

Kid's Park

Parking Lots

木漏れ日の里は、自然環境と多機能な空間 を備えた、落ち着きのある世代間交流型コ ミュニティです。コミュニティには多目的 エリア、世代間交流エリア、フィットネス エリア、認知症ケア施設、キッズパーク、 茶室エリアなどがあります。建設予定の市 道と地方道は、本コミュニティと周辺地域 を繋ぐ交通循環路です。歩行者に優しいプ ロムナードと自然遊歩道は安全な自然環境 を提供し、住民は様々な活動に参加するこ とができます。保護された既存の植生と新 しく植えられた木々から日の光が差し込み、 日々の生活に落ち着きのある環境を提供し ます。

Legend Residential MC - Memory Care AL - Assisted Living IL - Independent Living CO - Condominiums SH - Shared housing DH - Detachde Housing

100 100 100 84 101 10

Total No. of Residents - 495

Plan analysis - circulation 計画分析 -循環路 Nodes Zocalo Primary Road Promenade 93

Secondary Road Walking/Jogging trails

Services/Activities FC - Fitness Center CH - Center House DS - Day Service Center SM - Super Market RS - Restaurant GH - Guest House Bus - Bus Stop PG - Putting Green Outdoor Amenities ZO - Zocalo KP - Kids Park TC - Tennis Court P - Parking

DH 1f

SH 2f


AL 2f







AL 3f
















AL 3f

SM 2f











RS 1f








CO 5f

KP CO 5f

MC 3f

N 0



100m 94


A Vegetated Area

Section A-A' 断面図 A-A’


Vegetated Area




Section B-B' 断面図 B-B’


Vegetated Area


Vegetated Water Area feature




Vegetated Road Area



Vegetated Area

Parking Lots




Parking Lots

Vegetated Vegetated Area Road Area

Kid's Park


Zocalo ソカロ 「ソカロ(Zocalo)」は主にメキシコでよく見られる公共広場で す。木漏れ日の里のソカロは、多目的エリアの中心に位置し、近 代的な日本の建物、レストラン、来客用宿泊施設、コミュニティ センターに囲まれています。ドライ噴水、屋外のダイニングスペ ース、プランターのある座席は、くつろぎながら雰囲気を楽しめ る魅力ある心地よい広場を形成しています。

“Zocalo” is a public square or plaza common in Mexico. The zocalo in Komorebi No Sato is located in the center of the mixed-use area and surrounded by contemporary Japanese style commercial buildings, restaurants, guesthouses, and a community center. The dry fountain, outdoor dining space, and seats with planters create an attractive as well as cozy plaza for the public to rest and enjoy the atmosphere.

Key Map 概念図

Zocalo Circulation ソカロ循環路

Primary Pathway

Zocalo Pathway

Secondary Pathway

Entrances of Buildings

Zocalo - Site Plan ソカロ-敷地計画

Guest House 2f


Community House 2f


Leisure Zone

Outdoor Dining

Dry Fountain Porch

Convenience Store 2f

Parking 97

Supermarket 2f

Light House



8 4


Bird’s Eye View of Zocalo ソカロの全景


Bird’s eye view of zocalo ソカロの全景

Entrance of restaurants with outdoor seating 屋外座席のあるレストラン入口


Center plaza with dry fountain ドライ噴水のある中央広場

Outdoor seating and dining area under wisteria pergola 藤棚のある屋外座席と食事エリア



Promenade with shaded seating 日陰の座席があるプロムナード



Resting area near supermarket スーパーマーケット付近の休憩エリア


Teahouse Area 茶室エリア Teahouse Area - Site Plan 茶室エリア

― 敷地計画

Teahouse 2f

Japanese Garden



Accessible Ramps Zen Garden


Putting Green

0 1 105


6 3


本コミュニティ敷地の北西には茶室エリアがあります。日本の 伝統的な茶室をはじめ、庭園、果樹園、小さな緑地が含まれます。 丘の上にある茶室からは、コミュニティ全体と周囲の自然の風 景を一望することができます。二階建ての茶室には既存の擁壁 とともに、アクセスが便利なエレベーターが設置されています。 二階のベランダは過ごしやすく、足立山、日の出日の入り、北 九州市街を一望することができます。

The Teahouse area is located in the northwestern part of the site. It includes a traditional Japanese teahouse with gardens, an orchard, and a small putting green area. It is located on top of the hill providing opportunities for viewing the community and the surrounding natural scenery. The two-story teahouse is sitting on the existing retaining wall with an elevator providing convenient access to the upper level. The porch on the second floor provides a comfortable place for people to view the mountain Adachi, the sunset and sunrise, and even the downtown Kitakyushu.

Key map 概念図

Teahouse area circulation 茶室エリア 循環路

Primary Road Secondary Road Accessible Road

Teahouse area - Section 茶室エリア

― 断面図


Terraced Garden on Existing Slope with Accessible Ramps and Staircases



Zen Garden 禅の庭 Zen gardens are designed with sand and stones to create the atmosphere of the traditional Japanese garden.



Terraced garden on existing slope with accessible ramps and staircases



Façade of teahouse and zen garden




View from the porch of teahouse









Unit Clusters Around Dining Personalizing Alcove

個別の入り口スペース An alcove acts as transition area between units and public places. Residents can take off shoes, hang some personal photographs and paintings to express self identity.

ASSISTED LIVING (3 Floors total)

SHARED HOUSING (3 Floors total)

18 units @ 31 m2 Resident unit 568 m2 Common area 585 m2 Total floor area 1,153 m2

15 units @ 51 m2 Resident unit 766 m2 Common area 510 m2 Total floor area 1,277 m2

0 117

ダイニング設備 Clustering units around a common space to create oppotunities for social interaction and friendship formation.




Small Shrubs for Privacy

Livable Corridors

過ごしやすさを重視した廊下 Making part of the corridor a living room provides a convenient place for residents to sit on their way back and forth to their units.

Playground for Children

子供の遊び場 Older residents enjoy watching children play. Small children are good at providing unconditional love and affection.

プライバシーを確保する小低木 Serves as a living privacy fence to provide privacy from the pathway and Creates a sound barrier to reduce noise.

Attracting Wildlife

関心を引く野生生物 Birds are friendly and very interesting to watch, especially in the winter. Squirrels are very lively and entertaining.

Gathering spaces stimulate social activities


Having shared common spaces will make it easy for older adults to interact with others, in a group living environments. Games, music, gardening and other activities can be shared by everyone.

Intimate dining experience in family-style meals 家族団らんのような食卓が楽しめるくつろぎあるダイニング


A Homelike Experience


The entry creates a homelike feeling at the start of the home. It separates the outside and the inside world, with different seating near the front door.

Seating area near entrance with beautiful flowers 美しい花々と入り口付近の腰掛けのあるエリア


Transition spaces distinguish one space from another 空間と別の空間をつなぐ移行スペース Outdoor spaces can encourage intergenerational interaction 世代間交流を促進する屋外スペース


Six-foot Tall Windows

6 フィート(約 1.8m)の大窓 Large windows with low sills allow more light to enter and help the residents experiencing the outdoors from the unit.

Area for display

展示エリア Allow people to express self identity by personal items display.

Room for Storage

収納スペース Residents may have many personal items and there can never be too much storage for them.

Shared Housing Unit 51 m2 Young and old talk about music in The Multi-purpose Room 若者と高齢者が音楽を語り合う多目的ルーム


Modular wall units

Seatings for visitors

好みにあわせてカスタマイズできる 壁面収納ユニット Personalize living and especially sleeping areas for people who have to move into a facility from their larger home.

訪問者向け座席 Family and friends should feel that they are welcome, it will encourage them to visit more often.

Easy Access

容易なアクセス Provide easy access from the bed to the bathroom to decrease the amount of falls and accidents.

Five-foot Circle

5 フ ィ ー ト( 約 1.5m) 円形スペース Provide for an area large enough to hold a five-foot circle to allow a wheelchair 360-degree turn.

Assisted Living Unit 31 m2




PHASE ONE – Selected Work – Spring 2017 第一段階 —選集—2017 年春学期

Undergraduate students started working on this project in January 2017, when 27 fifth-year Landscape students and 12 second-year Architecture students led by Chanam Lee and Susan Rodiek joined in large interdisciplinary teams. They analyzed the site, climate, transportation, and usage patterns to develop different alternative masterplan concepts. Then they created more detailed designs for several outdoor areas and residential buildings for seniors. Professional architects and landscape architects from PI Architects, Three Living Architecture, and Mesa Designs visited the university several times to give critical input on the students’ designs. Samples of the student projects are shown on the following pages.

本プロジェクトは 2017 年 1 月、27 期景観設計学科学生と 12 期建築学科学 生を指導するチャナム・リー(Chanam Lee)氏とスーザン・ロディアック (Susan Rodiek) 氏が大規模な学際的チームに参加しスタートしました。現地 に関する情報、気候、交通、使用形態などが分析され、様々なマスタープランの 構想が練られました。そして複数の屋外エリアと高齢者向け住居施設について、 詳細設計がなされました。さらに設計企業である PI Architects, Three Living Architecture, Mesa Designs の専門の建築家、および景観設計家が大学を数回 にわたって訪問し、学生の設計にアドバイスがなされました。以下に、学生のプ ロジェクト例を紹介します。

Landscape Architecture and Architecture Students 景観設計・建築学科学生

Anderson, Christina Marie Blount, Clayton Jack Christman, Erik Jon Finch, Amelia Mallory Garcia, Yamile Hajovsky, Tamara Marie Herrmann, Taylor Lynn Jayroe, Hunter Gordon Kabalin, Erika Nicole 125

Kidwill, Logan Cole Kuehner, Courtney Lynn McCreary, Michelle Rene Mendez, Kristal Elizabeth Mikulik, Blaine David Parsons, Stephen Aubrey Patek, Marie Elnora Perales, Erica Renee Perez, Andrew Scott

Rojas, Annamarya Solis, Jimmy Alexander Spaulding, Kimberly Belle Stein, Kaitlin Virginia Tabuena, Trevor Daniel Toungate, Andrew Logan Wells, Jane Ross Williams, Ashton Maisie Wood, Bryce Oliver

Faculty and Advisors

教授、専門アドバイザー Cook, Christine Fowler, David Lee, Chanam Rodiek, Susan Ede, Carl S. Yao, Yanan Zhong, Sinan

Walking and transportation options 歩行と移動オプション



Active Living by Design Residents can enjoy a convenientlylocated fitness center and outdoor activities.


便利の良い場所にあるフィットネス センターやアウトドア活動を楽しむ ことができます。




Sustainable low-impact rainwater management 環境に優しい配慮された雨水管理


Green pedestrian system encourages walking, Active Living, and Healthy Aging 緑の歩道システムは歩行、活動的な生活、健康的なエイジングを促します



Open-air market (zocalo) surrounded by restaurants, food kiosks, shopping, and a small park レストラン、屋台、商業施設、小さな公園に囲まれた野外市場



Accessible walkways and ramps accommodate the sloping site and encourage people to enjoy nature アクセスしやすい歩道やランプウェイ(傾斜路)は傾斜地に対応、自然を楽しめる環境を提供します








Acknowledgments 謝辞

Morikawa Industry Corporation Mitsuru Morikawa, President CEO Yoshihiro Morikawa, Vice President


代表取締役社長    森川 満 取締役副社長     森川 善拓

Medical Corporation “Fraternity” Group Welfare Corporation “Fraternity”

Keiko Nishino, Director Mika Inoue, Group Home Manager Ryouko Shinohara, Group Home Manager Toshiko Kai, Group Home Manager Yoriaki Abe, Day Service Manager

Medical Corporation “Fraternity”

Yasuhiro Hara, Office Mgr., Nishino Hospital Nobutsugu Kumamaru, Office Mgr., LTC Center Yayoi Miyasu, Secretary, Nishino Hospital Satoko Nakao, Secretary, Nishino Hospital Tomiko Fukuda, Architecture Professional

医療法人ふらて会グループ 社会福祉法人ふらて福祉会

施設長  西野 惠子 グループホーム管理者 井上 美加            篠原 涼子             甲斐 俊子  デイサービス管理者  安部 頼秋



西野病院         事務長 原 靖博 介護老人保健施設やすらぎ 事務長 熊丸 統次 西野病院        院長秘書 三安 弥生 西野病院        院長秘書 中尾 聡子 西野病院      一級建築士 福田 登美子 

Daiwa House Industry Co., Ltd. General Construction Division Sales Section, Kitakyushu Branch Masayuki Shimizu, Manager Naoki Okamoto

大和ハウス工業株式会社 北九州支社 建築事業部営業課  課長 清水 雅志 岡本 尚樹

Texas A&M University System テキサス A&M 大学 Academic Administration 学校管理

Jorge Vanegas, Ph.D., Dean, College of Architecture Elton Abbott, Associate Dean for International Programs Robert Warden, Interim Department Head, Architecture James Thomas Haliburton, Ph.D., Assoc. Dept. Head, Architecture

Faculty team leaders 教授チームリーダー

Susan Rodiek, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Architecture Chanam Lee, Ph.D., Professor, Landscape Architecture

Architecture Professionals 専門建築家 Pi Architects Greg Hunteman, AIA, President Mark Warrick, AIA, LEED, Vice President

Faculty Advisors


Funding support




Student Advisors


Ray Pentecost, DrPH, Professor of Practice, Architecture Zhipeng Lu, Ph.D., Senior Lecturer, Architecture Chang-Shan Huang, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Landscape Architecture Geoffrey J. Booth, Youngblood Endowed Professor of Land Development Marcia Ory, Ph.D., Regents & Distinguished Professor, School of Public Health

Edward J. Romieniec. Graduate Travel Fellowship CHSD Design for Aging Scholarship Pi Architects Design for Aging Scholarship

Judy Pruitt, Administrative Coordinator, Center for Health Systems & Design Rowena Philbeck, Administrative Associate IV, Department of Architecture

Aya Yoshikawa, Ph.D., DrPH Candidate, School of Public Health Jiajing Li, Ph.D. Candidate, Visiting Scholar, Tsinghua University Sinan Zhong, Ph.D. student, Landscape Architecture

three: living architecture

Carl S. Ede, Principal, Senior Designer David Fowler, Principal, Senior Designer Christine Cook, Senior Associate, Project Manager

Alongside Seniors

Sharon W. Moon, President


References 引用文献

平 成 22 年 国 勢 調 査 最 終 報 告 書 人 口 の 地 域 分 布 . (2010). from The Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications Statistics Bureau. 最 新 結 果 一 覧  政 府 統 計 の 総 合 窓 口 . (2017). from e-Stat 政 府 統 計 の 総 合 窓 口 https:// at=000001080615 統計情報課 . (2014). 大都市比較統計年表 I 土地及び気象 ~ V 工業 [H26 ~ ] from City of Yokohama Agency, C. I. (2017). Japan Demographics Profile. from CIA World Factbook html Calkins, M., Szmerekovsky, J. G., & Biddle, S. (2007). Effect of increased time spent outdoors on individuals with dementia residing in nursing homes. Journal of Housing for the Elderly, 21(3-4), 211-228. Carstens, D. Y. (1993). Site planning and design for the elderly: Issues, guidelines, and alternatives. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons. Detweiler, M. B., Sharma, T., Detweiler, J. G., Murphy, P. F., Lane, S., Carman, J., . . . Kim, K. Y. (2012). What is the evidence to support the use of therapeutic gardens for the elderly? Psychiatry investigation, 9(2), 100-110. Ertel, K. A., Glymour, M. M., & Berkman, L. F. (2008). Effects of social integration on preserving memory function in a nationally representative US elderly population. American journal of public health, 98(7), 1215-1220. Furate society group. (2018, Mar 7). Furoide. Retrieved from Hernandez, C. R., & Gonzalez, M. Z. (2008). Effects of intergenerational interaction on aging. Educational Gerontology, 34(4), 292-305. Hooyman, N. R., & Kiyak, H. A. (2008). Social gerontology. New York, NY: Pearson Education. Kane, R. A., Lum, T. Y., Cutler, L. J., Degenholtz, H. B., & Yu, T. C. (2007). Resident outcomes in small-house nursing homes: A longitudinal evaluation of the initial Green House program. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 55(6), 832-839. Kubota, M., & Babazono, A. (1997). Utilizing CCRC Concept for Long-term Care Policy of Japan. 健康科学 , 19, 31-40. Rodiek, S. (2002). Influence of an outdoor garden on mood and stress in older persons. Journal of Therapeutic Horticulture, 13, 13-21. Van Den Berg, A. E., & Custers, M. H. (2011). Gardening promotes neuroendocrine and affective restoration from stress. Journal of health psychology, 16(1), 3-11. Verbeek, H., Zwakhalen, S. M., van Rossum, E., Kempen, G. I., & Hamers, J. P. (2012). Small-scale, homelike facilities in dementia care: A process evaluation into the experiences of family caregivers and nursing staff. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 49(1), 21-29. Wassum, R. M. (2013). Baby boomer living: Designing a modern continuing care retirement community.


Image sources


Page 5-6

· Japan’s Population by Age. Retrieved from html

· Indoor Gathering Activity. Retrieved from · Japan's population density map per prefecture. Retrieved from Demography_of_Japan Page 7-8

· Japanese Senior Lady. Retrieved from · Facility Service in Japan. Retrieved from

national/swedish-music-therapy-method-for-aged-strikes-chord-in-nursing-homes/#. WtEo5IjwaUl · Daily Life in a Japanese CCRC. Retrieved from national/kanazawa-retirement-community-relocation-tokyo-success-story/#.WtErJIjwaUm · Lanier Village Estates. Retrieved from Page 13-14

· Activity garden for older people. Retrieved from healing-power-of-communal-gardening-gardening · Flexible spaces for changing interests. Retrieved from Access to neighborhood resource. Retrieved from · Interstitial spaces. Retrieved from File:GrandeVerandah.jpg Page 15-16

· Kayoko Soman (second from right) watches kids play at a day care facility. Retrieved from https:// · Young and old play games happily. Retrieved from · An elderly resident doing a puzzle with kids. Retrieved from education/archive/2016/01/the-preschool-inside-a-nursing-home/424827/ · Fireplace can make older persons feel warm. Retrieved from portfolio/porter-hills-green-house-homes/ · Share happy moments before dinner. Retrieved from uploads/2016/07/SarahNeuman_smallhouse_dinnertable_54.jpg Page 19-20

· Convenience store. Retrieved from · Kids Park. Retrieved from

· Zocalo. Retrieved from Page 141-142

· Morikawa Industry Corporation. Retrieved from valve/valve

· Daiwa House Industry Co., Ltd. Retrieved from images/___facebook.jpg


Recommended Resources 推奨文献

AARP (2015). Age-Friendly Report: Inspiring Communities. Retrieved from: This is a collection of 16 age-friendly good practices worldwide organized according to the eight domains of age-friendliness brought by the World Health Organizations, including two cases per domain.

本資料は、世界保健機関で提唱されている高齢者に優しいコミ ュニティの8分野から、16の事例を紹介しています。分野毎 に2つの事例が紹介されています。

Carstens, D. Y. (1993). Site Planning and Design for the Elderly: Issues, Guidelines, and Alternatives. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold. The volume explores concerns and needs of the elderly and presents specific design guidelines for housing unit layout, rooftop development, recreational facility and so on to fulfill special needs of aging population.

高齢者特有の問題やニーズを考察、住宅設計、屋上の設計やレ クリエーション施設など、高齢者のニーズに沿った設計ガイド ラインを紹介しています。

Chapin, R. (2011). Pocket Neighborhoods: Creating Small-Scale Community in a Large-Scale World. Newtown, CT: The Taunton Press. This book offers a guide to small-scale neighborhoods as antidotes to urban spraw and involves a collection of site plans, 3D graphics, illustrations, and photographs showing key design principles of pocket neighborhoods planning and design.

本書は、都市のスプロール(無秩序な都市の拡大化)の対処法 として小規模なコミュニティに関する手引きを紹介しています。 配置計画、3D グラフィックス、イラストや写真と共に、小規模 なコミュニティの計画と設計に関する主な設計原理を紹介して います。

Delhanty, T. (2013). Landscape Design for Dementia Care. Housing LIN. Retrieved from: Resources/Housing/Support_materials/Factsheets/HLIN_ Factsheet35_Landscape.pdf This report presents key landscape design principles, such as safety, accessibility, and sensory stimulation, for improving quality of life among older adults with cognitive and/or sensory impariment.

本報告書は、認知・感覚障害を持つ高齢者の生活の質の向上に 向けて、安全性、アクセシビリティや感覚刺激など、主要な景 観設計の原理を提示しています。


Marcus, C. C., & Sachs, N. A. (2013). Therapeutic landscapes: An evidence-based approach to designing healing gardens and restorative outdoor spaces. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons. The book offers evidence-based overviews, design guidelines, and post-occupancy evaluations of therapeutic landscapes and healing gardens, including guidelines for patient-specific gardens covering twelve categories ranging from children to the frail elderly. 本書は、子供から体の不自由な高齢者まで、患者に適した庭園を 12 分野で紹介、客観的証拠に基づいた要旨、設計ガイドライン、 癒しの景観や庭における居住後の評価などを紹介しています。

Rodiek, S. (2009). Access to Naure: Planning Outdoor Space for Aging. Retrieved from: The three fast-paced and lively videos presents a wide variety of strategies to make Nature more inviting and accessible for residents, staff, and family members at senior communities. 高齢者向けコミュニティの居住者、スタッフや家族が、自然をよ り魅力的で身近に感じられる方法が、活気あふれる3つのビデオ で紹介されています。

Rodiek, S., & Schwarz, B. (2007). Outdoor environments for people with dementia. Binghamton, New York, NY: Haworth Press. The book discusses evaluation tools for people with dementia (e.g. influences of outdoor activities and plants) and explores the design of outdoor environments (e.g. gardens and parks) to fulfil fundamental needs of human relationships with nature and eventually promote well-being and health of those with dementia.

認知症患者向けの設計評価ツール(野外活動や植物の影響など) を議論、自然と人間関係との基本的なニーズを満たし、認知症患 者の健康と幸せを促進する屋外環境の設計(庭や公園など)につ いて考察しています。

World Health Organization (2007). Global age-friendly cities: A guide. World Health Organization. Retrieved from: http://www.who. int/ageing/publications/Global_age_friendly_cities_Guide_ English.pdf (Checklist of Essential Features of Age-friendly Cities: cities_checklist.pdf) It is a guide to age-friendly cities in terms of eight domains of urban living, including (1) outdoor spaces and buildings, (2) transportation, (3) housing, (4) social participation, (5) respect and social inclusion, (6) civic participation and employment, (7) communication and information, and (8) community support and health services.

都市生活における高齢者に優しいまちの提案が、以下の 8 分野 から紹介されています。(1)屋外空間と建物(2)交通機関(3) 住宅(4)社会参加、(5)尊重と社会との共生 (6)市民参加 とエンパワメント(7)コミュニケーションと情報、(8)コミ ュニティ支援と医療サービス。


Profile for JIAJING LI

Bright Forest Village 光の森 Hikari no mori  

An Intergenerational Retirement Community design studio book 世代間交流高齢者向けコミュニティ By Dr. Kenshi Nishino, Dr. Susan Rodiek, Dr. Chanam Lee, Jiaji...

Bright Forest Village 光の森 Hikari no mori  

An Intergenerational Retirement Community design studio book 世代間交流高齢者向けコミュニティ By Dr. Kenshi Nishino, Dr. Susan Rodiek, Dr. Chanam Lee, Jiaji...