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A comprehensive overview of and reference to our community

JACKSON HOLE 2013 EDITION


INSPIRE INVEST ENRICH INSPIRE: serving as a leader, catalyst and resource to ensure sustainability

INVEST: devoting time, talent and treasure to positively impact the community

ENRICH: improving lives through philanthropic leadership

When we invest our time, talent or treasure, we all become philanthropists and enrich our community — regardless of our net worth.

The Community Foundation of Jackson Hole inspires the entire community to support local

We are a family of funds, responsibly managed and maintained. By providing superior

• Over the last 23 years, the Community Foundation has granted over

nonprofits and to celebrate philanthropy through an incredible annual matching grant opportunity –

donor services, flexible charitable giving options and prudent investment alternatives,

• In 2012, 70 local nonprofits received

Old Bill’s Fun Run for Charities. The next generation learns the importance of strategic giving through

the Community Foundation helps donors support all the causes they care about at home

the Youth Philanthropy program. Nonprofits find talented new volunteers through our

and around the world. We help them structure their giving to provide immediate

Volunteer Jackson Hole website. Philanthropy reinforces our fundamental humanity and

funding or to ensure stability for nonprofits in perpetuity.

from the Foundation’s competitive grant funds.

• The Community Foundation holds approximately 200 funds and

$39 million in assets.

$91 million to benefit local nonprofits. Since 2001, the Community Foundation of Jackson Hole has consistently granted more dollars per capita than any other community foundation in the United States. In 2012, local students received $ 110,000 in scholarships to pursue their dreams. Nearly 200 nonprofit representatives attended 8 Foundation workshops on topics

• Over its lifetime, Old Bill’s Fun Run has raised nearly •

our shared values, connecting us to what is truly important. • •

IMPROVING LIVES THROUGH PHILANTHROPIC LEADERSHIP

$625,200

$208 million .

from board development to grant writing.

245 East Simpson Street • PO Box 574, Jackson, WY 83001 • 307-739-1026 • www.cfjacksonhole.org • www.volunteerjacksonhole.org • www.oldbills.org


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JACKSON HOLE

2013 EDITION jhcompass.com PUBLISHER Kevin Olson EDITOR Angus M. Thuermer Jr. CONTRIBUTING EDITOR Jonathan Schechter price chambers

Philanthropy page 27

4

Introduction

6

Overview

Know where we are, see where we’re going

Get used to the new normal.

10 Politics

We look Republican but vote unpredictably.

14 Economy

The real estate market is reviving.

20 Tourism

Numbers basically flat in past several years.

22 Demographics

Population growth in 2000s slowest since 1940s

25

Housing

Seventy-percent of homes here are lived in all year.

27 Philanthropy

Hole keeps on giving in good times and bad.

2

Jackson Hole Compass 2013 Edition

30 Geography

Yes, it’s cold here, and we need it to be.

35

Social Services As community grows, so do avenues for help.

38 Recreation

You name it, Jackson Hole has got it.

41 44 48 51 54

Arts We’re still the artsy epicenter of Wyoming.

Education As expectations rise, so do demands.

Region County’s influence is felt way outside its borders.

Peers Wildlife, national parks make us stand out.

Directory Who’s who, how to get in touch with them

MANAGING EDITOR Rebecca Walsh ART DIRECTOR Kathryn Holloway PHOTO EDITOR Bradly J. Boner CONTRIBUTING PHOTOGRAPHERS Price Chambers, Jaclyn Borowski, Ashley Wilkerson, Angus M. Thuermer Jr. CONTRIBUTING WRITERS Emma Breysse, Johanna Love, Jennifer Dorsey, Kevin Huelsmann, Brielle Schaeffer, Miller N. Resor, Mike Koshmrl, Ben Graham, Richard Anderson, Lindsay Wood COPYEDITORS Molly Absolon, Richard Anderson, Jennifer Dorsey, Mark Huffman, DIRECTOR OF ADVERTISING Adam Meyer BRAND MANAGER Amy Golightly AD DESIGN & PRODUCTION Jenny Francis, Kara Hanson, Lydia Redzich AD PRODUCTION MANAGER Caryn Wooldridge ADVERTISING SALES Karen Brennan, Chad Repinski, Tom Hall, Matt Cardis ACCOUNT COORDINATOR Heather Best CIRCULATION Pat Brodnik, Kyra Griffin, Hank Smith, Jeff Young OFFICE MANAGER Kathleen Godines Cover illustration by Stacey Walker Oldham ©2013 Jackson Hole Compass Additional copies available for $2.95 each. Bulk discount available. Jackson Hole News&Guide P.O. Box 7445, 1225 Maple Way Jackson, WY 83002; 307-733-2047 FAX: 307-733-2138, JHNewsAndGuide.com


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Introduction

bradly j. boner

The Tetons are one of the natural features of Jackson Hole that inspire passion in residents.

Reflecting on the creation of the 2013 Compass, three thoughts come to mind. One is that it’s a fool’s mission to try to capture Jackson Hole in a few dozen pages.

Jonathan Schechter

4

Jackson Hole Compass 2013 Edition

The second is that it’s even more foolish to try to capture all that Jackson Hole is in a few dozen pages of data. The final one is the proverb that it is better to light a single candle than curse the darkness. In many ways Jackson Hole can be thought of as a high school with a whole lot of money. Residents and visitors are hormonal about the place, acutely aware of and tremendously impassioned about not just everything that goes on in the region but everything that might go on. Any idea one person proposes will invariably strike someone else as offensive or threatening, causing the “how dare he?” hormones to kick in. But that same idea will also strike someone else as genius, producing a hormonal synergy re-enforcing the sense that this is a pretty spectacular place to live after all. This is the stuff of novels, so how do you capture any of it in a document devoted to facts and figures? The short answer is that you don’t. What you do instead is start with the belief that once the hormones calm down a bit, having a thoughtful dialogue about anything involving the community’s future will require a solid foundation, a generally agreed upon set of facts about where the community is, where it has been and how it has reached this point. However modest, that is the goal of this document. Part and parcel of the hormonal quality of Jackson Hole is an instinctive tendency to rely on gut feelings rather than

facts. For most residents, moving to the Tetons was less a rational decision than one that simply felt right. With such a powerful precedent, basing decisions on gut instincts is clearly the path of least resistance. In times past this wasn’t a bad strategy. Things were simpler, and it was easier for one person to follow his or her feelings when pursuing a dream or taking on a problem. However, particularly over the last few decades, the opportunities and challenges facing Jackson Hole have become thornier and more complex as the community’s population has grown, its property values have shot up and its wealth has increased. To succeed in such an environment requires bringing together a variety of resources — human, intellectual and financial — and to do that requires a common understanding, one that all interested parties can agree upon. This is where Compass comes in, for even if it doesn’t provide all the information needed to address a certain situation, it can provide a start in that direction. More broadly, it can also provide the community as a whole with a fundamental understanding of the trends that have brought Jackson Hole to where it is today and the hints these trends provide of where we may be headed. Those trends are not destiny, but for those looking to shape the future the job is far easier when started with a clear-eyed understanding of where we are and how we’ve gotten here.


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Pause. Rewind. Play.

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Overview

JACLYN BOROWSKI via ECOFLIGHT

The National Elk Refuge is seen from above during a trip over Jackson Hole with EcoFlight president and pilot Bruce Gordon.

Let’s blaspheme a bit, shall we? Let’s argue that the recession’s onset marked the peak of Jackson Hole’s tourism industry and that what we’ve experienced the past few years is what we can expect going forward. There are two ways to evaluate local tourism: tourist visits and dollars generated. Looking at visits, the four basic metrics are Grand Teton National Park visitations, Grand Teton overnight stays (camping and lodging), Jackson Hole Airport enplanements and Jackson Hole Mountain Resort skier days. As Graph 1 shows, the past 12 years have told three different stories: • From 2000 through 2012, enplanements and skier days showed good growth, Grand Teton visits were flat, and Grand Teton stays were down; • Ditto the period 2000-08; • From 2008 through 2012, though, the only indicator that showed any growth was Grand Teton visits, which have risen roughly 1.5 percent annually since 2008. Unfortunately, these indicators don’t tell a complete story, because none of them distinguish between tourists and locals. For example, Yellowstone National Park Superintendent Dan Wenk recently told elected officials that the 3.5 million recreation visits to his park likely involve only about half as many actual visitors, because many people leave and re-enter the park during their stay. Add visits by

6

Jackson Hole Compass 2013 Edition

area residents, and while we can count the number of visits to Yellowstone, we have no way of counting the actual number of tourists. The same phenomenon likely occurs in Grand Teton. Similarly, the airport doesn’t track whether someone getting on a flight is a resident or an outof-towner, and Jackson Hole Mountain Resort doesn’t share how many skier days are by residents. As a result, using the four basic metrics, there’s no clear way of telling how many tourists come through Jackson Hole. All we know for sure is that the people-related indicators are, at best, flat since the recession hit. Then consider one more interesting fact. Talk to National Park Service insiders and they’ll share a dirty little secret: Given their infrastructures — roads, visitor facilities and the like — Grand Teton and Yellowstone have basically hit their carrying capacity for handling visitors. Graph 2 hints at this, Even with both parks setting visitation records in the past few years, each park’s overnight stays — the best indicator of destination tourism — are pretty darned flat, growing at half the rate of recreational visits. Continued on 8


1: Relative growth of visitors, 2000-2012 and 2008-2012 (2000=100, 2008=100) Source: Jackson Hole Airport, Jackson Hole Mountain Resort, Grand Teton National Park

200

150

100

50

’00

’02

’04

’06

’08

’10

’12

’08

Airport enplanements

JHMR skier days

GTNP recreational visits

GTNP overnight stays

’10

’12

2: Relative growth of tourism in Grand Teton and Yellowstone national parks, 2000-2012 (2000=100) Source: Grand Teton National Park, Yellowstone National Park

120 100 80 60 40 20

’00

’02

’04

’06

Combined recreational visits

’08

’10

’12

Combined overnight stays

3: Relative growth of taxable sales, 2000-2012 and 2008-2012 (2000=100) Source: Wyoming Department of Revenue

200

150

100

50

’00

’02

’04

’06

’08

Taxable lodging sales

’10

’12

’08

’10

’12

Total taxable sales

2013 Edition Jackson Hole Compass

7


Continued from 6

There are several potential reasons for this, but, invoking Occam’s razor, the most straightforward answer is that the parks have about reached their limit of how many people can be crammed in each summer. This does not bode well for future growth in summer tourism. What about dollars generated? Here we have two tourism-related metrics: total taxable sales (the less-accurate indicator) and lodging-related taxable sales (the more accurate one). As Graph 3 suggests, these also tell three stories: • Between 2000 and 2012, total taxable sales grew smartly (25 percent), and lodging sales grew nearly twice as fast (43 percent). • All this growth occurred between 2000 and 2008 (39 and 83 percent, respectively), a period notable for the opening of Jackson Hole’s two five-star hotels: the Four Seasons and Amangani. • Since the recession’s onset, total sales has suffered an 11 percent decline, and lodging sales have gone into the toilet (a 22 percent drop). Since we’re being blasphemous, let’s also be a little churlish and note that these figures don’t take into account inflation, which has risen 7 percent during the past four years. Perhaps more disturbing, these declines have occurred despite the fact that, thanks to the lodging tax, the community has spent millions in the past two years promoting nonsummer tourism. Despite those expenditures, though, total taxable sales have been stagnant, and lodging sales are actually lower than they were before lodging-tax-related marketing kicked in. Because lodging is the best indicator of tourism as an economic driver, these data raise the question: Why the big decline in lodging revenues? There are undoubtedly a number of reasons, but again, let’s opt for the simplest explanation, which is supply and demand. Tourism is an increasingly global industry, with more and more locales competing for tourists and their dollars, especially at the high end. This trend started well before the recession, but its effects are now really coming into play. For example, in efforts to imitate the success of properties like the Jackson Hole Four Seasons (which opened at the end of 2003), the supply of five-star luxury hotel rooms at Western U.S. ski areas increased by 125 percent — from an estimated 1,600 to more than 3,600 — between 2008 and 2010 alone. A similar pattern has occurred worldwide as investors smelled an opportunity at the high end of the market and piled in, creating a glut of luxury properties around the world. The oversupply alone would have been problematic enough, but when the recession hit the glut became a huge deadweight on the entire tourism industry. As a result, today not only are high-end resorts competing against one another, but ocean properties and cruise ships are battling ski areas, five-star prop-

8

Jackson Hole Compass 2013 Edition

4: Taxable sales by category, 12 month running totals January 2007-April 2013, in millions of dollars Source: Wyoming Department of Revenue

350

300

250

200

150

100

50

Jan ’07

Jan ’09

Jan ’11

Jan ’13

Retail

All other

Restaurants

Lodging

Construction

Autos

erties are poaching conferences from three-star hotels, and resorts in Third World countries are offering labor-intensive levels of service that their First World counterparts simply can’t afford. Adding insult to injury, the last several years have also seen the rise of the “vacation rental by owner” phenomenon, which is arguably the most rapidly growing sector of the lodging industry. It’s also one that doesn’t systematically collect sales or lodging tax, making it a threat not only to the hotel business but also to local government coffers. In sum, since the recession hit, globally there has been far more supply of tourism-related services than there has been demand for those services. In such a situation, the only way local hoteliers have been able to fill their rooms is to reduce rates. The thinking here has been that more occupancy is better than less, especially because bigger properties can recoup part of their lost revenue through increased ancillary sales. But that strategy can go only so far, and as Graph 4 shows, since 2007 we’ve gone from a situation where lodging sales were twice those of restaurants to today’s case where restaurant sales are now 9 percent greater than lodging. Bottom line: As long as there remains a worldwide glut of tourism capacity, and as long as we continue to approach tourism in the same ways we’ve done over the past several decades, Jackson Hole’s tourism industry is going to remain stagnant

at best. More concerning still, as income inequality grows nationally and globally, Jackson Hole will find itself competing for an increasingly smaller share of the tourism pie. The past two decades’ emphasis on growing our high-end amenities — a perfectly sound and prudent business decision, by the way — has left Jackson Hole squeezed: Not only are we competing against an increasing number of luxury resorts around the world, but we have become increasingly less affordable to nonwealthy individuals looking to take a vacation. These folks — mom and pop and their 2.5 kids in the station wagon visiting the national parks — are Jackson Hole’s “traditional” tourists and are a viable market. For example, between 2000 and 2012, seven-eighths of the increase in overnight stays in Grand Teton and Yellowstone was by people camping. However, between fewer campgrounds, higher lodging rates and ever-increasing skiing costs, this is a market we are increasingly less able to accommodate. Addressing these challenges will not be easy, if only because so many factors are involved. Until a community strategy is developed, though, it seems prudent for the individual business owner in the tourism industry to assume that for the foreseeable future, in terms of both numbers of visitors and the amount they’ll be spending, what we’ve experienced during the last few years can be considered the new normal.


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As our junior high school civics courses teach us, elections are the electorate’s opportunity to determine just who should be governing it. What do the 2012 elections tell us about Teton County residents?

Politics

Let’s start with two basic numbers: 17,218 and 11,962. The former is the 2010 census count of the number of Teton County residents 18 years and older. The latter is the number of people registered to vote following the post-2012 election purge of ineligible voters. Divide the number of people registered to vote into the number of those 18 and older, and you find that roughly 70 percent of Teton County’s adult population is registered to vote, a figure in line with the national ratio. Where Teton County differs from the nation, however, is in voter turnout. In 2012, the total number of Teton County residents voting for one of the presidential candidates was 11,356, meaning nearly all of those registered to vote did actually vote. Sixty-six percent of Teton County’s total adult population voted, higher than both the nation and state as a whole (58 and 59 percent, respectively). What about party affiliation? According to the latest Gallup Survey, 33 percent of Americans identify themselves as Democrats, 26 percent as Republicans and 40 percent as “other” (mostly independent). In the deeply red state of Wyoming, the numbers are very different: as of April 2013, 21 percent of Wyoming’s registered voters were Democrats, 65 percent Republicans and 14 percent “other.” Teton County basically splits the dif-

Teton County voters pick individual over party.

ference, with 31 percent of all voters registered as Democrats, 45 percent as Republicans and 24 percent “other” (graph 1). Of all Wyoming counties, this gives Teton the highest proportion of people not choosing to affiliate with any party, the third-highest proportion of Democrats and the lowest proportion of Republicans. Voter registration patterns are not uniform across Teton County, however. Registration in the Hoback Nation (Precinct 1-10, South Hoback) essentially mirrors that of the state: 20 percent Democrat, 61 percent Republican and 19 percent “other.” At the other end of the ideological spectrum, the most heavily Democratic precinct in Teton County in terms of registration is 4-1, Wilson South. Even there, though, the number of people registered as Democrats (278) slightly trails the number registered as Republicans (283). (“Other” makes up the remaining 18 percent.) In Teton County, though, registration does not translate into votes. Despite the GOP’s hefty registration advantage, in 2012 Barack Obama outpolled Mitt Romney among local voters 55 percent to 43 percent. Do the math, and Romney received fewer votes than there were registered Republicans, and Obama not only received the votes of essentially every registered Democrat but also the Continued on 12

Town and county precints in Teton County Source: Teton County

NUMBER AREA

10

1-1

South of Jackson

1-2

Mid-East Jackson

1-3

Skyline

1-4

North Jackson

1-5

Mid-West Jackson

1-6

Cottonwood

1-7

Rafter J

1-8

East Jackson

1-9

West Jackson

1-10

South Hoback

1-11

Indian Trails

2-1

Kelly / Moose / Airport

3-1

Moran

4-1

Wilson South

4-2

Moose-Wilson Road West

4-3

Wilson North

4-4

Teton Village

5-1

Alta

Jackson Hole Compass 2013 Edition

County 3-1 5-1

2-1

4-4 4-3

4-1

4-2

Town Area

1-3 1-1

1-4 1-10

1-11

1-9

1-6

1-7

1-5

1-2

1-8


2012 presidential percentage votes for Obama and Romney Source: Teton County

Votes for Obama 65 60

70

55

50

County

Votes for Romney 65 70

55

75

Town Area 3-1

5-1 1-4

4-3

1-11

2-1

4-4 4-2

1-9

1-2

1-5

1-8

T

1-6

1-3 1-1

4-1

1-10 1-7

2012 county commission percentage votes for Democrats and Republicans Source: Teton County

70

Votes for Democrats 65 60

55

County

Votes for Republicans 55 65 70 75

50

Town Area 3-1

5-1 1-4

4-3

2-1

4-4 4-2

4-1

1-11

1-9

1-5

1-2

1-8

1-6

1-3 1-1 1-10

1-7 2012 presidential votes for Obama and Romney and 2012 county commission votes for Fuller (D), Turley (D), Allen (R) and Perry (R) Source: Teton County

PRECINCT

OBAMA

ROMNEY

FULLER

1-1 1-2 1-3 1-4 1-5 1-6 1-7 1-8 1-9 1-10 1-11 2-1 3-1 4-1 4-2 4-3 4-4 5-1 Total

515 578 244 86 581 401 419 509 479 295 86 355 146 392 524 353 144 104 6,211

513 261 268 97 323 308 273 273 225 430 59 506 152 248 463 159 142 158 4,858

374 408 179 56 383 270 298 321 312 218 58 275 104 308 377 291 102 68 4,402

TURLEY

413 422 195 74 450 355 371 379 360 257 76 311 115 301 431 259 115 99 4,983

ALLEN

522 294 275 84 349 306 294 333 269 383 64 487 134 285 471 196 143 147 5,036

PERRY

499 286 252 75 294 286 287 284 236 403 61 475 139 238 417 149 132 159 4,672

Mark Barron

he traits that make Jackson Hole a great place to live ­— pristine natural landscapes and wildlife — also make it a difficult place for local governments to manage and preserve. Officials must cater to residents as well as hordes of visitors, all while trying to preserve the natural resources that make the valley special, Jackson Mayor Mark Barron said. The keys to the future, he said, are energy sustainability and forwardthinking land planning. “Imagine creating a budget for a town of 9,700 people but you also have responsibility for all your county residents and your nearly 4 million visitors that are coming through,” Barron said. Reducing energy consumption and making town facilities more efficient fits in with Jackson’s legacy of environmentalism, Barron said. But such steps also save the town money. In 2012 alone Jackson saved $167,000 as a result of energy conservation measures, he said. A town initiative called 20x20 aims to make public buildings, services and vehicles 20 percent more energyefficient by 2020. That comes on the heels of a similar campaign to reduce energy consumption by 10 percent. “It’s about looking at our community not through our eyes but through our grandchildren’s eyes,” Barron said. The upcoming rewrite of land development regulations offers another opportunity to preserve Jackson Hole’s character. The Jackson/Teton County Comprehensive Plan calls for increased density in already developed areas of Jackson and the county. But the actual zoning code still needs to be written. “We need to be incredibly progressive about our LDRs and the built environment,” Barron said. “The reality is the built environment is how you determine how you’re going to create open space, wildlife habitat and wildlife connectivity.” Ben Graham

2013 Edition Jackson Hole Compass

11


Continued from 10

vote of essentially every unaffiliated voter in the county. Since 1992, the only time Teton County has backed the Republican presidential candidate was in 2000, the first time George W. Bush ran with resident Dick Cheney on his ticket. The 2012 county commission race reinforced how loosely correlated party affiliation is with Teton County’s votes. The two Democrats running for county commission received a combined total of 49 percent of all votes cast, 18 percent more than registration alone would have suggested. The two Republican candidates combined to receive 51 percent of the total county commission vote, only 6 percent more than their registration figures. Combine the presidential and county commission votes and compare the total with registration numbers, and on a relative basis, in 2012 Democratic candidates polled around 25 percent better than registration numbers would have suggested and Republican candidates around 18 percent worse. Versus registration, Democratic candidates did best in South Hoback (precinct 1-10) and Alta (5-1); Republicans did worst in mid-east Jackson (1-2) and Indian Trails (1-11). (Graph 2) What does this tell us? Five things. First, while Teton County residents vote at a higher rate than the nation and state, the fact that only around two-

Voter registration data, post 2012 election, by party for US, Wyo. and Teton County Source: Teton County

14% 40%

US

24%

21%

33%

Teton County

Wyo. 65%

26%

Democrat

45%

Republican

thirds of all adults vote suggests we are not as civically involved as we might like to believe. Second, a majority of voters pick individual over party. Third, as seems to be the case nationally, the fact that voters choose an individual candidate over party suggests there is a clear disconnect between what voters want and what the two major parties offer. As a result, in the general election it will be the rare local candidate who suffers by running without regard to, if not completely away from, his or her party. Fourth, the disconnect between party and candidate also suggests that while

31%

Other

running as a hard-line ideologue may get a candidate through a primary, it has no chance of getting him or her elected in November (unless, of course, all of the opponents are even worse.) Fifth, the fact that 45 percent of Teton County’s voters are registered as Republicans suggests that, fundamentally, this is a conservative community. However, the fact that 55 percent are not Republicans suggests it is perhaps best viewed as a Rockefeller Republican kind of community, a place whose comfort zone spans fiscal prudence and a moderate — if not progressive — approach to social and environmental issues.

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Jackson Hole Compass 2013 Edition

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2012 post-election registration by precinct Source: Teton County

County

Source: Teton County

Town Area

County

3-1

5-1

1-4 2-1

4-3 4-4 4-2 1-3 1-1 4-1 1-10

1-11

1-9

1-5

1-2 1-8

3-1

Registered Democrat 65

55

45

35

25

15

5-1

1-6

1-7

County

Town Area 3-1

5-1

2012 excess votes for democratic candidates (% votes - % registration)

2-1

1-11

1-9

1-6

1-3

1-3 1-4

4-3 4-4 4-2 1-3 4-1 1-1 1-10

2-1

4-4 4-2

4-3

1-5

1-2 1-8

65

55

45

35

25

1-1

4-1

Registered Republican

1-10

15

Town Area

1-1

1-4 1-7

County

Town Area

1-11

1-9

3-1

5-1

1-4

4-3 4-4 4-2 1-3 4-1 1-1 1-10

2-1

1-11 1-6

1-9

1-5

1-2 1-8

55

45

35

25

1-8

15

1-1

1-7

1-7

15

Life

1-2

1-6

Registered Other 65

1-5

Excess Democrat Votes 13 11 9 7

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Economy

BRADLY J. BONER

Tourism is big in Jackson Hole, but professional services are what props up the wage-based economy.

Teton County has roughly 1.25 jobs for every permanent resident. ... This is one of the highest ratios in the land.

14

Jackson Hole Compass 2013 Edition

According to the U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, since 1990 Teton County has ranked among the top five counties in the nation in per-capita income. In 2011, the most current year available, Teton County ranked third in the nation, behind only New York, N.Y., and Sully, S.D., a county of 1,373 people that has the richest soil in South Dakota, if not the entire farm belt. Between 1990 and 2011, only one other county besides Teton, Wyo., has also remained in the top five every year: again, the island of Manhattan Indeed, during the 22-year stretch between 1990 and 2011 the only county besides New York to have led the nation in per capita income has been Teton, Wyo. Remarkably, only two other counties have always appeared in the top 10 every year since 1990: Marin, Calif., and Fairfield, Conn. The nation’s other income leaders (counties that have averaged a top-10 ranking over the last 22 years) include two other suburbs of New York — Somerset, N.J., and Westchester, N.Y. — and a county where the well-heeled go to recreate: Pitkin, Colo., whose county seat is Aspen. That’s it: our six peers among the top 0.1 percent. Which is all a little hard to believe for a remote mountain valley that has been struggling with a variety of economic woes during the past several years. Yet the data couldn’t be clearer. Why focus on per capita income as an indicator of the community’s financial well-being? Because even though median income is a better indicator of the typical Jackson Hole resident’s economic situation, prices — particularly real estate prices — are set at the margins. And when per capita income dwarfs median income, as it does in Jackson Hole, then people making “only” the median find it increasingly difficult to buy housing and other

goods and services. Which, in a nutshell, is why it’s no coincidence that since Teton County became a member of the top 0.1 percent, the populations of the surrounding counties have been growing much faster than that of Teton, Wyo. How does Jackson Hole make its money? The conventional wisdom argues “tourism,” but that answer really isn’t true. Why? Because the notso-secret reality of tourism-related jobs is that most don’t pay very well. Construction does, but since 2008 the region’s construction economy has gone into a tank it will likely not emerge from for a long, long time. Instead, what’s propping up Jackson Hole’s wage-based economy — and a vibrant economy it is, providing jobs for people in several surrounding counties — is professional services. While not as plentiful as tourism-related jobs, professional services pay so much better that they have started to fill in the void left by construction as the foundation of the community’s middle class. All that noted, what really undergirds Teton County’s wealth is investment income. Until the stock market crash of 2008, investments had accounted for as much as three-fifths of the county’s collective income, by far the highest proportion of any county in America. In 2011 that percentage slipped to “only” around one-half. Do the math, and even though 2011 was a down year the typical Teton County resident made about 10 percent more from investments than the typical American did from all income sources. Unfortunately for the town of Continued on 15


Continued from 14

Jackson and Teton County, neither investment income nor professional services income directly contributes even a sou to local government coffers. Instead, the town and county derive roughly half their collective operating income from sales taxes, which apply only to tangible goods and lodging. As a result, despite the relatively strong state of the county’s white collar economy, local government finds its revenues hitched to the wagon of tourism and construction, the sectors that have taken the severest beating from the recession. Teton County has roughly 1.25 jobs for every permanent resident, including the retired, the infirm and our several thousand children. This is one of the highest ratios in the land, as is the 34 percent of jobs that are held by the self-employed (the national average is 22 percent). To make the numbers work, though, not only does Jackson Hole have to attract a lot of workers from outside the county, but many of its worker bees need to hold down multiple jobs. As a rule of thumb, these folks are not those making half their income or more from investments. For those who are, their money is working at least as hard as they are and affecting the local economy in ways not many communities experience.

Per capita income: Teton County vs. US and WY, 1969-2011 Source: US Bureau of Economic Analysis, Regional Economic Information System

$150,000 $120,000 $90,000 $60,000 $30,000 1970

1980

Teton County

1990

2000

Wyoming

2010

United States

Total personal income by source, Teton County, 1969-2011, in billions Source: US Bureau of Economic Analysis, Regional Economic Information System

$2 $1.5 $1 $.5

1970 Investments

1980

1990

Wages & benefits

2000

Proprietors’ income

2010 Transfer payments

value

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2013 Edition Jackson Hole Compass

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Per capita personal income by source, Teton County vs. US and WY, 2011 Source: US Bureau of Economic Analysis, Regional Economic Information System

$100,000 $80,000 $60,000 $40,000

Jim Moses

W

hether you’re talking about vacationing families, second-home owners, telecommuters or entrepreneurs, the types of people drawn to Jackson Hole create the foundation for a solid economy here, says Jim Moses of Rocky Mountain Bank. “The mountains won’t go away,” Moses said. “Jackson Hole won’t cease to be appealing.” While the real estate market is unlikely to return to the heady activity leading up to the Great Recession, signs are good in that arena as well as for tourism. “The real estate market certainly is healthy right now,” Moses said. “Almost all segments as far as we can see are having activity, and prices are stable if not improving. “Construction activity is on the upswing, and the presumption is that tourist numbers will be the same if not better,” he said. While we’re out of the period when real estate loans “gave people the opportunity to get into trouble,” Moses would like to see mortgage rates return to “sustainable” levels. “Subsidized rates certain jumpstart the economy,” he said. “Once the economy is back on a healthy footing, presumably the debt markets will become more sustainable from an access and cost standpoint.” Moses believes the economy will continue to diversify, creating good jobs that will lead to a stable workforce. “Jackson Hole seems to be attracting people involved in software activities and academic pursuits that historically have not found their way into small communities,” he said. While Jackson Hole might never be characterized as an “easy” economic environment, it’s a good place for young people to be, Moses said. And people here will find a way to make the economy work simply because they want to be here. “This is a very good economy in a naturally beautiful place,” he said. “There are enough people here who care. Collectively we’ll see that it’s a viable economy.” Jennifer Dorsey

$20,000

United States Investments

Jackson Hole Compass 2013 Edition

Wages & benefits

Teton County

Proprietors’ income

Transfer payments

Per capita jobs: Teton County vs. US and WY, 1969-2011 Source: US Bureau of Economic Analysis, Regional Economic Information System

1.5 1.2 0.9 0.6 0.3

1970

1980 Teton County

1990

2000

Wyoming

2010

United States

Taxable sales by category, 12-month running totals (in millions), June 2005-December 2012 Source: Wyoming Department of Revenue

$350 $300 $250 $200 $150 $100 $50

June ’05 Retail

16

Wyoming

June ’07 Lodging

June ’09 Restaurants

June ’11 Construction


Employment status by place Source: US Census Bureau, Amerian Community Survey

Class of worker for Teton County

Alta 50

Hoback 1,093

Source: US Census Bureau, Amerian Community Survey

Jackson 7,834

10% 13%

Kelly 52

Moose Wilson Rd 1,659

Rafter J 1,430

13,491 workers

77%

Private sector

South Park 1,155

Employed

Teton Village 217

Unemployed

Public sector

Wilson 1,045

Self-employed

Not in labor force

2013 Edition Jackson Hole Compass

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Mean household income by area Source: US Census Bureau

Teton Village Legend

Jackson

Alta Moose Wilson

$218,856

Rafter J

Wilson

$164,142

South Park

$109,428

Hoback

$54,714

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18

Jackson Hole Compass 2013 Edition


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Tourism

Ashley Wilkerson

Covered wagons from Teton Village Trail Rides amble down Broadway as tourists and residents gather for the Old West Day Parade around Town Square.

Tourism is not a new phenomenon in the Tetons region, for nonresidents have been making seasonal visits to the Jackson Hole valley as far back as the beginning of the archeological record. During the 1800s, the nature of these visits began changing as Native Americans using the valley as a seasonal hunting ground began to share the region’s abundance with fur trappers plying their trade. In the 20th century, the rise of Jackson Hole’s dude ranching industry in the ’20s was followed by major increases in summer visits to Grand Teton and Yellowstone national parks following World War II. The last element of today’s tourism picture fell into place in the 1960s with the opening of the Jackson Hole Ski Area, now known as Jackson Hole Mountain Resort. Getting a precise handle on the number of tourists coming to Jackson Hole is essentially impossible, for the

only counts we have — national park visits, Jackson Hole Mountain Resort skier days and Jackson Hole Airport enplanements — lump together not only visits by tourists and locals but also those by tourists making multiple visits on one trip. In addition, while events like the annual World Championship Snowmobile Hill Climb and the Fall Arts Festival clearly attract thousands of people, if these folks don’t fly in, ski or visit a national park we have no way of counting them. Still, the counts we do have are indicative of general tourism patterns. As the graphs on these pages show, since the recession began in fall 2008 visitor counts have showed little if any growth:

• From 2008 to 2012, Grand Teton recreational visits rose 6 percent (a compounded annual average rate of 1.5 percent). • Yellowstone recreational visits rose 11 percent (2.5 percent). • Jackson Hole Airport enplanements fell 11 percent (2.8 percent). • Jackson Hole Mountain Resort skier days fell 1 percent, although thanks to a record year in 2012-13 they actually rose 4 percent between 2008 and 2013 (a compounded annual average rate of 0.8 percent). This same relative stagnation is also captured in lodging tax data. Teton County’s 2 percent lodging tax was first collected in April 2011, with the first proceeds returned to the county a couple of months later. A year or so later, annual collections peaked at around $4.4 million (reflecting annual lodging sales of $220 million) and have remained at that general level since.

National park annual recreation visits, 2002-2012, in millions Source: National Park Service

4 3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 .5 2002

2004

2006

Yellowstone National Park

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Jackson Hole Compass 2013 Edition

2008

2010

Grand Teton National Park

2012


Annual skier days at Jackson Hole Mountain Resort, 1966-2013 Source: Jackson Hole Mountain Resort

600,000 500,000 400,000 300,000 200,000

J

100,000

1970

1980

1990

2000

2010

Jackson Hole Airport enplanements, 12 month running totals, January 2002-December 2012 Source: Jackson Hole Airport

350,000 300,000 250,000 200,000 150,000 100,000 50,000 Jan ’02

Jan ’04

Jan ’06

Jan ’08

Jan ’10

Jan ’12

Lodging tax collections in Teton County, monthly collections and 12 month running totals, in millions, May 2011-December 2012 Source: State of Wyoming Department of Revenue

5

1

4

.8

3

.6

2

.4

1

.2

May ’11

Nov. ’11 12 month running total (Y1)

May ’12

Nov. ’12

Stephen Price

ackson’s tourism leaders are mounting a big effort — along with raising hundreds of thousands of dollars — to develop an event that will bring out-of-towners to the valley in October, a traditionally slow time of year. But it’s only one piece of a campaign to bolster tourism in the valley while still preserving the assets that draw people from across the country. For Travel and Tourism Board Chairman Stephen Price, making sure that infrastructure is in place to support more visitors is equally important, if not more so. “We need to maintain the values and views for our citizens,” Price said. “They get to recreate here. That’s attractive to people ... to see how the community lives, to see what they have at their doorstep. They want to come back and be a part of that.” Community leaders will continue to push for better airline service. They’ll look for better ways to advertise Jackson as a travel destination. And they’ll keep funneling money to events. Coupled with that, there’s also plenty of less glamorous work that must be done, Price said. That means working with officials from Grand Teton and Yellowstone national parks, ensuring that agencies communicate regularly and are able to work together and making sure there are services in place to support increased tourism. The new conservation-themed event planned for October is one more stage that “lets Jackson tell its story,” Price said. Jackson Hole’s reputation for great skiing, incredible wildlife and aweinspiring landscapes is unlikely to change. What will change is how we tell that story, Price said. “There’s only one Yellowstone and only one Teton park,” he said. “Our messaging will continue to differentiate Jackson because of all of the other amenities that no one else can replicate. “But the messaging also will underline the stewardship,” Price said. “I think that will attract people.” Kevin Huelsmann

Monthly collection (Y2)

2013 Edition Jackson Hole Compass

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Demographics

PRICE CHAMBERS

Deb and Peter Keenan dance the night away at the Spring Fling, an annual event that benefits St. John’s Medical Center.

Between 2000 and 2010, two-thirds of Teton County’s net population gain was due to new Latino residents.

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Jackson Hole Compass 2013 Edition

The 2010 census found 21,294 full-time residents in Teton County, a 17 percent increase over the population in 2000. While Teton County experienced a net growth of more than 3,000 residents during the 2000s, on a percentage basis the last decade’s growth was the county’s slowest since the 1940s. Growth has slowed even more since the 2010 census, with the most recent U.S. Census Bureau estimate showing the county’s population on July 1, 2012, to be 21,675. That increase of 381 people since the April 2010 census count represents an average annual compounded growth rate of just 0.8 percent, roughly half the average annual rate seen during the 2000s and less than one-sixth the annual growth rate experienced during the 1990s. Perhaps because of economic conditions, most of the county’s growth since 2010 has been due to “natural change,” i.e., more residents being born than dying. This process has accounted for 95 percent of the county’s recent population growth, with the county seeing a net loss of population moving to and from other locales in the United States. Net immigration from foreign countries accounted for

the remainder of Teton County’s recent population growth. Not surprisingly, the town of Jackson is the county’s largest population center, home to 45 percent of all Teton County residents. In the unincorporated county, roughly 19 percent of all residents live south of town, 17 percent between Wilson and Teton Village, 2 percent in Alta and 0.6 percent in Kelly. The remaining 17 percent are scattered throughout the county. Teton County’s median age is 37, slightly younger than the nation as a whole. The largest five-year age cohort is 25-29. The smallest is 85 or older, numbering just 181. Looking at age quintiles, roughly one-fifth of the county’s population is 19 or younger; roughly one-fifth is 20-29; one-fifth is 30-39; another fifth is those 40-54; and the final fifth is 55 or older. Over the past two decades, the biggest story in Teton County’s population dynamics has been the influx of Latino residents. In 1990, 1 percent of the county’s population was Latino. Continued on 23


Population by area Source: US Census Bureau

Teton Village

Alta

Kelly

Legend

Moose Wilson

9,577

Jackson Wilson

4,788

Rafter J South Park

2,394

Hoback Age by gender in Teton County, 2010 Source: US Census Bureau

Continued from 22

In 2000 it was 6 percent, and in 2010 it was 15 percent. Between 2000 and 2010, two-thirds of Teton County’s net population gain was due to new Latino residents, while only one-quarter was whites. More than any other statistic, this boom in the county’s Latino population explains why Teton County’s median age stayed stable during the 2000s. With a median age of just 26.2 years, the county’s Latino population is 10.8 years younger than the county overall. At 40.1 years, the median age for the county’s white residents is 3.1 years higher than the county as a whole. Similarly, because 82 percent of the county’s Latino residents live in the town of Jackson, the median age of town residents is significantly younger than that of the county’s other residential districts. The town is also home to a majority of the community’s small but growing nonwhite, non-Hispanic population. While this group consists of only around 600 people, that number represents a quadrupling since 1990. During that same period the number of whites in Teton County increased 1.6-fold, and the number of Latinos 20-fold.

>85 80-84 75-79 70-74 65-69 60-64 55-59 50-54 45-49 40-44 35-39 30-34 25-29 20-24 15-19 10-14 5-9 <5

1,200

900

600

300

300

Male

600

900

1,200

Female

Ethnicity of population by area Source: US Census Bureau

Alta

Hoback

Jackson

Kelly

Moose Wilson

Rafter J

South Park

Teton Village

Wilson

White

Latino

Other

2013 Edition Jackson Hole Compass

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Ethnicity of population in Teton County, 1990 and 2010 Source: US Census Bureau

1990 11,172 pop.

Decennial population growth of Teton County, 1930-2010 Source: US Census Bureau

25,000

100%

20,000

80%

15,000

60%

10,000

40%

5,000

20%

97%

1930

1950 Population (Y1)

1970

1990

2010

Growth since previous Census (Y2)

Median age of population Source: US Census Bureau

45

15%

2010 21,294 pop. 82%

White

Other

40

35

30

Alta

Latino

Jackson Moose Wilson South Park Wilson Teton Hoback Kelly Rafter J Teton Village County

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Jackson Hole Compass 2013 Edition

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Housing

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Carpenters Mike Melf and Dave Yogg work on homes in the 5-2-5 Hall development, a Habitat for Humanity project in east Jackson.

As of the 2010 census, Teton County had 12,813 homes. Roughly 70 percent of those homes were occupied by year-round residents, a very high proportion for a resort community. Since the Jackson Hole Ski Area opened in 1964, Teton County has added around 2,700 homes per decade. The range has been between 2,200 and 3,200, with peaks coming during the 1970s (2,899 new homes built) and again in the 1990s (3,207). Perhaps not coincidentally, these bigger decades were followed by significant land use planning efforts. Between 2000 and 2010, 40 percent of the new homes constructed were in the town of Jackson. Looking at percentage increase, though, the area of greatest growth was Teton Village, thanks in part to the Shooting Star development. The least growth in terms of both number and percentage, was in Rafter J, where 18 new dwellings increased the total number of homes by a mere 4 percent. The uses of Teton County’s homes has varied through the years, but since 1980 the proportion of homes occupied by year-round residents has stayed in the 65-75 percent range. Again, this is a much higher figure than seen in most resort communities. Not surprisingly, much of the last decade’s construction in Teton Village added to that area’s stock of second homes: While the village holds only 4 percent of the county’s total housing stock, it has 10 percent of the second homes and short-term rentals. Another 15 percent of all second homes and short-term rentals are located along the Moose-Wilson Road, making Highway 390 the largest repository of sec-

ond homes and short-term rentals in Teton County. In contrast, 92 percent of the homes in Rafter J are permanently occupied, with the town of Jackson (84 percent) and Hoback Junction (83 percent) close runners-up. While not much new home construction has been occurring in the past few years, real estate sales have picked up sharply since their nadir in 2009. According to the Jackson Hole Report, 515 properties were sold in Teton County in 2012, as many as in 2009 and 2010 combined. While this number of sales still trails any year between 1997 and 2007, it does represent the fourth consecutive year of increased sales. Peeling back the onion, the number of sales of single-family homes, condominiums and undeveloped lots all rose, led by a doubling of sales of vacant lots. Not surprisingly, because of the increased number of sales in each real estate category, 2012’s total dollar volume of sales in each category showed a marked increase, with each reaching a four-year high. However, mean prices barely budged in any category, and median prices actually fell in all three categories. This suggests that while the real estate market became more vital in 2012 than it had been in years, supply and demand seemed to be in a reasonable equilibrium. A predicted housing stock shortage may yet be in the offing, but as of the end of 2012 it had yet to show itself in the data.

Total housing units by area in Teton County in 2010 Source: US Census Bureau

4%

4% 7%

37% 11%

12,813

11%

24%

Rafter J

Hoback and South Park Moose Wilson

Teton Village

Other County

Wilson

Jackson

Alta

2013 Edition Jackson Hole Compass

25


Percent of housing units occupied by area, 2010 Source: US Census Bureau

Teton Village

Alta

Jackson

Moose Wilson Rafter J

Greg Prugh, Jr.

G

rowing up in Jackson Hole in the 1970s and ’80s, Greg Prugh Jr. enjoyed all the amenities this outdoor paradise has to offer. When he followed in his father’s footsteps and Hoback became a Realtor, he wanted toand not South Park only introduce visitors to the valley Moose Wilson but also give young residents the opportunity to raise families here. Other County After working for other firms, he hung out his Prugh Jackson Real Estate shingle in 2006. In addition to representing buyers and sellers, Prugh, 38, became a developer. He’s created more than 175,000 square feet of commercial and residential space in the valley, all with modern, clean design. The housing bubble burst here in 2008, and sales and prices began to tank. The number of Realtors here shrank from about 800 to 470. “I think we probably hit the bottom a year ago,” Prugh said, but prices are still relatively low for our resort town. “Older properties are not selling anywhere close to what they sold for 10 to 15 years ago.” The homes in demand are new construction, Prugh said, in town and with environmentally conscious design. Investors are descending in droves. Most of the transactions right now, 60 to 70 percent, are cash deals, Prugh said. Part of the reason may be the low-interest-rate climate. “There’s not a lot of great yield,” in bank deposits, Prugh said. Investors are thinking, “So why don’t I put it in real estate.” Developing housing that will work for young residents and families will require creative solutions on the part of town and county officials, Prugh said. Zoning must change to revitalize the town of Jackson. Investors and developers are itching to rip 30-year-old trailers off their lots in the heart of Jackson and build modern homes, Prugh said, but won’t until planning rules are in place. “The main thing we should be looking at is how we can get people to live and work here,” Prugh said. Johanna Love

Wilson

South Park and Hoback

Total housing units by occupancy in Teton County, 1940-2012 Source: US Census Bureau

10,000

100

8,000

80

6,000

60

4,000

40

2,000

20

1940

1960

Occupied (Y1)

Jackson Hole Compass 2013 Edition

Vacant (Y1)

2000 Percent occupied (Y2)

Total number of sales, total value and median price of single family homes in Teton County, 1992-2012 Source: The Jackson Hole Report, Dave and Devon Viehman

400

$1,500,000

320

$1,200,000

240

$900,000

160

$600,000

80

$300,000

’92

’95

’98

Total sales (Y1)

26

1980

’01

’04

Median price (Y2)

’07

’10 Total value (Y2 x 1,000)


Philanthropy

Listen carefully and you’ll hear two general comments about Teton County’s vibrant philanthropic and nonprofit community. One is that it is a truly remarkable thing. The other is that we have far too many nonprofits. The former is true, the latter not so much. The foundation of what makes Teton County’s philanthropic efforts truly remarkable is Old Bill’s Fun Run. While the basic concept of Old Bill’s has taken hold in a few other communities — money raised by local nonprofits is matched by funds donated by civic-minded citizens — no effort anywhere compares with the success of the original. In 16 years Old Bill’s has raised more than $90 million for local nonprofit organizations of all stripes, from pro-abortion rights to anti-abortion groups. The Community Foundation of Jackson Hole, which sponsors Old Bill’s, claims it is “the most innovative fundraiser in the nation.” Given the event’s longevity and success, the foundation stands on very solid ground with that claim. Perhaps most importantly, Old Bill’s has served to catalyze a larger culture of philanthropy in the Tetons. This ranges from organized efforts such as the Tin Cup Challenge in Teton County, Idaho, the Grand Teton National Park Foundation and 1 Per-

PRICE CHAMBERS

Thousands of people take off from Town Square down Broadway during Old Bill’s Fun Run for Charities.

cent for the Tetons to the millions of dollars residents donate each year to efforts outside the region or in a quiet fashion closer to home. The argument that Jackson Hole has too many nonprofits is based on a gut feeling some people have that the existence of 208 nonprofits in such a small community is excessive. Two counterarguments rebut that line of thinking. One is that, on a per-capita basis, Jackson Hole’s nonprofit count is about in line with many other communities, particularly those of means. The other is that, just as they do in the private sector, market forces work to regulate the number and focus of local nonprofits. For example, of the 187 nonprofits listed in the Community Foundation’s 2006 nonprofit directory, more than one-third are no longer in existence. Similarly, of the 208 nonprofits listed in the current directory, more than 40 percent opened their doors in the past six years. Arguably this is a higher churn rate than is found among local businesses. Further, that kind of turnover suggests that the market is rewarding nonprofits serving a critical need while weeding out those that can’t make their case.

2013 Edition Jackson Hole Compass

27


Number of nonprofit organizations listed with the Community Foundation of Jackson Hole by founding year, 1902-2012 Source: Community Foundation of Jackson Hole

Katharine Conover

D

uring the recession that started in 2008, charitable donations nationwide declined about 7 percent. The future looked bleak to Katharine Conover, president of the Community Foundation of Jackson Hole. However, Teton County residents have managed to give $37 million since then. “I think one of the things that the recession taught us was that we weren’t immune but that people would continue to give,” she said. During the past 16 years the Community Foundation’s Old Bill’s Fun Run for Charities has collected nearly $91 million for Teton County causes. In 2012, 2,915 donors gave $8.3 million, up more than $1.3 million from 2008. Teton County tracks with a nationwide trend. “We’re seeing a general increase in donations,” Conover said. “And high net-worth individuals are showing continuing support.” This year the foundation hopes to top $100 million total funds raised through Old Bill’s Fun Run. Throughout the years, monies generated from the event has gone to entities like the Bridger-Teton Area Wyoming Red Cross, the Jackson Hole Land Trust and the Community Counseling Center. Conover expects nonprofits to see greater scrutiny from donors about how funds are used. Nonprofits must be able to demonstrate their effect, she said. As a result the Community Foundation is offering training in nonprofit best practices, financial planning and fundraising. Nonprofits will continue to make an enormous impact. “Philanthropy is increasing in Jackson Hole,” Conover said. “It is a direct reflection of our love and commitment for this county. People in Jackson feel responsible for our environment and each other, and we’re invested in that.” Lindsay Wood

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Jackson Hole Compass 2013 Edition

10

200

8

160

6

120

4

80

2

40

1902

1922

1942

1962

Number founded (Y1)

1982

2002

Total (Y2)

Number of nonprofit organizations in 2006 and 2013 Source: Community Foundation of Jackson Hole

250 200 150 100 50

2006

2013

Nonprofits listed in both 2006 and 2013

Nonprofits listed in only 2013

Nonprofits listed in only 2006 208 nonprofit organizations listed with Community Foundation by mission and geographical focus in 2012 Source: Community Foundation of Jackson Hole

5% 13%

6% 28%

7% 49%

Mission

15%

Geography 38%

17%

20%

Health & Human Services

Conservation & Environment

Teton, WY

Nation

Education

Arts & Culture

Greater Tetons

Teton, ID

Civic

Animals

Region


Old Billâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Fun Run donations, matching funds and number of participants, 1997-2012 Source: Community Foundation of Jackson Hole

$6,000,000

300 Mean nonprofit expenses, by type in Teton County in 2012

$5,000,000

250

Source: Community Foundation of Jackson Hole

6%

$4,000,000

200

$3,000,000

150

$2,000,000

100

$1,000,000

50

12%

Mean $328,131

82%

Program

Fundraising

Administrative

1997

2000

Matching funds (Y1)

2003 Donations (Y1)

2006

2009

2012

Organizations participating (Y2)

A Gathering Place for the Community

The Center for the Arts promotes artistic creativity, education and presentations for a collaborative, inclusive and vibrant cultural community.

www.jhcenterforthearts.org 307-733-4900 2013 Edition Jackson Hole Compass

29


Geography

BRADLY J. BONER

Brett Boeckel and Doug Hayden take in the view from the summit of the South Teton, elevation 12,513, in Grand Teton National Park.

All that Jackson Hole is — its beauty and wildlife, its economy and character — stems from its geography. From its lowest point at 5,800 feet where the Snake River leaves Teton County, to its highest point of 13,770 feet at the top of the Grand Teton, from the yearround ice of the Teton Range’s many glaciers to the molten lava underlying the county’s northern reaches, this high, isolated and lightly populated region and its generally intact ecosystem is the creaton of geologic, meteorologic and biologic forces that, while age-old, continue to affect it today. That noted, humans have also had a profound affect on the Teton County of today. In particular, because more than 97 percent of the county’s 2.7 million acres are publicly owned (45 percent as national park, 51 percent as national forest and 1 percent as a combination of other federal and state properties), the county’s ecosystem has been able to thrive, even as landscapes elsewhere in the world have fallen victim to industrialization. Further, of the 76,000 acres of private land, nearly 30 percent are under a conservation easement, leaving just 55,000 acres — 2 percent of the entire county — either already developed or available for future development. How that remaining sliver of land might be developed is the subject of ongoing

30

Jackson Hole Compass 2013 Edition

passionate debate, an eternal battleroyale that ebbs and flows but never really goes away. The elk, bison and other animals that populate the county are acutely attuned to the region’s climate, able to cope with temperatures ranging from colder than minus 40 degrees to warmer than 100 degrees. Cold is the hallmark of the region, though, with the county’s annual mean temperature averaging 38.3 degrees. To put that in context, annual mean temperatures are reported for almost every school district in America. In Wyoming, only three districts abutting the Wind River mountains — two in Sublette County and one in Fremont — report lower annual mean temperatures. Nationwide, of more than 16,000 school districts, Teton County’s ranks as the 74th coldest, putting us in the top 0.4 percent of coldest school districts in the nation. (And with the exception of the other three Wyoming districts, almost all the other colder districts are in Alaska or along the Canadian border). When considering the county’s future, the cold that defines Jackson Hole, its importance to the region’s core features and its vulnerability to global warming are inextricably linked factors.


Public and private land ownership in Teton County, in acres Source: Teton County Planning Department

PUBLIC LAND

National Park Service Grand Teton NP

307,000

Rockefeller Parkway

24,000

Yellowstone NP

890,250

Total

1,221,250

US Forest Service Bridger-Teton

1,094,000

Targhee

267,500

Shoshone

2,700

Total

1,364,200

National Elk Refuge

24,100

US Bureau of Land Management

2,500

Total Federal

2,612,050

State of Wyoming Wyoming Game & Fish

2,350

Other

4,800

Total State

7,150

Total Public Land

2,619,200

PRIVATE LAND

Buffalo Valley

4,000

Alta

7,500

Town of Jackson

Private land use by zone type in Teton County Source: Teton County Planning Department

ZONE TYPE

ACRES

Auto-Urban commercial

27

Business conservation

68

1,837

Rest of valley

63,500

Total

76,837

PROTECTED PRIVATE LAND

Jackson Hole Land Trust

15,943

The Nature Conservancy

1,904

Teton County Scenic Preserve Trust

3,182

Bridger-Teton National Forest

1,041

Total

Business park

120

Mobile home park

41

Office professional

3

Park

22,070

Elk and bison on the National Elk Refuge and estimated elk in the Jackson Hole Herd, in thousands Source: National Elk Refuge

20

34

15 Planned unit development Resort

5,706 997

Rural

59,288

Neighborhood conservation

12,748

Public/semi-public

163

Suburban

135

Wilson commercial Total

10

5

12 79,342

1912

1932 Elk on elk refuge

1952

1972

Bison on elk refuge

1992

2012

Elk in Jackson herd

2013 Edition Jackson Hole Compass

31


Mean monthly precipitation in inches, by month, in Jackson: annual average precipitation is 15.9 inches, record precipitation in a year was 1995 with 25.3 inches. Source: Jim Woodmency; mountainweather.com

8 7 1980

6 5

1969 1995

1967

4

I

Susan Clark

n the 45 years Susan Clark has called Jackson Hole home, she’s keenly observed the community’s evolving relationship with the vast public lands of Teton County. The county’s 20,000-some people occupy about 125 square miles of private land. They’re enveloped by nearly 4,100 square miles of public land. A professor of wildlife ecology at Yale’s School of Forestry and Environmental Studies and a Northern Rockies Conservation Cooperative board member, Clark says her “fundamental” academic interest is how people fit into environments like Jackson Hole. “How does one come about making it a partnership so that the people can have a community and the environment isn’t obliterated in the process?” she asked. “My sense is that Jackson is currently and historically has been trying to find that relationship.” In Clark’s view, the community is taking great strides toward finding a healthy relationship in some ways but losing ground in others. “It’s kind of like your health,” she said. “You might have great joints and things are great, but your hearing may be going. It depends on what you’re looking at.” A healthy environment requires “having all the bits and pieces,” Clark said. “We restored grizzlies, we restored wolves — that’s clearly good,” she said. “But now we have climate change destroying whitebark pines. Climate change affects Jackson. People building coal-fired power plants in China affects Jackson.” In the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, federal agencies are responsible for about 14 million acres. Until recent budget cuts, Clark said, the agencies had about $150 million to manage the areas’s resources. Some 200 environmental groups armed with another $150 million also keep an eye over the landscape, she said. “It’s really important to try to keep your finger on the pulse of all that,” Clark said. “Jackson Hole is my emotional touchstone,” Clark said. “It’s kind of where my heart and soul are.” Mike Koshmrl

32

Jackson Hole Compass 2013 Edition

1964

3

1993

1962

2

1988

1961

1983

1972

1963

1 Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May June July Aug Sept Oct

Average precipitation

Nov Dec

Record precipitation (Year)

Mean monthly snowfall in inches, by month: annual average monthly snowfall is 74.7 inches, and the record monthly snowfall in a year was 155 inches in 1967. Source: Jim Woodmency; mountainweather.com

60 1969 50 1985

40

1978 1978

30

1985

1967

20 10 1973

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

1973

1971 1971

May June July Aug Sept Oct

Average snowfall

Nov Dec

Record snowfall (Year)

The monthly average high, low and mean temperatures for Jackson, annual average high is 54.1, average low is 23.2 and average mean is 38.6 Source: Jim Woodmency; mountainweather.com

100

80

60

40

20

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

Average high

May June July Aug Sept Oct Average low

Nov Dec

Average mean


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Social Services

PRICE CHAMBERS

Blanca Moye helps Amalia Aguilar do her taxes at Teton County Library as part of a free program offered every year for lower-income residents.

America places more emphasis on individual opportunity and accomplishment than do many other nations. A positive side of this emphasis is the world’s most dynamic entrepreneurial culture. A downside is that America has a far less robust social safety net than most other First World countries. As a result, whether through their own doing or simple bad luck, many people fall between the cracks of the system and face problems beyond their ability to deal with on their own. When they do, our culture looks to social services organizations to take up some of the slack. The number of social services organizations in Jackson Hole has grown and evolved with the community. St. John’s Episcopal Church, founded in 1909, was the first self-identified social services organization in Jackson Hole. Two years later the First Baptist Church opened its doors, followed by the establishment of St. John’s Hospital in 1916. According to the Community Foundation of Jackson Hole’s 2013 nonprofit directory, for the following three decades or so, the two churches, the hospital, the Boy Scouts and the Red Cross were the only social services organizations in the valley. (Or, to be more precise, the only ones that continue their operations today; other organizations that may have come and gone have left no readily accessible public record.) In 1943, the state of Wyoming established Teton County’s Public Health Nurse’s office. Twenty-four years later, Pioneer Homestead was founded to look after the community’s growing number of elders. The 1970s saw the first really concentrated burst of social services organizations coming into existence, with programs

addressing day care, early childhood education, mental health and nearly a dozen other foci opening their doors to service the needs of the community’s youth, seniors and its emotionally and physically challenged residents. In subsequent decades, as the community grew and its challenges became more complex, more than four dozen additional organizations formed: 10 in the 1980s, 18 in the 1990s and another 21 in the 2000s. The audiences served by these organization range from people needing family planning to those seeking shelter from abusive spouses, from people needing help attaining shelter to those who need to learn to read or learn English as a second language. As in any vibrant economy, though, an organization’s good intentions are not enough to ensure its long-term success. Going through past editions of the nonprofit handbook, as many as 19 social services organizations founded in Teton County since 1970 have gone out of business during the past several years. “Social services” is a broad descriptor, and more than half the organizations listed in the nonprofit handbook that self-identified as being in the social services field also categorized themselves as having other focuses, including animals, the arts, civic affairs, conservation and education. While most had operations concentrated on the Jackson Hole area, many saw their mission embracing the greater Tetons area, the northern Rockies region or even, in a handful of cases, the entire nation.

2013 Edition Jackson Hole Compass

35


Number of social services organizations listed with the Community Foundation by founding year, 1909-2012 Source: Community Foundation of Jackson Hole

4

80

70

Mean social services nonprofit expenditures, 2012 Source: Community Foundation of Jackson Hole

4%

3

60

12%

50

Mean $348,149 2

40

84%

Program

30

Administrative

1

20

Fundraising

10

1909

1929

1949

1966

Number founded (Y1)

F

or Teton County social services agencies, the name of the game is collaboration. For Deidre Ashley, executive director at Jackson Hole Community Counseling, it both makes sense for her clients and for weathering a funding climate that isn’t getting any clearer. “What we have here in Teton County is actually really unusual,” she said. “You have just these great relationships among the different agencies and a really supportive local government.” Ashley deals with clients who have mental illnesses, and she knows all too well that that’s generally not their only challenge. Usually her clients are dealing with poverty-related problems with the Community Resource Center and often a substance abuse problem with the CurranDeidre Seeley Foundation or even the Teton County Court Supervised Treatment Program. Consulting with fellow organizations on the same person helps ensure the different programs aren’t duplicating services or neglecting key areas, and often

36

Jackson Hole Compass 2013 Edition

1989

2009

Total (Y2)

means they can bring in another organization to fill in the gaps, she said. In the meantime, the counseling center and its fellow organizations are in a never-ending loop searching for funds. That can mean educating the public on complex issues that, in some cases, are also not pretty. “Especially in an area like ours, the right treatments can get really expensive,” Ashley said. “And it’s such a process that you can’t usually show someone that overnight success they may have wanted to see from their money.” However, Teton County is luckier than many communities on that front as well, Ashley said. The community is full of people willing to put their money where their mouth is when it comes to making a difference, she said. “There are always challenges, Ashley of course, but this is a really generous and caring community,” Ashley said. “People genuinely do care, and that makes a huge difference.” Emma Breysse


ANGUS M. THUERMER JR.

Cub Scouts salute as taps is played during Veterans Day ceremonies on the Jackson Town Square. 66 nonprofit organizations listed with Community Foundation by mission and geographical focus in 2012 Source: Community Foundation of Jackson Hole

4

4

4

29

10 2

35

Mission

Geography

Social services organizations have grown and evolved with the community.

23 20

Social Services

Civics

Teton, WY

Region

Education

Art

Greater Tetons

Nation

Conservation

Animals

Number of nonprofit organizations in 2006 and 2013 Source: Community Foundation of Jackson Hole

80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 2006 Nonprofits listed in both 2006 and 2013

2013 Nonprofits listed in only 2013

Nonprofits listed in only 2006

2013 Edition Jackson Hole Compass

37


Recreation

PRICE CHAMBERS

Kevin Hartman, Cameron Huffman and Katie Burnett splash through Snake River whitewater during an outing with Mad River Boat Trips.

Dictionary.com defines “recreate” as “to refresh by means of relaxation and enjoyment, as restore physically or mentally.” From this perspective the Tetons region offers a virtually unlimited number of ways for residents and visitors to recreate, ranging from highadrenaline, potentially life-threatening backcountry sports to sedentary indoor activities such as lecture series and organized card games. Outdoor recreation focuses on the region’s two major geographic features: the Teton range and the Snake River. Each year, between 250,000 and 350,000 people camp at one of Grand Teton National Park’s six campgrounds, and another 30,000 or so take out permits for backcountry camping within the park. In Yellowstone National Park (the southern half of which lies in Teton County), the numbers are even higher: Between 600,000 and 700,000 spend at least one night camping in one of Yellowstone’s 12 campgrounds, and 40,000 or so spend time in Yellowstone’s backcountry. For both parks, the number of people camping regularly exceeds the number of people spending one or more nights in a hotel within the park. Campgrounds in both Grand Teton and Yellowstone are open only during the summer months. During winter, most of Teton County’s recreation revolves

38

Jackson Hole Compass 2013 Edition

around the area’s three ski resorts: Jackson Hole Mountain Resort, Snow King and Grand Targhee. All three of these areas lie on national forest property (the Bridger-Teton for the first two; the Caribou-Targhee for the last). Winter outdoor recreation in the national parks is far more limited, especially since the parks began taking a closer look at how well-aligned their missions are with the effects of snowmobiling. Snowmobiling in the region’s national forests remains exceptionally popular though, with 15 snowmobile businesses listed with the Jackson Hole Chamber of Commerce, and the annual World Championship Snowmobile Hill Climb regularly making for one of the busiest weekends of the winter. Switching the focus back to summer, the Snake River provides a broad spectrum of recreational opportunities, ranging from the hundreds of dogs taking their owners on daily walks on the levy to people challenging the whitewater in the Snake River canyon in rafts, kayaks, surfboards and other conveyances. The chamber lists 25 float trip operators in Continued on 39


Continued from 38

the region (scenic and whitewater), and another 25 fly-fishing guide services. For those more interested in terrestrial pursuits, the chamber also lists 27 horseback rides outfitters and 12 pack trip and hunting outfitters, figures that don’t include the region’s 16 dude ranches or 21 wildlife tour businesses. For most people recreation connotes physical activity, and for those interested in day-to-day recreational pursuits the Teton County/Jackson Parks and Recreation Department operates not only the rec center but also a variety of parks and playing fields. Roughly 60,000 people visit the rec center annually, about half of whom participate in organized programs. Residents reserve the county’s playing fields for more than 5,000 hours each year — an average of more than 24 hours a day during the six nonwinter months — for activities ranging from parties to soccer leagues to lacrosse tournaments. The private sector offers a burgeoning array of ways to hurt and mend your body, ranging from a growing number of fitness centers and personal trainers to dozens of massage therapists. For the more contemplative among us, the Grand Teton Music Festival, National Museum of Wildlife Art, Center for the Arts and other venues provide nourishment for the soul and an almost countless number of opportunities “ to refresh by means of relaxation and enjoyment.”

Campground and lodging overnight stays in Grand Teton National Park, 2000-2012 Source: Grand Teton National Park

400,000 350,000 300,000 250,000 200,000 150,000 100,000 50,000 ’00

’02

’04

Lodging

’06

’08

’10

’12

Campground

Backcountry camping overnight stays in Grand Teton National Park, 2000-2012 Source: Grand Teton National Park

35,000 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 ’00

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Visitors in Yellowstone National Park in snowmobiles and snowcoaches, 1993-2013 Source: Yellowstone National Park

100,000 80,000 60,000 40,000 20,000

Barb Lindquist

W

hen Barb Lindquist graduated from Stanford University, where she won an NCAA triathlon championship, she almost left competitive sports behind. That would have been a shame, because she never would have represented her country in the 2004 Athens Olympics, where she took ninth. All told, she is a five-time U.S. champion and a two-time world champion “In college I tied my self-worth to my performance,” Lindquist said. “When I graduated I didn’t think I would ever compete again. “God told me that he loved me no matter how I performed,” she said. “To be given the desire to race again was amazing. “I love to hear the water rush across my ears,” she said. “I love the bike because it is fast and risky, especially in drafting-allowed races. And I love the run.” Now Lindquist lives in Alta, training professional athletes around the country and helping to build the U.S. triathlon team by recruiting and developing swimmers and runners with raw talent. She never coaches more than 10 in an effort to provide individual training. She currently works with one athlete in Jackson: Green River native Sinead O’Dwyer. Jackson is an ideal place to train for triathlons, Lindquist said. There is great terrain for running and biking and strong communities to train with. “I love the sport because anybody can do it,” said Lindquist, who also is the mother of 6-year-old twins. “Youth opportunities have really grown over the past five or six years. “Most kids can run, bike and swim, so a triathlon seems accessible, and kids feel such a high level of accomplishment when they complete one.” Miller N. Resor

40

Jackson Hole Compass 2013 Edition

’93

’96

’99

’02

Snowmobiles

’05

’08

’11

Snowcoaches

River floaters in Grand Teton National Park, 2000-2012 Source: Grand Teton National Park

100,000

80,000

60,000

40,000

20,000

’00

’02

’04

’06

’08

’10

’12

Snowmobilers and cross-country skiers in Grand Teton National Park, 2000-2012 Source: Grand Teton National Park

20,000

15,000

10,000

5,000

’00

’02

’04

Cross-country skiers

’06

’08 Snowmobiliers

’10

’12


Arts

PRICE CHAMBERS

Guest Violinist James Ehnes performs as Grand Teton Music Festival Director Donald Runnicles conducts the orchestra.

Trying to quantify the arts is, of course, a difficult task. That noted, the data do provide an interesting snapshot of Jackson Hole’s vibrant arts culture. “The arts” is a broad term, and in Jackson Hole there are two primary sources for gathering information about arts organizations, whether visual, performing or literary: the Jackson Hole Gallery Association and the Community Foundation of Jackson Hole’s nonprofit handbook. The former lists 31 art galleries in Jackson Hole, consistent with a range of 27-35 gallery members during the past nine years. And while this is not a comprehensive listing of all art galleries in the area — for example, 34 art galleries are members of the Jackson Hole Chamber of Commerce — it does suggest that while there clearly has been turnover among local galleries, overall they seem to have weathered the recession reasonably well. Nonprofit arts organizations seem to be doing even better. The nonprofit handbook lists 35 organizations that self-identify as being involved in the arts, a number equaling last year’s record. Interestingly, these organizations include not only the obvious suspects, such as the Grand Teton Music Festival and National Museum of Wildlife Art, but also ones that don’t necessarily suggest a connection with the arts, such as Friends of the Teton County Fair and the Jackson Hole Jewish Community. That nearly 20 percent of all the valley’s nonprofits have an arts-related bent suggests not just a broad recognition of the power of the arts, but also a recognition of the close link between the region’s beauty and its power to inspire residents and visi-

tors alike. Of the arts nonprofits today, the first one — the Jackson Hole Historical Society and Museum — opened its doors in 1958. It took another 35 years for the community to hit double digits in the number of local arts nonprofits (at least the ones currently in existence). The last 20 years have seen a veritable explosion of arts nonprofits, though, with 14 opening their doors between 1993 and 2002 and another 12 in the past decade. That three-quarters of all local arts nonprofits have been founded in the past two decades suggests we are in a golden era for the arts in Jackson Hole. The importance of the arts to the community is also captured in economic data comparing Teton County with the rest of the state. In 2011, despite having less than 4 percent of Wyoming’s population, Teton County was home to around three-fifths of its art galleries and two-thirds of its performing arts companies. The county also punches way above its weight in its proportion of employees in both categories and, most especially, in wages paid to people working in the arts. In 2001 three-quarters of all the wages paid by Wyoming’s arts-related employers were by Teton County businesses and nonprofits. Add in a growing number of music events and venues as well as blossoming arts scenes in surrounding communities, and those interested in the arts can find more to enjoy in Jackson Hole than in most communities of our size — or any other size.

The last 20 years have seen a veritable explosion in local arts nonprofits.

2013 Edition Jackson Hole Compass

41


Arts nonprofits listed with the Community Foundation, by founding year, 1958-2013 Source: Community Foundation of Jackson Hole

35

7

30

6

25

5

20

4

15

3

10

2

5

1

Arts nonprofits annual expenditures Source: Community Foundation of Jackson Hole

10% 11%

$11.6 million Fundraising

79%

Fundraising

Program Administration

1958

1968

1978 Total number (Y1)

1988

1998

Number founded (Y2)

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Jackson Hole Compass 2013 Edition

2008


Art dealers in Teton County vs. the rest of Wyoming in 2011 Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

17% 41%

Employers 34

34%

Wages $3,090,000

Employees 89

59%

66%

Teton County

83%

Rest of Wyoming

Performing arts companies in Teton County vs. the rest of Wyoming in 2011 Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics

33%

50%

Employers 18 79%

Employees 165 67%

50%

Teton County

34%

Wages $3,673,000 66%

Rest of Wyoming

T

wo elements helped bump the Jackson Hole of the Pink Garter’s usually modest admission fees. But in addition to presenting up-and-coming nationarts scene to the next level: the recession that began in 2008 and the explosion of social media. al acts (the Infamous Stringdusters, Blitzen Trapper), The recession forced artists and arts groups the Pink Garter also provides wall space for artists and to think of new ways to collaborate and co-create; social regularly hosts events presented by Culture Front, at which Jackson Hole artists speak media gave them a new way to do so. with Jackson Hole audiences about Katy Niner — former arts and the state of the arts in Jackson Hole entertainment editor of the Jackson — both activities that create and Hole News&Guide and a longtime observe their own community. server of valley arts trends — hopes Or take the well-coordinated efthe collaboration will continue. fort to spread public art throughout “It’s not just a market,” she said, the valley. “it’s a community.” “Public art is gaining huge tracShe points to Teton Artlab, painttion in a foundational way,” Niner er Travis Walker’s artists cooperasaid, citing the creation of a public tive in the Big Haus on South Cache, arts task force that this spring adacross from the Center for the Arts, opted guidelines for reviewing and where 30 artists work and meet and accepting work. bump into one another’s ideas. In “So it’s not just about a gallery 2012, Walker launched the two-day opening,” she said, “It’s moving into Caldera Festival, which combined these other realms. art, fashion, music (with headliners “I’m hopeful because there are … Andrew Bird and Sharon Van Etten) Katy Niner things happening,” she said. “People and the corps of supporters the Artare receptive to outside artists comlab had marshaled over the years. Or, Niner said, there’s the Pink Garter Theatre, a ing in with more conceptual work. And … people are half block off Town Square. Jackson’s historic down- having conversations about what a healthy art ecosystown dramatic stage has been reinvented as a music tem is.” venue, complete with its own bar, the Rose. Richard Anderson “They kill it by not pricing out audiences,” she said

2013 Edition Jackson Hole Compass

43


Education

BRADLY J. BONER

Actor and poet Luis Guererro shows Wilson Elementary School fourthgrader Leo Harland how to imitate a pronghorn antelope as classmate Skye Eddy giggles at the pair.

Adjusted for inflation, funding for county public schools is flat since 2007.

44

Jackson Hole Compass 2013 Edition

As Teton County has become more populated and wealthier, the average education level of its adults has risen. Today more than half of all adults age 25 and older have a bachelor’s degree or better, more than twice the Wyoming statewide average of 23 percent and U.S. average of 28 percent. In 1990 the percentages were 30 percent, 19 percent and 20 percent respectively. One consequence of a higher level of education among adults is that parents have increasingly higher expectations for their children’s education. One reaction to these expectations has been the establishment of two private schools in the community. The Journeys School of the Teton Science Schools opened in 2001 and serves about 175 students from prekindergarten through 12th grade. Its niche is learning based on the region’s environment. The Jackson Hole Community School opened in 2005 and offers nearly 100 students in grades nine through 12 a more traditional college preparatory curriculum. Adding their enrollments to those of the public schools, roughly 2,750 students are en-

rolled in Teton County schools. Along with rising expectations from parents, over the past decade Teton County School District No. 1, the county’s only public school district, has faced additional demands by federal and state officials that it improve education. The district has also dealt with the demographic changes sweeping over the community, particularly a sharp rise in the number of Hispanic and other students from homes where English is not the primary language. Although ethnicity does not necessarily reflect the language spoken at home, in the 10 years between 2003 and 2013 the district’s proportion of white students fell from 86 percent to 68 percent. The most dramatic change was seen in the elementary schools located in the town of Jackson, where 43 percent of the students enrolled in school in the Continued on 45


Percent of adults 25 or older with a bachelor’s degree or better in Teton County Source: US Census Bureau

50

40

30

20

10

1980

1990

2000

Teton County

Wyoming

2010

Total fall enrollment in Teton County School District by school level, 2003-2012 Source: Wyoming Department of Education

2,500

2,000

1,500

1,000

500 Continued from 44

fall of 2012 were Latinos and members of other minority groups. The district’s operating revenue increased steadily between 2001 and 2011. When corrected for inflation, though, these increases basically matched the increases in the district’s overall student enrollment. As a result, on a constant dollar basis the district’s per-pupil expenditures have been flat since 2007. That this happened during an economic boom time for Wyoming is noteworthy, because Wyoming state revenue has been falling over the past couple of years, and public schools depend on the state for much of their funding. Whether coincidence or causation, the district’s many challenges have coincided with a decline in high school graduation rates. Between 2007 and 2009, graduation rates rose to their recent peak of 93 percent, significantly above the statewide rate of 80 percent. During the following two years, though, the local rate fell sharply to 81 percent, while the statewide rate declined to 79 percent.

’03

’05 Total

Elementary

’07

’09

High School

’11 Middle School

Operating expenditures per student in Teton County School District, 2003-2011, in constant dollars Source: Wyoming Department of Education

$8,000 $7,000 $6,000 $5,000 $4,000 $3,000 $2,000 $1,000 ’03

’05

’07

’09

’11

2013 Edition Jackson Hole Compass

45


Annual high school graduation rates for Teton County vs. Wyoming, 2007-2011 Source: Wyoming Department of Education

100

80

60

40

Nate McClennen

E

ducation in the valley and the world is rapidly changing. Journeys School leader Nate McClennen is trying to stay ahead of the curve. The school focuses on “engaging college-bound students with an innovative and challenging curriculum that cultivates lifelong learning,” he said. “Fundamentally, we teach because we want to change the world.” Journeys is one of two alternatives for students outside the public education system. The choices are important, McClennen said. “Each school, public and private, should have a clearly defined niche that supports students well,” he said. “I also am hopeful that all of the schools in the valley can continue to collaborate in the best interest of the students.” Challenges remain. “Public education is grappling with well-intentioned federal programs that have hampered creativity, innovation and excellence in schools,” McClennen said. Private school leaders need to continue to promote innovation and change, he said. “The imperative for all types of schools is to offer programs that are Middle School about students and student learning, rather than adults, rules and regulations,” McClennen said. Schools need to support better teaching. “I see this as a weakness in many schools,” he said. “The goal is to help all teachers get better in a collaborative, rather than punitive, manner.” Education will become more global through technology that connects classrooms to the world and to other ways of thinking. “Technology and design are already changing the face of education,” he said. “It is less about what you know and more about what you do with what you know. “We are pushing the design process at Journeys School across all levels to teach students to solve problems they do not yet know exist.” Brielle Schaeffer

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Jackson Hole Compass 2013 Edition

20

’07

’08

’09

Teton County

’10

’11

Wyoming

Elementary schools by ethnicity in Teton County School District, 2003-2012 Source: Wyoming Department of Education

1,000

800

600

400

200

’03

’05

’07 White

Total

’09

’11 Other

Hispanic

Annual high school graduation rates for Teton County School District, 2007-2011 Source: Wyoming Department of Education

200

100

150

75

100

50

50

25

’07 Graduates (Y1)

’08

’09 Total students (Y1)

’10

’11

Graduation rate (Y2)


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Region

BRADLY J. BONER

Kelsey Dayton crosses dead and downed timber while ascending to the Mirror Plateau from Lamar Valley in Yellowstone National Park.

Teton County, Wyo., is the economic hub of a four-county region that also includes Teton County, Idaho, and Lincoln and Sublette counties in Wyoming. Because of high housing prices in Jackson Hole, these surrounding communities serve as bedroom communities — suburbs if you will — of Jackson Hole, making Teton County, Wyo., one of only a handful of U.S. counties to have more jobs than it does residents. In 2011 the U.S. average was 0.56 jobs per resident; Teton County had 1.25 jobs per resident, ranking it 17th among America’s 3,113 counties. The job-creation success of Teton

County is largely due to its great wealth. Even with Sublette County’s natural-gas-boom-induced sharp rise in income in the mid-2000s, until the 2008 stock market collapse the per-capita income in Teton County had been greater than the per-capita incomes of all three neighboring counties combined. In 2011 it was still greater than the combined per capita incomes of Lincoln County, Wyo., and Teton County, Idaho.

TETON, WY

TETON, ID SUBLETTE, WY

LINCOLN, WY

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Jackson Hole Compass 2013 Edition

Despite higher housing costs, Teton is the most populous county of the region, with its 2010 census count of 21,294 residents more than twice that of either Sublette (10, 247) or Teton County, Idaho (10,170). In Lincoln, the 2010 census found 12,578 of its 18,106 residents (69 percent) living in the northern half of the county, i.e., the Star Valley area. Combine the populations of the surrounding region, and that means Jackson Hole serves as the hub for roughly 33,000 people living beyond the county’s borders. (Note: The southern half of Lincoln County is oriented toward the county seat of Kemmerer, a community so far from Jackson that the Wyoming Legislature created Teton County from northern Lincoln County in 1921). Between 2000 and 2010 the population of the Star Valley area grew 34 percent, twice the rate of Teton County, Wyo. The population of Teton County, Idaho, grew by 70 percent, and Sublette’s population grew by 73 percent. As is true in Teton County, Idaho, the median age in Teton County, Wyo., is lower than the national median, a function of the large percentage of Hispanic residents in both counties. The percentage of Hispanics living in both Lincoln and Sublette counties is in the single digits, one consequence of which is that the median age in both counties is higher than that of the nation. In 2011 more adults living in Teton County, Wyo., had a bachelor’s degree or higher than did all the residents of the three surrounding counties. Similarly, in 2012 more Teton County residents voted for Barack Obama than did all the residents of the three surrounding counties.


2010 median age, overall and by gender Source: US Census Bureau

2011 percentage of adults (25 or older) with a bachelor’s degree or higher Source: US Census Bureau

40 US

35 Idaho

30

US

Wyoming Idaho Overall

Lincoln, WY Teton, WY Teton, ID Sublette, WY Men

Wyoming

Women

Teton, ID

Per capita income, 1969-2011 Source: US Bureau of Economic Analysis

$150,000 $120,000

Lincoln, WY

$90,000 Sublette, WY

$60,000 $30,000

Teton, WY 1970 Teton, WY

1980

1990

Sublette, WY

2000

Lincoln, WY

What is the recipe for improving your life?

2010 Teton, ID

10

20

30

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60

6 Years $625,000 Awarded 52 Great Projects Funded

Education

1PercentTetons.org

Help Make It Happen JACKSON’S COMMUNITY COLLEGE Jackson.cwc.edu • 307-733-7425 • Center for the Arts • 240 S. Glenwood St.

(307) 733-8687 • info@1PercentTetons.org 1% for the Tetons is a project of the Charture Institute Edition via Jackson Compass 49 Please proof and call Karen at 739-9541 2013 or return FaxHole at 733-2138. Thanks! PDF Proof?


2010 percentage of ethnicities Source: US Census Bureau

US Idaho Wyoming Teton, ID Lincoln, WY Sublette, WY Teton, WY 0

20

40 White

60 Hispanic

80

100

Other

2012 percentage of votes for presidential candidates Source: Dave Leip’s Presidential Atlas

US Idaho Wyoming Teton, ID Lincoln, WY Sublette, WY Teton, WY 0

20

40 Obama

60 Romney

80

100

Other

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Jackson Hole Compass 2013 Edition

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Peers

JACLYN BOROWSKI via ECOFLIGHT

Jackson Hole’s demographics resemble those of other Rocky Mountain resort communities.

One of the things that makes Jackson Hole and other resort communities so curiously delightful is the inherent narcissism found in each place. In each community, the narcissism tends to manifest itself in two related flavors. One is positive: “Such and such a place is nice, but it’s no (fill in whichever community you live in).” The other is negative: “Such and such a place is nice, but I’d never want to live there.” The eight counties housing the major Rocky Mountain ski areas — Eagle, Pitkin, Routt, San Miguel and Summit in Colorado; Blaine, Idaho; Summit,

Utah; and Teton, Wyo. — share so many similarities that the narcissism tends toward the comic: When looking at the larger picture, the differences they see among themselves are quickly lost. Let’s start by stipulating that each is beautiful. Leaving that to the eye of the beholder, let’s move on to population. It’s only a slight oversimplification to say that in 1960 all eight counties were

TETON, WY

BLAINE, ID ROUTT, CO SUMMIT, UT

SUMMIT, CO EAGLE, CO PITKIN, CO SAN MIGUEL, CO

struggling economically, with their “traditional” drivers of agriculture, timber and mining running out of oomph. With the rise of alpine skiing, however, each saw its population boom during the next 40 years, and collectively their populations grew 9 times faster than that of the nation. All, too, have seen a significant slowing in their growth during the past decade, with only two counties (Eagle, Colo., and Summit, Utah.) growing more than twice as fast as the U.S. Contrast that with the experience they had between 1960 and 2000, when all but one grew at least five times faster than the nation as a whole and the one exception — Pitkin — grew “only” three times faster. Similarly, all eight peers are home to a significantly higher proportion of college graduates than the country as a whole (in the U.S. the figure is 28 percent; in the eight peer counties the range is 47 to 57 percent). All, too, tend to skew Democratic in their voting (although in 2012, Summit County, Utah, went for Beeive State’s quasinative son, Mitt Romney). Each also has a higher — usually much higher — per-capita income than the nation. Differences start showing up a bit in ethnic mix. As they are nationally, Hispanics are a rapidly growing portion of the peer counties’ populations, but the percentage of total population ranges from 7 percent in Routt County to 30 percent in Eagle. As a rule of thumb, those counties with a higher percentage of Hispanics also have a lower median age. Ultimately, for all the similarities between the counties, two things distinguish Jackson Hole from its northern Rockies peers: the presence of two national parks and large populations of free-ranging wildlife, including predators. The former bring in summer visitors, driving a more robust tourism economy; the latter distinguish Jackson Hole from essentially every other place in America.

2013 Edition Jackson Hole Compass

51


2011 percentage of adults (25 or older) with a bachelorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s degree or higher Source: US Census Bureau

2010 median age, overall and by gender Source: US Census Bureau

45

US

40 Eagle, CO

35 Pitkin, CO

30

US

Routt, CO

Pitkin, CO San Miguel, CO Blaine, ID Teton, WY Eagle, CO Routt, CO Summit, CO Summit, UT Overall

San Miguel, CO

Men

Women

Per capita income, 1969-2011 Source: US Bureau of Economic Analysis

$150,000

Summit, CO

$120,000 Blaine, ID

$90,000 $60,000

Summit, UT

$30,000 Teton, WY

10

20

1970

30

40

50

60

1980

1990

Teton, WY

Pitkin, CO

2000

2010

Summit, CO

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2010 percentage of ethnicities Source: US Census Bureau

US Eagle, CO Pitkin, CO Routt, CO San Miguel, CO Summit, CO Blaine, ID Summit, UT Teton, WY

0

20

40 White

60 Hispanic

80

100

Other

2012 percentage of votes for presidential candidates Source: Dave Leip’s Presidential Atlas

US Eagle, CO Pitkin, CO Routt, CO San Miguel, CO Summit, CO Blaine, ID Summit, UT Teton, WY

0

20

40 Obama

60 Romney

80

100

Other

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2013 Edition Jackson Hole Compass

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Directory Town Council 150 E. Pearl Ave. P.O. Box 1687 Jackson, WY 83001 307-733-3932 TownOfJackson.com Mark Barron — Mayor mbarron@ci.jackson.wy.us First elected: 2002 Current term ends: 2014 Bob Lenz — Councilor blenz@ci.jackson.wy.us First elected: 2006 Current term ends: 2014 Hailey Morton — Councilor hmorton@ci.jackson.wy.us First elected: 2012 Current term ends: 2016 Jim Stanford — Councilor jstanford@ci.jackson.wy.us First elected: 2012 Current term ends: 2016 Don Frank — Councilor dfrank@ci.jackson.wy.us Appointed: 2013 Current term ends: 2014 Bob McLaurin — Town Manager bmclaurin@ci.jackson.wy.us

Town Officials Tyler Sinclair — Planning Director tsinclair@ci.jackson.wy.us 307-733-0440 Todd Smith — Chief of Police tsmith@ci.jackson.wy.us 307-733-1430 Larry Pardee — Public Works Director lpardee@ci.jackson.wy.us 307-733-3079

Board of County Commissioners 200 S. Willow Aven. 307-733-8094 commissioners@tetonwyo.org Ben Ellis (D) benellis@22wy.net First elected: 2006 Current term ends: 2014

54

First elected: 2012 Current term ends: 2016 Paul Vogelheim (R) pd@vogelheim.com First elected: 2008 Current term ends: 2014 Melissa Turley (D) commissioners@tetonwyo.org First elected: 2012 Current term ends: 2016 Steve Foster — Administrator 307-732-8402 sfoster@tetonwyo.org

Teton County 200 S. Willow St. P.O. Box 3594 Jackson, WY 83001 307-733-8094 TetonWyo.org Sherry Daigle (R) — Clerk 200 S. Willow St. P.O. Box 1727 Jackson, WY 83001 307-733-4430 sdaigle@tetonwyo.org First elected: 2002 Current term ends: 2014 Donna Baur (D) — Treasurer 200 S. Willow St. P.O. Box 3594 Jackson, WY 83001 307-733-7713 dbaur@tetonwyo.org First elected: 2006 Current term ends: 2014 Jim Whalen (R) — Sheriff 180 S. King St. P.O. Box 1885 Jackson, WY 83001 jwhalen@tetonwyo.org 307-733-4052 First elected: 2009 Current term ends: 2014 Dawn Johnson (R) — Assessor 200 S. Willow Street P.O. Box 3594 Jackson, WY 83001 dawnjohnson@tetonwyo.org 307-733-4960 First elected: 2010 Current term ends: 2014

Hank Phibbs (D) plawoffice@cs.com First elected: 2006 Current term ends: 2014

Steve Weichman (R) — County and Prosecuting Attorney 200 S. Willow St. P.O. Box 4068 Jackson, WY 83001 sweichman@wyoming.com 307-733-4012 First elected: 1998 Current term ends: 2014

Barbara Allen (R) commissioners@tetonwyo.org

Kiley Campbell (R) — Coroner 200 S. Willow St.

Jackson Hole Compass 2013 Edition

P.O. Box 2099 Jackson, WY 83001 kcampb@bresnan.net 307-733-7713 First elected: 2010 Current term ends: 2014 Dee Mahoney (D) — Clerk of District Court 180 S. King St. P.O. Box 4460 Jackson, WY 83001 dmahoney@tetonwyo.org 307-733-2533 First elected: 2006 Current term ends: 2014

County Officials Sean O’Malley — Engineer 320 S. King St. P.O. Box 3594 Jackson, WY 83001 TetonWyo.org 307-733-3317 somalley@tetonwyo.org Kelli Fennessey — Fair Manager 305 W. Snow King Ave. P.O. Box 3075 Jackson, WY 83001 TetonCountyFair.org 307-733-5289 tcfb@tetonwyo.org Willy Watsabaugh — Fire Chief 40 E. Pearl Ave. P.O. Box 901 Jackson, WY 83001 TetonWyo.org 307-733-4732 wwatsabaugh@tetonwyo.org Christine Walker — Housing Authority 280 W. Broadway P.O. Box 734 Jackson, WY 83001 TetonWyo.org 307-733-0867 cwalker@tetonwyo.org Heather Overholzer — Waste & Recycling 3270 S. Adams Canyon Road P.O. Box 9088 Jackson, WY 83002 TetonWyo.org 307-733-7678 jcrecycling@tetonwyo.org Deb Adams — Library Director 125 Virginian Lane P.O. Box 1629 Jackson, WY 83301 TCLib.org 307-733-2164 dadams@tclib.org Jeff Daugherty — Planning & Building 200 S. Willow St. P.O. Box 1727 Jackson, WY 83001 TetonWyo.org Continued on 55


Continued from 54

307-733-3959 jdaugherty@tetonwyo.org Melanie Pearce — Public Health Manager 460 E. Pearl Ave. P.O. Box 937 Jackson, WY 83001 TetonWyo.org 307-733-6401 phnteton@tetonwyo.org Mary Martin — UW Extension 255 W. Deloney St. P.O. Box 1708 Jackson, WY 83001 TetonWyo.org 307-733-3087 mmartin@uwyo.edu Erika Edmiston — Weed & Pest 3270 S. Adams Canyon Road P.O. Box 1852 Jackson, WY 83001 TCWeed.org 307-733-8419 ewells@tcweed.org

Judiciary Tim Day — District Court Judge 180 S. King St. P.O. Box 4460 Jackson, WY 83001 dmahoney@tetonwyo.org 307-733-1461 Appointed: 2010 Up for retention: 2019 Jim Radda — Circuit Court Judge 180 South King St. P.O. Box 2906 Jackson, WY 83001 jlr@courts.state.wy.us 307-733-7713 Apointed: 2010 Up for retention: 2017 Tom Jordan — Municipal Court 150 E. Pearl Ave. P.O. Box 1687 Jackson, WY 83001 tjordan@ci.jackson.wy.us 307-733-3932

St. John’s Medical Center Board of Trustees 625 E. Broadway P.O. Box 428 Jackson, WY 83001 307-733-3636 TetonHospital.org info@tetonhospital.org Michael Tennican — President First elected: 2009 Current term ends: 2014 Barbara Herz — Vice President First elected: 2006

Current term ends: 2014

Current term ends: 2016

Joe Albright — Secretary-Treasurer First elected: 2009 Current term ends: 2014

Pam Shea — Superintendent 307-733-2704 pshea@tcsd.org

Scott Gibson — Member First elected: 2011 Current term ends: 2016

Teton Conservation District Board of Supervisors

Dr. Bruce Hayse — Member First elected: 2008 Current term ends: 2016 Dr. George Poore — Member First elected: 2010 Current term ends: 2014 Zach Hall — Member First elected: 2012 Current term ends: 2016 Louis Hochheiser — CEO lhochheiser@tetonhospital.org

Teton County School District Board of Education 260 W. Broadway, Suite A P.O. Box 568 Jackson, WY 83001 307-733-2704 TCSD.org

Robbi Farrow — Trustee 307-733-2862 rfarrow@tcsd.org First elected: 2008 Current term ends: 2016 Janine Teske — Trustee 307-739-0951 jteske@tcsd.org First elected: 2002 Current term ends: 2014 Carlen Carney — Chairman ccarney@tcsd.org 307-733-5940 First elected: 2010 Current term ends: 2014 Kate Mead — Vice Chairman 307-733-5163 kmead@tcsd.org First elected: 2008 Current term ends: 2016 Patricia Russell — Treasurer 307-200-1397 prussell@tcsd.org First elected: 2008 Current term ends: 2016 Paul D’Amours — Clerk 307-733-8698 pdamours@tcsd.org First elected: 2010 Current term ends: 2014 Syd Elliot — Trustee 307-733-3820 selliott@tcsd.org First elected: 2008

230 E. Broadway, Suite 2A P.O. Box 1070 Jackson, WY 83001 307-733-2110 TetonConservation.org info@tetonconservation.org Tom Segerstrom — Chairman wildlifebiologist@wyoming.com First elected: 2006 Current term ends: 2016 Sandy Shuptrine — Vice Chairwoman sandyshuptrine@wyom.net First elected: 2010 Current term ends: 2014 Tom Breen — Member First elected: 2012 Current term ends: 2016 Bob Lucas — Member First elected: 1996 Current term ends: 2014 Scott Pierson — Member spierson@piersonlandworks.com First elected: 2010 Current term ends: 2014 Randy Williams — Director randy@tetonconservation.org

State of Wyoming — Legislature Leland Christensen (R) — Senator lchristensen@wyoming.com 307-353-8204 First elected: 2010 Current term ends: 2014 Dan Dockstader (R) — Senator ddockstader@wyoming.com 307-886-1500 First elected: 2008 Current term ends: 2014 Keith Gingery (R) — Representative kgingery@wyoming.com 307-734-5624 First elected: 2004 Current term ends: 2014 RuthAnn Petroff (R) — Representative rpetroff@wyoming.com 307-734-9446 First elected: 2010 Current term ends: 2014 Marti Halverson (R) — Representative marti.halverson@wyoleg.gov 307-883-0250 First elected: 2012 Continued on 56

2013 Edition Jackson Hole Compass

55


Continued from 55

Current term ends: 2014

Jackson Hole Airport 1250 E. Airport Road P.O. Box 159 Jackson, WY 83001 307-733-7682 JacksonHoleAirport.com Ray Bishop — Airport Director raybishop@jacksonholeairport.com John Eastman — Member Clay James — Treasurer Jim Waldrop — President Jerry Blann — Vice-President Andrea Riniker — Secretary

Parks & Recreation 155 E. Gill St. P.O. Box 811 Jackson, WY 83001 307-739-9025 TetonWyo.org Steve Ashworth — Director sashworth@tetonwyo.org

Pathways 320 S. King St. P.O. Box 1687 Jackson, WY 83001 307-732-8573 TetonWyo.org Brian Schilling — Director bschilling@ci.jackson.wy.us

Travel and Tourism Board 200 S. Willow St. P.O. Box 3594 Jackson, WY 83001 TetonWyo.org info@4jacksonhole.org Stephen Price — Chairman Appointed: 2011 Current term ends: 2014 Aaron Pruzan — Vice-Chairman Appointed: 2011 Current term ends: 2014 Ponteir Sackrey — Treasurer Appointed: 2011 Current term ends: 2013 Chip Carey — Secretary Appointed: 2011 Current term ends: 2013

56

Appointed: 2011 Current term ends: 2014 Kate Sollitt — Coordinator 307-201-1774

Grand Teton National Park P.O. Drawer 170 Moose, WY 83012 307-739-3300 NPS.gov/grte

Mary Gibson Scott — Superintendent 307-739-3411 Appointed: 2004

Bridger-Teton National Forest 340 N. Cache St. P.O. Box 1888 Jackson, WY 83001 307-739-5500 FS.usda.gov/btnf/ r4_b-t_info@fs.fed.us

Cheryl Probert— Acting Supervisor 307-739-5500 Appointed: 2013

National Elk Refuge

675 E. Broadway P.O. Box 510 Jackson, WY 83001 307-733-9212 www.fws.gov/nationalelkrefuge nationalelkrefuge@fws.gov Steve Kallin — Refuge Manager Appointed: June 2007

Yellowstone National Park

P.O. Box 168 Yellowstone National Park, WY 82190 307-344-7381 NPS.gov/yell yell_visitor_service@nps.gov Dan Wenk — Superintendent yell_superintendent@nps.gov Appointed: 2011

Wyoming Game and Fish Jackson Regional Office 420 N. Cache St. P.O. Box 67 Jackson, WY 83001 307-733-2321 WGFD.wyo.gov

Caribou-Targhee National Forest 1405 Hollipark Drive Idaho Falls, ID 83401 208-524-7500 FS.usda.gov/ctnf

Brent Larson — Supervisor

Shoshone National Forest

Bruce Grosbety — Member Appointed: 2011 Current term ends: 2013

808 Meadowlane Ave. Cody, WY 82414 307-527-6241 FS.usda.gov/shoshone

Candra Day — Member

Joe Alexander — Supervisor

Jackson Hole Compass 2013 Edition

Wyoming Executive Branch State Capitol 200 W. 24th St. Cheyenne, WY 82002 Matt Mead (R) — Governor 307-777-7434 Governor.WY.gov First elected: 2010 Current term ends: 2014 Max Maxfield (R) — Secretary of State 307-777-7378 SOSWY.state.wy.us First elected: 2006 Current term ends: 2014 Cynthia Cloud (R) — Auditor 307-777-7831 SAOWY.state.wy.us First elected: 2010 Current term ends: 2014 Mark Gordon (R) — Treasurer 307-777-7408 Treasurer.state.wy.us First elected: 2012 Current term ends: 2014 Cindy Hill (R) — Superintendent of Public Instruction 307-777-7690 Edu.wyoming.gov First elected: 2010 Current term ends: 2014

U.S. Legislators John Barrasso (R) — U.S. Senator 307 Dirksen Senate Office Building Washington, D.C. 20510 Barrasso.senate.gov 202-224-6441 866-235-9553 First elected: 2007 Current term ends: 2018 Mike Enzi (R) — U.S. Senator 379A Senate Russell Office Building Washington, D.C. 20510 1110 Maple Way, Suite G P.O. Box 12470 Jackson, WY 83002 Enzi.senate.gov 202-224-3424 307-739-9507 888-250-1879 First elected: 1996 Current term ends: 2014 Cynthia Lummis (R) — U.S. Representative 113 Cannon House Office Building Washington, D.C. 20515 Lummis.house.gov 202-225-2311 888-879-3599 First elected: 2008 Current term ends: 2012


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Jackson Hole Compass 2013