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A look at our community — including new census information

JACKSON HOLE

2011 EDITION

Fundamentals of the Teton County economy Housing, land use, recreation; what is the makeup of Jackson Hole

Directory of valley’s movers and shakers


Invest INVEST: devoting time, talent and treasure to positively impact the community

We are a family of funds, responsibly managed and maintained, offering donors an opportunity to create a fund specifically designed to meet their philanthropic goals. By providing superior donor services, flexible charitable giving options and prudent investment alternatives, the Community Foundation helps donors support all the causes they care about at home and around the world. We help them structure their giving to provide immediate funding or to ensure stability for nonprofits in perpetuity.


Enrich ENRICH: improving lives through philanthropic leadership

The Community Foundation of Jackson Hole creates opportunities to efficiently and effectively address community needs by providing strategic funding and technical assistance. Through our workshops on topics from board development to grant writing, coupled with a variety of online resources, the Foundation enriches the nonprofit community by enhancing their operations and increasing their capacity. When we invest our time, talent or treasure, we all become philanthropists and enrich our community — regardless of our net worth. • Over the last 20 years, the Community Foundation has granted

$183 million .

• In 2010, 63 local nonprofits received a total of

from the Foundation’s competitive grant funds.

$723,335

• The Community Foundation holds approximately 200 funds and

$ 29 million in assets.

$75 million to benefit local nonprofits. Since 2001, the Community Foundation of Jackson Hole has consistently granted more dollars per capita than any other community foundation in the United States. In 2010, local students received nearly $ 100,000 in scholarships to pursue their dreams.

• Over its lifetime, Old Bill’s Fun Run has raised nearly •

ImprovIng lIves through phIlanthropIc leadershIp 255 East Simpson Street • PO Box 574, Jackson, WY 83001 • 307-739-1026 • www.cfjacksonhole.org • www.volunteerjacksonhole.org • www.oldbills.org


InspIIre Insp INSPIRE: serving as a leader, catalyst and resource to ensure sustainability

The Community Foundation of Jackson Hole inspires the entire community to support local nonprofits and celebrates philanthropy through an incredible annual matching grant opportunity – Old Bill’s Fun Run for Charities. The next generation learns the importance of strategic giving through the Youth Philanthropy program. Nonprofits find talented new volunteers through our Volunteer Jackson Hole website. Philanthropy reinforces our fundamental humanity and our shared values, connecting us to what is truly important.


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www.jhpropstore.com Jackson Hole Compass 5


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think of Summit Insurance. We work for you, not the insurance companies. We shop rates to save you money and compare plans so you always get the best coverage.

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SUMMIT INSURANCE SERVICES Serving Jackson Since 1996

6 Jackson Hole Compass


OUR AGENTS SUPPORT THIS COMMUNITY AND ITS NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS OUR AGENTS SUPPORT THIS COMMUNITY AND ITS NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS OUR AGENTS SUPPORT THIS COMMUNITY AND ITS NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS OUR AGENTS SUPPORT THIS COMMUNITY AND ITS NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS OUR AGENTS SUPPORT THIS COMMUNITY AND ITS NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS OUR AGENTS SUPPORT THIS COMMUNITY AND ITS NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS OUR AGENTS SUPPORT THIS COMMUNITY AND ITS NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS OUR AGENTS SUPPORT THIS COMMUNITY AND ITS NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS OUR AGENTS SUPPORT THIS COMMUNITY AND ITS NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS OUR AGENTS SUPPORT THIS COMMUNITY AND ITS NONPROFIT ORGANIZATIONS OUR AGENTS SUPPORT THIS COMMUNITY AND ITS NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS OUR AGENTS SUPPORT THIS COMMUNITY AND ITS NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS OUR AGENTS SUPPORT THIS COMMUNITY AND ITS NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS OUR AGENTS SUPPORT THIS COMMUNITY AND ITS NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS OUR AGENTS SUPPORT THIS COMMUNITY AND ITS NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS OUR AGENTS SUPPORT THIS COMMUNITY AND ITS NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS OUR AGENTS SUPPORT THIS COMMUNITY AND ITS NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS OUR AGENTS SUPPORT THIS COMMUNITY AND ITS NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS OUR AGENTS SUPPORT THIS COMMUNITY AND ITS NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS OUR AGENTS SUPPORT THIS COMMUNITY AND ITS NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS OUR AGENTS SUPPORT THIS COMMUNITY AND ITS NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS OUR AGENTS SUPPORT THIS COMMUNITY AND ITS NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS OUR AGENTS SUPPORT THIS COMMUNITY AND ITS NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS OUR AGENTS SUPPORT THIS COMMUNITY AND ITS NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS OUR AGENTS SUPPORT THIS COMMUNITY AND ITS NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS OUR AGENTS SUPPORT THIS COMMUNITY AND ITS NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS OUR AGENTS SUPPORT THIS COMMUNITY AND ITS NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS OUR AGENTS SUPPORT THIS COMMUNITY AND ITS NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS OUR AGENTS SUPPORT THIS COMMUNITY AND ITS NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS OUR AGENTS SUPPORT THIS COMMUNITY AND ITS NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS OUR AGENTS SUPPORT THIS COMMUNITY AND ITS NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS OUR AGENTS SUPPORT THIS COMMUNITY AND ITS NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS OUR AGENTS SUPPORT THIS COMMUNITY AND ITS NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS OUR AGENTS SUPPORT THIS COMMUNITY AND ITS NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS OUR AGENTS SUPPORT THIS COMMUNITY AND ITS NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS OUR AGENTS SUPPORT THIS COMMUNITY AND ITS NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS OUR AGENTS SUPPORT THIS COMMUNITY AND ITS NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS OUR AGENTS SUPPORT THIS COMMUNITY AND ITS NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS OUR AGENTS SUPPORT THIS COMMUNITY AND ITS NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS OUR AGENTS SUPPORT THIS COMMUNITY AND ITS NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS OUR AGENTS SUPPORT THIS COMMUNITY AND ITS NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS OUR AGENTS SUPPORT THIS COMMUNITY AND ITS NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS OUR AGENTS SUPPORT THIS COMMUNITY AND ITS NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS OUR AGENTS SUPPORT THIS COMMUNITY AND ITS NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS OUR AGENTS SUPPORT THIS COMMUNITY AND ITS NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS OUR AGENTS SUPPORT THIS COMMUNITY AND ITS NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS OUR AGENTS SUPPORT THIS COMMUNITY AND ITS NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS OUR AGENTS SUPPORT THIS COMMUNITY AND ITS NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS OUR AGENTS SUPPORT THIS COMMUNITY AND ITS NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS OUR AGENTS SUPPORT THIS COMMUNITY AND ITS NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS OUR AGENTS SUPPORT THIS COMMUNITY AND ITS NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS OUR AGENTS SUPPORT THIS COMMUNITY AND ITS NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS OUR AGENTS SUPPORT THIS COMMUNITY AND ITS NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS OUR AGENTS SUPPORT THIS COMMUNITY AND ITS NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS OUR AGENTS SUPPORT THIS COMMUNITY AND ITS NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS OUR AGENTS SUPPORT THIS COMMUNITY AND ITS NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS OUR AGENTS SUPPORT THIS COMMUNITY AND ITS NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS OUR AGENTS SUPPORT THIS COMMUNITY AND ITS NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS OUR AGENTS SUPPORT THIS COMMUNITY AND ITS NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS OUR AGENTS SUPPORT THIS COMMUNITY AND ITS NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS OUR AGENTS SUPPORT THIS COMMUNITY AND ITS NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS OUR AGENTS SUPPORT THIS COMMUNITY AND ITS NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS OUR AGENTS SUPPORT THIS COMMUNITY AND ITS NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS OUR AGENTS SUPPORT THIS COMMUNITY AND ITS NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS OUR AGENTS SUPPORT THIS COMMUNITY AND ITS NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS OUR AGENTS SUPPORT THIS COMMUNITY AND ITS NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS OUR AGENTS SUPPORT THIS COMMUNITY AND ITS NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS OUR AGENTS SUPPORT THIS COMMUNITY AND ITS NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS OUR AGENTS SUPPORT THIS COMMUNITY AND ITS NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS OUR AGENTS SUPPORT THIS COMMUNITY AND ITS NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS OUR AGENTS SUPPORT THIS COMMUNITY AND ITS NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS OUR AGENTS SUPPORT THIS COMMUNITY AND ITS NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS OUR AGENTS SUPPORT THIS COMMUNITY AND ITS NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS OUR AGENTS SUPPORT THIS COMMUNITY AND ITS NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS OUR AGENTS SUPPORT THIS COMMUNITY AND ITS NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS OUR AGENTS SUPPORT THIS COMMUNITY AND ITS NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS OUR AGENTS SUPPORT THIS COMMUNITY AND ITS NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS OUR AGENTS SUPPORT THIS COMMUNITY AND ITS NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS OUR AGENTS SUPPORT THIS COMMUNITY AND ITS NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS OUR AGENTS SUPPORT THIS COMMUNITY AND ITS NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS OUR AGENTS SUPPORT THIS COMMUNITY AND ITS NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS OUR AGENTS SUPPORT THIS COMMUNITY AND ITS NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS OUR AGENTS SUPPORT THIS COMMUNITY AND ITS NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS OUR AGENTS SUPPORT THIS COMMUNITY AND ITS NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS OUR AGENTS SUPPORT THIS COMMUNITY AND ITS NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS OUR AGENTS SUPPORT THIS COMMUNITY AND ITS NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS OUR AGENTS SUPPORT THIS COMMUNITY AND ITS NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS OUR AGENTS SUPPORT THIS COMMUNITY AND ITS NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS OUR AGENTS SUPPORT THIS COMMUNITY AND ITS NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS OUR AGENTS SUPPORT THIS COMMUNITY AND ITS NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS OUR AGENTS SUPPORT THIS COMMUNITY AND ITS NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS OUR AGENTS SUPPORT

OUR AGENTS SUPPORT THIS COMMUNITY AND ITS NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS

JACKSON HOLE SOTHEBY’S INTERNATIONAL REALTY 185 W. Broadway Jackson, WY 83001 307.733.9009 888.733.9009 www.jhsir.com ®,™ and SM are licensed trademarks to Sotheby’s International Realty Affiliates LLC. An Equal Opportunity Company. Equal Housing Opportunity. Jackson Hole Sotheby’s International Realty is Independently Owned and Operated.


Contents 6 8 10 12 14 17 20 30

Overview Extremes Geography Demographics Agriculture Arts Economy Tourism Real Estate Housing

35 39 41 44 49 52 55 58 62

JACKSON HOLE

2011 EDITION

Education Government Philanthropy Recreation Social Services Transportation Region Peer Comparison Directory/Glossary

A tool to navigate Jackson Hole I first moved to Jackson Hole in 1983, when the county’s population was 10,653 and its per capita income was $17,581.

I care about this sort of stuff now, in part because I’m a data geek. But the main reason is that when I came to the Tetons, the place struck me like a thunderbolt. Like so many others, I care deeply about Jackson Hole; like so many others, I take great pride in sharing this place. And like so many others, I hope future generations have the chance to be touched by the Tetons in the same way I have been. Which is why I focus on data, because it’s the best tool I know for making sense of Teton County and Jackson Hole. To make sense of my community, I need something more than passion alone. Facts help me know not just where Jackson Hole has been and where it is, but how and why it’s changing, where it might be going, and how we as a commu8 Jackson Hole Compass

PUBLISHERS Michael Sellett, Elizabeth McCabe ASSOCIATE PUBLISHER Kevin Olson MANAGING EDITOR Angus M. Thuermer CONTRIBUTING EDITOR Jonathan Schechter ART DIRECTOR Kathryn Palagonia PHOTO EDITOR Bradly J. Boner CONTRIBUTING PHOTOGRAPHERS Price Chambers CONTRIBUTING WRITERS Johanna Love Katy Niner Thomas Dewell Cara Rank Sarah Reese Jennifer Dorsey Brandon Zimmerman Kelsey Dayton Cory Hatch DIRECTOR OF SALES & MARKETING Kate Sollitt

I didn’t know that; I didn’t really care. In 1983, being a UPS driver was considered a good job, because it was year-round and paid benefits. I didn’t care about that either. The only information about the community that seemed to matter was the weather, finding a cheap place to live, and knowing who was having a party. Today, the population has just about doubled: According to the Census, in 2010 Teton County’s population was 21,294. Adjusted for inflation, the per capita income has almost quadrupled, making Teton County one of the wealthiest in the nation. And as befits such wealth, a good job is now considered to be working for a hedge fund.

jhcompass.com

AD DESIGN & PRODUCTION Caryn Wooldridge Stacey Oldham Lydia Wanner Audrey Williams

nity might affect its future. This desire to understand and explain it is shared by my organization, the Charture Institute, and by the publishers, editors and staff of the Jackson Hole News&Guide. So we have teamed up to produce this inaugural issue of the Jackson Hole Compass. As Jackson Hole has grown and changed, it has become increasingly sophisticated and prominent on the global stage. A project that might once have been done on a gut feeling and handshake now requires more — something grounded in the facts that convey just what an extraordinary corner of the world we occupy. Charture attempts to capture and share this information, so does the News&Guide. It’s a natural extension of both organizations’ efforts to take an annual snapshot of Jackson Hole’s many facets and to share that picture with those who, in their own way, have been struck by the Jackson thunderbolt. We hope you enjoy our effort. Jonathan Schechter

ADVERTISING SALES Karen Brennan Viki Cross Amy Golightly Adam Meyer ACCOUNT COORDINATOR Meredith Faulkner CIRCULATION Corry Koski Pat Brodnik Gary Bourassa Kyra Griffin OFFICE MANAGER Kathleen Godines ON THE COVER Town of Jackson Photograph by Bradly J. Boner ©2011 Jackson Hole Compass Additional copies available for $2.95 each. Bulk discount available. Jackson Hole News&Guide P.O. Box 7445, 1225 Maple Way Jackson, WY 83002 (307) 733-2047 FAX: (307) 733-2138, www.jhnewsandguide.com


Elk Fest & Old West Days May 21-22 & 27-31, 2011

Jackson Hole Fall Arts Festival September 8-18, 2011

Jackson Hole - Destination Wellness September 24-October 2, 2011

Respecting the Power of Place: A Commitment to Our Economy, Community, and Environment. Respecting the power of our place is realizing that not only are our economy, community, and environment what makes Jackson Hole special, but being aware that the three are interrelated. Whether you’re currently a resident of Jackson Hole, organizing a relocation, or planning a short vacation, connect with the Jackson Hole Chamber of Commerce and connect to the power of Jackson Hole.

307.733.3316 • info@jacksonholechamber.com

www.jacksonholechamber.com


Overview

COURTESY ROBERT TURNER

Guests at the Triangle X Ranch head out for a trail ride in the late 1940s in Grand Teton National Park.

Jackson Hole is entering terra incognita. To understand why, we first need to understand where we’ve been. Broadly speaking, the evolution of Jackson Hole’s economy can be divided into four generations. The first generation was hunter-gatherer, typified by the American Indians and fur trappers for whom Jackson Hole was a summer home. The second generation was agriculture. This started in the 1890s with the valley’s first permanent settlement, peaked in the middle of the 20th century, and continues at a muchreduced level today. The third generation was value added. In locales well-suited for shipping, “value added” means taking second-generation raw materials (agricultural products, timber, minerals, and the like) and turning them into a manufactured product. In an isolated valley like Jackson Hole, however, “value added” became tourism: dude ranches at first, then summer visitors to the national parks, and finally skiers in the winter. Nationwide, agriculture began a slow decline following World War II, affecting small rural counties especially hard (e.g. between 1930 and 1960, Lincoln County lost one-sixth of its population; Teton County, Idaho lost a quarter). Fortunately for Teton County, Wyo. its second-generation agricultural economy was balanced by its third-generation tourism economy, so the agricultural 10 Jackson Hole Compass

slowdown did not hit Jackson Hole as hard as it might have (e.g. between 1930-1960, Teton County’s population grew by half). In the 1960s Jackson Hole’s shift from agriculture to tourism was accelerated by two events: overall growth in national park visitation, and the opening of the Jackson Hole Ski Area. These ushered in 20 boom years for tourism, the period in which Jackson Hole developed its reputation as a resort community. However, by the mid-1980s, tourism growth had slowed, so much so that the community lobbied the Wyoming Legislature to pass a lodging tax to promote tourism, a step the community never before deemed necessary.

Tourism eclipsed

While the lodging tax was eventually enacted, tourism’s importance to Jackson Hole’s economic growth was eclipsed by the rise of Teton County’s fourth generation economy: investments and professional services. As technology improved, the economy evolved and work patterns shifted, it become increasingly easier, more acceptable and even fashionable to do white-collar work from places like Jackson Hole. As a result, by the end of the 1990s, the engine driving Jackson Hole’s economy had shifted from third generation activities to fourth generation ones. This isn’t to say tourism wasn’t still important to Jackson Hole’s economy: it was, and is, just as agriculture is still important to the community’s character. However, in

both cases what once was Jackson Hole’s economic driver has become relegated to a lesser role. Why go into all this? Because if you divide Jackson Hole’s past 40 years into two equal periods — the first 20 powered by its third- generation economy, and the latter 20 powered by its fourth-generation economy — one constant just under the surface has been the extraordinary 40-year run of Jackson Hole’s building trades. Between 1970 and 2010, Teton County’s population more than tripled, growing at a compounded average rate of 3.8 percent. During that same time, its housing stock more than quintupled, growing at a compounded average rate of 4.8 percent. Sure there were some slow times: During the 1990s, population grew faster than housing. But even during that slowest of decades, Teton County’s housing stock grew by an average of 217 homes each year. But here’s the thing. Combined, the Town of Jackson and Teton County have not issued 217 new residential building permits since 2004. More ominously, in 2010 the number of new residential building permits issued fell below 100 for the first time in decades. Now factor in this reality. As this essay is written, the town and county governments are re-writing the comprehensive land use plan. However it ends up, it’s hard to imagine Teton County ever being home to more than 30,000 people. Consider the implications of that by doing a little math. According to the 2010 Census,


Still attractive after all these years By Johanna Love For hundreds if not thousands of years, Jackson Hole has been a haven. Members of the Sheepeater tribe were early residents and the valley also was a traditional hunting and spiritual ground for the Eastern Shoshone and Bannock tribes, “For many years we thought no one overwintered here, said Lokey Lytjen, director of the Jackson Hole Historical Society and Museum, “but there is actually some archaeological evidence to say [Sheepeaters] did stay.” Fur trappers came next, followed by scientific explorers and, finally, settlers. Congress’ establishment of Yellowstone National Park in 1872 helped start the tourism era.

With development came controversy. There was a rodeo and horse racing track near Taggart Lake, dance halls, gas stations and cabin courts growing up near Jenny Lake. “Some felt that was going to damage the character of the valley,” Lytjen said. Grand Teton National Park was formed in 1929, though it included only the mountain chain and the lakes at its base. Through the work of Horace Albright, who interested John D. Rockefeller Jr. who surreptitiously bought 35,000 acres on the valley floor, which eventually was incorporated into Grand Teton National Park. “It was one of the most significant events in our history,” Lytjen said. “It really shaped how Jackson Hole developed and the character it had after that land was set aside.”

“You have people coming in to hunt and fish, like President Chester Arthur,” Lytjen said.

Starving elk, usurped by development, led residents to advocate for the National Elk Refuge in the early 1900s.

Shortly after the turn of the century, dude

The winter economy wasn’t developed for de-

Teton County was home to 21,294 people and 12,813 homes, an average of 1.66 people/home. Do a bit more math and, at 1.66 people per home, 30,000 people will mean around 18,000 homes or roughly 5,000 more than today. To put that number in perspective, consider the average number of homes built annually during each of the past four decades:

ranches were established. Louis Joy began welcoming guests to the JY Ranch in 1908, and the Bar B C was established in 1911.

1970s – 2,899 1980s – 2,166 1990s – 3,207 2000s – 2,546

In other words, if we continue to build homes at the same as we have during the past four decades, by 2030 Teton County will essentially be built out. Yet because of the economic slowdown, it’s clear that we’ll not see that amount of building occurring again for a long, long time, if ever. At the risk of slipping into hyperbole, what we’re looking at is the impending collapse of the community’s building-related trades; not just for a while, but for good. Which in turn will mean the collapse of an economic sector which has, over the last decade, employed an average of 15 percent of our workforce. And that’s just nail-bangers alone. Figure that each construction job generates another job in some related sector (architects or engineers or finance officials), and what we’re looking at is the collapse of an economic sector that accounts for around a third of the valley’s jobs, and an even higher percentage of its wages. And here is where Jackson Hole is entering terra incognita: Over he next few years, we’re looking at the decline of the sector

that has been the core of the community’s middle class for over a generation. What cars were to Detroit, construction has been to Jackson Hole. And not only have we never been in this situation before, we have no idea what to do about it. Hence terra incognita. What’s clear is this: Tourism can’t fill the void nor can retail. While both of these sectors rank among the valley’s biggest employers, both provide mostly low-end jobs. Good for employment statistics, but not so good for paying the mortgage on a middleclass home.

No state income tax

What’s also clear is that, despite the decline of its building trades, over the next several years Jackson Hole will become much wealthier. Why? Why? One reason is that a primary goal of wealthy people is capital preservation; the other is that both the federal and state governments will soon raise taxes on the rich. As a result, increasing numbers of wealthy people will look to relocate to states like Wyoming where there is no income tax. And where in Wyoming will wealthy people look to move? To the place that’s already home to Wyoming’s biggest concentration of wealth: Jackson Hole. Between tourism and the influx of wealth, Jackson Hole will not suffer the sort of economic collapse experienced by other areas that have seen their core industries dry up. However, unless those middle class building trades jobs can be replaced, we will be-

cades more. The state’s first ski area, Snow King Resort, opened in 1939, and Jackson Hole Mountain Resort opened in 1965. After World War II, families began motoring through the valley on vacations and “motor court” hotels began to spring up. Jackson Hole still enchants, although it faces challenges. “How do we balance all the competing interests in the valley,” Lytjen asks. “You still have people coming in for recreation: hunting, fishing, biking, floating the river,” Lytjen said. “People care about the wildlife, like they did in the early days.” come a different place, one with fewer folks to volunteer and otherwise get involved in the warp-and-woof at the core of the community. There won’t be enough wealthy folks to fill the void, and those folks who do have jobs will find their lower-paying work requires them to put in more hours, leaving them fewer hours to put back into the community. That, in turn, will ripple through all facets of life in Jackson Hole; not changing things on the surface necessarily, but clearly altering everything from the community’s politics to its non-profits. Just as ranching hasn’t completely disappeared from Jackson Hole, neither will the building trades. Local architects and engineers will find non-local work to complement their jobs, and there will always be construction in the valley. But barring an extraordinary set of circumstances — which would have to include significantly weakened regulations for both developers and bankers — it seems likely that the golden age of Jackson Hole’s building trades came to an end with the financial meltdown of 2008, if not earlier. While we’ll never romanticize construction workers as we do cowboys, it’s likely the decline of the building trades will prove to be far more significant to the valley’s socio-economic history than the decline of ranching. This is because, while both industries’ boom years lasted about as long, ranching was never the foundation for a thriving middle class. The building trades have been, and how the community adjusts to the reality of their collapse will be a key element shaping the next chapter of Jackson Hole’s history. Jackson Hole Compass 11


Extremes

NEWS&GUIDE PHOTO / BRADLY J. BONER

Paul Milner crests the Golden Staircase of the Exum Ridge while climbing the Grand Teton on warm, sunny day. The Grand — at 13,770 feet, the highest peak in Teton County — represents the wild ruggedness of the area that attracts millions of visitors each year and with which so many Jackson residents identify.

Perhaps the best way to understand Teton County is to realize it is a place of extremes: in topography and climate, in education and wealth, in beauty and passion. Here are some extreme things about an extreme place: NATURAL WORLD

Highest point: Grand Teton, elevation 13,770 feet Lowest point: Snake River as it leaves southern Teton County, elevation 5,800 feet

Number of vehicles registered in Teton County in 2010: 32,268 Number of recreational visits in 2010 to Grand Teton and Yellowstone national parks: 2,682,572; 3,640,184 Members of the 1920 Jackson Town Council, the first all-woman city government in America: Grace Miller (mayor), Mae Deloney, Rose Crabtree, Faustina Haight and Genevieve Van Vleck First recorded party to ascend the Grand Teton: William Owen, Franklin Spalding, Frank Petersen, John Shive, Aug. 11, 1898

Highest recorded temperature: 98°F, Aug. 19, 1981

First party to complete the Cathedral Traverse (Teewinot, Mount Owen and Grand Teton): Willi Unsoeld, Richard Pownall, Pete Schoening, summer 1959

Lowest recorded temperate: -63°F, Jan. 1, 1979

First person to descend the Grand Teton on alpine skis: Bill Briggs, June 16, 1971

Greatest recorded snowfall at 9,000 feet during the ski season: 558 inches during the 2010-11 season

First person to descend the Grand Teton on telemark skis: Rick Wyatt, June 11, 1982

1990, 2000 and 2010 estimated population counts for the Jackson Elk Herd, the largest elk herd in the world: 15,212; 14,179; 11,976 Age of the Teton Range, the youngest range of mountains in the U.S.: No older than 10 million years, perhaps as young as 3 million years Percentage of Teton County land managed by the federal government: 97 percent Acreage of the National Elk Refuge, the largest established wildlife refuge in the U.S.: 24,700 Distance from the nearest improved road to the Thorofare valley, located in northeast Teton County, the most remote spot in the lower 48 states (the place farthest from an improved road): approximately 26 miles HUMAN WORLD

1990, 2000 & 2010 Census count of Teton County residents: 11,172; 18,251; 21,294

12 Jackson Hole Compass

First to descend the Grand Teton on snowboard: Stephen Koch, June 9, 1989 Vertical rise of the aerial tram at Jackson Hole Mountain Resort, which has the longest continual vertical rise of any ski lift in North America: 4,139 feet First year of the Jackson Town Square Shoot-out Gang, the longest continuously running gunfight re-enactment in the world: 1957 Number of Jackson Hole restaurants on the Chef2Chef.net list of America’s Top 100 Restaurants: 1 (Snake River Grill) Jackson Hole’s overall rank and per capita rank on this chef’s list: 8 (tie); 1 Jackson’s American Legion Post #43 building completed, longest continuous use in the nation: 1929 Number of hotels in America that won both the AAA 5 Diamond and Mobil 5 Star award in 2011: 34 Number of such hotels in Jackson Hole: 1 (Four Seasons)


Number of years since the Jackson Hole News&Guide came into existence: 10

Amount of per capita charitable giving in 2000 through the Marin Community Foundation in Marin County, Calif., which ranked second in per capita donations: $177

Number of times the Jackson Hole News&Guide has won “Best Weekly” newspaper award from the National Newspaper Association: 5

1990 and 2000 Teton County median single-family home price and rank among all 3,140 U.S. counties: $131,400, $365,400; 99, 10

HUMAN WORLD, CONTINUED

NATIONAL PARKS

Year that Yellowstone National Park, the world’s oldest national park, was established: 1872 Location of the largest concentration of geysers in the world: Upper Geyser Basin at Old Faithful in Yellowstone Park Elevation of Yellowstone Lake, the largest high-altitude lake (higher than 7,000 feet) in the country: 7,733 feet Site of the largest log structure in the world: Old Faithful Inn in Yellowstone Park MONEY

Teton County 2004-2008 mean adjusted gross income per tax return: $90,313; $108,171; $104,840; $126,998; $142,109 Teton County’s annual rank among all 3,140 U.S. counties in those years: 7, 2, 5, 2, 1 Teton County’s 2004-2008 mean adjusted gross income per tax return exemption (i.e. per capita income): $51,097; $60,770; $58,166; $69,983; $77,655

1990 to 2000 dollar increase in median single-family home price and rank among all 3,140 U.S. counties: $234,000; 4 1990 to 2000 percentage increase in median single-family home price and rank among all 3,140 U.S. counties: 178 percent; 4 VITAL STATISTICS

1990-2010 percentage growth in population and rank among all 3,140 U.S. counties: 91 percent; 101 1990 and 2000 percentages of residents ages 25 and older with a bachelor’s degree (or higher) and ranks among all 3,140 U.S. counties: 30 percent, 46 percent; 104; 26 1990 to 2000 absolute increase in percentage of residents with a bachelor’s degree (or higher) and rank among all 3,140 U.S. counties: 15.8 percent; 3 2000 Teton County marriage rate (per 100,000 population): 30.2 2000 U.S. and Wyoming marriage rates: 8.5, 10

Teton County’s annual rank among all 3,140 U.S. counties in those years: 1, 1, 1, 1, 1

Number of times greater Teton County’s marriage rate was than U.S. and Wyoming rates: 3.6, 3

Teton County 1995 mean number of exemptions per tax return: 1.77, 1.78, 1.80, 1.81, 1.83

2000 Teton County suicides as percent of all deaths: 6.8 percent

Teton County’s annual rank from the bottom among all 3,140 U.S. counties in those years: 16, 15, 16, 18, 41 2008 proportion of Teton County’s total adjusted gross income from “other” sources (e.g., capital gains) and estimated rank among all 3,140 U.S. counties: 51 percent, 1

2000 U.S. and Wyoming suicides as percent of all deaths: 1.2 percent, 2.1 percent Number of times greater Teton County’s suicide proportion was than U.S. and Wyoming proportions: 5.6, 3.2 2000 Teton County unintentional injury deaths (non-motor vehicle related) as percent of all deaths: 12.3 percent

Amount of Teton County’s per capita charitable giving through the Community Foundation of Jackson Hole in 2000: $442

2000 U.S. and Wyoming unintentional injury deaths as percent of all deaths: 2.3 percent, 2.1 percent

Rank of Teton County’s per capita charitable giving among the 600-plus community foundations across the country in 2000: 1

Number of times greater Teton County’s unintentional injury deaths proportion was than U.S. and Wyoming proportions: 5.4, 5.8

Jackson Hole Compass 13


Geography PUBLIC LAND OWNERSHIP

PRIVATE LAND OWNERSHIP

2,619,000 total acres Numbers in percentages 12

76,837 total acres Numbers in percentages 5

1 .5

13

10

1

22

2 42

3

29

34 83

34

10 Bridger-Teton National Forest Targhee National Forest Yellowstone National Park JDR Parkway Grand Teton National Park

Rest of Jackson Hole Valley

Residential - developled

Town of Jackson

Commercial

Alta

Residential - agricultural

Buffalo Valley

Conservation Residential - vacant

Other federal agencies State of Wyoming Source: TETON COUNTY PLANNING DEPARTMENT

Source: TETON COUNTY PLANNING DEPARTMENT

RECORD PRECIPIATION

ELK IN JACKSON HOLE HERD

In inches

From 1994 to 2010 20,000

January - 1969

February - 1962

March - 1995

15,000 April - 1963

May - 1980

June - 1967

10,000 July - 1993

August - 1983

September - 1961

5,000 October - 1972

November - 1988

December - 1964 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Source: JIM WOODMENCY, MOUNTAINWEATHER.COM

14 Jackson Hole Compass

8

1994 Estimated population

‘98 Actual count

Source: WYOMING GAME AND FISH DEPARTMENT

2002

‘06

2010


NEWS&GUIDE PHOTO / BRADLY J. BONER

A small group of elk moves along the base of the Gros Ventre mountains on the National Elk Refuge in spring. Thousands of elk make their home on the refuge in the winter, a haven established by residents and sportsmen and women nationwide when development took over some of the best wintering areas in Jackson Hole.

RECORD SNOWFALL

TEMPERATURE BY MONTH

At 9,000 feet, in inches

100

January - 1969 80

February - 1978 March - 1985

60

April - 1967 40 May - 1973 June - 1973

20

July August -20

September - 1971 October - 1971

-40

November - 1985 -60 Jan.

December - 1978 10

20

Feb.

March

April

May

Record high 30

40

50

Source: JIM WOODMENCY, MOUNTAINWEATHER.COM

60

Mean low Source: JIM WOODMENCY, MOUNTAINWEATHER.COM

June

July

Mean high

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Daily Mean

Record low

Jackson Hole Compass 15


Demographics Census shift shows darker shade of pale

During the 2000s, Teton County experienced its lowest population growth rate since the 1940s, growing “only” 17 percent. Although historically low, Teton County’s growth rate still exceeded that of the nation (10 percent) and the state (14 percent) and ranked it as Wyoming’s sixth-fastest growing county. Of the five ahead of Teton County, all but Lincoln — a defacto bedroom community for Jackson Hole — experienced significant

hydrocarbon booms during the 2000s.

from 398 to 598 or by 50 percent.

During the past decade, Teton County’s median age barely budged, increasing from 33.5 years old in 2000 to 35 in 2010. After being slightly older than the nation as a whole in 2000 (when the U.S. median age was 32.9 years old), Teton County is now just slightly younger (the U.S. median age in 2010 was 35.3).

The growth in the nonwhite population has come primarily among those younger than 18. Census data for 2010 show nearly 30 percent of Teton County’s population younger than 18 are of a nonwhite race: 24 percent Hispanic and 4 percent of another nonwhite race.

In 2000, 91 percent of residents were white while 6 percent were Latino. Ten years later, the proportions were quite different: 82 percent white, 15 percent Latino and 3 percent other nonwhite ethnicities. Between 2000 and 2010, the total number of whites living in Teton County increased 5 percent, from 16,668 to 17,505. Latino residents increased 169 percent, from 1,185 to 3,191. Residents who were neither white nor Hispanic increased

The Town of Jackson remains the county’s population center, although its share of residents dropped from 47 percent in 2000 to 45 percent in 2010. Throughout the rest of the county, 18 percent of residents live in the South Park area, 17 percent live on the west bank, 2 percent in Alta, and the remaining 17 percent are elsewhere, similar to 2000.

For more information, go to jhcompass.com

POPULATION DISTRIBUTION

DECENNIAL POPULATION AND GROWTH TetonCounty, County,Wyo. Wyo.from from1930 1930toto2010 2010 Teton 25,000

100

20,000

80

15,000

60

10,000

40

Teton County, Wyo. in 2010 Total population is 21,432 Jackson - 9,577

Moose-Wilson Rd. - 1,821

South Park - 1,731 20

5,000

Wilson - 1,482 1930 1940 1950 Total population - Y1 Source: US CENSUS BUREAU

1960

1970 1980 1990 2000 Growth from previous census (in percentage) - Y2

2010

Hoback - 1,176

RELATIVE POPULATION GROWTH

Teton County, Wyo., vs. Wyoming and U.S. from 1930 to 2010 *1930 = 100

Rafter J - 1,075

1,200

1,000

Alta - 394

800

Teton Village - 330 600

400

Kelly - 138

200

Other - 3,708 1930 1940 Teton County Source: US CENSUS BUREAU

16 Jackson Hole Compass

1950

1960

1970 Wyoming

1980

1990

2000 2010 United States

2

4

Source: US CENSUS BUREAU

6

8

10


ETHNICITY OF POPULATION Teton County, Wyo. from 1990-2010 Numbers in percentages 1990 - 11,172 11

98 2000 - 18,251 2

6

NEWS&GUIDE PHOTO / ANGUS M. THUERMER

Grace Potter and the Nocturnals rock the stage at the end of a ski season at the Jackson Hole Mountain Festival in Teton Village drawing thousands of music fans of a particular generation to the free concert.

POPULATION CHANGE BY AREA Teton County, Wyo., from 2000 to 2010 10,000

8,000

91

6,000

2010 - 21,294 4,000

3 15

2,000

Jackson

Moose Wilson Rd.

South Park

Wilson

2000

Hoback

Rafter J Ranch

Alta

Teton Village

Other

2010

Source: US CENSUS BUREAU

MEDIAN AGE OF POPULATION

Teton County, Wyo., vs. U.S. from 1960 to 2000

82 White

40

Latino

Other

Source: US CENSUS BUREAU

30

ETHNICITY OF AGE GROUPS Teton County, Wyo. in 2010 UNDER 18

35

25 20

18 AND OVER

15

POP.

% OF POP.

POP.

% OF POP.

White

2,396

59

13,234

77

10

Latino

969

24

2,222

13

5

Other

711

17

1,762

10

Total

4,076

Source: US CENSUS BUREAU

17,218

1960 Teton County Source: US CENSUS BUREAU

1970

1980 United States

1990

2000

Jackson Hole Compass 17


Agriculture Geography defined valley heritage

Human history in Jackson Hole can be traced back to its use as a seasonal hunting ground by American Indians. It evolved with a cast that included fur traders, explorers, homesteaders, artists and scientists such as Ferdinand Hayden. Due to the valley’s isolation and long, harsh winters, permanent human settlement occurred later in Jackson Hole than in much of the Rocky Mountains; the first permanent settlers did not arrive until the mid 1880s. Those early settlers and those who live in Jackson Hole today have some things in common. Jackson wasn’t an easy place to make a living for early settlers; however, the historical record suggests the first settlers were drawn to the area because of the beauty of the Tetons, a quality local historians have come to refer to as the concept of the “sublime.” But the valley’s beauty was not sufficient to overcome the physical and economic challenges facing settlers, and people would frequently leave for economic reasons. Winters were long, the cattle market was cyclical, and even in times of high prices, markets for cattle were distant. While different economic challenges face residents today, many of the same basics remain: People are still attracted by the valley’s sublime qualities; it remains a challenging place to live; and the annual turnover of population is still high. As Jackson Hole’s population and economy have evolved, so too has its character. Longtime residents note that one or two generations ago there were fewer restrictions on land use, recreation, behavior and the like. At the same time, these observers note that without such restrictions, Jackson Hole would be a very different community today. Finding balance between regulations and freedom has long been fodder for debate and politics.

For more information, go to jhcompass.com

DUDE RANCHES

Teton County, Wyo. from 1908 to 2010 Total in operation *excludes 15 ranches without a known start or end date 25

20

15

10

5

1908 1918 1928 Source: JH HISTORICAL SOCIETY

1938

1948

1968

1978

1988

1998

OPERATING CATTLE RANCHES

Ranch, number and type of cattle (approximate numbers) RANCH/RANCHER

2005: NUMBER/ TYPE OF CATTLE

2011: NUMBER/ TYPE OF CATTLE

Jim & Russ Lucas

200 cow-calf pairs

200 cow-calf pairs

Year-around

Hansen/Mead

200 cow-calf pairs

250 cow-calf pairs

Summer

Pinto Ranch

200 cow-calf pairs

350 steers

Summer

70 cow-calf pairs

Summer

75 steers

Year-around

SEASON

200 steers Young/Feuz

200 steers

Mike Taylor

150 steers

Glenn Taylor

50 cow-calf pairs

75 cow-calf pairs

Year-around

Walton Ranch

450 cow-calf pairs

350 cow-calf pairs

Year-around

Roger Ball

400 cow-calf pairs

300 cow-calf pairs

Summer

Bob Lucas

50 cow-calf pairs

250 cow-calf pairs

Winter

500 steers

350 steers

Summer

50 cow-calf pairs

40 cow-calf pairs

Year-around

270 cow-calf pairs

Summer

150 cow-calf pairs

Year-around

120 steers

Summer

100 cow-calf pairs

Year-around

Paul Von Gontard Jack Robinson JH Hereford Ranch

300 steers

Lockhart Gills

200 steers

Summer

Snake River Ranch

4,000 steers

3,000 steers

Summer

Total

1,600 cow-calf pairs

2,055 cow-calf pairs

5,350 steers

4,095 steers

Alta

250 ewe-lamb pairs

Summer

Ball Sheep Co.

1,400 ewe-lamb pairs

Summer

Total

1,650 ewe-lamb pairs

Source: JIM MAHER - TETON COUNTY BRAND INSPECTOR

18 Jackson Hole Compass

1958

2008


NEWS&GUIDE PHOTO / PRICE CHAMBERS

Tony Breen and a team of volunteers separate calves from their mothers, herding the young animals into a holding area before they are branded and vaccinated at the Walton Ranch. Ranchers have kept the valley in open space for decades, giving the valley the character that helps make it attractive.

DUDE RANCH ROSTER 1928

3 Rivers Ranch

DC Bar Ranch

JY Ranch

Snake River Ranch

36 Ranches

Double Diamond Ranch

Jackson Lake Lodge

Square G Ranch

Bar BC Ranch

Elbo Ranch

Lazy S Ranch

Teton Valley Ranch

Bear Paw Ranch

Elk Ranch

Leeks Ranch

Trail Ranch

Castle Rock Ranch

Flagg Ranch

Moose Head Ranch

Triangle F Ranch

Circle H Ranch

Flying V Ranch

Moran-Teton Lodge

Triangle X Ranch

Crescent Lazy H Ranch

Green River P-Tree Ranch

Red Rock Ranch

Turpin Meadows

Cross and Crescent Ranch

Hansen Ranch

Rocking H Ranch

V Bar V Ranch

Danny Ranch

Hatchet Ranch

S.T.S. Ranch

White Grass Ranch

Brooks Lake Lodge and Ranch

Goosewing Ranch

Mill Iron Ranch

Spotted Horse Ranch

Crescent H Ranch

Gros Ventre River Ranch

Moose Head Ranch

Trail Creek Ranch

Flat Creek Ranch

Heart Six Ranch

R Lazy S Ranch

Triangle X Ranch

Game Creek Ranch

Lost Creek Ranch

Red Rock Ranch

Turpin Meadows

Brooks Lake Lodge and Ranch

Gros Ventre River Ranch

Moose Head Ranch

Trail Creek Ranch

Flat Creek Ranch

Heart Six Ranch

R Lazy S Ranch

Triangle X Ranch

Game Creek Ranch

Lost Creek Ranch

Red Rock Ranch

Turpin Meadows

Goosewing Ranch

Mill Iron Ranch

Spotted Horse Ranch

2004

2010

Source: UNION PACIFIC RAILROAD MAP, JACKSON HOLE HISTORICAL SOCIETY

Jackson Hole Compass 19


HISTORICAL TIMELINE 1824-40

Mountain Man Rendezvous in region

1860-80

Government exploration of the Yellowstone and Jackson Hole areas

1872

Yellowstone National Park was established

1892

Post office at Marysvale established, this area would late become the Town of Jackson

1906-16

Jackson Lake Dam constructed

1910

S.N. Leek’s photographs attracted national attention to the starving elk in Jackson Hole

1914

Town of Jackson incorporated

1920

The Town of Jackson elected one of the early all-women town councils in the nation

1921

Teton County established as a distinct political entity (carved out of Lincoln County)

1925

Gros Ventre Slide. The resulting debris dammed the Gros Ventre River

1927

Kelly Flood (the Army Corp of Engineers had assured the stablility of the slide-created earthen dam)

1929

Grand Teton National Park formed, including only the mountains and the lakes at their base

1938

John D. Rockefeller suggested that his lands in Jackson Hole be acquired for Grand Teton National Park independent of Congress through the Antiquities Act

1939

Snow King Ske Resort opened

1943

President Franklin D. Roosevelt created Jackson Hole National Monument by presidential proclamation

1946

The first commercial air service began at the current site of the airport, in what is now Grand Teton National Park

1953-69

Elk antler arches erected on the Town Square

1965

Jackson Hole Ski Resort opened

1971

Conservation easement place on a portion of the Skyline Ranch property with The Nature Conservancy. One of the earliest easements in the valley

1995

Wolves restored in Yellowstone National Park. They soon ranged into Jackson Hole

2005

Center for the Arts opened

2011

Continuous bike path from Jackson to Jenny Lake completed

Source: JACKSON HOLE HISTORICAL SOCIETY

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Arts

Arts community is the tops Trying to present a data-based overview of Jackson Hole’s arts community is a little like trying to use statistics to describe marriage: The effort might touch upon the general contours, but will surely miss what’s truly important. That noted, Jackson Hole is considered to be one of the major arts communities in the nation — perhaps the top art community for its size. Depending on who is counting and what they consider to be an art gallery ( how do you classify a restaurant that also displays and sells art?), there are between 25 and 30 galleries in Jackson Hole, a number that has held roughly steady over the past decade. There are also at least half a dozen venues presenting live music, theatrical performances and the like. As with art galleries, this number grows when you include restaurants, coffee shops and other spaces that present performances on an occasional basis. This emphasis on the arts is reflected in Teton County’s Creative Vitality Index score of 7.8. The Creative Vitality Index is a tool that uses a variety of income and employment figures to assess the relative importance of the arts to a community, measuring it against a national average of 1.0. According to the index, the arts are nearly eight times as important to Teton County — both economically and, by extension, in other nonquantifiable means — as they are to either the nation as a whole or the state of Wyoming. In fact, if Teton County is removed from the mix, Wyoming’s three-year average Creative Vitality Index score drops by 30 percent, to 0.7.

NEWS&GUIDE PHOTO / ASHLEY WILKERSON

Artist Nancy Dunlop Cawdrey, represented in Jackson by West Lives On Gallery, paints French dye on silk with rock salt during the Quick Draw on Town Square during the 2008 Fall Arts Festival.

ART GALLERIES

In phone book, Chamber of Commerce directory and Jackson Hole Gallery Association directory 35 30 25 20 15 10 5

A similar gap exists between Teton County and other Rocky Mountain states. Assessing the contribution the arts make to a community’s economy, the group Americans for the Arts found Teton County to be similarly robust, outstripping other towns its size in both total and per capita arts expenditures.

2004 2005 2010 Jackson Hole Chamber of Commerce Jackson Hole Gallery Association Phone book Source: YELLOW PAGES, JACKSON HOLE CHAMBER OF COMMERCE, JACKSON HOLE GALLERY ASSOCIATION

CREATIVE VITALITY INDEX

2009 8

As with Jackson Hole’s overall nonprofit community, the number of arts-related nonprofits began to grow in the mid-1980s and really took off in the 1990s. Today, the Community Foundation of Jackson Hole identifies 18 organizations that focus on teaching or presenting the arts, down from a peak of 21 in the mid-2000s. Financially, local arts nonprofits are dominated by “The Big Three”: the Center for the Arts, the Grand Teton Music Festival and the National Museum of Wildlife Art, each of which has an operating budget well over $1 million. The Art Association is knocking on the door of the million-dollar threshold. No other arts organization reporting its 2010 revenues exceeded $130,000.

7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Teton, Wyo. Wyoming Utah New Mexico Montana Source: WYOMING ARTS COUNCIL’S “CREATIVE VITALITY REPORT”

Idaho

Colorado

Arizona

Jackson Hole Compass 21


NON-PROFIT EXPENDITURES

Arts grow

Art non-profits listed with Community Foundation of Jackson Hole, 2011 Total - $10.2 million Numbers in percentages

By Katy Niner A new current of artistic energy is coursing through Jackson, according to Suzanne Morlock, an artist and landscape architect who moved to the valley 20 years ago. There is a new sense of inspired ambition, she said, “a greater commitment to a broader landscape for the arts.” And she should know. When Morlock first moved here from southern California, she found herself drawn to the environment and its palette, yet disconnected from the Western iconography found in galleries. The arts community seemed populated by traditional materials — watercolor and oil paintings and bronze sculptures — and all tended to be of animals. “My primary medium at the time was landscape, and that was part of the attraction to the place,” she said. Even the orientation of landscape architecture remained traditionally rooted in lawns. All that has changed. Now the Jackson aesthetic has expanded to include conceptual and contemporary art. This widening was writ large by Morlock’s enormously admired “Sweater,” an installation in the public ArtSpot site on West Broadway featuring a monumental Charlie Brown-inspired pullover that Morlock knitted from metallic ribbon — a remnant of sequin manufacturing. “‘Sweater’ has changed my world,” she said. “A lot of people who didn’t know who I was before do now.” Morlock delighted in one friend’s recounting of riding the START bus and watching as all eyes turn to the piece. “I couldn’t be happier to see the kinds of things that have evolved in the last five years,” Morlock said. “There is more diversity in the kinds of mediums that are being used, in the kinds of explorations going on.” Before, Morlock often felt alone in her aesthetic, and only found kinship with the “fresh thinking” of young artists who then moved away, hoping to plant themselves in more affordable locales. Loneliness drove Morlock, in part, to go back to school and get her masters of fine art. But now, those fresh eyes are staying, as once-transient aspiring artists are rooting themselves and their art in Jackson. Beyond the core of young, vanguard

13

voices, Morlock believes the community itself has made a commitment by building the Center for the Arts, with its Center Theater and creative tenants like the Art Association, and by supporting new movements like the Jackson Hole Public Art Initiative.

71 Administration Program Fundraising Source: COMMUNITY FOUNDATION OF JACKSON HOLE

A year ago, Morlock adopted a part-time schedule at her day job at the Teton County Library, which has allowed her to refocus on her art. The timing has been perfect, both in her maturation as an artist and Jackson’s receptivity to her ideas.

PERFORMANCE VENUES

She sees local reverberations of a national trend toward greater engagement with the audience and of a global movement toward quirky forms of expression.

Jackson Hole Playhouse

“In the last five years, there is a new appreciation for art on a broader scale,” she said. “There was a little bit of tentativeness in the past, in part because [artists] couldn’t make a living.” While she accepts that she will always have to seek out opportunities to exhibit outside the valley, she now embraces Jackson as her home base for her life and her art.

FOR PROFIT

Bar-T-Five Wild West Show Bar J Chuckwagon Dornan’s

Mangy Moose Snow King Pink Garter NON-PROFIT

Center for the Arts Walk Festival Hall

NON-PROFIT ARTS ORGS. LISTED WITH COMMUNITY FOUNDATION OF JACKSON HOLE

Art Association of Jackson Hole Cathedral Voices Chamber Choir

Jackson has grown up a lot, she said, not only in population but culturally as well.

Center for the Arts

“It’s broadened itself in the last 10 years,” she said. “It’s gotten more depth and breadth in my experience of it.

Dancers’ Workshop

“I think we are evolving a new personality for this place,” she said. “I am glad to see that environmental concerns are one of those things. I am glad to see that real estate isn’t the only thing we are thinking about. … I think there is new interest in what makes sense for a real community.”

For more information, go to jhcompass.com

Center of Wonder Cultural Council of Jackson Hole

Grand Teton Music Festival Jackson Community Theater Jackson Hole Chorale Jackson Hole Community Band Jackson Hole Coummunity Radio Jackson Hole Music Experience Jackson Hole Symphony Orchestra Jackson Hole Wildlife Film Festival Jackson Hole Writers Conference National Museum of Wildlife Art Off Square Theatre Company pARTners

22 Jackson Hole Compass

16


ECONOMIC IMPACT OF NON-PROFIT ARTS INDUSTRY Total spent by non-profits and audiences, 2005 Similar regions with populations of fewer than 50,000 In millions

Bainbridge Island, Wash. Dover, Del. Fairfax, Va. Gunnison County, Colo. Homer, Ark. Iron County, Utah Laguna Beach, Calif. Pierce County, Wis. Pittsfield, Mass. Polk County, Wis. Salina, Kan. Teton County, Wyo. Wheeling, W. Va. Windham County, Vt. Winter Park, Fla. 10 Source: ARTS AND ECONOMIC PROSPERITY STUDY

20

30

40

50

60

70

Arts in JH

One community, all the arts. Arts and culture define the vibrancy of a community. Not only because the quality and diversity of arts and culture are good for the heart and soul, but also because arts and culture are also good for the economy. Here in Teton County, the Non-Profit Arts Community generates nearly 1,400 full-time equivalent jobs and accounts for over $47 million flowing into our local economy from event-related spending like dinners, accommodations and other experiences (and not including the price of admission!) Support the arts, support our community.

This message sponsored by: National Museum of Wildlife Art, Center for the Arts, and Grand Teton Music Festival. Data provided by Americans for the Arts, Arts & Economic Prosperity Study.

ArtsinJH.org Jackson Hole Compass 23


Economy Economy a mix of residents, visitors

Like the rest of the nation, Jackson Hole’s economy has been hurt by the 2008 recession, and has yet to fully recover. Because the county has historically had a strong economy and is home to a number of well-to-do people, Teton County was able to weather the recession reasonably well. Teton County’s per-capita income figures have ranked it among the top handful of counties in America, at levels 2-3 times higher than the nation and state. That standing comes from information supplied by the IRS and Department of Commerce’s Bureau of Economic Analysis. This high ranking is due to two decades’ growth in the county’s investment income. In 1991, half of residents’ adjusted

MEDIAN HOUSEHOLD AND FAMILY INCOME

gross income was from wages and salaries. According to the IRS. In 2008, that declined to 35 percent, barely half the national level. For residents who rely on wages and salaries, roughly a third of their incomes are from lodging and construction — more than three times the national figure. Lodging has grown in the past decade, largely due to the opening of several high-end hotels. Construction, too, has boomed, but is now in free-fall, with jobs and wages declining more than 25 percent between the first half of 2009 and the first half of 2010 (the last period for which data are available). Teton County is one of a handful of counties in the nation with more jobs than residents, attracting commuting workers. Most come from Lincoln County and Teton County, Idaho. The recession’s toll is apparent in its unemployment rate, which hovered in the 2-3 percent range before exploding in 2009. Compared to the nation, Teton County has a disproportionately high percentage of self-employed workers, a phenomenon that accelerated in the 2000s. The spread

of technology, making it easier for people to live in Jackson Hole yet work anywhere, and the boom in construction were causes. Local government receives more than half of its revenue from sales taxes, and through mid-2008 those revenues could generally be counted to grow more than 5 percent annually. However, since reaching their high-water mark in September 2008, taxable sales have declined nearly 20 percent to 2005 levels. The 2008 recession affected all taxable sectors of the economy, but most stabilized by early 2010 and have started to rebound. The dramatic exception is construction; its two-year decline continues. The seasonal mix of taxable sales remained consistent through boom and bust, with June-September accounting for roughly half of all sales. The other half came equally from winter (December-March) and the two shoulder seasons (October and November; April and May). That the shoulder seasons are as strong as winter seems counter-intuitive, but is explained by Teton County’s population growth and residents’ spending patterns.

TOTAL PERSONAL INCOME

Teton County, Wyo., from 1970 to 2009 Current and constant dollars In billions

Teton County, Wyo,. from 1970 to 2009 Current and constant dollars In thousands Household income

3

1970 2.5 1980

1990 2 2000

2009 1.5

Family income 1970 1 1980

1990 .5 2000

2009 20

40

60

Current Constant Source: US CENSUS BUREAU

24 Jackson Hole Compass

80

100

1970

‘74 Current

‘78

1982

‘86

1990

‘94

Constant

Source: US DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE, BUREAU OF ECONOMIC ANALYSIS

‘98

2002

‘06


PER CAPITA PERSONAL INCOME PER CAPITA PERSONAL INCOME From 1991 to 2008 Current $s In thousands

Teton County, Wyo., from 1970 to 2009 Current and constant In thousands 150

1991

120

‘92 ‘93

90

‘94 60 ‘95 30

‘96 ‘97

1970

‘98

‘74 Current

‘78

1982 Constant

‘86

1990

‘94

‘98

2002

‘06

Source: US DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE, BUREAU OF ECONOMIC ANALYSIS

‘99

PER CAPITA TOTAL INCOME BY TYPE

2000

1991 and 2008, constant dollars, numbers in percentages 1991 - $17,788 2008 - $36,068

‘01 ‘02 ‘03

25

‘04

35

Wages and salary

‘05

50

‘06

10

‘07

Interest

51

Dividends Other

‘08 10

20

Teton, Wyo. Source: IRS

30

40

Wyoming

50

60

70

6

15

80

8

US Source: IRS

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Jackson Hole Compass 25


INCOME BY SOURCE

Total, numbers in percentages Teton, Wyo. - 2001 - $1.30 billion

Teton, Wyo. - 2009 - $2.65 billion

3

U.S. - 2009 - $12.17 trillion

3

18 34

44

18

52

64

63

Net earned income

Pensions

Investment income

Wage and salary income, numbers in percentages Teton, Wyo. - 2001 - $680 million

Teton, Wyo. - 2009 - $889 million

U.S. - 2009 - $7.8 trillion 6

11

13

6

8 41

6

38

5 2

7 4 2

2

46

7

6

10

2

3 10 Construction

Retail

3 17

12 Finance

1

18

13 Real Estate

Prof. & tech services

Arts & recreation

Lodging & food services

Government

Other

Source: US DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE, BUREAU OF ECONOMIC ANALYSIS

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26 Jackson Hole Compass


LABOR FORCE

Numbers in percentages 2000 - 14,183 2

GROWTH IN POPULATION AND JOBS

From 1970 to 2009 30,000

25,000

20,000

98 15,000

2010 - 13,505 8

100,00

5,000

92 Employed Unemployed Source: US DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE, BUREAU OF ECONOMIC ANALYSIS

1970 ‘74 Population

‘78

1982 ‘86 Total employment

1990

‘94

‘98

2002

‘06

Source: US DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE, BUREAU OF ECONOMIC ANALYSIS

All trails lead to Teton Motors.

WWW.TETONMOTORSSUBARU.COM Sales • Service • Parts • Collision Center • 307-733-6600 • 800-537-6609 Serving Jackson Since 1972

Jackson Hole Compass 27


EMPLOYMENT BY INDUSTRY Numbers in percentages 2001 - 23,548

TOTAL TAXABLE SALES

From 1990 to 2010 In millions 1,200

14

13

1,000

9

11

800

4 20

600

8 400

15

7

200

2009 - 27,168 13

10

1990 Current $s

8

‘94

‘98

2002

‘06

2010

Constant $s

Source: STATE OF WYOMING DEPARTMENT OF REVENUE

9

TAXABLE SALES BY INDUSTRY

7

From June 2005 to December 2010, 12 month running totals In millions 300

12 23

250

15

4 Construction

Retail

Finance

Real Estate

Prof. & tech services

Arts & recreation

Lodging & food services

Government

Other

200

150

Source: US DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE, BUREAU OF ECONOMIC ANALYSIS 100

EMPLOYER TYPE

From 1970 to 2008, as percentage 50 1970 June 2006 June 2007 June 2005 Retail Lodging Construction Autos Source: STATE OF WYOMING DEPARTMENT OF REVENUE

1980

June 2008 Other Groceries

June 2009

June 2010 Restaurants

TAXABLE SALES BY SEASON

From 1990 to 2010, as percentage 100

1990

80 2000 60

40 2008 20 20 Salaried - Teton Salaried - US

40

60 80 Self-employed - Teton Self-employed - US

Source: US DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE, BUREAU OF ECONOMIC ANALYSIS

28 Jackson Hole Compass

100 1990 ‘94 ‘98 Summer Winter Source: STATE OF WYOMING DEPARTMENT OF REVENUE

2002 Shoulder

‘06

2010


Tourism

Tourism evolves with the times Early in the 20th century, Jackson Hole’s ranchers realized there was money to be made off of tourists, perhaps more than from raising cattle. Following World War II, as travel became easier and Grand Teton National Park’s current boundaries were established, the economy shifted from agriculture to one in which agriculture was important, but whose growth was reliant on tourism. The founding of the Jackson Hole Ski Area in 1964 accelerated this process. A low-interest economic development loan from the federal government, the sort of loan intended to boost the economies of impoverished rural areas such as Appalachia, launched the transformation. Despite the success of what’s now known as the Jackson Hole Mountain Resort, and visitors’ continued interest in Grand Teton and Yellowstone national parks, tourism has become as agriculture once was to Jackson Hole’s economy: important, but no longer the growth engine. Grand Teton and Yellowstone changed their visitor counting methodologies in 1993, and “apples-to-apples” comparisons are not possible. Visitor counts can also be confused by the fact that U.S. Highway 89 runs through Grand Teton, meaning that anyone driving on that highway – regardless of whether they intend to visit the park – is included in the total visitation count. Looking just at recreational visitors, Grand Teton’s count in 2010 is about what it was 17 years earlier. Yellowstone, in contrast, set post-1993 visitation records in 2007, 2009, and again in 2010. Enplanements at the Jackson Hole Airport also have shown strong growth in recent years, although falling recently from 2008 highs. Much of the surge in air traffic can be attributed to the JH Air Improvement Resources program, which subsidizes commercial air service into Jackson Hole Airport, America’s only commercial airport in a national park. JHAIR is especially important to the Jackson Hole Mountain Resort. Until the recession, skier days grew steadily, which officials attribute in part to providing regular flights to Jackson Hole from major hubs such as Atlanta and Chicago. The claim that tourism is no longer the economic growth engine of Jackson Hole meets with some resistance. With the possible exception of skier days, there is no real correlation between tourism measures and Jackson Hole’s most prominent economic indicator: taxable sales. Instead, tourism should be seen as a foundation for the lifestyle economy that has transformed Jackson Hole.

NEWS&GUIDE PHOTO / MICHAEL G. SEAMANS

A commercial airliner cruises the Teton range on its final approach to the Jackson Hole Airport, bringing a fresh flock of visitors to the valley.

JACKSON HOLE MOUNTAIN RESORT SKIER DAYS From 1966 to 2011 *year indicates season’s end 500,000

400,000

300,000

200,000

100,000

1966 1970 ‘74 ‘78 1982 Source: JACKSON HOLE MOUNTAIN RESORT

‘86

1990

‘94

‘98

2002

‘06

2010

JACKSON HOLE AIPORT ENPLANEMENTS

Annual enplanements on commercial flights from 1993 to 2010

350,000 300,000 250,000 200,000 150,000 100,000 50,000 1994 ‘96 Source: JACKSON HOLE AIRPORT

‘98

2000

‘02

‘04

‘06

‘08

2010

Jackson Hole Compass 29


GRAND TETON NATIONAL PARK VISITS

JHMR SKIER DAYS V. WINTER TAXABLE SALES

Jackson Hole Mountain Resort skier days v. winter taxable sales (constant $s) from 1993 to 2010 Relative growth, 1993 = 100

From 1993 to 2010 *Annual total recreational visits in millions

200

1994 150 ‘96 100

‘98

2000 50 ‘02

‘04

1994 ‘96 Winter taxable sales

‘98

2000 ‘02 ‘04 ‘06 Jackson Hole Mountain Resort skier days

‘08

2010

Source: JACKSON HOLE MOUNTAIN RESORT, WYOMING DEPARTMENT OF REVENUE

‘06

GRAND TETON VISITATIONS V. SUMMER TAXABLE SALES Grand Teton visitations v. summer taxable sales (constant $s) from 1993 to 2010 Relative growth, 1993 = 100

‘08

150 2010 .5 1 1.5 2 Source: GRAND TETON NATIONAL PARK

2.5

3

YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK VISITS

120

90

From 1993 to 2010 *Annual total recreational visits in millions 60

1994 30 ‘96 1994 ‘96 Summer taxable sales

‘98

‘98

2000 ‘02 ‘04 Grand Teton recreational visits

‘06

‘08

2010

Source: GRAND TETON NATIONAL PARK, WYOMING DEPARTMENT OF REVENUE

AIRPORT ENPLANEMENTS V. TAXABLE SALES

2000

Jackson Hole Airport enplanements v. total taxable sales (constant $s) from 1993 to 2010 Relative growth, 1993 = 100 200

‘02

150

‘04

‘06

100

‘08

50

2010 .5

1

1.5

2

2.5

Source: YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK

30 Jackson Hole Compass

3

3.5

4

1994 ‘96 Total taxable sales

‘98

2000 ‘02 ‘04 ‘06 Jackson Hole Airport enplanements

Source: JACKSON HOLE AIRPORT, WYOMING DEPARTMENT OF REVENUE

‘08

2010


The residential market reflects the recession During the 1940s, Teton County’s economy began evolving away from agriculture and toward tourism and second homes. As a result, between 1940 and 1960, only 20 percent of all homes constructed in Teton County were for permanent residents. While the founding of the Jackson Hole Ski Area in the 1960s fueled the valley’s tourism economy, ski bums moving to the community shifted the balance of the housing stock back toward primary housing. That trend continued until the valley’s economic slump in the 1980s forced many residents to leave. As a result, the 1990 Census found that only about two-thirds of the county’s housing was occupied year-round, with the rest primarily second homes. In the last 20 years, the increasing ease of working remotely has fueled both Jackson Hole’s population surge and its housing boom. Along with that boom have come huge jumps in home values and a shift back toward primary-occupancy housing. According to the 2010 Census, 70 percent of Teton County’s homes are primary occupancy, down from 2000’s figure of 75 percent. The shift is a reflection, in part, of the number of houses for sale due to the slowing economy. The residential real estate market reflects the effects of the recession. The local real estate market was exceptionally strong for almost two decades, with sales and prices generally rising every year. After peaking in 2007, things changed dramatically, with 2009 proving to be the slowest year in all residential real estate sales – single-family homes, condominiums, and residential lots – since 1992 when the HoleReport.com began keeping comprehensive real estate sales records. Construction has reflected the implosion of the once-vibrant real estate and development market. From a peak of slightly more than 600 building permits issued in 2000 by Jackson and Teton County, that number dropped to fewer than 200 in 2010. The combined value of the permits issued also plunged, dropping from nearly $250 million in 2007 to barely 40 percent of that three years later. (Note: in 2005, the Town of Jackson appears to have changed the way it values permits, for the combined permitted value of all permits issued that year fell by more than 80 percent, even though the number of building permits fell by only one third. Valuations have never recovered to their pre-2005 levels, even though permit numbers have.)

Real Estate

TOTAL HOUSING UNITS

Teton County, Wyo. from 1940 to 2010 Occupied and vacant 15,000

12,000

9,000

6,000

3,000

1940 1950 Source: US CENSUS BUREAU

1960

1970

1980

1990

2000

2010

1980

1990

2000

2010

2000

2010

RELATIVE HOUSING UNIT GROWTH Teton County, Wyo. vs. U.S. from 1940 to 2010 *1940 = 100 2,000

1,500

1,000

500

1940 1950 Teton County Source: US CENSUS BUREAU

1960

1970 US

MEDIAN HOME VALUE

Teton County, Wyo. from 1940 to 2010 Median value of owner-occupied houses, current and constant dollars 800,000 700,000 600,000 500,000 400,000 300,000 200,000 100,000 1940 1950 Current dollars Source: US CENSUS BUREAU

1960

1970

1980 Constant dollars

1990

Jackson Hole Compass 31


ALL RESIDENTIAL PROPERTY SALES AND VALUES Teton County, Wyo. from 1992 to 2010 All residential property

Spackmans stake family on Jackson By Thomas Dewell Dave Spackman, the patriarch of The Spackmans real estate team, has worked through two major market downturns in his more than 30 years in Jackson Hole. Despite the most recent credit crunch that left property values at two-thirds of their 2007-08 values, Spackman, 65, remains bullish on Jackson Hole. The characteristics that make Jackson Hole desirable — a limited amount of private land, nearby national parks, wildlife, a convenient airport, a vibrant cultural and philanthropic scene — have not changed. What has changed is buyers’ attitudes. “It’s no longer, ‘Show me your best house and I’ll write a check,’” Spackman said of the sentiment that prevailed in the 1990s and even parts of the 2000s. “It is, ‘Show me your best value.’” In 2010, The Spackmans — Dave and sons Jarad, 38, and Brandon, 35, and their assistant, Megan Murtagh — sold the most properties and had the largest dollar volume at Sotheby’s International Realty, Jackson Hole Brokerage. The brokerage advertised itself as participating in twice the number of transactions and three times the dollar volume of the nearest competitor in the market place in 2010. Spackman began working on west-bank development in the late 1970s and eventually left his home in Utah to live in Teton County. Along with shepherding what would become known as The Aspens, Spackman helped develop and sell Teton Pines real estate. He saw a shift in the valley when the fax machine, FedEx and the Internet made it possible for business owners and traders from the coasts could run their interests from here. Technology, however, did not greatly change the kind of people drawn to the valley. “People come here for the quality of life,” Spackman said. “They contribute, they participate. They’re not trying to make a statement like in Aspen or Vail.”

1,600

$1,600

1,400

$1,400

1,200

$1,200

1,000

$1,000

800

$800

600

$600

400

$400

200

$200

1992 ‘94 ‘96 Total Value - Y2 in millions

2000 ‘02 ‘04 Number of sales - Y1

‘06

‘08 2010 Mean price - Y2 in thousands

Source: JACKSONHOLEREPORT.COM, DAVID &DEVON VIEHMAN

SINGLE FAMILY HOME SALES AND VALUES Teton County, Wyo. from 1992 to 2010 400

$2,000

300

$1,500

200

$1,000

100

$500

1992 ‘94 ‘96 Total Value - Y2 in millions Source: THE HOLE REPORT

‘98

2000 ‘02 ‘04 Number of sales - Y1

‘06

‘08 2010 Mean price - Y2 in thousands

CONDOMINIUMS HOME SALES AND VALUES Teton County, Wyo. from 1992 to 2010 600

$1,200

500

$1,000

400

$800

300

$600

200

$400

100

$200

1992

‘94 ‘96 Total Value - Y2 in millions

Source: THE HOLE REPORT

32 Jackson Hole Compass

‘98

‘98

2000 ‘02 ‘04 Number of sales - Y1

‘06

‘08 2010 Mean price - Y2 in thousands


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Real Estate Loans Teton Village Branch 3285 West Village Dr. 734-9037

Mortgage Loans Aspens Branch 3525 North Moose Wilson Rd. 733-8065


Housing Remote, scarce land challenge residents

Two fundamentals define Teton County’s land use and housing. One is that Jackson Hole is a remote, isolated and cold valley in the northern Rockies. This made it one of the last places in the continental United States to be developed, and remains a defining feature. Indeed, the Thorofare valley in the county’s northeast corner is the most remote part of the lower 48, around 26 miles from an improved road. The second defining fact is that 97 percent of Teton County’s approximately 2.7 million acres is government owned. This limits development to about 76,560 private acres, most of that land in the southern end of the valley. Many are attracted to Jackson Hole because of its scenic vistas, open spaces

HOUSING UNITS, BY AREA

Numbers in percentages 2000 - 10,627 2 10

and wildlife. One consequence has been the increasing amount of land being permanently protected in conservation easements through the Jackson Hole Land Trust and other organizations. As easements and development reduce the available land, local government feels pressure to ensure that land use and zoning regulations reflect the sometimes conflicting desires of the community. Developed properties and those with conservation easements account for around 80 percent of the valley’s private lands, leaving only 34 percent of private property — around 26,00 acres — “in play” for development or conservation. Viewed differently, of Teton County’s 2.7 million acres, the future of 99 percent of those has already been determined. This reality underlies the dynamic of the new joint town and county comprehensive land use plan. Now entering its fourth year, the plan-process will determine broadly how these remaining acres can be developed.

Skeptics note that when the comp-plan is approved, the process will have taken at least 1,200 days – 22 acres per day for the “in play” acres. That it has taken so long shows the passion residents and visitors alike feel for Jackson Hole. As Teton County’s population has grown, so too have demands for housing. The imbalance of supply and demand has resulted in rapidly increasing housing prices in the valley. This has also affected population and housing in neighboring counties, particularly northern Lincoln County and Teton County, Idaho. Another consequence has been an aggressive effort to create affordable housing, both by the government ­— through the Teton County Housing Authority — and nonprofit agencies: the Jackson Hole Community Housing Trust and Habitat for Humanity of the Greater Teton Area. Since the Housing Trust built its first units in 1992, the three organizations have built more than 750 subsidized housing units, representing approximately 6 percent of the county’s housing stock.

TOTAL HOUSING UNITS: OCCUPIED AND VACANT

From 1940 to 2010 15,000

12,000

26

9,000

36 7 4

6,000

3,000

4

4

11 1940 1950 Occupied Source: US CENSUS BUREAU

2010 - 12,813 2 11

1960

1970 Vacant

1980

1990

2000

2010

MEAN SALE PRICES OF HOMES

24

From 1992 to 2010 2,000,000

37

1,500,000

7 4

1,000,000

6

4

11

Alta

South Park

Hoback

Teton Village

Jackson

Wilson

Moose Wilson Rd.

Other

Rafter J Ranch Source: US CENSUS BUREAU

34 Jackson Hole Compass

500,000

1992 ’94 ’96 Single family homes Source: TETON COUNTY MLS

’98

2000 ’02 Condominiums

’04

’06

’08 2010 Undeveloped land


NEWS&GUIDE PHOTO / PRICE CHAMBERS

Construction crews work to finish the Glory View home development in Melody Ranch.

ANNUAL BUILDING PERMITS ISSUED BY TOWN AND COUNTY From 1998 to 2010 700

OCCUPIED HOUSING, BY AREA 2010 Alta

600

Hoback 500

Jackson

Moose Wilson Rd. 400

Rafter J Ranch 300

South Park

Teton Village

200

Wilson 100

Other

Total 1998 2000 ’02 ’04 ’06 Residential - New Residential - Add./Remodel Source: TETON COUNTY, TOWN OF JACKSON, JACKSON HOLE ALMANAC

’08

2010 Commercial

20 40 60 Source: US CENSUS BUREAU

80

100

Jackson Hole Compass 35


In the footsteps of conservation By Cara Rank Teton County’s land use planning did not begin with the first comprehensive plan in the 1970s. It started in the 1920s, when John D. Rockefeller Jr. purchased 35,000 acres on the valley floor that he later gave to the government for what’s now Grand Teton National Park. Bill Collins, who served as the county’s planning director from 1993 to 2004, called him “The best land use planner in Teton County.” Those 35,000 acres, along with about 2.4 million more federally or state owned lands, comprise 97 percent of the county. Only about 3 percent, or 75,000 acres, remained private ownership and much of that was stewarded by ranchers whose lifestyle required hard work in wide open country. Given that 20,000 of those acres are held in conservation easement, just 2.2 percent of the county can be built on. “I’d say it’s largely a Godsend,” Collins

said of the park. “It’s created very clear boundaries for development.” While the boundaries may keep out the blight of sprawling subdivisions, they also create challenges such as affordable housing, wildlife protection and transportation — all focused in a small area, he said. The international draw of the Tetons and surrounding wild land is a development catalyst. Second- or part-time homeowners who want a piece of the valley and drive housing prices beyond the reach of local workers are another factor in the equation. “If the people here trying to buy housing were people who earned their incomes here, then the price of housing would reflect the incomes in this community,” Collins said. It just so happens that the lands available for development are situated in the southern part of the valley, historically wildlife winter range. “Which is why we have wildlife issues despite being 97 percent open space,” Collins said. That’s where town and county regulations come into play. While many criticize them, they help manage the issues de-

velopment creates, Collins said. Some of the most successful projects, in terms of community values, predate land regulations, like Rockefeller’s purchase of 35,000 acres. “In Skyline Ranch, the houses and lots are nearly impossible to see from the highway, and the land adjacent to the highway is open space,,” Collins said, pointing to one example. Another is iron Rock condos, across Hwy. 22 from Puzzleface Ranch, which offer multi-family, ownership housing in a way that preserved the scenery. “Most people drive by and never even see them,” he said.

For more information, go to jhcompass.com

&

D AV I D V I E H M A N DEVON VIEHMAN-WHEELDON D ATA D R I V E N M A R K E T K N O W L E D G E

with

TETON SCIENCE SCHOOLS

DAVID VIEHMAN DEVON VIEHMAN-WHEELDON

The Hole Report is the most accurate and trusted real estate news source in Teton County. We know the market better than anyone. www.jacksonholereport.com

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(307) 733-1313 Contact David Viehman or Devon Viehman-Wheeldon (307) 734-9941 • (307) 690-4004 - Cell davidviehman@jhreassociates.com www.jacksonholereport.com www.jacksonholeresorproperties.com

36 Jackson Hole Compass

www.tetonscience.org People · Nature · Place · Education


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Residents are highly educated Education in Teton County goes beyond the local public school system and includes individuals and organizations offering instruction to residents and visitors of all ages, in skills ranging from accounting to zen. A key factor in the county’s approach to education is that its residents are highly educated. In 2000, 46 percent of the county’s adults had a four-year college degree or higher, ranking it 26th among the nation’s 3,100 counties. Today, that figure is at least 50 percent, keeping Teton County among the top 1 percent of all the nation’s counties in education levels. With high education comes increasing expectations for both the amount and quality of educational opportunities available, whether offered in person or via electronic means.

BACHELOR’S DEGREE

Education

Co-existing with these high-and-rising expectations are the realities that public schools have little control over their revenues, and the county’s cost of living is markedly higher than elsewhere in the state. The funding of Wyoming’s public schools is controlled by the Legislature. Wyoming’s funding formulae of the past decade have not kept pace with the cost of living, especially housing prices. As a result, it has been difficult for the Teton County School District to attract and, especially, retain teachers. This, in turn, has meant that Teton county teachers are, on average, less experienced than those in Wyoming as a whole.

Teton County’s public schools have seen steady enrollment increases over the past several years. When combined with the students enrolled at the Jorneys and Community schools, local school enrollment is at an all-time high.

Higher education opportunities will increase as on-line learning and video conferencing improve. The popularity of Jackson Hole’s many recreational opportunities will likely produce growing numbers of skill-related course offerings, and the increasing size, wealth, and sophistication of Teton County’s population will mean a greater supply of, and demand for, educational opportunities of all sorts.

In response to these and other changes, including technological advances, a variety of alternative educational options are continually arising, including two new private schools for elementary and high school students. The Journeys School of the Teton Science Schools and the Jackson Hole Community School enrolled their first students in the 2000s (2001 and 2005 respectively).

For more information, go to jhcompass.com

TETON COUNTY SCHOOL DISTRICT ENROLLMENT BY LEVEL

Percentage of adults 25 and older with bachelor’s degree or better 1980

From 1991 to 2010 2,500

Teton, Wyo. Lincoln, Wyo. 2,000

Sublette, Wyo. Teton, Idaho Idaho

1,500 Wyoming United States

2010 Teton, Wyo.

1,000

Lincoln, Wyo. Sublette, Wyo. 500

Teton, Idaho Idaho Wyoming United States 10 20 Source: US CENSUS BUREAU

30

40

50

1991 ‘93 ‘95 ‘97 Elementary Source: TETON COUNTY SCHOOL DISTRICT

‘99 Middle School

2001

‘03

‘05

‘07 High School

‘09

Jackson Hole Compass 39


Principal likes district’s size By Sarah Reese Sometimes strength isn’t found in numbers. The relatively small size of the Teton County School District allows for a more personalized educational experience for students and their families, Jackson Hole High School Principal Scott Crisp said. Unlike in larger districts, educators in Teton County’s public school system truly have a kindergarten through 12th grade perspective, he said. “At the end of the day, you have a deeper connection with parents, with kids,” Crisp said. “And they remember that.” Relationships grow when younger children have the same teachers as their older siblings, and adults who want to be involved in the schools have opportunities. “Community members here take a deep interest in education, and they’re able to because I feel our system is very transparent and open to the public,” Crisp said. Enrollment numbers show about 2,400 students are in grades kindergarten through 12 this school year. About 1,250 of those students attend Jackson Hole Middle School, Jackson Hole High School and Summit High School, Crisp said.

NEWS&GUIDE PHOTO / PRICE CHAMBERS

Jackson Hole High School's class of 2010 toss their caps after commencement ceremonies at the school's gymnasium.

HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATION RATES

From 1994 to 2008, year school starts 100

80

60

40

20

1994 ‘96 ‘98 Teton County Source: TETON COUNTY SCHOOL DISTRICT

‘04

‘06

2008

TOTAL SCHOOL ENROLLMENT 3,000 2,500

Relationships grow outside of the schools, too. Educators and families might cross paths at the library or store.

1,500

40 Jackson Hole Compass

‘02

From 1991 to 2010, year school starts

“You could know every single kid on that list and know every single name,” Crisp said. “You just can’t do that in a larger district.”

“As a principal, you’re a public servant but you’re also a community member who does things with your family just like anyone else,” he said. “The reason I’m here is because of my profession as an educator.”

2000 Wyoming

2,000

1,000 500

1991 ‘94 Teton County School District

‘98 Journeys School

2002

‘06 2010 Jackson Hole Community School

Source: TETON COUNTY SCHOOL DISTRICT, JOURNEYS SCHOOL, JACKSON HOLE COMMUNITY SCHOOL


TETON LITERACY CENTER PROGRAM PARTICIPANTS

PAWS TESTING

From 2005 to 2010

From 2005 to 2009, year school starts, percentage proficient or better MATH TETON COUNTY

5TH GRADE READING

800

WRITING

2005

72

76

42

2006

82

80

55

2007

72

70

38

2008

74

67

40

2009

79

77

83

2005

66

66

38

2006

77

75

54

2007

70

65

37

2008

72

62

57

2009

71

63

79

700

600

WYOMING

500

400

11TH GRADE MATH TETON COUNTY

READING

SCIENCE

WRITING

300

2005

79

77

2006

81

84

2007

75

70

52

83

2008

71

72

57

80

2009

72

73

46

89

2005

58

62

58

2006

64

74

73

2007

64

65

40

73

2008

62

65

45

77

84 90

WYOMING

2009

63

65

45

Source: TETON COUNTY SCHOOL DISTRICT

82

200

100

2005

‘06

Youth

‘07

‘08

‘09

2010

Adults

Source: TETON LITERACY CENTER

When you need to talk, we’re here to listen.

Jackson’s #1 Women’s Service Organization

Pregnancy Tests Material Assistance Professional & Peer Counseling Abstinence Education Community Referrals Adoption Referrals Post-abortion Support Other Pregnancy Loss Support

Soroptimist International “The Best for Women” • • • •

Help organize fundraising events Network with other women in business Meet new friends Volunteer your time helping women & children in Jackson Hole!

Yearly Fundraising Events: 26th Annual Christmas Tree Festival

www.turningpointjh.org info@turningpointjh.org 140 E. Broadway 307-733-5162

Sunday December 4, 2011 Live Christmas Tree Auction and Champagne Brunch, with proceeds benefiting women and children in Jackson Hole and beyond.

6th Annual Bras for a Cause Saturday, May 12th, 2012 A Benefit for Breast Cancer Research & Awareness

Contact Maureen Murphy for more info 541-908-5314 or find us on Jackson Hole Compass 41


KIDS’ AND TEENS’ USE OF REFERENCE AND ADVISORY SERVICES

TETON COUNTY LIBRARY USE OF SERVICES

From 2005 to 2010 500,000

From 2005 to 2010, Teton County Library In thousands

2005

400,000

‘06 300,000

‘07

200,000 ‘08

100,000

‘09

2010 2005 1 2 3 4 Source: TETON COUNTY LIBRARY

5

6

7

8

‘07 Item check outs

‘08

‘09

2010

Wireless and public computer sessions

Source: TETON COUNTY LIBRARY

RECOGNIZED FOR

UNPARALLELED SERVICE

307.732.0303 www.dianenodell.com diane@dianenodell.com P.O.Box 7769 240 East Deloney Avenue Jackson, Wyoming Licensed in Wyoming, Idaho and Montana

42 Jackson Hole Compass

‘06

Library attendance

My life is getting better every day thanks to CLIMB. - Hannah, 2010 CLIMB Graduate Since 2005, the Teton Area CLIMB Wyoming program has been committed to training and placing low-income single mothers in higher paying careers that successfully support their families. Through comprehensive training, support and local business partnerships, CLIMB provides motivated employees ready to succeed in careers that reflect the needs of the Teton Area and demonstrates successful outcomes to help break the cycle of poverty for future generations. n More than 100 mothers served, impacting the lives of hundreds of children n Two years after completing the CLIMB program, nearly 80% of participants are gainfully employed n Two years after completing the CLIMB program, participants monthly wages increased by 150%

To see how you or your business can get involved with CLIMB Wyoming, call 733-4088 or email teton@climbwyoming.org

www.CLIMBWYOMING.org


Voters hold key to taxation

Government

Wyoming law requires that any governmental entity with the power to levy taxes must be governed by a board elected by the voters. Teton County has four county-wide entities: the Teton County government; the Teton County School District; the Teton County Hospital Board (St. John’s Medical Center), and the Teton Conservation District. In addition, the Town of Jackson is the only incorporated municipality within the county. Besides the Board of County Commissioners, the Teton County government also has several other officials elected by the voters: Assessor, Circuit Court Judge, Clerk, Clerk of District Court, Coroner, County and Prosecuting Attorney, District Court Judge, Sheriff, and Treasurer. All county offices are partisan; the Jackson Town Council and all other countywide boards are non-partisan offices. Although Teton County does not consider itself to be a terribly partisan community — local voters pride themselves on voting for the person rather than the party — voter registration numbers have longfavored Teton County’s Republicans, with more than 60 percent of voters registering Republican well into the 1980s. By 1990, that figure dipped below 60 percent for the first time, and has stayed in the 50-60 percent range for the last 20 years. Today, the figure is at an even 50 percent, which represented an uptick from a 2010 nadir of 42 percent. Until 1988, no Republican presidential candidate had ever lost Teton County; since 1992, only George W. Bush, teamed with resident Dick Cheney, has won the county for the Republicans (and then only in 2000). As the Republican hold on Teton County has waned, independent voters have filled the void. Only since the 2008 election have Teton County’s Democrats been able to claim 30 percent of voters on their rolls. Wyoming has no state income tax so more than 50 percent of local government revenues come from sales taxes. These have dropped sharply since peaking in September 2008, as have property values, which has harmed property tax revenue as well. The resulting revenue shortfalls have put tremendous pressure on the three entities most reliant on sales and property taxes for their revenues: the Town of Jackson, Teton County, and the Teton Conservation District.

VOTER REGISTRATION

Teton County, Wyo., from 1980-2010 By party, numbers taken in March unless otherwise noted 100

80

60

40

20

1980 Aug. 1990 Republican

‘98 Aug. 2000 Aug. Democrat

‘02 Feb.

‘04 May Other

‘06 Nov.

‘08

2010

Source: TETON COUNTY CLERK

VOTER TURNOUT

Teton County, Wyo., from 1960-2008 Votes cast by party for President 100

80

60

40

20

1960

‘64

‘68

Republican

1972

‘76

1980

‘84

Democrat

‘88

1992

‘96

2000

‘04

‘08

Other

Source: TETON COUNTY CLERK

VOTER REGISTRATION VS. VOTER TURNOUT

Teton County, Wyo., from 2000 to 2008 15,000 12,000 9,000 6,000 3,000

2000 Registered Source: TETON COUNTY CLERK

‘04

‘08

Turnout

Jackson Hole Compass 43


NEWS&GUIDE PHOTO / PRICE CHAMBERS

Wyatt Roscoe’s construction on Highway 89 stacks campaign signs that combine to form a not-so-subtle reminder on primary day, 2010. Wyatt Roscoe’s father Jim Roscoe was an uncontested democrat running for the office of state representative.

VOTER REGISTRATION BY LOCATION

March 2011, numbers in percentages Total (9,953)

Town of Jackson (3,559)

19

South of Town (2,258) 17

23

43

50

56

27 31 34

17

18

North of Town (1,152) Republican Democrat Other

Source: TETON COUNTY CLERK

44 Jackson Hole Compass

51 25

57 33

West of Town (2,984)


Philanthropy

In a county of plenty, much is given away

Teton County’s exceptional wealth is matched by exceptional giving, both to charitable causes and political campaigns. Although no comprehensive comparative data have been compiled for more than a decade, during the 1990s Teton County ranked among the nation’s leaders in per capita philanthropic and political giving, and there is no reason to think these patterns have changed. The Community Foundation of Jackson Hole compiles an annual directory listing every nonprofit in the area that chooses to be identified. The 2011 book listed 169 nonprofits, a marked increase over the 151 in the 2010 edition. Teton County’s first nonprofit was formed in 1902. By 1982, there were 42 in business that still exist today. During the next 10 years, that number increased by 21; during the following 10 years (between 1992 and 2001), it increased by 48. The past 10 years have seen almost the same amount of growth. While some would argue that there are simply too many nonprofits in Jackson Hole, basic economics would instead suggest there are about the right number, for every organization’s continued existence is testimony to its being able to find a market for its services. Roughly two-thirds of the organizations listed in the nonprofit directory reported their annual budgets. Combined, these organizations had expenditures of $175 million in 2010, a mean of around $1.6 million, but a median of only $168,000. This disparity is because roughly one third of the reporting nonprofits had budgets of less than $100,000. Aggregated, more than 90 percent of local nonprofits’ expenditures go to programs; in every sub-category, at least 70 percent of expenditures do. This suggests that, as a whole, local nonprofits are reasonably efficient with their expenditures; those that aren’t are likely weeded out through market forces. The Community Foundation of Jackson Hole is the community’s largest and most visible philanthropic organization, and its annual Old Bill’s Fun Run for Charities is its largest event. Each year, local nonprofits are encouraged to raise funds through Old Bill’s, knowing that some percentage of the first $25,000 they raise will be matched by gifts raised from civic-minded donors. In the past few years, the annual giving through Old Bill’s has been around $5 million, and the match around $2 million. Numbers declined in 2008, after Teton, Idaho, started a similar chapter.

NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS

From 1902 to 2010 200

150

100

50

1902 Source: CFJH

1912

1922

1932

1942

1952

1962

1972

1982

1992

2002

ASSETS, GRANTS AND GIFTS

From 1995 to 2009 100,000,000

80,000,000

60,000,000

40,000,000

20,000,000

Assets Source: CFJH

1995

‘97

‘99 Grants

2001

‘03 Gifts (general)

‘05

‘07 ‘09 Gifts (Old Bill’s)

OLD BILL’S FUN RUN DONATIONS

From 1997 to 2010

8,000,000 7,000,000 6,000,000 5,000,000 4,000,000 3,000,000 2,000,000 1,000,000

1997 Donations Source: CFJH

‘99

2001 Matching funds

‘03

‘05

‘06

‘07

Jackson Hole Compass 45


Charity part of community character By Jennifer Dorsey Charitable giving isn’t just something Jackson Hole does, it’s part of what Jackson Hole is, says Clare Payne Symmons, a valley resident who has made a career of community philanthropy and nonprofit management. “Philanthropy is one of our defining features in this community,” she said. “There’s a vibrant sense of participation in charitable giving. It’s become part of our lives.” Mother Nature contributed many of Jackson Hole’s quintessential characteristics — the Tetons, the Snake River, the snow — but local largesse has shaped the community as well. The Grand Teton Music Festival, the Red Top Meadows therapeutic center for boys, and the Curran-Seeley Foundation for substanceabuse treatment wouldn’t be here were it not for charitable donations, she notes. Battered women, endangered wildlife, homeless cats and dogs, Mexican immigrants trying to learn

NON-PROFIT BY FOCUS AND LOCATION

English, and people with no money for medical care have all benefited from philanthropy here, as well. Jackson Hole generosity also built the Center for the Arts, which hosts everything from world-class ballet and music performances to community band rehearsals and kids’ clay-building classes. “It was individual giving that made this building happen,” Symmons said. You can find people who donate money to nonprofits in any locale, she says, but not on a scale where it becomes a facet of the community’s essence. “Philanthropy happens all over, but it’s not a defining characteristic,” Symmons said. “There’s a sense of belonging here that you don’t find in big cities.”

by donations from an anonymous couple known as “Mr. and Mrs. Old Bill,” the event has raised $75 million for area nonprofits over the past 14 years by encouraging people of all ages and all means to donate and secure pledges for their favorites among the 200 participating nonprofits.

She traces the tradition of generosity to the days before cars and airplanes, when Jackson Hole was a remote Western community where people believed in taking care of their neighbors — and did.

Symmons has seen kids empty their piggybanks for the event, and she once heard a 3-year-old ask, “Mommy, when is Old Bill’s?” That’s a good indication philanthropy always will be an essential Jackson Hole quality.

The Old Bill’s Fun Run for Charities, which she implemented in 1997, built on that spirit and gave it a tangible form. Seeded

“The children who grow up here have an expectation that that is an integral part of our lives,” she said.

EXPENDITURES BY FOCUS

2011, numbers in percentages

2011, 169 total non-profits, numbers in percentages Focus 7

Animals $636,000 7

6

16

30

Arts & Culture $10,300,000

Civic $7,200,000

13

13

2

15 14

71

87 20

15

Animals Conservation & Environment Arts & Culture

Location

85

Civic Education

Conservation & Environment $9,200,000

Health & Human Services

4 4

Education $9,200,00

Health & Human Services $139,000,000 6

6

10 14

10

81

79

94

93 Teton, Wyo.

Teton, Idaho

Source: CFJH

46 Jackson Hole Compass

Elsewhere

Administration Source: CFJH

Program

Fundraising


by price, size & location

about the neighborhoods

to agents in the area

A N E W V I E W O N R E A L E S TAT E IN JACKSON HOLE


Recreation Fun is a valley cornerstone

“rec·re·a·tion” – [rek-ree-ey-shuhn] – noun 1. refreshment by means of some pastime, agreeable exercise, or the like. 2. a pastime, diversion, exercise, or other resource affording relaxation and enjoyment. How many kinds of shoes do you need to play every game or participate in every sport people in Jackson Hole like to enjoy? It must be at least two dozen. Which shows that when it comes to recreational opportunities, Teton County suffers an embarrassment of riches. Save for sports requiring an ocean or desert, there are few recreational activities that can’t be done — and aren’t being done — in the Tetons region, usually at a world-class level. The centerpiece of recreation in Teton County is Grand Teton and Yellowstone national parks. Since the NPS changed its counting methodology in 1993, visitation in both parks was relatively stagnant until just a couple of years ago. Since 2008, though, both Grand Teton and Yellowstone have seen distinct increases in visitation (whether the increases are due to the recession has not been proven). Winter recreation in Teton County focuses on the Jackson Hole Mountain Resort, which, since its founding in the winter of 1965-66, has enjoyed a steady growth in total skier days (a compounded annual growth rate of 7 percent), In the Town of Jackson and the county’s other population centers, the Teton County/ Jackson Park and Recreation Department attracts tens of thousands of participants to the dozens of programs it runs in a variety of facilities, both indoors and outdoors. Reflecting the general stagnation of national park visitation, Grand Teton’s overnight visits — both in hotels and campgrounds — have not changed much over the past decade, a reality which may be due to the park being near capacity in both. Similarly, parkbased recreational activities — both summer and winter — have also shown little change for the past decade. The one clear exception to this rule is concessionaire-run snowmobile activity in Grand Teton, which has declined due to park policy rather than changes in demand.

For more information, go to jhcompass.com 48 Jackson Hole Compass

NEWS&GUIDE PHOTO / BRADLY J. BONER

Road cyclists on Highway 89, Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming.

GRAND TETON AND YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK VISITS Teton County, WY from 1993 to 2010 *Annual total recreational visits in millions 4

3

2

1

1994 ‘96 ‘98 2000 ‘02 ‘04 Grand Teton National Park Yellowstone National Park Source: GRAND TETON NATIONAL PARK AND YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK

‘06

‘08

2010

JACKSON HOLE MOUNTAIN RESORT SKIER DAYS From 1966 to 2011 *year indicates season’s end 500,000

400,000

300,000

200,000

100,000

1966 1970 ‘74 ‘78 1982 Source: JACKSON HOLE MOUNTAIN RESORT

‘86

1990

‘94

‘98

2002

‘06

2010


NEWS&GUIDE PHOTO / BRADLY J. BONER

Chris Benchetler drops into Corbet’s Couloir at Jackson Hole Mountain Resort in 2011 on a day when 29 inches of snow fell in the Rendezvous Study Plot, the most ever recorded during a 24-hour period in the resort’s history.

SNOWMOBILE TRIPS

PARKS AND RECREATION DEPARTMENT PARTICIPATION From 2004 to 2010

From 2000 to 2010 In thousands, Grand Teton National Park

80,000

2000 70,000 ’01 60,000

’02

’03

50,000

’04 40,000 ’05 30,000

’06

’07 20,000 ’08 10,000 ’09

2004

’05

Rec Center Attendance

’06

’07

Program Participants

Source: TETON COUNTY, JACKSON PARKS & RECREATION DEPARTMENT

’08

’09

2010

Organized field use - hours reserved

2010 1

2

3

4

5

Source: GRAND TETON NATIONAL PARK

Jackson Hole Compass 49


GUIDED SCENIC FLOAT TRIPS

Pioneer Ewing saw more and more float the Snake River

From 2000 to 2010 In thousands, Grand Teton National Park 2000

’01

By Brandon Zimmerman

’02

When Frank Ewing arrived in the valley in the mid 1950s there was some debate whether people would want to float the Snake River simply to take in its scenic views. Grand Teton National Park superintendent Frank Oberhansley was one of the first to support the idea. With his endorsement, Grand Teton Lodge Company experimented by offering float trips in giant, militarysurplus rafts. In those days, the number of tourists floating the Snake each summer was “probably measured in the hundreds,” Ewing said. Sixty years later, that number is in the tens of thousands. Scenic float trips are one of the driving forces in Jackson’s summer economy, along with whitewater rafting, fly fishing and myriad other outdoor activities. Of the millions of tourists who come through Teton County each summer, many enjoy a guided float trip down the Snake River that twists through Grand

’03

Teton National Park. Ewing watched it all evolve. He teamed with Dick Barker in the early 1960s to form Barker-Ewing Float Trips. The company still takes thousands down the Snake every summer.

’04

“Tourism is the economic basis of the valley,” Ewing said. “We’ve certainly become accustomed to the [large] number of summer visitors.”

’06

Today more than two dozen companies guide fishermen or take tourists on scenic and whitewater trips on the Snake River from Grand Teton National Park, past private property at the southern end and into the Bridger-Teton National Forest’s rapid-laced Snake River Canyon. “I was lucky to be here on the river when it was not as busy a place,” Ewing said.

’05

’07

’08

’09

2010 20

40

60

80

100

Source: GRAND TETON NATIONAL PARK

Jackson Pediatrics PC Caring for tomorrow’s leaders today.

Please call our office for a free pre-natal appointment to meet our friendly staff.

WHAT COULD W H AT CO U L D I SAY

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TO K E E P YO U SAFE?

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50 Jackson Hole Compass

James R. Little, MD, FAAP Elizabeth W Ridgway, MD, FAAP Keri Wheeler, MD, FAAP Travis J. Riddell, MD, MPH, FAAP

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JACKSON RANGER DISTRICT USAGE BY ACTIVITY 2010

AUTHORIZED

ACTUAL

BACKCOUNTRY OVERNIGHT STAYS From 2000 to 2010, Grand Teton National Park 35,000 30,000

Backpacking

383

259

Biking

360

59

2,799

1,103

20,000 15,000

Boating Camping Dog sledding

250

169

1,400

1,148

480

329

46,197

3,423

Environmental education Fishing

25,000

10,000 5,000

7,144

5,595

17,476

11,775

Hunting

6,323

2,611

Jeep tours

1,500

35

Packing with horses

2,300

654

250

201

300,000 250,000

Hiking Horse/trail rides

Picnicking Rafting

310,635

83,078

Skiing

2,068

1,863

Snowmobiling

4,700

3,033

Snowshoeing

300

128

Survival skills

400

400

Touring

700

596

24,000

20,244

Wagon ride

2000 ’01 ’02 Source: GRAND TETON NATIONAL PARK

’03

’04

’05

’06

’07

’08

’09

2010

’05

’06

’07

’08

’09

2010

OVERNIGHT CAMPING STAYS

From 2000 to 2010, Grand Teton National Park

400,000 350,000

200,000 150,000 100,000 50,000 2000 ’01 ’02 Source: GRAND TETON NATIONAL PARK

Source: BRIDGER-TETON NATIONAL FOREST

’03

’04

Jackson Hole

A Gold Bicycle-Friendly Community. One of only 10 designations nationally! Over

Over

100 1000 50 miles miles miles Over

of shared use pathway in Jackson Hole

of close-to-home single track on Teton Pass, Greater Snow King & Teton Village area trails

of public lands trails in the greater Jackson region

Bicycling, Walking and Trails Key solutions to connect people with nature, shift to smarter transportation, improve public health, and protect the environment.

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family health

Primary Care for Adults and Children Accepting New Patients - Acute, chronic and preventive health care - Routine checkups - Immunization and screening tests - Chronic disease management - Sport physicals - Coordination of care with specialists - Walk-in appointments available

Jim Little, Jr., MD, Board Certified in Family Medicine April North, MD, Board Certified in Family Medicine Doug Thomas, PA-C Hours: Mon-Fri: 9am-7pm; Sat, Sun: 10am-4pm

307 739 8999

St John’s

Family Health & Urgent Care

Smith’s Food Store Plaza

tetonhospital.org/urgentcare

Highway 89 and High School Road

Now accepting new patients Same day appointments available

tetonhospital.org/internal

Certified Nurse Practitioner

52 Jackson Hole Compass


Social Services

Social services change with population

As Teton County’s population has grown and become more diverse, so has its need for an increasing number and diversity of social services. The original social services “agencies” in Jackson Hole were its churches, starting with St. John’s Episcopal Church in 1908, and followed by the First Baptist Church in 1911. St. John’s provided the community with its first hospital, the precursor to what is now St. John’s Medical Center; the Teton County Public Health office was started in 1943. There things sat until the founding of the Jackson Hole Ski Area began to change the community’s character. The Good Samaritan Mission opened in 1968; the 1970s saw the establishment of organizations ranging from the Community Counseling Center to the Children’s Learning Center. Today, the Community Foundation nonprofit directory lists 50 organizations that place themselves in the health and human services category, including several which have arisen in the past decade to serve the needs of Jackson Hole’s growing numbers of Latino residents, as well as those who are struggling financially.

NEWS&GUIDE PHOTO / BRADLY J. BONER

Dr. Peter Rork examines X-rays before a surgery, his fifth in less than three hours, recently at Teton Orthopedics.

CREDINTIALED DOCTORS AT ST. JOHN’S MEDICAL CENTER

From 2001 to 2010 100

80

St. John’s Medical Center is the center for the community’s health care system. Employing more than 400 full-time equivalents and with annual revenue of more than $100 million, St. John’s is the county’s largest year-round employer. With more than 100 medical professionals, St. John’s treats thousands of patients every year from Teton County and neighboring areas.

60

The economic downturn has placed a tremendous squeeze on local social services agencies: In the face of declining revenues, demand for their services has grown. As a result, agencies have been put in the difficult position of not just trying to do more with less, but in some cases having to turn away new clients or restrict services to existing ones.

Source: SJMC

The available data suggest the result has been a gradual decline in the number of clients being served over the past few years, roughly proportional to the agencies’ decline in revenue.

For more information, go to jhcompass.com

40

20

2001

‘02 Doctors

‘03

‘04

‘05

‘06 ‘07 Alternative care providers

‘08

‘09

2010

OUTPATIENT PROCEDURES AT ST. JOHN’S MEDICAL CENTER

From 2003 to 2010 60,000 50,000 40,000 30,000 20,000 10,000

2003 Source: SJMC

‘04

‘05

‘06

‘07

‘08

‘09

2010

Jackson Hole Compass 53


CLIENTS SERVED

From 2007 to 2010 From social service agencies receiving money from local government In thousands

ST. JOHN’S MEDICAL CENTER REVENUE, EXPENSES

From 2002 to 2010 In millions 120

100 2007 80

60 ‘08 40

20 ‘09

-20 2010

2002

‘03 Total revenue

‘04

‘05 ‘06 Total expenses

‘07

‘08 Net income

‘09

2010

Source: SJMC 2 4 6 Source: TETON COUNTY GOVERNMENT

8

10

SOCIAL SERVICE AGENCIES

From 1908 to 2008

SOCIAL SERVICE AGENCY BUDGETS

50

From 2008 to 2010 In millions

40

30 2008 20

10

1908 Source: CFJH

‘09

1928

1948

1968

1988

2008

SOCIAL SERVICE AGENCIES

From 2008 to 2010 In millions 20

15 2010 10

5 5

10

15

20

Total revenue Total expenses Net revenues Source: TETON COUNTY GOVERNMENT

54 Jackson Hole Compass

2008 Total revenue Source: TETON COUNTY GOVERNMENT

’09 Total expenses

2010 Net revenues


A drain on social services

munity needs are met.

By Kelsey Dayton

“In this community, we get together and say here’s a plan we are all going to put together for this family and then we all move forward together,” Rae said.

Smokey Rhea, director of the Community Resource Center, considered the hub of the social service network in Jackson, remembers during busy times how one business decided who to hire.

She remembers in the 1980s when times were tough, but there were still jobs. A growing number of people came to Jackson for seasonal work and living costs began to skyrocket.

Put a mirror under a candidate’s nose, and if it fogged up, the candidate was hired. At a time when businesses couldn’t find enough help, any warm body would do.

People offered money to get ahead on housing lists. Three families crammed into a two-bedroom apartment.

Rhea, who came to the valley in 1982, says things have changed. Back then, those in need were the country’s usual assortment of the down-and-out, plus others who had simply run into bad luck.

She felt the initial tremors and suddenly there were lines of people waiting to collect food from the food cupboard or get help paying their mortgages. First it was the seasonal employees who didn’t have savings accounts.

Now there are more people looking for work than there are jobs.

Now it is the middle class, long-term community members who never used government programs, who line up outside the Community Resource Center. Residents in their 50s who had held jobs since they were 15, found themselves without work and also without health insurance.

During the toughest of times, the social services network in Teton County remains well connected. Each organization works to ensure services aren’t duplicated and com-

Even as more people needed help, social services have seen funding cuts, especially in programs for things like substance abuse.

“But nothing compares to what we are going through now,” she said. The economic downturn that started in 2008 rocked social services.

“Preventative programs are key,” Rhea said. Without them, “we’re going to pay for it on the other end.” The need seems to come in waves. Currently the Community Resource Center is working to help people with utility bills. Those who never made a late payment now are finding themselves about to be disconnected. “Our biggest concern today is how we are going to keep people’s power on,” Rhea said. The Community Resource Center has helped 10 times more people with utilities than they did a year ago and Rhea worries it could get worse. “We know its just the tip of the iceberg,” she said.

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Other Locations in Afton, Thayne, Pinedale & Rock Springs Jackson Hole Compass 55


Transportation Number swings a challenge for transportation

As with its water, sewage, hospital, and other infrastructure systems, Teton County’s annual summer visitor surge means the county needs transportation systems that can accommodate four or more times its year-round population. The Wyoming Department of Transportation has six automated traffic counters in Teton County, and Grand Teton National Park has another three. The busiest road in the county, and one of the busiest in the state, is Highway 22 west of Jackson heading toward Wilson and Teton Village. For each of the past 10 years, an average of at least 15,000 vehicles per day traveled this road, with peak traffic counts several times higher. In 2010, Wyoming Highway 22 over Teton Pass had a higher average daily traffic count than did U.S. Highway 26/89/189/191 north of Hoback Junction. Six years ago, the reverse was true. Taffic counts in Teton County have stayed relatively flat for the past decade. Not so START bus ridership, which nearly tripled between 2000 and 2010. The vast majority of this increase has come from local ridership: in 2000, three quarters of those riding START were tourists; today two thirds of START’s riders — accounting for more than 500,000 rides per year — are people living within START’s three-county territory of Teton County, Lincoln County, and Teton County, Idaho. Although traffic has not increased sharply, the number of collisions between vehicles and wildlife has. One of the primary catalysts in the transformation of Jackson Hole from a remote seasonal tourism town to its current prominence was the introduction of regular year-round air service. Every year, nearly 300,000 people board commercial flights at the Jackson Hole Airport — the only commercial airport within a national park — making it the busiest commercial airport in Wyoming. Private plane activity has skyrocketed in recent years, driven by Jackson Hole’s wealth and the increasing popularity of on-demand private jet services. The most rapidly growing of all of Teton County’s transportation systems has been its pedestrian and bike pathways. At the beginning of 1996, Teton County had fewer than 5 miles of dedicated pathways. By the end of 2011, it will have 57 miles, an 11-fold increase and a compounded annual average growth rate of 17 percent. 56 Jackson Hole Compass

NEWS&GUIDE PHOTO / BRADLY J. BONER

START Bus officials have gone without the scenic “skins” on new buses after several complaints were received from riders who said their views were obstructed.

DAILY AUTO TRAFFIC

2010

20,000

15,000

10,000

5,000

US 26 Towogotee Pass Source: WYDoT

US 26 South of Moran

US 26 South of Jackson

WY 22 Teton Pass

WY 22 West of Jackson

ANNUAL TRAFFIC COUNTS

From 2001 to 2010 20,000

15,000

10,000

5,000

2001 ‘02 US 26 - Towogotee Pass Source: WYDoT

‘03

‘04 ‘05 US 26 - South of Jackson

‘06

‘07 ‘08 WY 22 - West of Jackson

‘09

2010


Transportation network at a crossroads By Cory Hatch About a century ago Jackson Hole remained one of the last transportation frontiers in the West. The routes into the valley were mostly trails. By the late 1880s, residents had cleared a wagon path over Teton Pass, one of the first roads into the valley. The transportation challenge “is probably one of the reasons we were settled last in the west,” said Tim Young, transportation guru and director of Friends of Pathways. Today, with Jackson Hole’s main routes clogging and residents increasingly wary of wider roads, transportation has reached another crossroads, Young said. “We’re challenged to provide smarter

START BUS RIDERS

transportation systems to handle increased transportation demands [and] to do it in a smarter way that continues to preserve our scenic and natural resources” he said. With upgrades planned for Highway 89 to Hoback Junction, Highway 22 to Wilson, and Highway 390 to Teton Village, community groups are looking to limit the carnage they cause to wildlife. One option is overpasses and underpasses for wildlife. Jackson Hole Airport, another part of the transportation picture, serves about 300,000 travelers — about 65 percent of Wyoming’s air traffic. A recent $30 million upgrade modernized the terminal building. A growing system of bicycle and pedestrian paths is another boon. Jackson is one of only 13 communities in the nation to win a “gold” award or better from the League of American Bicyclists. A path will soon be completed to connect Jackson with Grand Teton National Park.

Finally, the START Bus system recently expanded to serve Teton Valley, Idaho, and Star Valley, allowing commuters a less expensive and stressful way to travel. “The START system is a good system that has the capacity to be a great system,” Young said. Buses from Jackson to Grand Teton and Yellowstone National parks are under consideration and START could become part of a region-wide system.

GRAND TETON NATIONAL PARK ANNUAL TRAFFIC

From 2000 to 2010 In thousands Locals

From 1991 to 2010 In thousands 1,500

2000 ‘01 ‘02 ‘03 1,200

‘04 ‘05 ‘06 ‘07 ‘08

900

‘09 2010

Non-Locals 2000 ‘01

600

‘02 ‘03 ‘04 ‘05 300

‘06 ‘07 ‘08 ‘09 2010 100 Source: START

200

300

400

500

600

1991 ‘93 ‘95 JD Rockefeller Parkway Source: GRAND TETON NATIONAL PARK

‘97 ‘99 Moose

2001

‘03 ‘05 Gros Ventre Junction

‘07

‘09

Jackson Hole Compass 57


GENERAL AVIATION ACTIVITY

From 2000 to 2010 Jackson Hole Airport, Take-offs and landings In thousands

MILES OF PATHWAYS

From 1996 to 2011 60

2000

‘01

50

‘02

‘03

40

‘04

‘05

30

‘06

‘07

20

‘08

‘09

10

2010 5

10

15

20

25

30

Itinerant (to or from elsewhere) 1996

Local (to and from Jackson Hole) Source: FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION

‘98

2000

‘02

‘04

‘06

‘08

2010

Source: FRIENDS OF PATHWAYS

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Region

The Teton area spans ranges The Teton region is one community spanning two states and three counties. Jackson Hole is the economic center, with northern Lincoln County (Wyo.) and Teton County, Idaho, having evolved into bedroom communities. Until Sublette County’s recent natural gas boom, it, too, had been evolving into a bedroom community for Jackson Hole, a phenomenon which may resume as Sublette’s gas well drilling boom subsides. For much of the 20th century, the region’s counties experienced relatively slow growth, because their economies expanded slowly. Teton, Wyoming’s population took off in the 1960s in response to the opening of the Jackson Hole Ski Area. In contrast, Teton, Idaho’s population in 1990 was lower than it was 60 years earlier. It did not boom until it felt

the effect of Jackson Hole’s growth and rising home prices. That phenomenon boosted Lincoln’s growth as well. In contrast, the development of the Jonah Field and Pinedale Anticline in Sublette County drove rapid growth there during the 2000s. As a result of these population booms, both Teton, Idaho and Sublette were among the 12 fastest-growing counties in America during the 2000s. Over the last 40 years, both Teton, Wyoming, and Teton, Idaho, have aged slower and become better educated than the nation as a whole. The opposite is true of Lincoln and Sublette counties.

In 1980, no more than 2 percent of the residents of any county in the Teton region were Latinos, one-third of the national rate. Today, Latinos comprise at least 15 percent of the population in both Teton counties, around the national average. Sublette has around half the national average; Lincoln has one-quarter. Rapid population growth has spurred housing construction in the area. For Lin-

coln and Sublette counties, since 1970 the housing growth rate has been twice that of the nation. In Idaho, Teton’s has been four times greater; in Teton, Wyoming it’s been six times greater. Teton County, Idaho, is notable for ranking second in the nation in percentage growth in housing stock during the 2000s. Sublette County ranked 20th; Lincoln 208 and Teton Wyo. 331 among the nation’s 3,100-plus counties.

Despite this boom in supply, the demand for housing has been far greater, leading to sharp climbs in median housing costs. On a relative growth basis, the increase in Teton, Idaho’s median home value has been particularly robust, reflecting that community’s push to develop luxuryhome subdivisions. As was the case for the nation, both Teton counties saw a decline in their constantdollar median household income during the 2000s. In contrast, Sublette County and Wyoming saw big bumps, due to the high-wage jobs associated with hydrocarbon production.

COUNTY POPULATION

MEDIAN AGE

From 1930 to 2010

2010

25,000 Teton, Wyo.

20,000

Teton, Idaho

Sublette, Wyo. 15,000

Lincoln, Wyo. 10,000 Idaho

5,000 Wyoming

United States 1930 10

20

Source: US CENSUS BUREAU

30

40

50

1940

Teton, Wyo.

1950

1960 Lincoln, Wyo.

1970

1980

1990

Sublette, Wyo.

2000

2010 Teton, Idaho

Source: US CENSUS BUREAU

Jackson Hole Compass 59


BACHELOR’S DEGREE

Adults with bachelor’s degree or higher 1970 Teton, Wyo.

Teton, Idaho Sublette, Wyo. Lincoln, Wyo.

Idaho

Wyoming

United States

NEWS&GUIDE PHOTO / BRADLY J. BONER

The Teton Range, right, rising above Jackson Lake is one of many chains of mountains that divide the Teton region, which stretches into Idaho and influences counties in Wyoming near Jackson Hole.

1990 Teton, Wyo.

HOUSING STOCK

From 1970 to 2010 15,000

Teton, Idaho

12,000

Sublette, Wyo.

9,000 Lincoln, Wyo. 6,000 Idaho 3,000 Wyoming 1970

1980

Teton, Wyo. United States

1990 Lincoln, Wyo.

2000 Sublette, Wyo.

2010 Teton, Idaho

Source: US CENSUS BUREAU

PRIMARY HOUSING

2010

From 1970 to 2010 Primary occupancy homes as a percentage of total housing

Teton, Wyo.

100 Teton, Idaho 80 Sublette, Wyo. 60 Lincoln, Wyo. 40

Idaho

20

Wyoming

United States 1970 10 20 Source: US CENSUS BUREAU

30

60 Jackson Hole Compass

40

50

Teton, Wyo. Source: US CENSUS BUREAU

1980

1990 Lincoln, Wyo.

2000 Sublette, Wyo.

2010 Teton, Idaho


MEDIAN HOME VALUE

LATINOS

From 1970 to 2010, constant dollars

Latinos as a percentage of all residents 1980

350,000 300,000

Teton, Wyo. 250,000 200,000 Teton, Idaho

150,000 100,000 50,000

Sublette, Wyo.

1970

1980

Teton, Wyo.

Lincoln, Wyo.

1990 Lincoln, Wyo.

2000 Sublette, Wyo.

2010 Teton, Idaho

Source: US CENSUS BUREAU

MEDIAN HOUSEHOLD INCOME

2010

From 1970 to 2010, constant dollars 35,000

Teton, Wyo.

30,000 25,000

Teton, Idaho

20,000 15,000 Sublette, Wyo.

10,000 5,000

Lincoln, Wyo.

1970

5 10 Source: US CENSUS BUREAU

15

Wireless Phones Mobile Broadband Communications Business Solutions

20

Teton, Wyo.

1980

1990 Lincoln, Wyo.

2000 Sublette, Wyo.

2010 Teton, Idaho

Source: US CENSUS BUREAU

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your donations to the Teton County Library Foundation make library programs & enhancements possible. Jackson Hole Compass 61


Peer Comparison As a resort and ski area, valley remains unique

Jackson Hole is not a “ski town” per se: summer is Jackson Hole’s most important tourism season. Yet Teton County has more in common with seven other Rocky Mountain skiing-oriented counties than with any county in Wyoming, or most other places in the United States. Five of these counties are in Colorado – Eagle (the location of the Vail ski resort); Pitkin (Aspen); Routt (Steamboat Springs); San Miguel (Telluride); and Summit (Breckenridge). One each is in Idaho and Utah: Blaine (Sun Valley) and Summit (Park City). Alpine skiing began to boom in the 1960s. Before then, none of the “Eight Peers” had more than 6,000 people. More worrisome for these communities was that, due to their stagnating agriculture and mining economies, many actually saw their population shrinking. After peaking in 1940, the Eight Peers’ collective population dropped by one fifth in 20 years. This while America’s population increased by more than a third. Skiing became the savior for the counties’ demographic and economic woes. In the 20 years following 1960, the collective population of the Eight Peers increased two and a half times. Housing stock shot up even more rapidly to accommodate new residents and Americans who could afford a vacation home. Despite the huge increase, demand was so great that increasing housing prices made land once prized for agriculture more valuable for housing. With the change, worries rose about community character, affordable housing, and other issues. Most of the Eight Peers are aging faster than the nation. In 1970, only two of the eight — Routt, Colo. and Blaine, Idaho — had a median age older than the nation as a whole. Today, half do: Pitkin, Routt, and San Miguel in Colorado, and Blaine in Idaho. And five of the eight have seen their median age grow more rapidly than the nation’s. This can be attributed, at least in part, to a lack of affordable housing, which discourages the “young hipsters” vibe so celebrated as part of ski-town culture. A more dramatic shift is the rise of each county’s Latino population over the last two decades. In 1990, only 5 percent of the Eight Peers’ collective population was Hispanic; today it’s 17 percent. Increases ranged from 80 percent in Pitkin to 15-fold in Jackson Hole. 62 Jackson Hole Compass

CENSUS POPULATION From 1930 to 2010 60,000

50,000

40,000

30,000

20,000

10,000

1930

1940

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

2000

2010

Teton, Wyo.

Eagle, Colo.

Pitkin, Colo.

Routt, Colo.

San Miguel, Colo.

Summit, Colo.

Blaine, Idaho

Summit, Utah

Source: US CENSUS BUREAU

POPULATION BY ETHNICITY 2010, in percentages 100 80 60 40 20

Teton, Wyo.

Pitkin, Colo. Eagle, Colo.

White

Hispanic

San Miguel, Colo. Blaine, Idaho Routt, Colo. Summit, Colo. Summit, Utah Other

Source: US CENSUS BUREAU

MEDIAN AGE OF POPULATION From 1970 to 2010 50

40

30

20

10

Teton, Wyo.

Pitkin, Colo. Eagle, Colo.

1970 Source: US CENSUS BUREAU

2010

San Miguel, Colo. Blaine, Idaho Routt, Colo. Summit, Colo. Summit, Utah


THE UNMARRIED

Unmarried men and women, age 20-44, 2009 Numbers in percents or ratio Unmarried men Teton, Wyo. Eagle, Colo. Pitkin, Colo. Routt, Colo. San Miguel, Colo. Summit, Colo. Blaine, Idaho Summit, Utah 10

20

30

40

50

60

70

Unmarried women NEWS&GUIDE PHOTO / BRADLY J. BONER

Teton, Wyo.

The Aerial Tram at Jackson Hole Mountain Resort is one of the premiere attractions in Jackson Hole. Rebuilt from scratch only a few years ago, it is considered by hard-core skiers to be the best lift service in the country.

Eagle, Colo.

HOUSING STOCK

Pitkin, Colo.

From 1970 to 2010

Routt, Colo.

35,000

San Miguel, Colo.

30,000 25,000

Summit, Colo.

20,000 Blaine, Idaho

15,000

Summit, Utah 10

20

10,000 30

40

50

60

70

5,000

“The Ratio”: men to women

1970

Teton, Wyo.

1980

1990

2000

2010

Teton, Wyo.

Eagle, Colo.

Pitkin, Colo.

Routt, Colo.

San Miguel, Colo.

Summit, Colo.

Blaine, Idaho

Summit, Utah

Source: US CENSUS BUREAU Eagle, Colo.

MEDIAN HOME VALUE From 1980 to 2009

Pitkin, Colo.

800,000 700,000

Routt, Colo.

600,000 500,000

San Miguel, Colo.

400,000 300,000

Summit, Colo.

200,000 Blaine, Idaho

100,000 1980

Summit, Utah 0.5

1.0

Source: US CENSUS BUREAU - ACS

1.5

2.0

1990

2000

2010

Teton, Wyo.

Eagle, Colo.

Pitkin, Colo.

Routt, Colo.

San Miguel, Colo.

Summit, Colo.

Blaine, Idaho

Summit, Utah

Source: US CENSUS BUREAU

Jackson Hole Compass 63


PRIMARY HOUSING

RELATIVE GROWTH OF HOUSING STOCK

Primary housing as a percentage of total housing, 2010

From 1970 to 2010 1970 = 100 1,500

Teton, Wyo.

Eagle, Colo.

1,200

Pitkin, Colo. 900 Routt, Colo.

600

San Miguel, Colo.

Summit, Colo. 300 Blaine, Idaho

Summit, Utah

10 20 30 40 Source: US CENSUS BUREAU - ACS

1970

50

60

70

1980

1990

2000

2010

Teton, Wyo.

Eagle, Colo.

Pitkin, Colo.

Routt, Colo.

San Miguel, Colo.

Summit, Colo.

Blaine, Idaho

Summit, Utah

Source: US CENSUS BUREAU

JAMES C. MATHIEU TIM BRADLEY, CCIM SERESE KUDAR RAY ELSER

From the Tetons, for the Tetons... Giving back for the future.

307.733.6400 172 Center Street, Suite 200

“Every Transaction has a Different Contour” Jackson Hole’s Commercial Specialists: • Retail • Office • Warehouse • Lodging

www.contourproperties.com 64 Jackson Hole Compass

1PercentTetons.org (307) 733-8687 Info@1PercentTetons.org 1% for the Tetons is a project of the Charture Institute


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Reflecting the Unique Character of Jackson Hole

e-edition


Directory Town of Jackson - Town Council 150 E. Pearl PO Box 1687 Jackson, WY 83001 (307) 733-3932 TownOfJackson.com Mark Barron - Mayor mbarron@ci.jackson.wy.us First elected: 2002 Up for re-election: 2012 Bob Lenz - Councilmember blenz@ci.jackson.wy.us First elected: 2006 Up for re-election: 2014 Greg Miles - Councilmember gmiles@ci.jackson.wy.us First elected: Up for re-election: Mark Obringer - Councilmember mobringer@ci.jackson.wy.us First elected: Up for re-election: Melissa Turley - Councilmember mturley@ci.jackson.wy.us First elected: Up for re-election: Bob McLaurin - Town Manager bmclaurin@ci.jackson.wy.us Teton County - Board of County Commissioners 200 South Willow Street PO Box 3594 Jackson, WY 83001 (307) 733-8094 TetonWyo.org Ben Ellis (D) benellis@22wy.net First elected: 2006 Up for re-election: 2014 Hank Phibbs (D) plawoffice@cs.com First elected: 2006 Up for re-election: 2014 Paul Perry (R) pperry@tetonwyo.org First elected: 2011 Up for re-election: 2012 Andy Schwartz (R) aschwartzwy@bresnan.net First elected: 2000 Up for re-election: 2012 Paul Voelheim (R) pd@vogelheim.com First elected: 2008 Up for re-election: 2014 Steve Foster - Administrator (307) 732-8402 sfoster@tetonwyo.org 66 Jackson Hole Compass

Teton County Sherry Daigle (R) - Clerk 200 South Willow Street PO Box 1727 Jackson, WY 83001 (307) 733-4430 sdaigle@tetonwyo.org First elected: 2000 Up for re-election: 2014

Donna Baur (R) - Treasurer 200 South Willow Street PO Box 3594 Jackson, WY 83001 (307) 733-7713 dbaur@tetonwyo.org First elected: 2000 Up for re-election: 2014 Jim Whalen (R) - Sheriff 180 South King Street PO Box 1885 Jackson, WY 83001 jwhalen@tetonwyo.org (307) 733-4052 First elected: 2009 Up for re-election: 2014 Dawn Johnson (R) - Assessor 200 South Willow Street PO Box 3594 Jackson, WY 83001 dawnjohnson@tetonwyo.org (307) 733-4960 First elected: 2010 Up for re-election: 2014 Steve Weichman (R) - County and Prosecuting Attorney 200 South Willow Street PO Box 4068 Jackson, WY 83001 sweichman@wyoming.com (307) 733-4012 First elected: 1998 Up for re-election: 2014 Kiley Campbell (R) - Coroner 200 South Willow Street PO Box 2099 Jackson, WY 83001 kcampb@bresnan.net (307) 733-7713 First elected: 2010 Up for re-election: 2014 Dee Mahoney (D) - Clerk of District Court 180 South King Street PO Box 4460 Jackson, WY 83001 dmahoney@tetonwyo.org (307) 733-2533 First elected: 2006 Up for re-election: 2014 Tim Day - District Court Judge 180 South King Street PO Box 4460 Jackson, WY 83001 Appointed 2010 (307) 733-1461

First elected: 2010 Up for re-election: 2012 Jim Radda - Circuit Court Judge 180 South King Street PO Box 2906 Jackson, WY 83001 jlr@courts.state.wy.us (307) 733-7713 First elected: 2010 Up for re-election: 2012 St. John’s Medical Center Board of Trustees 625 E. Broadway PO Box 428 Jackson, WY 83001 (307) 733-3636 (307) 739-7501 TetonHospital.org info@tetonhospital.org Michael Tennican - President First elected: 2009 Up for re-election: 2014 Barbara Herz - Vice-President First elected: 2006 Up for re-election: 2014 Joe Albright - Secretary/Treasurer First elected: 2009 Up for re-election: 2014 Peter Moyer - Member First elected: 2008 Up for re-election: 2012 Bruce Hayse, MD - Member First elected: 2008 Up for re-election: 2012 George Poore, MD - Member First elected: 2010 Up for re-election: 2014 Zach Hall - Member Appointed: 2011 Up for re-election: 2012 Pam Maples - CEO pmaples@tetonhospital.org Teton County School District Board of Education 260 W. Broadway PO Box 568 Jackson, WY 83001 (307) 733-2704 tcsd.org Robbi Farrow - Chair (307) 733-2862 emyrobear@msn.com First elected: 2008 Up for re-election: 2012 Janine Teske - Vice-Chair (307) 739-0951 janinebay@aol.com First elected: 2002 Up for re-election: 2014


Carlen Carney - Treasurer (307) 733-5940 carlen.carney@hotmail.com First elected: 2010 Up for re-election: 2014 Kate Mead - Clerk (307) 733-5163 katemead@wyoming.com First elected: 2008 Up for re-election: 2012 Cherie Hawley - Member (307) 734-8377 cheriehawley@mac.com First elected: 2008 Up for re-election: 2012 Paul D’Amours - Member (307) 733-8698 pauldamours@yahoo.com First elected: 2010 Up for re-election: 2014 Greg Dennis - Member (307) 733-7421 holeheel@msn.com First elected: 2008 Up for re-election: 2012 Pam Shea - Superintendent (307) 733-2704 pshea@tcsd.org Teton Conservation District - Board of Supervisors 230 E. Broadway, Suite 2A PO Box 1070 Jackson, WY 83001 (307) 733-2110 TetonConservation.org info@tetonconservation.org Tom Segerstrom - Chair wildlifebiologist@wyoming.com First elected: 2006 Up for re-election: 2012

Up for re-election: 2014 Dan Dockstader (R) - Senator (307) 886-1500 ddockstader@wyoming.com First elected: 2008 Up for re-election: 2012 Keith Gingery (R) - Representative (307) 734-5624 kgingery@wyoming.net First elected: 2004 Up for re-election: 2012

National Elk Refuge 675 East Broadway P.O. Box 510 Jackson, WY 83001 (307) 733-9212 www.fws.gov/nationalelkrefuge/ nationalelkrefuge@fws.gov Steve Kallin - Refuge Manager Appointed: June 2007

Jim Roscoe (D) - Representative (307) 733-5389 jim@roscoeco.com First elected: 2008 Up for re-election: 2012

Yellowstone National Park P.O. Box 168 Yellowstone National Park, WY 82190 (307) 344-7381 www.nps.gov/yell/ yell_visitor_service@nps.gov

Grand Teton National Park P.O. Drawer 170 Moose, WY 83012 (307) 739-3300 www.nps.gov/grte/ Administrative Offices Teton Park Road Moose, WY 83012 Mary Gibson Scott - Superintendent (307) 739-3411 Appointed: 2004 Jackie Skaggs - Public Affairs Officer (307) 739-3393 Jackie_Skaggs@nps.gov www.gtnpnews.blogspot.com

Sandy Shuptrine - Vice-Chair sandyshuptrine@wyom.net First elected: 2010 Up for re-election: 2014 Tom Breen - Member wytsbmule@aol.com First elected: 2000 Up for re-election: 2012

Jacque Buchanan - Forest Supervisor (307) 739-5500 Appointed: 2010

Bob Lucas - Member First elected: 1996 Up for re-election: 2014

Mary Cernicek - Public Affairs Officer (307) 739-5564 mcernicek@fs.fed.us

Scott Pierson - Member spierson@piersonlandworks.com First elected: 2010 Up for re-election: 2014

BTNF Jackson Ranger District 25 Rosencrans Lane PO Box 1689 Jackson, WY 83001 (307) 739-5500

State of Wyoming - Legislature Leland Christensen (R) - Senator (307) 353-8204 lchristensen@wyoming.com First elected: 2010

Thomas Matza - District Ranger tmatza@fs.fed.us

RuthAnn Petroff (R) - Representative (307) 734-9446 rpetroff@wyoming.net First elected: 2010 Up for re-election: 2012

Bridger-Teton National Forest 340 North Cache P.O. Box 1888 Jackson, WY 83001 (307) 739-5500 www.fs.usda.gov/btnf/ r4_b-t_info@fs.fed.us

Randy Williams - Director randy@tetonconservation.org

(307) 543-3900

Dale Deiter - District Ranger ddeiter@fs.fed.us BNTF Buffalo Ranger District Highway 26/287 P.O. Box 278 Moran, WY 83013

Lori Iverson - Spokeswoman Lori_Iverson@fws.gov

Dan Wenk - Superintendent Appointed: 2011 yell_superintendent@nps.gov Al Nash - Public Affairs Officer (307) 344-2010 Al_Nash@nps.gov Wyoming Game and Fish Department, Jackson Regional Office 420 North Cache P.O. Box 67 Jackson, WY 83001 (307) 733-2321 gf.state.wy.us/admin/regional/jackson.asp Tim Fuchs - Regional Supervisor Appointed: 2008 tim.fuchs@wgf.state.wy.us Mark Gocke - Public Information Specialist Mark.Gocke@wgf.state.wy.us Jackson Hole Airport 1250 East Airport Road P.O. Box 159 Jackson, WY 83001 www.jacksonholeairport.com (307) 733-7682 Ray Bishop - Airport Director 307-733-7695 raybishop@jacksonholeairport.com Appointed: 2006 Clay James - President Appointed: 2006 Jack Larimer - Vice President Appointed:2007 Jim Waldrop - Secretary Appointed: 2008 Jerry Blann - Treasurer Appointed: 2009 Andrea Riniker - Member Appointed: 2010 Jackson Hole Compass 67


Glossary bubblehead, noun: snowmobiler, recognizable by helmet

board meeting, noun: ski rendezvous during business hours

recognizable by trail mix snacks and alpaca hat hardtail, noun: old-school mountain bike without a rear suspension

skid, noun: a member of the recreational class at the lower end of the economic spectrum skin, verb: to climb uphill on skis, with skins on the bottom for grip

bucking bronc, noun: Wyoming license plate

hatch, the, noun: fresh crop of seasonal residents, usually young

crater, verb: to hit the deck without benefit of deceleration from the climbing rope

Hollywood box, noun: early aerial tram car filled with ski photographers and their models

S.P.O.R., noun: acronym used by seasoned snowmobilers for Stupid Person on Rental

croakie, noun: a pastry, or “thing,� also eyewear retainers made out of neoprene

jump the bump, verb: to cross Teton Pass

Spud Curtain, noun: the Idaho border

Kodachrome courage, noun: foolhardy bravery in front of a camera

squeegee, verb: to sideslip a slope, rather than making turns, on a snowboard

maytagged, verb: to be thrashed in a rapid or avalanche

Texas twist, noun: skiing in the back seat

cluck, verb: to perform like a novice with the grace of a chicken and hold up an excursion clucker, noun: a novice with the grace of a chicken holding up an excursion

meat stick, noun: utilitarian rifle

dirt pimp, noun: a real estate agent

ninety-day wonder, noun: seasonal park ranger ignorant of the ways of the valley but well versed in the minutia of regulation

dropping in, verb: to launch a ski run endo, verb: end-over-end flip off a mountain bike gaper, noun: a tourist in the way

powder clause, noun: generally understood condition of employment allowing flexible work schedule

gelande quaffing, verb: to catch and chug a full beer stein skidded off the end of a bar

pump rubber, to, verb: to row a raft, professionally, either scenic or whitewater.

gorper, noun: telemark skier or backpacker,

range goat, noun: pronghorn antelope

sledneck, noun: snowmobiler

trustafarian, noun: an endowed member of the recreational class turon, noun: a moronic tourist vitamin A, noun: Advil, consumed by aging athletes wapiti, noun: elk West bank, noun: of the Snake River, hoity-toity neighborhood yard sale, noun: a ski crash that distributes equipment widely

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Jackson Hole Compass  

JACKSON HOLE COMPASS offers an annual data-based perspective on where Teton County lies with notable community indicators and 2010 census da...

Jackson Hole Compass  

JACKSON HOLE COMPASS offers an annual data-based perspective on where Teton County lies with notable community indicators and 2010 census da...

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