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climate change

economy

housing

tourism

income inequality

JACKSON HOLE

2015 EDITION

At the

Headwaters An overview of Jackson Hole and its future.


INSPIRE INSPIRE: serving as a leader, catalyst and resource to ensure sustainability

The Community Foundation of Jackson Hole inspires the entire community to support local nonprofits and to celebrate philanthropy through an incredible annual matching grant opportunity – Old Bill’s Fun Run for Charities. The next generation learns the importance of strategic giving through the Youth Philanthropy program. Nonprofits find talented new volunteers through our Volunteer Jackson Hole website. Philanthropy reinforces our fundamental humanity and our shared values, connecting us to what is truly important.

IMPROVING LIVES THROUGH PHILANTHROPIC LEADERSHIP


INVEST INVEST: devoting time, talent and treasure to positively impact the community

We are a family of funds, responsibly managed and maintained. By providing superior donor services, flexible charitable giving options and prudent investment alternatives, the Community Foundation helps donors support all the causes they care about at home and around the world. We help them structure their giving to provide immediate funding or to ensure stability for nonprofits in perpetuity.


INSPIRE

IMPROVING LIVES THROUGH PHILANTHROPIC LEADERSHIP


ENRICH ENRICH: improving lives through philanthropic leadership

• Over the last 25 years, the Community Foundation has granted over • In 2014, 79 local nonprofits received

$608,127

$221 million .

from the Foundation’s competitive grant funds.

• The Community Foundation holds approximately 230 funds and

$51 million in assets.

$111 million to benefit local nonprofits. Since 2001, the Community Foundation of Jackson Hole has consistently granted more dollars per capita than any other community foundation in the United States. In 2014, local students received $ 117,000 in scholarships to pursue their dreams. 220 nonprofit representatives attended 23 Foundation workshops on topics

• Over its lifetime, Old Bill’s Fun Run has raised over •

• •

from board development to grant writing.

245 East Simpson Street • PO Box 574, Jackson, WY 83001 • 307-739-1026 • www.cfjacksonhole.org • www.volunteerjacksonhole.org • www.oldbills.org


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Put a Local Expert to Work for You

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888.733.9009 www.JHSIR.com

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table of contents JACKSON HOLE

2015 EDITION JHCompass.com PUBLISHER Kevin Olson EDITOR John Moses CONTRIBUTING EDITOR Jonathan Schechter DEPUTY EDITORS Richard Anderson, Johanna Love ART DIRECTOR Kathryn Holloway

6

Introduction Using data to frame our thinking about Jackson Hole

8 Income Inequality Jackson Hole’s housing problems have complex roots.

13 Climate Change

What will a warm Jackson look like ecologically and economically?

18 QuickFacts

The highs, the lows, the firsts, the lasts

20 Demographics

Teton County’s population grew 7.7 percent since 2010, faster than the U.S.

25 Economy

Right now, Jackson Hole’s economy seems quite healthy.

Taxable sales in Teton County surpassed $1.2 billion this year.

32 Tourism

Park visitation is basically flat, as are local skier days.

34 Housing

Key data are missing from our discussion about Teton housing.

38 43

Education Jackson Hole still at top of the class in Wyoming.

Wyoming Largest counties tend to keep growing, while smaller ones shrink.

46 Region

Jackson Hole is one community spanning two states and three counties.

26 Employment

50

Peers

27 Personal Income

54

Directory

There are plenty of jobs, but most are low-paying, tourism-related jobs.

Investments account for half of per capita income.

4

28 Taxable Sales

Jackson Hole Compass 2015 Edition

Jackson Hole, and those who are like us around the Rockies.

Who’s who and how to get ahold of them.

PHOTOGRAPHERS Bradly J. Boner, Price Chambers, Jonathan Crosby, Travis J. Garner, Sofia Jaramillo COPY EDITORS Jennifer Dorsey, Mark Huffman RESEARCH ASSISTANT Matt Paul DIRECTOR OF ADVERTISING Adam Meyer DIRECTOR OF BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT Amy Golightly CREATIVE SERVICES MANAGER Lydia Redzich AD DESIGN & PRODUCTION Andrew Edwards, Sarah Grengg, Amy Yatsuk ADVERTISING SALES Karen Brennan, Matt Cardis, Tom Hall, Chad Repinski ACCOUNT COORDINATOR Oliver O’Connor CIRCULATION MANAGER Kyra Griffin CIRCULATION Pat Brodnik, Hank Smith, Jeff Young OFFICE MANAGER Kathleen Godines ON THE COVER: Aerial photo of the Teton Range and the Snake River, Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming. BRADLY J. BONER ©2015 Jackson Hole Compass Additional copies available for $2.95 each. Bulk discount available. Jackson Hole News&Guide P.O. Box 7445, 1225 Maple Way Jackson, WY 83002; 307-733-2047 FAX: 307-733-2138, JHNewsAndGuide.com


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introduction

bradly j. boner

Jackson Hole artist Jennifer Hoffman paints Flat Creek and the National Elk Refuge from a piece of conservation property donated to the Jackson Hole Land Trust by Spring Creek Ranch.

“But I love old Wyoming, And I’m leaving her to you ... Enjoy ... but treat her gently, friend, ’Cause we’re all just passin’ thru.’ — Final stanza of “Just Passin’ Thru,” by late Jackson Hole resident Howard Ballew

Jonathan Schechter

“Information connects our past to the present and helps us peer toward the future. The data we collect and analyze and the decisions we reach based on them are the primary determinants of the kinds of lives we and future generations lead.” — Garry Brewer, Yale University, 1984 Few people visit or move to Jackson Hole because they have to. Instead there’s a desire — in many cases an overwhelming desire — to connect with the landscape, the wildlife, the ineffable something about the place. Since “data” is essentially the antonym of “ineffable,” why bother putting together a compendium of data about a place where what matters to most people is that which they can sense but not quantify, feel in their soul not count on their fingers? Precisely because this place matters to so many people. If a human generation is about 25 years, perhaps five generations have lived in Jackson Hole on a year-round basis. The first generation settled the valley, and subsequent generations have not just further settled it but also acted to conserve its special qualities, that ineffable something. As Jackson Hole’s population has grown, conservation as historically

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Jackson Hole Compass 2015 Edition

practiced — preventing development on designated tracts of land — has become increasingly difficult, for little land is left whose future is not already determined. If little land is left for current and future generations to set aside, then what will conservation look like in the future? What legacy will these generations leave? No one has figured that out yet. Absent large tracts of land to lock up, though, future conservation will likely be a function of how we use the resources around us. Hence the need for data. The quality of our decisions about resource use will be no better than the information underlying those decisions. This publication also contains perspectives from four community members — Ken Asel, Doug Wachob, Jim McNutt and Katharine Conover — taken from presentations made during the Charture Institute’s 2015 “22 in 21” conference. If the goal of any type of conservation is to enable future generations to enjoy that which the current generation enjoys today, then the quality of whatever conservation legacy this generation leaves — whether good or ill — will be a function of the quality of our decisions. And while only scratching the surface of the kinds of information needed by those who want to leave a better future, the Jackson Hole Compass can provide a solid foundation for those interested in helping ensure that future generations of Jackson Hole residents and visitors enjoy the same essential qualities our forebears’ conservation efforts have allowed us to enjoy today.


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income inequality

Jackson Hole is reaching the end of an era. Call it the “dirt bag era.” Or if you prefer, the “ski bum era.” It’s been a time when someone of limited means but tremendous passion for what Jackson Hole offers — skiing or climbing, fishing or horses, or simply enjoying the natural world — could move to the valley and, with hard work and a little luck, have a reasonable shot at making a permanent home. No more. That era is rapidly concluding, a victim of its own success. Many of Jackson Hole’s current longer-term residents are dirt bags of a sort, people who benefited from having landed here at the right time in the community’s history. And in the spirit of Schechter’s maxim — economies change faster than perceptions, and perceptions change faster than politics — much of our public policy is based on the perception that, if dirt bags could make it here in the past, they should be able to in the future. The reality is very different. The world and its economy have changed dramatically, overwhelming the two conditions that made Jackson Hole’s dirt bag era possible: relative isolation and relatively cheap land. In just one generation, both were done in by the confluence of two factors: the success of the local tourism industry and the six fundamental changes reshaping the world as a whole. Call this confluence the emergence of the lifestyle economy, a reality that is rapidly changing communities the world over. Throwing gasoline on the Jackson Hole fire is Wyoming’s lack of income tax, which essentially subsidizes wealthy people to live here. But even a different tax policy won’t change the fact that we are now in the lifestyle economy era. This era began emerging in just the last generation, and its full effects on Jackson Hole will take another generation to play out. Its ultimate consequences are clear, though. One generation ago, we were a relatively homogenous middle-class community; one generation from now, we’ll be a heterogeneous place split into three camps: white and well-to-do, brown and lower-end, and a shrinking middle class. To fully understand why, we need to

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Jackson Hole Compass 2015 Edition

understand how Jackson Hole was two generations ago.

Sacrifices and trade-offs Teton County was formed in 1921, and the 1930 census counted 2,003 residents. Over the next 30 years, Teton County’s population grew about 50 percent, roughly the same as the nation. Teton County faced a problem, though. Economically, Jackson Hole and other isolated mountain towns depended on commodities — agriculture, timber, mining — and commodity prices were low. As a result, these communities were struggling. Case in point? In 1960, the combined population of today’s eight major northern Rockies counties — Eagle, Pitkin, Routt, San Miguel and Summit in Colorado (the locations of Vail, Aspen, Steamboat, Telluride, and Breckenridge respectively); Blaine, Idaho (Sun Valley); Summit, Utah (Park City); and Teton, Wyoming (Jackson Hole) — was actually lower than it was in 1930. Enter alpine skiing. For struggling communities with the appropriate terrain, the skiing boom of the 1960s was a godsend, a chance not just to expand their economies, but to do so in an environmentally friendly way. Thus began the “industrial tourism” era, when Jackson Hole and similar communities began to attract large numbers of tourists each year. For the industrial tourism model to succeed, though, it was not enough to have great terrain for skiing. Something else was needed: cheap land. Whether a resort or a hotel, restaurant or store, a tourism business needs

SOFIA JARAMILLO

Maurice Paraiso and Abby Perez, seasonal hospitality employees, relax at the Western Motel, their home in the summer of 2014 due to lack of other housing.

large numbers of low-paid employees. That, in turn, requires low-cost housing for employees, which in turn requires low cost land. At the beginning of the 1960s Teton County and other struggling mountain towns had cheap land in abundance. In Jackson Hole, as industrial tourism began to grow, so too did the community’s housing stock. Between 1960 and 1980, Teton County’s population more than tripled, and its housing stock grew even faster. And these weren’t second homes — Jackson Hole’s isolation limited that market. Instead, five-sixths of the homes built from 1960-1980 were occupied by yearround residents. Never again would the percentage be that high. All this new locally oriented housing resulted in relatively low prices. This meant many Jackson Hole residents — including those employed in “local industries” such as tourism, construction and government — could afford to buy a house. In particular, during the first 20-plus years of the Jackson Hole Ski Area, someone earning the median Jackson Hole income could afford the median-priced Jackson Hole home. Starting in 1987, though, median home prices began to grow faster than median wages, never again to align. What happened? In short, the Continued on 9


Continued from 8

emergence of the lifestyle economy.

Graph 1: Income of Teton County migrants, 1993-2011 $250,000

No sacrifices, no trade-offs Go back two generations. When Teton Village opened, Jackson Hole was about as isolated as any place in the Lower 48. Moving here meant making sacrifices, leaving behind family and friends, cultural and consumer amenities, high-powered job opportunities. The reward was the chance to live in an unparalleled alpine environment, a trade-off well worth it to Jackson Hole’s few thousand hardy residents. Fifty years later, making sacrifices is no longer required; few trade-offs remain. For increasing numbers of people, it’s possible to live in Jackson Hole and have it all. A high-paid, high-powered job. Cultural and consumer amenities. Easy connections with the outside world. And, oh yes, the same privilege of living in an unequaled landscape. Plus, if you’re rich, you’ll save a good deal of money on state income tax. What’s not to like? The same basic phenomenon is occurring all over the country. Thanks to the interplay of six fundamental changes reshaping the world — in technology, the economy, transportation, values, mores and the increasing congestion in major cities and their suburbs — it’s not only possible to enjoy a “big city” lifestyle in a formerly isolated place like Jackson Hole, it’s becoming commonplace. Yet not every isolated place is seeing such growth. For example, every county in Wyoming enjoys access to the Internet, the same tax benefits and the like. Yet five of Wyoming’s 23 counties have a smaller population today than in 1960 and only two — Campbell and Teton — have grown significantly faster than the state as a whole. Why? For Campbell the answer is simple: coal. For Teton, the answer is the rise of the lifestyle economy. Underlying that is the synergy between three interrelated phenomena: the aforementioned six fundamental changes, the evolution our tourism industry and our attractiveness to the well-to-do.

The virtual commute, with amenities Consider the changes that have occurred during the last human generation. Going back to the mid-1980s, both jet service and FedEx were new to Jackson Hole. The fax machine was cutting-edge communications technol-

$200,000

$150,000

$100,000

$50,000

1993

1995

1997

1999

2001

Income needed for median house

2003

2005

Mean in-migrant AGI

2007

2009

2011

Mean out-migrant AGI

Internal Revenue Service

Graph 2: Percent of total covered jobs in Teton County, 2001 and 2013 39%

18%

20%

45%

2013 18,107 JOBS

2001 16,736 JOBS

42%

35% Tourism

Other

Professional services

Bureau of Labor Statistics

ogy, and the personal computer had just been introduced. Since then, advances in each of the six fundamental changes have combined to stretch, if not sever, the umbilical cord linking where someone lives and works. As a result, it is increasingly easy to do an ever-wider variety of jobs without regard to location. For a place like Jackson Hole, though, the catch is that these location-neutral jobs are in industries like professional services, which pay much better than “traditional” local industries like tourism, construction, and government. Combine this reality with Wyoming’s tax advantages and, over the last two decades, increasing numbers of well-to-do people have chosen to move to Jackson Hole. As they have, they’ve brought with them both a desire for finer things and the means to pay for it (see Graph 1). None of this would matter, though, if it weren’t for simultaneous changes

in the tourism industry. Over the past couple of decades, Jackson Hole and other larger resorts have increasingly focused on the higher-margin luxury market. The result has been a “race to the top” among major resorts: “You have a high speed lift? I’ll raise you a gondola.” “You have a Ritz Carlton? Check out my Four Seasons and Amangani, suckah.” Locally, such amenities feed a positive feedback loop: More amenities plus better technology mean making fewer sacrifices to live in Jackson Hole, which in turn makes it more attractive for well-off people to live here, which in turn leads to even more amenities. The real beneficiaries are the locals, who enjoy a level of sophistication unimaginable a generation ago.

As yeast is to grape juice The downside of all this is that it’s killing the dirt bag era. Continued on 10

2015 Edition Jackson Hole Compass

9


Continued from 9

Here’s the problem. On the one hand, tourism requires lots of low-paid workers and, by extension, lots of cheap land for housing. Through the 1980s, Jackson Hole had that land. Combine that with the valley’s geographic isolation and, until 1986, Jackson Hole real estate prices were pretty much linked to Jackson Hole wages. But starting a generation ago, location-neutral workers and the well-todo found that living in Jackson Hole required increasingly fewer trade-offs. They could move here and continue to make the same amount of money while enjoying the growing amenities and, of course, the same natural and smalltown qualities that attracted earlier generations of dirt bags. The tax benefits were just an added bonus. The effects of this in-migration were manifold. People earning local incomes were not only out-competed for real estate, but found less available for them as developers increasingly focused on building more profitable high-end homes. And as air service got better and more amenities were built, more and more people realized they could indeed have it all: high incomes, highend amenities with a small town, and easy access to some of nature’s greatest hits. Which is great if you can afford it. But from a dirt bag perspective, as demand to live in Jackson Hole grows, the people being priced out are their tribe — the people earning the least. In an economy where 45 percent of all wage jobs are tourism related, this means roughly half of the community’s workforce no longer makes enough to buy — or, increasingly, even to rent — a place to live (Graph 2). Unfortunately, things are only going to get worse. This is because Teton County is facing a “demographic cliff.” Currently, residents occupy roughly 58 percent of Teton County’s 13,000 homes. Of these 7,500 homes, around 3,000 are occupied by people ages 45-64. Assuming 65 percent of these are occupied by people in the workforce, roughly 2,000 homes are currently occupied by people who, two decades from now, will no longer be working. Make another assumption: A goodly number of these 2,000 workforce homes were purchased when home prices were linked to local wages. If that’s the case, over the next two decades “local industries” such as tourism, construction and government will be seeing a big wave of retirements. Who will replace those workers? That’s not at all

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Jackson Hole Compass 2015 Edition

Graph 3: Mean wage of covered employees, 2001-2013 $80,000 $70,000 $60,000 $50,000 $40,000 $30,000 $20,000 $10,000

2001

2003

2005

2007

Professional services

Other

2009 Overall

2011

2013

Tourism

Bureau of Labor Statistics

Graph 4: Mean household income of quintiles and total percent growth, 2007 and 2013 $600,000

60%

$500,000

50%

$400,000

40%

$300,000

30%

$200,000

20%

$100,000

10%

1/5

2/5

3/5 2007 (left)

4/5 2013 (left)

5/5

Top 5%

2007-2013 growth (right)

Census Bureau

clear, because the fundamental wage structure of these “local industries” can’t keep up with local housing prices. What’s clearer is that the new homeowners will likely be people working in industries that do pay enough: finance, professional services and the like. That, or people of independent means. The industry most threatened by all this is the industry that pays the least: tourism. Which is also the industry upon which local government is most dependent — sales taxes provide the majority of local government revenue, and tourism generates a lot of taxable sales. As a result, no matter how costly it might become, local government will be incredibly motivated to prop up tourism-related industries (Graph 3). Add all this together and, in just 50 years, the emergence of the lifestyle economy has made it extremely difficult for industrial tourism to continue

to thrive in Jackson Hole. Like yeast transforming grape juice, the highend amenities required by “race to the top” tourism have combined with larger outside changes to eliminate Jackson Hole’s cheap land. Without that, tourism businesses are finding it increasingly difficult to house their workers. Then consider that the tourism industry wants to keep growing — if businesses can’t house their current workers, how will they house even larger numbers? It’s an extraordinarily difficult problem. Making matters worse, the demographic cliff means that if the community is going to meet its goal of housing 65 percent of its workforce, then it needs not only a large amount of housing to support its basic growth, but still more to replace workers who will soon be retiring. Continued on 11


Continued from 10

Perhaps most vexing of all, the divide between Jackson Hole’s haves and have-nots is growing wider. As Jackson Hole’s lifestyle economy attracts more and more well-to-do and location-neutral people, the scarcity of land means that middle-class neighborhoods will become increasingly upscale, and areas of low-end homes and trailer courts will become gentrified (Graph 4). Do the math and current approaches to Jackson Hole’s housing problems (e.g., fees in lieu and large subsidies for workforce housing) will become increasingly problematic. And even if we build and build, local wages will never keep up with local land prices. Just as they do not in New York, San Francisco or the many other desirable places facing the same basic problem. In one important way, however, Jackson Hole’s problem is very differ-

ent — we have pledged to protect our environment, wildlife and small-town quality of life. This is not an issue for other places, and theirs is not a model we want to emulate.

Growing in wisdom, not in size Every generation of Jackson Hole residents has faced its own challenges. Five generations ago the challenge was establishing a community. Two generations ago, it was a stagnant economy. Today those challenges are behind us, but we face a new one: There are too many claims on Jackson Hole’s scarcest asset, private land. In its purest form, the life of a dirt bag or ski bum is a life of scraping by, one best suited for adolescents and young adults. As people get older, scraping by works less well, particularly as the responsibilities of adulthood

increase. In a similar vein, over the past half century Jackson Hole has gone through its adolescence, growing so rapidly and becoming so big and strong that it barely looks like the place of its youth. As is true for any living being, though, once physical growth stops, old patterns and behaviors must also end. To make the necessary transformation requires a different kind of growth — one in maturity and wisdom. Like someone emerging from adolescence, Jackson Hole has shown it can physically grow. The challenge facing this and future generations is whether we can grow in wisdom. How do we thrive when rapid growth is no longer possible and we can no longer take our resources for granted? We have the means to answer that question. Far less certain is whether we have the will.

I

come from a church perspective as rector of the Epis- urban seen often around Town Square with the bumper copal church here. It is a point of view that is large- sticker reading “Need less.” Sometimes in Jackson Hole ly an aberration in Teton County, one not likely to our public conversation means, “You should need less, change in the next 10 years. And while I don’t believe it so I can have what I want.” is impossible to be genuinely spiritual without practicGenuine spirituality in Jackson Hole has an imporing formal religion, I do think it’s a lot harder. I also think tant function here beyond celebrating the breathtaking that is manifest in Jackson Hole in ways that diminish us vistas and the personal affirmation. Genuine spirituality and inhibit our potential. always includes the haunting question, Authentic spirituality must do sev“What about the others?” It includes a eral things. It begins by recognizing confidence that the future can be betthe holiness inside our own selves. ter for those now left behind than it is Then, expanding the circle of blessedtoday. It challenges the creativity of the ness, acknowledging the blessedness people of the Hole to make it so. In his of others. That ought to be easy for book “The Year of Living Biblically,” us here! The talent of the people of A.J. Jacobs shares his experience of this area still astounds me. It does so trying to adhere to all the Bible’s laws no less than the natural beauty Teton and rules for one full year. I don’t necCounty is known for. Yet our public essarily recommend the path he took, conversations about zoning and LDRs, but he explores the theory of cognitive height of buildings and darkness of dissonance — behaving in a certain Ken Asel skies, future of Snow King and the like way so that your beliefs will eventually are often characterized by fear and scarcity rather than change to conform to this new behavior. the abundance and possibility that should ooze from this Genuine spirituality calls for cognitive dissonance. It place. The human resources of Jackson Hole are no less has a role in celebrating the blessedness of all residents, amazing than its natural resources. Progress need not not just the powerful or the enlightened. Churches can be a zero-sum game. Envy need not predominate. Pros- provide a venue and environment for celebrating an experity for some does not have to preclude prosperity for pansive understanding of blessedness, inherent in all. all. In fact it thrives on it. Churches can also call us up short when we fail to inI wonder if in fact Jackson Hole really is a community. clude the marginalized and those left behind. Churches Joann Lee writes, “Being in community calls us to value can do so because we hold someone who lived to serve as right relationship over being right. ... The rule of love is our founder and whose disciples we aspire to be. Other liberating, but it is also demanding.” Sometimes Jack- groups and formats can do so as well. Genuine spiritualson Hole can be more a collection of competing interest ity, though, beckons us to become a community by acting groups than the community we style ourselves to be. like a community, and showing others it is safe to do so. We can’t provide more child care for working families St. Paul in the Epistle to the Ephesians admonishes because the money to do so is needed to build more path- that community in first-century Turkey: “Beloved, bear ways. Affordable housing is a great idea ... as long as the one another’s burdens.” That would be an excellent comdensity doesn’t make us feel too crowded. And everyone prehensive plan for the next decade. should take the bus, except for those of us who won’t. I — Ken Asel is the retired rector of remember an old environmentally unfriendly white SubSt. John’s Episcopal Church

2015 Edition Jackson Hole Compass

11


2015

Directory of ServiceS

Free Hospital and Physician Directory Available at St. John’s Medical Center and at www.tetonhospital.org/services

St John’s Medical Center Quality and Patient Safety First

625 E Broadway

307 733 3636

Dial 911 in an emergency


climate change

From the perspective of the natural world, there are two fundamental facts about the Tetons region. First, it gets extremely cold here. In fact, if you look at the mean annual temperature of all 16,317 school districts in the United States between 1980 and 2010, Teton County School District ranked as the 74th coldest of them all — in the bottom 0.5 percent. Throw out the districts in Alaska, and Teton County is in the bottom 0.3 percent (see graph below). Second, Jackson Hole’s intense cold is at the core of all of its essential natural features. Starting with the glaciers that formed the valley’s landscape and store the winter snows, extending through the flora and fauna that have adapted to that cold over the millennia, and ending with the human systems here today — be it the residents living here because the environment speaks to them or the economy based on visitors’ passion for the region’s terrain and wildlife — everything about Jackson Hole ultimately depends on the region enjoying long, hard, cold winters. Which climate change puts at risk. No reasonable person can look at the data and deny that Earth’s temperature is rising at historically rapid rates. Nor can people deny that hu-

mans are the cause. Given that this is occurring, the question then becomes, “What might the effects of climate change be on the Tetons region?” To answer that question, 1 Percent for the Tetons provided the initial funding in 2014 for a study examining the effects of climate change on the Tetons region. The study, “Ecological and Economic Impacts of Climate Change on Teton County,” was commissioned by Jonathan Schechter’s Charture Institute and led by the now-defunct Teton Research Institute of the Teton Science Schools.

Mean annual temperature by US school district Mean temperature is 53.2 (dark blue line) and Jackson is the yellow dot. 150

120

90

60

30

13.9 (-5)

21.8 (-4)

29.6 (-3)

37.5 (-2)

45.3 (-1)

53.2 (0)

61.0 (1)

68.9 (2)

76.7 (3)

84.6 (4)

USA.com

price chambers

Ruben Parra, 12, jumps through a sprinkler on a hot summer day in 2009. Average annual minimum temperatures in Jackson are increasing.

The study’s principal authors were Dr. Corinna Riginos of the Teton Research Institute, who focused on the natural science-related effects of climate change on the region, and Mark Newcomb, who focused on social science-related effects. Co-authors were Dr. Kevin Krasnow, Schechter and Dr. Doug Wachob. The study did not attempt to “prove” climate change is occurring, for nothing it could say would ever convince those still in doubt. Ditto that humans are causing it. Instead the study proceeded from the fact that climate change is occurring and that humans are causing it. From that starting point it examined what residents and visitors might expect in future years and decades. No original research was done to create the study. Instead the authors gathered, evaluated and synthesized the best natural and social science research available. Much of the challenge facing them was that, after decades of studying climate change on a global basis, natural and social scientists are only just beginning to be able to thoughtfully discuss climate change’s effects on local regions. As Continued on 14

2015 Edition Jackson Hole Compass

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Continued from 13

a result, “Ecological and Economic Impacts of Climate Change on Teton County” should be viewed not as the final word on the effects of climate change on the Tetons region but instead as a platform upon which further research can be built and integrated. Published below is the executive summary of “Ecological and Economic Impacts of Climate Change on Teton County.” It discusses some of the major changes the region can expect over coming decades. Most are negative, though some might be beneficial. Of note is how much is uncertain: Researchers can see the general contours of the changes coming, but at this point it’s impossible to predict their specific effects. Upon the completion of “Ecological and Economic Impacts of Climate Change on Teton County,” the Charture Institute convened a series of “affinity groups” to discuss how local organizations viewed and were considering the effects of climate change on the region. The essence of the responses was that most organizations linked to the natural world — be they government agencies, nonprofits or private businesses — were very aware that climate change is occurring and holds the potential to significantly alter Jackson Hole. The challenge each organization faces is in figuring out a thoughtful way of addressing the issue — climate change’s scope is so vast and its specific effects are so hard to predict. Among the affinity group participants, two consensuses emerged. One was that the subject of climate change’s effects on the Tetons region is something that needs continued further study, and that “Ecological and Economic Impacts of Climate Change on Teton County” provided a good platform on which to build such study. The other was that, given the potential health, safety and economic issues identified in “Ecological and Economic Impacts of Climate Change on Teton County,” there was a need for local government to more carefully understand and prepare for the consequences of climate change. Be it the likelihood of hotter and more frequent fires, related implications for the wildland-urban interface, or changes in wildlife behavior in response to a warmer, drier climate, Teton County and the surrounding region will need to develop and en-

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Jackson Hole Compass 2015 Edition

Average annual minimum temperate and 5 year running average, Teton County 1948-2012 27.5

25.0

22.5

20.0

1948

1953

1958

1963

1968

1973

1978

1983

Average annual minimum temperature

1988

1993

1998

2003

2008

5-year running average

Yellowstone Center for Resources

act strategies for coping with climate change’s effects and, where possible, taking steps to become more resilient. To that end the study also recommends that the Teton County and town of Jackson governments create a climate change task force. One final note: In doing this study, researchers focused on the effects of climate change and not its causes. In so doing they accepted the widely held scientific consensus that climate change is being caused by a rapid rise in the greenhouse gases in Earth’s atmosphere. That view of the cause of climate change has been called into question by Jackson Hole resident Peter Ward. He has developed an alternative theory that climate change is instead caused by the depletion of the Earth’s ozone layer. Those interested in learning more about Dr. Ward’s theories can go to his website at OzoneDepletionTheory.info. Copies of the entire “Ecological and Economic Impacts of Climate Change on Teton County” report are available for free download from Charture.org

Ecological and Economic Impacts of Climate Change on Teton County 2014 marked the world’s warmest year on record. In the same year, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change — with contributions from over 1,000 of the world’s best climate scientists — released its most strongly supported report to date. Climate scientists are now virtually certain (99-100% probability) that

global temperatures have risen since pre-industrial times and agree that it is extremely likely (>95% probability) that this is due to human emissions of greenhouse gases. In a place such as Teton County, where cold weather defines so much of the local ecology and economy, climate change poses an existential crisis for the future. In “The Coming Climate: Ecological Impacts of Climate Change on Teton County,” the Charture Institute and the Teton Research Institute have put together a comprehensive report detailing the most current and evidence-based knowledge about the possible impacts of climate change on the Teton region over the remainder of the 21st century. Here, we summarize the highlights of the full report.

Temperature Patterns Average annual minimum temperatures in Teton County have increased by 1.3° F and maximum temperatures by 1.6° F since 1948 (with most of the warming since 1980). Minimum temperatures and temperatures below freezing govern many important processes such as growing season length, mountain pine beetle population growth rate and the number of nights that local ski resorts can make snow. At weather stations across the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystems, including the Philip’s Bench station on Teton Pass, we are seeing fewer days below freezing, a longer frost-free season, more unusually hot days in the summer and fewer unusually cold nights in the winter. Stream Continued on 15


Continued from 14

150

100

1989

1991

1993

1995

1997

1999

2001

Total days below 32° F

2003

2005

2007

2009

197

222

205

215

215

202

212

203

200

209

228

205

216

203

214

208

221

223

209

220

195

50 216

These warming temperatures are leading to important changes in precipitation patterns. Total precipitation has not changed, but the way it falls has. Around the GYE, April 1 snow water equivalent (a measure of total winter snowpack) has declined significantly at more than 70 percent of snow measurement stations. This is because more winter precipitation is falling as rain instead of snow, and more snow is melting because of warmer temperatures. In the summer, warmer weather is causing drier growing conditions for local trees and shrubs — stressing their growth rates and increasing the likelihood of fires.

200

216

Precipitation and Aridity Patterns

Total days below 32° F at Phillip’s Bench, Teton County 1989-2012 250

205

temperatures in the GYE have also risen by 1.8° F (1° C) during the 20th century.


2011

5-year running average

Yellowstone Center for Resources

Total days frost-free at Phillip’s Bench, Teton County 1989-2012 120

Projected Changes 100

80

60

40

1989

1991

1993

1995

1997

1999

Total days frost-free

2001

2003

2005

2007

2009

104

110

79

104

89

107

107

99

106

75

101

84

91

93

108

95

78

89

108

66

68

90

111

20 63

All of these changes to date are predicted to intensify and accelerate over the rest of the 21st century, particularly if global greenhouse gas emissions are not curbed aggressively. Considering a range of emissions scenarios from “best case” (aggressive curbing of emissions) to “worst case” (continued pattern of increasing emissions with little regulation), climate models indicate that temperatures in the GYE in 2100 will be on average 3.5° F (1.9° C) to 6.2° F (3.4° C) higher than 1900-2010 baseline temperatures. That is three to six times the warming that has already occurred. As a consequence of this warming, November and March precipitation, even at higher elevations, is predicted to fall mostly as rain rather than snow. The total amount and duration of snow cover is expected to shrink significantly. Earlier spring melt is predicted to lead to low summer stream flows; together with warming temperatures, this is predicted to cause stream temperatures to rise by another 1.8°-5.4° F (1-3° C) by mid-21st century (2050-2069). On land, warm summers are expected to produce increasingly dry forests that are highly vulnerable to fire. The climatic conditions necessary to support mega-fires (on the order of the 1988 Yellowstone fires) are predicted to occur in almost all years by 2100, instead of every 100 to 300 years. All of these changes would have far-reaching ecologi-

2011

5-year running average

Yellowstone Center for Resources

cal and economic impacts for Teton County and the broader GYE.

Ecological Impacts Teton County is part of one of the most intact ecosystems in the world. In North America, the GYE stands out as one of the last places where elk, moose, mule deer, pronghorn and bison are still abundant, where wolves and grizzly bears roam, and where hundreds of bird, plant, insect and smaller mammal species make their home. However, changes in temperature, snowpack and growing season are already affecting many species of plants and animals in the region. These impacts can only be expected to become stronger and more numerous as temperatures warm. Because ecological systems are complex, climate change is likely to have a vari-

ety of different impacts on different species — some stronger than others, some negative and some positive, depending on the species.

Cold-Dependent Species Species that are very dependent on cold or snow are likely to decline substantially or go extinct locally. These include snow-dependent wildlife such as wolverines, Canada lynx and pika, as well as heat-intolerant species such as moose. Many native fish species, including the Yellowstone cutthroat trout, also depend on cold temperatures. The combination of warmer stream waters and competition with non-native fish (which tolerate warmer water better) is predicted to cause a more than 60 percent decline Continued on 16

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Continued from 15

in Yellowstone cutthroat trout populations by the end of the 21st century — potentially leading to declines among the more than 40 species of birds and mammals that eat these fish.

Whitebark Pine Whitebark pine is another highly vulnerable species. This ecologically important high-altitude tree species has already declined over large areas of the GYE because of white pine blister rust (a non-native fungus) and mountain pine beetle (a native beetle that is killed by cold weather but thrives in warmer winters). There is a very low chance that this tree species will be able to persist outside very small pockets of forest if warming trends continue. The loss of this tree species could be very harmful for many mammals and birds — including grizzly bears and Clark’s nutcrackers — that make heavy use of whitebark pine seeds as a food source.

Wildfire and Forests Perhaps the most significant and sweeping expected ecological impact of climate change is more frequent and more intense wildfires. Under

F

the worst case emissions scenarios, climate conditions would be right for most areas of the GYE to burn at least every 10 years by the second half of the 21st century. At this frequency of fires, many trees would not be able to regenerate and most forested areas would become shrublands or grasslands (which might or might not continue to burn just as frequently). Such a dramatic loss of forest habitat would have far-reaching impacts — mostly negative — for a very large number of species of birds and mammals that live in Teton County and the GYE. Some species, such as mule deer and pronghorn, might benefit from the additional shrubland and grassland habitat; however, the drier plant growing conditions would probably harm these species populations more than the benefits of added habitat extent.

Ecological “Winners” Although a few native species of plants and animals might benefit from warmer, drier conditions, many of the beneficiaries are likely to be non-native or invasive species. These species are “generalists” that are tolerant of a wide range of climatic conditions and can colonize a new area rapidly in the

vacuum left by species that are declining, going extinct locally or shifting their range upslope. One invasive species that is particularly threatening and worrisome is cheatgrass. Cheatgrass has wreaked ecological and economic havoc on much of the Great Basin. It aggressively replaces native grasses and herbs, effectively pushes out sagebrush and other shrubs by dramatically increasing fire frequency, and has very little forage value. Although cheatgrass is not currently a major problem in Teton County, warmer, drier conditions are very likely to create conditions that favor this and other “weedy” species like it.

Economic Impacts Every year, 3 million to 4 million visitors pass through Teton County. Between August 2013 and August 2014, Teton County’s economy generated $1.115 billion in total taxable sales, with an estimated 35 percent to 45 percent of this attributable to visitors. Accommodation and food services are the county’s largest employers by sector. Tourism in Teton County is intimately linked with the local ecology and ecosystem services. Visitors Continued on 17

rom my perspective as an ecologist, the most timistic. Why? There are several reasons: important thing people should know about the People in Jackson Hole care about the environment. region’s environment is this: Our past environPeople in Jackson Hole care about wildlife. ment is not our future environment. People in Jackson Hole care about air quality What we have experienced in the past is not what People in Jackson Hole care about roadkill. we will experience in the future. Jackson Hole is People in Jackson Hole care about scenic view changing, and change can be uncomfortsheds. able even for those of us who embrace it. People in Jackson Hole care about the Perhaps the clearest example of what rivers. I mean is climate change. Changing it is. More than that, though, I am optimistic Argue if you want to but the data are clear. because we are not a community of people For example, minimum temperatures are who check our brains at the door. increasing, which in turn means the snow When people care and think, good season is shortening. stuff usually happens. Yeah, we argue What will be the consequences? We and squabble about this and that. Yeah, can’t say with absolute certainty, but it’s we have problems. But we also have great likely to get a lot drier. As a result it’s likely leaders — Bert Raynes, Steve Cain, Laurie that fire and insects will reshape our forAndrews, Susan Patla — and thousands ests. To return to my theme, our past forof volunteers who work tirelessly. What Doug Wachob, Ph.D. ests will not be our future forests. makes me optimistic? People who deeply Humans often speak of “averages” and “normal,” love this place. but nature operates in extremes — highs and lows, So what can be done to make a meaningful differpopulation cycles. When we look at the natural world ence? Love this place. Care for this place. around us, extreme events seem to be increasing, The Bible says, “For where your treasure is there which in turn exacerbates our discomfort and masks will your heart be also.” Treasure this place and you longer-term changes. will take care of it. The nature of who we are as humans is to look for That and maybe skip some meetings and go fishing! “normal,” but as we do it hinders our ability to adapt — Doug Wachob is the director of to change in the environment. acadmeic programs at the Haub School, In spite of all this change and uncertainty, I am opUniversity of Wyoming

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Jackson Hole Compass 2015 Edition


Continued from 16

Summer Recreation and Tourism Summer tourism may also be impacted by climate change in a number of ways. While the relatively cool climate of the Tetons in the summer might attract more visitors who are escaping hotter places, declines in the quality of the visitor experience may keep many away. Fewer fish to catch, stream closures due to warm temperatures or reduced populations of iconic large game species (such as moose and elk) could make this a less appealing destination for many visitors. Lower stream and river levels are also likely to decrease

40

30

20

1989

1991

1993

1995

1997

1999

Total unusually hot days

2001

2003

2005

2007

2009

43

18

17

17

28

47

37

22

12

43

24

31

32

17

34

16

26

13

13

36

10 23

Winter recreation and tourism, in particular, are likely to be impacted by warming temperatures and reduced snowpack. Over the 2013-14 winter, there were approximately 700,000 skier-days at Teton County’s three ski areas: Jackson Hole Mountain Resort, Grand Targhee Resort and Snow King Mountain. Each skierday is estimated to generate approximately $82.59 in revenue, suggesting that resort-based skiing in Teton County generates approximately $57,813,000 in direct revenue. Loss of skier-days due to shorter ski seasons would thus substantially reduce revenues. Ski resorts with the capacity to increase snowmaking may be able to partially compensate for shorter winter seasons, but other types of winter recreation that draw tourists (such as backcountry skiing, snowmobiling and snow coach tours) do not have this capacity to adapt. Depending on the rate of warming and change in the quantity or quality of snow, it is possible that the ski industry in Teton County will benefit from climate change over the next few decades as ski conditions become relatively worse in warmer parts of the country such as California and Colorado. It remains unclear whether more skier-days in the heart of winter would compensate for lost skier-days on the shoulders of the ski season.

50

27

Winter Recreation and Tourism

Total unusually hot days at Phillip’s Bench, Teton County 1989-2012

23

come to enjoy the scenery and wildlife, to ski, and to fish and hunt. Given the many impacts that climate change is expected to have on the local ecology and ecosystem services, it is likely that climate change will also impact tourism and the economy of Teton County.

2011

5-year running average

Yellowstone Center for Resources

the number of scenic and whitewater float trips that can be operated on the Snake River, leading to lost revenues for float trip operators. Frequent fires are also likely to harm the tourism industry. In 1988, for example, visitation to Yellowstone National Park dropped from 2.3 million to 1.7 million visitors, resulting in an estimated $21 million loss (26 percent less visitor expenditures than expected). Because fires have a longlasting impact on the scenery, tourism is likely to be reduced for several years following a major fire.

Real Estate

Costs of Wildfires

Conclusion

If fires become more frequent, the costs in terms of property damage and firefighting may be very high. In Teton County, there are currently about 3,000 dwelling units located within the fire-prone wildlands-urban interface (out of a total of about 12,000 units in Teton County), and this number continues to rise. The estimated cost of fighting the 2012 Little Horsethief Canyon fire (which threatened houses around Jackson) was approximately $8 million, $5 million of which was paid for by federal funds and $3 million of which was paid for by the state of Wyoming. Although the costs of fighting wildfires are currently not borne by local and countylevel agencies, this may change in the future as federal funds become increasingly limited or spread thin (since fire frequency is expected to rise substantially across the West). If such costs are absorbed locally, they could have a significant impact on the local economy.

Conversely, climate change may have positive effects on the local real estate market. In summer, high temperatures in other parts of the country may increase the appeal of Teton County’s relatively cooler climate. This may attract more permanent and part-time residents to a region with an already vigorous real estate market. In 2013, total real estate sales amounted to $740 million, with construction and related retail sales comprising a significant portion of the county’s economic activity.

The potential effects of climate change on Teton County are numerous and far-reaching. Although there are likely to be economic and ecological winners and losers — on varying temporal and spatial scales — it is clear that climate change is likely to substantially impact this region. Understanding these impacts, and untangling the net effects of climate change on different aspects of our ecology and economy, will require further study and longterm monitoring of a diverse set of indicators of change. However, understanding the suite of potential impacts is an important first step toward becoming a more prepared and resilient community. We hope that “The Coming Climate: Ecological Impacts of Climate Change on Teton County” will stimulate further discussion and proactive efforts to mitigate global climate change and reduce its negative impacts on Teton County.

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Quick facts

Natural World

Highest point: Grand Teton, 13,775 feet Lowest point: Snake River as it leaves southern Teton County, 5,800 feet Highest recorded temperature: 98° F, Aug. 19, 1981 Lowest recorded temperature: - 63° F, Jan. 1, 1979 Greatest recorded snowfall at 9,000 feet during a ski season (Dec. 1-April 1): Roughly 600 inches, 2007-08 Acreage of the National Elk Refuge, the largest established wildlife refuge in the U.S.: 24,700 acres Age of the Teton Range, the youngest range in the U.S.: No older than 10 million years, and perhaps as young as 3 million years Percentage of the 3,826,407 acres in Teton County land managed by the federal government: 97 Wyoming rank in size among all 50 U.S. states: 9

Teton on alpine skis: Bill Briggs on June 16, 1971

Wyoming rank in population density among all 50 U.S. states: 49 (6.0 people per square mile, ahead of only Alaska at 1.3)

First person to descend the Grand Teton on telemark skis: Rick Wyatt on June 11, 1982

Firsts

Jackson first: First all-woman city government in America elected to office in Jackson in 1920 Wyoming firsts: First government in world history to allow women to vote (in 1869, when Wyoming became a territory — 21 years before statehood and 51 years before the U.S. constitutional amendment); first woman governor, Nellie Tayloe Ross in 1925. First recorded party to ascend the Grand Teton: William Owen, Franklin Spalding, Frank Petersen and John Shive on Aug. 11, 1898

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First person to descend the Grand Teton on a snowboard: Stephen Koch on June 9, 1989 First group to ski the Grand Teton car to car in 5 hours, 17 minutes: Jason and Andy Dorais and Jared Inouyou on June 28, 2011 First person to run the Grand Teton car to car in 2 hours 53 minutes: Andy Anderson on August 22, 2012

Skiing

Number of people who skied at Jackson Hole Mountain Resort during the 2014-15 season: 546,125

First party to complete the Cathedral Traverse (Teewinot, Mount Owen and Grand Teton): Willi Unsoeld, Richard Pownall and Pete Schoening in the summer of 1959

Amount of snow the resort received that season: 316 inches (Due to a thin snowpack this year, longtime local ski legend Wild Bill was not able to jump into the precarious S&S Couloir, which he has done every year on his birthday well into his 60s.)

First person to descend the Grand

Years that Snow King, aka the Town

Jackson Hole Compass 2015 Edition

Hill, has been in existence: 76 The first inductees into the Jackson Hole Ski and Snowboard Club’s Hall of Fame: Betty Woolsey, Bill Ashley, Harry Baxter, Bill Briggs, Martin Hagen, Erich Wilbrecht, John Curtis, Pepi Stiegler, Pete Karns, Tommy Moe, Travis Rice and Resi Stiegler

Parks

Number of national parks in Teton County: 1.5 (all of Grand Teton and the southern half of Yellowstone) Other counties in the Lower 48 containing more than one national park: 1 (Kane County, Utah, with parts of Bryce and Zion national parks) Location of the largest concentration of geysers in the world: Upper Geyser Basin at Old Faithful in Yellowstone National Park Elevation of Yellowstone Lake, the largest high-altitude lake (above 7,000 feet) in the country: 7,733 feet Site of the largest log structure in the world: Old Faithful Inn in Yellowstone National Park


Sully, South Dakota). Percent of that income that came from dividends, interest and rent (not wages and salary): 52.7 Rank among all 3,113 U.S. counties: 2 (trailing Collier, Florida, location of Naples) Teton County mean household income in 2013: $107,054 Teton County median household income in 2013: $68,078 Average percent of income paid by Wyoming residents on their 2011 tax returns: 6.9 (lowest in nation) Amount, on average, from 1990 to 2009 that Wyoming received from the federal government per dollar paid in taxes: $1.37 2010 rank among all states in amount of federal aid received per capita: 2 (trailing Alaska)

Homes

2014 median single-family home price: $965,000 TRAVIS J. GARNER

Steam bellows from Clepsydra Geyser in Yellowstone National Park.

Estimated number of elk and bison that wintered on the National Elk Refuge this winter: 6,000 elk, 600 bison Number of feet a woman was standing from a bison in Yellowstone while getting her picture taken when she was gored by the wild animal in the spring of 2015: 3 2015 seven-day entrance fee for separate admissions into Yellowstone and Grand Teton National Parks: $30 ($50 for both) Percent of entrance fee revenue that goes toward repair and upkeep of park resources: 80

Money

Per capita personal income for Teton County residents in 2013: $105,821 Rank among all 3,113 U.S. counties: 4 (trailing New York’s borough of Manhattan and two counties with incredibly productive agricultural land: Williams, North Dakota, and

Price of home that the median income in Teton County could afford according to a housing study: $320,667 The last year in which the median home could be purchased by someone earning the median income: 1986 Teton County’s rank among all 3.113 U.S. counties in estimated median home value: 8 (behind Nantucket, Massachusetts; New York; Marin, California; San Francisco; San Mateo, California; Dukes, Massachusetts; and Falls Church, Virginia) Listed price of lowest-priced freemarket single-family home for sale as of May 20, 2015 (this same date applies to the following six figures): $625,000 (3 bed, 2 bath, 1,140 square feet, located in Cottonwood Park) Listed price of lowest-priced free market condominium for sale: $230,000 (1 bed, 1 bath, 429-square-foot studio, located in Jackson) Listed price of lowest-priced freemarket residential land for sale: $225,000 (9.3 acres in Alta) Listed price of highest-priced freemarket single-family home for sale:

$9,995,000 (5 bed, 6 baths, 12,029 square feet, located in Indian Springs Ranch) Listed price of highest-priced free-market condominium for sale: $1,545,000 (3 bed, 4 bath, 2,686-squarefoot townhome, located in Jackson) Listed price of highest-priced freemarket residential land for sale: $11 million (104 acres, located south of town at the Swinging Bridge) Listed price of highest-priced property of any sort: $35 million (563 acres with equestrian center in Spring Gulch)

People

Number of full-time Teton County residents in 2014, according to the U.S. Census Bureau: 22,930 Number of full-time Teton County residents in 2012: 21,704 Number of people claiming Teton County residency in 2012 for federal income tax purposes, according to the IRS: 27,490 Difference between Census Bureau and IRS tallies: 5,786 (27 percent) Median age of all Teton County residents in 2013: 36.7 Median age of white Teton County residents in 2013: 37.5 Median age of Hispanic Teton County residents in 2013: 28.4 Number of babies born in Teton County in 2013 for every death: 3.5 Birth-to-death ratio for Wyoming: 1.7 Teton County’s 2014 population rank among Wyoming’s 23 counties: 9 Teton County’s 2014 population rank out of all 3,131 U.S. counties: 1,691 Its rank in 2010: 1,774 Its rank among all 3,131 counties in percentage population growth between 2010-2014: 137 (top 5 percent) Estimated effective population in Teton County during summer season 2012: 60,282 Ratio of Teton County’s summer visitors or seasonal residents to year-round residents: 1.8-to-1

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demographics

In July 2010 the Census Bureau estimated that 21,290 people lived in Teton County. By July 1, 2014, that number had jumped to 22,930, an increase of 1,640 people in four years — a total growth of 7.7 percent, and a compounded annual growth rate of 1.9 percent. That growth rate was faster than that of the nation as a whole and was the second fastest in Wyoming during the first four years of the decade. Looking at only the years since 2012, Teton County has been Wyoming’s fastest-growing county. And despite the slow growth from 2010 to 2012, to date this decade’s population growth has been faster than that of the 1980s or 2000s. Why is this happening? Two reasons for two time periods. During 2010-12, most of Teton County’s population increase was due to births significantly outnumbering deaths. From 2012 to 2014, though, the biggest source of Teton County’s population growth was people moving to Teton County from other places in the United States. Why might this be? Two forces are likely at work. One of them is quality of life. During the first four years of this decade, Teton County’s growth rate placed it in the top 5 percent of all American counties. In 2012-14 it was in the top 2 percent. Many counties ahead of it were experiencing an energy boom or were located in warm climates. There’s a clear economic explanation for the former, and the latter re-enforces the “quality of life” argument. The second force has two components, both of which distinguish Teton County from its slower-growing peers. One of these qualities is Jackson Hole’s wildlife and environmental quality; other “peers” simply don’t compare. The other is Wyoming’s income tax laws, which are more fa-

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Jackson Hole Compass 2015 Edition

vorable than in most other states. That noted, peer communities in even tax-unfriendly states such as Massachusetts are also experiencing growth rates faster than the national average. This suggests there’s far more than simple economic selfinterest going on. Economics matter, but so too do environmental health and quality of life. How will our relatively rapid population growth affect Jackson Hole’s quality of life and environment? Taking the long-term view, market forces — in particular the number of people living here — will be the ultimate judge. If the environment stays healthy and the quality of life remains high, the county will continue to grow. Unfortunately, though, population growth is a horribly lagging indicator. As a result, if that growth ends up harming Teton County, its growth rate will not let us know until long after the deed is done.

Components of population growth, 2010-14 Between 2010 and 2014, Teton County’s population growth has been roughly split between “natural increase” (i.e., the number of people being born here minus residents who die) and immigration. Of those who have moved to Teton County from elsewhere, roughly four-fifths have come from elsewhere in the United States. US Census Bureau CHANGE FROM 2010 TO 2014 NATURAL INCREASE Births

1,071

Deaths

308

Total natural increase

763

MIGRATION International

185

Domestic

661

Total net migration

846

POPULATION CHANGE Total population change

1,636


Decennial population of Teton County, 1930-2010 The first census to measure Teton County’s population found 2,003 residents in 1930. The 2010 census found the county’s population more than 10 times greater, numbering 21,294. Nearly half of this growth has occurred since 1990. US Census Bureau 25,000

100%

20,000

80%

15,000

60%

10,000

40%

5,000

20%

1930

1940

1950

1960

1970

Population (left)

1980

1990

2000

2010

Growth since previous census (right)

Annual population of Teton County, 2010-14 Since 2010, Teton County’s population has grown 8 percent, the second fastest of any county in Wyoming and in the top 5 percent nationally. Forty-six percent of all Teton County residents live in the town of Jackson, which has grown slightly faster (9 percent) than the unincorporated county (7 percent). US Census Bureau 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000

2010

price chambers

Tracy McGuinness joins the crowd dancing to the music of Robert Randolph, a part of the JacksonHoleLive series of outdoor summer concerts at the base of Snow King Mountain.

2011

2012 Town of Jackson

2013

2014

Unincorporated county

Health insurance coverage, 2012-13 In 2013, when Obamacare was first coming online, roughly 1 in 5 Teton County residents lacked health insurance. That proportion was higher among working-age adults, especially those in households making less than $75,000. An estimated half of Teton County’s Latino population lacked health insurance, while only 15 percent of white residents did. US Census Bureau 2012 Total population

PERCENT POPULATION INSURED UNINSURED UNINSURED 22% 21,261 4,760 16,501

AGE

2013 Total population

PERCENT POPULATION INSURED UNINSURED UNINSURED 20% 21,511 4,371 17,140

AGE

Under 18

4,280

3,828

452

11%

Under 18

4,201

3,768

433

10%

18-64

14,928

10,736

4,192

28%

18-64

15,129

11,258

3,871

26%

65 and older

2,053

1,937

116

6%

65 and older

2,181

2,114

67

3%

ETHNICITY

ETHNICITY 17,559

14,697

2,862

16%

White

17,625

14,904

2,721

15%

3,101

1,235

1,866

60%

Hispanic

3,200

1,585

1,615

50%

Less than $25,000

1,705

1,202

503

29%

Less than $25,000

2,070

1,522

548

26%

$25,000-$49,999

4,206

2,511

1,695

40%

$25,000-$49,999

3,588

2,375

1,213

34%

$50,000-$74,999

4,654

3,380

1,274

27%

$50,000-$74,999

4,625

3,349

1,276

28%

$75,000-$99,999

3,903

3,354

549

14%

$75,000-$99,999

3,241

2,820

421

13%

$100,000 and more

6,793

6,080

713

10%

$100,000 and more

7,987

7,174

813

10%

White Hispanic HOUSEHOLD INCOME

HOUSEHOLD INCOME

2015 Edition Jackson Hole Compass

21


price chambers

Kiki Bochelle buys an assortment of vegetables from Amori Erickson of Robinson Family Farm and Ranch at the Farmers Market on Town Square. Nearly half of Teton County’s residents live in the town of Jackson.

Ethnicity of population, 1990-2010 In 1990, 98 percent of Teton County’s residents were white. Twenty years later that proportion dropped to 82 percent. The biggest shift in Teton County’s ethnicity occurred during the first decade of this century, when fully two-thirds of the county’s new residents were Latino. As a result of this influx, Teton County is one of Wyoming’s most ethnically diverse counties. US Census Bureau 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000

1990

2000 White

Latino

2010 Other

Population growth by ethnicity, 2010-14 From an ethnicity perspective, Teton County’s growth since 2010 has been driven mostly by nonwhite residents, a combination of Latinos and, to a lesser extent, other nonwhite ethnicities. Combining various data sets, it seems that much of the Latino growth is due to “natural” causes, while much of the white growth is due to immigration from within the U.S. US Census Bureau 2010

2011

2012

2013

White

17,499

19,095

17,611

17,673

1.0%

Hispanic

2,697

1,763

3,107

3,206

18.9%

Other Total population

22

Jackson Hole Compass 2015 Edition

2010-2013 GROWTH

606

253

608

696

14.9%

20,802

21,111

21,326

21,575

3.7%


Ethnicity of population by area, 2013 The town of Jackson is home to roughly 46 percent of Teton County’s residents and 79 percent of its nonwhite residents. Eighty-one percent of Teton County’s Hispanic residents and 74 percent of Teton County’s other nonwhite residents live within the town’s borders. As a result, the population of the town is 69 percent white; the rest of the county is 93 percent white. US Census Bureau 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000

Teton, WY

Jackson

Moose-Wilson Road

South Park

Hoback White

Rafter J Latino

Wilson

Alta

Teton Village

Rest of county

Other

Median age by ethnicity, 2013 Teton County’s overall median age is slightly lower than that of the nation and state. The town of Jackson’s is markedly lower. The younger ages hold true for Jackson Hole’s white and nonwhite populations alike. The town of Jackson’s lower median age is a function of the large number of nonwhite people living in the town. As is the case for the nation and state, the median age of Jackson Hole’s males is younger than that of Jackson Hole females. US Census Bureau 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5

United States

Wyoming

Teton County White

Total

Jackson

Hispanic

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Age pyramid for Teton County, 2013 Teton County is home to roughly 1,050 more males than females. Roughly 80 percent of the gender gap lies in the three categories spanning the 25- to 39-year-old cohort, i.e., the most active dating years. Hence Jackson Hole’s noted “ratio” of men outnumbering women. In other age brackets, the numbers are much more equal. US Census Bureau 1,500 1,200 900 600 300 0 -300 -600 -900 -1,200 -1,500

<5

5-9

10-14

15-19

20-24

25-29

30-34

35-39

40-44

45-49

Female

Male

50-54

55-59

60-64

65-69

70-74

75-79

80-84

>=85

Marital status by gender, 2013 Teton County has roughly 1.5 unmarried men for every unmarried woman. That ratio is higher than that of either the state or nation as a whole. Similarly, roughly equal numbers of Teton County men are married and unmarried. That is very different than the nation or state. US Census Bureau 100% 80% 60% 40% 20%

United States - Male

United States - Female

Wyoming - Male Never married

Wyoming - Female Married

Widowed

Teton County - Male

Teton County - Female

Divorced

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Jackson Hole Compass 2015 Edition


economy

price chambers

Jackson Hole Treehouse, which started in Teton Village, opened a store at 50 W. Broadway in the Pink Garter Plaza in 2014. It’s a sign of Teton County’s thriving economy that jobs are being created left and right.

In the grand sweep of Jackson Hole’s natural history, what happens to the economy in any one year, decade or even century doesn’t matter much. However what happens to the economy in any given year — or quarter, for that matter — matters greatly to many of those living here now, so the economy is measured more closely and frequently than any other local occurrence or phenomenon. This disparity in scrutiny is particularly striking for a place like Jackson Hole, whose economic wellbeing is so closely linked to the environment and whose economy ultimately can be no healthier than that of the environment in which the community lies. Over the long run, attempts to “balance” the economy and environment invariably work to the disadvantage of the environ-

ment, because environmental cycles and time frames work at much slower speeds than economic ones. Throw in the fact that we pay attention to what we measure and ignore what we don’t or can’t measure, and you’ve got a surefire recipe for environmental degradation. In practice this means that in a fundamentally healthy environment such as Jackson Hole’s, it’s hard to argue against doing a little bit of incremental harm to the ecosystem if it means the difference between an investment succeeding or failing. The former is very gray and very slow moving; the latter is black and white and is occurring in the moment. Plus there’s usually a human face associated with an investment, making it that much harder to say “no.” Yet as has been seen in compromised ecosystems the world over, incremental harms add up over time. In the moment, though, Teton County’s environment and economy

both seem to be quite healthy, thank you. Take for example taxable sales. Even though they are far from a complete indicator of economic performance, taxable sales are the most consistent and regularly measured of Teton County’s economic indicators. Led by the lodging and retail sectors, they have been setting alltime records every month since August 2014. Further, since local taxable sales tend to follow the pattern of the stock market, it seems likely that that portion of the local economy will continue to grow handsomely for at least another year. Another sign of the county’s thriving economy is that jobs are being created left and right. It’s hard to imagine a scenario where someone who wants to work and has a place to live wouldn’t be able to find a job. And given how desperate some employers are becoming for workers, even the lack of housing might not be too big a constraint.

2015 Edition Jackson Hole Compass

25


employment

price chambers

Robert Fry unloads a nut grinder at Lucky’s Market. Lucky’s opened in March in a Powerhorn Mall space formerly occupied by Jackson Whole Grocer, which moved in 2014 to larger quarters on South Highway 89.

Jobs by employment type, 1973-2013

Total jobs per capita, 1969-2012

One consequence of Wyoming’s agricultural economy is that a higher proportion of its workers are self-employed than are the nation’s. That has been true for Teton County as well, but the reasons differ. It has a little to do with agriculture and a lot to do with real estate, construction and service industry jobs, especially professional services. Bureau of Economic Analysis

Teton County’s tourism economy requires a lot of employees. As a result, the county has always had far more jobs per capita than the state or nation. In the mid-1980s — at roughly the same time as housing prices began to disconnect from wages — the number of jobs in Teton County first exceeded one for every resident, regardless of age or work status. Bureau of Economic Analysis

100%

1.5 1.2 0.9 0.6 0.3

80%

1969

1974

1979

1984 Teton County

1989

1994

1999

2004

2009

United States

Wyoming

Mean wage per job, 1969-2013

60%

Because the business model of the tourism industry requires large numbers of low-paid employees, Teton County’s mean wage per job lags behind those of the nation and state. This despite the fact that, thanks to the county’s large amount of investment income, Teton County regularly ranks as one of the nation’s wealthiest. Bureau of Economic Analysis

40%

$60,000 $50,000 $40,000

20%

$30,000 $20,000 $10,000 1973 1993 2013 United States

1973

1993 2013 Wyoming

Wage and salary jobs

26

1973 1993 2013 Teton County

Self-employed jobs

Jackson Hole Compass 2015 Edition

1969

1974

1979

1984 Teton County

1989 Wyoming

1994

1999 United States

2004

2009


personal income Personal income, total and per capita, 1969-2013 After taking a steep drop following the recession, Teton County’s personal income — both overall and per capita — rebounded sharply in the years 2010-12. In 2013, growth flattened out, particularly on a per capita basis as the county’s population swelled. Bureau of Economic Analysis $3,000,000

$150,000

$2,500,000

$125,000

$2,000,000

$100,000

$1,500,000

$75,000

$1,000,000

$50,000

$500,000

$25,000

1969

1974

1979

1984

1989

1994

Per capita personal income (right)

1999

2004

2009

Total personal income (left)

Per capita personal income, 1969-2013 Teton County’s per capita personal income began to diverge from those of the state and nation in the late 1980s and has continued to do so since. Even during the worst part of the recession, the county’s per capita income was roughly twice that of the state and nation, where it remained in 2013. Bureau of Economic Analysis $150,000

Per capita personal income by type, 1973-2013 In 2013, Teton County’s per capita income was $105,821. Its per capita income from investments alone was $55,725, a figure greater than the entire per capita income for either the nation ($44,765) or the state ($52,827). Bureau of Economic Analysis $120,000

$100,000

$120,000 $80,000 $90,000 $60,000

$60,000

$30,000

$40,000

1969

1974

1979

1984

1989

Teton County

1994

1999

2004

2009

United States

Wyoming

$20,000

Total personal income by type, 1969-2013 The most volatile portion of Teton County residents’ income is investments. In 1981, investments accounted for more than 30 percent of residents’ total income for the first time. In 1994 they hit the 40 percent mark. In 2004 they went over 50 percent. In 2013 they were 51 percent. Bureau of Economic Analysis

1973 1993 2013 1973 1993 2013 1973 1993 2013 United States Wyoming Teton County Wages and self-employment

Retirement

Investments

$2,000,000

$1,500,000

$1,000,000

$500,000

1969

1974

1979 Investments

1984

1989 Wages

1994

Self-employment income

1999

2004

2009

Pensions

2015 Edition Jackson Hole Compass

27


taxable sales

price chambers

Renovations at the Wort Hotel’s Silver Dollar Bar finished up at the end of May. Changes include a new second bar — here still awaiting its silver dollars — as well as a large dance floor and more seating.

Total taxable sales, 12-month running totals from June 2005-April 2015 Since the summer of 2013, Teton County’s total taxable sales have been very strong. As a result, in the summer of 2014 the 12-month running total of sales broke the pre-recession high of $1.106 billion. Sales have continued to set new records every month since. Wyoming Department of Revenue $1,500,000,000 $1,200,000,000 $900,000,000 $600,000,000 $300,000,000 June 2005

June 2006

June 2007

June 2008 June 2009

June 2010

June 2011

June 2012

June 2013

June 2014

Taxable sales by category, 12-month running totals from June 2005-April 2015 The resurgence of taxable sales has been led by the lodging and retail sectors. Hotels were able to bump their room rates up in the wake of Ski Magazine labeling Jackson Hole as America’s top ski resort for the winter of 2013-14, and have been able to keep them high since. An improved national economy has also benefited local retailers. Wyoming Department of Revenue $350,000,000 $300,000,000 $250,000,000 $200,000,000 $150,000,000 $100,000,000 $50,000,000 June 2005

June 2006

June 2007 Retail

28

Jackson Hole Compass 2015 Edition

June 2008 Other

June 2009 Lodging

June 2010 Restaurants

June 2011

June 2012

Construction

June 2013 Autos

June 2014


Total taxable sales, average per month from 2005-14 Wyomingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s hopelessly convoluted system for collecting and accounting for sales taxes makes it impossible to say with total confidence exactly when sales occur. That noted, looking at the last 10 calendar years, in a typical year roughly 47 percent of all taxable sales occurred in the four summer months of June to September, 26 percent in the four winter months of December to March, and a similar 27 percent in the four shoulder months of April, May, October and November. Wyoming Department of Revenue $150,000,000 $120,000,000 $90,000,000 $60,000,000 $30,000,000 January

February

March

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

November

December

Total taxable sales by location, 12-month running totals from September 2012-April 2015 In the 12 months ending in September 2012, 53 percent of Teton Countyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s taxable sales occurred in the unincorporated areas of the county, 37 percent in the town of Jackson and 9 percent in Teton Village. Thirty-one months later the proportions were similar: 52 percent, 37 percent and 10 percent. Wyoming Department of Revenue

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March 2013

June 2013

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Lodging tax collections, monthly and 12-month running totals from May 2011-April 2015 It took the lodging tax about 18 months to get up to speed. Once it did, collections were flat for about a year. When Jackson Hole won the Ski Magazine “2014 No. 1 Ski Resort” title and hotels raised their rates, lodging tax collections went up, too. As a result collections today are 25 percent higher than they were two years ago. Wyoming Department of Revenue $6,000,000

$1,200,000

$5,000,000

$1,000,000

$4,000,000

$800,000

$3,000,000

$600,000

$2,000,000

$400,000

$1,000,000

$200,000

May 2011

Nov. 2011

May 2012

Nov. 2012

Monthly collection (left)

W

All

May 2013

Nov. 2013

Tourism promotion

Visitor impact

May 2014

Nov. 2014

General fund

hen he spoke in Jackson Hole last fall, the writ- perform. er Barry Lopez posed the question: “If we are From that perspective, where will we be in 10 years? able to listen to the artist today … how can we My hope is twofold. One is that we — not just as an arts not help but become a wiser country?” community, but the community as a whole — will unite Let’s think for a moment about reasons why we in the in a shared desire to make Jackson Hole an arts destinaTeton region might want to listen to the artist. tion. The related hope is that Jackson Hole will grow its Jackson Hole’s arts community has great depth and nascent national presence in the arts world and come to breadth, in visual arts, performing arts, the written word, exemplify community engagement with the arts. public art. I’m optimistic we can do this, beThe directory put out by the Comcause I’m optimistic about the quality munity Foundation of Jackson Hole and energy of our artists and our arts lists 38 “arts and culture” nonprofit organizations. It won’t be easy, howorganizations, with budgets ranging ever, because the very nature of art is from a few thousand dollars to sevthat things are rarely easy. Art can be eral millions. In addition, many other messy; art can be controversial; and, nonprofits hold arts events or sales. especially in a setting as beautiful as Thirty local businesses are members of Jackson Hole, art can be taken for the Jackson Hole Gallery Association. granted. Then consider the restaurants that sell But art is also integral to who we art and the businesses that stage live are as a species, a reality we ignore at music and theater. Throw in a growing our peril. Maybe not in the sense of our Jim McNutt, Ph.D. public art effort and the Jackson Hole mortality, but certainly in the sense of arts scene would be considered vibrant in a community allowing us to fulfill ourselves as people. many times our size. In that spirit, my hope is that we don’t take art for Consider, too, the quality and array of our arts in- granted. If no art existed, think about how many things frastructure. Between the National Museum of Wildlife would disappear. Not just masterpieces of music, paintArt, the Center for the Arts and the Grand Teton Music ing, sculpture and the like, but the everyday things that Festival’s Walk Festival Hall, we have roughly 3.5 acres make life richer: your favorite coffee mug, that special of arts facilities under roof. Add the library, our schools, piece of furniture, the dress or pair of pants that captures the Pink Garter Plaza, the Jackson Hole Playhouse, our who you are. movie theaters and art galleries, and the many venues Art enables everything we do. And even if we are not for live music, and the embarrassment of arts infrastruc- consciously aware of that we know it instinctively. So do ture riches becomes greater still. our visitors. By asking about their experiences, we invite Despite all this, space is tight for the arts community them to learn ours. And as we become more aware of that — just as it is for everyone else. I have heard repeated reality, it will allow us to give our visitors a distinctive stories of younger artists looking for spaces to work, experience, one combining environment, community and and larger arts organizations are no exception. Visual art. Given where we live, this is our singular opportunity. and performing arts individuals and organizations are — Jim McNutt is the president and CEO of the frequently looking for spaces to display their work or to National Museum of Wildlife Art

30

Jackson Hole Compass 2015 Edition


Lodging tax related sales by location, 12-month running totals from September 2012-April 2015 Teton Village is responsible for a much bigger share of lodging sales than overall taxable sales, a function of its higher-end inventory of hotel rooms. In the most recent 12-month period Teton Village accounted for 24 percent of Teton County’s lodging sales versus just 10 percent of overall taxable sales. Wyoming Department of Revenue $120,000,000 $100,000,000 $80,000,000 $60,000,000 $40,000,000 $20,000,000

Sept. 2012

March 2013

Sept. 2013

March 2014

Unincorporated county

Sept. 2014

March 2015

Teton Village

Jackson

Sales subject to Teton Village Resort Tax, 12-month running totals from July 2005-April 2015 In 2004 the Teton Village Resort District came into being, allowing businesses to levy an additional 2 percent tax on all taxable sales. Currently the tax generates over $2.5 million annually for the Resort District, money that is used for infrastructure and other improvements to the village. Wyoming Department of Revenue $150,000,000

$120,000,000

$90,000,000

$60,000,000

$30,000,000

July 2005 Jan. 2006 July 2006 Jan. 2007 July 2007 Jan. 2008 July 2008 Jan. 2009 July 2009 Jan. 2010 July 2010 Jan. 2011 July 2011 Jan. 2012 July 2012 Jan. 2013 July 2013 Jan. 2014 July 2014 Jan. 2015

Sales subject to Teton Village Resort Tax by category, 12-month running totals from July 2005-April 2015 Not surprisingly Teton Village’s lodging businesses generate the bulk of the Resort District’s proceeds. Currently the figure stands at 47 percent; at its pre-recession peak it was 72 percent. Perhaps most striking is the surge of the Teton Village restaurant scene. In April 2010 the sales in Teton Village’s restaurants totaled $10 million. Five years later the figure was $35 million. Wyoming Department of Revenue $80,000,000 $70,000,000 $60,000,000 $50,000,000 $40,000,000 $30,000,000 $20,000,000 $10,000,000 July 2005 Jan. 2006 July 2006 Jan. 2007 July 2007 Jan. 2008 July 2008 Jan. 2009 July 2009 Jan. 2010 July 2010 Jan. 2011 July 2011 Jan. 2012 July 2012 Jan. 2013 July 2013 Jan. 2014 July 2014 Jan. 2015 Lodging

Restaurants

Retail

Other

2015 Edition Jackson Hole Compass

31


tourism

jonathan crosby

Tourists watch Old Faithful Geyser, which is in the northern part of Teton County, erupt in Yellowstone National Park on a Sunday morning.

National park recreational visits, 12-month running totals, January 2000-April 2015 Visits to Grand Teton and Yellowstone national parks have been basically flat the past several years. There was a dip in the fall of 2013, for which we can thank our representatives in Congress for shutting down the government. Beyond that the simple reality is that the parks are just about at their carrying capacity for visitors. National Park Service 4,000,000 3,500,000 3,000,000 2,500,000 2,000,000 1,500,000 1,000,000 500,000

Jan. 2000

Jan. 2001

Jan. 2002

Jan. 2003

Jan. 2004

Jan. 2005

Jan. 2006

Jan. 2007

Yellowstone National Park

32

Jackson Hole Compass 2015 Edition

Jan. 2008

Jan. 2009

Grand Teton National Park

Jan. 2010

Jan. 2011

Jan. 2012

Jan. 2013

Jan. 2014

Jan. 2015


Annual skier days at Jackson Hole Mountain Resort, Grand Targhee and Snow King, 1966-2014 After four years of increasing skier days, Jackson Hole Mountain Resort saw a dip in its skier days during the 2014-15 season. Numbers suffered because of low snowfall, but were the resort’s second-highest ever because our snow was better than in most places. Grand Targhee Resort also benefited from the same phenomenon, setting an all-time skier-day mark of 175,630. Ski areas 600,000 500,000 400,000 300,000 200,000 100,000 1966

1971

1976

1981 Jackson Hole Mountain Resort

1986

1991

1996

Best fit line for Jackson Hole Mountain Resort

Grand Targhee

2001

2006

2011

Snow King

Jackson Hole Airport enplanements, 12-month running totals, January 2000-April 2015 The number of enplanements at Jackson Hole Airport has remained steady over the past year or so, rising slightly but not too much. As officials hone the airline support program, the average percentage of seats occupied on flights is going up even faster. The supply of airline seats is becoming increasingly constrained not just in Jackson Hole but nationwide, making flying increasingly more expensive. Jackson Hole Airport 350,000 300,000 250,000 200,000 150,000 100,000 50,000 Jan. 2000

Jan. 2001

Jan. 2002

Jan. 2003

Jan. 2004

Jan. 2005

Jan. 2006

Jan. 2007

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housing

For all the sturm und drang about the housing situation in Teton County, perhaps the most interesting aspect of it all is how little we actually know. For example, we don’t know how many housing units we actually have. Every 10 years the U.S. Census Bureau does a physical count of our housing stock, and every year they do an estimate. According to the 2010 count, Teton County had 12,813 homes, 70 percent of which were occupied by year-round residents. According to the Census Bureau’s estimate for 2013 the total number of homes had increased by 313, or 2.4 percent. It also estimated that the homes occupied by year-round residents had dropped to 59 percent. Given the county’s population and development dynamics, both of the census’s estimates — that our total housing stock had increased by just 313 homes in four years, and that the number of our homes that were permanently occupied had dropped significantly — seem doubtful at best. Making matters far worse is that we can’t use local data to confirm or debunk the census figures. For example, by the county’s estimate the number of homes in Teton County is just shy of 11,000, or nearly 2,000 fewer than the census estimates. Hard to reconcile such wildly different counts, much less be confident that we really know what our housing stock is. And because the town and county use different systems for issuing and recording building permits, it has never been easy to accurately track the total amount of construction going on in the county. Given the importance of construction to the local economy and the tremendous angst about our building patterns, it is a complete mystery why this fundamental data problem has never been addressed. However, it hasn’t. Similarly, because by law property sales prices in Wyoming are private, we don’t know precisely how large our real estate market is. We can guess at the figures, and efforts such as the Jackson Hole Report

34

Jackson Hole Compass 2015 Edition

Total housing units by occupancy, 1940-2010 Teton County had 801 housing units in 1940. By 2010 that number had increased 15-fold, to total 12,813. During that same period the number of permanent residents increased half as quickly. As a result only 70 percent of Teton County’s housing stock is occupied full time. US Census Bureau 15,000

12,000

9,000

6,000

3,000

1940

1950

1960

1970

1980

Occupied

Vacant

(the source of the Compass’s real estate data) do a good job estimating the overall market. But the simple reality is that in many fundamental areas, when it comes to understanding our real estate and development

1990

2000

2010

markets, the community is flying blind. It’s tough to make solid plans about the future if you’re not sure where you are, much less the progress you’re making toward whatever goal it is you’ve happened to set.


Total housing units by location, 2000 and 2010 In 2010 37 percent of Teton County’s housing units were in the town of Jackson. No other census sub-area had more than 11 percent. During the decade of the 2000s 40 percent of Teton County’s 2,186 new housing units were built in the town of Jackson. US Census Bureau 5,000

4,000

3,000

2,000

1,000

Jackson

Moose-Wilson Road

Hoback and South Park

Wilson 2000

Teton Village

Rafter J

Alta

Rest of county

2010

Occupancy status of housing units by area, 2010 In 2010 70 percent of Teton County’s housing stock was permanently occupied. An estimated 26 percent was either second homes or used for short-term rentals. Rafter J has the highest proportion of permanently occupied homes, at 92 percent. Teton Village has the lowest, at 32 percent. US Census Bureau 5,000

4,000

3,000

price chambers

2,000

In partnership with Terra Resorts and Four Seasons, Jackson Hole Mountain Resort is building extensive employee housing on Powderhorn Lane.

1,000

Jackson

Moose-Wilson Road

Hoback and South Park

Wilson

Occupied

Teton Village

Rafter J

2nd home and vacation rentals

Alta

Rest of county

Other

Home ownership status, 2010 Teton County has a lower percentage of home ownership than the nation or state. In 2010 43 percent of Teton County residents lived in homes they rented. Within the town of Jackson over three-fifths of all people lived in rental housing; in the unincorporated areas of the county barely one-quarter did. US Census Bureau 100%

80%

60%

40%

20%

United States

Wyoming Own with a mortgage

Teton County Own without a mortgage

Town of Jackson

Unincorporated county

Rent

2015 Edition Jackson Hole Compass

35


Mean residents per housing unit by location and ethnicity, 2010 Top 20 US counties median single-family home value, 2013 This chart shows the top 20 counties for median single home value. For the past decade-plus, Teton County’s housing values have consistently ranked among America’s top 20, and usually in the top 10. US Census Bureau, ACS 5-Year PLACE

COUNTY

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

Nantucket, MA New York, NY Marin, CA San Francisco, CA San Mateo, CA Dukes, MA Falls Church (city), VA Teton, WY Santa Clara, CA Pitkin, CO Arlington, VA Santa Cruz, CA Kings, NY Honolulu, HI Maui, HI Orange, CA Westchester, NY Alameda, CA Kauai, HI San Juan, WA

VALUE $929,700 $828,100 $781,900 $744,600 $722,200 $665,300 $660,900 $660,100 $645,600 $611,200 $584,600 $557,500 $557,100 $556,300 $523,700 $519,600 $518,400 $493,800 $484,500 $472,900

The number of occupants in the average Teton County residence is 2.3, slightly below the national and state averages. Throughout the county the average ranges from 1.9 in Teton Village to 2.6 in Alta and South Park. Teton County’s Hispanic residents live in households two-thirds larger than its white residents, an average of 3.7 people per residence versus 2.2. US Census Bureau 4.0 3.5 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 Alta

South Park

Hoback

Jackson

Rafter J Moose-Wilson Wilson Road Hispanic

Total

Teton Village

Teton County

Wyoming

United States

White

Total residential property sales, 1992-2014 In 2014 the total number of residential properties sold in Teton County — a combination of single-family homes, condominiums and residential lots — declined for the first time in five years. The total of 555 properties sold was the second-highest figure since the recession, but 15 percent below 2013’s total of 654. Jackson Hole Report 1,200

$1,800

1,000

$1,500

800

$1,200

600

$900

400

$600

200

$300 1992

1994

1996

1998

2000

Number of sales (left)

2002

2004

Mean price (right)

2006

2008

2010

2012

2014

Total sales volume (right x 1,000)

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Single-family home sales, 1992-2014 In 2014 free market single-family home sales mirrored the pattern of overall property sales, with total sales declining 19 percent to 240. Mean and median prices continued to rise (to $1.7 million and $965,000), but due to declining sales, overall dollar volume was down. Jackson Hole Report 400

$2,000

350 $1,500

300 250

$1,000

200 150

$500

100 50 1992

1994

1996

1998

2000

2002

Number of sales (left)

2004

Mean price (right)

2006

2008

2010

2012

2014

Total sales volume (right x 1,000)

Condominium sales, 1992-2014 2014â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s condominium market was essentially flat. Total sales slumped 10 percent, and during the year both mean and median prices increased less than 10 percent. Jackson Hole Report 500

$1,500

400

$1,200

300

$900

200

$600

100

$300 1992

1994

1996

1998

2000 Number of sales (left)

2002

2004

Mean price (right)

2006

2008

2010

2012

2014

Total sales volume (right x 1,000)

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education

The differences between Teton County and the rest of the state of Wyoming are manifold.

38

Jackson Hole Compass 2015 Edition

Teton County School District No.1 enrollment, 2003-14 During the school year starting in 2003, a total of 2,296 students were enrolled in Teton County’s nine public schools. By 2014 the number had increased to 2,691, a 17 percent increase. During that period, elementary school enrollments increased 42 percent, middle school enrollments increased 6 percent, and high school enrollments declined 8 percent. Wyoming Department of Education

growing faster than the proportion of Wyoming residents. Perhaps coincidentally, this change began about the time that Wyoming doubled down on its dependence on mineral extraction. In 1991 changes to the Clean Air Act gave Wyoming’s coal industry a huge shot in the arm, and we haven’t looked back since. However, many mineral extraction-related jobs do not require college degrees.

614

1,445

578 1,405

534 633

536 636

667 551

1,320

2008

523 639

523 654

498 687

2007 Elementary school

1,277

2006

1,238

2005

1,155

2004

1,117

2003

1,085

503 690

482 751

1,029

500

1,032

1,000

499 735

1,500

1,036

2,000

544 731

2,500

574 672

3,000

1,021

In few areas is this as apparent as in education. For example: • One in 2 Teton County adults has a bachelor’s degree or higher. Statewide, it’s 1 in 4. • Of the 44 private schools in Wyoming, only two are secular schools offering a college-prep curriculum. Both are in Teton County: the Jackson Hole Community School and the Journeys School of the Teton Science Schools. • Historically, Teton County’s students score higher than the average on Wyoming’s standardized tests, and its public high schools have a higher graduation rate than the statewide average. Also historically, many jobs in the professions that are core to Wyoming’s self-identity — in particular agriculture and minerals — have been accessible to people without a college degree or other formal training. Perhaps as a result, Wyoming has never put the same emphasis on higher education as many other states. For example, Wyoming has only two colleges offering a bachelor’s degree or higher: the University of Wyoming and Wyoming Catholic College. (It also has nine colleges offering associate degrees.) In contrast, Vermont —the second least-populous state in the union, with a population only 7 percent larger than Wyoming’s — has 23 colleges, 18 of which offer a bachelor’s degree or higher. Interestingly, in the latter part of the 20th century Wyoming appeared to put more emphasis on higher education than it does today. In 1980, 17 percent of Wyoming’s adults had a bachelor’s degree or higher, compared with 16 percent for the nation as a whole. Ten years later the situation was reversed, with 20 percent of American adults holding a bachelor’s degree or higher compared with 19 percent of Wyoming adults. Since then the gap has widened, with the proportion of Americans with a bachelor’s degree or higher

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

Middle school

High school

Today only two of Wyoming’s 23 counties have a higher proportion of college graduates than the nation as a whole: Teton and Albany (the location of the University of Wyoming). Eliminate these two counties from the equation, and Wyoming’s proportion of adults with a bachelor’s degree or higher falls from 24.7 percent to 22.7 percent, 20 percent below the national average.


High school enrollment, 2013-14 Jackson Hole has four high schools. Two are public: Jackson Hole High School and Summit High School. Two are private: the Jackson Hole Community School (grades 9-12) and the Journeys School of the Teton Science Schools (pre-K-12th grade). All four schools saw an enrollment increase between the 2013-14 and 2014-15 school years. Wyoming Department of Education, Journeys School, Jackson Hole Community School 800 700 600 500 400 300

Jackson Hole High School

Summitt High School

Journeys School 2013

101

93

205

181

68

52

562

100

604

200

Jackson Hole Community School

2014

Total enrollment by ethnicity, 2003-14 During the 2003-04 school year, the 2,296 students enrolled in the Teton County School District were 86 percent white, 12 percent Latino, and 2 percent other. By the 2014-15 school year, enrollment had grown to 2,691, a 17 percent increase. The ethnic mix had shifted to 65 percent white, 32 percent Latino, and 3 percent other. Twelve percent fewer white students, nearly three times as many Latino students and more than twice as many non-white, non-Latino students were enrolled in 2014-15 than in 2003-04, . Wyoming Department of Education 86 1,747

858

86

2011

2012

2013

2014

791 1,720

82 1,680

2010

725

682 1,679

88

101 659 1,696

95 606

547 55

496 52

431 60

363 48

2,000

317 37

2,500

276 35

3,000

1,500

1,731

1,722

1,692

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

White

1,616

1,854

500

1,916

1,000 1,985

BRADLY j. boner

Jackson Hole High School’s class of 2014 toss their caps at commencement.

2009 Hispanic

Other

Ethnicity by school level, 2003-14 Between the school years starting in 2003 and 2014, the biggest growth in Jackson Hole’s public schools has been at the in-town elementary level, with an increase of 60 percent in 11 years. Seventy-one percent of the 422 additional students were Latino, a reflection of changes in Jackson Hole’s birth patterns. Similarly, during that same period the Jackson Hole Middle school has gone from 9 percent Latino to 32 percent and Jackson Hole’s public high schools from 8 percent to 28 percent Latino. Wyoming Department of Education, Journeys School, Jackson Hole Community School JACKSON ELEMENTARIES 2003 2003 JACKSON ELEMENTARIES 704

2003 JACKSON HOLE MIDDLE SCHOOL 533

2014 JACKSON ELEMENTARIES 1,126

2003 JACKSON HIGH SCHOOLS 731

2014 JACKSON HOLE MIDDLE SCHOOL 571

White

Hispanic

2014 JACKSON HIGH SCHOOLS 672

Other

2014

White 531 632 Hispanic 162 462 Other 11 32 JACKSON HOLE MIDDLE SCHOOL 2003 2014 White 478 Hispanic 49 Other 6 JACKSON HIGH SCHOOLS 2003

2014

White Hispanic Other

457 191 24

667 59 5

370 182 19

2015 Edition Jackson Hole Compass

39


Teton County School District No.1 revenue by source, 2014 The vast majority of the funding for Teton County’s public schools comes from local property taxes. In the school year starting in 2003, the district’s total revenues were $22.8 million, or $9,951 per student. By the school year starting in 2014, the district’s revenues had nearly doubled to $41.8 million, $16,100 per student. Wyoming Department of Education $50,000,000 $40,000,000 $30,000,000 $20,000,000 $10,000,000

-$10,000,000

2001-02

2002-03

2003-04

2004-05

2005-06

2006-07

2007-08

Local property taxes

2008-09

2009-10

2010-11

2011-12

2012-13

2013-14

State of Wyoming

Teton County School District No. 1 expenditure by type, 2014 The vast majority of the expenditures by the Teton County School District go to salaries and benefits. Between the 2002 and 2013 school years the district’s total expenditures for salaries and benefits more than doubled, giving local teachers and administrators a better chance at being able to afford local housing costs. Wyoming Department of Education $50,000,000 $40,000,000 $30,000,000 $20,000,000 $10,000,000 2001-02

2002-03

2003-04

2004-05

2005-06

2006-07

Salaries and benefits

2007-08 Supplies and materials

2008-09

2009-10

2010-11

2011-12

2012-13

2013-14

Capital and other

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High school graduation rate, 2007-14 Over the past several years, Teton County’s public high schools have done a much better job than the state as a whole of graduating students within four years of starting high school. In the 2013-14 school year, the district reached a recent high in graduating almost 96 percent of high school students within four years. Wyoming Department of Education 100% 80% 60%

2007-08

2008-09

2009-10

2010-11

Wyoming

2011-12

2012-13

95.7%

78.6%

89.0%

77.6%

81.4%

78.9%

87.9%

79.7%

93.0%

80.4%

90.9%

81.4%

79.3%

20%

86.7%

40%

2013-14

Teton County School District No.1

PAWS testing scores for 4th and 8th grades, 2011-14 The state of Wyoming uses a standardized testing system called PAWS (Proficiency Assessments for Wyoming Students) to assess its students. As the political winds blow hither and yon, the state keeps changing the PAWS tests, often making it problematic to compare one year’s scores with another’s. Between 2013 and 2014, the math and reading tests changed, although the science test remained the same. Regardless, Teton County’s public school students routinely exceed the state averages. Wyoming Department of Education 4TH GRADE - TETON COUNTY

8TH GRADE - TETON COUNTY 2011

2012

2013

2014

2011

2012

2013

2014

Math

87%

87%

87%

50%

Math

77%

85%

87%

64%

Reading

85%

83%

84%

69%

Reading

87%

87%

87%

63%

Science

65%

84%

68%

63%

Science

64%

72%

68%

60%

2011

2012

2013

2014

2011

2012

2013

2014

Math

81%

82%

81%

47%

Math

71%

73%

67%

50%

Reading

84%

83%

78%

64%

Reading

77%

78%

76%

58%

Science

55%

63%

58%

53%

Science

51%

51%

44%

47%

4TH GRADE - WYOMING

8TH GRADE - WYOMING

Adult (25 and older) education level, 2013 As of 2013, 29 percent of all American adults had a bachelor’s degree or higher. In Wyoming, the figure was only 25 percent. In Teton County, it was just shy of 50 percent — i.e., 60 percent higher than the nation as a whole and twice the statewide average. US Census Bureau 3% 29%

UNITED STATES

TETON COUNTY

28% 49%

8% 26%

25%

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Contact CRC at

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38% Less than high school

High School graduate

Some college / Associate’s Degree

Bachelor’s Degree or higher

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Jackson, Wyoming

Wednesday, August 27, 2014

One dollar

s

Smack is back, police suspect

Almost lAst roundup

It’s not widespread, but cops point to several recent heroin overdoses and arrests in Jackson. By Emma Breysse

SOFIA JARAMILLO / NEWS&GUIDE

Participants get ready while others chat Aug. 13 before the Jackson Hole Rodeo. The final three rodeos of the season are tonight, Friday and Saturday at the Teton County rodeo arena.

St. John’s race is packed Including incumbents, the field for four trustee seats totals seven. By Ben Graham The race for four seats on the St. John’s Medical Center board of trustees is shaping up to be a crowded and competitive one. Three challengers — Susan Crosser, Frank Lyons and Dina Mishev — have applied to run. They join four incumbents: Joe Albright, Barbara Herz, Elizabeth Masek and Michael Tennican. The filing period for the race ended Monday. The general election is scheduled for Nov. 4. Crosser is the only nonincumbent who joined the race out of worry about how the hospital is being run. “The community has been subjected to bad governance for way too many years,” Crosser said. She mentioned the overbudget hospital expansion project that was built without a staff housing plan and based on patient volume projections that were

far off the mark. Crosser also pointed to the 2012 decision by trustees to continue paying departed Chief Executive Pam Maples $25,000 a month for consulting services that she didn’t provide and accused the board of an overall lack of transparency. “I gave up going to the dog and pony show because it was clear that nothing of substance actually takes place during the public board meetings,” Crosser said. If elected, Crosser said she would work to bring issues that should be discussed in public to the public. Trustees hold an hourlong executive session before every public board meeting. Executive sessions are allowed under Wyoming law to discuss litigation, personnel matters, land purchases or matters of national security, according to state law. “If something occurs in executive session that I believe the public needs to be informed of, I would consider it my job to inform them,” Crosser said. The 57-year-old Wilson resident also has complained

Bringing the ’80s back has taken on a more sinister connotation now that local law officers agree that smack is back in Jackson Hole. Police have spent the past year chasing rumors that only recently have become more concrete. Three arrests in the past month seem to provide proof that heroin is re-entering Jackson’s drug community after a long absence. “We’ve been contacted over the past year to a year and a half by concerned people within the medical and counseling communities that they’ve been seeing an increase in the number of people with symptoms of heroin overdose and addiction,” Sgt. Tom Combs of the Teton County Sheriff ’s Office said. “There have been rumors for the past year, but it’s just now that it’s been getting to the point where we’re seeing it, too.” Jackson physician Brent Blue saw his first cases of heroin overdose in at least 30 years during the last months of 2013, he said earlier in the year. Private practice doctors as well as those staffing the emergency room at St. John’s Medical Center tipped off police that the heroin hiatus might be at an end, putting the highly addictive opioid on officers’ radar, Sgt. Russ Ruschill of the Jackson Police See HerOIn on 22A

See HOSpItAl on 22A

Wilsonites sue to kill political contribution limit They claim law violates U.S. Supreme Court’s cash-is-speech ruling. By Michael Polhamus A Wilson couple have sued the state of Wyoming to strike down limits on how much money donors can give to political candidates during an election cycle.

State law prohibits donors from giving more than $25,000 to candidates over a two-year period. Wilson residents Daniel and Carleen Brophy are approaching that limit, and have sued Wyoming Secretary of State Max Maxfield to go beyond it. The case follows a recent U.S. Supreme Court decision that scuttled national campaign finance limits of the same type. “I consider this a fairly open-and-

InSIde © 2014 Teton Media Works

8A 15A 25A

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shut case,” said the Brophys’ lawyer, Steve Klein of the Wyoming Liberty Group. “The state certainly could fight it, but given the Supreme Court ruling, it’s very hard to overcome.” Klein said political donations are a form of speech, as did the majority of justices in the April 2 U.S. Supreme Court decision. “Money is a fundamental element of speech, especially in the political arena,” Klein said. 28A 30A 34A

Scenic flights criticized King plan loved, hated Genzer won’t run

That means political donations are protected by the Constitution’s First Amendment, he said. Through the state’s donation cap — known as an aggregate contribution limit — the Brophys are unconstitutionally prevented from exercising their right to free speech, Klein wrote in his complaint to Wyoming’s U.S. District Court. “The United States Supreme Court See SpendInG on 23A

38A 40A 44A

Anderson makes ballot Vote hurts parks and rec Crash and dash

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wyoming

In 2014, Wyoming’s 23 counties were home to 584,153 people, continuing the state’s decades-long streak of ranking as the nation’s least-populous state. To put that figure in context, the city of Baltimore and the state of Vermont are each home to around 620,000 people. As a state Vermont is the second least-populous, a place one-tenth Wyoming’s size but with 7 percent more people. From a demographic perspective, Teton County is solidly in the middle of the Wyoming pack, with its 22,930 residents ranking ninth in the state. Making Teton County distinctive, though, is its relatively high population density. Statewide, 48 percent of Wyoming’s land is public. Do a little bit of math and on average there is one Wyoming resident for every 56 acres of private land and 51 acres of public land. Teton County is different, though — way different. Here the figures are 3 acres of private land and 114 acres of public land per resident. Every other county has at least 18 acres of

price chambers

The Wyoming Capitol in Cheyenne was built in 1886. Laramie County, home to Cheyenne, has about 96,300 residents. Teton County’s population is nearly 23,000.

private land per person, and in nine counties the figure is greater than 100 acres. Over the last few years Wyoming’s latest hydrocarbon boom has yielded to a bust. That has led to the inevitable decline in mining and drilling

jobs, leaving Teton County as the fastest-growing county in Wyoming since 2012. As that has happened, the county’s limited amount of private land makes it increasingly hard for Teton County residents to realize the Continued on 44

Teton County and Wyoming decennial population and growth rates, 1930-2010 According to the 2010 U.S. Census, Teton County’s 21,294 permanent residents accounted for 3.8 percent of Wyoming’s 563,626 residents. That was Teton County’s highest percentage ever, up from 0.9 percent in 1930, the first census following Teton County’s formation. In every decade since, with the exception of the 1940s, Teton County’s growth rate has been greater — often markedly so — than the state’s as a whole. US Census Bureau 600,000

30,000 1930

500,000

25,000

400,000

20,000

300,000

15,000

200,000

10,000

100,000

5,000

1930

1940

1950

1960 Wyoming (left)

1970

1980 Teton County (right)

1990

2000

2010

TETON COUNTY POPULATION 2,003

WYOMING POPULATION 225,565

1940

2,543

250,742

1950

2,593

290,529

1960

3,062

330,066

1970

4,823

332,416

1980

9,355

469,557

1990

11,172

453,588

2000

18,251

493,782

2010

21,294 TETON COUNTY GROWTH RATE 27%

563,626 WYOMING GROWTH RATE 11%

1950

2%

16%

1960

18%

14%

1970

58%

1%

1980

94%

41%

1990

19%

-3%

2000

63%

9%

2010

17%

14%

1940

2015 Edition Jackson Hole Compass

43


Continued from 43

Wyoming county populations (2014) and growth rates (2010-14) In 2014, Wyoming’s counties ranged in population from nearly 100,000 (the population of Laramie County, home to Wyoming’s capital, Cheyenne, was 96,389) to not even 2,500 (Niobrara County had 2,463 residents). As a rule of thumb, the state’s smaller counties have lost population this decade, while the larger ones have grown faster than the state as a whole. Teton County ranks as Wyoming’s ninth-most populous county, and between 2010 and 2014 it was the state’s second-fastest growing. US Census Bureau -4%

-2%

0%

2%

4%

6%

8%

10%

12%

14%

Niobrara Hot Springs Weston Crook Washakie Johnson Platte Sublette Big Horn Goshen Converse Carbon Lincoln Uinta Teton Park Sheridan Albany Fremont Sweetwater Campbell Natrona Laramie 20,000

40,000 Population (bottom)

60,000 2010-14 growth (top)

80,000

100,000

Wyoming fantasy of being rugged individuals living miles from the nearest neighbor. It’s not that Teton County isn’t isolated, though. Indeed, the Jackson Hole valley is a land-locked island, 80,000 acres surrounded on all sides by millions of acres of public land. Add that to the mix and, as with overall population, Teton County is firmly in the middle of the Wyoming pack when it comes to the overall ratio of total acres per resident. But because of our small amount of private land, by Wyoming standards those who choose to live in Teton County are increasingly taking a Cowboy State twist on New Urbanism: Rather than having their own land around them, they are living in a higher-density area surrounded by open space owned by the federal government. All Wyoming residents are lucky enough to be within easy striking distance of open spaces. Distinguishing Teton County is the fact that so many people are living on such a relatively small amount of private land, but with such ready access to the public lands around them.

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Jackson Hole Compass 2015 Edition

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Wyoming county per capita income (2013) and growth rates (2010-13) With the glaring exception of Teton County, in 2013 the per capita income in Wyoming’s counties was reasonably similar, ranging between $37,500 and $60,000. Teton County is the clear outlier, with a 2013 per capita income of $105,821, essentially more than that of any other two Wyoming counties combined. US Census Bureau 6%

12%

18%

$20,000

$40,000

$60,000

24%

30%

36%

$80,000

$100,000

$120,000

Big Horn Weston Lincoln Albany Fremont Washakie Johnson Uinta Crook Hot Springs Platte Carbon Campbell Niobrara Converse Laramie Sheridan Park Wyoming Weston Sweetwater Natrona Sublette Teton Per capita income (bottom)

2010-13 percent change (top)

Wyoming county median home value, 2013 As with incomes, with the exception of Teton County, housing values in Wyoming’s counties tend to be similar. Those counties with the lowest home values tend to be located in the counties most dependent upon agriculture. With the exception of Teton County at $660,100, those counties with the highest values tend to be those most dependent upon minerals. US Census Bureau Big Horn Weston Goshen Carbon Hot Springs Platte Niobrara Washakie Crook Sweetwater Natrona Converse Fremont Laramie Uinta Wyoming Lincoln Albany Campbell Park Sheridan Johnson Sublette Teton

What We Do When We Work For You… All that’s necessary. Plenty that isn’t. Speak the truth. Know the facts. Call the title company. Call the inspector. Work with the lawyer, architect, lender, appraiser, real estate agent, inspector, gardener, surveyor, interior decorator, and contractor. Service. Market. Network. Build the Momentum. Take you to the finish line. Watch for deals. Avoid trouble. End trouble. Negotiate. Run errands. Introduce you to friends. Network. Water the plants. Feed the fish. Let the dog out to play. Take out the trash. Pick people up at the airport. Copy keys. Test the soil. Transfer the utilities. Confirm the taxes. Contact the Homeowners Association. Service. Contracts: construct, type, sign, offer, counter, accept! Communicate. Tell people about other people’s homes. Turn houses into homes. Make it fun. Be professional. Consult. Recommend. Stand strong. Service. Yield. Prepare seller activity reports. Prepare marketing reports. Attend open houses. Host open houses. Give back to the community. Volunteer. Know about the community. Read the paper. Attend meetings. Believe anything is possible. Fax. Call back. Answer the phone! Text. Work weekends. Work nights. Work mornings. Service. Yet still enjoy the outdoors. Tell you where to go hiking, fishing, camping, skiing. Property: List it. Stage it. Market it. Show it. Sell it. Negotiate. Network. Check everything out. Twice. Maintain databases. Study technology. Study people. Service. Collaborate with the competition. Stay ahead of the competition. Change. Don’t change. Have a website. Update the website. Demand results from the website.

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45


region

From an economic and demographic perspective, Jackson Hole is one community spanning two states — Wyoming and Idaho — and three counties: Teton, Wyoming, Teton, Idaho, and the Star Valley portion of Lincoln, Wyoming. Until the natural gas boom hit the Pinedale area a decade or so ago, Jackson Hole arguably spanned a fourth county as well: Sublette, Wyoming, which was home to an increasing number of people commuting to Jackson Hole on a regular basis. It will be interesting to watch the effect of declining energy prices on the Sublette County workforce: As drilling diminishes and jobs dry up, will residents again begin the commute to job-rich Jackson Hole? It seems likely. The clearest sign of Jackson Hole’s role as the hub of the region is in the jobs figures. In 2013, Teton County, Wyoming, had an estimated 1.26 jobs per permanent resident. These jobs were a combination of full- and part-time, and roughly onethird of them were held by the selfemployed. The denominator of the underlying equation — total jobs divided by total population — includes all residents, regardless of age, health or whether they even work at all. The 1.26 figure is roughly 2.5 time greater than the national average and is a figure usually found in major metropolitan areas such as New York City, places where people commute from the suburbs into the big city for their jobs, then leave again at night — in some cases priced out of the city; in other cases choosing to live in a less-crowded, less-frantic environment. That has certainly become the situation in Jackson Hole, where thousands have chosen to live elsewhere and commute to work rather than deal with living in Teton County, Wyoming. What do the per capita jobs numbers imply for Jackson Hole’s labor market? Right now, both Lincoln County, Wyoming, and Teton County, Idaho, have a per capita job number lower than the national av-

46

Jackson Hole Compass 2015 Edition

erage of 0.58 (Lincoln’s is 0.52, and Teton Idaho’s is 0.47). With the recession ending, though, economic activity in both counties is picking up, and as it does, both counties will begin creating more jobs. As more jobs are created in Star Valley and Teton County, Idaho, commuting to Jackson Hole will begin to be increasingly less appealing. It will take a while before either community builds up a sufficient job base to seriously threaten the Jackson Hole workforce, but at the rate Jackson Hole home prices are rising, it is a question of when, not if, we will see increasingly vibrant economies outside the Jackson Hole valley. The same phenomenon has happened in other suburban areas, and there’s no reason it won’t happen here.


Population (2010-14) and median age (2013) Teton County, Wyoming, has almost exactly the same population as Teton County, Idaho, and the Star Valley portion of Lincoln County, Wyoming, combined. In 2014, the figures were 22,930 for Teton Wyoming and 23,221 for the other two combined, a difference of just over 1 percent. Between 2010 and 2014, Teton, Wyoming’s population grew 7.7 percent. Teton, Idaho’s population grew 1.7 percent during that time, and Star Valley’s population grew 8.7 percent. Of the four counties in the Jackson Hole region, Teton, Idaho, has the lowest median age of 34.5 years. The other three counties all are within half a year of the national mean of 37.3 years. Looking at the towns around Jackson Hole, as a crude rule of thumb, the farther the community is from the town of Jackson, the higher its median age. US Census Bureau POPULATION

MEDIAN AGE 2013

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

308,745,538

311,721,632

314,112,078

316,497,531

318,857,056

37.3

Teton County, Idaho

10,170

10,179

10,087

10,301

10,341

34.5

Driggs

1,660

1,653

1,633

1,662

1,662

32.7

Tetonia

269

269

266

272

272

39.6

Victor

1,928

1,925

1,908

1,945

1,945

29.6

Lincoln County, Wyoming

18,106

18,004

17,926

18,326

18,567

37.4

Star Valley

11,851

12,263

12,639

12,740

12,880

Afton

1,911

1,911

1,908

1,947

1,968

33.6

Alpine

828

822

817

835

845

34.7

1,503

1,492

1,489

1,523

1,541

53

366

360

356

362

364

36.9

10,247

10,127

10,412

10,087

10,057

37.9 30.6

United States

Star Valley Ranch Thayne Sublette County, Wyoming Big Piney

552

552

567

545

538

Marbleton

1,094

1,063

1,115

1,078

1,114

Pinedale

2,030

1,999

2,050

1,979

1,958

Teton County, Wyoming

21,294

21,482

21,704

22,375

22,930

37

Jackson

9,577

9,723

9,867

10,187

10,449

32.2

30.6

Hispanic population, 2013 The Latino populations of the two Teton counties have grown steadily during the past decade and a half, to a point where roughly one-sixth of both counties’ residents are Latinos. That growth has been less pronounced in Star Valley and Sublette County, where the proportion of Latinos is still in the single digits. US Census Bureau Bradly j. boner

100%

The last rays of sun illuminate the Grand Teton from Teton Valley, Idaho, at sunset on a July day. 80%

60%

40%

20%

United States

Idaho

Wyoming White

Teton, ID Hispanic

Lincoln, WY

Sublette, WY

Teton, WY

Other

2015 Edition Jackson Hole Compass

47


Home values and occupancy rates The contrast between Jackson Hole’s home values and those of the rest of the region is profound. In Jackson Hole in 2013, the median value was $660,000. In communities in the surrounding region, no place had a median home value even half of Jackson Hole’s. US Census Bureau

Percent of adults 25 or older with a bachelor’s degree or higher, 2013 Roughly 25 percent of the adults in both Idaho and Wyoming hold bachelor’s degrees. In both Lincoln and Sublette counties, the figure is slightly lower than the statewide average: 21 and 23 percent respectively. In contrast, Teton County, Idaho’s adult education level is markedly higher than that of both Idaho and the nation as a whole. US Census Bureau 50% 40%

MEDIAN HOME VALUE

OCCUPIED PERCENT

United States

$176,700

88%

Teton County, Idaho

$222,700

66%

Driggs

$169,100

84%

Tetonia

$207,500

73%

Victor

$195,300

81%

Lincoln County, Wyoming

$190,900

70%

Afton

$185,100

76%

Alpine

$219,300

65%

Star Valley Ranch

$271,200

47%

Thayne

$128,400

72%

Sublette County, Wyoming

$282,800

61%

Big Piney

$182,000

65%

60%

Pinedale

$243,300

68%

40%

Teton County, Wyoming

$660,100

59%

Jackson

$520,900

73%

30% 20% 10% United States

Idaho

Wyoming

Teton, ID

Lincoln, WY

Sublette, WY

Teton, WY

2012 presidential voting When in comes to presidential voting patterns, Teton, Wyoming, has become an island of blue in a sea of red. That was particularly true in 2012, when the instinctively conservative leanings of the region were reinforced by the convergence of Mitt Romney’s membership in the Church of Latter-day Saints and the region’s high proportion of Mormon residents. Dave Leip’s Presidential Atlas 100% 80%

20% United States

Idaho

Wyoming

Teton, ID

Obama

Lincoln, WY

Romney

Sublette, WY

Teton, WY

Other

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Jackson Hole Compass 2015 Edition

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Per capita income, 1969-2013 The per capita incomes of all counties in the greater Jackson Hole region were similar until the mid-1980s. For the last 30 years, though, Teton, Wyomingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s per capita income has steadily pulled away from that of the surrounding areas, to the point where Teton, Wyomingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s per capita is greater than that of any two surrounding counties combined. US Bureau of Economic Analysis $150,000 $120,000 $90,000 $60,000 $30,000 1969

1974

1979

1984

1989

Teton, WY

Sublette, WY

1994 United States

1999

Lincoln, WY

2004

2009

Teton, ID

Per capita jobs, 1969-2013 Teton, Wyoming, has roughly 1.3 jobs for every resident, more than twice the national average. Not so in Lincoln, Wyoming, and Teton, Idaho, where the figure is actually below the national average of 0.58 jobs per resident. US Bureau of Economic Analysis 1.5 1.2 0.9 0.6 0.3 1969

1974

1979

1984

1989

Teton, WY

Sublette, WY

1994 United States

1999 Lincoln, WY

2004

2009

Teton, ID

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2015 Edition Jackson Hole Compass

49


peers

There are eight counties in the northern Rockies closely identified with alpine skiing. Five are in Colorado: Eagle (the location of Vail), Pitkin (Aspen), Routt (Steamboat Springs), San Miguel (Telluride) and Summit (Breckenridge). There is one each in three other states: Blaine, Idaho (Sun Valley), Summit, Utah (Park City), and Teton, Wyoming (Jackson Hole). Arguably, Jackson Hole has a lot more in common with these seven “peer” counties than it does with any other county in Wyoming. Or Montana. Or Idaho (save Blaine). Thus it is instructive to take a closer look at these peers, for this community can learn a lot from them — and they from us. The irony here, of course, is that the residents of many peer counties look at other peer counties with horror as places they do not want to emulate. “Vail’s nice, but I’d never want to live there” is a refrain heard in Pitkin and San Miguel counties; the opposite is heard in Eagle County. So goes human nature. But such comments boil down to a question of taste, much like a preference for food or, perhaps more appropriately, falling in love. You might look at someone and think “Eureka!” while your closest friend might think “Ugh!” So it goes with

price chambers

Barker-Ewing Float Trips guide Nick Huckin points out some interesting features of the Snake River as guests enjoy the relaxing float.

preferring one beautiful place over another. There is no right or wrong, just a question of taste. The simpler reality, though, is that all of the peer communities are facing the same basic challenges: rapid change, income inequality, too little worker-bee housing, the effects of climate change on their lifeblood. And none has figured it out. Even more importantly, with the exception of the Colorado ski counties, none of the peers can look to

other counties in their states for help or sympathy. At the end of the day, however, the challenges the eight peer counties face are very high-order, First World challenges, ones that many other places would be happy to swap for in a heartbeat. Hence the importance of learning from one another. If these bastions of wealth, privilege and ecological health can’t address their particular challenges, what chance do less-fortunate places have?

Total acreage by federal land ownership Of Teton County’s peer counties, Teton is by far the biggest with 2.7 million acres, more than twice the acreage of second-place Routt County, Colorado. Paradoxically, Teton County has the second-fewest number of privately owned acres — 76,734 — leading only Pitkin County, Colorado. Perhaps it’s not a coincidence that Pitkin and Teton have the two highest home prices of the peer counties. U.S. Department of the Interior 3% 56% TETON, WY 2,699,946

2%

ROUTT, CO 1,517,200

51% 22%

55%

7% 4%

EAGLE, CO 1,084,177

79% PITKIN, CO 621,483

22%

5%

13%

9%

21%

38%

45%

BLAINE, ID 1,703,050

41%

SUMMIT, UT 1,205,366

21%

21%

44%

1%

SAN MIGUEL, CO 821,964

29% 56%

36% National Park Service

50

Jackson Hole Compass 2015 Edition

US Forest Service

38% Bureau of Land Management

Bureau of Reclamation

Non-federal land

79% SUMMIT, CO 394,052


Population and percent change, 2010-14 Eagle County, Colorado is by far the most populous of the peer counties, home to more people than Blaine Idaho, Pitkin Colorado, and San Miguel Colorado combined. During the period 2010-2014, though, Eagle was the second slowest-growing of the eight peer counties, seeing its population grow at one-sixth the rate of Teton, Wyoming, and Summit Utah. U.S. Census Bureau 60,000

9.0%

50,000

7.5%

40,000

6.0%

30,000

4.5%

20,000

3.0%

10,000

1.5%

Eagle, CO

Summit, UT

Summit, CO

Routt, CO 2014

Teton, WY

2010

Blaine, ID

Pitkin, CO

San Miguel, CO

Percent change

Components of population change, 2010-14 As a crude rule of thumb, during this decade, population growth in the peer counties of Idaho and Colorado (Blaine and Eagle, Pitkin, Routt, and Summit) has been due to natural growth — i.e., due to births greatly exceeding deaths — rather than net migration. In contrast Summit, Utah, and Teton, Wyoming have seen a large influx of in-migrants. San Miguel, Colorado, is the exception to the rule. US Census Bureau 3,000 2,500 2,000 1,500 Travis J. garner

The Yampa River flows through downtown Steamboat Springs, Colorado, known as “Ski Town, USA.” It is the principal settlement in Routt County, one of eight northern Rockies “peer counties” that — along with ski resorts and access to natural beauty — share many attributes and issues, such as trouble housing its tourism-related employees.

1,000 500 0 -500 -1,000 -1,500 -2,000

Blaine, ID

Routt, CO

Eagle, CO

Pitkin, CO

Births minus deaths

Summit, CO

Net migration

San Miguel, CO

Teton, WY

Summit, UT

Net population gain

Ethnicity of population, 2013 Eagle, Colorado, is not only the most populous of the peer communities but also the most ethnically diverse, with fully one-third of its population nonwhite. At the other end of the ethnic diversity scale is Routt, Colorado, where only 10 percent of its population is nonwhite. Besides Eagle County, only Blaine, Idaho, has a population that’s more than 20 percent nonwhite. US Census Bureau 60,000 50,000 40,000 30,000 20,000 10,000

Eagle, CO

Summit, UT

Summit, CO

Routt, CO White

Teton, WY Hispanic

Blaine, ID

Pitkin, CO

San Miguel, CO

Other

2015 Edition Jackson Hole Compass

51


Per capita income by type, 2013 As a group, residents of the eight peer communities earn 54 percent of their incomes from wages (the range is 43 percent to 66 percent), 40 percent of their incomes from investments (29 percent to 53 percent), and 6 percent from pensions (4 to 8 percent). For the typical American those figures are 64 percent wages, 19 percent investments and 17 percent pensions. US Census Bureau

Median age of population and by ethnicity, 2013 As a general rule of thumb the larger a peer county’s Latino population, the lower its overall median age. Among the peers, Eagle, Colorado, has both the highest percentage of Latinos (30 percent) and the lowest median age (34.7 years old). It’s not a perfect rule. The “oldest” county is Pitkin, Colorado, and its Latino population ranks third from the bottom. US Census Bureau WHITE

HISPANIC

United States

40.0

27.3

37.3

Eagle, CO

35.4

26.4

34.7

Summit, CO

37.8

27.3

36.0

$120,000 $100,000 $80,000 $60,000 $40,000 $20,000 Teton, WY

Pitkin, CO

Summit, UT

TOTAL

Teton, WY

37.7

27.1

37.0

Summit, UT

37.6

25.3

36.8

San Miguel, CO

38.8

28.8

38.9

Routt, CO

40.3

27.5

39.7

Blaine, ID

43.8

25.7

41.6

Pitkin, CO

43.7

30.9

43.3

Summit, CO Wages

Routt, CO Pensions

Eagle, CO

Blaine, ID

San Miguel, CO United States

Investments

Education level of population, 2013 All of the peer counties have a much higher percentage of adult residents with a bachelor’s degree or better than the nation as a whole. The U.S. average is 28.8 percent; the peers range from a low of 44.7 percent (Blaine, Idaho) to a high of 56.8 percent (Pitkin, Colorado). That is a reflection of the attractiveness of these communities to people working in location-neutral jobs. US Census Bureau 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% United States

Blaine, ID

Eagle, CO

No high school degree

52

Jackson Hole Compass 2015 Edition

Summit, CO

Routt, CO

High school degree

Teton ,WY Some college

Summit, UT

San Miguel, CO

Bachelor’s degree or higher

Pitkin, CO


Median home value 2009-13 and median income earned by graduate degree holder vs. income needed to afford median home In the eight peer counties the 2013 median home price was two to four times higher than the national median (Teton, Wyoming, was highest, and Blaine, Idaho, was lowest). As a rule of thumb, the greater an individual’s level of education, the higher his or her income. In 2013, in only two of the eight peer counties — Blaine, Idaho, and Summit, Utah — could a resident earning the mean graduate-degree-holder’s salary afford to buy the median-priced home. U.S. Census Bureau

$100,000 Teton, WY

$80,000 $60,000 $40,000 $20,000 Teton, WY

Pitkin, CO

Eagle, CO

San Miguel, CO Summit, UT

Median income

Summit, CO

Income needed to buy median home

Routt, CO

Blaine, ID

United States

MEDIAN INCOME $54,066

INCOME NEEDED TO BUY MEDIAN HOME $93,517

MEDIAN HOME VALUE $660,100

Pitkin, CO

$56,875

$86,589

$611,200

Eagle, CO

$54,539

$64,220

$453,300

San Miguel, CO

$51,622

$63,469

$448,000

Summit, UT

$80,050

$68,810

$485,700

Summit, CO

$46,104

$65,169

$460,000

Routt, CO

$50,692

$55,266

$390,100

Blaine, ID

$54,971

$53,127

$375,000

United States

$66,493

$25,033

$176,700

T

eton County has about the same number of non“We allow people to make huge profits doing any profits per capita as other relatively isolated resort number of things that will hurt the poor, but we want to communities — around one for every 100 people. crucify anyone that wants to make money helping them,” Ten years from now the number of nonprofits will surely Pallotta says in his book, “Uncharitable.” grow along with our county but commensurately, not exHe notes that we judge “nonprofits for how little they ponentially. Well over 500 organizations have participat- spend, not for what they’ve done” and wonders how noned in Old Bill’s Fun Run for Charities over profits can be expected to grow without time, but only around 200 are in operation increasing overhead and rewarding today. Charities enter loudly and leave strong leadership. quietly, but the number remains relatively I’m optimistic, though, because donors constant. in Jackson Hole are quite sophisticated. With all my heart I believe nonprofits Historically we have been lucky to have are preserving the fundamental values donors who are both generous and willthat made us all want to live here in the ing to pitch in to help. The newest genfirst place and keep us here even when it is eration of donors is even more focused not always in our best interests. Whenever on results. They are ready to invest large those values are threatened, nonprofits sums of money in our nonprofits, for they rush in to defend them. Nonprofits are our believe that philanthropy can solve probsoul, reflecting our best selves and love for lems and that effective philanthropy is Jackson Hole. the perfect blend of our do-gooder souls Even so, it makes me want to stick my and our rational minds. However, they Katharine Conover head in the oven when I hear another eawant to see a return on their investment. ger young person say, “I’m going to start a Focusing on efficiency and outcomes nonprofit.” While her passion may be pure and his goal is an approach that works for any kind of charity, even noble, their naivete leaves me suicidal. We need to deal those addressing the thorniest problems. Adhering to with the challenges to our existing, extremely important sound business principles makes a nonprofit more likely nonprofits before we incubate new ones. to accomplish its mission, not less. Organizations should In the next five years 70 percent of the nation’s non- be accountable to their shareholders, and in the nonprofprofit baby boomer leaders will retire. Nationally, only it world all of us are shareholders. Nonprofits are ultione-third of current nonprofit employees want the top mately accountable to those they serve. job. Our percentages mirror those national statistics. In return, in the words of Dan Pallotta, instead of Already there has been a rapid turnover rate in non- “equating frugality with morality,” we need to ask board profit leaders in Jackson Hole. Of our 14 conservation members and donors alike to start rewarding charities groups, 12 have had three or more directors in the past for their big goals and big accomplishments, even if they four years. Only one director has held her job for more come with big expenses. than four years. Local nonprofits must always be grounded in the valAt the same time, nonprofits are under greater scru- ues of Jackson Hole and must be accountable to the entiny and an increased demand to be more professional. tire community. There may have been a time when those How might this happen? I invite you to watch Dan of us working for nonprofits could say, “take our word for Pallotta’s TED talk. Better still, come hear him when he it, we are doing good and we are doing it well.” Now — comes to Jackson Hole on July 14. He believes the non- and even more so in the future — we have to show we profit world is stunted because nonprofits are discour- are. Dreams without plans remain dreams. Dreams with aged from using standard business tools such as adver- plans become reality. tising, risk-taking, competitive salaries and profits to lure — Katharine Conover is the director talent and investment capital. of the Community Foundation of Jackson Hole

2015 Edition Jackson Hole Compass

53


directory Melissa Turley (D) — Chairwoman mturley@tetonwyo.org First elected: 2012 Current term ends: 2016 As of May 19, 2015

Town Council

150 E. Pearl Ave. P.O. Box 1687 Jackson, WY 83001 307-733-3932 TownOfJackson.com Sara Flitner — Mayor sflitner@townofjackson.com First elected: 2014 Current term ends: 2016 Hailey Morton Levinson — Vice Mayor hmortonlevinson@townofjackson. com First elected: 2012 Current term ends: 2016 Don Frank — Councilor dfrank@ci.jackson.wy.us Appointed: 2014 Current term ends: 2018 Bob Lenz — Councilor blenz@ci.jackson.wy.us First elected: 2006 Current term ends: 2018 Jim Stanford — Councilor jstanford@ci.jackson.wy.us First elected: 2012 Current term ends: 2016 Bob McLaurin — Town Manager bmclaurin@ci.jackson.wy.us

Town Officials Tyler Sinclair — Town and County Planning Director 307-733-0440 tsinclair@ci.jackson.wy.us Todd Smith — Chief of Police 307-733-1430 tsmith@ci.jackson.wy.us Larry Pardee — Public Works Director 307-733-3079 lpardee@ci.jackson.wy.us Audrey Cohen-Davis — Town Attorney 307-734-2689 acohendavis@ci.jackson.wy.us

Board of County Commissioners

200 S. Willow Ave. P.O. Box 3594 Jackson, WY 83001 307-733-8094 TetonWyo.org. commissioners@tetonwyo.org

54

Jackson Hole Compass 2015 Edition

Barbara Allen (R) — Vice Chairwoman ballen@tetonwyo.org First elected: 2012 Current term ends: 2016 Mark Newcomb (D) mnewcomb@tetonwyo.org First elected: 2014 Current term ends: 2018 Smokey Rhea (D) srhea@tetonwyo.org First elected: 2014 Current term ends: 2018 Paul Vogelheim (R) pvogelheim@tetonwyo.org Appointed: 2010 Current term ends: 2018 Alyssa Watkins — Administrator 307-732-8402 awatkins@tetonwyo.org

Teton County

200 S. Willow St. P.O. Box 3594 Jackson, WY 83001 307-733-8094 TetonWyo.org Donna Baur (D) — Treasurer P.O. Box 3594 Jackson, WY 83001 307-733-4770 TetonWyo.org/treas dbaur@tetonwyo.org First elected: 2006 Current term ends: 2018 Brent Blue, M.D. (R) — Coroner P.O. Box 1687 Jackson, WY 83001 307-733-2331 TetonWyo.org/coronr bblue@tetonwyo.org First elected: 2014 Current term ends: 2018 Sherry Daigle (R) — Clerk P.O. Box 1727 Jackson, WY 83001 307-733-4430 TetonWyo.org/cc sdaigle@tetonwyo.org First elected: 2002 Current term ends: 2018 Andy Cavallaro (D) — Assessor P.O. Box 583 Jackson, WY 83001 307-733-4960 TetonWyo.org/assess acavallaro@tetonwyo.org First elected: 2014 Current term ends: 2018

Annie Comeaux Sutton (D) — Clerk of District Court 180 S. King St. P.O. Box 4460 Jackson, WY 83001 307-733-2533 TetonWyo.org/codc asutton@tetonwyo.org Elected: 2014 Current term ends: 2018 Steve Weichman (R) — County and Prosecuting Attorney 180 S. King St. P.O. Box 4068 Jackson, WY 83001 307-733-4012 TetonWyo.org/attrny sweichman@wyoming.com First elected: 1998 Current term ends: 2018 Jim Whalen (R) — Sheriff 180 S. King St. P.O. Box 1885 Jackson, WY 83001 307-733-4052 TetonSheriff.org jwhalen@tetonsheriff.org First elected: 2009 Current term ends: 2018

County Officials

Deb Adams — Library Director 125 Virginian Lane P.O. Box 1629 Jackson, WY 83301 307-733-2164 TCLib.org dadams@tclib.org Erika Edmiston — Weed & Pest 7575 S. Hwy. 89 P.O. Box 1852 Jackson, WY 83001 307-733-8419 TCWeed.org ewells@tcweed.org Tracy Ross — Fair Manager 305 W. Snow King Ave. P.O. Box 3075 Jackson, WY 83001 307-733-5289 TetonWyo.org/fair tross@tetonwyo.org Mary Martin — UW Extension 255 W. Deloney St. P.O. Box 1708 Jackson, WY 83001 307-733-3087 UWyo.edu/uwe mmartin@tetonwyo.org Sean O’Malley — Engineer 320 S. King St. P.O. Box 3594 Jackson, WY 83001 307-733-3317

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TetonWyo.org/enginr somalley@tetonwyo.org Heather Overholser — Waste & Recycling 3270 S. Adams Canyon Road P.O. Box 9088 Jackson, WY 83002 307-733-7678 TetonWyo.org/recycl hoverholser@tetonwyo.org Jodie Pond — Public Health Director 460 E. Pearl Ave. P.O. Box 937 Jackson, WY 83001 307-733-6401 TetonWyo.org/ph ph@tetonwyo.org Tyler Sinclair — Town and County Planning Director tsinclair@ci.jackson.wy.us 307-733-0440 Stacy Stoker — Housing Authority 280 W. Broadway P.O. Box 714 Jackson, WY 83001 307-733-0867 TetonWyo.org/house sstoker@tetonwyo.org Willy Watsabaugh — Fire Chief 40 E. Pearl Ave. P.O. Box 901 Jackson, WY 83001 307-733-4732 TetonWyo.org/fire wwatsabaugh@tetonwyo.org

Judiciary Tim Day — District Court Judge 180 S. King St. P.O. Box 4460 Jackson, WY 83001 asutton@tetonwyo.org 307-733-1461 Appointed: 2010 Up for retention: 2019 Melissa Owens — Municipal Court 150 E. Pearl Ave. P.O. Box 1687 Jackson, WY 83001 mowens@ci.jackson.wy.us 307-733-3932, ext. 1152 Appointed: 2014 Up for Retention: 2018 Jim Radda — Circuit Court Judge 180 S. King St. P.O. Box 2906 Jackson, WY 83001 ccjac@courts.state.wy.us 307-733-7713 Appointed: 2010 Up for Retention: 2017

St. John’s Medical Center Board of Trustees 625 E. Broadway P.O. Box 428 Jackson, WY 83001 307-733-3636 TetonHospital.org info@tetonhospital.org

Michael Tennican — Chairman First elected: 2010 Current term ends: 2018 Barbara Herz — Vice Chairman First elected: 2006 Current term ends: 2018 Scott Gibson — Secretary/Treasurer First appointed Dec. 2011 Current term ends: 2016 Joe Albright First appointed: August 2009 Current term ends: 2018 Elizabeth Masek First appointed: July 2014 Current term ends: 2018 Dr. Bruce Hayse First elected: 2008 Current term ends: 2016 Cynthia Hogan Appointed: April 2015 Current tern ends: 2016 Louis Hochheiser — CEO lhochheiser@tetonhospital.org

Teton County School District Board of Education 1235 Gregory Lane P.O. Box 568 Jackson, WY 83001 307-733-2704 TCSD.org

Patricia Russell Nichols — Chairman pnichols@tcsd.org 307-200-1397 First elected: 2008 Current term ends: 2016 Janine Teske — Vice Chairman jteske@tcsd.org 307-739-0951 First elected: 2002 Current term ends: 2018 Syd Elliot — Clerk selliott@tcsd.org 307-733-3820 First elected: 2008 Current term ends: 2016 Robbi Farrow — Treasurer rfarrow@tcsd.org 307-733-2862 First elected: 2008 Current term ends: 2016

Keith Gingery kgangry@tcsd.org 307-733-8698 First elected: 2014 Current term ends: 2018 Joe Larrow jlarrow@tcsd.org 307-690-1562 First elected: 2014 Current term ends: 2018 Kate Mead kmead@tcsd.org 307-733-5163 First elected: 2008 Current term ends: 2016 Gillian Chapman— Superintendent gchapman@tcsd.org 307-733-2704

Teton Conservation District Board of Supervisors

230 E. Broadway, Suite 2A P.O. Box 1070 Jackson, WY 83001 307-733-2110 TetonConservation.org info@tetonconservation.org Tom Segerstrom — Chairman wildlifebiologist@wyoming.com First elected: 2006 Current term ends: 2016 Sandy Shuptrine — Vice Chairwoman sandyshuptrine@wyom.net First elected: 2010 Current term ends: 2018 Tom Breen — Member First elected: 2012 Current term ends: 2016 Bob Lucas — Member First elected: 1996 Current term ends: 2018 Scott Pierson — Member spierson@piersonlandworks.com First elected: 2010 Current term ends: 2018 Randy Williams — Director randy@tetonconservation.org

State of Wyoming — Legislature

Dan Dockstader (R) — SD16 Dan.Dockstader@wyoleg.gov 307-885-9706 First elected: 2008 Current term ends: 2016 Leland Christensen (R) — SD17 Leland/Christensen@wyoleg.gov 307-353-8204 First elected: 2010 Current term ends: 2016 Ruth Ann Petroff (R) — H16 Ruth.Petroff@wyoleg.gov

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307-734-9446 First elected: 2010 Current term ends: 2016 Marti Halverson (R) — H22 Marti.Halverson@wyoleg.gov 307-883-0250 First elected: 2012 Current term ends: 2016 Andy Schwartz (D) — H23 Andy.Schwartz@wyoleg.gov 307-413-6464 First elected: 2014 Current term ends: 2016

Jackson Hole Airport

1250 E. Airport Road P.O. Box 159 Jackson, WY 83001 307-733-7682 JacksonHoleAirport.com Jim Elwood — Airport Director jimelwood@jacksonholeairport.com Andrea Riniker — President Clay James — Vice President John Eastman — Secretary Jim Waldrop — Treasurer Jerry Blann — Member

Parks & Recreation

155 E. Gill St. P.O. Box 811 Jackson, WY 83001 307-733-5056 TetonParksAndRec.org TetonWyo.org Steve Ashworth — Director sashworth@tetonwyo.org

Pathways

320 S. King St. P.O. Box 1687 Jackson, WY 83001 307-732-8573 TetonWyo.org/pathwy Brian Schilling — Director bschilling@ci.jackson.wy.us

Travel and Tourism Board

200 S. Willow St. P.O. Box 3594 Jackson, WY 83001 TetonWyo.org/travel info@4jacksonhole.org Ponteir Sackrey — Chairwoman (term ends June 30, 2015) Alex Klein — Chairman (as of July 1) Mike Halpin — Treasurer Chip Carey — Secretary Liz Gibbs — Member Stephen Price — Member Aaron Pruzan — Member Kate Sollitt — Coordinator 307-201-1774

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Jackson Hole Compass 2015 Edition

Grand Teton National Park

Wyoming Executive Branch

David Vela — Superintendent 307-739-3411 Appointed: 2014

Matt Mead (R) — Governor 307-777-7434 Governor.WY.gov First elected: 2010 Current term ends: January 2019

P.O. Drawer 170 Moose, WY 83012 307-739-3300 NPS.gov/grte

Bridger-Teton National Forest 340 N. Cache St. P.O. Box 1888 Jackson, WY 83001 307-739-5500 www.FS.usda.gov/btnf info@fs.fed.us

Tricia O’Connor— Supervisor poconnor@fs.fed.us Appointed: 2014

National Elk Refuge

675 E. Broadway P.O. Box 510 Jackson, WY 83001 307-733-9212 FWS.gov/refuge/national_elk_refuge

State Capitol 200 W. 24th St. Cheyenne, WY 82002 307-777-7220

Edward Murray (R) — Secretary of State 307-777-7378 SOSWY.state.wy.us secofstate@wyo.gov First elected: 2014 Current term ends: January 2019 Cynthia Cloud (R) — Auditor 307-777-7831 SAO.state.wy.us saoadmin@wyo.gov First elected: 2014 Current term ends: January 2019

Yellowstone National Park

Mark Gordon (R) — Treasurer 307-777-7408 Treasurer.state.wy.us treasurer@wyo.gov First appointed: 2012 Current term ends: 2019

Dan Wenk — Superintendent Dan_Wenk@nps.gov Appointed: 2011

Jillian Balow (R) — Superintendent of Public Instruction 307-777-7675 Edu.wyoming.gov askthesuperintendent@wyo.gov First elected: 2014 Current term ends: 2019

Steve Kallin — Refuge Manager Appointed: June 2007 P.O. Box 168 Yellowstone National Park, WY 82190 307-344-7381 NPS.gov/yell

Wyoming Game and Fish Jackson Regional Office 420 N. Cache St. P.O. Box 67 Jackson, WY 83001 307-733-2321 WGFD.wyo.gov

Tim Fuchs (retiring in July) Brad Hovinga Regional Wildlife Supervisor Rob Gipson Regional Fish Supervisor

Caribou-Targhee National Forest

1405 Hollipark Drive Idaho Falls, ID 83401 208-524-7500 FS.usda.gov/ctnf Garth Smelser — Supervisor

Shoshone National Forest

808 Meadowlane Ave. Cody, WY 82414 307-527-6241 FS.usda.gov/shoshone Joseph Alexander — Supervisor

U.S. Legislators

John Barrasso (R) — U.S. Senator 307 Dirksen Senate Office Building Washington, D.C. 20510 Barrasso.senate.gov 202-224-6441 866-235-9553 First appointed: 2007 Current term ends: January 2019 Mike Enzi (R) — U.S. Senator 379A Senate Russell Office Building Washington, D.C. 20510 Enzi.senate.gov 202-224-3424 888-250-1879 First elected: 1996 Current term ends: January 2021 Cynthia Lummis (R) — U.S. Representative 113 Cannon House Office Building Washington, D.C. 20515 Lummis.house.gov 202-225-2311 888-879-3599 First elected: 2008 Current term ends: 2017


We create opportunities for people to live and work in Jackson Hole

Greg Prugh â&#x20AC;˘ Dan Visosky 1110 Maple Way Jackson Hole, WY 83001

307.733.9888

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Jackson Hole Compass 2015  

Jackson Hole Compass 2015  

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