The Week In News
MAY 2, 2019 | The Jewish Home
MAY 2, 2019 | The Jewish Home
The Week In News
The Week In News
MAY 2, 2019 | The Jewish Home
CONTENTS JEWISH THOUGHT Living with the Times . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Torah Musings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9
FEATURE Researching Your Family History. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Book Review. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Emotional Health. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
National. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
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Dear readers, What a sense of free-fall—from the exalted feeling of z’man cheiruseinu to the horror of a hateful terrorist attacking one of the many Chabad houses in California and succeeding in killing one and injuring three! Last Shabbos’s events in Poway exemplified darkness attacking light in a most visceral sense. Yet the response has been astonishing. It has brought out even more Jewish pride and resilience, causing people to commit to act even more openly Jewish, to attend synagogue more often, or to do more mitzvot. Indeed, the experience of the Jewish people in exile is like the olive. When squeezed, the purest of oil comes out. Every form of oppression has been carried out against us in the past 3000 years, yet here we are, looking for even more ways to increase light and to make a kiddush Hashem. Often in times of confusion, otherwise regular individuals show the way by example. Rabbi Yisroel Goldstein is currently that person. Beginning with running to save the children, through his nonstop positivity, his insistence that “Am Yisrael chai!” and his message that we need for ever increasing light, Rabbi Goldstein has shown that one can transform examples of extreme meanness within the human spirit into extreme dedication. His dedication reminds us that although the world order seems to be crumbling around us, it is our job to be raiser focused on preforming another mitzvah, and another, and another until we banish darkness for once and for all. Ushering in the time when there shall no longer be suffering nor pain and when the nations of the world will be occupied with the knowledge of the Creator. Wishing you a wonderful Shabbos,
T H E P R E M I E R J E W I S H N E W S PA P E R H I G H L I G H T I N G L A’ S O R T H O D OX C O M M U N I T Y The Jewish Home is an independent bi-weekly newspaper. Opinions expressed by writers are not necessarily the opinions of the publisher or editor. The Jewish Home is not responsible for typographical errors, or for the kashrus of any product or business advertised within. The Jewish Home contains words of Torah. Please treat accordingly. FOR HOME DELIVERY, OR TO HAVE THE LATEST ISSUE EMAILED TO YOU FREE OF CHARGE, SEND A MESSAGE TO EDITOR@JEWISHHOMELA.COM
TheHappenings Week In News
MAY 2, 2019 | The Jewish Home
Mental Health Challenges in the Torah-Observant Community: An Interview with Professor Rael Strous Chaim Fachler, Director of PR at Mayanei Hayeshua, interviewed Professor Rael Strous, the dynamic Medical Director of Mayanei’s Mental Health Center, in advance of his much anticipated visit to Los Angeles Why do mental health practitioners need to appreciate the culture of their patients? Problems arise in diagnosis if mental
health professionals are not fully conversant with the patient’s cultural framework. For example, a secular doctor could mistakenly misinterpret ritual behavior as abnormal, leading to misdiagnosis and incorrect treatment. Our Mental Health Center is the only fully culturally-sensitive facility of its kind in the world. Is there a history of religious suspicion of professional care of mental
health issues? Unfortunately, yes. Halachic authorities were initially wary of psychology, believing that it was based on philosophies antithetical to a Torah outlook. Happily, distrust between the world of psychiatry and the world of the religious has all but disappeared. Rabbis have become active partners in treatment. It was indeed leading rabbinical authorities who encouraged Mayanei Hayeshua to dedicate an entire building to treating mental illness. Has the stigma of mental health led to some mental conditions in the observant community going untreated? Again, unfortunately the answer is yes. Statistically, two thirds of the patients— adults and children—who come here for mental health treatment would not have sought treatment at centers insensitive to a Torah outlook. Historically, individuals with mental health conditions traveled far away for treatment, for fear of being recognized. Thanks to Mayanei Hayeshua, the community is now educated to acknowledge that a shidduch need not be doomed if a great-grandson in the family is on antidepressants. What mental illnesses do you come across in religious communities? The idea that a Torah lifestyle protects against ailments commonly associated with non-religious societies is a myth. Almost every psychiatric illness prevalent in Western society is today also found in the Orthodox community. What is so special about the hospital’s Mental Health Center? As the world’s first culturally-sensitive psychiatric facility, we are creating a paradigm shift in attitude to the treatment of Mental Health. We believe in the dignity of all human life and do not use constraints or coercive therapies. The wards are bright, spacious, and welcoming with only two or three patients per room. Appropriate post-hospitalization aftercare plans are immediately custom-designed for each patient to facilitate their smooth transition back into the community. And we offer unique services in the fields of Family Therapy and Eating Disorders. And finally, how do you measure success? With Hashem’s help and blessings, we are most encouraged by our already impressive achievements. In all the inpatient wards, we boast the shortest average stay in the country, alongside the lowest percentage of patients returning for treatment. Thousands of new patients are seeking our expertise every month. We are seeing unprecedented success in the new Eating Disorders Department. And the Health Ministry officially designated Mayanei Hayeshua’s Mental Health Center as THE role-model for all psychiatric facilities in Israel!
The Week In News
MAY 2, 2019 | The Jewish Home
Sharing Torat Eretz Yisrael and Connecting Religious Zionists Across the United States: Religious Zionists of America-Mizrachi Launches ISRAEL360 in Celebration of Yom Haatzmaut Religious Zionists of America-Mizrachi is once again bringing an unprecedented number of Israeli scholars, roshei yeshiva, educators, and thought leaders to the United States in celebration of Yom Haatzmaut. Over 85 top Israeli speakers will serve as scholars-in-residence on Shabbat, May 4th (the Shabbat prior to Yom Haatzmaut) in synagogues throughout North America. “What better way to mark the significance of the establishment of the Jewish State than to enable our communities to connect with Torah emanating from the Land of Israel,” said Rabbi David A. Israel, Executive Vice President of RZA-Mizrachi. Rabbi Reuven Taragin, Educational Director of RZA-Mizrachi and World Mizrachi, said “Baruch Hashem, this year’s program has exceeded the reach of last year’s ‘Seventy for 70’ both in the U.S. and beyond. We have planned 100 programs in the U.S. as part of over 360 programs of the aptly named ‘Israel360-Celebrating Israel Around the World’ program (Australia, Canada, England, Europe, South Africa, South America, and Israel itself).” “The response to last year’s program made it clear that the community is touched by this effort. There was no question that this was an important project that should continue,” said Martin Oliner of New York,
an RZA-Mizrachi Co-President. Dr. Ernest Agatstein, Co-President from Los Angeles remarked, “The five ISRAEL360 programs taking place in Los Angeles this year have created new synergies in our community. It is fantastic to share a sense of the power of Torat Eretz Yisrael throughout the community.” Unique to ISRAEL360 is the linking of Religious Zionists across the United States, as strikingly evidenced by the publicity surrounding the event and the many posters in synagogue lobbies across the U.S. “How can one not be moved by seeing the breadth of scholarship and wisdom descending at one time on our communities in celebration of Yom Haatzmaut?” remarked Rabbi Leonard Matanky, Co-President from Chicago. Last year many people observed that one of the aspects of this program that moved them, besides the content itself, was the feeling that they and their peers were part of something greater than themselves. Religious Zionists of America-Mizrachi was established in 1914 as an educational and ideological organization to strengthen Religious Zionism in the United States. To see a complete listing of participating ISRAEL360 synagogues and communities, please go to www.rza.org/ISRAEL360.
The Week In News
MAY 2, 2019 | The Jewish Home
Israel360 reflects Israel’s international reach and Mizrachi’s mission of spreading Torat Yisrael across the world.
To celebrate Yom HaAtzmaut and Yom Yerushalayim, RZA-Mizrachi is partnering with synagogues to bring these inspiring Israeli speakers and thinkers to our community. See your community/synagogue bulletin or website for further information.
RABBI DR. AARON ADLER Calabasas Shul May 24–25, 2019 Parashat Behar
MICHAEL EISENBERG Young Israel of Century City May 31–June 1, 2019 Parashat Bechukotai
DR. TOVA GANZEL B’nai David-Judea Congregation May 3–4, 2019 Parashat Acharei Mot
RABBI CHAIM EISENSTEIN Kehilat Yavneh May 3–4, 2019 Parashat Acharei Mot
RABBI YEHUDA GLICK Beth Jacob Congregation May 3–4, 2019 Parashat Acharei Mot
RZA-Mizrachi expresses its gratitude to the Jack and Gitta Nagel Foundation and the Nagel Family for their generosity in sponsoring Israel360 in the Los Angeles area in memory of their husband, father, grandfather, and great-grandfather,
אבא ז"ל M Mizrachi Israel360
Mr. Jack Nagel
יעקב אלימלך בן אברהם
Religious Zionists of America–Mizrachi www.rza.org
Living with the Times The Week In News
By Rabbi Pinchos Lipschutz
MAY 2, 2019 | The Jewish Home
Time to Inspire
Publisher of the Yated Ne’eman Count yourself among the majority if you had never heard of Poway, California, before Yom Tov. That spot of a town twenty-five miles from San Diego will be anonymous no more in the Jewish world. Everyone will remember it as the site of a senseless killing of a Jewish woman because she was a Jew. The name of the sparkling California city in the greatest democracy the world has known joined the long infamous list of cities where anti-Semitism has led to murder. This most recent heinous act took place on a Shabbos, on Shemini Shel Pesach, the final day of the holiday of freedom and cheirus. Wherever we have been, we haven’t been able to completely celebrate our holidays. We have always had to look over our shoulders. No day of the calendar is immune from the vestige of the irrational hatred that has accompanied our people. Our pursuers have found us during the narrow straits of the Nine Days and the wide berths of chagim and zemanim lesasson. The monster’s family said, “Our sadness pales in comparison to the grief and anguish our son has caused for so many innocent people. He has killed and injured the faithful who were gathered in a sacred place on a sacred day. To our great shame, he is now part of the history of evil that has been perpetrated on Jewish people for centuries.” The family said that they did not know what had motivated their son. “How our son was attracted to such darkness is a terrifying mystery to us. Like our other five children, he was raised in a family, a faith and a community that all rejected hate and taught that love must be the motive for everything we do.” What do they want from us? What can we do about it? We walk in the street and those eyes follow us. We fly on an airplane and those same eyes of hate are on us. We can’t get rid of them. We go to a park and those same eyes are there. Even in a place of justice, we can’t take anything for granted. If looks could kill, there wouldn’t be many places we could go freely. We wonder why. We see the world turning against us, as it hasn’t since the Holocaust, and we wonder why. We see the Democrat Party in this country swing against the Jews. The American president is the friendliest ever towards Jews and Israel, yet it is glossed over and haters see him as a hater of all people. We see media stalwarts engage in anti-Jewish demagoguery and can’t figure out why. Why the hatred? Why the canards? Why the lies? Why is Judaism blamed for the sorry lives of losers? How is it that the stereotypes
are being strengthened and resurrected instead of going the way of archaic philosophies, capricious and implausible, in the dustbin of illiteracy and irrational absurdism? Lives converged. Jews went to a synagogue on a holy day to celebrate life. A sick Nazi headed to the same location to celebrate and cause death. An ancient people seeking malice toward none and goodness for all is mocked, vilified, hated and hunted down thanks to the world’s stupidest and oldest conspiracies. The murderer shot at the rabbi, and a woman jumped in between them, sparing the rabbi’s life and offering up her own in an eternal act of kiddush Hashem reminiscent of so many throughout history. Yizkor Elokim nishmasah v’es nishmoseihem. The G-d who created heaven and earth and chose the Jews for Himself caused the murderer’s gun to jam. The children were spared. The adults were able to live. A tragedy was generously minimized. Jewish blood sullied another Pesach, just as the pogroms of old and blood libels that spread far and wide. Thankfully, in our day, the butcher went down and the good people were permitted another day, another Shabbos, and the ability to live on in the shadow of Hashem. We promise to never give up and never get down. We proclaim, “Yisgadeil veyiskadeish Shemei rabbah. I have to work to make this world a better place.” Our obligation is to be like Hashem, fine and compassionate. Never lose sight of the traditions of kindness and compassion passed down by our forefathers. Never stray too far from the path of light into the swamp of darkness. Be kind. Be good. In this time, we mourn the loss of Rabi Akiva’s 24,000 talmidim. We emulate their accomplishments and we seek to fill the void created by their absence. Rav Elchonon Wasserman taught (Kovetz Maamarim Ve’igros) that a person who is pretentious and egotistical cannot be successful in a leadership position. An effective leader can communicate with people because he relates to them, feels their pain, and does not consider himself on a higher level than others. If you rid your soul of sinas chinom, then you will behave with mentchlichkeit and treat people properly. If you are practiced in ahavas Yisroel, people will respect you and listen to you. You will be able to help them improve their shemiras hamitzvos, Torah learning, understanding of life, and acceptance of what Hashem gives them. Rav Isser Zalman Meltzer, as rosh yeshiva of Yeshivas Eitz Chaim in Yerushalayim, would
test the students in the school’s younger grades. He once asked a young boy a question pertaining to the understanding of a Gemara. The boy gave the wrong answer. Rav Isser Zalman said to him, “I’m sure this is what you meant to say,” and provided the correct answer. He sought to prevent the boy’s embarrassment from messing up so egregiously in front of the rosh yeshiva. The student, however, was adamant. “No, that is not what I meant,” he said. He then proceeded to repeat the mistaken answer. Patiently, the rosh yeshiva tried again, “Yes, you’re right, because this is what you wanted to say,” and he rephrased the correct answer. The boy wouldn’t hear of it. “The rosh yeshiva doesn’t understand what I am saying,” he complained. He again offered the incorrect answer. As boys began to giggle, Rav Isser Zalman rose from his seat and excused himself. “I have to tend to something for a couple of minutes and will quickly return,” he said. The class rebbi opened the door to peek down the hall. There was the senior gadol hador with his eyes closed, talking to himself. He was repeating, “The obligation to respect everyone includes children,” over and over again. After a few moments, Rav Isser Zalman returned to the classroom. He sat down with a huge smile on his face and began to painstakingly explain the Gemara until even that one boy understood it perfectly and was able to provide the correct answer to the question that was posed. The greatest teacher is not the one who knows the most, and the greatest leader is not necessarily the one who does the greatest things. He is the one who motivates people to accomplish the greatest things. The greatest teacher is the one who understands his students and is able to reach them. The greatest teacher is the one who loves his students. You can convince people to perform positive acts by appealing to their hopes or by playing to their fears. The one who excels makes sure to speak to people’s confidence and not to their doubts, with facts and not with fantasy. People respond much better and are more likely to rise to the challenge when they are treated with dignity. For leaders and teachers, as well as parents and friends, communication is a lot more than words. What matters is not necessarily what we say, but how we say it. We can inspire and motivate when we communicate with love and care. By taking seriously the commandment of “ve’ohavta lerei’acha kamocha,” our children, students, friends and acquaintances will understand that they are admired and loved by people
who have confidence in their abilities. Others might be superior to us in intelligence, experience and diplomatic skills, but if we pay attention and exercise care when speaking to people, we can accomplish so much more. We must have passion in what we do. And we have to let it show. We can all help other people and remind them of their inherent greatness. We have to be optimistic about life and about our own abilities, and we have to convey that to others. Everyone has the ability to affect the world. If we would maximize our abilities to study Torah as well as we can; if we would utilize the strength that Hashem gave us to build instead of destroy, to be optimistic instead of pessimistic; if we would use the brachos that Hashem blessed us with to benefit others, we could change the world. Sefirah is a time for us to dedicate ourselves to perfecting those abilities so that we can grow in the study and the teaching of Torah. When the Tzemach Tzedek was a young married man, he was in the home of his grandfather, the Baal Hatanya, with his family. While he was learning, a baby began to cry. He was so deep in concentration that he did not hear the child, and he continued his studying, oblivious to increasingly louder screams. The Alter Rebbe was upstairs in his study when he heard the baby’s cries. He went downstairs, lifted the baby from his carriage, and handed the child to his grandson. The Tzemach Tzedek apologized for not hearing the baby. “I am sorry,” he said. “I was concentrating so deeply that I didn’t hear anything.” “Yes, my dear grandson,” the rebbe responded. “I was also studying and was just as areingeton as you were, but I heard. Remember what I am about to tell you: Any Jew, no matter his level, must hear the cries of another Jew, regardless of how small he might be, and he must interrupt what he is doing to help the one who is crying.” Let us be attuned to the sounds around us. Let us hear the cries and seek to help, comfort and soothe others. Let us see their smiles and join in celebrating with them. Rabbi Yisroel Goldstein of Poway cannot point now, but he can pray and sing, inspire and lead, and so can we. After the attack the rabbi wrote, “I remember shouting the words ‘Am Yisroel Chai! The people of Israel live!’ I have said that line hundreds of times in my life. But I have never felt the truth of it more than I did then.” He said, “I believe everything happens for a reason. I do not know why G-d spared my life. I do not know why I had to witness scenes of a pogrom in San Diego County like the ones my grandparents experienced in Poland. I don’t know why a part of my body was taken away from me. I don’t know why I had to see my good friend, a woman who embodied the Jewish value of chesed, hunted in her house of worship… I do not know G-d’s plan. All I can do is try to… use this borrowed time to make my life matter more.” And that is what we must do as well. We must use every day like it is our last. And we must make the most of every moment, treating it like the treasure it is. “I pray that my missing finger serves as a constant reminder to me… that I am part of a people that has survived the worst destruction and will always endure; a reminder that my ancestors gave their lives so that I can live… and a reminder, to not ever be afraid to be Jewish.” We must never be afraid, because the greatest Protector of all is our Guardian, today and for all time. May we merit the geulah sheleimah, quickly and soon in our day.
Torah Musings The Week In News
MAY 2, 2019 | The Jewish Home
What G-d Remembers Sarah Pachter
One Sunday afternoon, I was watching my daughter Nava’s basketball game from the bleachers. The players were young and beginning to learn the fundamentals of the game. Mistakes like dribbling down the court the wrong way and handing the ball right into the opponent’s hands happened frequently. One of the players on the other team was taller and more advanced than all the others. Nava’s coach kept encouraging the team to guard that player. Because she was exceedingly skilled, she got “double-teamed”—two people guarded her simultaneously. When you are good, you can, and must, be able to handle more challenge. I always wondered why we bless our daughters on Friday night to be like Sarah, Rivkah, Rachel, and Leah. Each faced tremendously difficult challenges. Why not bless them to have a more typical life, for example, to eventually have a big house, large income, and to live comfortably? Instead, we bless them to be like our matriarchs, who although some had tremendous wealth, all experienced numerous tests from Hakadosh Baruch Hu—why? What are we doing to our girls? On the other hand, if our children were to become star players on the basketball team (or any team), we would enjoy enormous pride—even if that meant more opponents encircled them. Perhaps, by blessing our daughters to be like our matriarchs, we are giving our girls a “double-team” brachah in disguise. Sarah, for example, is barren, elderly, and deemed unable to procreate. Suddenly, she is told she will have a child, and she reacts with laughter. The Torah writes that Hashem remembered Sarah and she became pregnant. Rebbetzin Holly Pavlov notes that the word pakad is used for “remember” rather than the more typical word, zachor. Pakad usually describes a deposit. This word was chosen because our mitzvot are similar to deposits made in a bank. When a person does a mitzvah, that deed belongs to him. Hashem holds our deposits, ready to return them to us at a later time. In Sarah’s case, it was in the form of a child. Unlike a typical deposit, we don’t get to decide when we cash in; only Hashem controls when and how. Sarah was 90! Was she not a righteous woman who must have merited a baby much earlier?
This term pakad does not indicate a lack of righteousness on Sarah’s part. Rather, it connotes how nothing escapes Hashem’s memory, even if we forget. Rabbi Yoel Gold shares a remarkable story. Every Erev Rosh Hashanah, Rabbi Amon from Deal, New Jersey, would go with his wife to visit her mother’s kever. One afternoon at a different time of year, Rabbi Amon and his wife were traveling from Deal to Brooklyn to visit their grandchildren. On a whim, they decided to stop off to visit the kever. The cemetery was empty, and they were able to park right next to the kever. After Rabbi Amon finished davening, he looked around and noticed a hearse pulling into the cemetery with a few cars trailing behind. The family members exited the car and asked Rabbi Amon if he would complete their minyan. After the prayer service, Rabbi Amon helped them put the coffin into the grave. The men said kaddish, and everyone began leaving with the coffin still not covered. “One minute, you didn’t bury the person,” Rav Amon said. They replied, “Oh, don’t worry. We have tractors to do that.” Then, they walked away. Rabbi Amon had remembered learning in yeshiva that this scenario was referred to as a mes mitzvah. If there is no family to bury a person, it is a mitzvah to do so, even if it is because the family walked away. Rabbi Amon therefore spent over an hour burying the deceased until the entire grave was covered. Before leaving, he wrote down the name of the person. On his way out of the cemetery he kept thinking, Why did this happen? I don’t normally come at this time of year. What’s the meaning of this? He made some calls to dig a little deeper and spoke to Rabbi Herman Neuberger, his mentor and rebbe from Ner Yisrael. When Rabbi Amon told him the name, the line went silent. Rabbi Neuberger finally spoke, “Forty years ago, when you grew up in Seattle, Washington, and you enrolled in Ner Yisrael, your father lost his job. I tried to help by finding someone who would supplement your tuition. The person who ended up sponsoring your tuition for all your years in yeshiva was precisely the fellow you just buried.” Rabbi Amon was amazed at how everything had come full circle. “He paid for my education, which is where I learned this halachah about burying the deceased. Eventually, I was able to repay him and give him an appropriate burial.” My husband shared a beautiful thought by the holy Chassidic master Rabbi Yis-
roel Friedman of Ruzhin. On Rosh Hashanah, we describe Hashem as a zocher kol ha hanishkachot. Hashem remembers all that is forgotten. When you forget, Hashem remembers, but when you remember, Hashem forgets. When you remember favors you did for others and hold them accountable by expecting something in return, then Hashem does not have to “remember.” But if a person helps people and “forgets” by letting them off the hook, then Hashem is a zocher. Hashem says, “ I’ll remember decades later, when everyone else has forgotten. I will make sure that you will be repaid in full.” Indeed, Hashem remembered Sarah on Rosh Hashanah, the Day of Remembrance, with the conception of Yitzchak. Perhaps this explains the obscurity regarding these pesukim. When we are good, Hashem remembers. It may not seem this way when Hashem sends challenges to help us become who we are meant to be. Sarah was so righteous that Hashem gave her, and all
the matriarchs, many challenges. Essentially, he “double-teamed” his best players. Despite the challenges, though, Sarah lived her life full of mitzvot, not expecting anything in return from those she helped or even from Hashem. The Noam Elimelech explains that this is why Sarah laughed upon hearing she would conceive. It was not because she lacked confidence in Hashem or herself, but because she had forgotten about her deposits. She didn’t expect anything in return from anyone—including Hashem. Precisely the moment she forgot, Hashem pakod, remembered, and returned her deposit in the form of a child. Humor is derived when the unexpected occurs, and therefore laughter flowed forth from her. May we all “forget” in order to allow Hashem to be the ultimate zocher. May He be the one to remember our actions, even years later. And through this, may our mouths be filled with laughter from the unexpected, positive “double-team” brachot from Hashem above.
OCTOBER 29, 2015 | The Jewish Home
Feature The Week In News
MAY 2, 2019 | The Jewish Home
Researching Your Family
One Document at a
By Malky Lowinger
s the number of Holocaust survivors among us diminishes, the level of interest in their stories is at an all time high. Family members are haunted by questions. What really happened to Zeidy’s three brothers who never returned? How did Bubby manage to travel to Switzerland? Did any members of Tanteh Blima’s family survive the horrors of Bergen-Belsen? So many questions, so few answers. Meanwhile, in a remote town in central Germany called Bad Arolsen, there stands a series of nondescript buildings. These buildings house millions of documents, probably the largest archive of the Nazi and postwar era. Many of these documents are the key to answering these heart wrenching questions. Millions of Holocaust victims unfortunately disappeared without a trace. But there were millions of others whose fates were meticulously documented by the Germans and the authorities at the time. The Bad Arolsen archive contains over fifty
million pieces of documentation with detailed information about 17.5 million civilians who were either victims or survivors of the War. It also includes vital postwar documentation. For many decades these archives were closed to the public. But in 2007, in response to increased worldwide pressure, the collection
archives were the subject of lots of media attention when they were first opened. But that has since quieted down.” Since then, the entire collection has been painstakingly digitized, a process that is still ongoing ten years later. “We have about 200 million digitized pages so far,” says Dr. Afoumado. The goal, she says, is to make
“Often these are the last pictures ever seen of that person.” was opened and made available to both historians and to families seeking information about their loved ones. Dr. Diane Afoumado, Chief of Research and Reference at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington, D.C., has dedicated her career to providing this information to survivors and their families. “Ten years ago,” she says, “the
these pages accessible to the public. She encourages families to contact the ITS (International Tracing Service) office at the museum online to request any documentation or information about their family members. “It’s free of charge,” she notes. Thousands have taken advantage of ITS’s services already. On average, they receive 200 requests a month, mostly from families of sur-
vivors, both Jewish and non-Jewish. “We give priority to living survivors,” she points out, “especially those who are seeking compensation and need documentation to support their claims.” What type of documents are found in these archives? “Every aspect of a prisoner’s life was documented by the Nazis,” says Dr. Afoumado. “There are documents about internment and concentration camps, and about the ghettos and forced labor camps. These include prisoner files, medical files, and transfer lists. If a prisoner was sent from one barrack to another, it was probably documented.” Also fascinating, says Dr. Afoumado, are the documents about postwar Europe and the displaced persons camps. “For most people,” she points out, “the War did not end in 1945. It could have lasted for years afterwards, as survivors struggled to find each other or waited to emigrate. The collection gives us a picture of the world after the War, with documentation about individuals who requested to be transferred, repatriated, or emigrated. “ Researching the archives is not a
The Jewish Home | OCTOBER 29, 2015
Feature The Week In News
MAY 2, 2019 | The Jewish Home
Children in the concentration camps
simple process. “You don’t just google the name,” says Dr. Afoumado. “This is the most complex historical database in the world.” It takes up to six months of training for an ITS staffer to learn how to navigate and cross-reference countless databases and computer files. “We are a tracing service, a repository of multiple sub-collections from different camps and sources. Some collections are indexed, others are catalogued. It’s not one size fits all,” she explains. Dr. Afoumado leads a team of five full-time and two part-time volunteer staff members. She encourages interested family members to “go online and search for research request forms. Submit a form with the individual’s full name and approximate date and place of birth.” The ITS will do the rest, at no cost. “Survivors,” says Dr. Afoumado, “will receive a response within a month of their request.” Others will have to wait longer. But for many, the wait is well worth it. “Many of the postwar forms include photos and often these are the last pictures ever seen of that person,” she notes. “When we discover a photo, we try to prepare the family before we send it as it can be an emotional experience for them.” So far, the ITS has received over 29,317 requests for information from 78 different countries around the world, and has already responded to 88 percent of these requests. But, says Dr. Afoumado, it’s not about the numbers. It’s about the people.
The ITS Holocaust Archive in Bad Arolsen
She tells the story of a sixteenyear-old Jewish girl, Rihnata, who was helped during the War by a Polish boy named Carl. She was eventually deported and they lost track of each other after the War. “A few years ago, Rihnata’s daughter and granddaughter came to the museum. They told the story to my colleagues who found information about Rihnata and also about Carl, who now lives in Canada. We served as intermediaries and contacted Carl who agreed to speak to the family. It was amazing to connect these two families!” Another time, a family in Isra-
were never reunited. But the children did connect and discovered their long-lost cousins and are now one big happy family.
r. Afoumado is clearly passionate about her work at ITS. Born in France, she began reading about the Holocaust as a teenager. “There weren’t many books back then,” she recalls, “but I got interested in the history
“We are like detectives of the past, trying to put together the pieces of a giant puzzle.” el contacted the ITS. Their father, who was still alive, was deported to Cracow during the War but had no information about the rest of his family. “He assumed they were all murdered,” says Dr. Afoumado. “But we did the research and found postwar documents for him as well as for a sister who survived and had also moved to Israel. That was a huge discovery.” Unfortunately, that sister had already passed away so the siblings
and started reading more and more. Eventually, I chose Holocaust research as my masters.” Today, she is a celebrated Holocaust scholar who lectures around the world. But her most cherished project is clearly ITS. “I’m lucky,” she says. “because I’m passionate about my work. At ITS, we are like detectives of the past, trying to put together the pieces of a giant puzzle. I can give you numbers and statistics but it’s not about that. It’s about the people, their lives and their deaths.
Our work reflects what happened to those people. That’s why every single document is important.” Still, she warns that about fifty percent of those seeking documentation or information will be disappointed. “It really depends on what happened to the person you are seeking information on,” she explains. “There is virtually no trace of anyone who was in hiding or of those who were murdered and buried in mass graves,” she adds. Dr. Afoumado empathizes with the families in these cases. “We know that sometimes this is the last hope for finding information. So we try to provide them with other resources to continue searching.” On the other hand, she says that the work of ITS is more significant now than ever. “There is more interest today in Holocaust research than ever before,” she says, “and not just by survivors. The second generation wants to know what happened, as does the third and even the fourth generation. Now that we have the technology for finding the answers this eagerness will continue to increase.” For Dr. Afoumado and her team, this work is tremendously rewarding. “We receive thank you notes and acknowledgements all the time,” she says. “I gather them and send them out to everyone at the museum. It makes us all so happy.” For more information about ITS, visit their website at its-arolsen.org.
Book Review The Week In News
MAY 2, 2019 | The Jewish Home
Confident Parents, Competent Children, Four Seconds at a Time by Rabbi Yitzchak Shmuel Ackerman (Feldheim 2019) Reviewed by Devorah Talia Gordon
On her way home from a great parenting shiur, a mother feels inspired by the idea of not getting angry at her children. Seven minutes later, she walks into the house and finds her ten- and eight-yearolds have helped themselves to a second dinner. The remains of it are on the table, the floor, and the counters. She’s overtired and had expected to come home a kitchen as clean as she’d left it. She yells at her kids, feeling deep regret a few moments late. How quickly her ideal went out the window! According to Rabbi Yitzchak Shmuel Ackerman, in his book Confident Parents, Confident Children, Four Seconds at a Time, the mother would have been more successful if she’d stopped for four seconds to establish kavanah (intention) before engaging in chinuch ha-banim (education of children). If she had paused, she would have been able to express herself b’nachas (pleasantly) to her children. Rabbi Ackerman, a therapist and frequent lecturer on parenting, writes, “But your words of admonition will only be heard when you are b’nachas. That’s when parenting is hard: when you need to main-
tain your composure while your composure is being threatened (p. xiii).” To teach parents to consciously enter a state of nachas ruach (pleasant spirit), Rabbi Ackerman uses the vehicle of middos development—it indeed becomes the structuring principle of his book. In each chapter, Ackerman defines a different middah and discusses how to develop that middah in order to be an effective parent. According to Rabbi Ackerman, an effective parent is one who has appropriate expectations for each child and helps each child meet every expectation. Middos such as tolerance, humility, peace, and deliberation are some examples of middos explored in Confident Parents. Rabbi Ackerman has written a dense, yet user-friendly book which is precise and thoughtfully prepared. Part One gives concrete examples of parenting scenarios. He uses shortcut tools in simple boxes to delineate clear steps in parenting. One box assists with establishing kavanos, labeled: “Paradigm Shift.” It contains two sentences to fill in: “Shift From ______.” and “Shift To: _____________.” Another box is used to list the proper kavanah and
maaseh (action). The end-of-chapter summary is a great way to check that you got all the points. Additionally, when a subject is mentioned briefly, Rabbi Ackerman references the specific chapter where that
subject will be expounded upon—it’s very helpful. Part Two is a collection of Ackerman’s parenting articles. These originally appeared in his column in the Flatbush Jewish Journal and in Monsey’s Front Page. Some important tidbits are there, especially regarding the importance of tefillah (prayer) for successful parenting. Highly organized, focused, and detail-oriented, this book would be perfect for a husband and wife to study together. In fact, Rabbi Ackerman highlights the important role both parents play in parenting, using examples from fathers as well as mothers. Parents who are less methodical in their approach to chinuch might find this book intimidating; it requires study and review in order to “get it.” Upon close reading, however, a parent will appreciate the clear examples combined with Rabbi Ackerman’s sensitive approach, which shows his understanding of people, be it children or parents.
Life’s Most Important Question Rabbi Dov Heller, LMFT There are many questions that—when contemplated—can expand our consciousness and transform our lives. I would like to suggest the following for your consideration: What is the most important thing a human being can do? The power of this question lies in that it invites us to consider the big picture of our lives. It reveals the truth of what we value most and what we believe is the greatest good. It compels us to think freely about what is truly important in life, to own it, and to live with it. It offers the possibility of freeing us from our preconceived notions of life’s purpose and to think outside the box. It can liberate us from our subjective leanings and to entertain a vision that may not initially feel comfortable given our present ambitions, goals, and lifestyle. It offers the promise of a breakthrough about how we could live our lives based on what really matters to us and what is really true for us. Take a few minutes to answer the question, and then take a look at the following list of potential answers. • To win 6 super bowls • To win a Nobel Prize • To be the founder and CEO of a multi-billion-dollar corporation like Facebook • To win an Oscar, Emmy, Grammy
• To find a cure for cancer • To build a family filled with love and peace and raise happy, productive children • To seek truth • To become enlightened • To become president of the United States • To develop one’s full creative potential • To strive to emulate G-d • To serve the Creator of the universe with love and joy For this question to transform your life, you’ll need to take three additional steps: 1) Make a commitment to work toward this goal. 2) Write a plan describing how you will achieve it. 3) Start today. There are amazing benefits to living this way: You will always feel like a winner! Someone who is striving toward what they believe is the most important thing to accomplish will always feel like a winner regardless of how much they actually achieve. This is because one is focused on the process, not on results. It frees one from what I call the “tyranny of success and failure.” There is a crucial difference between how success is defined in the materialistic world and how success is defined in the spiritual world. In the physical world, success is measured by accom-
plishments. The more one accomplishes, the more successful one is deemed. In the spiritual world, success is defined by a life of striving towards an ultimate ideal. Winning is about striving towards an ideal no matter how much one falls short of achieving that ideal. The rabbis put it this way, “It doesn’t matter one does a little or lot as long as he directs his heart towards the heavens.” Living a life centered on a goal and fighting for what one values most will give one a feeling of being a winner no matter how much one fails, stumbles, or falls short. The credit belongs to the person who is actually in the arena, whose face is marred by dust and sweat and blood, who strives valiantly, who errs and comes short again and again because there is no effort without error and shortcomings, who knows the great devotion, who spends himself in a worthy cause, who at best knows in the end the high achievement of triumph and who at worst, if he fails while daring greatly, knows his place shall never be with those timid and cold souls who know neither victory nor defeat. - Theodore Roosevelt, “Citizenship in a Republic” You will inoculate yourself against social pressure and self-doubt. When a person is living with a life goal based on what she believes is most important, she
will be able to stand up against any and all challenges. Someone who lives with a sense of mission will stay the course against social pressure. We see this truth embodied in the lives of Abraham, Herzl, Gandhi, Martin Luther King, Jr., Rabbi Noach Weinberg, and others. For example, Abraham grew-up in a culture totally immersed in various types of idol worship. Being a truth seeker, he pursued the truth until he reached the conclusion that there was a personal G-d who created the universe. He at once committed his life to the service of G-d despite the rejection of his own family and those who threatened him with death. Rabbi Noach Weinberg, a contemporary American rabbi who settled in Israel, realized that there were so many Jews who knew nothing about Torah Judaism. He founded Yeshivas Aish HaTorah in order to reach-out to assimilated Jews even though there were many doubters who felt he was wasting his time. His vision and passion kept him going and, in the end, he saw great fruits from his labors. In closing, consider the words of George Bernard Shaw: “This is the true joy in life, being used for a purpose recognized by yourself as a mighty one…I want to be thoroughly used up when I die, for the harder I work the more I live.”
The Week In News
MAY 2, 2019 | The Jewish Home
Tragedy in Poway On the last day of yom tov, the tranquil chanting of the Torah reading was cut short when a terrorist entered into the Chabad shul in Poway near San Diego, California, and opened fire. Rabbi Yisrael Goldstein said that he left the main part of the shul to prepare for the haftorah when the gunman opened fire. “Here is a young man with a rifle, pointing right at me,” Rabbi Goldstein recounted. “And I look at him. He has sunglasses on. I couldn’t see his eyes. I couldn’t see his soul. I froze.”
Lori Gilbert-Kaye, 60, attempted to shield the rabbi with her body during the attack. She was killed al kiddush Hashem. Three others were injured in the attack, including Rabbi Goldstein, who lost a few fingers. Eight-year-old Israeli girl Noya Dahan and her uncle, Almog Peretz, both suffered leg wounds in the attack but were released from the hospital. They had moved to California from Israel to escape Hamas rockets targeting their home. “For those of us who know Lori, she is a person of unconditional love,” Rabbi Goldstein said. “I have known her for close to 25 years and she was a pioneer member of our congregation. She used to work for Wells Fargo ... and she helped secure us the loan for [the synagogue]. She was the one who always went out of her way for those in need.” The shooting only ended after Jonathan Morales, an armed off-duty U.S. Customs and Border Patrol agent, and U.S. Army veteran Oscar Stewart screamed at the 19-year-old gunman John Earnest to put his gun down. They fired upon him and he fled. Stewart caught up with the gunman in his car and banged on his window before the terrorist ran away. The murderer eventually surrendered to police. A white nationalist who hated President Trump for being too friendly to Jews, Earnest faces one count of first-degree murder and three counts of first-degree attempted murder. Rabbi Goldstein had asked Morales to come to prayers armed “just in case” something nefarious occurred in the Chabad house. “Morales recently discovered his Jewish roots. He would travel three and a half hours from [the California town of] El
Centro to pray with us at our shul,” Rabbi Goldstein said. “He felt this was his house of worship. And many times I said, ‘Jonathan, you work for the border patrol. Please arm yourself when you are here; we never know when we will need it.’” Hannah Kaye, who spoke at her mother’s levaya this week, said that Lori was known for her chessed. She would drive hours to visit a sick friend. She bought six months’ worth of medication for someone without insurance. She left her freshly baked challah in mailboxes and on doorsteps all over town and would buy extra bagels and coffee during her morning routine to be able to give them away. “Her light has reached all crevices of this planet,” 22-year-old Hannah said about her mother. “Everyone was her sister, everyone was her trusted confidante,” Hannah added. “Everyone was her friend.” “She had a soul that was greater than any of us ever could believe,” said her husband, Dr. Howard Kaye, at the levaya. He urged people to learn more about Judaism and to help others. Dr. Kaye performed CPR on his wife after she was shot. He did not know it was his wife he was attempting to save when he ran to help.
dot the United States. Bloch would become the face of the company. Appearing before shareholders and in advertisements for the company, Bloch became known to the public as the person who popularized the slogan “Don’t face the laws alone.” Following his passing, H&R Block’s current CEO Jeff Jacobs invoked Bloch’s “honesty and integrity” in a statement eulogizing his company’s founder. “Henry embodied the best of American business, entrepreneurship and philanthropy. His vision lives on through H&R Block associates and the many philanthropic organizations that he supported,” he said. Bloch was also renowned for his charitable giving to Jewish causes. Through the foundation he founded with his wife, the business mogul supported a wide array of Jewish institutions, including the Jewish Community Center of Greater Kansas City, the American Jewish Committee, Jewish Family Services, and the Jewish Federation of Greater Kansas City.
Search Warrants for Baltimore Mayor
Jewish Founder of H&R Block Passes Away
Henry Bloch, a known Jewish philanthropist who co-founded tax giant H&R Block, passed away last week in Kansas City. He was 96. Born to a middle-class Jewish family in Kansas City, Bloch later joined the Army Air Corps and flew dozens of missions over Germany during World War II. Following his discharge, Bloch studied at Harvard Business School and opened up a small-time bookkeeping business. The business proved popular, and Bloch soon branched out into tax preparation services. A decision soon after by the IRS to scrap its free tax-prep service caused Bloch to be swamped with customers, and he decided to go into the field full-time. In 1955, Henry and his brother Richard founded H&R Block. The decision to call it “Block” and not their original surname stemmed from a desire to make the company more American. The business exploded; within seven years H&R Block went public and today more than 12,000 branches
On Thursday, federal authorities executed search warrants against the home and several locations tied to Baltimore Mayor Catherine Pugh, who is embroiled in a scandal over whether she improperly profited from a book deal with a Maryland medical system while she served on its board. The FBI and criminal investigators from the Internal Revenue Service executed court-authorized search warrants at the home of the Democratic mayor, a second residence she owns, city hall, a non-profit the mayor has worked with, and the downtown office of her attorney. The home of Gary Brown, a former Pugh aide, was also searched. As of now the FBI has made no arrests, although Pugh has taken a leave of absence from being mayor. While Pugh was a board member of the University of Maryland Medical System, the group spent $500,000 to fund the purchase of some 100,000 children’s books Pugh authored. Pugh apologized in March for having “done something to upset the people.” Baltimore’s city council has called for Pugh to resign, and Gov. Larry Hogan, a Republican who earlier this month asked the Office of the State Prosecutor to investigate the scandal, echoed those calls shortly after the raids Thursday morning. Pugh recently returned $100,000 to
the medical system and canceled her book deal. She has also resigned from the hospital’s board, according to Schwartzberg. Pugh also received about $114,000 from Kaiser Permanente for some 20,000 books from 2015 to 2018, according to the health care provider. Kaiser Permanente said it delivered the books to back-to-school fairs, elementary schools, communities of faith and early childhood education and care centers. Additionally, Associated Black Charities, a public foundation that works to encourage healthier and more prosperous communities, said it spent approximately $80,000 between 2011 and 2016 to buy some 10,000 copies of Pugh’s books – a project the organization learned about while she was still a state senator.
Joe Jumps In Former Vice President Joe Biden officially threw his hat into the presidential ring last Thursday, the latest in a crowded field vying to be Democratic Party’s 2020 contender to take on Donald Trump. Biden announced his candidacy in a video he shared on social media. Calling the 2020 race “a battle for the soul of the country,” Biden detailed a long list of incidents, including Trump’s response to white supremacist violence in Charlottesville in 2017, to allege that he was unfit to stay in the White House. “In that moment, I knew the threat to this nation was unlike any I had seen in our lifetime,” Biden said. “The core values of this nation – our standing in the world, our very democracy, everything that has made America America – is at stake. That’s why today I’m announcing my candidacy for president of the United States.” Trump responded to Biden’s announcement by mocking the former vice president as “Sleepy Joe” and questioned his intelligence. “I only hope you have the intelligence, long in doubt, to wage a successful primary campaign,” Trump tweeted. “It will be nasty – you will be dealing with people who truly have some very sick & demented ideas. But if you make it, I will see you at the Starting Gate!” The 2020 race is the third time the former vice president and U.S. senator from Delaware is trying to become the nation’s highest elected official, as he previously ran in 2008 and 1988. The 76-year old Biden has emerged as a strong favorite in the 20-candidate pack of candidates and has already earned the endorsements of Democratic Senators Chris Coons of Delaware, Bob Casey of Pennsylvania, and Doug Jones of Alabama. The $6.9 million Biden raised during his first day as a candidate is also more than any other candidate as the veteran politico looks to battle Trump in the white working-class states of Pennsylvania and Michigan.
The Week In News
Terror Plot Foiled A 26-year-old Muslim former U.S. Army soldier who served in Afghanistan has been charged with plotting terror attacks in the Los Angeles area, the Justice Department said on Monday. Mark Steven Domingo allegedly sought to detonate improvised explosive devices containing nails this past weekend at a rally in Long Beach that was organized by a white nationalist group. He was arrested on Friday night after he took what he thought were pressure cooker bombs, U.S. Attorney Nick Hanna announced at a press conference. “Law enforcement was able to identify a man consumed with hate, and bent on mass murder and stop him before he was able to carry out his attack,” Hanna said. Domingo allegedly wanted to “seek retribution for attacks against Muslims” and also considered attacks on Jewish people, churches and law enforcement. He is accused of targeting “Jews as they walked to synagogue, police officers, a military facility, and crowds at the Santa Monica Pier.” On March 2, DOJ says Domingo posted a video online professing his Muslim faith and wrote, “America needs another Vegas event,” referring to the mass shoot-
MAY 2, 2019 | The Jewish Home
ing in Las Vegas in October 2017 in which more than 50 people died. Domingo is a recent convert to Islam. He wanted to give “them a taste of the terror they gladly spread all over the world,” according to the Justice Department. Following a mass shooting attack on a mosque in New Zealand in March that killed dozens of people, Domingo posted, “there mustbe (sic) retribution.” Domingo asked an FBI informant to find someone to construct an IED, according to the Justice Department. He met with the informant and came armed with an AK47 style rifle.
Judge Indicted for Helping Illegal Immigrant Escape
A Massachusetts state judge has been indicted for her role in helping an illegal
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immigrant escape custody and avoid deportation. Judge Shelley M. Joseph and a court officer named Wesley MacGregot were both indicted by a federal grand jury earlier this week on charges of obstruction of justice, aiding and abetting; obstruction of a federal proceeding, aiding and abetting; and conspiracy to obstruct justice. MacGregor also faces perjury charges. The two landed in hot water after they helped Jose Medina-Peret escape an ICE manhunt in April 2018 by letting him out of the back door of the courthouse. ICE was after Perez for being in the U.S. illegally and for escaping a drunken driving rap. When Perez showed up at Judge Joseph’s courtroom, ICE had already issued a warrant to detain him and hand him over to authorities. Yet Joseph and MacGregor decided to spirit him out of the building after hearing that they would likely deport him should he be taken into custody. While the judge played for time by recusing herself to her chambers, MacGregor escorted him out of the building using his special ID that gave him free access to the building. “With the recorder off, defendant Joseph and the Defense Attorney discussed devising a way to have A.S. [Medina-Perez] avoid being arrested by the ICE officer,” wrote the indictment. Prosecutors said that the indictment of the two sent an important message regarding the primacy of the rule of law. “This case is about the rule of law. The allegations in today’s indictment involve obstruction by a sitting judge, that is intentional interference with the enforcement of federal law, and that is a crime,” U.S. Attorney for the District of Massachusetts Andrew Lelling said.
Senator Richard Lugar Dies Former U.S. Senator Richard G. Lugar, the longest serving senator in the history of Indiana, passed away on Sunday at the age of 87. The Lugar Center announced that the veteran politico had died after losing a battle with chronic inflammatory polyneuropathy, a rare illness that causes infections in the body’s nerve tissue. “This was a short illness. He was in generally good health until this month,” said Lugar Center spokesman Dan Dillon. A former mayor of Indianapolis, Lugar was first elected to the U.S. Senate as a Republican in 1976. He went to become a foreign policy expert who made fighting nuclear proliferation his defining issue during the 36 years he spent in the Senate. Among other things, Lugar launched a program that located and destroyed Russian nuclear missiles and fissile material that was floating around the region following the collapse of the Soviet Union.
During his unsuccessful presidential run in 1996, he warned that the lax oversight of Russia’s nuclear stockpile would lead dangerous weapons to fall into the wrong hands. “Every stockpile represents a theft opportunity for terrorists and a temptation for security personnel who might seek to profit by selling weapons on the black market,” Lugar warned. “We do not want the question posed the day after an attack on an American military base.” Serving for decades on the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, including as its chairman for two terms, Lugar was an influential voice on foreign policy even after he was ousted from office in 2002. In 2014, he was awarded the Presidential Medal of Honor, the nation’s highest civilian honor. Vice President Mike Pence, a resident of Lugar’s home state of Indiana, eulogized him as a fighter for freedom who led the battle against the South African apartheid regime. “Lugar was a leader not only in the Senate but also on the world stage, where he worked tirelessly to bring pressure to end apartheid in South Africa and enforce treaties that destroyed Soviet weapons of mass destruction,” noted the vice president.
Four Dead in Seattle Fallen Crane Disaster Four people were killed in Seattle after a crane suddenly collapsed in the South Lake Union district on Sunday. Two of the fatalities were employees who were in the crane at the time of the collapse while the other two were crushed in their cars. Another two people were injured and evacuated to a nearby hospital. The crane was being used to build a building on a new Google campus along with an apartment building. Both buildings were severely damaged in the incident. Following the collapse, the State of Washington said that it would open an investigation into four companies it said had a role in the disaster, including general contractor GLY, Northwest Tower Crane Service Inc., Omega Rigging and Machinery Moving Inc., and Morrow Equipment Co. LLC. “We are closely monitoring the situation in South Lake Union. My heart goes out to the family and friends of the four people who died in this terrible accident,” tweeted Governor Jay Inslee. Google, meanwhile, said in a statement that it was “saddened to learn of today’s accident at South Lake Union.” “We share our deepest condolences with those who’ve been affected and thank all the first responders who quickly sprang into action. We are in communication with Vulcan who is managing the site and working with the local authorities on the ground.”
The Week In News
MAY 2, 2019 | The Jewish Home
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