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TE ACH ING TO TH E MISSION

For more information about the Ignatian Mentoring Program contact:

for more information or for additional books: www.jesuitresource.org Copyright Š 2010

www.jesuitresource.org

VOLUME 5 2010

Debra Mooney, Ph.D. Assistant to the President for Center for Mission and Identity Xavier University mooney@xavier.edu

T eaching to the M ission the

A Compendium of Ignatian Mentoring Program


T eaching to the M ission A Compendium of the Ignatian Mentoring Program The Center for Mission & Identity at Xavier University is pleased to showcase the missionconscious work of our faculty who have participated in the Ignatian Mentoring Program in this book, Teaching to the Mission. The Ignatian Mentoring Program started from a 2004 mentoring grant from the Lilly Fellows Program in Humanities and the Arts and has been subsequently supported by the Xavier University Jesuit Community. The Program seeks to facilitate a deeper understanding of the Ignatian vision and Jesuit education through guidance by senior faculty. The outcomes are clearly evident within the classroom setting. Through this book, we share in celebrating the work of all faculty within the Association of Jesuit Colleges and Universities and their commitment to expanding the traditions of excellence in contemporary Jesuit higher education.

Affirming excellence in teaching, scholarship and mission consciousness Made possible by a grant from the Lilly Fellows Program in Humanities and the Arts, 2005; subsequently endowed by the Xavier Jesuit Community.


TABLE OF CONTENTS A C A D E M I C A D M I N I S T R AT I O N

The Principles of Ignatian Pedagogy, Standards for Teacher Competence in Educational Assessment of Students, and a Promise for Portable Professional Development

Jennifer J. Fager, PhD ................................................................................... 9

ACCOUNTING

Incorporating Reflection into the Accounting Capstone Course

Michele Matherly, PhD .................................................................................. 13

BIOLOGY

Challenging Students’ Preconceived Notions on Evolution

Neema Nourian, MSci ...................................................................................15

CHEMISTRY

Jesuit Education and Ignatian Pedagogy in Chemistry

Roy J. Cohen, PhD ....................................................................................... 19

Ignatian Pedagogy in Medicinal Chemistry: The Global AIDS Crisis

Richard J. Mullins, PhD................................................................................. 23

CLASSICS

Liberation: A Socratic and Ignatian Approach

Thomas E. Strunk, PhD ................................................................................ 25

C O M M U N I C AT I O N A R T S

Carrying out the Jesuit Mission in Comm 101: Developing Students of “Competence, Conscience and Compassion.”

Jennifer Jervis Tighe, MA................................................................................ 28

Discernment: Debate and the Process of Attitude Change Persuasion

Thomas Wagner, PhD.................................................................................... 31

ECONOMICS

Integrating Ignatian Values into Principles of Economics

Nancy Bertaux, PhD...................................................................................... 34

Student-Devised Cost of Living Comparisons

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Michael Rimler, PhD .................................................................................... 35


E D U C AT I O N

Daily Thanksgiving for the Montessori Classroom Teacher: Using the Spiritual Exercises as a Basis for Self Reflection and Self Awareness

Julie Kugler Ackley, MEd.. ........................................................................... 41

The Teaching Vocation and the Jesuit Mission: Student Perceptions

Sally M. Barnhart, MEd............................................................................... 44

Teaching for Social Justice: A Course Syllabus

Delane Bender-Slack, EdD........................................................................... 47

Student Teaching Seminar: Current Issues in Early Childhood Education Student Teaching Seminar: Cohort

Debora L. Couch-Kuchey, PhD .................................................................... 55

Early Childhood Special Education: Learning Theories

Kathleen G. Winterman, PhD. ..................................................................... 61

Teaching Reflectively through Ignatian Pedagogy

Teresa Young, EdD.....................................................................................65

The Voice of Jesuit Experience on the Significance of Disability

Victoria Zascavage, PhD .............................................................................. 72

ENGLISH

Still Weaving of a Written Self: Reflections on the Whole Student

Kelly Austin, MA........................................................................................77

Studies in Fiction

Anne McCarty, MFA.................................................................................... 82

English Senior Seminar: The Early Modern Idea of Work

Kara Northway, PhD .................................................................................. 84

Sex, Solitude, and Single Life

Trudelle Thomas, PhD................................................................................ 87

Literature & the Moral Imagination English Senior Seminar

Stephen Yandell, PhD ................................................................................ 90

FINANCE

Teaching Ethics in the Introductory Finance Course

David C. Hyland, PhD ............................................................................... 93

HISTORY

Reading, Writing, and Reflection: The Ignatian Value of Reflection in the History Area of the Core Curriculum

Rachel Chrastil, PhD ................................................................................. 103

Born of a Disabled Body: The Ignatian Body and Its Role in Jesuit Education

Dennis J. Frost, PhD ................................................................................. 105

European History

David Mengel, PhD ................................................................................... 108

The Study of History and the Principles of Jesuit Education

S. Paul O’Hara, PhD ................................................................................. 110

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LEGAL STUDIES

The Legal Environment of Business

Ann Marie Tracey, JD ................................................................................... 111

MANAGEMENT AND ENTREPRENEURSHIP

The perceived role of ethics and social responsibility: What factors in the management curriculum influence this perception?

Rashmi H. Assudani, PhD ............................................................................. 113

From Pentagon to Heptagon –Making Jesuit Values Pragmatic

Ravi Chinta, PhD ........................................................................................ 115

Development of an Alternative Spring Break Experience Focusing on Social Entrepreneurship and Discernment

Rebecca Luce, PhD ...................................................................................... 122

Ethics in Business Data Mining

Greg Smith, PhD .. ..................................................................................... 124

Can Ethics Be Taught in Operations Management Course?

Lifang Wu, PhD .......................................................................................... 126

M A N A G E M E N T I N F O R M AT I O N S Y S T E M S

Cura Personalis: Understanding Students’ Use of Online Social Networks to Enhance Learning

Thilini Ariyachandra, PhD ............................................................................ 130

MARKETING

Marketing Concepts

David J. Burns, DBA ..................................................................................... 133

Materialism and Macro Marketing

Mee-Shew Cheung, PhD ............................................................................... 137

An Investigation of Compulsive Buying in a University Setting

Vishal Kashyap, PhD .................................................................................... 140

M AT H E M AT I C S / C O M P U T E R S C I E N C E

Statistical Inference

Max Buot, PhD ........................................................................................... 144

The Secrets to Peace and Joy: Change Myself by Love

Huizhen (Jean) Guo, PhD ............................................................................. 146

Ignatian Pedagogy: Connecting Biology Majors to Mathematics

Hem Raj Joshi, PhD ..................................................................................... 149

Ignatian Pedagogy in Collegiate Mathematics Education

Joy Moore, PhD .......................................................................................... 150

MUSIC

Incorporating Discernment into a Music Course

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Kaleel Skeirik, PhD...................................................................................... 153


NURSING

Teaching Nursing Using the Ignatian Principles

Kelly P. Beischel, RN, MSN, MEd, NCSN ........................................................... 156

Cura Personalis: The Gift of the MIDAS Student

Barbara Harland RN, MSN MEd ..................................................................... 158

Journaling as a Strategy for Developing Reflective Practitioners

Cathy Leahy, MSN, MEd, RN ......................................................................... 160

Community Nursing Practicum

Cecile Walsh, MSN, RN, CNS .......................................................................... 162

O C C U PAT I O N A L T H E R A P Y

Integrating the Jesuit Mission in E Pluribus Unum “Persons with Disabilities as a Discriminated Minority”

Georganna Joary Miller, MEd, OTR/L .............................................................. 164

Men and Women with Others: Learning Occupational Justice and Service in Guatemala

Joan Tunningley, MEd, OTR/L, BCP.………………………………………………............. 167

PHILOSOPHY

The Political Character of Ancient Greek Religion

Eleni Tsalla, PhD ...................................................................................... 177

PHYSICS

Forensics & Race - Teaching Diversity in a Physics Lab (Phys-111: Our Universe: Forensics Lab)

Gregory Braun, PhD .................................................................................. 179

Modern Physics in the Spirit of the Jesuit Tradition

Justin J. Link, PhD..................................................................................... 183

POLITICAL SCIENCE

International Political Economy

Anas Malik, PhD ....................................................................................... 185

PSYCHOLOGY

Introduction to Social Psychology Development of a Jesuit Identification Measure and a Sense of Becoming “Women and Men for Others”

Christian M. End, PhD ...............................................................................187

Experiencing Ignatian Core Values in Health Psychology: Utilizing “Inspiration” and “Aspiration”

Debra K. Mooney, PhD ...............................................................................190

Is More Ethics Training in General Psychology Better?

Reneé A. Zucchero, PhD. ............................................................................ 193

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SOCIAL WORK

Taking the Next Step to Social Action: Gender Identity Disorder and the Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders

Stephanie Brzuzy, PhD .................................................................................. 196

Teaching to the Mission: Spiritually-Based Professional Development of Self in Field Education An Ignatian Approach

Shelagh Larkin, MSW/LISW .............................................................................. 198

SPORTS STUDIES

The Application of Ignatian Principles to Sport and the Development of the Integrated Coaching and Sport Education Model

Ronald W. Quinn, EdD ................................................................................. 207

THEOLOGY

Christian Sexual Ethics

Jennifer Beste, PhD ......................................................................................214

Theological Foundations: Christian Doctrine Today

Edward Hahnenberg, PhD ..............................................................................215

Theological Foundations: Jesuit Theology and Spirituality

Chris Pramuk, PhD ...................................................................................... 217

MENTOR REFLECTIONS

Reflective Reading and Experiencing: An Ignatian Model for Writing Reflection Journals

Shelagh Larkin, MSW/LISW .............................................................................. 219

Expanding Horizons: A Christian Female Talks at Length with a Muslim Male

Trudelle Thomas, PhD (English) ..................................................................... 223

Mentoring: A Retrospective

Trudelle Thomas, PhD (English) ..................................................................... 226

Rethinking Magis

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Trudelle Thomas, PhD (English) ..................................................................... 228


ACADEMIC ADMINISTRATION The Principles of Ignatian Pedagogy, Standards for Teacher Competence in Educational Assessment of Students, and a Promise for Portable Professional Development Jennifer J. Fager, PhD Mentor: Gillian Ahlgren, PhD (Theology) Introduction When I first encountered the term pedagogy I was a beginning teacher. Pedagogy, with Greek and Latin origins was posited as a term related to the intellectualization of teaching and learning. In subsequent study, I examined ideas presented by many theorists (e.g. Bloom, Dewey, Mann, Freire, Giroux, etc.), however, not one of these theorists mentioned ideas related to religious traditions let alone a mention of Ignatian pedagogy (See The Ignatian Pedagogical Model below). Ignatian pedagogy? Who knew?! This project, my Ignatian Pedagogical Examination of the Assessment of Students will include an investigation on how to “integrate novel teaching methods and technologies” into the professional development of teachers and other educational leaders. Thus, the focus of this work will be on integrating the Ignatian Pedagogical Model outlined by Peter-Hans Kolvenback, S.J. and adapt this model to introduce or reinforce the ideas of educational assessment to teachers as identified in the Standards for Teacher Competence in Educational Assessment of Students. In addition, the pedagogical organizer serves as the foundation on which to build a professional development model using IPOD touch technology. Context In 1990 the Standards for Teacher Competence in Educational Assessment of Students were developed by the American Federation of Teachers, the National Council on Measurement in Education, and the National Education Association. (See Standards below.) These Standards articulate the skills and knowledge critical to a teacher’s role as an educator. The organizations supported the idea that preservice preparation for teachers should include assessment training. To reinforce the need for preservice and inservice preparation for teachers in assessment, a series of studies on teacher assessment knowledge were conducted. Teachers reported weaknesses or a lack of knowledge in the fundamentals of testing. Further, few teachers are required to actually take formal courses in tests and measurements and their exposure to such content is insufficient. These original studies (e.g., Gullickson & Ellwein,1985 & Schafer & Lissitz, 1987) were extended via a national study conducted under the auspices of the National Council on Measurement in Education, the American Federation of Teachers, and the National Education Association. Results of the national study indicated teachers were not adequately prepared to communicate assessment results to students, parents, other lay audiences, and other educators (Standard 6). In order to aid in the improvement of teachers’ knowledge and skills in this area, a series of professional development materials were developed to enhance their learning. These professional development materials were pretty “low-tech” as they were in the form of a workbook. Fast forward to 2001 The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (Public Law 107-110), often abbreviated in print as NCLB is a United States federal law (Act of Congress) that was originally proposed by President George W. Bush on January 23, 2001, immediately after taking office. The law reauthorized a number of federal programs aiming to improve the performance of U.S. primary and secondary schools by increasing the standards of accountability for states, school districts, and schools, as well as providing parents more flexibility in choosing which schools their children will attend. Additionally, it promoted an increased focus on reading and re-authorized the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (ESEA). NCLB centered around the tenets of standards-based education reform, also known as outcome-based education. This focus on “standards-based education” is based on the belief that setting high standards and establishing measurable goals can improve individual performance in education. The Act required all states to develop assessments in basic skills to be given to all students in certain grades, if those states are to receive federal funding for schools. NCLB did not require national testing as the standards were to be set by each individual state in keeping with the principles of local control of education. The effectiveness and desirability of NCLB has been studied, debated, and revered. Those who have criticized NCLB believe the law could reduce effective instruction and student learning because it may cause states to lower achievement goals in order to meet the 9


required “high standards” and it will force teachers to “teach to the test.” Those in favor of the legislation suggest that regular required testing aids in the identification of schools who are not effective in teaching basic skills, allow for appropriate interventions for these schools, and in turn, will close the achievement gap for those previously disadvantaged. Now and the future In the nearly 20 years since the original study was conducted, the pressures of testing have magnified. However, has teacher preparation and professional development kept up with this increased emphasis? Likely not. How can Ignatian Pedagogy serve as an organizer to examine assessment knowledge as identified in the Standards for Teacher Competence in Educational Assessment of Students? This organizer led to the matrix identified in figure 1: Ignatian Pedagogy as an organizer for the Standards for Teacher Competence in Educational Assessment of Students. How can existing technologies be utilized to enhance professional development for teachers at all levels? It is my hope that these questions will be answered in the not-to-distant future. See Figure 1 Experience Since the original studies in the early 1990’s a significant changes in professional development have occurred including access to multiple technologies including the internet. The future directions for the knowledge gained in this study include: 1. Replicating the national study post-NCLB 2. Developing professional learning materials using an IPOD Touch 3. Developing a website dedicated to the assessment of student learning and teacher training 4. Creation of a community of learners able to connect electronically throughout the professional development process. Reflection Although I have spent the better part of my career reviewing, studying, and working with curriculum, it was not until this project began that I became acquainted with the principles of Ignatian Pedagogy. As a result, this project is the impetus for a series of studies to be conducted over the next few years. Action Not only is the project the impetus to restructure and replicate the initial studies of teachers’ knowledge of assessment; this project is the catalyst for the creation of a program designed to make professional development portable. Using IPOD Touch technology, participants will be able to access learning anywhere, any time. It is my intention to expand this project beyond assessment to other areas of professional development. The assessment of student learning was selected as the first focus as it is an area most critical to teacher performance and essential to the culture of schools. Further, it is consistent with the Jesuit educational tradition as assessment needs to be adapted to the environment of the learner. When done well, assessment can help guide teaching and learning to meet the evolving needs of the teacher and the learner. State-of-the-art pedagogy remains only a promise until it is made functional by competent teachers whose own personalities and perceptions provide the dynamic dimension of pedagogy. Evaluation Ignatian Pedagogy, according to Kolvenbach, “promises to help teachers be better teachers.” This project, and the studies to follow, will enable teachers to enrich their own content and structural knowledge in the assessment of student learning. The portable professional development model will allow teachers to tailor their learning and experiences based upon their identified needs. Reaching teachers where they learn is essential to a professional development model. Like students, teachers can learn anywhere, any time and the more readily available and accessible learning can be the greater the likelihood it will fulfill immediate and pressing needs. Standards for Teacher Competence in Educational Assessment of Students • Teachers should be skilled in choosing assessment methods appropriate for instructional decisions. • Teachers should be skilled in developing assessment methods appropriate for instructional decisions. • The teacher should be skilled in administering, scoring and interpreting the results of both externally-produced and teacherproduced assessment methods. • Teachers should be skilled in using assessment results when making decisions about individual students, planning teaching, developing curriculum, and school improvement. • Teachers should be skilled in developing valid pupil grading procedures which use pupil assessments. • Teachers should be skilled in communicating assessment results to students, parents, other lay audiences, and other educators. • Teachers should be skilled in recognizing unethical, illegal, and otherwise inappropriate assessment methods and uses of assessment information. 10


The Ignatian Pedagogical Model Context—What needs to be known about learners 9their environment, background, community, and potential) to teach them well? Experience—What is the best way to engage learners as whole persons in the teaching and learning process? Reflection—How may learners become more reflective so they more deeply understand what they have learned? Action—How do we compel learners to move beyond knowledge to action? Evaluation—How do we assess learners’ growth in mind, heart, and spirit? Figure 1 IGNATIAN PEDAGOGY TEACHING ELEMENTS

CONTEXT

EXPERIENCE

REFLECTION

ACTION

EVALUATION

ASSESSMENT STANDARDS 1. Choosing Assessment Methods

Are the methods selected appropriate for each learner?

2. Developing Assessment Methods

Do assessments allow learners to gather and recollect material they have experienced?

3. Administering, scoring and interpreting results

Are results used to encourage students’ reflection on their strengths and errors in search for truth?

4. U  sing Assessment Results for Decision Making

Are results used to allow students to choose the best possible course of action from what they have learned?

5. Using Assessment in Grading 6. Communicating Assessment Results 7. Recognizing Unethical Practices

Are the grades assigned representative of academic mastery and the wellrounded growth of the learners?

Are the results communicated to others so that implications aid in the continued search for truth?

Are teacers wellversed in ethical and legal responsibilities in assessment and the larger impact in the learner, families, peers, and society?

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References Consulted Chubbuck, S.M. (2007). Socially just teaching and the complementarity of Ignatian pedagogy and critical pedagogy. Christian Higher Education, 6, 239-265. Hicks, C.D., Glasgow, N.A., & McNary, S.J. (2004). What Successful Mentors Do: 81 Research-Based Strategies for New Teacher Induction, Training, and Support. Jesuit Education and Ignatian Pedagogy: A Desktop Primer www.ajcunet.edu/Jesuit-Education-and-Ignatian-Pedagogy Leuhmann, A.L., Tinelli, L. (2008). Teacher professional identity development with social networking technologies: Learning reform through blogging. Educational Media International, 45 (4), 323-333. Schibeci, R., MacCallum, J., Cumming-Potvin, W., Durrant, C., Kissane, B., & Miller, E-J. (2008). Teachers’ journeys towards critical use of ICT. Learning, Media and Technology, 33 (4), 313-327. Thierstein, J. (2009). Education in the digital age. EDUCAUSE Review, 44 (1), 33-34. Wang, Q. (2008). A generic model for guiding the integration of ICT into teaching and learning. Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 45 (4) 411-419.

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ACCOUNTING Incorporating Reflection into the Accounting Capstone Course Michele Matherly, PhD Mentor, David Burns, DBA (Marketing) Acknowledgements I appreciate the opportunity to spend time exploring and gaining a richer understanding of Jesuit Education and Ignation Pedagogy. I also want to thank my mentor Dr. David Burns for his time and guidance throughout my participation in the Ignation Mentoring Program. Reflection and Accounting According to the Xavier University Catalog (p. 15), “The goal of a Jesuit and Catholic education is integration of the intellectual dimension of learning and the spiritual experience of the student, along with the development of a strong system of personal moral values.” Reflection is an integral element of the Jesuit educational philosophy. My participation in the Ignation Mentoring Program helped me understand the importance and relevance of reflection. When individuals reflect, they wrestle with complex issues as they search within themselves and their moral character for viable alternatives. I now realize that reflection is a valuable skill for accounting professionals and for training students to become these professionals. Because of their technical expertise, accountants often serve in an advisory capacity for significant business decisions. Accountants educated in the Jesuit tradition are in a unique position to integrate their moral and ethical training into their technical analyses. During the Spring Semester of 2010, I incorporated two reflection assignments in the accounting capstone course, ACCT 495 Analysis of Accounting Systems. All accounting students are required to complete this course near the end of their undergraduate program. The course stresses topics in accounting information systems, while also integrating issues across all of the accounting functional areas. Round One The first reflection assignment occurred about midway through the semester. For this assignment, students watched an hour-long presentation on values-based leadership offered by Bob McDonald, Chairman of the Board, President, and Chief Executive Officer of Procter & Gamble. Mr. McDonald’s presentation was part of the Distinguished Speaker Series hosted by the Williams College of Business. In his presentation, Mr. McDonald described the ten values that have guided him throughout his professional career. The reflection assignment asked students to thoughtfully consider these values and write an essay discussing the one that they found most surprising. With these broad guidelines, I received an array of results. Nevertheless, I noticed that students approached the assignment from three vantage points. The first group focused on summarizing the content of Mr. McDonald’s presentation, but offered little in the way of reflection. The second group adopted a more personal approach by comparing Mr. McDonald’s values to their own or by discussing exceptions where they thought his values yielded unacceptable outcomes. The third group evaluated Mr. McDonald’s values in terms of what the students learned from his presentation and how to apply his values to their personal and professional lives moving forward. Reading these reflection essays clarified my expectations for the second reflection assignment. I discovered that a thoughtful reflection means the essay displays a degree of introspection. A summary of the content demonstrates only limited engagement with the material. However, since accounting is a rules-based discipline, many of the classes focus on tasks that involve repetition and application of these rules. Thus, it is not surprising that some accounting students approached their reflection essays similar to the expectations from prior accounting classes and assignments. The other two groups demonstrated their willingness to approach the assignment from a more personal perspective. Their essays revealed a lot about my students as individuals. Thus, I discovered that a well-written reflection is an intimate look into a student’s view of the world. In my role as an accounting faculty member, I have never had that depth of experience. Consequently, I wrote my second reflection assignment intentionally trying to encourage students to strive for that degree of introspection.

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Round Two The second reflection assignment occurred near the semester’s end after students analyzed a risk assessment case involving a nonprofit organization. Accountants are particularly interested in organizations’ strategic response to risk because of the potentially catastrophic consequences that can arise when organization’s fail to adequately evaluate their risk exposure. Approximately one third of the course content is devoted to learning about the relationship between an organization’s strategy or mission, enterprise risk management, and ways to respond to risk. Special emphasis is placed on the importance of internal controls designed to mitigate the risks associated with accounting information systems. Students completed the initial case working individually or in small groups. In the case write-up, students focused on identifying risks, justifying their risk classifications as to the likelihood of occurrence and significance of each risk, and defending an appropriate response to each risk. The day students submitted their case analyses, we had an animated discussion about the risks they identified and their risk assessments. This first case write-up familiarized students with the case facts and gave them experience with the risk assessment task. As I graded their case write-ups, I gave students additional feedback to help prepare them for a follow-up activity that included a reflection. For the follow-up assignment, I wrote an extension to the case that asked students to consider a proposal by an individual who wanted to partner with the nonprofit organization. This new opportunity had the potential to contribute significant operating funds to support the nonprofit in its efforts in the community; however, the proposal conflicted with the nonprofit organization’s stated mission, had the potential to generate negative publicity for the nonprofit, and raised moral and ethical concerns. The assignment had two components: a new risk assessment and a reflection. The risk assessment was identical to the first case write-up except that it focused exclusively on the proposal and its potential impact on the nonprofit. For the reflection, the directions instructed students to review the proposal in light of the nonprofit organization’s stated mission and the impact the proposal would have on the organization as well as the community and the citizens it serves. The instructions also advised students to integrate the knowledge and experiences they obtained while a Xavier student and referred to their ability to personalize Xavier’s Jesuit mission. As I had hoped, the reflection essays for the second round were more intimate and introspective than the first round. I am confident that we all learned from the first experience. I gained a clearer picture of my expectations, which I was able to communicate to my students, both through the assignment handout and when I described the assignment during class. Students also benefitted from the feedback on the first reflection and the initial case write-up, which gave them guidance on integrating a reflection exercise into an accounting activity. The reflections essays for this assignment were more consistent than the first one, with most students disclosing more details about their moral character in the context of this business decision. Thus, I believe that the students learned the importance of applying their Jesuit education in any decision, be it purely personal or within a business context. Lessons Learned The two assignments I developed this semester helped me learn how to write a reflection assignment and began to clarify my own expectations for students’ output. At the beginning of the semester, I felt that my students’ educational experience at Xavier made them more familiar than I was with reflection essays. Consequently, I did not know what to ask from my students; nevertheless, I expected them to know how to approach the task. I was generally pleased with the overall quality of the students’ responses. As I read their second essays, I came to the realization that for me to embrace the Jesuit goal of educating the whole person, I must provide students with the opportunity to apply their Jesuit training within the context of their professional development. I can describe my development in terms of Jesuit Education as an analogy to a system, which consists of inputs, processes, outputs, and feedback. For inputs, I invested time over the course of this academic year learning about the Jesuit philosophy of educating the whole person. The process involved taking this information and making it my own. I wanted to embrace the Jesuit philosophy by integrating what I had learned into my course. Students provided the outcomes in terms of their reflection essays. For feedback, I used the first assignment to inform and improve the second assignment. Moreover, I will use my entire experience as feedback for ways to embed the goals Jesuit education into my future courses.

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BIOLOGY Challenging Students’ Preconceived Notions on Evolution Neema Nourian, MSci Mentor: Roy J. Cohen, PhD (Chemistry) When I was offered the opportunity to participate in the Ignatian Mentoring Program, I was, to be honest, initially hesitant to join the program, because at the time I was afraid that the goal of the program was religious indoctrination. This reservation stemmed from the fact that up until then I knew very little about Ignatian pedagogy. At the same time, this lack of knowledge, along with my inherent curiosity, eventually motivated me to join the program and learn more about Ignatian pedagogy. As a result of participation in the program, reading multiple articles, and several meetings with my mentor Roy Cohen, I quickly learned that the Ignatian approach to education, and to life in general, can offer valuable practical wisdom, even for a non-religious person like me. Consequently, I decided to apply the Ignatian approach in the spring semester of 2009 to a course that I teach and coordinate every spring semester: General Biology II Laboratory (BIO 163; 8 sections; 140 students; 5 different instructors). Incorporation of Ignatian Pedagogy in General Biology II Laboratory The major topics covered in General Biology II Laboratory (as well as in the General Biology II lecture course that this lab course complements) are evolution, ecology, animal behavior, and taxonomy. These topics, especially evolution and ecology, are issues that go beyond the classroom. They are topics of discussion in politics, in the popular press, in social settings, in religious settings, and in family settings. Thus many students come to class with at least some preformed opinions on these issues. This fact makes the teaching of these topics even more challenging than they inherently are: How does one present the scientifically established facts in these areas, facts that are bound to be contrary to what some of the students personally believe, without insulting and/or alienating the students? I have been wrestling with this issue for almost two decades, and I believe that for the most part I have found a way to challenge students’ beliefs in a non-confrontational manner. Nevertheless, I am always looking for more effective ways to accomplish this goal, and it is to that end that I (along with the other instructors teaching General Biology II Laboratory) will be applying the principles of Ignatian Pedagogy to this course. I. Methodology Since coverage of evolutionary principles inevitably crosses paths, by its very nature, with Biblical creationism and intelligent design, we decided to employ the principles of Ignatian Pedagogy to address, rather than to ignore, the relationship between these different points of view about the history of life on this plant. Furthermore, we wanted to identify any misconceptions students might have about the theory of evolution, and, finally, to determine how effective our coverage of evolution is in removing these misconceptions. To that end, we devised a set of 25 statements regarding Biblical creationism, intelligent design, and the theory of evolution and asked the students to evaluate the statements, once before our coverage of evolution in the course and again after we had finished covering evolution. The 25 statements were as follows: 1. The fact that evolution is considered a theory by the scientific community indicates that evolution is an established fact. 2. The presence of gaps in the fossil record undermines the validity of evolution. 3. Believing in evolution demands that one reject the existence of a creator. 4. Evolution and the literal interpretation of Biblical creationism are incompatible. 5. Evolution is compatible with intelligent design. 6. Darwin was the first person in history to propose that living organisms undergo evolution. 7. Intelligent design is based on scientific evidence. 8. The proponents of intelligent design believe that the intelligent designer is God. 9. All organisms that exist today, including humans, share a common ancestor. 10. The theory of evolution can be scientifically tested. 11. Intelligent design can be scientifically tested. 12. Modern humans are the product of evolutionary processes, the same processes that have shaped all other living organisms. 13. Nearly all scientists accept the evolutionary theory to be a scientifically valid theory. 14. The available data are ambiguous (unclear) as to whether evolution actually occurs.

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15. The age of the earth is less than 20,000 years. 16. There is a significant body of data that support the evolutionary theory. 17. The history of life goes back to more than 3 billion years. 18. The evolutionary theory generates testable predictions with respect to the characteristics of life. 19. The evolutionary theory generates testable predictions with respect to the origin of life. 20. The theory of evolution cannot be correct since it disagrees with the Biblical account of creation. 21. Humans exist today in essentially the same form in which they always have. 22. Much of the scientific community doubts if evolution occurs. 23. The theory of evolution brings meaning to the diverse characteristics and behaviors observed in living forms. 24. With few exceptions, organisms on earth came into existence at about the same time. 25. I am familiar with the tenets purported by intelligent design.  (Some of the above statements, as well as the grading system, came from Rutledge and Sadler, 2007.) For the initial evaluation, students were given the statements on the first meeting of the semester (i.e., before coverage of evolution in the course). They were directed to read the statements and assign one of the following letter grades to each statement: A = Strongly agree D = Disagree

B = Agree E = Strongly disagree

C = Undecided

In accordance with principles of the scientific method and Ignatian Pedagogy, every step possible was taken to make sure that the answers students provided to the above statements were fear-free and truly based on what they already knew about evolution and how they genuinely felt about the theory of evolution. To that end, it was repeatedly emphasized to the students that the purpose of the survey was not to pry into their personal beliefs, but rather to find out how effective our coverage of evolution in this course is. Furthermore, students were assured that their names would not be used in the analysis of the results, and that any conclusions drawn from the survey would be based on class results, not individual results. Finally, students were repeatedly assured that their grade would not be affected in any shape or form by the answers they provide to the above statements. (And to make sure that students would not search the subject matter prior to their evaluation of the statements, the survey was conducted in the lab.) The statements were given to the students and they were given as much time as they desired to complete the survey. Completed surveys were then collected and the answers were analyzed. Then once we had finished covering the topic of evolution in the course (five lab periods), students were given the same exact set of 25 statements and were once again asked to assign a letter grade to each statement. Completed surveys were collected again and the answers were analyzed. Finally, their pre-coverage answers were compared with their post-coverage answers to determine whether their knowledge and/or acceptance level of the principles of evolution had significantly changed as a result of our coverage of the evolution in this course (as well as in lecture, which took place simultaneously). II. Analysis of the Results This project constituted not only an application of the principles of Ignatian Pedagogy, but also a scientific study. As far as the scientific aspects of the project were involved, it was necessary not only to ensure that the conduct of the study and collection of data were scientifically sound, but also to make scientific analysis of the data possible. For that purpose each statement was assigned a numerical value. More specifically, statements 1, 4, 8, 9, 10, 12, 13, 16, 17, 18, 19, 23, 25 were considered to be true statements and the letters were given the following numerical values: A = 4

B = 3

C = 2

D = 1

E=0

On the other hand, statements 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 11, 14, 15, 20, 21, 22, 24 were considered to be false statements and thus the following numerical value was given to each letter grade: A = 0

B = 1

C = 2

D = 3

E=4

Next, the numerical values of all the 25 statements from each student were added together to generate a grand total for that

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student. The grand total for each student was then used in the following scale and each student was placed, based on their grand total, in one of the categories listed below: Very high knowledge and acceptance: 89-100 High knowledge and acceptance: 77-88 Moderate knowledge and acceptance: 67-76 Low knowledge and acceptance: 53-66 Very low knowledge and acceptance: <52 The above approach placed the entire student population (all the eight sections of this course) in the above categories, once before our coverage of evolution and once afterwards. Finally, the two sets of data (i.e., the pre-coverage and the post-coverage results) were subjected to a G-test in order to determine whether or not any change seen in the pre- and post-coverage results were statistically significant. III. Results The pre-coverage and the post-coverage results from all sections are shown in Table 1. Table 1. Pre-Coverage and Post-Coverage Student Responses. Students in General Biology II Laboratory were given a set of 25 statements once before coverage of evolution and again after coverage of evolution. Students were asked to assign one of five pre-defined letters to each statement. The numerical sum of the responses by each student was then calculated and the student was placed into of the categories listed in the table. The table reflects the results of the two surveys for all the sections (a total of 137 students completed before coverage of evolution while a total of 131 completed the survey after coverage of evolution). Knowledge/ Acceptance

Pre-Coverage

Post-Coverage

Change

Very High

3

13

333% increase

Hi

12

37

208% increase

Moderate

33

45

36% increase

Low

59

30

49% increase

Very Low

30

6

80% decrease

As can be seen in Table 1, there was a significant (G = 48.135; p-value = 1.99E-10) increase in the students’ knowledge of the principles of evolution, as well as in their acceptance of these principles, between the two surveys. The largest increase was seen in the “Very High Knowledge/Acceptance” (333% increase), followed by the “High Knowledge/Acceptance” category (208% increase). These significant increases were accompanied by significant decreases in the number of students who had shown a very low or low knowledge/acceptance of the principles of evolution (80% and 49% decreases, respectively). Therefore, the results showed that both knowledge and acceptance of the principles of evolution increased significantly among the student population taking General Biology II Laboratory, as determined by the comparison of the pre-coverage results with the post-coverage results. IV. Conclusions Two major conclusions can be drawn from the results of this study. First, the significant increase in students’ knowledge of the principles of evolution indicates that our coverage of evolution in the lab (as well as in lecture) achieved its intended goal. Second, it can further be concluded that the inclusion of the principles of Ignatian Pedagogy was helpful in correcting misconceptions that students had about evolution. The role that Ignatian Pedagogy played in this respect was two-fold. First, the very idea for undertaking this project was the direct result of my participation in the Ignatian Mentoring Program. My newly acquired familiarity with the Ignatian approach to education inspired me to incorporate this survey into the course as a means to discuss, in a non-controversial manner, the relationship between evolution, on the one hand, and creationism and intelligent design, on the other hand. Second, the principles of Ignatian Pedagogy played a crucial role in the selection of the statements that were included in the survey. Specifically, a number of state17


ments were included that would relate the evolutionary theory with Biblical creationism and intelligent design, in the hope that these statements would help us identify and address any misconceptions students might have about the concept of evolution and how it relates to creationism and intelligent design. And based on the fact that not only knowledge but also acceptance of the principles of evolution among the students increased significantly from pre-coverage to post-coverage, it is reasonable to conclude that lessons learned from the Ignatian approach to education were helpful in correcting studentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; misconceptions about the relationship between the evolutionary theory and Biblical creationism and intelligent design. Acknowledgements I would like to thank my fellow instructors in General Biology II Laboratory (George Farnsworth, Nancy Matre, Howard Pecquet, and Kathy Tehrani) for their participation and help in this project. I would like to further thank George Farnsworth for his assistance in the statistical analysis of the results. I would also like to thank everyone in the Ignatian Mentoring Program for their help throughout the year. Finally, I would like to thank my mentor, Roy Cohen, for his invaluable help throughout the course of this project. References Rutledge, M., Sadler, K. (2007). Reliability of the Measure of Acceptance of the Theory of Evolution (MATE) Instrument with University Students. The American Biology Teacher, 69 (6), 332-335. Sokal, R., Rohlf, J. (1995). Biometry. New York. W. H. Freeman and Company

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CHEMISTRY Jesuit Education and Ignatian Pedagogy in Chemistry Roy J. Cohen, PhD Mentor: Margaret King, PhD (Nursing)

Jesuit Education is a multi-faceted approach to forming students “intellectually, morally and spiritually, with rigor and compassion, toward lives of solidarity, service, and success.” -THE XAVIER UNIVERSITY MISSION STATEMENT

Jesuit Education has a number of goals that help fulfill the Mission of Xavier University: • Develop the whole student–mind, body and spirit • Values academic excellence • Encourages lifelong learning • Explores values and ethical issues, and examines the connection between faith and culture • Encourages development of moral character • Prepares and develops students for responsible living in a rapidly changing and diverse society • Encourages critical, analytical and creative approaches to solving problems • Incorporates global and international dimensions for growth and learning • Inspires students to change society and the world for the better. The goal of Ignatian Pedagogy is three-fold: 1. Ignatian pedagogy seeks to develop students of compassion. 2. Ignatian pedagogy seeks to develop students of competence. 3. Ignatian pedagogy seeks to develop students of conscience. These three goals are implemented by teaching in a style that does the following: 1. realizes that each student is unique 2. presents material in a way that is personally relevant and personally appropriated 3. employs a teaching plan that is systematic, sequential, and purposeful 4. encourages students to think for themselves and think about what is good for society, then make decisions that are wise and productive 5. contains challenging and rigorous course material 6. utilizes novel teaching methods 7. includes other disciplines as appropriate 8. sees the instructor as a role model 9. makes use of clear and specific methods of evaluation (assessment) 10. helps students speak and write well 11. views teaching as service As can be seen, the Ignatian model of education is far more than teaching the “3–R’s” and just passing students through a system. Ignatian education is student-centered, and is concerned with individual growth and development, not just academic success. Students who are exposed to a good college experience that is centered on the principles outlined above will be a force for good in a world that desperately needs young people who can make a difference. That is my goal as an educator. Plan for Implementing Ignatian Teaching Strategies For the 2005-2006 academic year, my goal has been to implement as many of the Ignatian pedagogical strategies as possible into my Chemistry in Society 2 course (taught in Spring semester). This outline was developed for that purpose: Chemistry in Society 2 is an “Ethics, Religion and Society” (E/RS) course, so there is much potential for implementing teaching strategies that allow students to contemplate how their decisions and actions affect not only themselves, but the community of which they are a part, and possibly beyond that community.

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This course deals with several over-arching and inter-related topics: Energy, the Environment, Health (Diet and Exercise), poisons, pharmaceuticals (OTC and otherwise), and disposition of waste. During the course of the semester, several interactive research and brainstorming discussions will take place. These may include any of the following topics: • What happens to your waste – the Mount Rumpke story • How efficient is your car? • How does the USA use the world’s natural resources? •  What are birth and death rate patterns in various countries, and what are the causes and effects of these rates? • How well do you eat- how does your intake of sugar, caffeine, nicotine and alcohol affect your study habits and your overall ability to do well in school? • Examine your current pattern of food consumption over a week’s period of time- then analyze it based on calories, fat intake, carbs etc…and see how well you eat. How does what you eat affect your moods? • What happens to our waste? What do you throw out each day? How can we reduce the volume of waste we generate? • Is consuming a lot of aspirin, Tylenol, ibuprofen and Aleve good for you? • And other topics of interest to the students For each of these topics, the class may be divided up into groups of 3 or 4, and given 10-15 minutes to brainstorm responses. Then each group will share their responses for 5 minutes. At the conclusion, we will examine responses for similarities and differences between groups, which may engender further discussions. In addition, each student will be asked to write a paper on one of the following topics: A. The use of radioisotopes in medicine B. Discuss the life of Enrico Fermi C. Discuss the development of polyethylene, and how it is manufactured today. D. Discuss the problems that exist because of asbestos in buildings. E.  Contact the local office of EPA or the City of Cincinnati, and ask for the average and peak concentrations of common air pollutants, such as CO, NOx , particulate matter, ozone, and SOx . Are they within acceptable limits? F. Discuss fluoride that is added to drinking water. Why is it added? At what concentration is it added? What are the benefits and risks of adding fluoride to drinking water? G. Call your local utility office and obtain a chemical analysis of your drinking water. Present your findings in the paper, and the effects of these substances if they are above acceptable limits. H. Discuss the four primary sources of domestic heat: natural gas, coal, electricity, and fuel oil. What are the positive and negative aspects for each one? Which one is your choice? I. Discuss the issue of cloning. For what purposes do scientists want to create clones? What are the pros and cons of cloning? Where do you stand on the issue? J. Keep a food diary for one week. Analyze your consumption in terms of total calories, and then break the foods down to calories from fat, carbohydrates, and protein. Is your “diet” a good one? Why or why not? K. Discuss the pros and cons of using chemical pesticides and fertilizers in a flower or vegetable garden. L. Examine the labels on 5 different clothes washing detergents. What are the ingredients? What are they used for? What kind of detergents are they? What form are they in? Which one(s) do you think will work better and why? M. Many people take vitamin and mineral supplements. Why do they do this? Look up information on three popular supplements and discuss their ingredients. What is each ingredient supposed to do for the person who consumes it? N. Discuss the history of aspirin and what it is used for. How is it manufactured today (be specific)? O. Discuss the use of caffeine in so many beverages and foods. Why is it present or added? How does it affect the body? P. There is a controversy raging over the use of mercury in tooth filling amalgams. Find information about this controversy and present both sides of the argument. The students may prepare a poster on their paper, and present the posters on the last day of class. The poster session will allow all students to see the results of everyone’s research.

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Summary of Activities that Integrated Ignatian Teaching Strategies in Chemistry in Society 2 Class, Spring Semester 2006 1. Research Papers assigned to all students. Each student selected a topic of interest and is currently finalizing a research paper on that topic, which will be submitted in late April. These topics are listed above. Sample papers from last semester are available for review. 2. In-class discussions occurred that encouraged students to share their views, and to consider how their actions affected them selves, their families and friends, and society in general. Class discussions were centered around these topics: a. Green Chemistry – did you know such an initiative existed? What were your impressions? (A video was shown, illustrating three examples of successful green chemistry initiatives by national companies and universities.) b. Polymers – students examined several varieties of common and experimental polymers and discussed how they are used or how they can be used. c. Sick Building Syndrome – The class discussed how indoor air becomes unhealthy, and steps they can take to clean up the air they (and we) breathe. d. Waste generation and disposal – Significant discussion took place regarding how much domestic waste is produced per per son per year. Students were amazed at how much waste they generate, and where it ends up (in landfills). Students were challenged to keep a “waste diary” and to determine how to reduce the amount of waste they generate. e. Population growth and effects on the earth and its resources – An entire class period was devoted to answering several questions dealing with population growth, birth rates, death rates, use of resources and effects of resource use on the envi ronment. These questions included:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

What factors can result in the lowering of birthrates in More Developed Countries (MDC’s)? What factors can raise AND lower birthrates in Lesser Developed Countries (LDC’s)? What factors can lead to a longer life expectancy in MDC’s? What factors can shorten life expectancy in LDC’s? What factors can cause MDC’s to use large amounts of natural resources? What is the effect of the use of large amounts of natural resources on our environment?

Some factors to consider: Socio-economic factors Religious factors Political factors Cultural factors Science/medical factors

Students had very insightful responses to these questions, and began realizing the effect a wealthy population has on the world’s resources.

f. g. h.

Personal energy use – Students discussed how they each use energy every day, from driving, to electric use to water use. They were encouraged to use energy more wisely. Food intake and exercise – Students examined their food intake and composition. Based on FDA guidelines, the students evaluated a week’s worth of food consumption to determine the amount of carbohydrates, fats and proteins they consumed during the week, and also kept a diary of activities. At the end of the week, the students compared calories consumed vs. calories expended, as well as the nutritional value of what they ate. This was an eye-opening exercise for many students!! Genetic engineering and cloning – Students had an animated discussion about the ethics of cloning and even having children to provide blood or organs to save a sibling’s life. A discussion of the movie “The Island” ensued about the creation of a group of cloned individuals.

*

At this time, the semester is not yet concluded, so other discussions are likely on topics of diet, exercise, drugs and household chemicals. *

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Student Responses The students in the class were surveyed to obtain feedback on the success of the Ignatian strategies that were implemented in the course. Four questions were asked, and the students responded anonymously. Responses to the four questions included: 1.

Have there been topics that have been of special interest to you? If so, which ones? • Global warming • Landfills • Food • Energy and energy efficiency • Organic chemistry – how antifreeze is made • Polymers and plastics and their uses • I enjoyed the topic of esters, it was interesting to know where odors come from • Dieting • Proteins and enzymes • I have enjoyed learning about the “do’s and don’ts” of health • The earth and food chapters • Genetic engineering • Environmental issues, especially the class discussion on MDC’s and LDC’s and the availability of resources

2.

Have you made any personal lifestyle changes based on anything you have learned so far? If so, what are they? • I definitely think more about what I throw away, and there was an article about the greenhouse effect that I normally would pass over but instead I read it to see what was new in that theory. (Several students responded in this manner.) • Greater conservation of gas and oil • Made a conscious effort to recycle all plastic water bottles, and to use “green” plastic bags. • I have looked carefully at the chemicals I keep in my home and room. • I have told everyone about landfills and water pollution. • I am moving to a new house because of what I learned about indoor air pollution. • I am deciding to quit smoking and drink less alcohol, and to exercise and lift more. • I want to learn about personal changes I can make to lessen air pollution. • I am watching what I am eating more. • I have convinced my parents to use more fluorescent lighting. • I have discussed the issues we covered in class with my family and friends to try to inspire them to make changes as well.

3.

Are there any topics that you wish to learn more about in the future? If so, which ones? • Global warming theories • Nuclear energy • Green chemistry • Energy and coal • The body and the reactions that occur in the body • Water- how water appeared on our planet • How to lose weight and how the body reacts when weight is lost • Poisons – how the body deals with them

4.

Any other thoughts on the topics covered so far? • Good topics so far! • I have really enjoyed this course (more than CIS 1). Everything covered seems cool! • This course has been very helpful and interesting, because everything is related to real life. • Great course so far!! • I am learning much! • I have really enjoyed the class discussions. • I have really appreciated the course and how it has addressed issues that are important to us as individuals and as a society.

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CHEMISTRY Ignatian Pedagogy in Medicinal Chemistry: The Global AIDS Crisis Richard J. Mullins, PhD Mentor: Ed Cueva, PhD (Classics) In majors level science courses, the vast amount of information to be covered leaves little time to explore issues of ethics and morality dealing with the subject matter. Very often, students taking these courses are doing so with an eye toward medical school, dental school or graduate programs in that particular area. Thus, while issues of ethics and morality are important to these students, the focus of the course must be quite specific, and narrowly defined, as this information is often required for standardized entrance exams. As a result, the possibility for incorporating Jesuit identity into CHEM 435-Medicinal Chemistry was seen as an exciting challenge. The primary goal of CHEM 435 is to provide students with an introduction to the role of chemistry in the drug discovery and development process. Students receive extensive exposure to methods of drug discovery, synthesis, structure activity relationships and mechanism of action of several classes of drugs. The text for the course, The Organic Chemistry of Drug Design and Drug Action,1 approaches these topics from the perspective of the organic chemist. The students who choose to take this course are ones who usually pursue advanced degrees in the medical, pharmaceutical or dental field. This class also appeals to students who plan to study chemistry in graduate school. During the semester of this course, the class was made up of 8 students, whose interests were similar to the description above. In addition to the science of organic/medicinal chemistry, a significant portion of the course provides exposure to the manner in which business is conducted in the pharmaceutical industry. Since drug discovery processes are constantly being evaluated in terms of their efficiency, utility and ability to provide increased profits, it is important to educate students on these issues during this course. Understanding the manner in which the pharmaceutical companies do business then leads us to consider ethical issues which surround the industry. One such issue under consideration is the HIV/AIDS epidemic sweeping the world. At the end of 2005, an estimated 38.6 million people are living with HIV/AIDS. This is in addition to the 25 million people that have died of AIDS since 1981. Tragically, 2.3 million of those currently infected are children under the age of 15. While AIDS is a problem in the United States, the extent of the tragedy is nothing compared to the crisis occurring in Sub-Saharan Africa, where 24.5 million people are currently living with the disease. In fact, 6.1% of the entire population (aged 15-49) of Sub-Saharan Africa is currently infected with the disease. The suffering is greater still, as more than 12 million children in Africa have been orphaned by the disease. Directly related to CHEM 435 is the concern that of the millions living with AIDS in Africa, only 1 in 5 are currently receiving treatment.2 While the numbers mentioned above are astounding, the AIDS crisis in Africa is not unknown to the general college population. However, in order to truly grasp the magnitude of this crisis, more people need to be educated about this tragedy. Given that time would be spent this semester studying the AIDS virus, and the mechanism by which the disease can be combated with medicines, this seemed like an excellent opportunity to provide education to the larger Xavier community, showcasing the extent of this tragedy. Dr. Carl Fichtenbaum, Director of the Infectious Diseases Center at the University of Cincinnati, was invited to the Xavier campus to provide his perspective on the disease. In addition to his infectious disease duties, he is also an avid volunteer at Aids Volunteers of Cincinnati (AVOC). Those who came to hear Dr. Fichtenbaum speak included the students enrolled in the course as well as around 30 other science majors who will likely pursue a career in medicine. Dr. Fichtenbaum educated these students on the magnitude of the AIDS crisis through facts, figures, statistics and his own personal experiences in treating the disease. The audience seemed touched by his message as Dr. Fichtenbaum inspired the audience, challenging them to view these victims as more than just a statistic. While society often vilifies AIDS victims, he stressed that these were people just like them, who happened to be victims of circumstance, be it a tragic accident, or a single ill-timed mistake which resulted in their infection. The impact of Dr. Fichtenbaumâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s presentation was immediately evident. Seeking his opinions on what needs to be done to slow the spread of the disease, both in the US and worldwide, the audience stuck around well after the end of the presentation to ask further questions. One of the students in attendance mentioned later, that, because of the presentation, he was giving serious consideration to studying this field of medicine. Toward that end, he has begun making efforts to shadow Dr. Fichtenbaum prior to applying to medical school. Another student has decided to spend her required volunteer time at AVOC during the next academic year. Another opportunity this course had to raise awareness of the tragedy on the Xavier campus came by way of the presence of Fr. Terry Charlton, S.J. on campus. Fr. Charlton was on campus to speak with Justice Club, a group of socially aware students, committed to the Ignatian spirit of service. As this event had been previously planned by the leaders of Justice Club, the role of the medicinal 23


chemistry class was to publicize the event. The medicinal chemistry students spent a significant amount of time advertising the event through banners, flyers, email and other means of connecting with the student body. Additionally, to increase attendance at the event, the class provided incentives in the form of refreshments, sandwiches and cookies from a popular campus deli. Based on the numbers in attendance, the message reached people, as over 70 students were in attendance at the meeting. Logan Hall, one of the larger lecture halls on campus, was filled to capacity with attendees. Fr. Charlton spoke about an ongoing project to reach out to AIDS affected children in Kibera Slums, Nairobi, Kenya. Thanks to a grant from the Chicago Province, Fr. Charlton and the Hands of Life Society founded St. Aloysius Gonzaga Secondary School, a school specifically for children orphaned by the AIDS virus. A video was shown documenting the mission of the high school. For most of the audience, there was a certain duality in the message delivered by the video. Principally, the video brought to life the destitution of the people living in Kibera Slums, providing a completely different view on extreme poverty. It allowed the students to experience the crisis, in a small, but significant manner. Additionally, the video showed a different set of victims of the AIDS crisis, the children who have lost their families as a result of the disease. On the other hand, the talk revealed another, more positive side of the AIDS crisis. That is, the kindness of the human spirit can do great things in the face of such tragedy. There is optimism and hope at St. Aloysius that, through education, progress can be made to slow the spread of the disease, and provide much needed support to the students there. The talk struck a note with several in attendance, as evidenced by the discussion afterward, with the students inspired to wonder what the Xavier community could do to help. After attending the two lectures, it was now the class’s turn to provide some education on the AIDS crisis. The mechanism of drug action of some antiretroviral drugs had been discussed in lecture. These drugs have been especially successful in the United States at treating the disease, and extending the lives of those that are afflicted. However, the expense of these drugs has limited their widespread usage among those that cannot afford them. The blame for the high cost of these life-extending drugs has often been assigned to the pharmaceutical industry. Our class investigated the time, effort and money expended in bringing these drugs to market. The class then staged a public debate where the industry’s role in curbing the AIDS epidemic was discussed. The class was divided into two groups of four, who, after doing extensive research, took affirmative and dissenting positions on the following statement: “The pharmaceutical industry is doing an acceptable job responding to the global AIDS crisis.” The groups were chosen at random, so many of the students were forced to debate a side of the issue with which they disagreed. This allowed students to step “out of the box,” examine their own beliefs, and enhance the educational process. Prior to the debate, the audience was asked to answer a question revealing which side of the argument they would support in the absence of new information. Following the debate, the floor was opened to questions, with the students maintaining their assigned roles as affirmatives or dissenters. At the end of the evening, the audience was polled as to which team made the more compelling arguments. The debate was a very positive and educational experience for the students who participated, as well as the audience that attended. The brief, informal, and non-scientific polls provided interesting results. A majority (21/30) of students came in with the preconceived notion that the pharmaceutical industry is not meeting its social responsibility in responding to the AIDS crisis. In terms of which team made the more compelling argument, the numbers were more equal with 16 out of 29 believing the dissenters made the more compelling argument. Four students that came in as supporters of the pharmaceutical industry believed the dissenters made the more compelling argument, while nine initial dissenters believed the affirmative team won the debate. What does all of this mean? In terms of our resolving the issues of the debate, it likely means very little. These statistics do indicate something about the maturity of this group of Xavier students. As a result of their diligence, the debaters were able to convince people to change their stance on what is a controversial issue. Credit also goes to the audience, who had an open mind to the arguments of both sides, and were able to declare as a winner, a team which espoused beliefs different than their own. The consensus opinion was that whether or not the pharmaceutical industry is doing enough, more needs to be done in all areas and by all parties affected: businesses, governments, educators and the afflicted societies themselves. While the debate may have further clouded the issue in terms of the majority opinion, it certainly provided the audience with new ways of thinking about the issue. Incorporation of Ignatian pedagogy into an advanced science course turned out to be seamless, considering the initial trepidation with such a project. The students embraced the opportunity to view the material in a different manner, usually reserved for nonmajor science courses. Seeing the ethical and business implications of pharmaceutical research provided them with a new sense of perspective. The success of this extension to the medicinal chemistry class will result in it becoming a permanent portion of the course. Spending time on these topics did not take away from the other material in the curriculum, but rather, enhanced the educational experience of the class. Hopefully, other members of the Xavier community were positively impacted by the resources provided by the class. While the AIDS epidemic is something that will continue to plague our world, maybe now more future scientists and medical professionals will have a better understanding of the crisis as a whole. Endnotes: 1 Richard B. Silverman, The Organic Chemistry of Drug Design and Drug Action, 2nd edition, Elsevier Academic Press, Burlington, MA, 2004. 2 These and other statistics can be found at the website of AVERT, an international AIDS charity: www.avert.org 24


CLASSICS Liberation: A Socratic and Ignatian Approach Thomas E. Strunk PhD Mentor: Steve Yandell, PhD (English) The Ignatian Mentoring Program gave me an opportunity to think about my Plato course (Greek 203) in a much broader manner than I otherwise would have done. In addition, I was able to meet with Steve Yandell, a colleague from another department, who gave me sage advice on structuring my course and often presented ideas I would not have considered. As part of my preparation for this course, and in addition to my readings on Plato and Socrates, I read widely from the anthologies A Jesuit Education Reader and An Ignatian Spirituality Reader. These readings gave me a stronger foundation in Ignatian pedagogy and spirituality. To gain a better understanding of Jesuit Catholic liberation, I read Jesus the Liberator and Where Is God? Earthquake, Terrorism, Barbarity, and Hope by Jon Sobrino and A Theology of Liberation by Gustavo Gutiérrez. I chose my Greek 203 course because Plato’s texts surrounding the trial and death of Socrates raise some of the seminal questions in understanding what it means to be human. This course focused on reading Plato’s Apology in Greek and the Euthyphro, Crito, and Phaedo in English. Therefore, we explored the life, trial, imprisonment, and death of Socrates. We closely read our Greek texts with an eye on grammatical, syntactical, and stylistic matters as is always needed in a Greek course. We also examined the political, social, and philosophic context surrounding the trial of Socrates. Students were asked to read modern scholarship on the life and death of Socrates, give an in-class presentation informed by such reading on a topic of the student’s choosing after consultation with me, and then write a 5-7 page paper. This much of the course was fairly standard for a Greek class of this kind. As the Platonic works surrounding the trial and death of Socrates paradoxically focus on Socrates’ liberation from the political, spiritual, and intellectual restraints of his society, an important theme that we examined throughout the semester was liberation: intellectual, spiritual, and political, that is liberation through philosophy, religious thought, and history. We can trace the origins of the liberal arts back to the ancient Greeks, especially Socrates and Plato. Since these studies are intended to be liberating, we have explored what this might mean for us. How might we be liberated intellectually, politically, and spiritually by coming into contact with such writings and ideas? Moreover, as we undertake our liberal studies at a Jesuit institution, we also must consider what liberation means in a Jesuit/Ignatian context. Are there special demands put upon us as members of such an institution to bring about our own spiritual liberation? Are there also demands upon us to participate in the liberation of the oppressed? Our method for exploring these ideas were both Socratic and Ignatian. In order to spur reflection on liberation and the life and death of Socrates, students journaled throughout the semester. In these journal reflections, students interrogated themselves as Socrates would to gain a clearer concept of what liberation might mean and look like. But we also proceeded by an Ignatian use of the imagination, that is the application of senses, to see from all sides (prosecution, defense, and jury) ourselves in the courtroom where Socrates was condemned, in the prison where Socrates was held, and the room where Socrates was executed surrounded by his disciples. Through this application of our senses, I wanted students to gain greater insight into the experience of Socrates and his associates. For these journal reflections where students used their imagination, I did not emphasize matters of historical accuracy and authenticity but rather the need to get into the emotional space of a courtroom, a prison cell and so on. In the belief that cura personalis starts with the self, I also prompted students to examine their lives as Greek students, as people who are at a Jesuit institution, and as individuals who are called to find God (Beauty for those less theistically inclined) in all things. In addition to our journaling, students sought out other literary, political, and artistic examples in addition to Socrates and St. Ignatius, which point towards liberation. The findings of our investigations culminated in a 5-7 page paper and an oral presentation in class. In this paper and presentation, students analyzed a literary or artistic work that spoke to the theme of liberation. This was liberation broadly construed: philosophic, political, spiritual. The paper topics selected by the students came from various times, places, and media. Students needed to explain the historical and social context in which the work was created. They also needed to address the author/artist’s goals in creating the piece, the audience for which the piece was created, and its effectiveness at reaching that audience. Lastly, they were asked to consider how the literary/artistic creation spoke to our own liberation. That is, explicitly, what do Plato and Ignatius have to say to us today?

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Journal Prompts with Sample Student Reflections 1. Existential Reflection: Where are you? How is it all going? How and why are you here at a Jesuit institution studying the liberal arts and Greek specifically? You should not have simple one-word, one-sentence answers to these questions. If you do, you need to ask why again until you get another, deeper answer. “I’m sitting in my bed writing, but I think not answering the question right. I’m sixteen, working a low paying job, going to Xavier to attend a class on Plato. People think I’m smart for taking college courses, but I’m still learning to use this pen. I’m Catholic, I go to church when I can, I volunteer often in ministries. But, over all that, I’m not sure what my life is for. What am I here to do? How can I make my life mean more? How do I help the world with what I do when it isn’t that big a deal? Is it one of those things where little things build up to big things? Where one action makes another action come into place? I don’t know. Most likely humans aren’t supposed to know what it all means.” 2. Euthyphro: Imagine yourself as Euthyphro having just finished a conversation with Socrates. How do you feel about yourself? Refreshed, empowered, enlightened, confused, angry, etc.? How do you feel about Socrates?  Where are you going when you leave Socrates?  What do you see, hear, smell?  What are your plans regarding your father?  Feel free to address all or some of the above or add your own observations and thoughts. “Maybe people can’t be holy? Or maybe acts? No, that can’t be...But is it the case that everything is either holy or unholy or are only certain things such? Why am I asking myself so many questions now?! Why am I suddenly so doubtful of my knowledge of the gods and holiness? This must be the reason why Socrates has been accused of corrupting the youth—he is not a teacher of truth but an inspirer of doubt. He is destructive.” 3. On Liberation: What does the word conjure up for you? Think of some examples of liberation from your own life, history, art, etc.  Provide a definition of liberation. What are some strengths and weaknesses of this definition? What is the difference between liberation and emancipation, human rights, freedom, or even personal development and personal growth? Why are the liberal arts called liberal? What is the role of classics in the liberal arts?  What is the connection between literature and the arts and political or spiritual liberation? “The liberal arts teach us how to use our own intellect to form our own ideas, or combat another’s. This can occur in any of the liberal arts subjects, but I find that the languages free the text of the ancients from any bias that the translation might have. I particularly remember in high school translating the Gospel of Mark, and although the words could be translated as they are recognized in the Bible, they were not quite the same. This is why the Jesuits study the Liberal Arts. Because we have the tools to reach full understanding, but we need the desire and the knowledge to achieve this.” 4. The Jury: Imagine yourself in the Athenian courtroom as a jurist listening to Socrates. Of course you will want to consider how you will cast your ballot, at least up to this point in the defense.  But also consider the sounds you hear, the crowd of people gathered around you.  What do your senses notice? What are other people doing?  How does all this impress you? What do you see the prosecutors and defendants doing? Remember, write in the first person. “Since I woke up today, there has been a tense vibe in the air, hanging and weighing down everything. It could be the heat or my stress over being a juror, but everything seems to bear down on me. As I walk the streets, I see the eyes on me, the murmurs of the people, and the half-hidden fingers pointing at me in the middle of whispers. The city is tense, and the people are certainly feeling the intensity. Everywhere I go, people seem to be talking about the case, and the significance of the decision of the jury. And that is why all eyes are on me.” 5. Life as a Greek Student: How are you doing as a Greek student?  Not are you getting As and Bs, but how does it feel to you, outside of class?  What tedium and drudgery do you experience as a Greek student?  What do you find liberating about your Greek studies? As students at a Jesuit university we are charged with finding God in all things, so where do you find the divine in your Greek studies? If you want to be less theocentric, then where do you find Beauty in your Greek studies? “I do try to find God in everything, and Greek is no different. I find tremendous value in the classics as a whole. They teach me how to think critically and have an appreciation for things of the past.” “I find beauty in every bit of Greek that I come across. Every verb, every adjective, and every noun. The way the words work together to form some of the best stories...Greek is an enjoyable painstaking labor. It brings joy and frustration to me every day, but I couldn’t imagine it any other way.”

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“One of the things I enjoy so much about it is the communal translation of the class. It almost feels like these texts were meant to be read with others; and we are afforded the opportunity to do so in great company. . . Certainly one way in which I find God in my Greek studies is in the community aspect that I have been talking about.” “Greek and I have an interesting relationship. I have to struggle to get through it, but I do think that I have come a long way since the first Greek class as a freshman. I sometimes actually enjoy translating by myself because it’s kind of like solving a puzzle. Greek is not something I ever thought I would be studying, but now that I am I really see the benefit...Greek forces me to focus and really work hard for the first time in my life. But I really do see the value in the study. In my other classes, especially in theology, philosophy, and history classes. I feel that all of these classes including Greek have really opened my eyes to how the world is.” “I find beauty in Greek in seeing the explanations behind words, or deriving their meaning. I wish I could be exposed to more of this!! I know that the more I study Greek though the better able I will be to notice these things on my own.” 6. The Prosecution: Imagine yourself as one of Socrates prosecutors. How do you feel going in front of the jury? How do you feel about confronting and being confronted by Socrates? Are you nervous, afraid, or filled with energy? What are your misgivings?  But even more mundane: what are you wearing, how did you get to the courthouse, did you eat anything or meet anyone in the street beforehand? “I should have seen it coming. I should have known it would end this way. Just this very morning somebody random walked up to Anytus and I heading over to court, and started asking us what we were doing. Anytus launches into his spiel, saying, “Meletus and I are bringing suit against that apostate Socrates.” “Oh my, an apostate? What are the charges?” the stranger said. “Well, there are two,” replied Anytus, before launching into an explanation. I didn’t even know this stranger, and still I was embarrassed. I just want to be a good friend to Anytus; I didn’t want to get sucked into this crap. Wishing to be somewhere else, I started pushing a pebble around in the road with my toe. “And what about you?” said Anytus, interrupting my thoughts. “What do you hate about Socrates?” I don’t hate Socrates! He just enjoys ruffling people’s feathers. But I couldn’t say that. “I hate Socrates because he spreads his iniquity to children.” Anytus nodded at me; the stranger looked convinced. He said, “Those are good points. I’ll consider seriously what you have said.” As he walked off, Anytus turns to me and says, “See! This is excellent. Our cause is true, our hearts are bold. We cannot lose.” And with a wink he was striding purposefully towards the courts. He’s a charmer, for sure. He never could charm Socrates, though. Always got turned around in the discussions with Socrates, never could really say what he wanted to say. That lack of control frustrated him, I think. I don’t really know, though.” 7. The Jail Cell: Imagine yourself alone in the jail cell as Socrates. What are your physical surroundings? Again, what are your senses noticing? What thoughts are going through your mind? How are you feeling as you confront your imminent death? Do you have any regrets or are you proud and confident that you did the right thing? 8. Liberation: Where have you felt or experienced liberation first hand? How does this differ from someone (parents, teachers, civil authorities) granting you a right? What would liberation feel like to you now? If you could do something liberating, what would that be? How is this any different from simply being relieved of stress?  “If I could do something liberating it would be to join a monastery.” “My first major liberating experience in my life is my senior trip to Europe. Leaving my parents at the airport was the first step, and it was intimidating—even though there were chaperones going with me—I had never been more than two states away from my parents for longer than a week. However, I did not feel completely liberated until the second day of the trip; the tour guide gave us free time to go out on our own for the rest of the evening. During this time, I went with my two best friends and explored London on our own. Everything about this afternoon was liberating, we had no directions, no chaperones, and no phones.” 9. The Death Bed: Imagine yourself at the death bed of Socrates as a friend. Are you sad or angry? Who is in the room? How do they feel? Who is not in the room? Why not? What words are you hearing? What emotions do you feel? As a follower of a condemned man are you frightened? What will you do after he has died? 10. The Liberal Arts: How do your studies affect your life? How has an idea ever changed your life? Write about a specific book, or piece of music, or work of art that has changed the way you look at the world and yourself.

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COMMUNICATION ARTS Carrying out the Jesuit Mission: Developing Students of “Competence, Conscience and Compassion” Jennifer Jervis Tighe, MA Mentor: Cecile Walsh, MSN, RN, CNS (Nursing) In every course offered at Xavier, faculty strive to incorporate the principles of Jesuit Education. The Ignatian Mentoring Program offers a guided opportunity for faculty to dialogue about just how these principles fit in a concrete way in course curriculums. The following application is an outgrowth of that dialogue. Course of Application: Comm 101: Oral Communication Comm 101 provides a broad understanding of theoretical principles and application of oral communication skills necessary to communicate effectively in a society where interaction is an integral part of our lives. Learning to speak on critical issues and critical listening skills are a key component of this course. The Mission-driven Teaching Component: Students were required to conduct a “Listening Report.” This assignment required students to attend one of the “Vision of Hope” guest lectures offered in the spring semester of 2006. The student provided a written critique of the speaker using criteria for effective oral communication. The student analysed the speaker’s ability to adapt to the audience, their ability to address issues of diversity, and the speaker’s ability to communicate a diverse perspective that increased the student’s understanding of a critical issue such as human rights, non-violence, or democratic world order (the three topics slated for the spring discussions). The student also gave a personal response to the “Vision of Hope” video created by Ben Urmston, S.J., Director of Peace and Justice Programs, that was shown at the beginning of the lecture. In addition to the written report, the students shared an impromptu summary of their findings in class. While the listening report assignment is not particularly novel, the application to the Xavier Peace and Justice Series lectures is a new approach for this assignment. The goal of this particular assignment was to expose students to core values and ethical issues they have not considered before. The three viewpoints stated above provided a broad perspective on these issues which support the Jesuit principle of offering a broadbased comprehensive liberal education. By attending a lecture focused on peace and justice issues, students had an opportunity to consider acting socially responsible regarding future choices as they become citizens in a society that is not only global but continuously changing. Connection to Ignatian Pedagogy There are a number of key components of Jesuit pedagogy that dovetail nicely with this course assignment. Below is the application of each element to the Listening Report project. 1. Facilitating a student’s understanding of information in a personally-relevant and personally-appropriated manner: I believe that it is important for faculty to encourage students to experience guest speakers brought to campus. Speakers such as those in the “Vision of Hope” series with its focus on peace and justice provided very thought provoking messages. The “Ethics/Religion and Society Series” lecture series is another possible application for this assignment. The students held an informal discussion after each lecture to share how the speaker’s message affected them. Sharing their experience in an impromptu format teaches students how to dialogue with other peers and faculty. 2. Use clear and specific evaluation methods: Students were taught to analyse a speaker’s effectiveness on the basis of five criteria: Content; Audience Adaptation; Organization; Wording; Delivery. They critiqued a variety of student speeches to develop an understanding of what leads to effective public speaking. They also used a 5 point rating system to quantify their analysis. The combination of qualitative and quantitative analysis gave students an introductory exposure to two different ways to measure speaker effectiveness.

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3. Emphasizes eloquentia perfecta: Speaking and writing excellence is a key component of Jesuit pedagogy. I believe students who develop a strong understanding of communication effectiveness can increase their ability to improve their own oral communication. Observing other speakers and critically observing their effectiveness increases a student’s ability to become a competent speaker. 4. Encourages students to decide what is truly good for themselves and society through a process of discernment. This assignment gave students an opportunity to ponder different issues of social justice. By listening to the message of a guest lecturer, they had the opportunity to extensively process the critical issue presented by the speaker. They also expressed the degree to which they agreed and/or disagreed with the speaker. Learning how to communicate their values, and opinions regarding ethical issues further prepared students to process critical issues in other classes. The major assignments for this course require students to speak on critical issues. Results: Eighteen students attended a “Vision of Hope” lecture. Each student attended the lecture and wrote a 4 page paper analysing the speaker and the experience. Criteria for rating the speaker included analysing the speaker’s content, organization, wording, delivery, and ability to adapt to the audience. Students identified specific observable behaviors that supported their conclusions and they used course concepts to support their opinions. Listening Report results: Scale 1 = poor/did not meet any of the requirements for this category; 2 = below average; 3 = average; 4 = good; 5 = excellent. Speaker: Joseph Wronka Human Rights Content: Audience Adaptation: Organization: Wording: Delivery: Overall:

avg = 3.9 avg. = 3.3 avg. = 4.6 avg. = 3.6 avg. = 3.3 avg. = 3.5

Speaker: Alice Gerdemen C.D.P. Non-violence

Speaker: David Oughton Democratic World Order

Content: Audience Adaptation: Organization: Wording: Delivery: Overall:

Content: Audience Adaptation: Organization: Wording: Delivery: Overall:

avg = 4.0 avg. = 4.0 avg. = 4.6 avg. = 4.6 avg. = 4.6 avg. = 4.5

avg = 3.9 avg. = 3.3 avg. = 4.6 avg. = 3.6 avg. = 3.3 avg. = 4.0

Qualitative results: In-class discussion: After rating the speakers, students attending each lecture were part of an in-class dialogue where the speakers were informally critiqued. Students who did not attend that particular session were able to hear their classmate’s experience and compare their experience as well as learn about the other speakers. Most memorable student impressions: Only two students attended the lecture by Joseph Wronka regarding human rights due to the lecture being 2 days into the semester. Both students felt that while the message was valuable, the organization and use of visual aids hindered the delivery of the message. Many students were impressed to learn of the widespread efforts of people to improve our society by reducing the use of violence as a means to achieving peace. Most memorable for students was Alice Gerdeman’s recounting of people dying on death row in a given day and the need for non-violent solutions. According to the students, both speakers in the session on non-violence provided clear definitive ideas on how to improve our society by finding non-violent alternatives. David Oughton’s perspective on democratic world order led to an in depth discussion regarding the likelihood of his ideas coming to fruition and the right of each person to share their ideas publicly regardless of whether or not others agree. Interestingly, students gave this speaker an overall higher rating regardless of delivery style and wording scores. They felt while this speaker was challenging to follow due to lack of visual aids to enhance his message, his content was interesting and well-organized. Students felt that attending the session was worthwhile. They also believed that in some cases speakers were organized and spoke with clarity while other speakers did not give enough background information for students to “catch on.”

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Expanding the use of this educational component in the classroom: In an effort to enhance student learning and to achieve long term effects of this learning component in the classroom, I chose to invest the stipend from the Ignatian Mentoring Program in creating a video archive of Dr. William Turner’s keynote address to the Appalachian Studies Association at their most recent annual conference. Dr. Turner, Associate Provost for Multicultural Affairs for the University of Kentucky, is the great-grandson of an African American coal miner from Lynch, Kentucky. This keynote address focused on a unique perspective regarding African American Appalachian culture. Dr. Turner is an outstanding, credible speaker. By studying this keynote speech, students of oral communication will have the opportunity to learn about a diverse group of people and critically analyse his message in the classroom. This address would not have been taped if it were not for the funds from this program and the assistance of a Xavier student videographer who was also a student in the oral communication class. Summary: The intended goals of this course component have been achieved. Students met the academic challenge of applying critical listening skills by using systematic, analytical and qualitative methods of critiquing speakers. By attending the “Vision of Hope” lectures, students had the opportunity to pay special attention to the values, ethics, and morals of speakers who care deeply about the poor and socially marginalized. This project holistically focused on exposing students to the needs of our times and challenging them to increase their understanding of how they may communicate publicly regarding important critical issues. I believe this comprehensive application of critical listening techniques and analysis has given students insight into how to contribute to the betterment of our rapidly changing and diverse society. Further implications: My intent is to require oral communication students in the fall of 2006 to attend a lecture that is part of the Ethics/Religion and Society Series. I believe the dialogue and analysis of speaker effectiveness surrounding key moral and ethical issues will continue to prepare students (in the words of Fr. Graham) “intellectually, morally and spiritually, with rigor and compassion, toward a life of solidarity, service and success.” This dialogue will create continuity for students who are attending the lectures for other classes such as philosophy and theology. A crossdisciplinary approach to exposing students to critical moral and ethical issues will further Ignatian pedagogy in the classroom.

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COMMUNICATION ARTS Discernment: Debate and the Process of Attitude Change Persuasion Thomas Wagner, PhD Mentor: Margaret King, PhD (Nursing) Course Objectives 1. The primary goal of this course is to provide students with a solid grounding in theories, principles, and strategies of persuasion. Students will gain familiarity with findings from empirical investigations on persuasion, social influence, and compliance gaining. 2. Learn how to analyze, respond to, and generate persuasive messages. 3. Gain an understanding of strategies and techniques of persuasion in a variety of contexts including law, politics, business, religion, and advertising. 4. Think reflexively about persuasive communication situations and apply theory to these situations. 5. Develop proficiency in the practical application of persuasion theories. Connecting Jesuit Principles to Persuasion My teaching goal was to help students recognize the link between Jesuit principles and the theories covered in my persuasion class. Persuasion is attitude change and the Jesuit practice of discernment can contribute to the way people make this change. In the persuasion course, we learn: what attitudes are, how they form, how they change, theories of attitude change, and the practical application of these theories through debate. The debate assignment in this course was an excellent opportunity for the students to examine how discernment is part of the process of their attitude change. Discernment: Debate and the Process of Attitude Change Attitude change is complex, and the practice of discernment is part of this process. Discernment goes beyond evaluating the pros and cons of an issue and looking into one’s own feelings. Assessing the merits of the possible outcomes from a choice and considering one’s emotions are part of the practice of discernment. In doing so, one’s spirit contributes to making a good decision.

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Debate Assignment Persuasion Dr. Wagner Debate Assignment Learning the Practice of Discernment As students at a Jesuit university, you are already familiar with the exercise of making good choices in your life. Making good choices requires discernment. Discernment: “the process of making choices when the option is not between good and evil, but between several possible courses of action, all of which are potentially good” (Mooney, 2004, p.6) Goal of the debates:

1. Evaluate the arguments for issues using evidence and conviction. 2. Practice inoculation theory. 3. Practice the behaviors associated with good credibility. 4. Follow the guidelines/requirements for the debate. 5. Actively listen to the arguments for the issues debated. 6. Practice discernment for all issues to determine your attitude. 7. Reflect on changes to your attitudes in writing.

Guidelines: 3 minutes Affirmative Constructive 1 minute Negative Cross X 3 minutes Negative Constructive 1 minutes Affirmative Cross X 3 minutes Affirmative Constructive 1 minute Negative Cross X 3 minutes Negative Constructive 1 minutes Affirmative Cross X 2 minutes Negative Rebuttal 2 minutes Affirmative Rebuttal 2 minutes Negative Rebuttal 2 minutes Affirmative Rebuttal

Total: 24 minutes.

Remember, the affirmative is the one seeking change from convention. The negative always has presumption. Reference Mooney, D. K. (2004). Do you walk Ignatian? Ignatian Programs/ Mission and Ministry, Cincinnati, OH. Student Reflections CS | March 24, 2006 As a product of a Catholic education, I have been taught that there are right choices and wrong ones. If I looked hard enough at any situation, I would find the good and the evil. As I got older, I began to see gray in the decisions that faced me. As a result of the steroid debate in class, I now see gray, where I once saw black and white. The negative side of the debate maintained that steroids should not be legalized. They argued about the safety of steroids: they are dangerous, can cause organ damage, cancer and tumors. They also stressed a love of the game and how young people would feel the need to start using steroids at a young age to be able to compete in the pros. Perhaps the negative side’s most telling argument was that a supposed “82 percent” of fans think that steroid usage should be eliminated. All of these points were very welldescribed. The affirmative side, which argued for the legalization of steroids, argued that these very fans that claimed to wish away steroid usage do not come to games to watch mediocre plays: they want home runs, big touchdowns and slam dunks. I believe the affirmative position’s most influential argument was when they compared the use of steroids to the use of alcohol and tobacco. These two drugs which are just as harmful, if not more so than steroids, are perfectly legal. So why not legalize steroids?

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It was at this point that I really began to consider why steroids are not legal. If people argue it is for the health of the players, then why are tobacco and alcohol legal? Athletes consume plenty of these two elements and no one seems to care. If it is the athlete’s health we are worried about, then why just their health? What about the millions of other innocent Americans who suffer as a result of legal drugs? The affirmative side raised the point that it is the athletes’ free will to determine whether or not they want to consume such drugs. If certain players were not comfortable using steroids, they would not have to take them. This argument was very effective, and made me realize that I have a problem with why certain drugs are legal and some illegal when all appear to be just as harmful. Therefore, I believe that the debate on steroid usage changed my opinion of one from an absolute “NO” for legalization of steroids to a “maybe”. After all, if you are going to make other drugs that are just as harmful to the American public (not just sports figures) legal, then why stop there? If safety is going to be used as an argument, then all drugs need to be illegal, because they can all harm our bodies and our “love of the game”. This debate effectively raised the issue of discernment for me. I feel that there is not a morally right answer in this case, and I can now see the benefits of both sides. As a result, I find myself deep in the familiar gray matter, instead of my previous black and white. JR | March 22, 2006 All of the debates brought up relevant arguments and reasoning to back their position, which allowed me to think about these issues in ways I never had when forming my initial attitude. Out of all of the debates, the steroids debate forced me to critically analyze and call into question the attitude I held prior to hearing the affirmative and negative arguments. Listening to the affirmative arguments, many of the issues that were brought up had merit and were ones I had never considered before. Some of the most persuasive arguments in favor of legalizing steroids were the legalization of other drugs such as tobacco and alcohol, which are arguably just as harmful to people as steroids. It was stressed that steroids are not going to make someone without any talent or skill one of the greatest players, but is simply a means of enhancing the natural talent of an athlete or individual. Prior to hearing this debate, my attitude was completely in support of banning the use of steroids, but, after listening to the arguments of the affirmative side, I begin to consider the reasons for possible legalization. The negative also had arguments that deserved merit and supported my attitude going into the debate. The arguments that helped strengthen my existing attitude were: steroid use with younger athletes and the current legalization for medical purposes. The issue of fairness was one of the arguments I used to oppose the use of steroids, especially in athletics, but the affirmative was able to respond with a counterargument that was just as credible in defending that it leveled the playing field which makes things fairer. Although I don’t think I would completely side with the legalization of steroids, my attitude is weaker and less absolute in condemning their use. The arguments of both sides caused me to reevaluate my position on the issue of steroids. I now can see the merit of both arguments, instead of standing firmly in opposition to their use for any reason other than for certain medical purposes. My attitude was based purely on the little bits of information I had heard, which usually stressed the negative aspects of steroids use causing me to adopt that position. I had never weighed the pros and cons of the issue in depth, which may have been why I was so influenced by the affirmatives arguments in support of their legalization that were new to me. Their use of comparative arguments by the affirmative, such as the use of plastic surgery and other personal enhancement techniques used in society, made it difficult to discern between which side of the debate was right or wrong. Discernment is defined as “the act or process of exhibiting keen insight and good judgment.” After hearing this debate, it is much harder to discern which position is better or holds more merit. It is not a question of one being right or wrong, but rather, a matter of one holding more personal value than the other. If I had to discern between the two opposing arguments and form an attitude based on what I thought was important, I would have to stay with my initial opposing attitude towards steroid use. Although I see merit in the arguments presented in support of legalizing steroids, I also value the very nature of sports and heroism that it creates in our society. The legalization of enhancement drugs would undermine and threaten the very nature of sports and competition that is so important.

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ECONOMICS Integrating Ignatian Values into Principles of Economics Nancy Bertaux, PhD Mentor: Ed Cueva, PhD (Classics) Over the course of the Fall 2006 semester, through conversations with Ed Cueva, readings on Ignatian pedagogy/Jesuit education, and through personal reflection, I have both made a number of changes to my approach to principles of economics courses taught during the semester, and planned further changes for the next semester. While the majority of class time and energy in a principles of economics class must be spent on standard, basic theory, there is always an opportunity for instructors to personalize and energize these courses through their use of optional materials and illustrative examples. In my two honors’ sections of principles of microeconomics, I have used three major supplemental readings and some in-class and homework activities to focus students’ attention on social and ethical issues that are either implicit in the methodology of economics, or serve as applications of the theory learned by students. The supplemental readings were Robert Layard’s Happiness and Economics, Barbara Ehrenreich’s Nickel and Dimed, and Vandana Shiva’s Stolen Harvest. The activities included simulations of market dynamics and analysis of students’ own spending patterns to explore market structures. I believe these changes were significantly effective at both enhancing student learning of the “basics” as well as students achieving a more sophisticated understanding of the advantages and disadvantages of free markets. This more sophisticated understanding included an expanded awareness of the many important ethical dimensions of economic theories and economic activities. During the spring semester, I expanded this basic approach, in a modified fashion, to both principles of micro and macroeconomics, this time for non-honors students. To accommodate student time limitations, I had each class divided into two or three groups, each of which read one of the supplementary books. Discussions in class acquainted all students with the general arguments in each book. I added another reading, Paul Farmer’s Pathologies of Power: Health, Human Rights and the New War on the Poor, which was especially appropriate since Farmer came to speak at Xavier during that semester. As time permitted, I also continued and extended the inclass and homework activities.

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ECONOMICS Student-Devised Cost of Living Comparisons (Macroeconomic Principles [2 sections, 25 students each], Winter 2007) Michael Rimler, PhD Mentor: Sarah Melcher, PhD (Theology) Macroeconomic examines how the economy-wide average price level and the economy-wide output level are determined as well as what, if any, relationship exists between the two. We identify and analyze the forces which influence the overall stability of the economy. Specifically, we look at the causes of inflation, cyclical swings in total production, and economic growth. The goal of characterizing macroeconomic theory is to apply that understanding to policy decisions for the purposes of stabilizing the growth of an economy. This course satisfies the social science requirement in the University Core and is required of all undergraduate business students through the business core. As such, this course is taken by a wide range of students, most of which are classified as sophomores. Microeconomic Principles is a prerequisite for this course, thus students have prior knowledge of economic thinking. Course Component: In this course, I added a component to guide students toward creating their own cost-of-living index for familiar geographical areas. The average price level in the economy is measured by the Consumer Price Index (CPI) which compares the cost of a specific basket of goods in two different time periods. The CPI is often used to measure the average cost of living for the area from where prices are collected. The project has two main objectives: I. To develop an appreciation for the tremendous undertaking of the Bureau of Labor Statistics when calculating and reporting the CPI each month. The CPI samples hundreds of thousands of prices on over 80,000 products, compiles the data, and produces a single number, the Consumer Price Index for that month. The percent change in this piece of data is precisely what CNN, MSNBC, the Wall Street Journal, etc. report as inflation in the U.S. economy. This project asks the students to gather prices on only 38 products and for only two locations per student, yet it required almost a full semester to complete. II. To help students develop an awareness of their surrounding communities and the costs of living in those communities. The entire project was student defined, as will be explained below. Students selected the communities from which they would gather their prices. The only restriction placed on their selection was that the communities had an ex ante perceived difference in affluence. The purpose of this restriction was to allow the data collected to either support or reject the perceived differences. Either result proved to stimulate conversation about the various neighborhoods. In addition, students are asked to reflect on their experiences with the project.

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SUB-COMPONENTS: In order to complete the project and ensure that students did not procrastinate, I partitioned the project into successive stages through the semester. These sub-components are outlined below. Sub-Component 1: Generate a list of commonly purchased products. Students were required, on an individual basis, to submit a list of 5-7 products that they believed the average person consumed. This could be frequently-consumed items such as apples or bath soap, or less frequently consumed such as a car. Excluded items were ‘obvious’ choices such as bread, milk, and eggs. As a class, we discussed the entire list of submitted products and reduced it to a final list of 38 products. These products can be found in Table 1. Ultimately, students will gather prices for this listing of products which, in their minds, are representative of products that consumers typically purchase. Sub-Component 2: Select neighborhoods from which prices will be gathered. In self-formed groups of 1-4, students will choose at least two neighborhoods from which they will sample prices. There are two restrictions on their selection. First, the neighborhood must be accessible to at least one group member. Second, students are asked to select neighborhoods with at least a perception of different costs-of-living. The data collection stage was scheduled over Easter Break to facilitate a student collecting prices from neighborhoods other than Cincinnati. Examples of cities chosen can be found in Table 2. In addition, students were required to submit a short essay justifying the differences in perceived affluence. Sub-Component 3: Identify retail locations where the products are sold. For this component, each group was required to identify two locations in each of their neighborhoods from which they would eventually gather prices on the list of products that was developed. Groups submitted a spreadsheet containing the name, address, and phone number for each retail location in each neighborhood for each product on the product list. Selected retail locations are listed in Table 3. Sub-Component 4: Collect and record price information. For a two-week period over Easter Break, students visited the locations selected in Sub-Component 3 and recorded the retail price for each product as well as the date that the price was recorded. Students were instructed that if the product was unavailable, to find the next closest product and provide an explanation of what substitution was made. Sub-Component 5: Analyze collected data. When all the data was submitted, I compiled and presented it from various cross-sectional perspectives. Almost an entire class session was devoted to looking at the collected data across products, across neighborhoods, etc. We found various data collection errors such as a $1.98 per night hotel room and a 3-pack of men’s undershirts for $59. We discussed weaknesses and strengths of the process vis-à-vis the Bureau of Labor Statistics’ measurement of the CPI. In addition, we discussed differences in costs-of-living in Chicago, New York, and Cincinnati, as well as Norwood, Hyde Park, and other surrounding Cincinnati communities. Tables 4 and 5 present average prices by state and around Cincinnati, respectively. Sub-Component 6: Reflection on project. The final aspect of this project required students to submit, individually, a reflection paper on the semester project. I asked them to reflect on what they learned from the project, what surprised them, and what didn’t. Many of the reflection papers comment on how students did not foresee the benefit of this project at the beginning of the semester. They perceived the project would be a time-consuming load of work that would not be at all interesting. By the end of the semester, they found the project to be quite worthwhile and fun. They enjoyed actually visiting stores to collect prices. Many commented on their interactions with customers and store personnel who inquired about their activity. Most of the learning from this project was achieved through Objective I. However, I knew at the outset that this was an acceptable risk. Students do not have data from other semesters for comparison. In addition, the identification of differences in cost-of-living is dependent upon the data collected. We identified enough errors in the data to help with Objective I, but too may to trust any conclusions with respect to Objective II. However, some students did comment on price variability (hence cost-of-living variability), especially in and around Cincinnati.

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Table 1. Final Product Listing Quantity Product Name Loaf Wonder Bread, Big Dozen Large Eggs Pound Ground Chuck Pound Skinless chicken breast 5 pounds Gold Medal All Purpose Flour Pound Land O’ Lakes Butter 10.75 oz. can Campbell’s Tomato Soup Head Iceberg lettuce 6 oz. can Starkist Chunk Light Tuna 7.25 oz. box Kraft Macaroni and Cheese 18oz. Jar Jif Reduced Fat Creamy Peanut Butter 14.5 oz. box Honey Comb Cereal 9.8 oz. Totino’s Frozen Cheese Pizza 13.5 oz. bag Dorito’s Tortilla Chips 6.4 oz. Colgate Tartar Control Toothpaste 8 fl. oz. Caress Body Wash 4-pack Venus Razors 7.5 fl. Oz. SoftSoap Antibacterial Hand Soap 12-ct. Cottonelle Single Roll Toilet Paper 150-ct. College Rule Lined Paper, Letter Size 20 lb. bag Iams Minichunk Dog Food 4 pack 60 watt light bulbs Single Men’s Haircut 30 pack Solo Plastic Cups 40 use Tide Powder Detergent, Original Scent 4 pack Duracell AA Batteries Pack Marlboro Light Cigarettes Gallon 87 Octane Unleaded Fuel Gallon Diesel Fuel One Saturday Night Hotel Room, Double Bed 12 pack Pepsi-Cola, 12-oz. cans 64 oz. Tropicana Orange Juice Gallon 2% Milk, Store Brand 24 pack Dasani Drinking Water (16.9 oz) 12 pack Bud Light Bottles (12 oz.) 16 oz. Cup of Coffee (house) Pair Women’s dress shoes 5 pack Hanes White Crew T-Shirts (L)

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Table 2. Final Neighborhood Listing Ohio Kentucky Other Akron Erlanger Boca Raton, FL Beavercreek Florence Chicago, IL Blue Ash Louisville Indianapolis, IN Columbus Shively Irvington, IN Cincinnati Grantley Ridge Richmond, IN Delhi Township Covington Syracuse, IN Dent Warren, MI Eastgate Fenton, MO Greenville St. Louis, MO Hyde Park New York City, NY Kenwood Wellsville, NY Maderia McLean, VA Mason New Bremen Norwood Springdale West Chester Western Hills Wilmington Table 3. Selected List of Locations ALCO Lance’s New Market Allen Edmonds Macy’s Ameristop Marsh Supermarkets Atioria Coffee Company McDonald’s Bigg’s Meijer BP Fuel Nordstrom Broadway Joe’s Pamida Brooke Pointe Inn Panera Bread Burger King Payless Shoes Citgo Quality Hotel Courtyard by Marriott QuikTrip CVS 779 Produce Corporation Dierbergs Shell Oil Dillards Shop n Save Dollar General Speedway Dominick’s Starbucks El Porvenir Super 7 Food Stores Fantastic Sam’s System Seven Hair Styling Food Expo Target Goodwill Thrift Store Trader Joe’s Great Clips United Dairy Farmers Holiday Inn Wagner’s IGA Howell’s IGA Wal-Mart Jewel-Osco Walgreens K-Mart Wilby’s Kroger

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Table 4. Pricing Data By State Quantity Product Ohio Loaf Wonder Bread, Big $1.98 Dozen Large Eggs $1.59 Pound Ground Chuck $2.45 Pound Skinless chicken breast $3.53 5 pounds Gold Medal All Purpose Flour $2.38 Pound Land O’ Lakes Butter $3.16 10.75 oz. can Campbell’s Tomato Soup $0.97 Head Iceberg lettuce $1.20 6 oz. can Starkist Chunk Light Tuna $0.94 7.25 oz. box Kraft Macaroni and Cheese $0.96 18oz. Jar Jif Reduced Fat Creamy PB $2.34 14.5 oz. box Honey Comb Cereal $2.81 9.8 oz. Totino’s Frozen Cheese Pizza $1.40 13.5 oz. bag Dorito’s Tortilla Chips $2.76 6.4 oz. Colgate Tartar Control Toothpaste $2.40 8 fl. oz. Caress Body Wash $3.68 4-pack Venus Razors $7.67 7.5 fl. Oz. SoftSoap Antibacterial Hand Soap $1.73 12-ct. Cottonelle Single Roll Toilet Paper $6.81

Kentucky $1.73 $1.03 $2.51 $3.92 $2.21 $2.03 $0.71 $1.05 $1.00 $1.04 $2.20 $2.86 $1.28 $2.98 $2.09 $3.51 $7.44 $1.24 $6.62

Indiana $1.96 $1.33 $2.35 $4.57 $1.98 $3.35 $0.95 $1.17 $0.90 $1.16 $2.29 $2.35 $1.19 $3.15 $2.10 $3.73 $8.12 $1.64 $6.25

Other $2.19 $1.98 $2.57 $4.08 $2.23 $3.32 $0.96 $1.58 $0.97 $1.00 $2.63 $3.70 $1.95 $3.22 $2.91 $3.27 $8.99 $1.93 $5.70

Kentucky $1.02 $14.51 $2.59 $12.28 $2.38 $7.38 $4.05 $3.03 $2.81 $2.77 $97.55 $3.64 $3.22 $2.72 $5.49 $9.26 $1.44 $27.75 $9.75

Indiana $1.88 $18.40 $1.84 $16.50 $2.88 $8.10 $3.27 $3.40 $2.82 $2.96 $107.83 $4.13 $2.89 $2.39 $6.22 $8.70 $1.60 $39.82 $7.99

Other $1.37 $18.59 $3.26 $14.22 $2.79 $8.02 $4.18 $4.59 $2.78 $2.96 $116.45 $3.79 $3.62 $2.86 $5.84 $9.26 $1.83 $57.40 $9.76

Quantity 150-ct. 20 lb. bag 4 pack Single 30 pack 40 use 4 pack Pack Gallon Gallon One 12 pack 64 oz. Gallon 24 pack 12 pack 16 oz. Pair 5 pack

Product College Rule Lined Paper, Letter Iams Minichunk Dog Food 60 watt light bulbs Men’s Haircut Solo Plastic Cups Tide Powder Detergent, Original Duracell AA Batteries Marlboro Light Cigarettes 87 Octane Unleaded Fuel Diesel Fuel Saturday Night Hotel Room Pepsi-Cola, 12-oz. cans Tropicana Orange Juice 2% Milk, Store Brand Dasani Drinking Water (16.9 oz) Bud Light Bottles (12 oz.) Cup of Coffee (house) Women’s dress shoes Hanes White Crew T-Shirts (L)

Ohio $1.47 $16.07 $2.32 $13.69 $2.72 $7.84 $3.88 $4.17 $2.75 $2.87 $93.65 $4.01 $3.33 $2.53 $6.27 $9.28 $2.09 $31.52 $11.04

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Table 5. Pricing Data for Cincinnati Quantity Product Hyde Park Loaf Wonder Bread, Big $2.10 Dozen Large Eggs $1.61 Pound Ground Chuck $2.49 Pound Skinless chicken breast $2.79 5 pounds Gold Medal All Purpose Flour $2.69 Pound Land O’ Lakes Butter $3.10 10.75 oz. can Campbell’s Tomato Soup $0.83 Head Iceberg lettuce $1.15 6 oz. can Starkist Chunk Light Tuna $0.93 7.25 oz. box Kraft Macaroni and Cheese $0.78 18oz. Jar Jif Reduced Fat Creamy PB $2.31 14.5 oz. box Honey Comb Cereal $2.74 9.8 oz. Totino’s Frozen Cheese Pizza $1.04 13.5 oz. bag Dorito’s Tortilla Chips $2.75 6.4 oz. Colgate Tartar Control Toothpaste $2.51 8 fl. oz. Caress Body Wash $3.60 4-pack Venus Razors $7.74 7.5 fl. Oz. SoftSoap Antibacterial Hand Soap 12-ct. Cottonelle Single Roll Toilet Paper

Norwood $2.01 $1.43 $2.23 $4.26 $2.69 $3.03 $1.63 $1.16 $0.82 $0.99 $2.15 $3.14 $1.38 $2.83 $2.07 $4.69 $9.07 $1.70 $6.85

Other $1.98 $1.73 $2.50 $3.76 $2.29 $3.20 $0.94 $1.12 $1.11 $1.00 $2.46 $2.85 $1.63 $2.69 $2.58 $3.51 $6.80 $1.65 $1.90 $7.91 $6.84

Hyde Park $2.20 $15.33 $1.77 $14.75 $2.73 $7.35 $3.63 $4.12 $2.79 $2.83 $95.62 $4.08 $3.40 $2.37 $7.12 $8.35 $3.73 $49.68 $7.49

Norwood $1.50 $15.49 $2.37 $12.60 $3.00 $9.51 $3.64 $3.68 $2.76 $2.90 $71.32 $4.45 $3.21 $2.42 $6.52 $9.21 $1.89 $20.24 $9.24

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Quantity 150-ct. 20 lb. bag 4 pack Single 30 pack 40 use 4 pack Pack Gallon Gallon One 12 pack 64 oz. Gallon 24 pack 12 pack 16 oz. Pair 5 pack

Product College Rule Lined Paper, Letter Iams Minichunk Dog Food 60 watt light bulbs Men’s Haircut Solo Plastic Cups Tide Powder Detergent, Original Duracell AA Batteries Marlboro Light Cigarettes 87 Octane Unleaded Fuel Diesel Fuel Saturday Night Hotel Room Pepsi-Cola, 12-oz. cans Tropicana Orange Juice 2% Milk, Store Brand Dasani Drinking Water (16.9 oz) Bud Light Bottles (12 oz.) Cup of Coffee (house) Women’s dress shoes Hanes White Crew T-Shirts (L)

Other $1.41 $16.07 $3.03 $14.92 $2.71 $7.88 $4.11 $4.14 $2.77 $2.89 $107.99 $3.97 $3.28 $2.41 $6.06 $9.28 $2.05 $34.64 $14.67


EDUCATION Daily Thanksgiving for the Montessori Classroom Teacher: Using the Spiritual Exercises as a Basis for Self Reflection and Self Awareness Julie Kugler Ackley, MEd Mentor: Doug Olberding, EdD (Sports Studies) Introduction The mission of Xavier University is applicable to each and every Xavier student, no matter in what program that student is enrolled. The University’s mission reflects its Jesuit educational traditions and Ignatian pedagogy. It calls all of us to recall that Xavier University is a “community of inquiry grounded in the Jesuit, Catholic tradition dedicated to engaging and forming students intellectually, morally and spiritually, with rigor and compassion, towards lives of solidarity, service and success” (retrieved from jesuitresource.org) When I reflect upon this statement, I realize the connection that this has to the philosophical foundations of Maria Montessori and how students in Xavier’s Montessori teacher education are enriched by this connection. Over a century ago, Dr. Maria Montessori began her unique and transformational method of education in the poorest areas of Rome. Trained a medical doctor, she brought the eyes and soul of a scientist to her work and combined this with a strong Catholic faith. Dr. Montessori wrote prolifically on the topic of spirituality of the child and the spiritual preparation of the Montessori teacher. She wrote in The Secret of Childhood that a teacher “must prepare…interiorly by systematically studying himself” (p.149) and “see ourselves as other see us” (p.149). It is grand undertaking-to examine one’s own true self and how this will affect one’s relationship with children. She writes that those training to be Montessori teachers must endeavor to discover their inner self and recognize their own areas for growth and guidance. In the book, Nurturing the Spirit in the non-sectarian classroom, Aline Wolf considers this spiritual preparation of the teacher. She reminds us that we, as Montessori teachers, need to recognize our deeply rooted “values, beliefs, strengths, weaknesses, habits and omissions” (Wolf, p.34). Considering the words of Montessori and Aline Wolf, I was struck how these thoughts and premises echo tenets as written in the Xavier mission statement, and reflect the ideas of Jesuit education and Ignatian pedagogy, specifically the Spiritual Exercises. Xavier calls us to engage and form students intellectually, morally and spiritually. Montessori asks the same of Montessori teachers in training. Both provide challenging curriculum and academic rigor; however, ultimately, it is the examined life and the values of service established that students leave with that are a lasting legacy. This path of self discovery is a daunting one for today’s frenzied lifestyle. Montessori teachers have become extreme multitaskers, working to integrate the classical foundations of the Montessori with the demands of state academic standards and indicators. When reading about The Spiritual Exercises in Heroic Leadership by Chris Lowney, I was again struck by how this ties in so closely with Montessori’s writings of the spiritual preparation of the teacher. Lowney writes that “one achieves self awareness not by reading how someone else achieved it but through focused reflection of one’s own experience” (p.114). The author references Loyola that any means of preparing and disposing our soul to rid itself of all its disordered affections. Montessori wrote that teachers “must begin by studying his own defects…” (p.149). The dynamic similarities continue as one considers the role of mentors for new Montessori teachers and the role of an impartial director or guide during the process of the Spiritual Exercises.

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Montessori encourages teachers to “be willing to accept guidance” (Montessori, p.149) and received and reflect upon a special kind of instruction (Wolf, p. 34). Lowney describes the importance of an impartial guide to support one’s own interpretation of one’s own experiences. Course information Considering these profound similarities between the elements of the Spiritual exercises and Montessori’s call for the spiritual preparation of the teacher. I provided students in my course EDME 356/556 Montessori Integration of the Curriculum during the Spring 2009 semester a copied chapter from Heroic Leadership titled The Spiritual Exercises-a lifelong development tool. During an in-class discussion on February 21, I shared specific sections from the text and asked them to consider the importance of deeds over just words to encourage the best in those children that these Montessori interns serve. During this class, we also discussed the resource Cura What? A Graduate Student’s Guide to Understanding & Living the Jesuit Mission. Each graduate student was given their own copy of this resource. (There were only 2 undergraduate students enrolled in this course.) Many of them were surprised to learn that Xavier’s traditions ran so deep and were not specifically Catholic, but much more universal. One of the students commented that she never realized that there were so many Jesuit universities and thought that this explained why Xavier felt so special. During the Spring 2009 semester, the students in this class were in the process of completing a second semester of Montessori practicum, student teaching experience. Out of the 10 students enrolled, 9 of them were working in public school environments. 7 out of these 10 were traditionally trained teachers, coming into Montessori as experienced educators being asked to transform their teaching and shed old habits and procedures. It was for these 7 that I specifically designed a reflective writing activity that involved self reflection and self awareness. I examined two resources from the Division of Mission and Identity-Ignatian Spirituality and the Spiritual Exercises and Jesuit Education and Ignatian Pedagogy-A Desktop Primer. I also used two quotes from Heroic Leadership to create this writing assignment. (see below). I asked them to consider two activities. One involved discussing specific questions with their students and the other activity asked to consider their own self reflection in the classroom. I provided them each with the assignment, Daily thanksgiving for the Montessori classroom teacher. Spring 2009, Using the Spiritual Exercises as a basis for self reflection and self awareness. For the activity to be completed over a series of days, I created questions that the teachers were to ask their students during class discussions. The basis for these questions was taken from Ignatian Spirituality and the Spiritual Exercises. These questions were as follows: There are 5 points for daily spiritual thanksgiving, grace, and introspection. For our discussions, we will use 4 of the 5.(taken from booklet, Ignatian Spirituality and the Spiritual Exercises) *what am I most thankful for today? (Optional: how have I been blessed?) *what have I learned about myself today? Am I pleased with this insight? *who do I want to BE tomorrow? How can I BE that person? *what do I look forward to in my day tomorrow? I used specific elements about Ignatian pedagogy, as contained in the desktop primer to construct the questions for the teacher’s self reflection. These questions were based on points described in Jesuit Education and Ignatian Pedagogy-A Desktop Primer. These questions were as follows: • do I embrace the unique qualities in each student • do I facilitate students’ understanding of information in a personally relevant and appropriate manner • do I employ a systematic, sequential, and purposeful teaching plan • do I encourage students to decide what is truly good for themselves and society through a process of discernment • is my teaching style/classroom expectations challenging and rigorous • is my teaching style interdisciplinary • do I make use of novel teaching methods and technologies as they arise • do I encourage student responsibility and independence • do I utilize clear and specific evaluation methods • do I emphasize speaking and written excellence • do I view teaching as a vocation and service to others 42


• Is there evidence of (in my teaching and my school); what can I do to provide: • context(understanding of student life and culture) • experience(providing intellectual and affective learning opportunities) • reflection of meaning for self and others (the external expression of learned content) • evaluation of student growth The students completed the assignment and submitted their responses on April 4, 2009. Summary and Conclusions In reading through the student responses, it was interesting to reflect on what they choose to answer and how they each interpreted this work. I was surprised to see that only 3 of them answered the question about teaching as a vocation. The students that chose to answer this question wrote with a genuine tone and sense of advocacy. One student eloquently answered that through teaching, ”I am growing into the best version of myself”. I was struck how similar this was to the notion inherent in Ignatian pedagogy that teaching is a “reflection of meaning for self and others” (Jesuit Education and Ignatian Pedagogy-A Desktop Primer). Another student answered that “my need to give back to the community is strong and helps (to keep) me going”. Both of these responses came from graduate students. Only 7 out of the 10 students enrolled in the class submitted their written responses. Of those remaining 3, 2 were traditionally trained teachers working towards their Montessori credential. When asked for the reason for not completing the form, time and demands of testing were their responses. Although these discussions and written activity were specifically designed and included in this class for the Ignatian mentoring project, I realized that it should be included in this course each year. The goals of self awareness and reflection are vital for new teachers, especially those going forth with a new pedagogical philosophy. The ideas of Ignatian pedagogy and Jesuit education so closely intertwine with those of Montessori. Encouraging our graduates to practice these ideals reflects the universality of this University’s mission. The students in this course are teachers in Montessori schools. The ideas of Montessori philosophy exist for adults in these schools on a daily basis. A lingering question remains-would teachers not in Montessori schools answer the questions in the same way that teachers with such a profound spiritual foundation? Resources From the Division of Mission and Identity, Xavier University: Cura What? A Graduate Student’s Guide to Understanding & Living the Jesuit Mission. Ignatian Spirituality and the Spiritual Exercises. Jesuit Education and Ignatian Pedagogy-A Desktop Primer). The Secret of Childhood, Maria Montessori Heroic Leadership, Chris Lowney Nurturing the Spirit in non-sectarian classrooms by Aline Wolf

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EDUCATION The Teaching Vocation and the Jesuit Mission: Student Perceptions Sally M. Barnhart, MEd Mentor: Barbara Harland, RN, MSN, MEd (Nursing) As a Clinical Faculty member my job assignment includes classroom instruction, field placement , and supervising responsibility for Xavier students in Early and Middle Childhood Education from their first field experience (EDFD 100), through their methods classes (Math, Science, Language Arts & Social Studies) and their 15 week intern assignment for student teaching during their senior year. Additionally, I currently serve as the Co-President of the Ohio Field Directors, which represents all Public and Private Universities in Ohio. I am a participating member of the National Field Directors’ Forum for the American Association of Teacher Educators. I am an active member of the 2008-2009 Ohio Department of Education Pre-Service Connections Committee convened by ODE which is providing research & data for the classroom of the 21st Century and the stakeholders. Ignatian Mentoring Research Project: Hypothesis included the belief that a high percentage of the Xavier Freshmen, as Majors in Early and Middle Childhood Education, do not identify or connect their chosen teaching vocation with the Jesuit Mission. The work begins in EDFD 100 an Undergraduate Course for 3 Hours credit. As per Xavier’s Catalog, this course provides an introduction to the foundational, philosophical and organizational patterns of United States education. Topics include the review of history, philosophy societal impact and school culture. There is an Ohio Pathwise emphasis, along with the Ohio Academic Content Standards. Lesson planning is introduced. All students are placed in a public/private school for a related field experience. Research Component After IRB approval, in January 2009, thirty second semester freshmen freely consented and were surveyed during this research project. The questions were rated with a scaled score of: 1: I am not aware of this; 2: I am somewhat aware of this; 3: I am very aware of this The survey included the following questions: • I chose Xavier University specifically for its’ Jesuit tradition • I have read and understand Xavier’s Mission Statement • I have heard of St. Ignatius of Loyola • I have read The Spiritual Exercises • I know the meaning of the term Cura personalis • I have an understanding of who founded the Society of Jesus • I have an understanding of “Discernment of Spirits” • Through my Jesuit Education, I have learned about “Finding God in All Things” • I believe that Jesuit pedagogy is a model that seeks to develop men and women of competence, conscience and compassion. Survey Results and Reflection: Research results: 94% of the students surveyed were unaware of “The Spiritual Exercise. 96% of the students surveyed were unaware of the meaning of the Term Cura personalis. 92% of the students responded that they were unaware of who founded the Society of Jesus. 96% of the students surveyed were not aware of or have an understanding of “Discernment of Spirits”. The good news reported in the survey results: 98% of the students responded that they were very aware that the Jesuit pedagogy is a model that seeks to develop men and women of competence. Therefore from the students surveyed, the research results indicated that the freshmen did not identify with terminology or specific vocabulary that identifies the Jesuit pedagogy. Reflection and Questions Asked: Reflecting on the purpose of this survey and study brought forth many challenges and questions, which required this researcher to begin a rigorous self-study. The thirst for knowledge and understanding of the Xavier students became a conscious decision to reflect on my role as a model and mentor for the Xavier freshmen. The questions from the research survey were overwhelmingly obvious to this researcher. • How will the freshmen students read, reflect and assimilate the Jesuit Mission into their daily lives, unless they are intentionally 44


instructed on the meaning of the questions surveyed? • How can the young future teaching professionals identify with the philosophy of St. Ignatius and The Spiritual Exercises without reading and having open classroom discussion? • How can each student “Find God in All Things” or the meaning of Cura Personalis, as it pertains to their chosen profession of becoming an Early or Middle Childhood Educator? These questions and answers required specific attention and research from the writings of William A. Barry, S.J. A Companion to the Spiritual Exercises of St. Ignatius Finding God in All things. Along with the work of John Patrick Donnelly’s Ignatius of Loyola, both readings inspired the researcher to connect the Xavier Mission within the daily life of each student. Education Pedagogy and The Xavier Mission: The EDFD 100 course design is deeply rooted in the students’ desire to learn educational pedagogy, along with actual hands on classroom field experiences. The Xavier freshmen begin their vocation within the Cincinnati area by observing teachers, reading about the past and looking to the future for educational practices of the 21st Century classroom. The responsibility to mentor the young aspiring teachers in developing “Best Teaching Practices”, along with finding a “Servant’s Heart” is imbedded in the instructional strategies. It is from this research that the transference of systematically teaching the Ohio Academic Content Standards and embracing the Xavier Jesuit Mission become so clearly defined. It is recognized through this research that facilitating the personal growth and development of the young educator is important, but equally as daunting is the responsibility to assist each student in their understanding that teaching is a service to others. The results of the survey clearly identified the challenge within the EDFD 100 classroom setting to connect the Jesuit mission and Ignatian pedagogy with the young education majors. In collaboration with Mary Lisa Vertuca, the teaching model for EDFD 100: Introduction to Education included intentional instruction of assigned readings, oral discussion and personal reflections written by each student. As an assigned reading and reflection, each student in EDFD 100 was given a personal copy of “Go Forth” Student Life in The Jesuit Tradition and Do you Speak Ignatian? The goal of connecting and integrating the Xavier Mission Statement, the Xavier Core Values, The Department of Childhood Education and Literacy Mission Statement and the Dispositions for Teaching were written in the course Syllabi. Included in the intentional instruction for the Xavier freshmen was the following: Department of Childhood Education and Literacy Mission Statement Written under the direction of Dr. Cindy Geer, Chair and all the colleagues within the department. Xavier University’s Department of Childhood Education and Literacy is dedicated to the pursuit of knowledge and to the orderly discussion of critical issues confronting educators in a free, inquiry-based environment committed to current and relevant scholarship and research related to our profession. Xavier University seeks to create awareness of social justice in all disciplines through its emphasis on living the Jesuit tradition of intellectual, moral and spiritual preparation. The candidates in the Early Childhood, Middle Childhood, Montessori and Literacy programs, through their academic and professional training, are prepared to value the lives of children regardless of racial linguistic, socio-economic, religious, or ethnic background and to work with and value family and school structures in both urban, rural, and suburban settings. Special attention is given to developmentally effective practices and advocacy for all children, with ethical issues and values as expressed through the Jesuit tradition. Thus, the Childhood Education and Literacy preparation at Xavier University strives to send out into the education community candidates who are morally sensitive to the academic and social needs of our time, foster an appreciation for human diversity, reason critically, and think creatively. Candidates in the Childhood Education and Literacy Department are encouraged to develop and maintain a disposition toward lifelong learning in the profession of education and to the service of their students and their students’ families and communities. The Coach Effect The mission statement breathes life in the EDFD 100 Introduction to Education coursework as the freshmen proceed to digest the responsibilities that are ahead as a classroom teacher. The challenge of this energizing research can be compared to Xavier’s Basketball Program and the Coaches’ strategy for the team. The freshmen come to Xavier with an adequate offense in their portfolio, which includes academic excellence, moral and ethical character, and an understanding of their personal responsibilities within the Xavier community. However, it is important to arm the young freshmen with a strong defensive ability through the development of their intellect, along with their interpersonal skills, while building their individual process for discernment within the community. This process must provide opportunities to embrace the Xavier Core Values, understand how the Spiritual Exercises impact their own life and how to “Find God in All Things”. It is widely known in the world of basketball that a good defense produces a strong offense. Therefore in the Xavier environment, the freshmen will be prepared to find their “Servant’s Heart” within the teaching profession.

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Research Readings and Class Discussions It is important to note that selected readings solidified and stimulated questions and reflections concerning the Jesuit Mission during the class discussion. The reading of Finding God in All Things, the author, William Barry states, “It doesn’t bother me that people have not heard of The Spiritual Exercises by Ignatius of Loyola, but that those people who have heard of The Exercises think that it is reserved for only religious or holy people.” (Barry 11) He invites the reader to willingly incorporate and discern the ability to find God in the dispositions of life, which brought forth a discussion of the importance of Teacher Dispositions from the Xavier Early and Middle Childhood Handbook. Through the readings of Ignatius of Loyola, Donnelly reviews two main purposes of The Exercises: “To teach people to pray more effectively and help people who were trying to reshape their lives to find and embrace what they see as God’s will for them.” (Donnelly 79) This is a personal “Aha” moment in the research and study of St. Ignatius and The Spiritual Exercises. Ignatius’ teachings declare to all that study his writings, that each of us encounters God at every moment of our existence. (Barry 20). The question becomes, “How does faith connect with the Xavier student?” The Xavier freshmen recognize and understand that their chosen vocation incorporates a diverse society that is rapidly changing, but their response to their environment does not reflect attentiveness to the Ignatian pedagogy. An open discussion of the Jesuit vocabulary builds a connection and knowledge base that serves the Xavier freshmen in their quest for future endeavors and understanding of the past. Examples of the important Ignatian words were discussed in class from the handout Do You Speak Ignatian? Students contributed their personal thoughts and understanding of the term “cura personalis” and the Jesuit pedagogy, which are intertwined in their attitudes, along with their responsibility to become leaders in service. Through additional discussion, it was identified that the freshmen came to Xavier for various reasons; such as scholarship money, athletics and/or influence of their parents. The research found that the Xavier freshmen were excited, enthusiastic and possessed a broad base of academic content knowledge, while their religious values were kept in a separate compartment and were not considered when discussing their chosen profession. Without oversimplifying the task at hand, it is the Mission of the Xavier’s Department of Childhood Education and Literacy to prepare the Xavier students, beginning with EDFD 100: Introduction to Education and follow each of them through the four year educational process, so that the students can be mentored and assisted in cultivating their ability to discern the connection between their chosen vocation of teaching and Finding God in All Things. Future Opportunities for Growth & Development The research for EDFD 100 has just begun and the work will continue with more readings, class discussion and a follow up survey. As a clinical faculty member, it is the mission of this instructor to influence the Early and Middle Childhood Majors to find and develop their own “Personal Mission”. As written in The Xavier Mission Statement and given to the Xavier Freshmen to incorporate in their community, “to develop intellectually, morally and spiritually with rigor and compassion toward lives of solidarity and service.” This should be a mission for each of us that mentor and touch the lives of all students at Xavier University. Reference Materials: John Patrick Donnelly (2004) Ignatius of Loyola Founder of the Jesuits, New York, Peason. William A. Barry, S.J. (2008) Finding God :in all things, Notre dame, Indiana, Ava Maria Press. George W. Traub, S.J. (2006) Do you speak Ignatian? Ohio, Xavier University Division of Mission & Identity (2007) Go Forth and set the world on Fire, Ohio, Xavier University Thanks to: Mentor: Barbara Harland, MSN., MEd, RN., CNL Department of Nursing

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EDUCATION Teaching for Social Justice: A Course Syllabus Delane Bender-Slack, EdD Mentor: Ed Hahnenberg (Theology) Social justice has an integral place in education. For example, there is a crisis rooted in injustice because privileged, mainstream people have access to good schools while poor, disadvantaged people do not (Gee, 1996). Moreover, disadvantage impacts students differently according to their class and race (Kozol, 1992) as well as gender (Sadker & Sadker, 1995). Educators who are interested in social justice teaching could help to resolve actual injustices while increasing student and teacher motivation through meaning-making. The classroom is the most radical space of possibility in the academy because in it one can think, rethink, and create new visions (hooks 1994). Additionally, Jesuit pedagogy promotes service to others, challenging students while encouraging responsibility, asking questions, facilitating students’ understanding in a personally relevant manner, and helping students see the world from multiple perspectives. The design of this social justice course rests on those beliefs. Defining Social Justice Teaching for social justice reflects how a teacher understands social justice. Although social justice is a negotiable term, for the sake of this project, I based it on the following assertions by key scholars in the field: •Justice should begin with the ideas of domination and oppression, emphasizing issues of decision-making and culture as well as the importance of social group differences; therefore, social justice is the elimination of institutionalized domination and oppression since the deep injustices in our society can only be rectified by basic institutional change (Young, 1990). • Justice is a preferred relationship between institutions and human beings that is tied to the notion of rights and impartiality as well as an ethic of caring (Noddings, 1999). • A just society is one where everyone affected by a decision has a part in making that decision (Greene, 1998). Whereas the very idea of justice coexists with the political (Young, 1990), and is individually based on teachers’ understandings of social justice, what occurs within and between schools is complex. Thus the term social justice includes a number of ideas and concerns outside of and within the field of education. For example, Oakes and Lipton (2003) provide a social justice framework specifically for education with the following three objectives, representing the secular perspective: 1. To uncover, examine, and critique the values and politics that undergird educational decisions and practices as we also explore the more instrumental issues of organizing curriculum and instruction 2. To challenge educational common sense and to ask important questions about why we do the things we do in schools and who benefits from them 3. To attend to the ways in which schooling often contributes to the creation, maintenance, and reproduction of inequalities, particularly along the lines of race, class, gender, language, sexual orientation, and other such categories so we can construct more empowering alternatives Social justice is associated both with individual empowerment and with structural control. In other words, social justice is concerned with questions of power and decision-making as well as both economic and cultural resources available to individuals and to particular communities or sectors of those communities. For the Jesuit understanding of social justice, I referred to the following excerpts from Decree 4 from the 32nd General Congregation of the Society of Jesus where their mission was THE SERVICE OF FAITH AND THE PROMOTION OF JUSTICE. While there is a clear focus on the poor, the specific tenets that impact social justice teaching are listed below: • In the service of faith, the promotion of justice is an absolute requirement. • Our response to these new challenges will be total (involving prayer and action), corporate (collaborative), rooted in faith and experience, and multiform (different in different contexts). • Strive especially for the defense and propagation of the faith, and for the progress of souls in Christian life and doctrine, by means of public preaching, lectures, and any other ministrations, by means of the Spiritual Exercises, and the education of children. • Recognize and respect the rights of all, especially the poor and the powerless, and work to actively secure those rights. • Demonstrate an openness and generosity to anyone in need, even a stranger or an enemy. • Offer resistance to the many forms of contemporary atheism, including a social justice without God. • Be willing to pay the price of a more just and more humane society through the opportunities offered by an ever more service-able technology. 47


• Notice the millions in our world, specific people with names and faces, who are suffering from poverty and hunger, from the unjust distribution of wealth and resources and from the consequences of racial, social, and political discrimination. Not only the quality of life but human life itself is under constant threat. • It is now within human power to make the world more just, but we must want to. • Promote justice and human freedom on the social and structural level; attack injustice at its roots by transforming the attitudes and habits which beget injustice and foster the structures of oppression. • Bring people to a real reconciliation with God. Clearly there are similarities and differences in the secular and Jesuit conceptions of social justice. My objective in designing the course was to negotiate the tension between the two by recognizing where they overlapped and where they resisted and even confronted each other. Educational goals and methods have always been characters in our national morality play, political archetypes representing order and stability and disorder and the breakdown of civilization. Against this backdrop, the issues of power and privilege have been effectively laundered from U.S. education under the ruse that education is an objective science. Lacking a political economy model, teachers are denied the opportunity to see and understand their own embeddedness in history, language, culture, and power (McLaren, 97). I believe that education is never neutral, and that we, as educators serve the purpose of recognizing our location and our students’ context when engaging in social justice teaching. Describing the Process This syllabus represents a calling of mine: social justice teaching. Although at one time, I thought that social justice was a concept I understood, I have found that through research, contemplation, practice, and reading, social justice teaching is complex, complicated, and evasive. During one of my earliest meetings with my first doctoral advisor, he inquired as to my research interests. Quickly, and rather matterof-factly, I responded, “I am interested in social justice.” He looked at me for a moment, blinked a few times, and asked, “Yeah, but what does that mean?” As simple and perhaps basic as that sounds, his question has haunted - and motivated - me. Moreover, his question started me on a quest. Before beginning my doctoral program, I had read a number of professional social-justice oriented texts to use in my classroom teaching, earned a graduate certificate in Women’s Studies, and had three articles published in English Journal (Slack, 1999; Slack, 2001, Bender-Slack 2002). I thought I knew what social justice was and, more importantly, knew what it meant to teach for social justice in the English classroom. Consequently, it was disconcerting but exhilarating to realize my quest for “recognizing” social justice and its place in English education had only begun. While I read a number of teacher interpretations of what it meant to teach for social justice, my growing interests in scholarly research and teacher education as they intersected with my work in adolescent literacy led me to explore the notion of social justice as it related to teaching in the social studies (Bender-Slack & Raupach, 2006; Bender-Slack & Raupach, 2008) and the use of texts in the secondary ELA classroom (Bender-Slack, 2009; Bender-Slack, 2010a, Bender-Slack, 2010b). Since coming to Xavier, the place of social justice in education has become even more complicated for me, however, due to Jesuit pedagogy, providing a space for social justice in my classroom is even more important. When constructing my syllabi each semester, choosing texts, designing lesson plans, and interacting with others, social justice is at the forefront of my thoughts, beliefs, and motivations because I take the mission of Jesuit pedagogy seriously. Due to past research, I had given much thought and time to teaching for social justice. Choosing to include particular secular texts when designing the syllabus was relatively easy because I was familiar with many of the works and scholars. The Jesuit texts were much more difficult. I re-read the handouts, fliers, and desktop primers I received when joining Xavier in 2008. I talked to my mentor and colleagues in Mission and Identity in order to identify other resources. Additionally, I visited the Xavier library, specifically the Jesuit section on the third floor, examining numerous texts. I learned more about solidarity and kinship, mission, service rooted in justice and love, discernment, and reflection. Originally I planned to organize the course by spending one half studying the secular notion of social justice and the other half the Jesuit conception of the term. I decided, however, that I would synthesize the course by negotiating both each week so that one did not appear to be privileged over the other. Next, I wondered if Jesuit and secular texts and topics should be equally bal48


anced each week. Due to the nature of my research and background knowledge, I decided that was not crucial but attempted to do so anyway. Clearly, just because the texts or topics were balanced, does not mean they would be given equal representation during instruction. Due to the complex variations on social justice both within and between the Jesuit and secular communities, the representation was challenging. Although there are differences, I found that there were a number of ideas and ideals that overlapped. These are synthesized in the syllabus the follows. References: Bender-Slack, D. (2010a). Social Justice Teaching: Adopting a Critical Pedagogy to Negotiate Old and New Literacies Teacher Education and Practice Bender-Slack, D. (2010b). Teaching for Social Justice: English Teachers and the Texts They Use. English Education, 42 (2): 181-203. Bender-Slack, D. & Raupach, M.P. (2008). Negotiating Standards and Social Justice in the Social Studies: Educators’ Perspectives. The Social Studies, 99 (6): 255-259. Bender-Slack, L. & Raupach, M.P. (2006). Teaching for social justice and teaching controversial issues: Are they one and the same? The Journal 6 (1): 33-37. Bender-Slack, D. (2002). Using literature to teach global education: A humanist approach. English Journal, 91(5), 70-76. Slack, D. B. (2001). Fusing social justice with multigenre writing. English Journal 90: 62-66. Slack, D. B. (1999). Why do we need to genderize? English Journal 88: 91-95. Bigelow, B. (1998). The human lives behind the labels: The global sweatshops, Nike, and the race to the bottom. In W. Ayers, J. A. Hunt & T. Quinn (Eds.), Teaching for social justice (pp. 21-38). New York: Teachers College Press. Gee, J. (1996). Social linguistics and literacies: Ideology in discourses. New York: RoutledgeFalmer. Greene, M. (1998). Teaching for social justice. In W. Ayers, J. Hunt & T. Quinn (Eds.), Teaching for social justice: A democracy and education reader (pp. xxvii-xlvi). New York: Teachers College Press. Hooks, B. (1994). Teaching to transgress: education as the practice of freedom. New York: Routledge. Jesuit General Congregations 34 (2008). Jesuits and university life (pp. 133-137). in Traub, G. (Ed.). A Jesuit Education Reader. Chicago: Loyola Press. Kozol, J. (1992). Savage inequalities : children in America’s schools (1st Harper Perennial ed.). New York: HarperPerennial. McLaren, P. (2000). Che Guevara, Paulo Freire, and the pedagogy of revolution. Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. Noddings, N. (1999). Care, justice, and equity. In M. Katz, N. Noddings & K. Strike (Eds.), Justice and caring (pp. 7-20). New York: Teachers College Press. Oakes, J., & Lipton, M. (2003). Teaching to change the world. Boston: McGraw-Hill. Sadker, M., & Sadker, D. M. (1995). Failing at fairness: how our schools cheat girls (1st Touchstone ed.). New York: Simon & Schuster Tyson, C. (1999). ‘Shut my mouth wide open’: Realistic fiction and social action. Theory Into Practice, 38(3), 155-160. Young, I. M. (1990). Justice and the politics of difference. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press. Collaborate Innovate Educate XAVIER UNIVERSITY College of Social Sciences, Health, and Education Department of Childhood Education and Literacy Teaching for Social Justice 000 - 01 Spring, 2010 Instructor: Dr. Delane Bender-Slack benderslackd@xavier.edu 745-3958

Day and Time: Tuesday 7:00-9:30 Class Location: 194 Cohen Office Hours: Tuesdays, 2:00-4:00 107 Elet Hall

CHILDHOOD EDUCATION AND LITERACY DEPARTMENT MISSION STATEMENT: Xavier University’s Department of Childhood Education and Literacy is dedicated to the pursuit of knowledge and to the orderly discussion of critical issues confronting educators in a free, inquiry-based environment committed to current and relevant scholarship and research related to our profession. Xavier University seeks to create awareness of social justice in all disciplines through its emphasis on living the Jesuit tradition of intellectual, moral, and spiritual preparation. The candidates in the Early Childhood, Middle Childhood, Montessori and Literacy programs, through their academic and professional training, are prepared to value the lives of children regardless of racial, linguistic, socio-economic, religious, or ethnic background and to work with and value family and school structures in both urban, rural, and suburban settings. Special attention is given to developmentally effective practices and advocacy for all children, with ethical issues and values as expressed through the Jesuit tradition. Thus, the Childhood Education and Literacy preparation at Xavier University strives to send out into the education community candidates who are 49


morally sensitive to the academic and social needs of our time, foster an appreciation for human diversity, reason critically, and think creatively. Candidates in the Childhood Education and Literacy Department are encouraged to develop and maintain a disposition toward lifelong learning in the profession of education and to the service of their students and their students’ families and communities. COURSE OVERVIEW: This course introduces students to theoretical perspectives and instructional practices related to social justice from both the secular and Jesuit traditions. In this course, students will examine the theoretical positions related to a variety of topics in social justice. Teaching for social justice, including the more practical aspects of developing thematic and inquiry-based lessons, facilitating classroom discussions, and promoting a positive atmosphere within the school community will be examined. Students will be required to analyze, synthesize, and reflect upon the readings in order to begin the process of application within their teaching context. REQUIRED TEXT & RESOURCES: Ayers, W., Hunt, J., & Quinn, T. (Eds.). (1998). Teaching for Social Justice. New York: Teachers College Press. Kiechle, S. (2005). The Art of Discernment. Notre Dame: Ave Maria Press. Traub, G. (Ed.). (2008). A Jesuit Education Reader. Chicago: Loyola Press. Various book chapters and articles on E-Reserve COURSE OUTCOMES: · Analyze, discuss, and reflect upon the social justice theories presented in class · Evaluate the implications of these theories for teaching and learning · Incorporate available resources into a social justice teaching project · Develop and model instructional methods to motivate social justice activism within the educational context EVALUATION/ASSIGNMENTS: Weekly Reflections and Postings: Students will be expected to keep a written reflective journal that responds directly to the guiding question for the week. Your journal entries should focus not only on what you are learning through the course readings and weekly classroom discussions, but should also include your thinking about and reflecting upon your pedagogical practices, your developing philosophy of social justice, and your personal life experiences. Reflective work does not mean that you summarize the readings or provide a synopsis of the reading, but that you carefully and critically consider the issues and implications of what you are reading, relating it to the personal and professional growth you are experiencing. You will want to comment on things you find important, enlightening, confusing, or disturbing. Students should then use this journal to make one posting per week via Discussion Board. Postings should be made no later than noon on the Friday prior to the class meeting and students should also make an effort to respond to at least two of your classmates’ postings. Multi-genre Annotated Bibliography: Students will receive release time the ninth week of class in order to individually investigate the literature, music, and other resources that are available for the purpose of teaching social justice in the classroom. Students should use their local library, online sources, and other research facilities to research, develop, and write a bibliography of at least ten sources appropriate for use in the classroom. Your sources should include the following: biographies, realistic fiction, poems, journals, newspaper articles, short stories, artwork, songs, documentaries, movie clips, etc. The annotated bibliography must be written in APA format, and include a brief synopsis of each source (no more than one paragraph) and a statement of pedagogical implications (no more than two sentences). In parentheses, after the entry, students should include any awards the source may have won. Copies of this bibliography should be made for every member of the class, including the instructors. Social Justice Unit Plan: Each student will become a member of a group to develop a unit that addresses one aspect of social justice that has been introduced in this course. The unit will also include: • unit justification • lesson plan using the XU lesson plan format from each student • content standards and student objectives • at least one technology connection • a thematic planner (unit overview) • a bibliography of sources, references, and texts • a unit plan assessment (to assess the effectiveness of the unit, not the progress of the students) Each group will be expected to present their unit plan as a PowerPoint during the final class meetings. Each student must post the unit thematic planner on Blackboard. 50


POINTS FOR ASSIGNMENTS: Weekly Reflections and Postings Annotated Bibliography Social Justice Unit Plan Presentation of Social Justice Unit Plan GRADING SCALE: A 95-100% A- 93-94 % B+ 90-92% B 87-89% B- 85-86% Failure –70% and below

110 points 50 points 100 points 50 points 310 points possible

C+ 82-84% C 79-81% C- 77-78% D+ 74-76% D 71-73% Points basis = Number of points by points possible

COURSE POLICIES: Attendance: The Xavier University catalogue states “In order to earn credit in any course for which he/she is registered, the student is required to attend classroom and laboratory exercises regularly and promptly. Lack of reasonable attendance as determined by the individual faculty member is reason for denial of credit for a course and possible course failure.” As people who highly value education, it is important that you attend all class sessions. Your participation and attendance in class is critical. Attendance will be taken every class period through a student sign-in sheet that will be checked by the professor. Please be on time, as punctuality is an indicator of consideration for your fellow educators. All students should arrive on time and remain in class for the duration of the meeting. Failure to attend class meetings will result in a lower class grade and possible course failure. In other words, two absences will decrease your earned final grade one letter grade. If you miss more than two classes, you will receive an F for the course. Two tardies equals one absence. Any snow day may be made up during finals week. Class Participation: Participation is necessary for sharing ideas and building a sense of a learning community. Participation includes but is not limited to contribution of ideas in class, answering questions, pre-class preparation, submission of assignments in a timely manner, and being respectful of the differing ideas, opinions, and experiences of others. Students are expected to be fully prepared and to become actively involved in activities, discussions, and exercises. This course is part of an accredited teacher preparation program, which leads to a professional license or certificate. Unprofessional behavior may result in a lower course grade. All assignments must be turned in to the instructor on or before the assigned due date. *Turn off or silence all phones/pagers before class. Do not use your computers in class for activities unrelated to our class material. Please close computers except when taking notes. If I see computers being used otherwise, you will not be able to use your computer in class at any time. Quality of Work: All assignments must be typed with correct grammar and spelling. As college students in an education course, APA style is expected. Completion does not insure receiving all of the allotted points. Students who fail to provide quality assignments will receive a lower grade. Grades will not be disputed. Assignments turned in late will receive a maximum of half the possible points allowed. Note: All work is expected to be prepared in a thoughtful and professional manner. In order to receive full credit, work must be: (1) Professional - insightful, free of spelling, grammatical, and all mechanical errors. (2) Submitted on time–deductions will be taken for all late or incomplete work. (3) Neatly word-processed, double-spaced, APA format (4) Ethical–in line with ethical standards, and most importantly (5) Of excellent, outstanding quality through evidence of critical thinking and deep reflection. Academic Honesty: The Childhood Education and Literacy Department values and expects academic honesty. It is expected that each student will submit original work. Where others’ works and ideas are used, citations must be included. Plagiarism: 1. Submitting another’s published or unpublished work, in whole, in part, or in paraphrase, as one’s own without fully and properly crediting the author with footnotes, citations, or bibliographical reference. Please refer to the Xavier University Catalog for the official statement and consequences. Accommodations: Xavier University’s Learning Assistance Center can be reached by calling 745-3280. The Writing Center is located in Alter B12 and the phone number is 745-2875. Please discuss necessary accommodations with the professor. Graduate Work: Each student taking this course for graduate credit is responsible for putting her/his status on each assignment. The work should be of the highest caliber. I expect you to go above and beyond the assignment guidelines. Advanced assignments will be given.

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COURSE CALENDAR: Week 1 Guiding Question: What is social justice? Topics: Introduction Review of syllabus and course requirements Universal Declaration of Human Rights View: Haggis, P. (Writer/Director). (2005). Crash [Motion Picture]. United States: Lions Gate Films. (first ten minutes of the film) Weekly Readings: Young, I. M. (1990). Justice and the politics of difference. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. [Chapter 1, Dis placing the Distributive Paradigm] Freire, P. (1970) Pedagogy of the oppressed. New York: Continuum [chapter 1] Romero, O. (1988). The violence of love. New York: Orbis [Chapter 6: Godâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Justice, pp. 119-136] Week 2 Guiding Question: What is the place of religious beliefs and practices in social justice? Topics: Discernment Magis View: Duigan, J. (Director) & Young, J. (Writer). (1989). Romero [Motion Picture]. United Sates: Paulist Pictures. Weekly Readings: Kiechle, S. (2005). The art of discernment. Notre Dame, IN: Ave Maria Press. Week 3 Guiding Question: What is the place of social justice in education? Topics: Critical Theory Mission View: Menendez, R. (Writer/Director), & Musca, T. (Writer). (1988). Stand and Deliver [Motion Picture]. United States: Warner Bros. (last twenty minutes of the film) Weekly Readings: Oakes, J., & Lipton, M. (2003). Teaching to change the world. Boston: McGraw Hill. [Chapter 2 &3] Greene, M. (1998). Introduction to Teaching for Social Justice. In W. Ayers, J.A. Hunt, & T. Quinn (Eds.), Teaching for social justice (pp. xxvii-xivi). New York: Teachers College Press. Kolvenbach, P. (2008). The service of faith and the promotion of justice in American Jesuit higher education. In G. Traub (Ed.), A Jesuit education reader (pp. 144-162.). Chicago: Loyola Press. Week 4 Guiding Question: How is teaching political? ethical? Topics: Teaching for democracy Service Rooted in Justice and Love Weekly Readings: Ayers, W. (2004). Teaching the personal and the political: Essays on hope and justice. New York: Teachers College Press. [Chapter 1: Introduction: Teaching as an ethical enterprise] Parker, W. C. (2003). Teaching democracy: Unity and diversity in public life. New York: Teachers College Press. [chapter 4: Promoting justice: Two views] Buckley, M. (2008). Education marked with the sign of the cross. In G. Traub (Ed.), A Jesuit education reader (pp. 138 143). Chicago: Loyola Press. Assignment: Choose a topic for a social justice unit Example: Michalove, B. (1999). Circling in: Examining prejudice in history and in ourselves. In J. Allen (Ed.), Class actions: Teaching for social justice in elementary and middle school (pp. 21-33). New York: Teachers College Press.

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Week 5 Week 6

Guiding Question: Why identify as social justice teachers? Topics: Solidarity and Kinship Weekly Readings: Bender-Slack, D. (2010). Teaching for Social Justice: English Teachers and the Texts They Use. English Education. Giroux, H. A. (2004). Teachers as transformative intellectuals. In A. S. Canestrari & B.A. Marlowe (Eds.), Educational foundations: An anthology of critical readings (pp. 205-212). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Palmer, P. (2008). The Heart of a Teacher: Identity and Integrity. In G. Traub (Ed.), A Jesuit education reader (pp. 311-331). Chicago: Loyola Press. Jesuit General Congregations 34 2008). Jesuits and university life (pp. 133-137). in Traub, G. (Ed.). A Jesuit Education Reader. Chicago: Loyola Press. Guiding Question: How can teaching be used for social activism? Topics: Engendering multiple strands of inquiry Weekly Readings: Behuniak, S. (2008). On “Where and with whom is my heart?” In G. Traub (Ed.), A Jesuit education reader (pp. 359361). Chicago: Loyola Press. Bigelow, B. (1998). The human lives behind the labels: The global sweatshop, Nike, and the race to the bottom. In W. Ayers, J. A. Hunt, & T. Quinn (Eds.), Teaching for social justice (pp. 21-38). New York: Teachers College Press. Stern, D. (1998). Teaching for change. In W. Ayers, J. A. Hunt, & T. Quinn (Eds.), Teaching for social justice (pp. 277287). New York: Teachers College Press.

Week 7

Guiding Question: How does one negotiate teaching for social justice? Topics: Cura Pesonalis Weekly Readings: Christensen, L. (2000). Reading, writing, and rising up: Teaching about social justice and the power of the written word. Milwaukee: Rethinking Schools. [chapter 5: Poetry Chapter 6: Immigration] Tyson, C. (1999), ‘Shut my mouth wide open’: Realistic fiction and social action. Theory into Practice, 38 (3), 155-160. Brackley, D. Higher Standards. In G. Traub (Ed.), A Jesuit education reader (pp. 189-194). Chicago: Loyola Press.

Week 8 Guiding Question: Who is teaching social justice for? Topics: Men and Women for Others Reflection Weekly Readings: Hooks, B. (1994). Teaching to transgress: Education as a practice of freedom. New York: Routledge.[chapters 1-3: En gaged Pedagogy; A Revolution of Values: The Promise of Multicultural Change; Embracing Change: Teaching in a Multi Cultural world] Taylor, T. (1999). Addressing social justice in class meetings: Can we Choose our battles? In J. Allen (Ed.), Class ac tions: Teaching for social justice in elementary and middle school (pp. 34-43). New York: Teachers College Press. Malloy, R. (2008). Liberating students - from Paris Hilton, Howard Stern, and Jim Beam. In G. Traub (Ed.), A Jesuit education reader (pp.299-310). Chicago: Loyola Press. Week 9

Annotated Bibliography Work Time

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Week 10 Guiding Question: What is the best way to approach the teaching of social justice? Topics: Critical Pedagogy Jesuit Pedagogy Weekly Readings: Duncan-Andrade, J. M. R., & Morrell, E. (2008). The Art of Critical Pedagogy. New York: Peter Lang.[chapter two, pp. 23-48] Duncan-Andrade, J. (2005). Developing social justice educators. Educational Leadership, 70-73. Kelly, D. & Brandes, G. (2001). Shiftingout of “neutral”: Beginning teachers’ struggles with teaching for social justice. Canadian Journal of Education, 26 (4), 437-454. Hutchinson, J. N. & Romano, R. M. (1998). A story for justice. In W. Ayers, J. A. Hunt, & T. Quinn (Eds.), Teaching for social justice (pp. 254-269). New York: Teachers College Press. Newton, R. (2008). Reflections on the educational principles of the Spiritual Exercises: Summary conclusion and ques tions for teachers. In G. Traub (Ed.), A Jesuit education reader (pp. 274-279). Chicago: Loyola Press. Week 11

Assignment: Annotated Bibliography Due Guiding Question: How will teaching for social justice impact my classroom? Topics: Building communities within and outside of the classroom Weekly Readings: Zollers, N., Albert, L., & Cochran-Smith, M. (2000). In pursuit of social justice: Collaborative research and practice in teacher education. Action in Teacher Education, 22 (2), 1-14. Lin, Q. (2000). Toward a caring-centered multicultural education within the social justice context. Education, 122 (1), 107-114. Kohl, H. (1998). Some reflections on teaching for social justice. In W. Ayers, J. A. Hunt, & T. Quinn (Eds.), Teaching for social justice (pp. 285-287). New York: Teachers College Press. Abuja, R. (2008). Marketing to the poor. In G. Traub (Ed.), A Jesuit education reader (pp. 366-369). Chicago: Loyola Press.

Week 12

Guiding Question: What are the consequences of teaching for social justice? Topics: Blurring of Boundaries Weekly Readings: The Writings of Ellacuria, Martin Baro and Segundo Montes (pp. 3-23) in The Jesuit Assassinations. Kansas City, MO: Sheed & Ward. Migliazzo, A. (Ed.) Teaching as an act of faith. New York: Fordham University Press. [Conclusion: A Prudent Synergy: Pedagogy for Mind and Spirit, pp. 311-336]

Week 13 Week 14

Unit Plan Group Work Time

Week 15

Sharing unit plan PowerPoint presentations

Week 16

Sharing unit plan PowerPoint presentations Course and Instructor evaluations

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Sharing unit plan PowerPoint presentations


EDUCATION Student Teaching Seminar: Current Issues in Early Childhood Education Student Teaching Seminar: Cohort Debora L. Couch-Kuchey, PhD Mentor: Ginger McKenzie, PhD (Education) As a graduate of Xavier University, it has become apparent to me that Xavier offered more than just a college degree. In my undergraduate studies, having no experience in other universities, I was not yet aware of exactly what else I received from my undergraduate education. It was not until I received my master’s degree from a state university and my doctorate from yet another state university, that I realized Xavier had given me much more than the credentials necessary to receive and maintain my teaching license. Xavier had taught me the mission of Jesuit theologians, the mission of service, the mission of compassion for others and instilled in me the value of a life of service and the value of being a lifelong learner. Nineteen years later, when I returned to Xavier University as an assistant professor, I wanted to assure that I more fully understood the wholeness of a Xavier University Education to assure that I incorporate the necessary components into my courses that bring to life Xavier’s Mission of Service. “Xavier’s mission is to serve society by forming students intellectually, morally, and spiritually, with rigor and compassion, towards lives of solidarity, service and success,” (Graham, Michael J., [2004-2006]) Xavier University Catalog). Hence, my pursuit began with my involvement in Xavier University’s Ignatian Mentoring Program. What is my purpose as a Xavier faculty member? What is Xavier? Xavier is a private Jesuit Catholic Institution offering “a quality education that enables students to put personal academic goals in the context of the diverse achievements of civilization and the vast potential of the human person,” (Xavier University Catalog, p. 15). As previously stated Xavier’s mission is as follows, “Xavier’s mission is to serve society by forming students intellectually, morally, and spiritually, with rigor and compassion, towards lives of solidarity, service and success.” What is Jesuit Education? Jesuit education: • Seeks to develop intellectual skills for both a full life in the human community and service in the Kingdom of God; • Critical attention given to the underlying philosophical and theological implications of issues; • A world view that is oriented to responsible action and recognizes the intrinsic value of the natural and human values; • An understanding and communication of moral and religious values through personal concern and lived witness, as well as by precept and instruction; • A sense of the whole person—body, mind and spirit; • Ultimate goal is the integration of the intellectual dimension of learning and the spiritual experience of the student, along with the development of a strong system of personal moral values; (Xavier University Catalog) As a faculty member of the Education Department of Xavier University, I then looked at the mission of Xavier’s Education Department. The mission of Xavier’s Education Department is as follows: • To educate, in the Jesuit tradition, students from varied background to be critical thinkers and ethical professionals in education who effectively contribute to and serve a world of many cultures and diverse communities. (Xavier University Education Department Mission Statement) What is Xavier University’s student population? • Statistics – Approximately 10% attended Jesuit high schools – Approximately 67% are Catholic – Approximately 3% ranked #1 in their high school class – Approximately 75% have at least one parent with a college education – Approximately 85% Caucasian • Top Feeder High Schools – Saint Xavier HS, Cincinnati, OH – Saint Ignatius HS, Cleveland, OH – McNicholas HS, Cincinnati, OH – Brebeuf HS, Indianapolis, IN – Saint Xavier HS, Louisville, KY 55


– Ursuline Academy, Cincinnati, OH – Lexington Catholic HS, Lexington, KY – Gonzaga Prep HS, Washington, D.C. (Xavier University Freshman Class Profile 2004-2005, www.xavier.edu) C. Wright Mills, stated that “the one deep experience that distinguishes the social rich from the merely rich and those below is the schooling, and with it, all the associations, the sense and sensibility to which this education routine leads throughout their lives.” “As a selection and training place of the upper classes, both old and new, the private school is a unifying influence, a force for the nationalization of the upper classes.” (Payne, Ruby, A Framework for Understanding Poverty, (p. 58). Since the majority of Xavier’s population attended private schools, it appeared that a need existed to enable pre-service early childhood teachers to understand diverse populations in order for Education Graduates to better understand the children, families and cultures of the students they may serve in their future classrooms. Fulfilling Xavier’s Mission In the Student Teaching Seminars Having a more complete understanding of Xavier University, I proceeded to look at the following courses to more fully incorporate the Jesuit and Ignatian Identity into these courses. EDEC 451 Student Teaching Seminar: Current Issues In Early Childhood Education. This seminar addresses pertinent issues to teacher certification, professional development and career preparation for the early childhood teacher. (Junior/Seniors) EDEC 456 Student Teaching Seminar: Cohort. This seminar style course addresses pertinent issues related to the day to day student teaching experience, professional conduct, teacher licensure and career preparation. Emphasis on the National Association for the Education of Young Children Standards, Pathwise and Praxis criteria. (Graduate Students) Upon great reflection I decided the mission driven teaching component to be added to the student teaching seminar would deal with the work of Dr. Ruby Payne. Twenty of her books, A Framework for Understanding Poverty, were purchased and placed on reserve in McDonald Memorial Library. This book helps pre-service teachers “understand the hidden rules of the economic classes and spreads the message that, despite the obstacles poverty can create in all types of interaction, there are specific strategies for overcoming them.” Payne, 1996. The Jesuit tradition focuses on the total educational mission of forming students intellectually, morally and spiritually, with rigor and compassion, towards lives of solidarity and service. Through reflection, I believed that the work of Dr. Payne encompasses this mission in the realm of educators. Dr. Payne forces one to come to terms with their own stereo-types and prejudices of the population of the differing economical classes. She challenges one to put these prejudices and stereo-types aside, and open their minds to discovering the hidden rules of the economical classes in the United States. It is through coming to terms with these hidden rules, through developing an understanding of why people of different classes behave in different ways, as well as understanding the driving force behind such behaviors, that teachers can begin to help students escape the boundaries of their socio-economic class, while still appreciating their heritage and culture. Not only did the pre-service teachers read the before mentioned book of Dr. Payne, but they were also required to attend a workshop provided through the funding of this program. Ms. Martha Pennington Menefee, a trained consultant of Dr. Ruby Payne, presented “Understanding Poverty: Putting Theory into Practice.” The pre-service teachers were required to write a summary and analysis of the book, A Framework for Understanding Poverty, as well as a reflective analysis of Ms. Menefee’s workshop on March 12th. The reflective analysis connected the workshop to the book and to implications for the classroom. Throughout the semester, class scenarios were given and group discussions of these scenarios were held to further develop the students’ awareness of working with children of poverty to enable the children to overcome the obstacles poverty can create in their lives. The following quote was referred to and repeated often: “No significant learning occurs without a significant relationship,” Dr. James Comer (Ruby Payne; A Framework for Understanding Poverty, p. 18).

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The objectives for A Framework for Understanding Poverty were as follows: • Xavier pre-service teachers will be able to – Analyze the eight resources of their students; – Explain language registers, discourse patterns, and story structure of students from poverty; – Give examples of hidden rules among classes; – Identify discipline interventions that are effective for children of poverty; – Explain mediation and cognitive structures of students of the various classes; – Explain how economic realities affect the patterns of living. The poverty statistics as given in A Framework for Understanding Poverty were carefully analyzed as to their implication in early childhood education. The statistics are as follows: • 6.8 million poor families in US in 2001; • Regardless of race or ethnicity, poor children are much more likely than non-poor children to suffer developmental delay and damage, to drop out of high school, and to give birth during the teen years; • Poverty-prone children are more likely to live in single-parent families; • Poor inner-city youths are seven more times likely to be victims of child abuse or neglect than are children of high social economic status; • Poverty is caused by interrelated factors: parent employment status and earnings, family structure, and parent education; • Children under the age of 6 are particularly vulnerable to poverty; • hildren living in families with a female householder and no husband experienced a poverty rate of more than five times the rate for children in married-couple families; • The US child poverty rate is two to three times higher than most other major Western Industrialized Nations; • The number of white children in poverty out number the number of minority children in poverty, but the percentage of children in poverty in most minority groups is higher (Payne, Ruby, p. 11 - 13). The following key points as given in A Framework for Understanding Poverty were discussed along with the implications of these points in teaching young children. • Poverty is relative; • Poverty occurs in all races and in all countries; • Economic class is a continuous line, not a clear-cut distinction; • Generational poverty and situational poverty are different; • An individual brings with him/her the hidden rules of the class in which he or she was raised; • Schools and businesses operate from middle-class norms and use the hidden rules of middle class; • For our students to be successful, we must understand their hidden rules and teach them the rules that will make them successful at school and at work; • We can neither excuse students nor scold them for not knowing; as educators we must teach them and provide support, insistence, and expectations; • To move from poverty to middle class or middle class to wealth, an individual must give up relationships for achievement (at least for some period of time); • Two things that help one move out of poverty are education and relationships; • Four reasons one leaves poverty are: It’s too painful to stay, a vision or a goal, a key relationship, or a special talent or skill (Payne, Ruby, p. 10-11). Dr. Ruby Payne strongly urges educators to take inventory of the student’s eight resources. These resources are seen as necessary in order for the child to move out of poverty. Pre-service teachers were encouraged to take an inventory of these resources in the students they were currently servicing during the student teaching semester. The eight resources as given in A Framework for Understanding Poverty follow. • Financial: Having the money to purchase goods and services • Emotional: Being able to choose and control emotional responses particularly to negative situations, without engaging in selfdestructive behavior • Mental: Having the mental abilities and acquired skills (reading, writing, computing) to deal with daily life • Spiritual: Believing in divine purpose and guidance • Physical: Having physical health and mobility • Support Systems: Having friends, family, and backup resources available to access in times of need • Relationships/Role Models: Having frequent access to adults who are appropriate and who are nurturing to the child and who do not engage in self-destructive behavior • Knowledge of Hidden Rules: Knowing the unspoken cues and habits of a group. 57


Pre-service teachers were then presented with the registers of language as given in A Framework for Understanding Poverty, along with the implications for the school setting. • Frozen: Language that is always the same (Lord’s Prayer, Pledge of Allegiance, etc.) • Formal: The standard sentence syntax and word choice of work and school with complete sentences and specific word choice • Consultative: Formal register when used in conversation; discourse pattern not quite as direct as formal register • Casual: Language between friends – Characterized by 400-800 word vocabulary; Word choice general, not specific, sentence syntax often incomplete; – Intimate: Language between lovers or twins; often the language of sexual harassment (Payne, Ruby p. 49– 50). What does the register of language mean in the school setting? • Formal register needs to be directly taught • Casual register needs to be recognized as the primary discourse for many students • Discourse patterns need to be directly taught • Discipline that occurs when a student uses the inappropriate register should be a time for instruction in the appropriate register • Students need to be told how much the formal register affects their ability to get a well-paying job. (Payne, Ruby p. 49 – 50). Pre-service teachers were encouraged to become aware of the Hidden Rules among Social Classes as given in A Framework for Understanding Poverty. POVERTY MIDDLE CLASS POSSESSIONS People Things

WEALTH One of a kind objects, legacies, pedigrees

MONEY

To be managed

To be invested

PERSONALITY Is for entertainment SOCIAL EMPHASIS Social inclusion of people they like

Is for acquisition and stability. Achievement is highly valued Emphasis is on self- governance and selfsufficiency

Is for connections. Financial, political, social connections are highly valued Emphasis is on social exclusion

FOOD

Quantity important

Quality important

Presentation important

CLOTHING

Valued for individual style and expression of personality

Valued for its quality and acceptance into norm of middle class; label important

Valued for its artistic sense and expression, designer important

TIME

Present most important; decisions made for the moment based on feelings of survival

Future most important; decisions made against future ramifications

Traditions and history most important; decisions made on the basis of tradition and decorum

EDUCATION

Valued and revered as abstract but not as reality

Crucial for climbing success ladder and making money

Necessary tradition for making and maintaining connections

DESTINY

Believes in fate

Believes in choice

Noblesse oblige

LANGUAGE

Casual register, used to survive

Formal register, used for negotiation

Formal register, about networking

FAMILY STRUCTURE

Matriarchal

Patriarchal

Depends on who has money

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To be spent


WORLD VIEW

In terms of local setting

In terms of national setting

In terms of international setting

LOVE AND ACCEPTANCE

Based upon whether individual is liked

Based largely on achievement

Related to social standing and connections

DRIVING FORCE

Survival, Work, achievement relationships, and entertainment

Financial, political, social connections

Once a teacher understands these hidden rules among social classes, he/she will be better able to create meaningful relationships with children of poverty. In A Framework for Understanding Poverty, Dr. Ruby Payne offers suggestions for building such relationships. Appreciation of humor and entertainment provided by the child – Acceptance of what the child cannot say about a person or situation – Respect for the demands and priorities of relationships – Using the adult voice – Assisting with goal setting – Identifying options related to available resources – Understanding the importance of personal freedom, speech and individual personality. Dr. Payne also offers a warning against behaviors that hinder the development of such relationships. – Put-downs or sarcasm about the humor or the individual child – Insistence and demands for full explanation about a person or situation – Insistence on the middle-class view of relationships – Using the parent voice – Telling the individual his/her goals – Making judgments on the value and availability of resources – Assigning pejorative character traits to the individual Lastly, Dr. Payne offers suggestions for teachers to build the emotional resources of children of poverty. According to Dr. Payne, in order to do so, a teacher must understand the following: – Emotional Intelligence: The ability to respond emotionally to a situation from choice without doing harm to yourself or others – Emotional Blackmail: When fear, guilt, or obligation is used to manipulate you into a behavior – Resiliency: The ability to move out of dysfunctional and damaging situation – Emotional Coaching: The approach that helps develop emotional intelligence – Coping Strategies: Specific things a person can say or do with students to help them develop resilient characteristics and deal with situations – Use of Stories: To teach concepts and behaviors. After reading and reflecting upon Dr. Payne’s work, 81 students were given an opportunity to attend a professional development “Understanding Poverty: Putting Theory into Practice,” on March 12, 2005 at the Cintas Center Xavier University. The professional development was presented by Martha Menefee, principal Holly Hill Elementary, West Clermont School District. Ms. Meneffee discussed how she as a principal implemented the work of Ruby Payne into Holly Hill Elementary School and the impact that the changes have had on the school. Following the professional development seminar the students wrote a book review of A Framework for Understanding Poverty, connecting the work of Ruby Payne to developmentally appropriate practices, theory and theorists in Early Childhood Education. Students speculated how they would use the information in this book in their future classrooms. (Case studies were used to broaden and deepen understanding of the major components of the book.) Students were also required to write a reflection of the seminar. They wrote a brief summary of the experience and their reaction to Mrs. Menefee’s presentation. Students compared their interpretation of A Framework for Understanding Poverty and Mrs. Menefee’s implementation plan.

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The book reviews demonstrated a new found knowledge and respect for children of poverty as well as an appreciation for the suggestions offered to better prepare these pre-service teachers to deal with children who came from a different social class than they. Some samples of responses to the work of Ruby Payne follow: “Overall this book allows you to walk in someone else’s shoes for a few pages and helps you realize why Johnny or Susie couldn’t do their reading list for March because they just had enough money to get to the grocery store, etc. It makes you learn not to get upset or criticize but recognize their efforts and make adaptations” Kelly Cooper “After reading this book I was able to look at his (a student’s) situation differently and better understand the strains on not only him but his family as well. I had a new understanding of their lack of resources and the pre-formed opinion that was given to be before I had the chance to fully discover the child on my own.” Courtney Miller “Ruby Payne’s book was an eye-opener to me. Not just to me the future educator but on a very personal level as well. According to Payne, “two things that help one move out of poverty are education and relationships” (11). Luckily I had educated parents and strong relationships to get me to where I am at today.” Heather Rabe “Relationships are something that is built over time; they normally do not form overnight. Understanding of how others use their available resources helps us to form a solid and trusting line of communication. This line cannot be built on “outside judgments,” it must be built on respectful understanding. This can only happen if we allow ourselves to come out of the shell of our own class and look with open eyes and mind to the resources of other classes. Until this occurs Hamilton warns there will always be a breakdown in communication which results in strained at best relationships. As I stated before, becoming more accepting of the lives of others helps to open the lines to caring, meaningful and vital relationships. Both Payne and Hamilton stress that this is where the real learning occurs.” Katie Slusher Suggestions for 2005-2006 Semesters It is suggested that the courses continue to develop an understanding of the economical and ethnical diversity of children in the early childhood classroom in order to ensure the Xavier pre-service teachers’ ability to fulfill the NAEYC Code of Ethical Conduct’s Responsibility to respect the dignity of each child in relation to the child’s family and its culture, language, customs, and beliefs. Suggested Readings include: A Framework for Understanding Poverty, Ruby Payne Through Ebony Eyes: What Teachers Need to Know but are Afraid to Ask About African American Students, Gail Thompson It is suggested that we continue to evaluate material to enable pre-service teachers to develop an awareness of the diverse cultures, language, customs, values and beliefs of the children in their prospective classrooms. It is also suggested that future funding be pursued to contract Ruby Payne trainers to present on site workshops. I hope to pursue future funding to receive the necessary training to become a Ruby Payne presenter. Special Thanks to My Ignatian Mentoring Group Dr. Ginger McKenzie Mrs. Cecile Walsh References Payne, Ruby (1996). A Framework for Understanding Poverty. Highlands, TX: aha! Process, Inc. Thompson, Gail (2004). Through Ebony Eyes: What Teachers Need to Know but are Afraid to Ask About African American Students. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass A Wiley Imprint. Xavier University (2004-2006) Xavier University Catalog. Cincinnati, OH: Office of Registrar.

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EDUCATION Early Childhood Special Education: Learning Theories Kathleen G. Winterman, PhD Mentor: Ginger McKenzie, PhD (Education) Course Description Students will investigate and observe learning theory models as a foundation for early childhood intervention—understand development of infants and young children along with the ability to identify specific disabilities and describe implications for development and learning; using instructional practices based on knowledge of the child, family, community, and the curriculum; and support and facilitate family and child interactions as primary the context for learning and development. Course Objectives Knowledge and Skills Effects an exceptional condition(s) can have on an individual’s life (CC3K1)

Assignment Observations, Course Lectures

Impact of learners’ academic and social abilities, attitudes, interests, and values on instruction and career development (CC3K2)

Disability Presentation, Community Agency, IEP Meeting

Support and facilitate family and child interactions as primary contexts for learning and development (EC6S1)

Community Project, Parent Handbook, IEP Meeting

Recognize signs of child abuse and neglect in young children and follow reporting procedures (EC9S1)

Course Lectures, Observations

Organizations and publications relevant to the field of early childhood special education (EC9K1)

Journal Articles

Use instructional practices based on knowledge of the child, family, community and the curriculum (EC4S1)

Community Project, Parent Handbook

Variations in beliefs, traditions, and values across and within cultures and their effect on relationships among individuals with exceptional learning needs and their educational opportunities (CC3K3; CC3K4; CC3K5)

Community Project, Parent Handbook

Course Assignments 1.

OBSERVATIONS – You will observe 3 different settings/programs a. one birth-2 early intervention center-based or home-based b. one inclusionary 3-5 year old preschool program c. one inclusionary 6-8 year old early childhood setting

You will submit a written report on each setting observation that evaluates and assesses the curriculum of each program. You must describe each setting, describe early childhood theory models employed, and how parents and/or other family members are involved. Describe one child with an identified disability—what are the outcomes/goals designed for that child and how are they being addressed? (Please see rubric describing specific for observations assignment.) Undergraduates observe in two settings.

2.

DISABILITY PRESENTATION AND HANDOUT - Each student will choose and research a disability served in the public school system, i.e. Autism, Down Syndrome, Fragile X, Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, etc. You will gather information on the characteristics and treatment of the disorder. You will present your findings to the class and provide each class member (and the instructor) with a handout. (Please presentation rubric.) Students will develop digital disability presentations. These presentations can be shared among students to develop a person portfolio of information about a variety of disabilities. Students can then keep 61


this digital collection until they have a student they are supporting in the regular classroom. The videos can then be shared as a means of preplanning with the regular classroom teachers within the building for the inclusive student’s educational success. 3.

JOURNAL ARTICLE - Please select a research or journal article describing the application of a theorist or learning theories in the early childhood classroom. This article must be chosen from original scholarly work in professional journals. The article must represent a research study. Write a 1-2 page paper summarizing the information in the article based upon the format provided. Please present your summary and reflections to the class. Please include a copy of the article with your paper to be turned in to the instructor. (Please reference the article format provided for more specific support.)

4.

COMMUNITY PROJECT - You will develop an individualized project in which you can develop your skills and further examine one aspect of Early Childhood Services you would like to improve or gain more skills. You are encouraged to contact, visit and collect information from different community resources/agencies that serve families with young children with disabilities. This is your project --make it useful to you. An example of something you might be interested in is learning more about may be strategies to support children with Autism. You may attend some training offered by the Autism Society of Cincinnati and observe a teacher implementing those strategies. Think about what you know about best practices. Address what you have learned with respect to the theorist you most closely believe in. Bring information about the resource/agency (i.e., booklets, flyers, pamphlets, etc.) to share with everyone in the class. You will submit a written report about your visit. Include name of agency and contact person (include contact person’s position/title). Tell what you learned and your reaction to this experience not to exceed three typed pages for your report. You need to have the agency sign your time sheet for your portfolio file. (Please see rubric.)

5.

IEP/IFSP MEETING - You are required to observe one I.E.P. meeting and one I.F.S.P. meeting. A written report describing the experience is required of each. This will include the where, what and how of the meeting itself and an interview with the teacher or person leading the meeting. Who are the people at the meeting and what role do they play and/or service do they provide? Include your reaction to your observation. Have your time sheet signed for your portfolio file. (Please see rubric defining exact details.)

6.

PARENT EDUCATION HANDBOOK - Please develop a section on learning of young children for your handbook. Please include the importance of the learning environment (discussing what is learned in each area: math games, writing development, literacy, science areas, etc.). Include a sample of a parent newsletter. Include how you will address parent education. Discuss how you will include parents in the classroom and how you will get parents to become actively involved with their child’s education. Please remember to be sensitive to parents needs - consider working parents, guardians, and grandparents as caregivers. (Please see rubrics.)

This should be an interactive parent handbook that could be shared with students’ parents to demonstrate best practice in Early Childhood Special Education. Students will develop power point presentations with video clips embedded within to demonstrate teaching strategies, what children learn in each center, and ways can become active members in their child’s education.This would become a teaching tool that would be a useful for years with minor adjustments made to accommodate new theories and techniques. Summary of results As students of a Jesuit Institution, we discussed the meaning of living lives in service to others. The students in the course were able to provide examples of how they live the mission through their work as Early Childhood Intervention Specialists. Given the assignments listed above, students were asked to reflect on what social justice and advocacy for children with disabilities meant to them. Below are a few of their responses: The writing probe: • Address the various ways in which you provide social justice for students with disabilities. Reflect on the different types of advocacy you provide, instruction, and support to children, teachers, and parents. Social Justice for Students with Disabilities • What is “Social Justice”? Social Justice is generally thought of as a world which affords individuals and groups fair treatment and an impartial share of the benefits of society. Sometimes people don’t think that they have a voice. So we have to speak for them as educators. We have to stand up for them when we know that they are right or when something needs to be changed. With the realization of a world where all members of a society regardless of background have basic human rights and equality (wikipedia, 2007). I know I chose the right field to Master in because I feel that everyone needs a chance to be successful in their lives. 62


• • • • • • •

Providing social justice for all students is an important part of my responsibility as a teacher. When working with students with disabilities, I do this in a number of ways. I provide different types of advocacy, instruction and support to children, other teachers and parents. Social Justice helps us all. We need to put a focus on all students, but especially children with disabilities. Social justice is experienced by my students as they walk into the classroom environment which is inviting and is centered on the goal is to engage the students to learn. My students arrive each morning to an environment where the staff is familiar with each child’s areas of concerns and their needs to assist them in becoming successful. Success can be viewed differently for each child depending on the child’s needs and abilities. In the end, success is a word the children learn and apply as they experience learning. As most of the students’ first teacher, it is my goal to begin laying the foundation for their education journey. The students create the classroom rules that promote success and safety to all of the students while receiving as little guidance from me as possible when creating these rules. The students obtain ownership to these rules as they become valuable to them to provide success to all of the learners in the environment. It is best to provide the guidance to the students and allow them to take ownership of the rules because they will be more meaningful to them. It is my belief that all children are capable of learning, and it is my responsibility to allow each student to experience knowledge as they participate in a variety of learning experiences. The expectations of each student are that they are active learners and together through experiences they will have opportunities to expand and apply their knowledge. A key component to provide social justice in my classroom is to allow the students to know what the expectations are for each child during each learning experience they encounter while in the classroom setting. These expectations must be communicated with all children at a level where they can process the information and apply it to the situation when they encounter it. These expectations are modeled by the preschool staff as the students are exposed to the specific situations. The children are also given ample exposure to these expectations and time to adjust to these expectations. Social justice is present in my classroom because it allows my students to become active learners in an environment that focuses on their needs, strengths and weaknesses. This practice of social justice allows all of my students including the children with disabilities opportunities to acquire, practice, and apply their knowledge in an environment that encourages success to all learners. Respect is one of the most important ways of social justice with children and their families. As educators we have to show and treat parents and their children with respect. I think sometimes parents are intimidated by the teacher and the education system, and teachers may get intimidated by the parents. We need to show respect to all children and parents. We don’t know what the parent might be going through. A smile or a how are you doing will not hurt. We need to respect the family that has children with disabilities as well. When people know that they have someone to support them and confide in they know that they can trust and respect you. Communication is a very important part of providing social justice to students with disabilities. It is essential to have good communication between regular education teachers, special education teachers, aides, related service personnel and other school staff when it comes to children but it is even more important when it comes to students with disabilities. It is also necessary to have good communication between school and home and school and private therapy. Knowing what is going on and communicating back and forth so everyone knows what is being worked on is very important toward the well being and educational needs of each child. It is also important to have at least monthly meetings with the special education team to discuss the children and other issues and topics dealing that surround the children and schooling environment. As a special education teacher there are many things that I can do to provide social justice for my and other students with disabilities. As a teacher my job is to make sure that the goals and objectives are being met on each child’s IEP while they are learning in their educational setting. It is important to help the child in their learning process but also to help them feel successful as they are building their skills and working towards the goals on their IEP’s and also goals that they are striving for themselves. I will communicate the progress on their goals and objectives to the parents at least four times a year but more often than that. I have an open communication policy and can always be contacted by email or phone if there are questions or concerns that the parents may have. If I have a question for the parent I may send a note home or call the parent. I believe it is very important to have a strong connection between home and school and to work as a whole team to help educated each child.

Advocacy • I provide advocacy for students with disabilities by making necessary accommodations, adaptations, and providing appropriate intervention. I accommodate students with disabilities by adjusting my curriculum so that is meets the needs of the individual child. I use reading material that is at the reading level of the students I work with and is just challenging to them, not frustrating. I also adapt the environment so that I address the different learning styles of my students with disabilities. I model for students, specific directions and post examples and directions as I teach. Providing appropriate intervention advo cates for students with disabilities by helping them to reach their fullest learning potential. To do this, I assess students’ needs and tailor my lessons and activities accordingly. If a student is struggling with comprehension, we work on strategies to use during guided reading. If a student is having difficulty with fluency, we spend time working with words, study word parts, and 63


• • • • • • • • • •

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practicing sight words. Students who have a hard time organizing their ideas are provided with graphic organizers to help them in that area. I also provide advocacy for students with disabilities is other areas. For students who have a hard time with social skills, I set clear goals and objectives to help them in that area. I also provide experiences that will encourage them socially. For students who have motor skill issues, I provide accommodations including scribing for them for assessments so that they are able to focus on doing their best work and showing what they know. I also provide students with extra time as needed, alternative assessments, one on one support, and help with reading as needed. I advocate for parents of students with disabilities as well. I do this by providing them with meaningful information to help them help their child. I meet with them in parent teacher conferences to discuss where their child is and ways they could help their child to be successful in the classroom. I also let them know about valuable community resources and ways in which they can use them to best meet their child’s needs. By advocating for students, accommodating my instruction and adapting the learning environment, and supporting parents, I am providing social justice for students with disabilities. As an advocate for my students and their parents it is important that I make sure that the children are being provided a free appropriate public education, designed to meet their unique needs, in their least restrictive environment. Parents should annually receive a copy of Whose Idea Is It Anyway but I can make sure that they know exactly what information is in the packet and understand the rights of their students with a disability and their rights as parents and what their child is entitled to in their education and placement. I can also help them to understand what the school district will provide as far as educational services to their child based on their needs and level of ability. Teaching parents and students to work and learn to find the best advice for their specific situations and become self-advocates is also important. With help and guidance they will learn what is legally mandated, what other resources are available, and they must successfully lobby for the services they need. There are hundreds of organizations, funds and laws that support services for students with disabilities. Sometimes for parents it seems that getting appropriate services almost never happens automatically but hopefully with the help of a teacher while also learning to be a good self-advocate they can get the resources, services and results that are the best for their child. As a teacher, and especially as a special education teacher, it will be my responsibility to be an advocate for social justice for my students, their parents and their teachers. I feel that learning more about the Jesuit and Ignatian traditions here at Xavier, particularly in this class, has better prepared me to be such an advocate. There are several ways I can be an advocate for my students. I believe that the primary way is to view my students as unique children first, and to focus on their specific disability second. My job is to make sure that my students are getting the best instruction that I can give them. I should challenge them and have high expectations for them, rather than try to make things too easy and have low or no expectations. I need to be an advocate for my students in IEP meetings and with administration and teachers to ensure that my students are provided with all of the services that they are entitled and that they are not just viewed as a test score or a member of a specific sub-group. I should focus not only on academics, but also on helping my students develop as individuals. The best way that I can be an advocate to my students’ parents is to keep in constant communication with them. The parents should always be aware of their child’s progress and any difficulties or problems that arise. They need to be provided with information about school and community resources that can help both them and their child. A very important way that I can be an advocate is to make sure that the parents are well aware of the rights that they and their child have. Before, during and after any IEP or other important meetings, I should make sure that the parents are well-informed about what will be taking place, and that they understand everything. To be an advocate for my students’ teachers, I think that one of the most important things I can do is to help them better understand their students, their role with the students, and my role with the students and special education in general. I should communicate with them every day about our students’ progress, and about any areas that need assistance. In terms of advocacy, I feel that the primary focus should be on the student, followed by their parents and their teachers. How ever, it is important to remember that all three of these groups are important and should not be neglected. Being an advocate for parents and teachers is ultimately beneficial to the students themselves. The forms of advocacy which are exercised in the preschool environment are ones that will assist the students with reaching their goals as designated by their IEP. My first goal is to allow the IEP team to have a clear picture of the child’s abilities and areas of deficits in the child’s present level of performance in the IEP document. Without this, the IEP will develop unfocused on the child’s needs and areas of concerns being addressed. It is my responsibility to ‘speak’ for the child and display their strengths and weaknesses in the child’s present level of performance. At the preschool level, I always encourage my families to learn more about the laws and familiarize themselves with these laws to better assist their child in receiving services. We have offered several workshops for our families with the focus to expand the family’s knowledge of the laws of the IEP process. These families work effectively with the school personnel understand that they are active participants in their child’s learning process in the school setting


EDUCATION Teaching Reflectively through Ignatian Pedagogy Teresa Young, EdD Mentor: Thomas Kessinger, PhD (Education) Introduction Jesuit education seeks to develop the whole student—mind, body, and spirit. Ignatian pedagogy is a model that seeks to develop men and woman of competence, conscience, and compassion (Traub, 2008, p. 403). The mission of Xavier University’s Department of Childhood Education and Literacy reinforces these goals: Xavier University’s Department of Childhood Education and Literacy is dedicated to the pursuit of knowledge and to the orderly discussion of critical issues confronting educators in a free, inquiry-based environment committed to current and relevant scholarship and research related to our profession. Xavier University seeks to create awareness of social justice in all disciplines through its emphasis on living the Jesuit tradition of intellectual, moral, and spiritual preparation. The candidates in the Early Childhood, Middle Childhood, Montessori and Literacy programs, through their academic and professional training, are prepared to value the lives of children regardless of racial, linguistic, socio-economic, religious, or ethnic backgrounds and to work with and value family and school structures in both urban, rural, and suburban settings. Special attention is given to developmentally effective practices and advocacy for all children, with ethical issues and values as expressed through the Jesuit tradition. Thus, the Childhood Education and Literacy preparation at Xavier University strives to send out into the education community candidates who are morally sensitive to the academic and social needs of our time, foster an appreciation for human diversity, reason critically, and think creatively. Candidates in the Childhood Education and Literacy Department are encouraged to develop and maintain a disposition toward lifelong learning in the profession of education and to the service of their students and their students’ families and communities. Guided by the above mission statements, I reflected on the courses I teach at Xavier. I also reviewed the five educational principles comprising the Ignatian Pedagogical Paradigm: context [understanding student life and culture], experience [providing intellectual and affective learning opportunities], reflection of meaning for self and others, action [the external expression of learned content] and evaluation of student growth (Korth, 2008, pp. 281-283). Realizing that these tenets promote the goal of Jesuit education and speak to the teaching-learning process, I questioned how I could make these principles and, specifically, Ignatian Pedagogy apparent in my courses? This became the foundation for the Ignatian Mentoring Project. Ignatian Mentoring Project: Guiding Principles and Research Focus To strengthen my understanding of Jesuit education and Ignatian Pedagogical Strands, I reviewed several websites, specifically the Jesuit Resources at Xavier University (www.jesuitresource.org). I also used Jesuit Education and Ignatian Pedagogy, A Desktop Primer (Mooney) to determine how I might infuse this approach into my courses. I could incorporate the mission into all of my courses but there was a natural connection to the Language Arts/Social Studies Methods course offered spring semester. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to infuse the Ignatian Pedagogical Strands into the course content in order to assist students in assimilating these ideas into their teaching and reflection process. After reviewing the websites, course syllabi, meetings with my mentor, Thomas Kessinger, I used the principles of Ignatian pedagogy to develop the focus for the Ignatian Mentoring Project. Ignatian pedagogy is a model that promotes the goal of Jesuit education, speaks to the teaching-learning process, addresses the faculty-student relationship, and has practical meaning and application for the classroom. Similar to the process of guiding others in the Spiritual Exercises, faculty accompany students in their intellectual, spiritual, and emotional development.They do this by reating the conditions, laying the foundations, and providing the opportunities for the continual interplay of the student’s experience, reflection, and action to occur (Korth, 2008, pp. 280 – 281). Ignatian Mentoring Project: Teaching Reflectively through Ignatian Pedagogy As part of the Ignatian Mentoring Project, I conducted a seven-week research study in which the Ignatian Pedagogical Strands were presented and discussed during the Language Arts/Social Studies course for Early Childhood Education offered Tuesday and Thursday mornings, 8:00 – 12:00. The Language Arts/Social Studies course incorporates language arts and social studies instructional strategies, oral and written language skills, and reading and children’s literature for the integrated curriculum. This course is designed to prepare students to teach language arts and social studies to children in preschool through third grade from a holistic, developmentally appropriate perspective. Students are familiar with best practices, teaching strategies, and classroom application in regards to the disciplines of language arts and social studies instruction. In addition, national and Ohio standards relating to early childhood are explored in both disciplines as well as through an interdisciplinary approach. A field 65


component experience allows for observation and strategy implementation in the early childhood classroom. Students observe, plan and implement lessons guided by their cooperating teacher. In week one, I shared the objectives and goals of my participation in the Ignatian Mentoring Project. I described to students that the Ignatian Mentoring Program started in 2004 with a grant from Lilly Fellows Program in Humanities and the Arts. This program currently allows faculty to incorporate and assimilate the Ignatian vision into their professional identities. As part of this program, this project incorporated two parts. First, students anonymously completed a survey (Figure 1) outlining their understanding of the Ignatian Pedagogical Strands. The second part of the project involved student responses to weekly reflection statements. The Ignatian Pedagogy Survey

Figure 1 Ignatian Pedagogy

Please answer the following questions. Do not include your name.

l.) Can you identify any of the Ignatian Pedagogical Strands?

2.) If yes, please list the Ignatian Pedagogical Strands you can identify.

3.) If you answered yes to 2 above, identify any of the strands you incorporate a.) in your daily life. b.) in your classroom experiences. c.) in your field practicum experiences.

4.) Is reflection a part of your daily routine? If yes, how?

5.) Is reflection a part of your teaching experience? If yes, how?

I have been given information about this research study and its risks and benefits and have had the opportunity to ask questions and to have my questions answered to my satisfaction. By my completion and return of this survey, I freely give my consent to participate in this research project.

After completing the survey, I distributed the Jesuit Education and Ignatian Pedagogy, A Desktop Primer. We discussed each of Ignatian Pedagogical Strands and students commented on their understanding of how these statements could be incorporated into their teaching (See a complete list of the Ignatian Pedagogical Strands in Appendix A). I also reviewed Ignatian Pedagogy, A Practical Approach (Korth, 2008), which included the following elements: context, experience, reflection, action, and evaluation (pp. 281-283). We specifically discussed reflection, and I incorporated the following statement as a part of our discussion:

Reflection and discernment were integral parts of Ignatius’ learning process. Reflection is a thoughtful reconsideration of some subject matter, experience, idea, purpose, or spontaneous reaction, in order to grasp its significance more fully. Thus, reflection is the process by which meaning surfaces in human experience by understanding the truth being studied more clearly; understanding the sources of one’s sensations or reactions in the consideration; deepening one’s understanding of the implications for oneself and others; achieving personal insights into events, ideas, truths, or the distortion of truth; coming to an understanding of who I am...and who I might be in relation to others. Reflection is informative and a liberating process that forms the conscience of learners in such a manner that they are led to move beyond knowing to undertake action. Faculty lay the foundations for ‘learning how to learn’ by engaging students in the skills and techniques of reflection. A major challenge to faculty is to formulate questions that will broaden students’ awareness and impel them to consider viewpoints of others (Korth, 2008, pp. 282-283).

Because students would be completing weekly reflections, we elaborated on our understanding of the definition of reflection and how to use this process in the course content. “Reflection is the process of assessing information or events, thinking about and analyzing them, and then using the results to change or enhance future events. The process of reflection includes the cyclic process of description, analysis and planning” (Bullock and Hawk, 2001, pp. 29 – 30). We discussed the importance of reflection in their 66


interaction with children, lesson planning, and learning the language arts and social studies content. I emphasized how reflection would be an important part of this course and their continual understandings about learning to teach. After we discussed the overview of the Ignatian Mentoring Project, and students completed the survey, I organized and analyzed the survey data. The students’ responses are listed in Figure 2. Twenty students completed the survey. It was apparent from this analysis that students were unfamiliar with any of the Ignatian Pedagogical Strands. However, students were incorporating reflection as part of their daily routines and in their teaching practices. Ignatian Pedagogy Survey Results

Figure 2

Question 1: 0 students could identify the Ignatian Pedagogical Strands

Question 2: 0, not applicable because students could not answer question 1

Question 3: 0, not applicable because students could not answer question 1

Question 4: 16 out of 20 students responded that they use reflection in their daily routine. Specifically students reflected on their work, daily activities, goals, and conversations and interactions.

Question 5: 17 out of 20 students responded that they use reflection as a part of their teaching experiences. Students incorporated reflection to determine if their teaching was effective, to examine ways to improve their teaching, and to review student achievement.

Weekly Reflections: Incorporating the Ignatian Pedagogical Strands I selected specific Ignatian Pedagogical Strands that supported the course topics. Each week, through lectures and activities, students were introduced to these Ignatian Pedagogical Strands. Other strands were also observed and mentioned in our classroom discussion and in students’ field experiences. On Thursday mornings, students anonymously completed reflection statements. The following is a list the Ignatian Pedagogical Strands incorporated in the weekly reflections: • • • • •

Who am I as a teacher of young children? How do I view teaching as a vocation and as a service to others? How will I embrace the unique qualities in each student through teaching methodologies and strategies? How do I assess the students in my field experiences? How am I developing a teaching plan for my field experiences?

Students’ reflection statements were read each week. I connected students’ comments to future lectures and continually reviewed the Ignatian Pedagogical Strands relating them to the course content and their field experiences. At the end of the study, I examined all of the students’ responses to the weekly reflection statements again and identified similar comments related to the Ignatian Pedagogical Strands. Reviews of the weekly reflections and excerpts highlighting these statements are described below. Reflection Question, Week 2: What is your philosophy of teaching, specifically “Who am I as a teacher of young children?” The students provided many examples in their reflections of how they felt they are teachers of young children. Narrative descriptions addressed their responsibility to students as motivators, role models, and a life-long learners. Many students stated the importance of embracing the unique qualities of each child and developing a relationship with their students. The following excerpt highlights the students’ reflections: Example: “My philosophy of teaching is to value each child as an individual and build rapport with each child and their families. I, as a teacher of young children, am someone who values each student and tries to incorporate all learning styles to help each child succeed. I want to be an encourager and motivator to each of my students. I also believe it is essential to model what is important in my own life to my students so they have a better understanding of who I am and can relate to me.”

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Reflection Question, Week 3: “How do I view teaching as a vocation and as a service to others?” The theme of responsibility to educate children was evident in students’ responses to this reflection question. Students clearly stated that they believe they are role models for students and they saw the multiple roles teachers play in educating children. Students also believed that teaching is a way for them to “give back” and help children achieve their potential. The following examples explain students’ feelings about teaching as a vocation and service to others.

Example One: “I think that each student brings unique qualities to the classroom. I think it’s important to make children feel comfortable enough with themselves and their qualities to invite them to share with the class. Teaching allows us to show or bring out each quality in all of our students. It’s important to show the students that they are unique and embrace our classroom.”

Example Two: “Teaching to me is all about giving back. The greatest part of being an educator is being able to give a gift to each of my students. My gift is to help each of them reach their academic goals as well as personal goals.” Example Three: “Teaching is about helping others and serving others. Teachers work to help students succeed and reach their highest potential. As a teacher, I will do all that I can to understand and serve others in the community. Teaching, all in all, is a great way to give back to the community and help others!” Several students also indicated that they felt like teaching was a calling for them. They acknowledged the importance of serving the students that they teach and being a part of the community as well. They want to make a difference in the world and believe they can accomplish this through teaching. One student stated, “I have wanted to be a teacher since I was five and I know deep down it is what I have been called to do. I want to be a good teacher more than anything else.” Reflection Question, Week 4: “Embracing the unique qualities in each student through teaching methodologies and strategies.” Students responded to this question as it relates to their thoughts about future teaching experiences. One student commented, “I will embrace the unique qualities of each student by understanding they all have different ability levels and are not always able to learn the same way.” This theme resonated with several of the students. They indicated the importance of learning as much as they can about their students and then providing appropriate instructional approaches to meet various students’ needs. Another student responded, “I feel that it is extremely important for teachers to know the interest of the students.” Students planned on talking with their students and establishing relationships that extended the children’s learning. Reflection Question, Week 5: “How do I assess the students in my field experience?” This statement encompassed the Ignatian Pedagogical Strand of utilizing clear and specific evaluation methods. During their field experiences, students spend time in classrooms participating in observation, creating lesson plans and teaching language arts strategies and skills. As a part of lesson planning, they create evaluative methods to measure student success. They also spend a great deal of time observing students and their cooperating teachers to learn about the complexities of the classroom. When asked to respond to how they assess their students, overwhelmingly students responded to using observation in the classroom. The following excerpts depict the students’ commitment to learning about students and then using this knowledge to inform their instruction.

Example One: “I do a lot of observing when I am in my field experience placement. I also take anecdotal notes while the students are doing reader’s workshop. These notes come from the conferencing I do with the students.”

Example Two: “I observe and take anecdotal records as I walk around. I create checklists to help me keep track of where my students are and what I need to teach. I get to know my students and see where they are.”

Example Three: “It is important to use multiple methods of assessment whether it is just observation, anecdotal records, keeping checklists, projects, creating rubrics, or having actual written assessments. Not all students are able to express themselves the same way. They may have the knowledge, but sometimes they can’t express their knowledge.” Students responded to using observation as a form of assessment; however, they also emphasized the importance of evaluation methods being authentic. One student responded that she wants to use multiple methods so that she could see the full developmental spectrum of the children she was teaching. She believed assessment should occur before, during, and after teaching so that she could alter her teaching to best fit the students’ needs.

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Reflection Question, Week 6: “How am I developing a teaching plan for my field experience?” Students responded to this question in a variety of ways. Many felt that they were very much in the “process” of creating a teaching plan. They were completing observational notes, watching their cooperating teachers, and getting to know the students. They were also asking their cooperating teachers many questions about the “how and why” of teaching and reflecting on their own knowledge to make sense of their evolving understandings. Many of the students indicated that they were quite concerned with meeting the needs of all of their students. They felt their lesson plans and instruction should focus on all of the students in their classrooms. The following examples explain students’ feelings about creating teaching plans that are systematic, sequential and purposeful.

Example One: “I am taking observational notes on what my students know and what their interests are. I have also spoken with my cooperating teacher about where the students are going or need to go in their Language Arts and Social Studies. When I develop my lessons, I use Internet resources to get ideas about what may work. I also refer back to my text books and class worksheets to see how to correctly layout a writing/reading workshop. When writing the lesson, I try to think of questions that my students may have and then make sure I am clear in my teaching. I ask questions that will help the students think deeply about the topic. I also try to make my lessons interactive so my students are engaged.”

Example Two: “I am developing a teaching plan through my field experience. Within my field experience, I am learning different techniques for discipline and am constantly learning of new activities and ideas for centers, as well as how to approach different learning styles. Everything within my field experience is experience that I can call on when I am a class room teacher. Everything serves as an inspiration for future teaching and helps to develop my teaching plan.”

Ignatian Pedagogy Survey Results In Week seven, I repeated the survey with the students. Figure 3 represents the students’ responses to the same survey questions that they responded to in Week one.

Figure 3

Question 1: 19 of the 19* participants answered “yes” to being able to identify any of the Ignatian Pedagogical Strands. One student completed the course as an independent study.

         

Question 2: If yes, please list the Ignatian Pedagogical Strands you can identify. The following strands were identified and the number in parenthesis indicates how many students responded to the same Ignatian Pedagogical Strands: • Reflection (12) • Embracing the unique qualities of each child (7) • Interdisciplinary (7) • Student responsibility and independence (6) • Challenging and rigorous (3) • Teaching as a service (3) • Assessment (2) • Respect (2) • Creating relationships with students (2) • Student-centered learning (1)

Question 3: If you answered yes to 2 above, identify any of the strands you incorporate in your daily life, classroom experiences, and field practicum experiences. The following strands were identified and the number in parenthesis indicates how many students responded to the same Ignatian Pedagogical Strands: (a) in your daily life: Reflection (9) Forming relationships (2) Embracing the unique qualities of students (1) Showing and sharing skills (1) Student responsibility (1)

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Figure 3 continued (b) in your classroom experiences: Reflection (6) Embracing the unique qualities of students (5) Teaching as a service (3) Interdisciplinary (1) Respect differences in classmates (1) Student independence (1) Challenging students to think (1) (c) in your field experiences: Reflection (7) Challenging and rigorous (2) Student responsibility and independence (2) Teaching as a service (2) Embracing the unique qualities of students (2) Learning from professors and cooperating teachers (1) Interdisciplinary (1) Observation (1) Providing multiple pathways for learning and assessing (1) Different instruction (1)

Question 4: 18 out of 19 students responded that they use reflection in their daily routine. Specifically students reflect on their work, daily activities, goals, and conversations and interactions. This was an increase of 2 students from the initial survey.

Question 5: 19 out of 19 or 100% students responded that they use reflection as a part of their teaching experiences. Students incorporated reflection to determine teaching effectiveness and student achievement. They also searched for ways to improve their teaching. Students included observation and field notes as part of their reflection. Students also reflected on assignments and conversations. This was an increase of 2 students from the initial survey.

*One student completed the course as an independent study.

The final survey results clearly indicated that students were able to acknowledge and identify the Ignatian Pedagogical Strands discussed in the course and observed in their field placements. Students were able to provide specific examples which they were unable to complete in the first survey. In part, the continual review of the Ignatian Pedagogical Strands during discussions and assignments made them relevant and reoccurring and I believe, influenced the final survey results. Conclusion “Jesuit education is instrumental, student centered, characterized by structure and flexibility, eclectic, and personal” (Traub, 2008, p. 403). For this project, I presented the Ignatian Pedagogical Strands to incorporate the tenets of Jesuit education and help students learn how they could infuse this foundation into their teaching experiences. As previously outlined, “The Ignatian pedagogical process includes the elements of context, experience, reflection, action, and evaluation” (Korth, 2008, p. 283). During class discussions, we talked about the dynamic structure of experience, action and used reflection to make sense of the learning that took place in the students’ field placements. I used the weekly reflection statements to make the Ignatian Pedagogical Strands explicit and assist students in connecting course content to these ideas. Although students were not initially aware of the specific Ignatian Pedagogical Strands, making them explicit was effective as students assimilated this knowledge and responded to these ideas in their weekly reflections. It was apparent from the final survey results how important it was to present the Ignatian Pedagogical Strands in detail, and make them relevant to the students’ learning. The final survey results indicated that students’ comments focused on specific Ignatian Pedagogical Strands such as the unique qualities of each child, teaching as a service to others, the interdisciplinary nature of teaching, helping students to be responsible and independent, and incorporating reflection in their daily lives and 70


teaching experiences. The results also showed how students learned and applied the skill of reflecting in their classroom conversations, observations, and field experiences. As part of a culminating experience for this course, students create a reflective journal that represents the content materials and knowledge they have learned during the semester. Weekly classroom observations, learning techniques, lesson plans, and other relevant and important information are included in their journals. The journals are designed to focus students’ attention on the school and its resources, the thought processes of elementary children, and the instructional flavor of the environment. It is my hope that the Ignatian Pedagogical Strands will be a part of this journal, and information from the Jesuit Education and Ignatian Pedagogy Desktop Primer will serve as a reference for students to include and implement in their future teaching experiences. I will continue to purposefully infuse the Ignatian Pedagogical Strands into the Language Art/Social Studies course to assist students in the reflection process and in assimilating these ideas into their teaching practices. This project could not have been completed without the support and guidance of my mentor, Tom Kessinger – thank you for helping me achieve my goal. References Bullock, A.A. & Hawk, P.P. (2001). Developing a teaching portfolio: A guide for preservice and practicing teachers. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Korth,S.J. (2008). Precis of Ignatian Pedagogy: A Practical Approach. In G.W. Traub, S.J. (Ed.), A Jesuit education reader (pp. 280 284). Chicago: Loyola Press. Mooney, D.K. (2005). Jesuit Education and Ignatian Pedagogy: A Desktop Primer. Cincinnati: Xavier University Traub, G.W. S.J. (2008). A Jesuit education reader. Chicago: Loyola Press. Appendix A Jesuit Education and Ignatian Pedagogy, A Desktop Primer Ignatian Pedagogy • Embraces the unique qualities in each student • Facilitates students’ understanding of information in a personally relevant and personally appropriate manner. • Employs a systematic, sequential and purposeful teaching plan • Encourages students to decide what is truly good for themselves and society through a process of discernment. • Is challenging and rigorous • Is interdisciplinary • Makes use of novel teaching methods and technologies as they arise. • Relies on professors to serve as model “women and men for others” both in and out of the classroom. • Encourages attentiveness, reverence and devotion to reveal truth and wisdom. • Utilizes clear and specific evaluation methods. • Encourages student responsibility and independence. • Emphasizes eloquentia perfecta – speaking and writing excellence. • Views teaching as a vocation and as a service to others. • Values the five educational principles comprising the Ignatian pedagogical paradigm: context {understanding student life and culture}, experience {providing intellectual and affective learning opportunities}, reflection of meaning for self and others, action {the external expression of learned content} and evaluation of student growth.

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EDUCATION The Voice of Jesuit Experience on the Significance of Disability Victoria Zascavage, PhD Mentor: Phil Glasgo, PhD (Finance) The Problem The purpose of this study was to present the voice of Jesuit theologians on the significance of disability within the historical context of Catholic doctrine. The study serves to expand perspective using historical exploration and reflection. The practical application of the study sought to broaden course component within the ethics and disability construct sections of Special Education. The Process Five theologians with an expertise in Jesuit theology consented to interview. These participants were chosen because of their active participation in the Catholic faith and their age range. Each theologian answered four open ended question addressing their understanding of the purpose/meaning/significance of disability. The Context Old Testament: Within our religious history we can see a fluctuation of acceptance of individuals with disabilities. Within the Old Testament we recognize descriptions of difference. For example, in Exodus 4:10 Moses said to the Lord: O Lord, I have never been eloquent, neither in the past nor since you have spoken to your servant. I am slow of speech and tongue. The Lord replied to Moses: Who gave man his mouth? Who makes him deaf and mute? Who gives sight or makes him blind? Is it not I, the Lord? Here, without benefit of rabbinical interpretation, God creates disability. We go on to visit Moses in Leviticus 20:16 where God directs him to tell Aaron that: For the generations to come none of your descendants who have a defect may come near to offer the food of his God. No man who has any defect is to come near: no man who is blind or lame, disfigured or deformed. No man with a crippled foot or hand. Or who is hunchbacked or dwarf or who has any defect or who has festering or running sores or damaged testicles…because of his defect he must not go near the curtain or approach the altar and so desecrate my sanctuary, I am the Lord who makes them holy. God as presented in the Old Testament rejected those he created who were not physically perfect. New Testament: The New Testament brings a new Rabbi, Jesus the Christ who speaks as One with God. In Luke 5:22, he heals a man with paralysis and asks: Which is easier to say, your sins are forgiven or to say get up and walk? But that you may know that the Son of Man has authority on earth to forgive sins He said to the paralyzed man, I tell you to get up and take your mat and go home .John 5 describes the healing at the pool near Bethesda where the disabled gathered- the blind, the paralyzed, the lame. Jesus addressed an invalid of 38 years: Do you want to get well? Sir, the invalid replied, I have no one to help me into the pool…Then Jesus said to him-Get up-Pick up your mat and walk. At once the man was cured…The man who was healed had no ideas who it was, for Jesus had slipped away in the crowd that was there. Later, Jesus found him at the temple and said to him: See you are well again. Stop sinning or something worse may happen to you. Further along in Luke 9:37, Jesus removes the evil demons of epilepsy and in Luke 18: 42 restores sight: Receive your sight; your faith has healed you. In John 9, the disciples asked Jesus whose sins caused congenital blindness: Rabbi, who sinned, this man or his parents that he was born blind? Neither this man nor his parents sinned, said Jesus, but his happened so that the work of God might be displayed in his life. As long as it is day we must do the work of Him who sent me. Night is coming when no one can work…Having said this he spit on the ground, made some mud with the saliva, and put it on the man’s eyes. We leave the New Testament with conflicting information and no real answers. Has God changed positions? Are those with physical deformities sinners while those who are blind serve to display the work of God within their lives? Is all of this figurative? Does disability serve God? An example of the early church In 1287, in a small town in Florence Italy a child was born to a noble family. The child was hunchbacked, dwarfed, blind, and lame. The family shame was formidable. At the age of 6 the child was mortared into a wall of the Catholic Church where her only contact was with the parish priest. She had a window that allowed her to hear Mass, and a window that brought her necessities. At sixteen she was taken out to a shrine in Castello, Italy for a pilgrimage. When she was not healed, she was abandoned. A beggar endeared to the townspeople of Castello, she was taken in by the Dominican nuns. As a tertiary she visited the sick, comforted the dying, and served the imprisoned. Her work with young children made her a beloved in the community. Margaret of Castello believed that God had made each person in His own image and likeness. Following her death in 1320, 200 miracles have been credited to her intercession. In 1609 she was beatified and is today a patron saint of the disabled. (Retrieved from www.nashvilledominican.org/Charism/ Our_Saints/Bl_Margaret_of_Castello.htm on February 20, 2008).

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Searching for answers In 1486, again seeking to understand difference, the Dominicans Henricus Institor (Kramer) and Jacop Sprenger wrote the Malleus Maleficarum (1487). In the Malleus they described children born with what we might now recognize as Down syndrome, Prader Willis syndrome, or a number of medical conditions (i.e. lactose intolerance) as, Another terrible thing that God permits to happen to men …when their own children are taken away from women and strange children are put in their place by devils. (Kramer & Sprenger, transl.1928/1971, p.406) The church referred to these infants as changelings. According to the Malleus, there were three sorts of changelings (Wechselkinder) – those that were always ailing and crying and could never have enough milk, the second from artificial insemination of a team of devils, and the third who were actually devils in guise of infants. All were very heavy, ailing, did not grow and never had enough milk. They had arrived because of God’s divine punishment of their parents for a variety of sins. Some were just witches; others were conceived from the carnal knowledge of an Incubus devil. It was not uncommon for these children to mysteriously vanish into the night. Within the last 50 years For centuries, the church has been instrumental in the care of individuals with disabilities. The religious have founded orphanages, run homes, and fought for the humane care of the individuals with physical and mental disabilities. Lives of service to the poor, homeless, the diseased, lepers fill our history. Catholic schools have educated the blind, the deaf, the mentally retarded and the abandoned. The Catholic Bishops of the United States of America position: It is not enough to affirm the rights of people with disabilities. We must active work to make them real in the fabric of modern society. Recognizing that individuals with disabilities have a claim to our respect because they are persons, because they share in the one redemption of Christ, and because they contribute to our society by their activity within it, the Church must become an advocate for and with them. It must work to increase public sensitivity towards the needs of people with disabilities and support their rightful demand for justice. Moreover, individuals and organizations at every level within the Church should minister to persons with disabilities by serving their personal and social needs. Many can function on their own as well as anyone in society. For others, aid would be welcome. All of us can visit persons unable to leave their homes, offer transportation to those who cannot drive, read to those who cannot read, speak out for those who have difficulty pleading their own case. In touching the lives of men, women and children in this way, we come closer to imitating Jesus’ own example, which should be always before our eyes ( cf. Luke 4:17-19,21). Pastoral Statement of US Catholic Bishops on People with Disabilities (1978, updated 1989), United Catholic Conference, Inc. The Outcome To address the Jesuit experience on the significance of disability five Catholic theologians consented to interview. Each of the five participants is a respected male, Catholic theologian/religious leader who graciously agreed to participate in this theological exploration. Individual participants are coded for the sake of confidentiality as follows: Participant 1 - Theologian between 70-80 years old Participant 2 - Theologian between 60-70 years old Participant 3 - Theologian between 50-60 years old Participant 4 - Theologian between 40-50 years old Participant 5 - Theologian between 30-40 years old The comparison and thematic discussion centered on four questions: • What is your understanding of the purpose/meaning/ significance of disability according to the teaching of your religion/ community? • How do you see your (parents and/or grandparents) (practicing members of the religious community) interpreting the position of the church on the birth of a child with a disability? • How are children with disabilities welcomed into your (religious) community and what kind of support is there for their parents? • Children with disabilities may have strange sometimes violent behaviors. Does your (religious) community have any answers as to the significance, treatment, or cure for such conditions? Interviews

What is your understanding of the purpose/meaning/ significance of disability according to the teaching of your religion/community? Participant 1: Real disability, this is in the gospel—blind man—some say who caused this—nobody caused it—God did not curse them; it was not from their parent’s sin. We do not understand the mystery. Suffering assuredly to the church is a good thing— no pain, no gain, some are strong, some commit suicide—I learned patience from this—patience to suffer. 73


Participant 2: Diversity —traditionally—will of God since God is all powerful. Somehow from God either as test or a punishment- or a way of making us stronger—should be accepted as such. Jesuit-Pierre Teilhard de Chardin explained suffering—world as finite and breaks down—not sent by God’s will but structure of the universe – material things. Participant 3: Part of me wants to say manifestation of God’s grace; sounds negative not to be disabled is a blessing, disability of course is not this. Another way—an opportunity to respond to a disability—finding completion—I never thought of this in terms of religion—more in line with health. Participant 4: Blind gospel, people asked because of his parents sin or sin in him Jesus replied neither—to show forth the glory of God—the cure—message—invitation for all of us- the label of disability—we are called to shed our blindness to see God glory shine through in each and every person we encounter—gifts or talents are all created in image and likeness of God and a revelation of God’s love in our world—opportunity to see the way God sees us; opportunity to bring God love into that person’s life- to see in a different way—to see not just through the eyes but the heart. Participant 5: I don’t know purpose- it is not as if God decides that one will have disability another not—I don’t believe God gives disability to an individual. The church would say that no matter what our challenge in life is—challenge—cross-complaint we can reflect on the suffering of Christ’s life and draw strength from that—just as Christ struggled with his cross we are called to challenge our cross.

How do you see your (parents and/or grandparents) (practicing members of the religious community) interpreting the position of the church on the birth of a child with a disability? Participant 1: My parents would have thought it was somebody’s fault—a punishment—or they were a victim—more a victim. Participant 2: Traditional notion – will of God- hide these children, embarrassed, institutionalized them—not true for all people— trend was to hide just not knowing how to deal—In the Third World-Nicaragua- many parents in poverty, older parents drop off their child at the institution and never visit- abandoned children—it is a financial issue- they run from this. Yet at the same time—there are young people dedicated to caring lovingly for every need of the physically disable in very poor institutions often without air conditioning, electricity, and financed day to day. Participant 3: If by that, the option is birth or abortion—my parents would have given birth-child is important no matter what the condition. Child is God’s gift to you—it does not matter what the child was like—that was secondary. Also blue collar neighborhood so practically speaking—no extraordinary medical services were available. Participant 4: In my family tradition, every child born no matter who they were was a precious gift and deserved to be loved. My mother and father—they may not have had testing like amniocentesis —they would not have thought of abortion as part of the landscape of options—if you had the were with all you would care—unless they were so disabled you could not care for them— there were some institutionalized—most common disability was Down’s—might have had a physical disability such as blindness, deafness, lacking a limb—my mom and dad would have accepted that child. Participant 5: I think my parents would see that as—say God does not give disability that it is an accident of birth—grandparents probably the same—the language of—it is not the child’s fault.

How are children with disabilities welcomed into your (religious) community and what kind of support is there for their parents? Participant 1: They are physical, people, anyway handicapped or deformed- arms, internal, special needs—ordinary ways they would not find helpful—in wheelchairs—example ramps. I would say since the 60’s with Vatican II the church is more sensitive—lavatories available now provided in all churches – built because of the ADA stuff—hearing aids in the church. Archdioceses orphanage supports education, therapeutic, that kind of thing; Catholic social services—helping physical problems, mental problems. The Society of Jesuits, the one real case—brother: has one arm; Jesuit brother; he produces plays—theater for the disabled and he also worked/s with Iraq veterans.

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Participant 2: Historically the men have never been allow to enter the priest hood with a disability—with Canon law kept out of the priesthood or religious life—there are very few. This is religion’s inability to cope with disability. Most churches have no access –it is unusual to see a disability in church. At our chapel (B) we are prided for accessibility and community is accommodating to disability. This is unusual. Just recently at the university—we had to deal with the campus- how do you get around—it is just beginning to be aware—you don’t see a lot of disabled people around here// wheelchairs//don’t see that they have access to college education, with all our talk, 22 years of teaching and I had one girl who was nearly blind with a seeing eye dog and I do not remember any other disabled studentsMost do not have access to university -people are not comfortable with them – shy, embarrassed especially if they have deformities…we hide them in institutions, out of the States most countries deal with it daily because they do not have funds, here (USA) you get the idea everyone is healthy. My personal break through was in Nicaragua where they are normalized— the same as I am. Personally, in Nicaragua, ministering for severely disabled—shocked at first—they could not move, or talk, feed, or take care of natural functions—but there was a little person in there who can relate and give and receive love as a friend. Participant 3: At 4 o’clock mass a student- girl from campus with a wheelchair- she is welcomed and not treated differently but as far as Jesuits with disabilities—deaf—don’t remember his name—he was just one of the crowd—then there was Curry—a dynamic person. Participant 4: The religious community on a day to day basis there has not been practical support—from Catholic secondary education the cost in a school situation has historically and even now been an argument to prevent children with significant disabilities to be accepted into most Catholic schools. Greater awareness in Catholic parents has pushed the envelope—what can be provided compared to public school. Parents want them to be in a faith and sacramental preparation atmosphere. Years ago- they were in orphanages, institutions—we are growing honest. The parents pushed us forward- involve people with disabilities—physically adapt the buildings, find ways to include people in parish community—the more people are included the more it breaks down the stereotypes and fears—it can be very edifying and help them grow in their faith. We have come some ways but a lot further to go. Participant 5: Fully and completely—children with disabilities there are programs for them to teach them the faith on their level and to give theme mutual experiences on their level—I personally worked with children with Asperger and children with disabilities—for example, a young girl who could not read write or speak and was developmentally handicapped—we created special processes to give expression to faith—processes were—she communicated by using a computer. We would give her mother a copy of the prayer before services. In advance and she would know when the Our Father was coming and she would press a button that could express the Our Father and she could pray with the class. The church itself in the design of new churches you are strongly encouraged required to have a ramp to the building and to the sanctuary—so people can go to sanctuary as servers—the pulpit goes up and down—so individuals in wheelchairs can go at mass. There is this dramatic accommodation—for a full active participation in the liturgy.

Children with disabilities may have strange sometimes violent behaviors. Does your (religious) community have any answers as to the significance, treatment, or cure for such conditions? Participant 1: I think I’m correct in saying that we are pretty good at knowing what we can and cannot do—we would be upfrontwe are not capable to handle – we would get support – we are not Gods—you do what you can there is grace in knowing what you can’t do. Overall view everyone is created in God’s image—everyone is to be loved, and supported, and respected. God has no favorites—in Matthew He is there for the just and the unjust. Participant 2: Defer to medical world institution and hospitals, throw up hands in despair and not deal with it. Teachers must deal with the shouting out but teachers learned how to deal –our Catholic schools would not deal—they would pass it off to the public school, I doubt if our Catholic school teachers have the skills to do this- Catholic School is a haven from this kind of behavior. Participant 3- Nothing comes to mind, we have never, I have never been in a community environment where that this has been brought up—do not acknowledge existence. Participant 4: I don’t think we believe people are possessed by the devil anymore—when I was training for ordination—good psychology makes good theology. We are beyond the times when there was a leper colony in Carrville and St. Francis of Assisi’s time when church had a ritual where as a leper you were sent outside the city walls in ritualized exclusion—lighting of candle and snuffing it out. 75


Participant 5: No. with our young woman we would accommodate her by getting her a private tutor—to help her deal with her pencil stabbing approach, hair grabbing approach to life— she could not speak read or write. Reflection Dominant within the analysis of the interview sub-themes is disability as an occasion for compassion; disability as a dynamic social issue; and disability as a vehicle for the understanding of the mystery of life. There is evidence in these interviews of an understanding and level of acceptance that was not possible in the early church. Looking at the experience presented by five generations of theologians familiar with teaching to the mission has permitted us to see a progression of acceptance. The acceptance focuses mostly on accommodations for liturgical participation. The interviews point out difficulties encountered in acceptance within the Jesuit educational community. The study raises questions concerning our mission as Jesuit educators; concerns that can be brought into the classroom, researched, and discussed. Conclusion According to The National Catholic Partnership on Disability (www.ncpd.org, download March 10, 2008) there are in excess of 14 million Catholics with disabilities of which: • 8.1 million Catholics have a physical disability. • 1.3 million Catholics have sensory disabilities. • 560,000 Catholics are mentally retarded or cognitively disabled. • 700,000 Catholics are classified as mentally ill. • 3.6 million Catholics have assorted health problems which limit one or more of their daily living functions • 6 million Catholics report they have more than one disabling condition. As determined by the NCPD (Retrieved from www.ncpd.org on March 10, 2008): 92% of the general public expressed admiration for those with disabilities, “because they overcome so much”; 74% expressed pity; 58% had feelings of awkwardness because they don’t know how to behave around people with disabilities; 47% expressed fear because people with disabilities remind them of what could happen to them; 16% expressed anger because people with disabilities cause inconveniences and 9% expressed resentment because of feeling that those with disabilities get special benefits and privileges. In a 1998 statement, Welcome and Justice for Persons with Disabilities, American Bishops determined: Parish liturgical celebrations and catechetical programs should be accessible to persons with disabilities and open to their full, active, conscious participation according to their capacity. We should encourage them to do the Lord’s work in the world according to their Godgiven talents and capacity. WE ARE STILL SEARCHING for ways to be aware, how to recognize, to be sensitive, how to include People into full life of the church, worship, and education. What we say and what we believe has not always been reflected in our practices as we learn more we can integrate into our community. -PARTICIPANT FOUR

Paper presented Zascavage, V. The Influence of Religion on the Construct of Disability. TASH, December, 2008, Nashville, Tennessee

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ENGLISH Still Weaving of a Written Self: Reflections on the Whole Student Kelly Austin, MA Mentor: Trudelle Thomas, PhD (English) I turned around to survey the classroom one last time, checking to make sure I’d left nothing behind. As I went to switch off the lights, I stood there, briefly, taking in the silence. Here I stood immediately after the final, and I was already missing their voices. As a writing instructor, this is nothing new: I spend the entire semester “listening” to my students’ voices—in journals, in papers, in emails, in classroom discussions, in individual conferences, and even in the informal spaces before and after class. So at the end of the semester, it should come as no surprise that the sudden ceasing of all these voices leaves such a void. This school year I had spent so much time cultivating those voices, searching out those voices, that the silence seemed that much more stark. This year verified for me the real need, the real thirst, the real hunger our students have for understanding—of the self, of the world around them. In fact, my students were so eager to use their voices as a means of exploration—not just of their academic selves, but of their whole selves—that encouraging that expression, and hence understanding, through language was relatively effortless. And that understanding of the self is what a college education, particularly a Jesuit education, is all about—or at least it should be. But this year, more than any other, I have become aware of how much we are failing our students, of how much we separate our students’ intellectual selves from their whole selves, their souls. And we all suffer as a result. My interest in this idea of the whole person was piqued in the fall semester. I had one section of English 115, the university’s honors first-year composition course, which in particular used the class journals as an outlet for their personal, social and emotional searchings. Since I don’t normally provide prompts for these online—and therefore semi-public—journals, I was amazed to see how their class writings evolved into fairly consistent, frank and honest explorations of identity. They wanted to understand their lives, their world and their place in it. As I began exploring Ignatian/Jesuit education with my mentor, Dr. Trudelle Thomas, I was drawn to the idea of cura personalis, the concept that students are complete persons, not simply intellectual beings. Cura personalis is a trademark of Jesuit education, “where in one-on-one spiritual guidance, the guide adapts the Spiritual Exercises to the unique individual making them” and “where the teacher establishes a personal relationship with students, listens to them in the process of teaching, and draws them toward personal initiative and responsibility for learning . . .” (Traub 391). Ignatian principles tell us that education must revolve around individual adaptation and connection. My role as an educator at a Jesuit institution, then, must include an understanding—and even valuing—of the personal issues my students are experiencing. Personal identity, an understanding of the whole self, appeared to be the thing my students were grappling with, whether or not I included it in the course. As I listened to students explore topics such as sexuality, drinking, loneliness, isolation, fitting in and growing up, I realized that the composition classroom in particular—because of its focus on writing as a means of thinking, searching, expressing and understanding—had the potential to allow students a full exploration of self. I also understood that a course which neglected such “peripheral” aspects of students’ lives was, in fact, failing them. As observed by Susan J. Korth, “Since human experience, always the starting point in Ignatian pedagogy, never occurs in a vacuum, we must know as much as we can about the actual context within which teaching and learning take place. We as faculty need to understand the world of our students, including ways in which family, friends, social pressures, politics, economics, media, and other realities impact them” (Korth 281). With this in mind, for spring semester, I fashioned for my students a more focused exploration of self, particularly through their journals and their research project. I wanted to provide a place for students to explore their whole selves, not just give them a string of purely academic objectives. The Journals: Weaving the Self Still One of the things I did for my spring courses was refashion the way I conducted the online journal for my classes. Typically, students write journals 2-3 times per week, which are posted to an online discussion board. The idea is that frequent, informal writing helps them hone their writing skills in ways formalized assignments cannot. In the past I haven’t always provided writing prompts, allowing students to write about the readings, explore concepts, begin drafting major assignments—to simply write. Because journals appear in a public forum, the audience becomes not only the teacher, but their classmates as well. Students are encouraged to respond to one another, to engage in real community dialogue. To allow for me to read their writing before class and possibly incorporate student ideas or concerns into class discussions, journals are due at midnight the night before class. I often use student journals as springboards for discussions in class by asking a student to share the previous night’s response or by directing students to class-

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mates’ journals that might add to the ideas they were contemplating. I do not give feedback on every journal, though I did send a private email when a student wrote something particularly compelling, interesting or inventive. At first, students seemed taken aback by the more personalized response to their writing (as opposed to simply a comment or a score on a piece of paper). Over the course of the semester, many students began responding to the emails from me, allowing for one-on-one dialogue and engagement about their writings and reflections. While I made sure to respond to each student multiple times throughout the semester, only some engaged in such dialogue with me. But through course evaluations and comments in the journals, emails or in-class writings, I know many of the students appreciated the individual acknowledgment—of their writing, their ideas, their questions, their worries— of their individual selves. Initially, students from the two English 101 (the non-honors first-year writing course) sections I taught in spring expressed anxiety by the openness of the journals. In response to this anxiety, as well as in hopes of encouraging that exploration of self, I created a list of prompts to help guide student writings, while still leaving the journals as open as possible. Some of the questions were more benign, such as “Describe in detail a favorite childhood memory” or “Describe in detail one of your favorite places.” But there were other more complex questions that stirred more discussion from the students, particularly “What is your greatest fear?” and “What do you think is the greatest challenge facing students of your generation?” These questions elicited powerful response and expression, leading to stronger (and more personal) writing. Oddly enough, through encouraging students to explore and express themselves as whole beings, I stumbled upon another basic tenet of Jesuit education: reflection, and thus discernment. Again, Sharon Korth describes the significance of these principles to our students:

Reflection and discernment were integral parts of Ignatius’s learning process. Reflection is a thoughtful reconsideration of some subject matter, experience, idea, purpose, or spontaneous reaction, in order to grasp its significance more fully. Thus, reflection is the process by which meaning surfaces in human experience by understanding the truth being studied more clearly; understanding the sources of one’s sensations or reactions in the consideration; deepening one’s understanding of the implications for oneself and others; achieving personal insights into events, ideas, truths, or the distortion of truth; coming to an understanding of who I am…and who I might be in relation to others. (282)

Through these reflections and explorations, as well as my own reflection and exploration, I was reminded that the ancient concept of the heart entails “the place where intellect and emotion and spirit and will converge in the human self” (Palmer 314). Through my students’ journals, I learned that we cannot neglect portions of ourselves without creating real damage to our souls; I learned that we must reflect on ourselves and on the world around us and our relationship to it; and I learned that it is only when we join all aspects of ourselves that we can be completely filled. I was also reminded how crucial it is for us as educators to create safe spaces, such as the online class journal, for students to reflect. I read while students shared feelings of isolation, of confusion, of fear. I read while students shared personal tragedies and triumphs. I read while students explored their world, their relationships, their behaviors. It created an amazing dialogue, both within and outside the class. I was caught up in a weaving of knowledge and understanding. Parker J. Palmer, a professional educator, describes good teaching in this way, “good teachers join self, subject, and students in the fabric of life . . . . They are able to weave a complex web of connections between themselves, their subjects, and their students, so that students can learn to weave a world for themselves” (314). Allowing students a space for exploration and expression granted students a liberty that is too often lacking in their lives. They simply don’t know how to disconnect—from technology, from each other, from all the noise in their lives. Asking them to reflect and write forced them (well, most of them) to slow down long enough to think. Perhaps because I often run at such a hectic pace myself, I was struck by how often students confessed (either in their journals or to me privately) that they had just stepped back and listened, observed and pondered. Without knowing it, they were learning the wisdom that “Listen and silent are spelled with the same letters. To listen one has to be silent” (Malloy 308). And not only did they make the connection; they practiced it. Sometimes, their journals simply shared an observation made while practicing being still: the beauty of spring, the joy of a starry night, the joy of just being. Their journals allowed them this freedom—to explore issues of real urgency or simply to pause, to reflect, to express. I was amazed to watch as students, initially apprehensive about the journals, became increasingly more open and more comfortable expressing themselves. Their responses ranged from the mundane to the monumental. (Selected responses are included below.) Students shared their fear of the future: selecting a major or profession, wondering how they would manage the changes of the coming summer. Students communicated personal challenges: reflecting on the death of a friend, describing a tornado striking one student’s hometown. Students expressed their current fears and insecurities: questioning the need to drink to fit in, ruminating on their quest for identity and acceptance. Students celebrated their successes: reminiscing on their growth over the school year, sharing their personal and academic discoveries and achievements. Ultimately, by the end of the semester, students realized that they were not 78


alone in their fears, struggles or searchings—or in their joys and personal victories. They had truly become a community, weaving their own tapestry. I was also thrilled to witness my students’ sheer will to explore, to be understood, to be heard. Though I definitely witnessed moments of complete exhaustion and fatigue, burn out and apathy, frustration and aggravation, I was privileged to behold their courage and fearlessness. The Research Project: Reflecting on, Defining and Solving Issues of the Self Much of this exploration occurred as I gave them a more directed research assignment. For their project, they were required to select a pressing issue for young adults, their generation. The first year writing curriculum requires both an argument essay and a research paper. I typically bring these together as a group project focused on a specific issue. Students write an individual argument essay on the same issue question as their group members. They then write a solution-based collaborative research paper for their particular issue, building off of their individual argument essays. This semester differed in that I required groups to focus on “a key issue facing students of your generation (or possibly even high school students). Think about issues that affect you or your friends personally, and that affect multiple facets of young adult life: physical, intellectual, emotional, social, spiritual, etc. Obviously, these overlap a great deal—look at it in the context of the Jesuit ideal cura personalis: the whole person. You may be investigating an issue that seems purely social, but find that it influences and is influenced by the emotional or the spiritual, for example.” Students were also asked to consider an appropriate audience for their topic—an entity that could effect change. Groups met with me periodically to select and narrow a topic, as well as to discuss how the group might approach the topic. There were papers on the particular challenges facing international students (written by two students, one from Ghana, one from Saudi Arabia), commuter students (by a group with one commuter and two non-commuters) and minority students (by a group with a student from Africa); there were also papers on the effect of media on body image and the effect of sexist language on gender relations. I watched with interest as groups chose to write about more sensitive issues: underage drinking and its accompanying pressures, the saturation of sex in the media and its impact on their perceptions and relationships, the use of Facebook by students as well as potential employers. And they wrote about these issues with passion and conviction. Students wrote with real searching as well, which is the ultimate goal of a Jesuit education. In this more formalized academic exercise, they sought to understand the pressures facing them—and sought to make more informed decisions as a result. The assignment required their personal as well as their intellectual investment. Indeed, as Korth points out, the true challenge of this Ignatian model is to develop students “who will gradually learn to discriminate and be selective in choosing experiences; who [are] able to draw fullness and richness from the reflection on those experiences; who [become] self-motivated by his or her own integrity and humanity to make conscious, responsible choices” (284). They must not only be able to seek out truth, but to enact it in their lives as well. Asking students to search out or create a solution forced them to look beyond the fear and stress and aggravation of the issue they had selected and to seek ways to implement change—either within themselves, within the community or within society at large. As they worked with one another and met with me again to discuss potential solutions and an appropriate audience for their proposal, students began to take personal ownership for the issue they had raised, seeking out real, viable plans of action. They also began to see their relationship to the identified problem, and hence to the community within which they were writing. Their solutions became real pleas for change and for help. As one group put it in their final paper, “in reality we believe American teenagers are just looking for guidance; because in today’s world with wars, recession, poverty and the like, teens need to have some kind of support system to show them the way.” In response to the issues they had identified, groups proposed how Xavier could better address the issue of underage drinking, or how students could combat the saturation of sexual images in the media, or how students could be more aware of the implications of what they were posting to Facebook. They proposed not only how the community they were writing for might address the problem, but also how they, individual students, might seek change in themselves. The Final Outcome: Weavers of the Heart Ultimately, this bravery and exploration reminds me why I teach—and why it is such a challenge. I am reminded that, as the teacher, my “heart is the loom on which the threads are tied . . . . teaching tugs at the heart, opens the heart, even breaks the heart—and the more one loves teaching, the more heartbreaking it can be” (Palmer 321). Teaching the way I do, investing personally in students the way I do, connects me to my students, to the their struggles and their pains. When I hear of their loneliness and their fears, I cannot help but be affected. Fortunately, this personal connection also allows me to experience their triumphs and their glories. One last quote from Palmer sums this up for me—and leads us back to that image of the heart: “I am a teacher at heart, and there are moments in the classroom when I can hardly hold the joy. When my students and I discover uncharted territory to explore, when the pathway out of a thicket opens up before us, when our experience is illumined by the lightning-life of the mind—then teaching is the finest work I know” (311). Watching students work through real adult issues and engage in thoughtful, mature dialogues with me and with each other as they do so is undoubtedly the most rewarding aspect of my job. And that is precisely what happened this year. 79


Near the end of fall semester, several students reflected on the journals in particular and the role they played for them as students as well as writers. Students appreciated not only the safe space to explore the challenges and issues of their daily lives, but the power of belonging to a community. One student described the journals and class discussions as “the vital area of class that preserves our Jesuit tradition at this college. I can name on one hand the number of people that I can call by name in my other classes at Xavier (and most of them I know from Rhetoric). Especially in my lecture classes, I can only pick out familiar faces, never names or memories. Where are the interactions with other students that are meant to expand my mind?” Another student responded to this journal, “Like you, I don’t know the names of everyone in any other class . . . and I feel that our class has achieved that personal level necessary to feel comfortable . . . . I think that although we are learning English, this class is helping us learn how to act around one another, how to deal with people and views other than yourself or your own.” Students recognized the importance of reflection and its expression not only to themselves, but also to their academic pursuits and their social interactions. In fact, I had many students, particularly in my fall semester courses, express sorrow when we were not writing journals—especially when journal writing was suspended during the drafting of a major paper. One student, after fall semester ended, emailed me to say, “so I was having a bad day yesterday and I almost wrote a journal type thing, but I didn’t know what I would do with it afterward because I didn’t want to just write it for myself, so I didn’t write. I really missed our class journaling.” Many students acknowledged their initial apprehension at writing the journals—and their eventual appreciation of them. One student from spring semester summed up her (and many others’) experience with the journals by citing the multiple functions of the journal: drafting essays and seeing other students’ writing, “venting” about problems and learning about other students in “ways I wouldn’t have been able to had the journals not been posted,” and sharing ideas and learning from the ideas of others. For her last journal, she concluded, “I really like the option of writing freely, because I initially thought college was going to be a lot more about facts and less about my ideas. I love that Xavier and the professors in particular give me the freedom to discuss my ideas and give input on the world.” The journals, with their focus on reflection and dialogue, and the research project, with its more focused academic approach, validated student thought and experience. Instead of treating their personal lives, ideas, struggles and challenges as something separate from their academic experience, these assignments allowed students to grapple with their whole selves—the real work of a college freshman anyway. By the end of spring semester, I felt like a weaver who has let her students go, and watches as they weave an intricate, colorful masterpiece. Except that they were weaving the fabric of their souls, their spirits, their very hearts. I watched as they learned to understand themselves and their classmates and their universe. I watched as they learned that “becoming an adult necessitates extended periods when a person steps back, stops, reflects, thinks, ruminates, wonders, and ponders” (Malloy 308). That steady, measured reflection and passionate, articulate dialogue was a magnificent thing to behold. As I left the last classroom for the last time, I stood there, reflecting. I realized that as much as this had been an exercise in reflection for them, it had also been one for me. I paused to soak in the quiet, to listen for the reverberations of their voices. I was reminded of a quote from a favorite Christmas card: “To see the sacred, we must slow down.” And so I had: I slowed, I reflected, I observed, I learned and I grew. And I realized that they had, too. My eyes scanned the room one last time, then I switched off the lights and walked away, their voices echoing still. Works Cited Korth, Sharon J. “A Précis of Ignatian Pedagogy: A Practical Approach.” Traub 280-284. Malloy, Richard G., SJ. “Liberating Students—From Paris Hilton, Howard Stern, and Jim Beam.” Traub 299-310. Palmer, Parker J. “The Heart of a Teacher: Identity and Integrity in Teaching.” Traub 311-331. Traub, George W., SJ. “Do You Speak Ignatian? A Glossary of Terms Used in Ignatian and Jesuit Circles.” Traub 390-409. Traub, George W., SJ, ed. A Jesuit Education Reader. Chicago: Loyola Press, 2008. Class Online Journal Excerpts “I have no idea what’s going on in my life. I have no idea what I’m meant to do, who I’m meant to be with, or where I’m supposed to go. Every time I have to think about my future, or how I’m going to make my life significant, I feel like I’m going to puke. Everything in my stomach seems to vanish and I shiver at the emptiness. I’m a planner by nature—lists are my best friends, and weekly organizers are practically family. I like to know what I need to do in order to accomplish my goals, and I like to know what it is I’m working towards. The uncertainty of my future kills me. What I would give for someone to give me no choice in a career—just pick one and let me simply achieve it. Seriously, I appreciate the sentiment, letting us create our own futures and all, but it is honestly a nightmare that I experience every day.” “After only five, short months of my college career, I have witnessed many of my peers turn to drinking as a means to mask themselves from the things that haunt their minds. From failed tests, unexpected pregnancies, dealing with the grief of losing a loved one, nasty breakups, and a myriad of other reasons, I have watched as many of my friends have attempted to ‘drink away their sor80


rows.’ While they are sometimes successful in distorting their reality for a single night and forgetting about their current problems at hand, reality always comes crashing back the next morning. These nights of drunken distortions often only add to one’s problem due to the poor decisions that are commonly made while one is intoxicated. While this method of forgetting the burdens of life may work for a few hours, it is nothing more than temporary.” “My greatest fear is being alone. I do not know why. I have just always been around people who I can relate to, or who know and love me. When I came to Xavier, I did not feel the Xavier spirit or love for my school. I felt alone, misunderstood, and a whole list of other emotions that have made me feel like an outcast here. I do not party much, I do not drink or smoke, so I am left out of a lot of things people do on the weekend. I am a natural science major so I am always studying and do not really have the freedom to go out and just chill. ...Therefore, I sit alone in my room. I sit alone not because I choose to, but because I have to.” “Sex? This is how the Facebook conversation started. I had been in this guy’s...class last semester and we were still friends and talked every once in awhile. After I read ‘sex?’ I just blew it off. I mean, I thought it was a joke. The way people talk about sex all the time and the innuendos, I just assumed it would be. So we went on with the conversation. A little later, however, he says that I didn’t answer his question. ‘What question?’ I asked perplexed, not realizing what he was talking about. ‘Do you want to have sex with me?’ My mouth literally almost dropped to the floor, I was so shocked. Who asks a question like that, and over Facebook? Really?” “I know that at times consistency can be a good thing, but I’m afraid that I will never be open to change because I am just not that used to it…. I’m not saying that I am going to go out and get a tattoo, drop out of college, and do something I plan on regretting later, but I would like to mix it up a bit. If anybody has any suggestions on how to do so, please let me know because it honestly feels like I am just sleepwalking through my own life. These are supposed to be the best years of my life and it is almost as if I am just going through the motions of college. I am doing what I think I should be doing, wearing what I think I should be wearing, and hanging out with whom I think I should be hanging out with. Like Sam said in his last journal, he is comfortably numb. Well, I think I have reached that point.” “Our class discussion on Wednesday revolved mainly around the idea that violence in video games, on television, in music and in movies can have a negative effect on young viewers. Recently, some friends and I had a late night discussion on porn and other adult sexual content available in our society today. Weird, I know, but it’s made me think a lot about all of the material that can seriously affect a child’s mindset and development. ...We reprimanded our society for the amount of violence we convey through the media, but we completely overlooked the extensive sexuality our siblings, cousins, and kids see today. How will that affect our society? How is the media going to change the world our kids will live in? Will they illustrate the effects of an oversexed society in years to come? In class, we concluded that violence was not a bad thing for our kids to see, with moderation and guidance. Can we say the same about sex?” “For the past few months, the girls’ bathrooms . . . have had “What’s Your Secret?” posters up in the stalls, where anyone and everyone can write anything and everything. Now, granted, the anonymity factor meant that people got carried away with what they wrote . . . but the whole thing really showed me that people aren’t just doing whatever the hell they want without any second thoughts, whether they be of regret or of pride. My hall filled up almost three sheets of blank poster paper with their thoughts on whether what they were currently doing with their lives was making them happy. In a hall of Jesus freaks, partiers and everything in between, we all shared some common concerns.” “Since when does going out to a party always entail drinking? Can’t college kids go out and not drink? My friends and I usually end up concluding that it won’t be that fun to go out if you don’t drink—no one wants to be the babysitter of all the other drunk friends, and no one wants to be the quiet sober girl in the corner.” “All of these musings really make me think that a lot of our worries as college students come down to the fact that we have a lack of respect for each other . . . . It really is crazy to think just how much sex and drinking and all of these roles and stereotypes play a part in our everyday lives, whether we’re actually partaking in these activities or not. It really is crazy to think just how polarizing these elements are on our campus. But it’s at least a small good-crazy that many of us are open to talking about them.” “For the first time in as far back as I remember, tonight I stood outside. It was cool, but there was anticipation and opportunity blowing on the breeze. Tonight was one of the first nights that it was warm enough to stand outside, to not need to hurry from building to building, seeking shelter from the icy chill. Tonight at 11:17, I stopped walking and stood still.”

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ENGLISH Studies in Fiction Anne McCarty, MFA Mentor: Trudelle Thomas, PhD (English) For the Ignatian Mentoring program, Trudelle Thomas and I taught a Studies in Fiction (124) class concurrently during the spring semester of 2008. Previously, in the fall, Trudelle introduced me to many Jesuit concepts. The ideas that we felt most drawn to and inspired by included: “Discernment;” decision making based on the rational and the emotional; “Cura Personalis,” educating the whole student; “Mysterium tremendum,” a sense of wonder and exploration. It was incredibly freeing to know that discussions I’d been having in class, ones a part of me considered tangential, were actually central to the work, and mission, of a professor at a Jesuit institution. Now, when spiritual or personal issues arise in class, I feel more empowered to engage these subjects and have a more complete vocabulary to approach these subjects. For the spring semester, we chose several stories and a novel to teach in both our classes. Our focus was to include moral and ethical issues within the intellectual and academic discussion. Below are several examples of questions we would pose either as part of the discussion or as a writing prompt, or a combination of the two. I would ask students: “Now that we have looked at the author’s views on this issue, what are your views?” Two stories that work particularly well in this context are the first two on this list. For example, Hawthorne’s character Young Goodman Brown has seen what he thinks to be evidence of the prevalence of evil in the world. This story easily relates to our current experience of seeing so much suffering and cruelty, often via the media. Though we may sympathize with Brown’s despair and lack of faith in humanity, is it the right choice for him to completely isolate himself? This story allows us to ask why Brown believes bad news so readily. Even though Brown initially rejects to join the devil’s cult, he ends up believing everything the devil says. Because the devil makes believing in goodness equivalent to being foolish and naive, Brown believes that sin is prevalent and the devil is omnipotent. The devil has won by convincing Brown that to take action against wrongdoing is futile. TEXT: “YOUNG GOODMAN BROWN” BY NATHANIEL HAWTHORNE Was Goodman Brown right to turn away from humanity? Is that our only choice in world in which evil exists? Although Goodman Brown does not join the devil’s cult, does he believe that the devil tells him? While Young Goodman Brown may despair, should he give up faith? Why was Brown so curious about sin even when he seems so pious? Once he has knowledge of evil, does he have some responsibility to fight against it? How does he handle this responsibility? TEXT: “A TELL-TALE HEART” BY EDGAR ALLAN POE Why does the narrator kill the old man, even though he claims to love him? What else is he trying to kill by killing the old man? What happens when he realizes no one can rid themselves of old age, death, and morality? How does he truly feel about living in a world void of any limits, rules, or morals? TEXT: “CASK OF AMONTILLADO” BY EDGAR ALLAN POE What happens to a character who tries to live entirely without morality, one who bases his sense of justice on pride and revenge? Although Montresor tries to act as if his murder of Fortunato is a victory over his enemy, what is Poe saying about the nature of violence? Is Montresor ever truly free of his victim? Do even seemingly amoral characters have some morality?

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TEXT: “THE YELLOW WALLPAPER” BY CHARLOTTE PERKINS GILMAN Do people have a right to control each other, even when they feel it is in the person’s best interest? When is it a moral act to determine one’s own course in life? Who controls your life? Does Jane ever contribute to her own powerless position, her own “institutionalization”? How does she try and assert her own will? TEXT: AS I LAY DYING BY WILLIAM FAULKNER Why does Addie feel that there is no purpose to life? While her life offers them no meaning, her death forces her children to face the mystery of existence alone. Without any religious, spiritual, or emotional framework, these characters are in a void. What are they missing that would help them to grieve and make sense of death? Who has taught them how live? TEXT: AS I LAY DYING BY WILLIAM FAULKNER How do Dewey Dell and Darl lose their identities even before they’ve started to form them? Why are they so afraid of human connection? What happens to characters who focus so intently on their individuality, freedom and pride? What kind of effect does their isolation have on them? TEXT: SONG OF SOLOMON BY TONI MORRISON This novel is full of historical and literary allusions, from African-American folklore to Greek myths to fairytales. When Milkman is ignorant of the past, he has no hope for or interest in the future. These characters, while trying to form their own life stories, are informed by both the factual past and its fictional stories. What stories were you told as a child, either fiction or nonfiction? What kinds of moral, spiritual, cultural meaning does storytelling convey? In a literate society, does oral storytelling still have a role to play? This last example I hope to turn into a larger assignment in subsequent semesters. Once, after class, a student told me his version of Brer Rabbit and Tar Baby. He felt the best line had been left out of the telling of the story. “Do you remember,” he said, “what Tar Baby said to the fox? ‘And Tar Baby, he didn’t say nothin’.’” While it’s great to talk about oral versus literate societies, it would be even better to have students to share their own oral heritage and see how it may have informed their own ethics and worldviews. Another idea I hope to use in the future would include reading Ursula K. Le Guin’s “The Ones Who Walk Away from Omelas.” In this story, a sacrificial child is imprisoned so that others may live a utopian life. We could consider current situations this story might parallel, for instance, modern slavery. We could incorporate readings and do some of our own research on a topic of the students’ choosing. My discussions with Trudelle about teaching literature also led to ways we could incorporate Jesuit concepts into our writing courses. Some of our ideas focused on vocation. A writing assignment in a 101 English Composition or a 115 Rhetoric course could consist of research about the vocations of others and an exploration of their hopes for their own life’s work. The Ignatian process of discernment, which includes the intellect as well as emotions and desires, could provide an initial framework. Although my writing courses previously have included other types of writing besides the academic, I now view these kinds of assignments as a way to educate and care for the student as a whole person. The best part of the mentoring program is seeing the thoughtful and enthusiastic responses from students to these kinds of discussions: like every human being, they want to explore the big questions. I have always read, in part, to find answers about life, and I need to remember that many of my students are doing the same. Before the mentoring program, it didn’t always occur to me to tell students why I read. By including more into our discussions about the value of literature beyond the intellectual, I involve more of myself in my teaching. I hope I am involving more of the student.

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ENGLISH English Senior Seminar: The Early Modern Idea of Work Kara Northway, PhD Mentor: Sarah Melcher, PhD (Theology) Course Information According to Communal Reflection on the Jesuit Mission in Higher Education: A Way of Proceeding (Jesuit Conference, 2002), the first characteristic of Jesuit Higher Education is “Dedication to Human Dignity from a Catholic/Jesuit Faith perspective” (4). Pope John Paul II identified the source and expansion of human dignity as work. In On Human Work, he wrote, “Work is at the center of the social question, the key to making life more human.” My English 499 Senior Seminar, subtitled “The Early Modern Idea of Work,” sought to explore the ways in which many of our current attitudes toward work and workers were shaped by the drama and culture of the Renaissance, especially that of Shakespeare and his contemporaries. Goals for the Mission-Driven Teaching Component 1. Upon reflection and extensive discussion with my mentor, added to the coursework for the semester was a section on “holy work.” This included readings from the early English Jesuit Edmund Campion, biblical passages from the Geneva Bible concern ing work (such as from Genesis and also the parable of the talents), and a play by the leading playwright (and teacher) among the English Jesuits, Joseph Simons (1594-1671). As we read, the goal was for students to recognize that the Renaissance used its literature to explore and shape new attitudes toward work. Students came to understand that while the ancients had con ceived of work as punishment, Renaissance artists saw work as contributing to the greater glory of God. Thus, students were invited to find God in all things by considering the spirituality of work, the ways in which humans share in the activity of their God. 2.

The course included several readings and discussions of the labor of those who were marginalized during the Renaissance, such as women, servants, slaves, and the jobless. Through these readings, my goal was to raise awareness and stimulate reflection about the lack of social justice in the modern working conditions of others both in the United States and abroad. Father Kolvenbach echoes his Santa Clara lecture when he speaks at Spring Hill in 2004 about the need to educate the whole person of solidarity: “to provide an education for the common good of the global human community. If students in fact allow the stark reality of this world to enter into their lives, so they can learn to feel it, think about it critically, respond to its suffering and engage it constructively, they will become men and women for others.” Some of this “stark reality” includes “human rights” and the unemployed, according to Joseph Daoust, S.J. in “Of Kingfishers and Dragonflies: Faith and Justice at the Core of Jesuit Education” (18). This focus on solidarity leads to action, according to the Jesuits: “Solidarity also means a commitment to change the economic, political, and social structures that enslave, dehumanize, and destroy human life and dignity” (Communal Reflection 8).

3.

Ultimately, through reading and extensive discussion about the work of others from so many perspectives, my goal was to help students gain a concept for themselves of work as vocation, or the idea that God invites individuals to a certain lifework. Because all of the students were in the second semester of their senior year, the discussions about work in this class could re mind them of the importance of choosing a post-graduation job that would allow them to be men and women for others. A passage from the 2004 article “Whatever! Is Not Ignatian Indifference: Jesuits and the Ministry to Young Adults,” from Studies in the Spirituality of Jesuits, by David E. Nantais, S.J., was particularly influential in helping me understand why incorporating the mission into the college classroom is so important. Father Nantais speaks of the significance of teachers’ efforts at connecting their students’ faith with their choice of career. . . . All Jesuit schools should invite their students to reflect on their future profession as a calling rather than as a mere means to accumulate material goods. We should also not assume that students at Jesuit schools understand what “men and women for others” means. . . . A Jesuit education is not just for self-improvement, but also rather to prepare young adults to direct their hearts and minds to improving the condition of the world. During a time when young adults are grappling for some sense of meaning in their lives, highlighting the mission aspect of their education may be exactly what they need to get excited about their future. Young adults want to know that their future lives are going to mean something and . . . they are passionate about helping their fellow human beings. They need some help discerning how they can funnel that passion for service to their profession, so that they can see the connection. (34-35)

This description of what students need from their Jesuit education can be found in Father Kolvenbach’s idea in his Spring Hill lecture of the “education of the heart”: “A more complete education will invite us to a more genuine success: recognizing that the love of God calls us to use these gifts to create a world in which all may find a home and be participants in the human community.”

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Overall, then, these goals for the mission-driven component in English 499 sought to solidify the goals we have for all of our graduates, outlined in the 2003 Xavier Jesuit Education and Ignatian Pedagogy: A Desktop Primer: to “be morally sensitive to the needs of our times,” to “Be committed to a faith that does justice,” and to “Have a sense of moral responsibility in career choice.” Not only was the incorporation of the component rewarding for me as a teacher as I watched my students engage with new ideas and with themselves, but it also enriched my research. I plan to use the component when I teach the course again. Below are student comments on vocation the first day of class, a copy of a mission-driven assignment on vocation, and student responses to this assignment at the end of the semester. Seniors’ comments from the first day of class “I have no clue what is next for me once I graduate. I’m trying to decide what I’d like to do as far as a career goes.” “I have no idea what is next to be honest—I am in the process of applying to law schools.” “I plan to attend law school after I graduate.” “I will be here next semester to finish. After that... ?” “I am taking a break from school for awhile to work and travel.” “The next step for me is hopefully teaching high school English.” “After graduation I am taking a year before going into grad school or picking/starting my career.” “What’s next: I’m interning this semester with Thomson Learning, hoping that if I like it, that might lead to something later on. If not, I have no idea.” MISSION-COMPONENT ASSIGNMENT English 499: Reading Response #4 In our discussion of the writings of English Renaissance playwright Joseph Simons, S.J., we found that the subject of Jesuit “holy work,” such as a school play, does not have to be holy. The artist creates his work with conscious recognition of God’s inspiriting grace and prays that his work will reflect the glory of God. Thus, the promotion of Christian ideals in Jesuit drama was secondary. What, then, do you think Simons thought was most important for his students to gain from participation in his plays—in other words, how would reciting lines in Latin from a play help students fulfill their vocation? In order to answer this question, you might reflect on your own Jesuit education. How has your Jesuit education prepared you to realize your vocation? In class we read the version of the parable of talents in Matthew that Simons would have read. Do you have a sense of your “talents” that you did not possess before college? What are they? What particular talents or gifts has Xavier helped you develop that you will use in the future? One of the goals for Xavier graduates is that “A Xavier Graduate at the time of graduation should be able to have a sense of moral responsibility in career choice and be a contributing member of society.” How will you direct your heart and mind to improving the condition of the world? How will you funnel your education and passion for service into your profession? In what ways will your future profession be a calling rather than a mere means to accumulate material goods? What are you excited about in your future? Xavier Student Reflections “For Joseph Simons, S.J., and other Jesuit playwrights of the Renaissance, I would imagine that one of the most important things they felt for students to learn from performing and studying plays would be an understanding of a world bigger than one’s own. . . . I answer this question this way because I feel that is what my own Jesuit education has been about, studying what it is to be human, and what it is to live in a place full of other humans, and trying to pay attention to humans from the past in order to create better lives for humans of the future. The ‘talents’ that I have gained in my study of humanity are an ability to critically read, understand, analyze, and deliberate over moral questions presented in literature or current situations, an understanding of the world at the present moment and its history that helps me to relate to other humans and want to work to solve their problems, and a sense of responsibility as an educated young person to do something greater in a world so full of troubles. Xavier has taught me about being a person ‘for others’ because there is no other way to be. . . . A gift that I possessed before college that Xavier has helped me develop is my talent for writing and my ability to communicate with others. It is only through others’ ability to communicate with me that I am able to learn; it is only through others’ ability to share their own human experiences that I am able to reflect on my experience with a larger perspective. ...Because of the writing and communication that has been shared with me, I have been able to learn about people’s lives in the Renaissance, in the 18th cen85


tury, in the Great Depression, in Haiti, in South Africa, in Spain, in Uzbekistan, people in many times and places that face situations like and unlike my own. But because of one person’s ability to communicate his or her experience to me, I am able to understand my own experience in a new way. . . . I want to write; that is my passion and my way of leaving a mark on human history. Through my writing I want to challenge the world as it has challenged me. ...Writing will be more a calling for me than anything as right now I am not sure I will be able to obtain any material goods through it, but it is the means by which I feel I can make the biggest impact on the world. ...In the spirit of Joseph Simons and the first Jesuits, my education at Xavier has prepared me to become an artist who creates in order to reflect the glory of life and human existence that I am inspired by and also to expose the truths, both bitter and beautiful, of our world.”—Jess “What has a Jesuit education not brought alive in me? ...Thanks to the Jesuits’ emphasis on art and music, my talent has been respected and shaped by professors both inside and out of the music department. But do I want to devote my life to singing? Will singing as a profession allow me to still serve the community, or will I fall victim to the ‘diva syndrome’ and perform only to flaunt my talent and make money? ...I was so happy when the benefit concert that I and a fellow music major produced and sang in last semester was a hit; we raised over $500 for hurricane victims. I realized then that while singing takes a lot of personal commitment and time focusing on the self and the voice, that self-training is necessary so that the talent can be its best when shared to help others.”—Margaret “In my experience at Xavier, I have noticed an extreme emphasis on exploration and discovery of ideas for oneself, which I feel is another important aspect that will aid me in my future. In any career, this skill for delving deeper will be an asset. Learning is so highly esteemed for its own sake at Xavier, and this habit is an admirable trait in any employee. Creativity to think outside the box is encouraged. ...”—Amanda “While at Xavier, I have discovered that I have an excellent grasp on language. Like James Joyce’s Stephen Dedalus, I have discovered that serving God isn’t just for priests, but for each of us. ...I learned that I am called to serve God through language. I have discovered that if God has called me to a vocation, to be one of His ‘men for others,’ he definitely requires me to teach—one of the most obvious, yet greatest ways to serve others. I will teach English to the next generation of learners in the hope that they too will undergo the same searching process that I underwent—discovering what they excel at and what they don’t so they too can know how to best serve God.”—Paul “My own Jesuit education has allowed me to develop my talents for writing, speech, and critical analysis of historical and literary works. It has also given me a fuller knowledge of the scope of social injustice and inequity in the past and present. Thus, it has forced me to appreciate the relatively privileged position in the world that I’ve been given.”—Mike “Just like Simons felt that it was extremely important for his students to repeat Latin, a talent some individuals felt was useless, Xavier University continues to expound the glories of the Jesuit ‘core’ curriculum. Based on the idea of a well-rounded education, Xavier’s core focuses greatly on the liberal arts and, especially unusual in the modern university setting, a focus on theology and philosophy. ...Their focus is on simply on giving students a classic, well-rounded education—no matter how antiquated and hated the subjects may be. And this, simply, is the reason I appreciate my Jesuit education. Other universities that allow students free rein over their curriculum, and only require a few classes in English or math, are, in my opinion, giving students a sub-par education. Why would I want to take Bowling 101 when I could read Plato’s Republic? No, I did not enjoy the reading during my philosophy classes, but I know that I have learned much more in these classes than I would ever gain in a physical education class.”—Rebecca “I found that my involvement in Campus Ministry most helped me find my talents. I participated in Alternative Breaks my sophomore year, and found that fulfilling and eye-opening. From that experience, I discovered that I am an excellent listener, and most of the time that is what’s most important. It’s difficult to let someone else talk without interrupting them with the insights you think will help them. ...I learned from a friend my sophomore year that it is possible to receive work study from the university while tutoring elementary school children in the daytime who are struggling with reading. I was hired at Burton Elementary. ...Experiences like this one at Burton have helped me decide that I would like to become a teacher. I will soon be receiving my degree in English from Xavier, but for me, English is a way to get inside the lives of students. Yes, I enjoy literature, and sometimes I even feel passionate about it, but my opportunities for service and interaction outside of the classroom are what have ultimately allowed me to discern my best gifts.”—Kelsey Acknowledgements Special thanks for their guidance to Dr. Sarah Melcher, Dr. Debra K. Mooney, and Gilbert D. Sweeney, S.J.

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ENGLISH Sex, Solitude, and Single Life Trudelle Thomas, PhD Discernment is an Ignatian concept that I continue to find enormously helpful in my teaching. This concept surfaced in a surprising way Spring of 2009 in a new course I taught called “Women of the World.” This is a course for upper-level English majors, some of whom are preparing to be secondary English teachers. For this we read six books (mostly novels) from six different continents (listed below). Novels portrayed women’s lives in cultures very different from America, including the UK, Zimbabwe, Afghanistan, Haiti, India, and Poland. Sexual ethics emerged as a central theme in these works. Students encountered new cultural attitudes and behaviors in regard to how women prepare for marriage, the age at which they marry, women without men, and gender roles and sexuality within marriage. Arranged marriages and polygamy also came up, as well as a range of attitudes toward sexual behavior before marriage for both men and women. Students were especially interested in the topic of sexual behavior outside of marriage. The freedom to be single (not married, not “in a relationship”) and the freedom to defer sexual activity were two themes that elicited strong student response. (I should mention that the class was made up of 15 females and four males; the females were more vocal on these topics. Most were juniors, seniors, or graduate students between age 20 to 30.) Early in the semester we read Virginia Woolf’s classic extended essay, A Room of One’s Own. Woolf expounds upon the importance of privacy, economic freedom, and education as prerequisites for artistic and psychological freedom. Woolf makes a strong case for the value of solitude. Women artists—perhaps all human beings—need solitude, privacy, and freedom from distraction in order to thrive. A “room of one’s own” is a metaphor for a sense of self that is distinct and independent from social expectations. I suggested that solitude and privacy are essential to personhood. On some level, every person must embrace existential aloneness, not run from it. Later, we discussed five different novels. In each case, we focused on the various characters and what their behaviors reveal about the human condition. Topics raised in Woolf’s essay came up repeatedly. Students were interested in applying the themes in the novels to their own lives as young adults in 2009. As a professor, I was surprised to hear students express the value of being ALONE and not connected to another person sexually. We talked about cultural practices surrounding marriage that were originally intended to protect young women, such as bride prices (wherein the groom’s family pays a bride’s family in recognition of her upbringing), dowry (wherein a bride’s family sends assets with a bride when she marries), and arranged marriages (meant to benefit both bride and groom and their families), and the fact that these practices were twisted and used to exploit women. A value on female virginity was meant to protect a young woman from sexual exploitation but often led to overemphasis on virginity, rather than on her whole person. One important novel that we discussed was Breath, Eyes, Memory (1998) by Edwidge Danticat; it deals with the long-term effects of sexual assault. Martine, a main character, is raped by a soldier as a young teen and conceives a child named she names Sophie. When Sophie reaches adolescence, Martine becomes fixated on preserving Sophie’s virginity, even to the point of harshly “testing” her, roughly inspecting her hymen every week to assure it is still intact. Such “testing” humiliates Sophie and causes her to run away from home at 18 and later elope. We also discussed Erzulie Freida, a virgin-goddess who appears in the novel as an object of devotion and source of comfort. Breath, Eyes, Memory portrays a cult of female virginity in which an intact hymen is may be a ticket out of poverty; if a woman is a virgin, she may be able to “marry up.” Even women who have themselves been hurt by this very narrow view of virginity continue to impose it on their daughters. Martine was “tested” as a young woman; when rape ruined her chances for a good marriage, she became all the more intent on preserving her daughter’s virginity. Our discussion of this novel took a turn that was the opposite of what I expected. While no one expressed a desire to return to a double standard or to impose sexual “purity” on women as a precondition for marrying well, students expressed sadness that young women today feel tremendous pressure to become sexually active in their mid-teens and remain sexually active through adulthood, whether they want to or not. Students reported feeling very strong pressure from the media and peers to be sexually active—and said that their younger siblings were even more vulnerable to such pressure. By the college years, it is widely assumed that “virginity” or limited sexual experience is a stigma, for both women and men. When I asked about the abstinence campaigns in high schools, one student explained, “We hear lots about abstinence in Catholic high schools but nobody adequately explains the value of abstinence to the girl herself. We’re just told, ‘Don’t have sex or you’ll get pregnant or get an STD’ or ‘Any sex outside marriage is a sin’ but no one explains how abstinence might benefit her personally.” Another student seemed to reflect the views of many in the class when she said, “Abstinence is presented in very ‘all-or-nothing’ terms. It’s assumed 87


that you have should avoid all sexual activity until you’re married. This is completely unrealistic, so we ridicule the whole idea. But girls still need guidance!” We noticed that some of the novels included fables or wisdom tales that addressed sexual relationships. For example, in another novel, ZenZele, a mother (in Zimbabwe) tells her daughter, “You will fall in love with two different kinds of men—one will make your hands tremble, and another will make your hands steady. The second one makes a better husband.” Deciding who makes a good lover, who makes a good husband, and the possible pitfalls of sexual relationships—these issues elicited lively discussion. As I reflected on our class discussion, I was struck by the huge changes in sexual attitudes that have occurred in the past fifty years. In their grandmothers’ generation (in the 1950s) women were expected to remain virgins till marriage or at least engaged. By the late sixties and seventies, many women in their mothers’ (and my) generation pushed for greater openness around sexuality, more freedom to experiment, and the elimination of the double standard. This hard-won liberation was intended to free young women to develop a greater sense of self and wider opportunities. Yet here were many students saying they lacked the freedom to postpone sexual involvement within a relationship, or to even date more than one person (without being considered a cheater or slut), or to simply be single and unattached without being considered a loser. When I recalled discussion about sexual ethics at my own Jesuit university, I noticed a very strong emphasis on larger issues of social justice (like reducing violence against women, or eliminating the double standard) but little personal sexual ethics. Anecdotally, students have often said that no adults talk about sex but some students have sex indiscriminately (“screw till you’re blue”) often aided by alcohol. This is especially prevalent among first year students. I should mention that I benefited from discussions on this topic with my mentee, Kelly Austin, a practicing member of the church of Latter Day Saints (LDS, Mormon) who graduated from Brigham Young University, where students receive very clear guidance about abstaining from premarital sex. As women of two different generations and from two different backgrounds (Mormon and United Methodist), we brought differing attitudes and experiences to this topic. Such discussions impressed me with the need for more frequent (and OPEN) conversations and guidance about personal sexual ethics. While it is important to talk about big issues such as sexual assault and pornography (which have been subjects of public debate on our campus), there also needs to be more discussion of how to conduct oneself sexually with integrity. I plan to foreground issues of sexual behavior among the unmarried when I teach this class again, and I think the best way to do this is to focus on the positive values that come from practicing restraint, and the value of solitude and singlehood to personal development. Students need to understand that sexual freedom includes the freedom to say no as well as to say yes. I put together the following handout to give students a framework for thinking about sexual ethics in a more nuanced way. The freedom to be single and unattached seems especially valuable for young women who are completing their education and launching their work-lives; intense relationships too often distract them from their own development. The freedom to postpone sexual activity and to make considered choices around sexual activity also seems important for women at any age. When I teach this course again, I plan to address these issues more directly in an assigned paper. I need to gain more knowledge in regard to Catholic social teaching around sexuality, as well as the vocation of “blessed singlehood” (whether for a period of years or a lifetime). But what I plan to make more central is the practice of DISCERNMENT in potentially sexual relationships: What are the kinds of questions that a person should consider before becoming emotionally involved? How do you know if a relationship is enhancing or damaging? What kinds of self-development are important before entering a partnership? How do these play out in among different sexual subcultures? Drawing on several sources, I offered six reasons for sexual restraint (see below). I also plan to introduce the idea of choosing single life—avoiding all sexual involvement in order to focus on personal development, spiritual growth, and service. I will also address how these concerns play out among both heterosexuals and sexual minorities. The novel Breath, Eyes, Memory will allow us to explore in greater detail the concepts of sexual “purity”, integrity, self-determination, and chosen fidelity as alternatives to the cult of virginity. (What metaphors do these terms imply in regard to sexual activity? Historically, how do they apply to both men and women?) In addition to a greater emphasis on practicing discernment in relationships, I think students need guidance around these matters, even if they choose to ignore it. It is important to say that I will not be didactic, rather offer talking points for discussion. Tradition, Christian scripture, and inherited wisdom are valuable reference points. Another good assignment would be to have them write their own “wisdom tales” or to cull wisdom tales from other cultures and see which ones are relevant to American college students in 2009. Students already write an oral history in which they interview a woman from a different generation or culture; this will include a greater emphasis on changing sexual mores.

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Works included in this course: Danticat. Breath, Eyes, Memory. (1998). Haiti. Whelan. Homeless Bird. (2000). India. Housseini. A Thousand Splendid Suns. (2007). Afghanistan. Maraire. ZenZele: A Letter for My Daughter. (1997). Zimbabwe. Woolf. A Room of One’s Own. UK. Yolen. Briar Rose. (1992). Poland during Holocaust. ENGL 330 Women of the World: Sexual Integrity Kerr, Barbara - Smart Girls, Gifted Women. 1987. Has a couple sequels (Smart Girls 2, etc.). This is a classic work on “gifted” females. Kerr found that young women with some sort of protective barrier—isolation or homeliness or something that shielded them from dating/men till after they had developed a strong sense of self and completed their education--were much more likely to realize their potential as adults. Otherwise, girls identified as gifted simply fall out of the game of educational and professional advancement. Grossman, Miriam. Unprotected: A Campus Psychiatrist Reveals How Political Correctness in her Profession Endangers Every Student. 2006. Based on her work counseling college women about depression, eating disorders, and sexual trauma, the author challenges the assumption that women can be involved in casual sex without serious REPERCUSSIONS. She offers many accounts of how young women lose their way by trying to adapt to “friends with benefits”. The author suggests that instead of paying attention to their own needs, they are simply adapting to the perceived needs of college-age boys. She calls for college health centers to offer guidance on this topic, saying that casual sex is at least as risky as smoking and poor eating habits and other topics that receive far greater attention. Shalit, Wendy. A Return to Modesty: Discovering the Lost Virtue. 2000. A young Jewish writer, trained as a philosopher, argues in favor of reviving modesty. Women who insist on privacy and control over their own body derive many benefits; she says that modesty-1. Puts women in charge of access to their own bodies. Chastity also implies “completeness in oneself.” 2. Allows women to preserve the beauty of their romantic aspirations ( to be cherished, to find a worthy partner, to find love that will endure in the face of adversity, to seek an admirable father to her future children). 3. Compels men to invest themselves in relationships. 4. Enhances the erotic potential of eventual intimacy. In addition, Kerr and others add: 5. Permits time and mental freedom for women to enjoy schooling, privacy/solitude, friendships (including cross gender friendship) without being preoccupied with a sexual relationship. How about the opportunity to date several different people? 6. Greatly improves the likelihood of lifelong mental health. If a person comes into adulthood without a history of sexual regrets, betrayals, abortions, unexpected pregnancies, STDs, she is far more likely to have a happy and fulfilled life. Sexual integrity can go hand-in hand with other virtues or values, such as: Self-determination – having a say in life choices Self-development – education, travel, freedom without excessive responsibility. Sexual integrity – self-possession, including self-discipline—ability to delay gratification. To think about for an essay 1. Choose particular “cautionary tales” from the works we’ve read that address sexual integrity among young characters. Is virginity (or fidelity) seen as only a negative “virtue”—i.e., a state of avoiding something—rather than choosing something? Is any positive value, beyond male honor [in marrying a virgin and enforcing fidelity on his wife], associated with female chastity? What is gained by restraint? What metaphors do these terms imply in regard to sexual activity? Historically, do they apply to both men and women? 2. If you were to teach specific works we’ve covered to high school or middle school students, what more traditional works would you use as points of comparison? (Romeo and Juliet? Pride and Prejudice?) 3. Discernment implies freedom to make choices. If your generation has new levels of sexual freedom, what might discernment involve for you? What kinds of questions might you ask? What, if any, guidance do you need from adults in your life?

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ENGLISH Literature & the Moral Imagination English Senior Seminar Stephen Yandell, PhD Mentor: Gillian Ahlgren, PhD (Theology) From Manresa to Oxford: Identifying the Ignatian Vision in Twentieth-Century British Literature The Ignatian Mentoring Program gave me the opportunity in fall 2004 to get to know an amazing colleague and new friend, Gillian Ahlgren. In addition to discussing Ignatian spirituality, Jesuit education, and effective pedagogy throughout the year, I used our time reading two useful Ignatian texts, Inner Compass and Teaching as an Act of Faith. From these discussions and readings I chose to make modifications to both of the literature courses I would be teaching in spring 2005: Literature and the Moral Imagination (“Longing and Obsession”) and Senior Seminar (“The Inklings”). My Literature and Moral Imagination course was designed to introduce students to a range of literary texts, mostly novels and short fiction, that focus specifically on longing and desire as distinctly human, and sometimes conflicting, traits: Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde by Robert Louis Stevenson, Equus by Peter Shaffer, In Cold Blood by Truman Capote, Sula by Toni Morrison, and Till We Have Faces by C. S. Lewis. In the Senior Seminar we read works from a group of medievalists writing in Oxford in the 1930s and 40s known as the Inklings. Although this writing group provided C.S. Lewis, J.R.R. Tolkien, Charles Williams, and Owen Barfield with a forum for debate between very different thinkers, their collective writings, we learned, represent a world view that uniquely combines medievalism, literature, and theology. My changes to the courses took three main forms. First, before the semester began I made changes to the reading lists. For the Literature and the Moral Imagination class I included C. S. Lewis’s theological novel Till We Have Faces, and instead of having the Seminar students read only literary criticism and fiction, I included some theological pieces, including Lewis’ The Abolition of Man and The Screwtape Letters. Before my discussions with Gillian, this was something I was unsure of how to do. Second, in order to encourage thoughtful exploration of these new texts, I decided to have the students write more regular response papers. In a setting where lower points were at stake for their ideas, students were free to explore the spirituality suggested by the texts. This allowed us to move into deeper discussions of all the texts, and also increased the likelihood of students incorporating some of the theological texts in their final project. After introducing basic tenets of the Ignatian Vision early in the semester, I also had students write a specific short essay at the end of the semester asking them to identify connections between the texts and the Ignatian ideas. Without this breadth of writing for the students, they might have been tempted to stay in the areas they were most comfortable with: literary texts and literary criticism. Third, for the Senior Seminar final project I encouraged students to use the response papers as a way of building toward their final essays, and to bring in outside sources beyond the four main authors in the course. Final questions to consider for the final project, for example, included not simply “What shaped Tolkien’s writings?”, but “How might one synthesize Tolkien’s catholic perspective with other English authors writing at the time—authors who think in radically different ways than any of the Inklings?” What follows is the handout I created to help synthesize for the students the key points I had been learning about Ignatian spirituality. Taking the time to create this handout was, in many ways, the most valuable task of the entire semester for me.

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“WHAT DO WE MEAN BY THE IGNATIAN VISION?” IT’S A WAY OF KNOWING GOD A. Ignatian Theology 1. Sees life and the whole universe as a gift calling forth wonder and gratefulness. 2. Gives ample scope to imagination and emotion as well as intellect. 3. Seeks to find the divine in all things—in all peoples and cultures, in all areas of study and learning, in every human experience (and for the Christian especially in the person of Jesus). 4. Cultivates critical awareness of personal and social evil, but points to God’s love as more powerful than any evil. 5. Stresses freedom, need for discernment, and responsible action. 6. Empowers people to become leaders in service, “men and women for others,” “whole persons of solidarity,” “building a more just and humane world.” IT’S A WAY OF KNOWING THE WORLD B. Ignatian Teaching 1. Dedication to human dignity from a Jesuit faith perspective. 2. Reverence for, and an ongoing reflection on, human experience. 3. Creative companionship with colleagues. 4. Focused care for students. 5. Well-educated Justice and solidarity. IT’S A WAY OF KNOWING OURSELVES C. Ignatian Learning Building the habit (a process) of discernment: 1. Being attentive; conscious learning begins by choosing to pay attention to our experience. Through close attention we learn to find God in all things. 2. Being reflective; reflection is the way we discover and compose the meaning of our experience. Reflection is a kind of reality testing. 3. Being loving; love calls us to consider our relationship to the world and to ask “how are we going to act in this world?” and “what does the world need us to do?” Love shows itself more by deed than by words and consists in communication. We are potentially in love with the whole world. Compiled from the following resources: “Living the Mission of the University,” Ignatian Programs, Xavier University. “Communal Reflection on the Jesuit Mission in Higher Education,” the Jesuit Conference Board. “A Pocket Guide to Jesuit Education,” Ignatian Programs, Boston College.

Here, then, are the writing assignment sheets that asked students to respond to one of our texts specifically in terms of a key Jesuit idea: 205— Literature and the Moral Imagination; Longing and Obsession Yandell Lewis, Schaffer and the Ignatian spirit—a short writing exercise Choose one feature of the Ignatian vision from your Ignatian handout; there are fourteen key features identified (A. 1-6, B. 1-5, C. 1-3). For Wednesday, March 16, you will turn in a typed, two-paragraph discussion (about one page) in which you discuss this one aspect of Ignatian beliefs in relation to the two authors we are currently studying, Peter Shaffer and C. S. Lewis. In the first paragraph you will make a claim about where Shaffer seems to agree and disagree with this belief in Equus; and in the second, how Lewis appears to agree and disagree with it in Till We Have Faces. Choosing one of these beliefs carefully will yield a more effective essay.

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This short writing piece will be graded according to the same five criteria we have used for your longer essays: strong, well-shaped analysis, effective organization, clear writing style, useful textual support, and technical clarity. 499— English Senior Seminar: Oxford’s Inklings Yandell Situating the Ignatian Vision Among the Inklings’ Beliefs Select one of the fourteen aspects of the Ignatian vision described in your Ignatian handout (A. 1-6, B. 1-5, C. 1-3). For Friday, April 1 (two weeks from today), you will turn in a typed, one to two-page essay in which you explain how this Jesuit idea is exemplified either 1) in one of the Inkling’s writings (pointing to at least two of his works), or 2) in multiple works by the Inklings (at least two works by two different writers). Although the primary focus of this essay will be showing how two or more of our texts exemplify one of the Jesuit beliefs, you have the option of pushing your discussion slightly further—how does the Jesuit idea presented here seem not to fit exactly with the Inklings? For example, how does Lewis not merely emphasize imagination, emotion, and intellect, but balance them in a unique way? How does Williams’s call for love suggest a radical kind of theology? Does Tolkien suggest an alternate way of understanding “God in all things”? Choosing the belief carefully will help in yielding a more productive essay. An additional way of thinking about this assignment is to select two of the Ignatian claims and describe how they come together in a unique way in one of the Inkling’s writings. This short writing piece will be graded according to the same five criteria we have used for your longer essays: strong, well-shaped analysis, effective organization, clear writing style, useful textual support, and technical clarity. Students met the challenge of this writing assignment in extremely articulate ways, and I present, in conclusion, some of the highlights of their responses: “Ignatian theology states that the divine can be found all around us. The Jesuits teach that a Universal respect for God is a respect for God in all things. Although they did not specifically base their stories on this ideal, both C. S. Lewis and Charles Williams incorporated this idea into their works.” “Throughout his life, Ignatius tended to emphasize the importance of suffering and pain in order to fully realize the human potential and the identity of God and Jesus...Examples of his personal search through suffering can be found in his long journeys he made without shoes after his leg had been nearly destroyed...In Charles Williams...and C. S. Lewis...the Jesuit idea of moving closer to God through suffering is evident.” “Being an Ignatian student requires the ability to build a process of discernment, and an aspect of that discernment is being reflective. ...C. S. Lewis allows his characters in his book Till We Have Faces to be reflective on their experiences and change themselves for the better.” In Equus, Peter Shaffer agrees with the Ignatian fundamental that believes teachers must provide focused care for their students. Shaffer presents Martin as a person who serves others through his work. So, in a way, Martin is teaching Alan how to find meaning in his life.”

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FINANCE Teaching Ethics in the Introductory Finance Course David C. Hyland, PhD Mentors: Bob Ahuja, PhD (Finance), Philip W. Glasgo, DBA (Marketing) Acknowledgements Thanks to the following: the Xavier Jesuit Community for providing funds that helped with this project, mentors Bob Ahuja and Phil Glasgo, Dana Tindall for technological support that made it possible for more student involvement, Paul Fiorelli for organizing the Teaching Business Ethics Seminar in the Summer of 2005 that provided several good ideas, Ed Waldvogel and Dan Quible for speaking to my class, Marianne Jennings for useful resources and Debra Mooney for her encouragement and support. Idea In an era of recent corporate scandals, it may be beneficial for Business Departments to spend more time discussing ethical issues. Students may be confronted with social and individual ethical issues when they are working in a corporate environment. If they have been exposed to situations and discussed the consequences of those situations in a classroom setting, they may be better equipped to handle an ethical situation if it arises. Placing this in the context of Jesuit Education and Pedagogy this project attempts to: 1. Develop responsible citizens who are sensitive to the needs of our times 2. Pay special attention to values, ethical issues and the development of moral character 3. Inspire graduates to change society and the world for the better. Implementation Dr. Philip Glasgo and Dr. David Hyland prepared a hypothetical business case that involved the opportunity for an inexperienced employee to engage in insider trading with a low probability of getting caught. The case study was based on one of Dr. Hyland’s experiences at Owens-Corning Fiberglas. Students read and prepared the case in advance, typed up answers and discussed the case in both Dr. Glasgo and Dr. Hyland’s classes. The discussion focused on the opportunity to make money, the legal consequences of the action, and the individual and social effects of insider trading. Case Synopsis David is a junior accountant at Owens-Corning Fiberglas who discovers he has access to some information about the company that will be announced to the public in the next several days. The announcement is about asbestos liability that could be perceived as bad news which might make the stock price drop drastically. If David acts on this information by selling shares, shorting the stock or providing tips to family members there is a low probability that he will be caught. The students are asked to prepare the following questions in advance:

1. Disregarding legal and ethical issues, what should David do if he wants to take advantage of this information? 2. What is a write-off? 3. What legal implications would David face if he acts on this information? 4. What is the difference between the primary market and the secondary market? Which market would David trade the OwensCorning stock in? 5. What are the societal impacts of insider trading? Does anyone get hurt if David takes advantage of information he should not use? In addition to the ethical component of the case, several other areas of corporate finance are illustrated in the case. These include: • Market Efficiency • Primary Markets vs. Secondary Markets • Security Valuation • Non-cash Accounting Charges

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Technology Often when students prepare a case study for class, only a few are able to contribute to the discussion due to the time available and the number of students in class. For this case Turn It On classroom polling devices were used. A powerpoint presentation was prepared with different questions about the case. Each student had a polling device which is similar to a television remote control. They used the polling devices to answer the questions about the case. After the students registered their vote, the next slide showed the outcome of the student votes. In this way every student had the opportunity to participate in the case without wasting time. Additionally since students did not know how the others were voting until everyone voted they were not pressured into voting one way or the other and could respond honestly. Outcomes The classroom discussion was interesting and the students enjoyed the polling devices that allowed all of them to participate throughout the case. The students provided feedback that indicated that they found the case useful and thought provoking. In the future I would like to use more cases with ethical business situations in my introductory finance courses. Later in the semester I invited Edward N. Waldvogel, CPA (Vice President, Capital Management) from Kroger and Daniel G. Quible, CFP (Senior Vice President) from Gradison McDonald to speak in my class. The topic was “Careers in Finance” and included a panel discussion where the students prepared questions in advance. Several students asked the speakers questions about ethical dilemmas they have faced in the workplace. Both speakers came up with several good examples of ethical situations and how they have dealt with them. I have done this type of session many times over the nine years I have been a professor and this was the first time students asked questions about ethical situations. INSIDER TRADING TEACHING CASE: OWENS-CORNING FIBERGLAS Abstract This case illustrates a situation that could be faced by an employee with access to sensitive information about their company. The case provides information about what insider trading is and the legal ramifications involved. In addition it provides a good setting to discuss the meaning of accounting practices such as write-offs, market efficiency and how investors incorporate knowledge into stock prices. Although the case is set in 1992, the situation is timeless. Owens-Corning went through Chapter 11 in 2000 so stock price information on Owens-Corning is difficult to obtain. Therefore, students do not have easy access to the end result of the case. The case is suitable for undergraduates and graduates. Insider Trading Teaching Case: Owens-Corning Fiberglas It is early February 1992. David is a junior accountant at Owens-Corning Fiberglas, a member of the Fortune 200. He is in his second year of a two-year financial development program which is rotating him through different finance projects before being assigned to a semi-permanent position. During one of his assignments last year he worked with the accounting department that prepared the annual report. As a member of this group he was listed on a company wide “blacklist” which prohibited individuals on the list from buying or selling Owens-Corning stock during certain times of the year such as several weeks before the annual report is published. He is no longer listed on the “blacklist”. David finishes up an assignment and decides to clean up some computer files. While doing so, he realizes that his access to the upcoming annual report information has not been turned off. David is a curious person and decides to read some of the information which will be published in less than one week. While reading the annual report information David learns that Owens-Corning is going to report a net loss of $529 million including a $800 million write-off (non-cash charge) for asbestos liability. Last year Owens-Corning posted a net loss of $33 million which included a restructuring charge of $65 million. In addition David reads a press release which later becomes the news article shown in Table 3. Owens-Corning Background1 Owens-Corning Fiberglas was a joint venture between Owens-Illinois and Corning Glass. The public first began publicly trading in 1952. The principal products were fiberglass insulation, shingles and fiberglass mat used in industrial and consumer applications. One of the company’s products prior to 1972 used asbestos as one of the raw materials. When asbestos was found to cause lung problems such as mesothelioma, asbestosis and cancer, they stopped using it. Although Owens-Corning did not produce a very large percentage of the market share of asbestos, in 1992 it was one of the few asbestos-related companies left in business that had deep enough pockets for lawyers to sue. Some of the following material comes from the Owens-Corning Fiberglas website. www.owenscorning.com (Nov. 2005)

1

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Lawyers would pull up to OCF fiberglass factories with x-ray machines. Anyone with any kind of lung spot (such as life-long smokers) would be added to class action lawsuits. In 1992 Owens-Corning had lost some major lawsuits. Some of them were rather frivolous including a $15 million award to someone because they were afraid of getting cancer. However, others had merit for workers suffering from mesotheliomia, a disease that makes it very difficult to breathe. Insider Trading Rules2 Illegal insider trading occurs when a person trades based on material nonpublic information, which is likely to be important to a reasonable investor. Examples include executives, large shareholders and employees who work on information for the company. The information belongs to the company and its shareholders. The person who obtains the information has a fiduciary duty to the company and its shareholders not to use the information. 1. Some of the following material comes from the Owens-Corning Fiberglas website http://www.owenscorning.com. (November 2005) 2. The following material is from Manley (1990). Firm employees are also prohibited from providing information to a third party who is likely to use that information. If the third party who is provided information knew or should have known that employee was violating a fiduciary duty the third party is also liable for illegal insider trading. Third party members would include family members, friends, etc. Third parties who provide services such as attorneys, tax accountants, and consultants have a duty to not trade or provide tips based on the information they are exposed to during the course of providing services. Courts have ruled that even though companies do not have fiduciary duties to derivative security holders of the stock, it is illegal to use illegally obtained information in trading these types of securities. Examples of Material Non Public Information include: • Pending Acquisition or Divestiture that has not been announced • Major Change in Dividend Policy • A sharp decline or increase in the firm’s projected earnings • Significant unexpected losses by the firm • Significant new products, projects or services to be offered by the firm • Extraordinary Management Changes • Major Contracts • Stock Splits • Major scientific discoveries or inventions • Significant expansion or curtailment of firm activities • Initiation of a lawsuit or major developments in the case • Gain or Loss of Major Contract/Supplier/Customer • Merger with another firm Recent Examples of Insider Trading Penalties Sam Waksal, CEO of Imclone, received a sentence of seven years and 3 months in 2003 for breaking insider trading laws. Waksal was involved in the Martha Stewart case. He was trying to sell his stock in the company before bad news was to be released. Stewart found out that he was selling and decided to get out as well. It is unclear whether Stewart had insider information. She was convicted for obstructing justice and covering up the reasons for her trade. She was sentenced to five months in prison and a fine of $30,000. Under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 persons who violate insider trading rules “are subject to civil penalties of up to three times the illegal profits gained or losses avoided by the insider trading plus criminal penalties. Criminal penalties for individuals may be a fine of as much as $5 million, prison for as long as 20 years—or both. Courts also permit injured private parties to sue for damages.”3 2 3

The following material is from Manley (1990). “Ivancevich, Jones, and Keaveny (2002)

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References Jones, Lucian C. and Thomas Keaveney. December 2002. “Don’t Run the Risk”, Journal of Accountancy http://www.journalofaccountancy.com/Issues/2002/Dec/DonTRunTheRisk Manley, Walter with William A. Shrode. 1990. Critical Issues in Business Conduct: Legal, Ethical and Social Challenges for the 1990s Quorom Books (Wesport, CT). www.owenscorning.com (November 2005) 3

“Ivancevich, Jones, and Keaveny (2002) Table 1 Recent OCF stocks prices and returns

Date 01/02/1992 01/03/1992 01/06/1992 01/07/1992 01/08/1992 01/09/1992 01/10/1992 01/13/1992 01/14/1992 01/15/1992 01/16/1992 01/17/1992 01/20/1992 01/21/1992 01/22/1992 01/23/1992 01/24/1992 01/27/1992 01/28/1992 01/29/1992 01/30/1992 01/31/1992 02/03/1992

Stock Price $23.13 $22.88 $24.00 $24.13 $24.38 $24.63 $24.00 $23.75 $24.00 $24.88 $26.63 $26.00 $26.00 $25.50 $26.00 $24.88 $25.88 $26.63 $26.00 $26.50 $26.25 $26.50 $26.38

Return 3.35% -1.08% 4.92% 0.52% 1.04% 1.03% -2.54% -1.04% 1.05% 3.65% 7.04% -2.35% 0.00% -1.92% 1.96% -4.33% 4.02% 2.90% -2.35% 1.92% -0.94% 0.95% -0.47%

Table 2 Income Statement and Balance Sheet (source: Owens Corning 1991 Annual report) CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEET December 31, 1991 and 1990 (In millions of dollars) Assets Current Cash and cash equivalents Receivables, less allowances of $18 in 1991 and $15 in 1990 Inventories (Note 6) Deferred income taxes (Note 5) Other current assets

1991

1990

$ 3

$7

308 219 76 13

375 237 79 13

Total current

619

711

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Other Goodwill, less accumulated amortization of $ 8 in 1991 and $ 5 in 1990 (Note 17) Investments in affiliates (Note 7) Deferred income taxes (Note 5) Other noncurrent assets

96

99

45 416 60

32 33

617

164

51

52

555 1,880 41 2,527

545 1,838 60 2,495

Less: Accumulated Depreciation

(1,657)

(1,563)

Net plant and equipment Total Assets

870 $ 2,106

932 $ 1,807

Liabilities and Stockholdersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; Equity Current Accounts payable and accrued liabilities (Note 8) Accrued income taxes (Note 5) Short-term debt (Note 3) Long-term debt - current portion (Note 2) Total current

1991

1990

$ 409 15 6 18 448

$ 418 21 167 47 653

Long-Term Debt (Note 2) Other Reserve for asbestos litigation claims (Note 1) Other postretirement benefits liability (Note 13) Reserve for rebuilding furnaces Pension plan liability (Note 14) Deferred income taxes (Note 5) Other

1,148

1,086

950

128

343 113 54 - 126

105 44 13 128

Total other

1,586

418

Commitments and Contingencies (Notes 1 and 10) Stockholdersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; Equity Preferred stock, no par value; authorized 8,000,000 shares, none outstanding (Note 12) Common stock, par value $ .10 per share; authorized 100,000,000 shares; issued 1991 - 41,651,754 and 1990 - 40,580,833 shares (Note 11)

285

268

Total other Plant and Equipment, at cost Land Buildings and leasehold Improvements Machinery and equipment Construction in progress

97


Deficit Foreign currency translation adjustments Other

(1,375) 24 (10)

(633) 25 (10)

Total stockholdersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; equity

(1,076)

(350)

Total Liabilities and Stockholdersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; Equity

2,106

$ 1,807

The accompanying summary of significant accounting policies and notes are integral parts of this statement. Consolidated Statement of Income For the years ended December 31, 1991, 1990 and 1989. (In millions of dollars, except share data) (Notes 17 and 18) 1991 1990 1989 Net Sales $ 2,783 $ 3,069 $ 2,964 Cost of Sales (Note 6) 2,186 2,304 2,161 Gross margin 597 765 803 Other Expenses Marketing and administrative expenses Science and technology expenses (Note 4)

285 54

309 58

285 48

Provision for asserted asbestos litigation claims (Note 1) Provision for unasserted asbestos litigation claims (Note 1) Other (Notes 5 and 11) Restructuring costs (Note 16) Total other expenses

24 800

24 -

50 -

62 - 1,225

16 65 472

(42) 30 371

Income (Loss) from Operations

(628)

293

432

Cost of borrowed funds (Notes 2 and 3) Income (Loss) before Provision for Income Taxes Provision (credit) for income taxes (Note 5)

(131)

(165)

(166)

(759) (238)

128 58

266 103

Income (Loss) before Equity in Net Income of Affiliates Equity in net income of affiliates (Notes 7 and 17) Income (Loss) before Extraordinary Item and Cumulative Effect of Accounting Change

(521) 6

70 5

163 9

(515)

75

172

Extraordinary loss from early retirement of debt (Note 2) Cumulative effect of accounting change for other postretirement benefits net of income taxes of $ 117 million (Note 13)

-

(2)

-

(227)

-

Net Income (Loss)

$ (742)

$ 73

$ 172

$ (12.58)

$ 1.78

$ 4.08

Extraordinary loss from early retirement of debt (Note 2) Cumulative effect of accounting change for other postretirement benefits (Note 13) (5.55)

(.05)

-

-

-

Net Income (Loss) Per Share

$ 1.73

$ 4.08

Primary and Fully Diluted Net Income (Loss) Per Share Income (loss) before extraordinary item and cumulative effect of accounting change

98

$ (18.13)


Weighted average number of shares

40,924,391

42,019,411

The accompanying summary of significant accounting policies and notes are integral parts of this statement. Consolidated Statement of Stockholders’ Equity For the years ended December 31, 1991, 1990 and 1989 (In millions of dollars) Common Stock Balance beginning of year Issuance of stock and deferred awards under stock compensation plans (Note 11) Balance end of year

1991

1990

1989

$ 268

$ 266

$ 264

17 285

2 268

2 266

Deficit Balance beginning of year Net income (loss)

(633) (742)

(706) 73

(878) 172

Balance end of year

(1,375)

(633)

(706)

Foreign Currency Translation Adjustments Balance beginning of year Translation adjustments Balance end of year

25 (1) 24

14 11 25

12 2 14

Other Balance beginning of year Net increase (decrease)

(10) -

(9) (1)

(8) (1)

Balance end of year

(10)

(10)

(9)

Stockholders’ Equity

$ (1,076)

$ (350)

$ (435)

Table 3 Summary of Information to be released in Press Release (source 1992 Business Wire) February 6, 1992 HEADLINE: Owens-Corning takes $800 million non-cash charge to accrue for future asbestos claims DATELINE: TOLEDO, Ohio BODY: “This Action Demonstrates Our Desire To Put The Asbestos Situation Behind Us,” New Chairman and CEO Glen H. Hiner Says Also Takes Special Charge For Retiree Health Benefits Sets Goal of Improved Earnings In Each Quarter of 1992 -0Owens-Corning Fiberglas Corp. (NYSE:OCF) Thursday announced that its results for the fourth quarter and year ended December 31, 1991, include a special non-cash charge of $800 million to accrue for the estimated uninsured cost of future asbestos claims the Company may receive through the balance of the decade. “This action demonstrates our desire to put the asbestos situation behind us,” said Glen H. Hiner, Owens-Corning’s new chairman and chief executive officer. “After a thorough review of the situation with outside consultants, we believe this accrual will be sufficient to cover the Company’s uninsured costs for cases received until the year 2000. We will, of course, make adjustments to our reserves if that becomes appropriate, but this is our best estimate of these uninsured costs. “With this action,” Hiner continued, “everyone can now focus once again on the fundamental strengths of the Company. We gener-

99


ate considerable amounts of cash, our operating divisions are leaders in every market they serve throughout the world, and we have taken a number of steps in the last few years to strengthen our competitive position even further. “As I begin my tenure as CEO,” he continued, “Owens-Corning is in a very strong position for the future. We will continue to reduce costs and long-term debt, increase cash flow, enhance customer service, and actively seek opportunities for growth.” The amount of the special asbestos charge is based on the Company’s estimate that its uninsured asbestos related costs will be approximately $800 million for cases received between now and the end of the decade. That estimate takes into account expert judgment on numerous variables, including anticipated cash receipts, cost per case, and anticipated defense costs, and has many influencing factors, including historical levels of cash receipts, demographics, and the legal climate. Owens-Corning said it received 20,700 new asbestos personal injury claims in 1991, a decline of 7 percent from the average of the previous four years. The average settlement cost of around $9,300 per case was down slightly from the 1990 average of $9,600 per case. Owens-Corning also said that despite the accounting charge, it will litigate aggressively when plaintiffs have no impairment or exposure to asbestos. Owens-Corning noted that the asbestos charge is a non-cash accrual that should not result in cash outlays for several years. The Company added that, given its strong cash flow, the costs of resolving claims will not affect its plans to continue to substantially reduce debt, reinvest in its businesses, and take advantage of attractive opportunities for growth. Accounting For Post-Retirement Health Benefits Owens-Corning also said it adopted the new accounting standard in accordance with Financial Accounting Standard No. 106 for post- retirement benefits, other than pensions, effective as of January 1, 1991. The Company is taking a non-cash cumulative charge of $227 million. The Company will restate the 1991 quarterly results to reflect the effect of the change in accounting. This new standard, which is required to be adopted by all major public companies in the U.S. by 1993, requires the accrual of the cost of providing post-retirement benefits, including medical and life insurance coverage, during the active service period of the employee. Fourth Quarter and Year-End Results Earnings for each of the Company’s two operating groups were stronger in the fourth quarter of 1991 than a year ago, but the Company’s performance before the special charges was significantly reduced by an increase in the estimated taxes that would be payable on undistributed earnings of foreign subsidiaries. Before the special charges for asbestos and post-retirement health benefits, Owens-Corning’s income for the fourth quarter of 1991 was $3 million, or $.07 per share. This compares to income of $18 million, or $.42 per share, in the fourth quarter of 1990 before a special charge for restructuring. After the non-recurring charge for asbestos of $12.36 per share, and a charge for post-retirement health benefits of $.16 per share, the Company’s net loss in the fourth quarter of 1991 was $12.45 per share. This compares with a net loss of $.78 per share in the fourth quarter of 1990. The 1990 results include a restructuring charge of $1.20 per share for actions designed to reduce costs. Consolidated net sales for the 1991 fourth quarter were $687 million, compared to $758 million in the same period of 1990. Before the special charges, Owens-Corning’s net income for the full year 1991 was $22 million, or $.51 per share. Including the special charges, Owens-Corning reported a net loss of $742 million, or $17.52 per share for the year, compared to a net income of $73 million, or $1.73 per share, in 1990. In addition to the restructuring charge taken in the fourth quarter, the 1990 full- year results include a charge of $2 million, or $.05 per share, for the early retirement of debt. Consolidated net sales for 1991 were $2.8 billion, compared to $3.1 billion in 1990. “Although economic conditions in all of our major markets were weak throughout the year, the Company’s performance was reasonable, with both operating groups showing improved earnings in the fourth quarter as a result of our ongoing efforts to control costs,” Mr. Hiner said. “The Company is clearly realizing the benefits of last year’s restructuring, with annual savings at the predicted rate of $30 million or better. “In the U.S., Canada and Europe, margins were impacted by pricing weakness in many of our major markets, while our Brazilian operations were hampered by the general economic malaise there. “Despite the weak global economy, however, Owens-Corning continued to gain share in many of its key markets around the world, including residential roofing, yarns, and retail insulation,” Mr. Hiner said. “I am also pleased to note that our strong cash flow enabled the Company to continue reducing debt.” 100


During 1991, Owens-Corning’s debt was reduced by $128 million to $1.17 billion, down from a high of $2.5 billion in 1986. Operations Overview Commenting on the Company’s business performance in the fourth quarter, Mr. Hiner said: “In the Construction Products Group, sales volumes were hampered by the lack of construction activity in the U.S. and Canada. At year- end, housing starts in the U.S. were at the lowest levels in more than four decades. But lower interest rates and special tax incentives proposed by President Bush may signal an improvement in the housing sector in 1992. And our ongoing actions to control costs should bring continued benefits in the coming months. “Margins were affected by pricing weakness in most markets in the U.S. and Canada. But thanks to our aggressive promotional activities and strong emphasis on customer service, we were able to continue to gain market share in residential roofing and retail insulation. “The Industrial Materials Group continued to be impacted by weakness in the automotive and pleasure boat industries. In Europe, sales volumes were weak as the slowdown in the economy continued. Our Brazilian markets were affected by the general economic malaise created by the Government’s restrictive monetary policies to restrain inflation. “One particularly bright spot was in industrial yarns, with record sales in the U.S. and Europe. Demand for yarns from end-use markets and industrial weavers was particularly strong. “Looking ahead,” Hiner continued, “we expect a gradual improvement as 1992 progresses and are planning accordingly. Management’s objective for 1992 is to improve earnings in every quarter as compared to the year-ago period. By continuing our focus on running our operations efficiently, controlling costs, enhancing our market leadership, and strengthening our balance sheet, I am confident we can accomplish that goal.” Insider Trading Teaching Case: Owens-Corning Fiberglas TEACHING NOTE Teaching POINTS: Insider Trading Rules Ethics/Societal Impact of Insider Trading Market Efficiency Primary Markets vs. Secondary Markets Security Valuation Non-cash Accounting Charges What Happened: When OCF published its press release the stock price increased 28%. Investors knew that OCF had asbestos liability but OCF had just been taking annual charges as they lost lawsuits and spent money on lawyers. This was OCF’s first attempt to quantify the future liability inherent from having produced asbestos. When management presented their best guess, this was new information for the market. At the time, it was good news presumably because management had inside information and a better estimate of what the liability was than the general stock market. In 2000 OCF filed for chapter 11 reorganization primarily as a result of the asbestos liability. In hindsight management’s estimate turned out to be too low. Of course the legal environment changed from 1992 to 2000 so the 1992 estimate was the best the company could come up with at the time and the stock price increase reflected the information available at the time. One thing that is nice about the case is that it is hard for students to find information about OCF prior to 2000 when it began trading on the NASDAQ bulletin board so they have to think about the situation rather than find out what actually happened.

101


Questions for Class Discussion: 1. Disregarding Legal and Ethical Issues what should David do if he wants to take advantage of this information? Students typically jump on this question and say sell or short the stock. The day of the asbestos write-off announcement OCF increased about 28%. This usually surprises them and I ask for them to give reasons. This is a good time to discuss market efficiency. The market knew that OCF had asbestos liability. By assigning a value to the liability, management provided additional information to the market. In this case we can infer that the market expected the liability to be even worse than management thought. When management assigned a number to the liability, the market inferred that the liability wasn’t as bad as originally anticipated causing the price to increase. 2. What is a write-off? I usually don’t assign this as a question. I ask the students after they answer question #1. I emphasize the point to the students that write-offs are bookkeeping entries and typically they do not involve cash. We can expect that the market will already be assessing the economic impact of events such as lawsuits that will affect the firm and try to determine the cash flow impacts both now and in the future. In Owens Corning’s case the market was already assessing the future cash flows. However, management’s estimate gave the market more information to go on. 3. What legal implications would David face if he acts on this information? If convicted David could face jail time, payment of any profits and punitive damages. Stock exchanges have computer algorithms that look for unusual trading around certain dates. These algorithms look for unusual trading in the same zip code, family names that are similar to company employees, etc. Although not very many insider trading cases are brought by the SEC every year, if a case is brought the SEC tries to make examples to use as deterrents for others that might think about illegally trading on inside information. In 2000 the SEC charged Jonathan Lebed, a 15 year old, with manipulating stocks in a high profile case. Some would argue that Lebed was targeted because of his age and the attention the case would draw in the media. 4. What is the difference between the primary market and the secondary market? Which market would David trade the Owens-Corning stock in? The primary market is when firms’ first issue their shares to the public. The secondary market is where these shares are bought and sold by individuals who hold the shares. David would make his trade in the secondary market. 5. What are the societal impacts of insider trading? Does anyone get hurt if David takes advantage of information he should not use? If some market participants have an unfair advantage they will be able to earn abnormal returns. If these individuals are able to make abnormal returns it comes at the expense of people who do not have information. The uninformed people are not stupid. If they continuously lose money investing in the stock market they will stop investing in this market. If secondary markets do not have good liquidity and people willing to buy and sell shares, firms will have difficulty raising money on the primary market. This lack of access to capital will hurt entrepreneurial and small firms and make it difficult to grow. Taken to an extreme insider trading will depress the economy and job creation. While insider trading may have faceless victims it is a real threat to our society. Paper presented at the Colleagues in Jesuit Business Education Conference, Spokane, WA, July, 2006 by David Hyland and Phil Glasgo.

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HISTORY Reading, Writing, and Reflection: The Ignatian Value of Reflection in the History Area of the Core Curriculum Rachel Chrastil, PhD Mentor: Lisa Close-Jacobs, PhD (Biology) The Course 1. European History II, HIST 134 • Fulfills part of the History Area requirement of the Core Curriculum 2. From the Syllabus: • Why study European history? Over the past 500 years, Europe has been the center of major cultural and intellectual movements, changed the ways economies and families are organized, dominated the world, and nearly destroyed itself. For better or worse, European history still exerts a strong influence on our own societies. We learn about European history not only to understand the past, but also to understand ourselves. • Course Objectives: In this course, we will discuss the Wars of Religion, Absolutism, the Enlightenment, the French Revolution, the 1848 revolutions, imperialism, World War I, World War II, the Cold War, and the European Union. Over the course of the semester, we will consider various forms of religion, state building, industrialization, political ideology, the family, gender roles, and nationalism. • Lectures will be framed as inquiries into historical problems: What were the causes of the French Revolution? How did industrialization affect family life? How did the Nazis come to power to Germany? Through the analysis of broad change, events, personalities, words and images, students will learn not only what happened, but also the way historians think about problems in European history. • In this course, you will learn basic historical skills, including using written and visual primary source documents, writing clearly and effectively, and reasoning through historical problems. We will balance the lecture and reading and with the study of primary source documents, including texts, paintings, and film. New, Mission Driven-Components 1. Goals • To encourage students to reflect more carefully upon the reading and their writing. • To encourage students to appreciate that the processes of reading and writing can form a fundamental part of their development as reflective individuals in the Jesuit tradition. • In concrete terms, I would like to develop: - A new policy concerning re-writing papers. - A new kind of writing assignment based on reading for class. 2. Background • The Jesuit habit that has been most meaningful to me in my reading and conversations with my mentor, Lisa Close-Jacobs, is that of reflection. • In the chapter “Jesuit ‘Products’ are Persons of Quality,” William J. Byron, S.J., writes, “Reflective persons are not impulsive; they are not necessarily indecisive… but they are measured and deliberate in their approach to decision making.”4 • In terms of student development, I view reflection to mean the ability to sit back, consider carefully what one has read, re-read with a new perspective, write with discernment and purpose, and re-write with the aim of achieving a more perfect, sharper piece of communication. • In other words, I would like to encourage students to view reading and writing as a constant conversation in which the end product is not a grade, but a better understanding of 1) the human experience in history and 2) how to communicate more effectively about history.

4

From Jesuit Saturdays: Sharing the Ignatian Spirit with Lay Colleagues and Friends (2000, Loyola Press)

103


Re-Writing papers 1. The Problem • I have always allowed students to re-write their papers, and a few students benefited greatly from the second opportunity. •However, the majority of students made minimal changes, often simply fixing grammatical errors that I have already marked or responding to specific problems, without rethinking the paper or making additional changes. • Under the old policy, the new grade for the papers after the re-write averaged an improvement of less than 2.5%. 2. The New Policy • I will go over rough drafts of your papers with you if you bring them to my office (during office hours or by appointment). You may also re-write your first paper. • THE NEW GRADE WILL AVERAGE THE TWO GRADES. • Re-writing includes re-thinking your essay and may include making changes beyond the comments that I have written on your original. • Making changes on a draft and/or re-writing does not guarantee an “A” paper. • If you would like to re-write your paper, you must turn in: - Your original paper with my comments. - A list of changes that you have made to the assignment. 3. Assessment • Provided a learning opportunity to students who truly missed the point of the assignment or who wanted to put in extra effort to improve their writing. • Discouraged students who were simply looking for a few easy extra points from submitting a re-write. • Example of student-generated list of changes on a paper on the eighteenth-century French Encyclopedia: - Discussed how the writing styles were biased. - Brought forth the argument of how politics were influenced by the Encyclopedia - Fixed tense and grammar - Combined ideas and deleted unnecessary ones - Indication of sources New Writing Assignments 1. The Problem • Classroom discussion of reading for which the students have no written responsibility often became stilted and unenlightening. • Students either did not do the reading, or did not sufficiently engage with the reading before class. 2. The New Policy • Eight typed responses on primary sources, five will count toward your grade (2% each). • Response days marked on the syllabus: *RESPONSE DUE* • Questions will be posed to the class before they are due. - Example: Why do you think the title of this book is The Embarrassment of Riches? • 150-200 words. • Responses only accepted in class—no late responses will be accepted. • Responses will be graded as 0, 1, or 2 points, with comments. 3. Assessment • Students’ writing reveals a far greater depth of understanding than I have ordinarily experienced in classroom discussion. • Students have become accustomed to using primary sources and citing specific passages. • Students devoted more time to their reading and writing this semester than ever before. • Reading responses revealed to me questions and misunderstandings. - For instance, several students took at face value the claims of Hungarian nationalists that they were “enslaved” by the Austrian government and did not acknowledge the nationalist hyperbole underlying that poetic license. A Final Note • The success of both of these new components has depended in part on my ability to consistently express and model for the students the importance of reflection in the process of reading and writing. • I strive to articulate this importance in many different ways. The frequency of the responses has and will continue to remind me of this key part of teaching reflection.

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HISTORY Born of a Disabled Body: The Ignatian Body and Its Role in Jesuit Education Dennis J. Frost, PhD Mentor: Sarah Melcher, PhD (Theology) In Fall of 2008, I entered the Ignatian Mentoring Program with limited knowledge of Ignatian texts thinking that Ignatius’ experiences with injury and illness might offer some interesting perspectives on my studies of disability. After reading John W. O’Malley’s The First Jesuits, my mentor, Sarah Melcher, and I turned our attention to Ignatius’ Reminiscences. As we read and discussed this autobiographical account, it quickly became apparent that Ignatius had a great deal to say about the body. This initial encounter with Ignatius’ works, which I owe to Sarah, led me to examine other early Ignatian texts with the goal of understanding how Ignatius addressed the body and what that might mean for someone teaching at a Jesuit university. Ignatius’ references to the body were often complex—at times even contradictory—and his views and approaches to the body clearly evolved over the course of his life. In the end, however, I concluded that highlighting the ways in which Ignatius addressed the body in his writings could offer several insights for those of us teaching, researching, and working at Xavier today. What follows are several brief examples drawn from key Ignatian texts and my reflections on how an appreciation of what I call the “Ignatian Body” might inform approaches to Jesuit education on both a personal and an institutional level. Origins of the Jesuits The story of the Jesuits begins with a would-be knight, “given up to the vanities of the world.” During a battle with the French, a shot struck and shattered one of Ignatius of Loyola’s legs and badly injured the other as well. Here most accounts of Ignatius, including the autobiographical Reminiscences, move on to describe how Ignatius’ readings during his recovery from these injuries led to his eventual conversion. As important as that conversion was for Ignatius and the Jesuits, it is equally important to note that this story is about disability. To put it somewhat simplistically, the Jesuits were born of a disabled body. Reminiscences The Reminiscences provides a selective autobiographical account, which omits a number of significant details, but is, nonetheless, peppered with references to illness, food, clothing, and other aspects of body culture. This work highlights the centrality of the body in Ignatius’ understanding of his life and mission. Three brief examples are included here: And because he had been very careful about keeping his hair as was the fashion at the time (and he had it nice), he decided to let it grow just anyhow as nature took it, without combing it or cutting it…. For the same reason he was letting the nails on his toes and fingers grow….

He had great inconvenience as far as study was concerned, because the almshouse was a good way from the college of Montaigu, and one needed to arrive back for the ringing of the Angelus if one was to find the door open, while one couldn’t leave before daybreak. Thus, he couldn’t put in such a good attendance at his lessons. There was also another problem, that of asking for alms on which to survive.

But when he returned to the college of Ste Barbe…those in the college who knew that he had been into the house with the plague ran away from him, and refused to let him come in. Thus, he was forced to spend some days outside. The Spiritual Exercises The Spiritual Exercises are the most famous and influential of Ignatius’ writings, and they are undeniably centered on spiritual ideas and experiences. At the same time, the body and embodied practice are central to Ignatius’ approach. Exercitants, for instance, are encouraged to try different positions for praying until they find the one that is most effective, and all of the approaches to penance involve the body—food, sleep, and chastisement. The Exercises also devote an entire section to a discussion of “Rules for the future ordering of one’s life as regards eating.” Yet here and throughout the Exercises, Ignatius acknowledges that adjustments must be made on the basis of individual needs and limitations, perhaps especially those pertaining to physical wellbeing. Constitutions Originally drafted by Ignatius in the mid-sixteenth century, The Constitutions of the Society of Jesus outline, in sometimes striking detail, how the Society, its members, and its activities should be governed. References to the body and bodily practices appear throughout the Constitutions, including an entire chapter in Part III, titled “The Preservation of the Body.” 105


Three selections from the Constitutions are included here: [292] 1. Just as an excessive preoccupation with the needs of the body is blameworthy, so too a proper concern for the preservation of one’s health and bodily strength for the divine service is praiseworthy and should be exercised by all. [298] 4. Just as it is unwise to assign so much physical labor that the spirit should be oppressed and the body be harmed, so too some bodily exercise to help both the body and the spirit is ordinarily expedient for all, even for those who must apply themselves to mental labors. [339] 1. For the care and welfare of those who live in the colleges, in regard to the body and external matters, what was stated in Part III [292-306] will suffice. That is, special attention should be given to their abstaining from studies at times inopportune for bodily health, to their taking sufficient sleep, and to their observance of moderation in mental labors so as to be able to keep at them longer both during their studies and later on when using what they have studied for the glory of God our Lord. Incorporating the Ignatian Body: A Personal Response It is often said that cura personalis, or care of the person, is at the heart of Jesuit education. Influenced by my readings of Ignatius, I have come to see the body as a fundamental element of cura personalis. If people are struggling with mental or physical difficulties they cannot perform at their best. Consequently, I will seek to make my classrooms, my office, and myself as accessible to students as possible and endeavor to allow my understandings of our shared human physicality to guide my interaction with and responses to my students. I am also convinced that an Ignatian approach to the body can enrich the content of my classes. Body culture is already a recurring theme in my courses, but by highlighting the often overlooked past and present significance of the body in East Asian societies— ranging from footbinding and sumptuary codes, to opium use and McDonald’s hamburgers—I hope to inspire students to think more critically about their own bodily practices and perceptions. In Fall 2009, for instance, I am offering a course called “Sports in East Asia.” Previous versions of this course have included a unit focusing on the role of sports in shaping body culture in East Asia and our own society. I will be expanding this unit to include examinations of the relationship between sports and popular understandings of disability. I began my study of Ignatian texts with my research topics in mind, so perhaps it is not surprising that I have found my examination of these texts especially productive on that front. The body has long been and continues to be at the center of my research on the history of modern Japan. My work tracing the emergence and evolution of sports celebrity in Japan gives particular attention to the ways in which sports stars have shaped bodily perceptions and practices. I am also working on a project that uses the Paralympic movement to explore how sports have influenced Japanese perceptions of and approaches to disability. My readings of Ignatian texts have reinforced my desire to understand and address the marginalization of those with disabilities of any sort, for Ignatius himself demonstrates that disability “is a gift no less than is health.” Are We Incorporating the Ignatian Body at Xavier? While my readings of Ignatius’ works have led me to contemplate how the Ignatian approach to the body might more actively inform my role as teacher, advisor, mentor, and researcher, with the concept of magis in mind, I began to wonder if an understanding of and greater appreciation for the Ignatian Body might help us, as an institution, “find ways of doing what we do better.” For example, if our university’s mission is to develop a “sense of the whole person—body, mind, and spirit,” where is the body in our core curriculum? Are we unintentionally devaluing the body, especially since our core does not include any physical education requirement? Do we consider how the size of our core affects our students in terms of the body? When students enroll in five or often more classes per semester in order to graduate “on time,” what toll does that take on their mental and physical health and their performance? Many of Ignatius’ writings suggest that these are the very kinds of issues he and other early Jesuits were struggling with. Given the origins of the Jesuits, I also believe that our institutional approach to disability issues merits serious consideration. According to our current ADA policy, “Xavier University will not unlawfully discriminate against qualified individuals with disabilities as defined by the ADA because of the disability of such individuals in regard to job application procedures, hiring, advancement, discharge, compensation, job training, and other terms, conditions, and privileges of employment.” As a Jesuit university committed to social justice is it simply enough to meet the legal requirements? Shouldn’t we be seeking to exceed them? Is each of our facilities and programs truly accessible and accommodating, or do we need to depend on such clauses as “when viewed in its entirety” or “unless such accommodations would impose an undue hardship on Xavier University” to fulfill our legal obligations? Are we, as a university community, addressing disability rights as a social justice issue? As we seek to fulfill our mission of “forming students intellectually, morally, and spiritually, with rigor and compassion, towards lives 106


of solidarity, service, and success,” it seems all too easy to take the body for granted. But if we are genuinely concerned about the “whole person,” we owe to it our students and ourselves to take the body seriously. We might begin, for instance, by asking whether our students are eating, sleeping, drinking, working, and otherwise living in ways that allow them to perform at their best while maintaining their physical and mental health. We should strive to help all of our students develop a sense of appreciation and respect for their bodies and those of others, and we should seek to aid them in developing habits for leading healthy and fulfilling lives. At the same time, we must ask ourselves if WE are leading healthy and fulfilling lives. Engaging these kinds of questions and issues, while not easy, suits our mission as a Jesuit university and promises to make the Xavier experience all the more fulfilling and complete for all in our community. ________________________ 1 Luis Gonçalves Da Câmara, Reminiscences or Autobiography of Ignatius Loyola, in Saint Ignatius of Loyola: Personal Writings, trans. and annotated by Philip Endean (New York: Penguin Books, 1996), p. 13.

2

Ibid., p. 21.

3

Ibid., p. 49.

4

Ibid., p. 54.

5

Ignatius Loyola, The Spiritual Exercises, in Saint Ignatius of Loyola: Personal Writings, trans. and annotated by Philip Endean and Joseph A Munitiz (New York: Penguin Books, 1996), pp. 300-301.

6

Ibid., pp. 325-326.

7

John W. Padberg, S.J., ed., The Constitutionsof the Society of Jesus and Their Complementary Norms (Saint Louis: The Institute of Jesuit Source, 1996), p. 125 number [292].

8

Ibid., p. 126 number [298].

9

Ibid., p. 140 number [339].

10

Ibid., p. 120 number [272].

11

Rev. Michael J. Graham, S.J., “The Influence of the Spiritual Exercises on Six Dimensions of Jesuit Education,” Academic Day Address, October 3, 2006; available in digital format at “The Influence of the Spiritual Exercises on Six Dimensions of Jesuit Education,” Xavier University Jesuit Identity Resource, 2008, www.xavier.edu/jesuitresource/jesuit-a-z/Six-Dimensions.cfm accessed 5 April 2009.

12

Xavier University, “University Mission Statement,” About Xavier, 2009, www.xavier.edu/about/University-Mission-Statement.cfm accessed 5 April 2009.

13

Xavier University, “Policy: 4.12 AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA),” in Xavier University Policies and Procedures Manual (Last Review April 30 2008), p. 1.

14

Ibid.

15

Rev. Michael J. Graham, S.J.

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HISTORY European History David Mengel, PhD Mentor: Ed Cueva, PhD (Classics)

Course History 134: European History II (2 sections, 30 students each), Spring 2005 This course provides a survey of European History from 1500 to the Second World War. Special attention is given to the integration of primary source documents. In light of my participation in the Ignatian mentoring program, I made the following changes to the course. I intend to include the same additions in future semesters, making minor improvements based on my experience this year. 1. Syllabus addition I added the following language to my syllabus and discuss it on the first day of class. A primary aim of the text is to foster an environment in which students feel free—and will be specifically encouraged—to raise ethical and moral implications of the topics we study.

This semester we will be exploring together the history of modern Europe, from the time of the sixteenth-century reformations deep into the twentieth century. Considering that our many subjects of study will include the origin of the Jesuits, it is appropriate to consider the ways in which our own institution is a product of the ideas and ideals rooted in the history we study. Xavier University continues to cherish its Jesuit tradition, as reflected in this portion of its Mission Statement:

With attention to the student as an individual, Jesuit education seeks to develop: 1. Intellectual skills for both a full life in the human community and service in the Kingdom of God; 2. Critical attention to the underlying philosophical and theological implications of the issues; 3. A world view that is oriented to responsible action and recognizes the intrinsic value of the natural and human values; 4. An understanding and communication of the moral and religious values through personal concern and lived witness, as well as by precept of instruction; and 5. A sense of the whole person- body, mind, and spirit.

The study of history, especially at a Jesuit university like Xavier, should include far more than learning names and dates of people and events long past. In and out of class, I encourage you to consider with me the philosophical and ethical implications of the history we study, and to use what you learn to continue to develop your own intellectual, ethical, and spiritual perspectives.

Want to know more? Check out these documents on Jesuit education: http://www.xavier.edu/mission-identity/heritage-tradition/ 2. In-class writing and discussion about the meaning of Xavier’s “Jesuit identity” Near the beginning of the semester (18 January), I asked the students to spend 15 minutes writing about what they know or think they know about the Jesuit character of Xavier. The primary aim will be to discern the perspectives that students bring into the course and to encourage the students to begin to consider the question. There was quite a range of knowledge and perception among the students. Next year I will allow even more time for the discussion, and attempt to help them better explore that understanding our own culture—including the culture at Xavier—requires an understanding of the history of our society, its culture, and its institutions. We will return to this question in the conversation that follows number 4 (below). 3. Lecture on early Jesuit education within the context of the Christian Humanism I devoted a considerable portion of one lecture (20 January) to the foundation and early years of the Society of Jesus, based in part upon John O’Malley’s book, The First Jesuits. The foundation of the Jesuits and the first Jesuit schools were presented within the context of broader movements like religious reform and humanism. We also read brief excerpts from the Spiritual Exercises of Ignatius Loyola during the class; I self-consciously included in these selections some parts that emphasized the way in which this classic spiritual text was written in a very particular historical context and, in part, speaks directly to contemporary controversies in Christianity. 4. Assignment: Read and respond to primary source readings related to the origin of the Jesuits In keeping with the previous assignments, students were required to read primary source documents related to the early Jesuits. 108


We then used Blackboard (course management software) to conduct online small-group discussions before having a class discussion about the text. I chose selections from the Constitutions of the Society of Jesus, focusing on the parts of the document specifically related to the original goals of the early Jesuit schools. In the future, I may add selections from the letters of Francis Xavier to this assignment. The in-class discussion brought together the readings, the online discussions, and the lectures in a conversation that addressed Jesuit education, past and present. We considered what has changed and what has not changed. Some principles from the sixteenthcentury text seemed to the students to apply very easily, whereas others seemed more particularly bound to the original historical contextâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;a point I was happy to see the students grasping. This raised another important question for discussion: how do we interpret our participation in a tradition with particular historical roots, some of which seem to apply better to our culture than others? More specifically, to what extent do we or should we allow the history of the Jesuits to guide how we construe our identity as members of a modern Jesuit university? Periodically over the rest of the semester, I made brief references to the influence and impact of the Jesuits, from contributions of particular Jesuits in political theory to their education of European monarchs and their prominent roles in what we might call culture wars, the latter occasionally resulting in their expulsion from various European countries.

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HISTORY The Study of History and the Principles of Jesuit Education S. Paul O’Hara, PhD Mentor: Ed Cueva, PhD (Classics) The spiritual exercises as created by Ignatius Loyola determine not only the core values of the Jesuits but also the educational principles and pedagogy of a Jesuit institution. In his discussion of the influences of the spiritual exercises of Jesuit education, President Graham suggested six different dimensions of the educational enterprise of a Jesuit college. A Jesuit education, he says, “must be holistic and integrated must be exacting but adaptable, must be reflective, must be ongoing, must be practical but located in a broad horizon, must be finally ordered to something greater.” The study of history is not only the systematic examination of the significant events, people, and ideas that have shaped human societies but it also demands the kind of academic rigor, intellectual reflection, exacting rigor, and systematic order that the spiritual exercises suggest. Students of history are encouraged to see the broad changes, processes, and transformations that shape the past; yet at the same time students must be sensitive to the subtle differences and contradictions of the past. In particular history teaches students to be rigorous in their methods but also adaptable to the differences, as Loyola would say, “with respect to people, places, and situations.” The study of history frees us from a narrow view of time and place and teaches us how to understand times and places which are not our own. It offers a frame of reference for making critical judgments and demands contemplation of the philosophical and ethical implications not only of the history we study but of our own assumptions and actions today. For perhaps the most relevant educational influence of the spiritual exercises for the study of history comes from the demand that education be placed within a broad horizon. “The purpose of the Spiritual Exercises,” writes Loyola, “is the conquest of the self and the regulation of one’s life in such a way that no decision is made under the influence of any inordinate attachment.” A critical engagement with the past teaches students how to understand the attachments of the past as well as the attachments of the present. Students learn the historical origins of such attachments as race, class, gender, nationality, ethnicity, or religion. They learn how these attachments rise, how they transform, and how they affect the course of human history. By immersing themselves in the past and studying it critically within its own context, students acquire the very kind of broad horizon that a Jesuit education demands. The Semester as a Spiritual and Intellectual Exercise In his “Influence of the Spiritual Exercises on Six Dimensions of Jesuit Education,” Graham further detailed the imaginative process of the spiritual exercises. “The full Spiritual Exercises are made in about a month,” he says.

That month is divided into 4 weeks, each week is divided into days, each day is divided not into hours exactly but what Ignatius calls meditations. Those meditations have a kind of structure to them. The first part is a kind of input. He gives you something to consider. It may be an image he creates for you, or a script, often enough, most usually it’s a passage from scripture, usually the life of Christ. The second piece is an imaginative reconstruction of what the scene is. For example, in contemplating the Nativity of Christ, he invites you to walk along with Joseph and Mary and the donkey, and go from inn to inn to inn and be disappointed, and then find your way to the stable, and Ohh! there’s the baby, and all this. In the third part, he asks you to step back and talk to the characters in this play that has unfolded in your mind or maybe to talk to God out of this experience. He will often enough invite retreatants to repeat the meditations they have made to see if there’s anything else there, to pick up details that may have escaped them the first time. And one of the tools he invites people to use in these so-called repetitions is the application of senses— How does the hay look? How do the cows smell? How do the sheep sound? —as a way to engage all of a person’s faculties in entering into this scene in a very absorbing and compelling sort of way.

This is, essentially, the same task historians set for themselves and their students. The point is not only to learn and memorize the date of the Great Chicago Fire but rather to reconstruct and understand the entire scene. What were the class and racial divides of the newly industrializing city? What did it mean to assign blame to a poor Irish woman and her cow? How did the destruction of the city challenge the modern ideologies of progress and order? Etc. Indeed just as Graham notes that one should notice not only the baby but the rest of the stable as well, so too should good history students notice both the fire and its larger social and cultural milieu. However, this skill is hard to explain and difficult for students to master. It is not learned in a single class or a single reading but rather through repetition of the process of historical inquiry. Much like the spiritual exercises, the end result is what matters. It is only after 15 weeks of guidance, challenges, and encouragements that the pieces begin to fit and the students begin to change and challenge themselves. The guided process of historical inquiry encourages students to think both broadly about the world and specifically about their place within that world.

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LEGAL STUDIES The Legal Environment of Business Ann Marie Tracey, JD Mentor: Bob Ahuja, DBA (Marketing) Description The Williams College of Business Mission Statement provides that, “We educate students of business, enabling them to improve organizations and society, consistent with the Jesuit tradition.” The structure and subject matter of the course already reflects a hearty consistency with the Ignatian philosophy of teaching. BLAW 300 strives to fulfill the WCB Mission Statement by exposing students to both the legal and ethical aspects of business. Course topics include: (1) jurisprudence and the court system, (2) business ethics, (3) business crimes, (4) contracts, (5) torts, (6) business organizations and (7) diversity issues in business. Understanding this business material is critical for managers to successfully navigate the legal challenges they will face during their career. Viewing the material through both legal and ethical perspectives is consistent with the Jesuit tradition. The course traditionally has used a case-based approach to learn and apply legal principles, as well as using class discussion, team ethics presentations, and a legal research writing assignment. I enrich the material by bringing in articles, some literary and artistic references, and also provide opportunities for the student to earn extra credit by attending guest lectures, especially on socially or ethically relevant topics. However, I have hesitated about being what I view as too “preachy” on such issues. The Ignatian Mentoring program has enlightened me on this concern. It has clarified that it is certainly appropriate to incorporate in the curriculum opportunities for the students themselves to experience and reflect upon issues and topics discussed from a variety of perspectives. Role-playing and like exercises lend nicely to helping students develop what the author in Jesuit Saturdays coins “sympathetic imagination,” a habit of mind in which one has “the capacity and the desire to put themselves into the world and the world view of other people.”5 In this vein, I have developed a series of experiential opportunities, that is, exercises, for the students in which they role play or perform tasks that require them to discern and distinguish data and different approaches, and apply principles learned in class. Additionally, not only through the experience, but also by questions posed to them, briefly outlined here, they should have the opportunity to reflect upon the impact of the processes they used and the decisions or policy formulated. The questions posed for these exercises include both those that evoke legal analysis, but also introspection and reflection. The latter would include: • How would you react? • How would you feel? • How do you think Mr./Ms. X felt? • What would the company’s reaction to this be? • What strategies could you employ to approach this with the others’ viewpoints in mind? • What dynamics might alter the outcome? • What are obstacles to your taking your desired course of action? What strategies could you use to overcome them? • What policies or standards should your organization have in place to address this? How do you insure they are understood and followed? Downsizing Exercise In this exercise, the company (me) takes a job action with respect to each of the students. For the student, these range from keeping one’s position, to being given a great and apologetic severance package, to being summarily escorted to the door by a security guard. After I hand out the papers containing the students’ fates, they have a chance to discuss in small groups, and then in a large class group, how they feel about the actions, and the possible reasons for them. They would also discuss not only legal considerations but also humanitarian and ethical approaches to terminating employment. Sexual Harassment Policy/Ethics Code Diversity Exercise In these exercises students are asked to develop a Sexual Harassment Policy, and on a separate occasion, an Ethics Code. In the course, through readings and cases, they will have gained exposure, and hopefully an appreciation of the necessity for such a code or policy, as well as the components of an effective one. Allowing them to develop a policy in a class setting in small groups by collaborating should enhance their understanding. To add flavor to the exercise, having students adopt a different corporate role (Human Resources officer, CEO, new employee, disabled employee, non-US native and the like) should help bring home different 5

Excerpted from a 2/7/93 letter to the Editor, Washington Post, by James Walsh, S.J. concerning Georgetown University Professor Joseph S. Sebes.

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perspectives and the need for such developing policies which embrace a variety of concerns and input. (This last exercise builds in part from a student team project.) Continuing Efforts In this vein I plan to continue using two exercises that relate to criminal law, each of which has been well received. However, I plan to add the introspective/reflective component described above. The two exercises are as follows. Grand Jury Subpoena The students are asked to be legal counsel for â&#x20AC;&#x153;Harry Smithâ&#x20AC;?, who has been served with a grand jury subpoena concerning possible corporate fraud. Through this scenario, which develops into a series of unfortunate choices by Harry (and usually by the students!) students get to apply not only legal principles to which they have been exposed through reading and lecture (search and seizure, constitutional rights, privilege, pre-trial discovery). They also have the chance to examine and experience the legal processes from the perspective of the client, the attorney, the business victim, and the prosecution. State v. MacNab This is a second exercise related to criminal law, but focuses on the post-indictment and trial phase of the proceedings. Through a real case, captured on video by ABC NEWS, the students see behind the scenes what it is like to be a criminal defendant, a victim, a defense counsel, and a prosecutor. Students then experience for themselves what it is like to be a juror, as they are called upon to decide MacNabâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s fate on a vehicular manslaughter charge arising from the death of his cousin when he was behind the wheel.

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MANAGEMENT AND ENTREPRENEURSHIP The perceived role of ethics and social responsibility: What factors in the management curriculum influence this perception? Rashmi H. Assudani, PhD Mentor: David Burns, DBA (Marketing) Acknowledgements: I’d like to extend my appreciation to the Ignatian Mentoring Program for providing this opportunity to me. I would also like to express my thanks to my mentor David Burns and Debra Mooney for their tremendous support. Central Idea The current corporate world is riddled with fraud and corporate scandals. Many times the perception of what is ‘ethical’ (or not) may be blurred. This project seeks to examine the factors in the management curriculum that influence the perception of students of ethical and socially responsible business practices. I have started with the hypothesis that if ethics are part of the active discourse in a course, students are likely to be more sensitive to make ethical and socially responsible (business) decisions. I conducted this research in two subsequent semesters in the MGMT 300 (Managerial Behavior) course that I teach at the undergraduate level. Literature In the rise of corporate scandals, graduate business schools are being held responsible for developing ethical business leaders (adapted from Evans, Trevino & Weaver, 2006). From that perspective, it is assumed that a course integrated with ethics is likely to produce conscientious students – students who may be better equipped to handle the vagaries of business decisions in a more informed manner. In the context of Jesuit and Ignatian pedagogy, this project aims to examine whether an active discourse in a course taught to the undergraduate students inspires them to make ethically sound (business) decisions by being attentive and conscious to the decisions they make and by reflecting upon the various stakeholders (shareholders, employees, customers, society at large, natural environment, etc.) their decisions have an impact upon. Course information (MGMT 300 – Managerial Behavior) MGMT 300 (Williams College of Business Undergraduate Core Curriculum) aims to introduce Xavier undergraduate business students to the various aspects of human behavior such as organizational culture, global management, ethics, motivation, diversity, and leadership that influence the complex process of managing any organization. The concepts covered in this course are relevant and applicable to any organization – be it a for-profit company such as Proctor & Gamble or a non-governmental organization such as the American Red Cross or an institution such as any government agency. In its current form, this course first began in 1990, and it currently serves approximately 450 students at XU every year. It focuses on the key question of ‘why do some organizations/managers perform better than others and what explains the failure of some organizations/managers?’ Managing in these turbulent times can be very challenging. Therefore, it is important for managers of today to possess management skills and abilities that can allow them to ensure total organizational effectiveness in an ethical and socially responsible manner. The primary objective of this course is to equip the students with the skills that are needed to be successful managers. Thus, the primary focus of this class is to enable the students to: • Become familiar with the terminology, concepts, research and theory related to Managerial Behavior • Understand the work processes in workplaces and the various challenges that managers face from their various stakeholders • Acquire an enhanced ability to influence these processes in an informed manner, and • Develop the skill-sets required for managing successfully – these include team-work (developing interpersonal relations, communicating, planning, organizing), leadership skills, and skills such as critical thinking (including ethics and strategic thinking) and problem solving.

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As a part of the MGMT 300 course (core course), the final project for students is to examine, in teams, strategies for companies (such as Proctor & Gamble, Pepsi Co., Google) that they select. They act as consultants to these companies, and their role is to advise the company about a possible strategy and its implementation for making the organization more effective. As a part of this project, they collect the information about the internal environment of the company (such as corporate strategy - what business is the company in), other information about the company such as top management, technology issues, ethical issues, economic issues, etc. They also collect information about elements in the external environment of the company (such as competition, customers, suppliers, economic trends, etc.) With the information available to them, the student teams are required to suggest what strategy (or a combination of strategies) will be most appropriate for their company to sustain a competitive advantage. Study In Fall of 2006, the focus on ethics and socially responsible business practices was much less than in Spring 2007. While we discuss ethics and social responsibility in our MGMT 300 class, the students were not necessarily expected to tie the subject matter of ethics in their projects. I administered a survey instrument across 43 students – this instrument examined students’ perception of ethics and social responsibility in the strategies they suggest to these for-profit companies. This is a reliable and a valid scale called the PRESOR (Singhapakdi et al., 1996). Since I had not specifically asked them to consider ethical implications in their final project, I anticipated that the perception of what the students consider an ‘effective’ organization will be more closely tied to the organization’s financial bottom-line than to its ethical and socially responsible strategies/practices. For the Spring 2007 course, I have made substantive changes to the structure of the course. Early in the semester, I discussed a chapter on ethics and social responsibility. Ethics was an important component of our class discussion in other chapters that we covered. I also tied the subject matter of ethics more closely to the final project. The students were specifically asked to consider the ethical implications of their proposed strategy. I will again run the survey instrument closer to the end of the semester across 60 students to examine their perception of ethics and social responsibility in the strategies they have suggested to these for-profit companies. I would anticipate that the perception of the students of an effective organization will be at least as closely tied to the organization’s financial bottom-line as well as to its ethical and socially responsible strategies/practices. Findings This is a longitudinal study across two different semesters—I have just finished collecting the data in May, 2007. Across semester differences will be apparent after the second round of data collection. However, a crude cursory glance at the Fall 2006 data suggests that students perceive that ethics and socially responsible business practices are important for the success of a business. This is contrary to what my anticipation of the findings was. I am curious to see what the data from the Spring 2007 semester suggests and how these two data sets compare with each other. In case there is a substantive difference across the two data sets, I will be drawn to a hypothesis that an active discourse about ethics and socially responsible business practices has an impact on the perception of students. However, should there not be much difference across the two data sets; does that mean that an active discourse is worthless in the classrooms? Perhaps not – this finding will help me develop a hypothesis that macro-level institutional influences such as the ones at a Jesuit university (Xavier) embed the students in an ethical discourse. In that event, both the macro-level institutional forces as well as the micro-level individual courses are important to encourage the conversation of ethics. Together, both of these are likely to encourage the internalization of ethics and social responsibility. Conclusion “…business students believe they can do a better job of serving all stakeholders—of serving society—than today’s business leaders can (The Aspen Institute, 2003). All educators have to do, the students say, is give them the tools to make that happen” (adapted from Samuelson, 2006). This is exactly what my research project is attempting to find out—this project is, therefore, expected to drive our attention to these various factors/tools that can equip the students to make ethically sound decisions.

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MANAGEMENT & ENTREPRENUERSHIP From Pentagon to Heptagon – Making Jesuit Values Pragmatic Ravi Chinta, PhD Mentor: Diane Ceo-DiFrancesco, PhD (Modern Languages) Introduction In light of the changing times, the more competitive nature of higher education, and pressures to increase enrollment to head off economic issues in the long term, the Jesuit university is called upon to examine its mission and long term goals. Jesuit universities, based on a 450 year old model of Jesuit ideals and academic rigor and excellence, must not only sustain this marriage of ideas and excellence, but strengthen their focus to include new growth goals. The reality of this expansion includes increased faculty, employees and students from a wider range of diverse backgrounds. How is it possible to continue to grow in size, yet also grow in the level of commitment to a contemporary vision based on the ideals first set forth by St. Ignacio de Loyola? Great companies are constantly improving, changing and innovating. But researchers have also discovered that what makes these companies great is their stead fast commitment to their mission (Collins and Porras 1994). This position paper will examine the pentagon model set forth by Xavier University President’s Discernment Group (Xavier University, Cincinnati, 2009), and will expand upon the model by integrating aspects of business and management in order to improve the efficiency of the organization while at the same time permitting significant innovation in design and operation. The remainder of this paper is organized into four sections. In the following section, we outline the pentagon model that describes the five Gifts of the Ignatian heritage. Next, we present a heptagon model with innovation and efficiency as two additional vertices that contribute to making the pentagon model more pragmatic. In the third section that follows, we discuss the linkages between the five Gifts and innovation and efficiency. Finally, we present the implications of the heptagon model for practical application. The Pentagon Model Dulles (2007: p.10) states that a gift of grace is conferred not for one’s personal sanctification but for the benefit of others. The President’s Discernment Group at Xavier University identified five expressions or ‘gifts’ of Ignatian Heritage: Mission, Reflection, Discernment, Solidarity and Kinship, and Service Rooted in Justice and Love (Xavier University, Cincinnati, 2009). The Mission of Jesuit universities focuses on academic excellence that is rooted in a Catholic faith tradition. The Gift of Mission, as identified by the discernment group, calls for the university to “attract and nurture students and employees who are interested in understanding and affirming this heritage.” Xavier is part of a network of 28 universities and 52 high schools in the United States, and 160 institutions worldwide, with a heritage dating back to 1548 (Mooney, D., 2002 p. 1). A Jesuit education values academic excellence and rigor, an education that challenges students to reach their fullest potential and “…seeks to develop the whole student-mind, body and spirit” (Jesuit Education and Ignatian Pedagogy, A desktop Primer). The Jesuit value of Magis or more is an integral part of the mission. Magis is “striving for more, striving for excellence,” according to Marik and Mooney, (2004, p. 12) Magis involves passionately working towards excellence, seeking greater knowledge and finding more purposeful ways in which to carry out our life goals and work. “The Latin root excel conveys the sense of rising out or rising above. That’s what excellence is: rising above ourselves, and lifting up those around us, by getting the most from our talents and gifts” (Lowney 2009, p. 80). A Jesuit Education values Cura personalis, “Care of the (Whole, Individual) Person” (Mooney, 2002, p. 2). As part of its mission, faculty at a Jesuit institution must consider the variety of needs of students, both academic and otherwise. Encouraging students to find appropriate ways to deal with stress, to set priorities, to balance work with reflection and to meet the responsibilities of various academic pursuits during the semester, faculty strive to educate and care for the whole person. Finding God in all things, in all circumstances of life is another Jesuit Value inherent in the Mission. This mission challenges faculty, staff and students to consider encounters with others and our environment in a positive manner; to see the good in everything and every experience. Reflection has been identified as another gift of Ignatian Heritage. This gift applies as much today as it did 500 years ago, during the time of the founder of the Jesuits, Ignatius of Loyola. In What do we mean by an Ignatian Vision? Steve Yandell writes “…reflection is the way we discover and compose the meaning of our experience. Reflection is a kind of reality testing” (Yandell, 2005). Luther G. Smith refers to asking a series of self-reflective questions to determine positive results of life experiences (in Mooney, 2002, p. 13). “The Gift of Reflection invites us to pause and consider the world around us and our place within it. It calls us to infuse a culture of attention, reflection and reverence throughout the university” (Traub and Mooney, 2010, p. 36).

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The Gift of Discernment involves a decision making process that has potential application to all aspects of daily living, including professional and personal circumstances. Traub (2009) defines discernment in his glossary of Ignatian terms as “A process for making choices, in a context of (Christian) faith, when the option in not between good and evil, but between several possible courses of action all of which are potentially good” (p. 1). Dr. Tom Merrill writes that the essence of discernment is “To step back or outside the contextual meaning in order to more fully understand spiritual truth beyond the immediate,” (in Mooney, 2002, p. 8). Through the Gift of Discernment applied to one’s life and work, decisions regarding day to day challenges as well as life changing experiences can be seen as positive contributions to our world. The Gift of Solidarity and Kinship is an invitation to learn from all human companions from a variety of backgrounds within and beyond the university setting and to listen and experience life’s many situations alongside others. This gift challenges all to look beyond the influences of pop culture and self-interests in order to become fully involved in the community of the university and beyond. Being alert to the needs of others and aware of how to apply personal skills and knowledge, the Gift of Solidarity and Kinship supports the importance of hands-on learning, experiencing and engaging with others as part of life’s journey. As Peter-Hans Kolvenbach, S.J., stated in his October 6, 2000 address at Santa Clara University, “Solidarity is learned through ‘contact’ rather than through ‘concepts’(in Traub, 2009, p. 10). The final gift of Ignatian heritage is the Gift of Service Rooted in Justice and Love. This gift presents an invitation to “community engagement as an expression of faith that promotes justice” (Traub and Mooney, 2010, p. 36). Saint Ignatius wanted love to be present not only in words, but also in deeds. This means he calls for us to be responsive to those who unjustly suffer. The Gift of Service Rooted in Justice and Love calls us to be present in society to intellectually represent those who are unable to do so themselves (Ellacuría, 2001). With this gift comes the realization that we have the responsibility to pay attention to the social repercussions of our actions or lack thereof on society. “With the help of others and especially the poor, we want to play our role as students, as teachers and researchers, and as Jesuit university in society,” (Kolenbach, p. 160). Need to Enhance the Pentagon Model The five Gifts pentagon model of the Ignatian heritage described above is an excellent conceptual map that provides guidance for anyone willing to put into practice the Ignatian values. Mission lays the foundation for academic excellence grounded in a Catholic faith tradition. Reflection allows for one to pause considering the world around. Discernment invokes God’s spirit to emphasize rational thought in decision making. Finally, solidarity and kinship along with service rooted in justice and love touch on nurturing relationships and providing contributions to society. Learning results from what an individual thinks and does and only from what the individual does and thinks (Pascarella and Terenzini, 2005). Taken together, the five Gifts laid out in the pentagon model provide the basis for understanding the Ignatian heritage and enabling an individual to engage in Ignatian spirituality. However, the pentagon model falls short in several aspects, and identifying these gaps is a necessary prelude to enhancing the effectiveness of the pentagon model. First, while all the five Gifts work effectively as an integrated set, individually each of them can become ineffective to achieve the desired end result of creating positive change in either internal or external environments. Kirby et al. (2006) detail the experiences of a department of six faculty members in negotiating spirituality in a Jesuit, Catholic university, only to uncover contradictory conditions that confounded their experiences with little guidance. Second, goal setting for each of the five Gifts of the Ignatian heritage is not well defined, and this leads to the next problem. Third, measurement of progress in each of the five Gifts of the Ignatian heritage is either not explicitly specified or easy to accomplish. Fourth, the five Gifts pentagon model does not specify any process that can guide an individual to take a step-by-step approach, going from mission to service rooted in justice and love. In summary, while the pentagon model is conceptually elegant and self-explanatory, it is also discursive and requires further elaboration to enhance its capacity for pragmatic guidance. It is essential to give meaning to theoretical concepts to facilitate their use in practice. A number of experimentally controlled studies suggest that the degree of flexible adaptation to new settings is related to the degree to which concepts, procedures and tool designs are understood by learners rather than simply learned by rote (e.g., Adams et al., 1988; Bransford, Zech, Schwartz et al., 2000). A theory must illuminate, explain and guide practice and, if it cannot do those things it is not a theory – neither good nor bad. Wishes and hopes are not theory. Sermons and preaching are not theory either. Broudy (1977) discusses the “replicative,” “applicative,” and “interpretive” aspects of knowing and notes that most assessments have focused almost exclusively on the first two. Broudy (1977) recommends that more interpretive enhancements of theories are needed to make them useful to society. Our paper is an interpretive enhancement. We propose that the five Gifts pentagon model can be enhanced by adding two extra lenses through which the pentagon model must be viewed. By making use of two key concepts from the business management knowledge, we argue that the pentagon model can be made more pragmatic. In particular, we aver that innovation and efficiency are two business concepts that can be used in conjunction with the five Gifts pentagon model. By wedding business management knowledge with the spiritual knowledge exemplified by 116


Ignatian values, we believe that the shortfalls identified in the five Gifts pentagon model can be addressed adequately. In essence, we make the pentagon model into a heptagon model. Before we present the heptagon model (which is the pentagon model plus innovation and efficiency), we wish to address why we chose these two business concepts for our paper. Innovation and Efficiency We believe that the gaps identified in the pentagon model would be best addressed by the inclusion of innovation and efficiency as two new lenses that provide several benefits, namely, a structured goal setting process, a tool for measuring progress, and a well-defined future orientation for our work. However, we humans are limited in our knowledge. “The economic problem of society,” according to Friedrich Hayek, “is the problem of utilization of knowledge not given to anyone in its totality (1945: p.520). The same argument that Hayek has made about society holds true for organizations and even individuals. Humans are not omniscient Gods, that is, they are limited in their knowledge about future. While we know the past and present relatively better than the future, one significant task for us in the present is essentially on how to change the status-quo for the better, given our limited knowledge about the future. Innovation and efficiency are two business concepts that capture this ambivalence (the temporal balancing across present and future time frames) suffered by organizations and individuals. Efficiency is predominantly focused on improving the status-quo, while innovation is predominantly focused on developing change to create the future state/s. Both are essential for a firm since survival is a prerequisite for advancement into future. Sun Tzu (1963 translation) elegantly put this conundrum of temporal tension best when he exhorted, “Survive before you advance, or else nothing matters.” Business management knowledge suggests that an organization that is not adequately enabling and motivating new possibilities is more likely to witness its own decline – a destruction of its own economic structure that will have been induced from within (Moran and Ghoshal, 1999: p.410). Every organization is in a constant state of vigorous but creative tension, as suggested by Joseph Schumpeter (1942), to innovate for future time periods, and at the same time to survive in the present time period. In this familiar evolutionary process, a firm creates and realizes new value and markets, while gradually “handing on the fruits of progress” to others in older markets (Schumpeter, 1947: p.155). In other words, sustainable growth is the talisman for effective firms; and sustainable growth can only be achieved through innovation and efficiency. Enhanced Heptagon Model We believe that our heptagon model is not a mere nuanced theoretical enhancement of the pentagon model, but is an essential extension that makes the original model more pragmatic. To be pragmatically useful to individuals, a theory must be grounded in a deep understanding of the logic that allows easy translation of the theory into practice. Innovation and efficiency are key “implementation” variables that are widely used to assess the capacity for survival and adaptation of organizations in changing environments. Our expanded heptagon model is capable of effectively tapping and channeling the vast and largely unexploited reserves of human knowledge and aspirations through innovation (creating tomorrow’s world) and efficiency (managing today’s world). Efficiency seems to be important in all domains. It includes a high degree of consistency (lack of variability) that maximizes success and minimizes failure. Business programs like Six Sigma provide a good example of how efficiency is relevant to organizations as well as to individuals (e.g., Pande, Neuman, & Cavanagh, 2000). People who are high on efficiency can rapidly retrieve and accurately apply appropriate knowledge and skills to solve a problem or understand an explanation. Examples include experts who have a great deal of experience with certain types of problems; for example doctors who have seen many instances of diseases in many different people or who have frequently performed a particular type of surgery. They can diagnose and treat a new patient quickly and effectively. When choosing a surgeon for a particular procedure, many potential patients wisely ask, “How many of these have you successfully performed previously?” Cost reductions, processes automation, cycle time reductions, faster assets turnover, just-in-time supply chains, total quality management (TQM) and continuous improvement projects are all part of the extensive empirical research in business on efficiency. “Faster, better and cheaper” is the clarion call in the realm of efficiency. However, there are also potential downsides of an overemphasis on efficiency. For example, Hatano & Oura (2003) discuss “routine experts” who become very good at solving particular sets of problems but do not continue to learn throughout their lifetimes (except in the sense of becoming even more efficient at their old routines). This is where an emphasis on innovation comes into play. Our argument is not to eliminate efficiency but to complement it so that people can adapt optimally. In short, we assume that efficiency does not have to be the enemy of innovation and creativity (e.g. Bransford & Stein, 1993). Innovation is often preceded by a sense of disequilibrium that signals that certain processes or ways of thinking (e.g., previously learned routines) are not quite working properly. At other times, new ideas may simply emerge from interactions with tools and people without a prior sense that something was wrong or needed to be fixed. New products, new markets, new technologies, new businesses, new management paradigms and out-of-the-box thinking mark the considerable empirical research in business on innovation. Future-perfect (ex: we will have done X or Y in 10 years) thinking is the first step in abstraction before future visions are actualized in concrete experience/s (Kolb and Kolb, 2005). Scenario planning is a major activity in strategic planning exercises in large corporations. Figure 2 below depicts our heptagon model utilizing innovation and efficiency as the two new nodes. 117


In Table 1 below, we show with examples how efficiency and innovation concepts can make the five Gifts of the Ignatian heritage more practical. Table 1: Innovation and Efficiency as Two Lenses Efficiency Innovation Mission Current mission of Xavier University focuses on The current mission can be enhanced by broaden educating students intellectually, morally and ing its scope. For example, instead of focusing on spiritually. Translating this mission into action the surrounding community, the focus could incl is demonstrated by the university’s emphasis on ude a more global definition of community (not academic excellence and purposeful work to carry merely new new geographies, but also conceptual out one’s goals. This means rising above ourselves enhancements). The green movement of and getting the most from our talents and gifts today and sustainability could become a while lifting up others. Dessler (1999) suggested more integral and explicit part of the miss that one way to build commitment to an organization ion. Communicating the mission to graduate is to communicate a clear mission and ideology. students, often missed in this real, would be an important enhancement to the cur rent mission. Students will become the ambassadors to carry out the university mission in the global community. While broadening the current mission, one must preserve the core and stimulate progress, Identify the core nonnegotiable and then cultivate strategic freedom to change every thing else as circumstances require. Innova tion in mission should make the university more adaptable to changes in external envi ronment so that the university becomes a long-lived entity. Reflection This is best illustrated by the concept of the “examen” first developed by Ignatius in the 16th century, wherein one pauses during one’s day to reflect upon the context in which one lives. A candid, analytical introspection would surface potential gaps and identify probable strategies to make the current “ways of life” more efficient. Interestingly, the Harvard Business School has developed “staying the course” methodology to make current processes more efficient (Lowney, 2009: p.176).

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Innovation in reflection is essentially the same process of reflection repeated for future time frames. This is essential because no one needs to continuously monitor progress in order to ensure effective implementation strategies. “No action plan can foresee the many obstacles and changing conditions that people will face over the weeks and months it takes to implement a strategy” (Lueke, 2006, pp.96-97). Setting up a process for continuously scanning and monitoring the external and internal environments is a key activity here. For example, dialogue meetings with external and internal stakeholders, external speakers and experts visiting the university, forward looking strategy sessions, delegation of goals setting processes to individual levels and course enhancements would be some ways to perform the task of innovative reflection. Critiques based on candid introspection of our current ways and conduct must be encouraged.


Discernment Discernment is “a process for making choices, in a context of (Christian) faith, when the option is not between good and evil, but between several possible courses of action all of which are potentially good” (Traub, 2009). This is a decision making process that has implications for direct connection between professional and personal circumstances. The whole subject of ethics in business centers around efficient discernment wherein God’s spirit is invoked effortlessly in all we do. Solidarity & Kinship Efficient solidarity and kinship means that the university should engage with both external and internal stakeholders in ways that are continuously becoming faster, better and cheaper. Some examples are engaging the growing alumni in strategic projects such as fund raising or community engagement for student involvement or faculty research. Continuous improvement of current processes and waste elimination must be pursued by building on existing experiences instead of constantly creating new programs.

Innovation in the discernment process involves broadening the Catholic perspective through which God’s spirit is invoked to multi-faith invocation. This recognizes that God’s spirit transcends all faiths, and that for global communities to benefit from the gift of discernment it is vital to find the omnipresent God’s spirit as a rich resource available for all and in all faiths. Being a good human is possible in being a good Christian, or Hindu, or Muslim or Jew or Buddhist, or ethical humanist or one in any other faith. The walls of narrow, separate religions within our hearts must be broken down. Already, Catholic churches are recognizing this inevitable trend, and we witness multi-faith congregations even in churches. Inclusiveness is the critical ingredient in innovative discernment. Multistakeholder partnerships (ex: community engagement) would provide alternative perspectives and perhaps lead to paradigm changes that may be necessary for the advancement of the university. Extensive research in business establishes that cross-cultural differences exist across US and Asian nations, in particular, in relationship management (Zahra, 2005). Solidarity is learned through contacts rather than through concepts (Kolvenbach, 2008). Funding for greater networking with community partners and subsequent course enhancements should become a critical activity for innovation in solidarity and kinship. Making use of web technologies to globalize the scope of external communities and communities and communicating with them with social networking tools such as Skype, Facebook, Twitter or LinkedIn will become an integral part of this activity. Facilitating useful interactions with both internal and external stakeholders on a continuous basis will be essential for implementing innovation in relationships management. Viewing the world through the stakeholders’ eyes and constantly seeking to create more value for to them will be an important aspect of innovation.

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Service rooted in Justice and Love The gift of service rooted in justice and love Innovation in service rooted in justice and essentially calls us to be present in society to love goes beyond merely being efficient at intellectually represent those who are unable it in the present, but being genuinely to do so for themselves, e.g., the downtrodden future-oriented. Concepts such as sustain in society and also the future (unborn) genera- ability, bottom-of-the-pyramid, eco-design, tions (Ellacuria, 2001). However, to be efficient multi-stakeholder partnerships, and triple in such representation, one has to first become bottomline are becoming more popular in aware of those who need such assistance. This business terminology. One has to progress requires a solid understanding of the inequities from awareness of inequities and injustices, and injustices in society (intra-university; comm- and exert efforts to correct the inequities unities contiguous to the university and global and injustices in society. This has to be a communities as well) and the ability to prioritize continuous and integrated process rather in order to choose and focus efforts of the univer- than a sporadic one. For example, the temp sity. tation to start an initiative by establishing a center that then gradually withers away must be avoided. We can also be innova tive by applying other gifts such as reflec tion and discernment to ensure that our service efforts are relevant and futuristic to make the society better. This requires a thorough understanding of the social re percussions of all of our decisions within the university, both intended as well as unintended consequences. For example, the meals served and how they are served have ecological impact (sustainability) that needs to be considered. Contributing to society is a culmination of all the gifts of our Ignatian heritage. The ‘efficiency’ lense improves our perspective on the original five Gifts of the Ignatian Heritage by emphasizing the current time frame in which they manifest themselves. The intended result would be greater efficiencies in all of our current activities. For example, cost reductions, waste reductions, process improvements, more efficient communication channels, and doing more with less in all the facets of current lives. The ‘innovation’ lense improves our perspective on the original five Gifts of the Ignatian Heritage by emphasizing the future time frames in which they will impact our lives. For example, new business processes, new leadership initiatives, new curricula, new geographies, new partnerships, new demographic markets, and new visions, etc. Our main thesis in this paper is to provide a temporal backbone that spans the present and the future time frames for the five Gifts of the Ignatian heritage. We believe efficiency and innovation as two lenses provide this structural basis and therefore the heptagon model is an enhancement to the original pentagon model. Conclusion In the above paragraphs we summarized the pentagon model (the five Gifts of the Ignatian heritage), we described how innovation and efficiency has two additional lenses, we outlined the heptagon model and finally we discussed the linkages between the five Gifts and efficiency and innovation. In his book – Scholarship Reconsidered – Boyer (1990) described four kinds of scholarship: the scholarship of discovery (research), the scholarship of integration (synthesis), the scholarship of practice (application), and the scholarship of teaching (pedagogy). Furthermore Weick (1989) suggested a fifth stream by defining the scholarship of common sense as the epistemology of disciplined imagination. Our enhanced heptagon model, we believe, demonstrates scholarship of practice and disciplined and pragmatic imagination. Kurt Lewin argued that “nothing is as practical as a good theory” (1945: 129). We contend that the obverse is equally true. Nothing is as impractical as an abstruse theory. It is thus essential that any attempts to strengthen the link between theory and practice must be strongly encouraged. Our paper is one such effort. The five Gifts of the Ignatian heritage provide the basis for such intimate connection with God. Yet this spiritual knowledge remains abstruse. When combined with business knowledge, it enlightens an individual with pragmatic guidelines in terms of innovation and efficiency as lenses for deeper insights. Applying Ignatian guidelines is an inherently social enterprise which constantly impacts families, communities, nations and the global community, not only in the present time, but also in future time frames. 120


References Adams, L., Kasserman, J., Yearwood, A., Perfetto, G., Bransford, J., & Franks, J. (1988) “The effects of facts versus problem-oriented acquisition” Memory & Cognition, 16, 167-175. Boyer, E.L. (1990) “Scholarship reconsidered: Priorities of the Professoriate” Princeton, NJ: The Carnegie Foundation for the Advance ment of Teaching. Bransford, J. D., Zech, L., Schwartz, D. L., Barron, B. J., Vye, N., & CTGV. (2000) “Design environments that invite and sustain mathematical thinking” In P. Cobb (Ed.) “Symbolizing and Communicating in Mathematics Classrooms” (pp. 275-324). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. Bransford, J.D. and Stein, B.S. (1993). The Ideal Problem Solver (2nd Ed). New York: Freeman. Broudy, H. S. (1977) “Types of knowledge and purposes of education” In R. C. Anderson, R. J., Spiro, & W. E. Montague (Eds.), “Schooling and the acquisition of knowledge” (pp. 1-17). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Collins, J. and Porras, J.I. (1994) “Built to Last: Successful Habits of Visionary Companies” Harper Collins, New York, NY: Harper Busi ness (p. 89). Dessler, G. (1999) “How to Earn Your Employees’ Commitment” Academy of Management Executive. 13(2), 58-68. Dulles, A. (2007) “The Ignatian charism at the dawn of the 21st century” Jesuit Journeys. 15(2): 10-15. Ellacuría, I. (1982) “The Task of the Christian University” Convocation Address at the University of Santa Clara, June 12, 1982; Una Universidad para el puebo,” Diakonia 6, no. 23 (pp. 5 p.5. reference Hatano, G., & Oura, Y. (2003) “Commentary: Reconceptualizing school learning using insight from expertise research” Educational Researcher, 32 (8), 26–29 Hayek, F.A. (1945) “The Use of Knowledge in Society” American Economic Review. 35(4): 519-530. Kirby, E.L., McBride, M.C., Shuler, S., Birkholt, M.J., Danielson, MA and Pawlowski, D.R. (2006) “The Jesuit Difference (?): Narra tives of Negotiating Spiritual Values and Secular Practices” Communication Studies, 57(1): 87 – 105. Kolb, A.Y., & Kolb, D.A. (2005) “Experiential Learning Theory Bibliography” Experience Based Learning System, Inc. Cleveland, OH. Kolenbach, P. (2008) “The Service of Faith and the Promotion of Justice in American Jesuit Higher Education” In G. W. Traub, SJ (Ed.), “A Jesuit Education Reader” ( pp. 144-161) Chicago, IL: Loyola University Press. Lewin, K. (1945)” The research center for group dynamics at Massachusetts Institute of Technology” Sociometry. 8:126-135. Lowney, C. (2009) “Heroic Living” Chicago, IL: Loyola University Press. Luecke, R. (2006) “Decision making: 5 Steps to Better Results” Boston: Havard Business School Press. Moran, P. and Ghoshal, S. (1999) “Markets, Firms, and the Process of Economic Development” Academy of Management Review, 24(3): 390-412. Marik, P. and Mooney, D. (2004) “Cura What?” Cincinnati, OH: Ignatian Programs, Xavier University (page 3). Mooney, D. (2002) “Do You Walk Ignatian?: A Compilation of Jesuit Values Expressed in the Work Day” Cincinnati, OH: Xavier Univer sity, Mission and Identity. Jesuit Education and Pedagogy (2010) “A Desktop Primer” Cincinnati, OH: Xavier University, Division of Mission and Identity. Pande, P. S., Neuman, R. P., & Cavanagh, R. R. (2000) “The Six Sigma way: how GE, Motorola, and other top companies are honing their performance” New York: McGraw-Hill. Pascarella, E.T. & Terenzini, P. (2005) “How College Affects Students” San Francisco: Jossey Bass. Schumpeter, J. (1942) “Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy” London: Unwin University Press. Schumpeter, J. (1947) “The creative response in economic history” Journal of Economic History, 7: 149-159. Sun Tzu. (1963 Translation) “The Art of War” Translated by Samuel B. Griffeth. Oxford University Press. Traub, G.W. (2008) “A Jesuit Education Reader” Chicago, IL: Loyola Press. (page 4). Traub, G.W. and D.K. Mooney (2010) “Ignatian Spirituality among the Professors” Conversations on Jesuit Higher Education., Spring 2010, Number 37, pp.35-38. Weick, K.E. (1989) “Theory construction as disciplined imagination” Academy of Management Review, 14: 516-531. Xavier University Cincinnati (2009). Report to the President. p.2 reference. Yandell, S. (2005) “What Do We Mean by the Ignatian Vision?” Unpublished paper, Xavier University. Zahra, S.A. (2005) “A theory of international joint ventures: A decade of research” Journal of International Business Studies, 36(1), 20-28. Paper presented at the 17th Annual International Conference on Advances in Management, Atlanta, GA, July 14-17, 2010 by Drs. Ravi Chinta, Diane Ceo-DiFrancesco and Debra Mooney.

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MANAGEMENT AND ENTREPRENEURSHIP Development of an Alternative Spring Break Experience Focusing on Social Entrepreneurship and Discernment Rebecca Luce, PhD Mentor: Stephanie Brzuzy, PhD (Social Work) Acknowledgements I would like to thank both Stephanie Brzuzy and Debra Mooney for their enthusiasm and support in working on the ideas for this program, especially as it relates to information and suggestions regarding incorporation of the Jesuit tradition of discernment. Discernment was an unknown process to me when I began work on this project and it has become a topic of substantial interest since I have been introduced to it by both Stephanie and Debra. I expect it to have a lasting influence on the way I make decisions and evaluate the course of my life. Overview of Alternative Spring Break Experience This alternative spring break experience is designed to have equal numbers of students from Social Work and Management/Entrepreneurship working together in pairs on a social entrepreneurship project over the course of the week of spring break. The joining of students from both departments represents the two aspects of the field of social entrepreneurship, which is typically defined as the application of entrepreneurial principles to the achievement of social objectives. By having students of each discipline working together to help achieve social goals, each will have the opportunity to learn from the other, while producing a beneficial outcome in the social sector. The students will be housed at a retreat location for the week, away from their typical daily environments in the Cincinnati area or on campus, so they are fully immersed in the program for its duration. Potential Projects Students may be assigned to work on a social entrepreneurship project associated with alleviating a social problem in an underprivileged context such as a neighborhood or community which is in need of some support to achieve a desired end. They may also be assigned to work with local entrepreneurs in need of social and entrepreneurial expertise to assist in getting their businesses off the ground. Another alternative would be to provide support and assistance for a nonprofit organization in seeking funds and/or in assessing its performance. Projects for at least the first year of the program will be in the Cincinnati area. Nominations for the project will be sought from local organizations and campus sources. Potential Structure of the Alternative Spring Break Initial Weekend Saturday and Sunday preceding the social entrepreneurship project will be spent in workshops and events to increase teambuilding and self awareness among the participants. Potential activities include a Strengths Assessment Workshop conducted by Tim Kloppenborg of the Management and Entrepreneurship Department. This workshop would help students develop personal consciousness of their strengths as individuals and present an opportunity for them to share this information with others. This would be particularly helpful as an initial exercise in preparation for the discernment component of the program. Other potential workshops for the initial weekend period include (1) an introduction to the social entrepreneurship project for the upcoming week, (2) material and activities related to social entrepreneurship and (3) speakers and activities regarding the process of discernment. Evening hours would be spent in activities encouraging participants to become familiar with each other’s backgrounds and interests, as well as discussions of anticipated outcomes of the program. Weekdays The tentative structure of the weekday time for the students’ alternative spring break is as follows: Morning: Classroom time on social entrepreneurship, discernment, project site Afternoon: Work at project site Dinner: Debrief and discussion of day’s activities; guest speakers Evening: Time for discernment journaling and group discussion 122


Discernment Component of Program Because of the nature of the program, focusing on accomplishing social objectives through the use of entrepreneurial techniques, the Jesuit process of discernment is a complementary activity that will help students reflect on what they are learning and how it may be changing their views of what is important to them in their lives. Discernment can take on a variety of forms, but according to the writings of Elizabeth Liebert in The Way of Discernment (2001), discernment literally means discrimination; in this case, faithful discrimination related to decision making. Discernment is a process of assessing how one’s desires and decisions fit into God’s life plan for us as individuals. “Because our identity is formed in part through our decisions, the making of decisions is actually a privileged moment for growing in discipleship” (Liebert, 2001: 7). The process of discernment provides a semi-structured means to examine one’s life experiences and decisions in a way that attends to the wishes of God for us. To be effective, discernment relies on noticing and awareness of one’s surroundings, which is an avenue for students to incorporate their social entrepreneurship experiences into their personal discernment journeys. A journal will be designed for use during the program which will guide students through a series of thought provoking discernment questions that they can use to reflect on the day’s experiences as well as the decisions they face in their lives. In addition to personal journaling, group discernment activities that involve sharing individual observations (in a way that is comfortable for each person) will help bring participants closer to each other and provide an opportunity to learn more about the discernment process. Conclusion The social entrepreneurship alternative spring break program is designed to provide a unique dual opportunity for students: to work on a meaningful project that incorporates partnering with a student from a sister discipline at Xavier as well as to gain personal awareness of their life direction through the Jesuit tradition of discernment.

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MANAGEMENT AND ENTREPRENEURSHIP Ethics in Business Data Mining Greg Smith, PhD Mentor: David Burns, DBA (Marketing) For the Spring 2007 semester, I was asked to teach an introductory course in data mining for undergraduate business majors (INFO329/MKTG329 Data Mining). This was the second time a data mining course was included in the curriculum, but the first time in three years. The challenge was designing a course that provided both practical applications and ethical considerations. The course introduced students, for the first time, to emerging techniques that are ethically neutral, but potentially harmful when humans are left to the design. What Is Data Mining? For purposes of an introductory data mining class, data mining is the employment of machine learning to analyze data from many different perspectives and the summarization of the relationships identified. For business purposes, this information is to be used to improve overall business performance. We see the wonderful results of data mining everyday. But, as helpful as data mining can be in improving our lives (i.e. better shopping experiences, election coverage, Google, etc.), it can have the opposite effect if mishandled or used in a harmful way (i.e. spam, junk mail, pop-up ads, etc.). Course Vision My vision of this course was to present and discuss data mining technologies and their applications in an effort to better support business decisions. I allotted time at the end of the term for ethical considerations to the practice through readings, lecture, and discussion. Upon completion of this course, my hope was that students were able to: • Understand popular data mining techniques, how to apply them, and when they are applicable • Utilize a state-of-the-art commercial data mining package • Apply popular data mining techniques to solve “real-world” problems • Recognize the ethical and social impacts of data mining on our society. Original Course Ethics Component The original course component covered one class period Readings The course reading on ethical data mining was drawn directly from our class text and briefly covered two aspects: • The hazards of data mining, specifically governmental uses and misuses primarily since September 11, 2001, • Web based data mining issues. Lecture The lecture component tied together ethical issues of data mining business applications. Several “real-world” examples of socially responsible and irresponsible data mining were presented along with the tools used to develop the new knowledge. Discussion The discussion focused on how to be socially aware and responsible data miners who are attuned to the effects of data mining on our daily lives. Redesigned Course Ethics Component While the original course ethics component was a vital piece, I found my approach insufficient. I thought it necessary to strengthen the component with additional student-centric content for the following year’s section. So, to enable the change for the Spring 2008 semester, I surveyed an undergraduate section of business statistics, similar in student demographic characteristics to those in an undergraduate data mining class, about their views on data mining ethics from a shopper’s perspective on easily recognizable topics. Through conversations with David Burns, I designed a short online questionnaire. The following is a sample of survey questions. SHOPPER CARDS • Do you use a store shopper card for discounts, such as a grocery plus card? a) If so, did you read the user agreement? b) Are you aware of how your store transaction data is being used? • Do you know if personal information (including: who you are, what you buy, etc.) is being “sold”? 124


ONLINE • Have you ever purchased anything from Amazon.com? a) If so, did you read the user agreement? b) Have you taken advantage of their personalized suggestions? • Have you ever filled out a web form (online form) of any sort to gain access to information you needed (online newspapers, free downloads, websites such as Myspace, etc.)? a) If so, did you read the user agreement? b) Have you recommended other individuals to this site? My intent was to draw basic feelings, knowledge, and current practices of students when using services designed for data mining to improve the ethics component. As with the original course ethics component, I allotted time at the end of the term for redesigned component. The redesigned component stretched over a week of class and allowed for a natural wrap-up of the course. Readings In addition to content drawn directly from our class text, I was able to assign suitable readings for the component that included practical pieces tailored to student consumers. Lecture The revised lecture continued to tie together ethical issues of “real-world” data mining business applications. In addition, I invited guest speakers from dunnhumby, inc. to present on their company, its vision and practice, and the considerations that it has for consumers in the United States and around the world. The experience added depth to students’ knowledge base and exposed them to current applications and social limitations of data mining. Discussion The revised discussion expanded the view of socially responsible data mining. In addition, we viewed the University of Notre Dame’ Mendoza College of Business 2007/2008 Berges Lecture Series in Business Ethics discussion titled: “Data Mining: Business, Ethical and Societal Considerations: A Panel Discussion” from September 11, 2007 to the component. This first-of-its-kind forum covered data mining ethics from a management, marketing, and information systems perspective. Ethics Assignment (New) With a growing mental tool-box of data mining ethical knowledge, students were challenged to consider a current data mining opportunity for Xavier University as several off-campus businesses (Chipotle, Donatos, CVS, etc.) started accepting ALL CARDS for purchases. The students were asked to ponder the potential mining opportunities for Xavier University through transactional data that could be captured and how it could aid both the University and its students. The students were asked to address the situation as both socially responsible and irresponsible practitioners. Instructor Reflections The change to the component presented a unique challenge as the field is still in its infancy with discussions and literature on ethics sparsely available. The pieces that I included broadened the in-class discussion from the original component and exposed the students to new considerations for knowledge discovery. The assignment gave students an opportunity to see data mining from both a practitioner and consumer standpoint. As a group they appeared to display a keen sense of social responsibility from both sides. I plan to use the redesigned component for upcoming classes and adapt the piece for the graduate curriculum.

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MANAGEMENT AND ENTREPRENEURSHIP Can Ethics Be Taught in Operations Management Course? Lifang Wu, PhD. Mentor: Peter Bycio, PhD (Management and Entrepreneurship) Course Information (MGMT 903 Operations Management) Operations Management refers to the systematic design, direction, and control of processes that transform inputs into services and products for external, as well as internal customers. The course is one of the few MBA core courses required by AACSB. Usually, various concepts and decision-making models related to issues such as operations strategy, process improvement, quality control, inventory, and supply chain management are introduced. The main purpose of this course is to provide XU MBA students with a thorough introduction to the concepts and skills needed to understand the role of the operations in the success of an organization, to lead efforts and make appropriate decisions in the operations functions of their organizations, and to analyze and improve various business processes. Background Business ethics education has received renewed interest as a result of corporate and other scandals around the world. When providing the education and training for future managers business schools clearly have a responsibility to acquaint their students with the ethical challenges they will face in the real business world (Felton and Sims 2005). Many critics believe business schools neglected ethics lessons in the past and virtually allowed students to go to practically any lengths to increase corporate profits (Yes, we teach a lot of techniques about minimizing cost or maximizing profit.) With the wake-up calls of ethical scandals, improving ethics teaching in business schools is becoming an increasingly imperative task (Stewart et al. 1996). For example, AACSB has focused attention on ethics teaching through its ethics initiatives, and in 2003 it revised accreditation standards regarding ethics. However, the need for more ethics coverage seems most acutely felt by students and employers. See, for example, the recent MBA cheating scandal at Duke University (Conlin 2007). On the other hand, concerns still continue to arise about what to teach, who can teach, how to teach and how to assess the impact and effectiveness of ethics education. It is not the intent of this article to try to answer all these questions. Instead, we will focus on addressing one question: Can we teach ethics in operations class? It is generally agreed that teaching business ethics should be an integral part of business curriculum through offering stand-alone ethics courses and incorporating ethics into various functional courses. However, the reality is many schools lack both a dedicated course and an effective integration of ethics in the curriculum. Teaching business ethics in operations management presents several challenges. First of all, ethics did not receive close attention until recently, and many operations professors do not have the motivation and do not feel adequately prepared for teaching ethics. For example, many faculty members pursued their academic degrees directly from school to school, with no practical working experience in industry and little training in ethics or law. With the limitation of resources, asking them to develop expertise and teach ethics could be a tough sell. Secondly, the issue of integrating ethics into various core business courses is still an unresolved problem in general. Thirdly, many faculty are reluctant to give away precious class time to ethics topics, and do not want to squeeze ethics lessons into an already jam-packed syllabus simply because of the time constraint. Finally, there is also frequent debate about whether college students can benefit from an ethics class. The point is: will they change their moral compass after taking the class? As a result, many schools are struggling with how to make ethics an effective part of the curriculum. Teaching Ethics in OM Many scholars argue that ethics should be directly incorporated into key business courses and taught by the core business faculty (Dunfee and Robertson 1988). Stewart et al. (1996) also found that most business majors preferred to have ethics integrated into a number of courses rather than a separate course. The basic understanding is usually that ethics should be carried beyond separate elective courses and directly incorporated into key core MBA courses, and that functional faculty must be actively involved in teaching about business ethics. Along this line of logic, this work responds to the need of integrating ethics into operations management course by conducting an experiment for a pedagogical purpose. Three sections of an MBA operations management class were offered in Spring 2007 (MGMT 903 sections 03A, F2, and 01A) in which 99 students overall were studied. The teaching objectives of the experiment are as follows: 1. Increase studentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; awareness of ethical issues in global supply chain management. 2. Be aware of various interests of different stakeholders. 3. Help them make informed and well-balanced ethical operational decisions. 126


Due to the time limitation of this two hour class (seven meetings of three and half hours), ethics topics were taught for about 60 minutes all together in two class sessions. One session was at the beginning of the class covering the global operations strategy issue and the other was in the last class covering international supply chain management ethical issues. Students also read one ethics case after class (“Secrets, Lies, and Sweatshops: How Chinese Suppliers Hide the Truth from U.S. Companies”, Business Week, November 27, 2006). Specifically, the following topics were discussed: 1. Business process offshoring a) Many “Made in USA” (labor intensive) products are not competitive because of the high labor cost. b) Unethical practices are everywhere, not just in some foreign countries. c) Business offshoring created some individual losers. But it also increased the purchasing power for US dollars in the domes tic market (because of the lower price for imported products). d) Business should be operated within a feasible region where every stakeholder is taken care of. Being lawful is not enough. Pursuing one or two goals (e.g., low cost) excessively by hurting other stakeholders’ interests is unethical. 2. Job elimination and creation a) Be aware that one lost job can potentially create a dozen jobs in some developing countries which supports families around the globe. And yes, we also know the loss of jobs in the US disrupts many local communities. 3. Corporate social responsibilities a) As managers, we need to take care of all stakeholders, thus just getting “good quality low price” is not good enough. 4. Labor market in foreign countries a) Be aware of the differences in everything: e.g., language, culture, legal system, immature market and, the legal systems in many countries are either highly biased or simply not working. b) Insights from the Business Week case: Labor inspection is not working in many countries because of the widely-spread counter-inspection practices. 5. It is hard to make a 100% “right” ethical decision. Remember one word: Balance. Results The materials were generally welcomed by the MBA students. It was relatively easy to lead lively discussion on most of the topics listed above. In order to verify the teaching effectiveness of this one hour, we designed a survey form to test students’ understanding on the issues we covered. The survey, adapted from an instrument developed and validated by Froelich and Kottke (1991), was designed to assess an individual’s perceptions of appropriate and inappropriate ethical behavior. Each item was a statement that suggested questionable behavior in ethical situations. Subjects were asked to respond to each item twice, once as they believed the typical business person would respond and again according to what they believed the ethical response would be. They were instructed to assume that the typical business person was a mid- or upper-level manager within a small or large company. The term ethical response referred to behavior that is not only legal but also honest, fair, and socially responsible. Values of 1 to 7 (strongly agree to strongly disagree) were assigned to the responses. Respondents were not asked to give their own answers regarding the ethical situations. It was believed that more accurate responses would be obtained by asking what the ethical should be and also their impression of the typical business practice. We found the following results from the survey: 1. There were significant differences between what the ethical practice was viewed to be, relative to what the typical business practice was seen as. 2. However, the ethics materials presented as part of the class did not produce statistically meaningful changes [as assessed via pre- and post-teaching surveys] in perspectives concerning these issues. 3. Slight improvement was identified for many items we explicitly discussed in the class. 4. For items we did not address directly, the survey results are purely random. There was no positive gain at all. There were at least two major findings from this experiment. One, that business ethics can be successfully integrated as a topic in the operations management class. Two, adult student views concerning ethics do not change easily. Still, from the instructors’ perspective, there was positive improvement in students’ awareness and understanding for the issues. Future experimental efforts will focus on spending a similar amount of class time on a smaller, more targeted set of supply chain ethical issues.

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References Felton, E.L. and R.R. Sims. 2005. Teaching Business Ethics: Targeted Outputs. Journal of Business Ethics, 60: 377-391. Froelich, K.S. and J.L. Kottke. 1991. Measuring Individual Beliefs about Organizational Ethics. Educational and Psychological Mea surement. 1991, 51, pp. 377-383. Dunfee, T.W. and D.C. Robertson. 1988. Integrating Ethics into the Business School Curriculum. Journal of Business Ethics, 7, 847 859. Stewart, K., L. Felicetti and S. Kuehn. 1996. The attitudes of Business Majors toward the Teaching of Business Ethics. Journal of Business Ethics, 15, pp: 913-918. Michelle Conlin, 2007. Cheating or Postmodern Learning? Duke’s B-school scandal points up the fuzzy ethics of a collaborative world. Business Week, May 14, 2007, pp. 42. Appendix: Sample of Survey Questions Gender:  M  F

Years of work experience: _____ Your age: ______

ID#:______________________________

Please give answers that you believe to be the ethical responses. 1. Foreign factories must pay employees the wage that is determined by the local labor market and governmental regulations (minimum wage), but not necessarily the fair wage based on the perception of fair living in developed countries.  Strongly agree  Moderately agree  Slightly agree  Neutral  Slightly disagree  Moderately disagree  Strongly disagree 2. In answering criticism of labor conditions at foreign factories, major American importers use strict inspection and monitoring to make sure oversea suppliers are following labor rules. This practice is effective around the world.  Strongly agree  Moderately agree  Slightly agree  Neutral  Slightly disagree  Moderately disagree  Strongly disagree 3. In a labor-over-supplied country, if the employee is willing to accept whatever job available, it is ethical for the employer to offer an extra low wage (but over minimum wage). Clearly all stakeholders are happy in this scenario.  Strongly agree  Moderately agree  Slightly agree  Neutral  Slightly disagree  Moderately disagree  Strongly disagree 4. Relatively speaking, violations of labor practices are only found in a small number of foreign factories. The majority offers fair wage and safe condition to their employees.  Strongly agree  Moderately agree  Slightly agree  Neutral  Slightly disagree  Moderately disagree  Strongly disagree 5. In a competitive labor market, many laborers, especially from poor rural regions, seek to work as many hours as possible, regardless of whether they are properly paid. It is OK to utilize this as a means of cost reduction. This is also required by the fierce price competition.  Strongly agree  Moderately agree  Slightly agree  Neutral  Slightly disagree  Moderately disagree  Strongly disagree 6. Nike found one of its Far-East suppliers was using a 12-year-old worker, and Nike was its only major customer. The ethical decision for Nike is to discontinue its relationship with this plant, even when the child worker’s family depends on his job for making a living.  Strongly agree  Moderately agree  Slightly agree  Neutral  Slightly disagree  Moderately disagree  Strongly disagree 7. It is sometimes necessary for a company to engage in shady practices because the competition is doing so. Otherwise the company will be out of business and everyone will lose their jobs, which is even worse in an ethics perspective.  Strongly agree  Moderately agree  Slightly agree  Neutral  Slightly disagree  Moderately disagree  Strongly disagree 8. A company should overlook its supplier’s wrongdoing if it is in the best interest of the company. For example, some wrongdoings help reduce the production cost which in turn reduce the price which buyers need to pay.  Strongly agree  Moderately agree  Slightly agree  Neutral  Slightly disagree  Moderately disagree  Strongly disagree 128


9. A buyer should not care how results are achieved at foreign suppliers as long as the desired outcome (satisfactory product quality at low cost) occurs. Should they care, they need to operate their own factories there.  Strongly agree  Moderately agree  Slightly agree  Neutral  Slightly disagree  Moderately disagree  Strongly disagree 10. Business offshoring creates no winner since job loss in the US leads to disruptions of many local communities, and manufacturing-offshoring destination countries are loaded with excessive pollution of wastes, water and air.  Strongly agree  Moderately agree  Slightly agree  Neutral  Slightly disagree  Moderately disagree  Strongly disagree 11. Job migration makes the world better in at least one perspective, that is one job loss in the U.S. eventually creates two or three jobs in overseas developing countries [e.g., Vietnam] which benefits more families.  Strongly agree  Moderately agree  Slightly agree  Neutral  Slightly disagree  Moderately disagree  Strongly disagree 12. Companies that have relied heavily on offshoring lost their relative competitiveness in the global market since they lost their manufacturing capabilities and their overseas suppliers sooner or later will be their rivals in the same battlefield.  Strongly agree  Moderately agree  Slightly agree  Neutral  Slightly disagree  Moderately disagree  Strongly disagree 13. Foreign suppliers’ “unethical” practices such as cheating and falsification are simply strong evidence that business offshoring is just bad.  Strongly agree  Moderately agree  Slightly agree  Neutral  Slightly disagree  Moderately disagree  Strongly disagree 14. Keeping manufacturing jobs in the U.S. can definitely improve the welfare and competitiveness of the nation as a whole.  Strongly agree  Moderately agree  Slightly agree  Neutral  Slightly disagree  Moderately disagree  Strongly disagree

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MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS Cura Personalis: Understanding Studentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; Use of Online Social Networks to Enhance Learning Thilini Ariyachandra, PhD Mentor: Nancy Bertaux, PhD (Economics) As an educator in a Jesuit institution, one of the major features of Jesuit spirituality that I have come to value through the Ignatian Mentoring Program is the concept of cura personalis. When teaching my courses, especially the INFO 200: Managing Information Technology course, I know that building a personal relationship with each student, providing individualized attention to their needs and by having a distinct respect for his or her unique wants and concerns, I am better able to help them learn. In so doing, I believe I am able to more effectively communicate and help them understand the value and use of information technology. As an instructor in management information systems, it is important to understand how students use technology to enhance their lives. At present, online social networking is rapidly growing in popularity across the world; especially among college students. Currently research indicates that college students have incorporated online social networks to almost every aspect of their lives. Given the interest and growing use of online social networking by undergraduates, the goal of my Ignatian mentoring program study was to understand what influences students use of social networking websites. By so doing, as an instructor, I could better understand their motivation for the use of this new technological phenomenon and be able to incorporate it into the class room to enhance learning. In addition, as a researcher, this study would help me investigate the use of a popular new phenomenon in information systems, online social networking. I am grateful for this rewarding opportunity to think about and work collaboratively with my IMP mentor, economist Nancy Bertaux, on an interdisciplinary research topic that is both related strongly to my discipline and that relates to the care and concern (cura personalis) I have for my students. Online social networking The growth in Internet usage in the past 8 years has been a phenomenal 305.5 percent leading to the creation of a new and improved Web, Web 2.0. Web 2.0 is in the forefront of a revolution of greater user collaboration and sharing online that enhances almost all aspects of life to every demographic in the population. It has created a sophisticated user base that thrives on the new functionality and tools now accessible online such as online social networking. An online social networking site is described as online space that an individual can create a profile to establish or maintain connections with others. These Web sites are often seen as relationship facilitators. In the past five years, these sites have grown from catering to activities of college students into a phenomenon that engages tens of millions of Internet users. While there are many social networking Web sites, the most common ones are facebook.com and myspace.com. Since February 2007, Facebook was the sixth most visited Web site in the United States as measured by average visits. These online social networking sites are still especially popular among the 18 to 25 year old age group who are mostly college students. According to a study on Facebook users, the average user spends around 45 minutes on the site each day. Photos, diaries, and music are the preferred content to put on userâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s own pages, and personal experiences, movies, family, and travel are what people want to see most on their friendsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; profiles. Recent research also indicates educational benefits as the reason for logging on to social networking sites. Factors that Influence Social Networking Although offline social networking behavior has been extensively studied, online social networking, as a relatively recent phenomenon, is much less understood. Most of the popular press concerning social networking sites has been negative in focus. Controversy surrounds the use of these sites, specifically in terms of privacy, safety, and attitudes toward revealing personal information to the world. Given the popular media hype on privacy invasion and social networking, news releases describing criminal liability as well as college suspensions resulting from usage and behavior on social networks, privacy and trust may have a distinct influence on social networking usage.

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In addition to perceived privacy and trust, previous studies have also examined the impact of basic demographic data on social networking usage. A recent survey revealed that age and year in school were significant predictors of usage and membership, with younger students and undergraduate students being more likely to belong to social networking sites such as Facebook. Gender is another factor that has received some attention in the past. The academic literature is rich with studies that look at the impact of gender on Internet use. It is widely asserted that female usage of the Internet is limited by their negative attitudes towards computers and new technology due to their less overall experience with the Internet when compared to men. Much less is known of the impact of gender and Internet experience on online social network usage and behavior. Based on the past literature, perceived privacy, trust, gender and Web experience were chosen as the four major factors that influence social networking usage. Consequently, the main hypothesis investigated in this exploratory study was that gender, perceived privacy, trust, and Web experience influence online social network usage. Data Analysis In order to understand what influences social network usage and behavior, an online survey was created and administered to the students. The participants were queried on their social network usage patterns, as well as on what influences their usage. A total of 111 responses were collected and analyzed. The characteristics of the respondents are summarized in Table 1. Overall, about 38% of the respondents were female and 62% male. When asked the major reasons for using online social networks, the overwhelming answer was to keep in touch with friends (see Table 2). The respondents spent an average of almost 6 hours per week on social networking Websites (with Facebook as the most common site used), and they logged on 3.35 times on average each day to a social network. The unidimensionality of the items and constructs used were assessed through factor analysis and cronbach alpha values were used to assess the reliability of the items associated with the latent constructs. Regression analysis was conducted to examine the main hypothesis of the research study in which use of online social network, measured as time spent on online social networks per week, serve as the dependent variable. The predictor variables are gender, perceived privacy, trust, and Web experience. Trust was the only statistically significant variable that had an impact on usage of online social networks in this sample. The regression suggested that the use of social networks changes by .298 with a standard deviation unit change in trust in online social networks. This sample therefore implies that usersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; use of online social networks is related in a statistically significant way to their level of trust in online social networks. In order to further analyze the question of what influences time spent on social networking each week, both MANOVA (multivariate analysis of variance) and ANOVA (analysis of variance) were conducted. Specifically, MANOVA was conducted to examine if gender helps differentiate perceptions of trust, privacy or Web experience with regard to social networking. The overall multivariate test of the MANOVA indicated that there is a difference in the means of the factors that influence online social networking for gender. The ANOVA (univariate analysis of variance) tests assessing the impact of gender on each of the factors that influence online social network use indicate that gender significantly influenced perceived privacy, Web experience and trust. Conclusion Web 2.0 and the growing use of social networking sites such as Facebook constitute one of the latest developments in the growing impact of the Internet and IT on studentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; daily lives, learning and work. The remarkable growth in the number of users of online social networking means that many constituencies are interested in finding out more about this phenomenon, as it affects the individuals, learning, business/commerce, and society. As an instructor trying to understand and improve student learning in the class room and attempting to figure out student needs, concerns and challenges with regard to technology, investigating student usage of social networks helps me provide more personalized attention to my students. For instance, the knowledge that students use social networks to collaborate with other students, discuss assignments, get help outside of class helps me customize student projects and assignments in a manner that will enable the effective use online social networks to enhance their learning. Given their trust issues in social networking as well as gender differences, I can educate them on the various aspects of social networking as it pertains to trust and gender. In addition, by incorporating news on social networks and discussion of the technology underlying social networks I can present information technology concepts in a context that would be both entertaining and of interest to my students. This study has enabled me to better understand the use of information technology by undergraduate students. It has helped me appreciate the challenges students face due to differences in their Web experience, gender and other factors. It has provided me with knowledge that would enable me to care for their individual needs and help enhance their learning. From a research perspective, the study results shed light on the importance of trust during online social interaction and collaborations. It further indicates the need 131


for further research on factors influencing social network usage, especially in light of the increasing importance of online social networking in society as a whole, to individual users’ lives, and to businesses and entrepreneurs seeking new customer bases and new ventures. Table 1: Characteristics of Respondent Students Characteristic Percent Average Gender Male 62.0 N/A Female 38.0 Age <20 33.3 20.02 20-25 64.8 >25 1.8 Work experience Yes 78.4 N/A No 21.6 Years of web experience <6 16.5 8.66 6-10 59.5 >10 24 Membership social networking sites

Facebook MySpace LinkedIn Other

95.5 N/A 15.2 1.8 1.8

Hours per week social networking <5 51.3 5.98 5-10 29.7 >10 18.9 Times per day social networking 1-3 64 3.35 4-6 28 >7 8 Introduced to social networking site by

Friends Family Web Ad Faculty

82.6 N/A 10.1 4.6 2.7

Use of social networking for school work Yes 55 N/A No 45 Table 2: Respondents’ answers to “what are the major reason(s) for using online social networking” 132

Reason Stay in touch with friends that you don’t meet regularly To interact with friends on campus To keep in touch with new friends To look and share pictures Convenience to communicate with friends Because of pressure as all my friends are online Meet new people To find out what others are doing For school work, assignments and projects To find out more about social events To share music To be more social

Frequency 81.1 % 53.2 % 18.0 % 8.1 % 7.2 % 4.5 % 4.5 % 4.5 % 4.5 % 0.9 % 0.9 % 0.9 %


MARKETING Marketing Concepts David J. Burns, DBA Mentor: Peter Bycio, PhD (Management and Entrepreneurship) Course Information Marketing involves exchanges. The activities in marketing products, services, and ideas are examined within a framework of customer management. Topics include global marketing environment, market analysis and segmentation, consumer behavior, product development and management, pricing, promotion, and distribution. Marketing is examined from its role as a central function of business and non-profit organizations, and from its dominant role in a market economy. Students: Graduate students (without recent business undergraduate degrees) very early in their programs. Background As an outcome of the thirty-second General Congregation (GC32), Decree Four, Our Mission Today: The Service of Faith and the Promotion of Justice, was published. Although some confusion existed over the meaning of the word “justice” in Decree Four, most agree that it includes social justice – “to change the structures of society which were depriving people of their human rights” (Tripole, S.J. 1994, p. 9). Calvez, S.J. (1991) states that although economic injustices are particularly pervasive, injustice includes any threats to “human life and its quality.” Similarly, Dulles, S.J. interprets justice as “the dismantling of unjust social structures, to conscientization, and to the building of a new and better society” (1989, p. 21). Indeed, Tripole, S.J. states “human beings cannot enter into union with God unless they enter into union with one another, and the degree to which they are alienated from one another will be reflected in an analogous alienation from God” (1994, p. 55). Hence, a commitment to justice is an integral part of evangelization as can be noted in the life of Ignatius. Justice, therefore, includes social justice, but it includes much more – the furthering of social justice leads to justice in all things. The top item of the social justice agenda concerns the gap between the rich and the poor (Dorr, S.J. 1991). Although financial resources are obviously an important consideration, a focus merely on the material provides an incomplete picture of individual wellbeing. Instead, the “poor” can be viewed to be those who do not possess the resources, financial and other, to experience life to the full – they are the oppressed, economically, socially, educationally, or emotionally, and consequently, are those who are prevented from experiencing the freedom life affords. Tripole, S.J. states that the Society’s goals should be “the service of faith through the promotion of a Christian and human culture” (1994, p. 128), where culture is defined as “the way people think, how they understand themselves, why they do what they do, and how they seek fulfillment in their lives” (1994, p. 129). The project addresses this issue. Particularly, in the culture’s rush to maximize wealth, what is truly of value is being lost. Instead of freeing ourselves from economic deprivation, we are imprisoning ourselves to the very things that were supposed to free us. Marketing, Well-Being, and Justice Unquestionably, the exercise of marketing has added to the material welfare of modern society. It has significantly increased the availability and variety of goods, and it has significantly decreased product costs. As a result of marketing, consumers have access to, and can enjoy goods that could not be foreseen anytime in history. The global percentage of people living in abject poverty (though unquestionably a major social issue), is lower today than perhaps it ever has been. Individuals suffering from hunger (also still a major problem which requires concerted effort to combat) is also at historical lows as a percentage of the population. Several have equated these manifestations of marketing as an improvement in society’s quality of life. Is this contention true? Has the increased availability of goods actually increased individuals’ quality of life? There is a widespread belief in our culture that happiness, or one’s quality of life, is a function of the quantity of things that one possesses. This mentality is present in the widespread belief that happiness is based on one’s income, or one’s ability to acquire possessions and experiences without hindrance. Empirical research, however, paints a different picture. Numerous studies clearly show that once survival needs are met, additional income and additional possessions do little to improve one’s level of happiness. The lack of a positive relationship between possessions/income and happiness raises two questions: 1) If possessions do not bring happiness what does? and 2) How has the apparent myth “increased possessions is the true road to happiness” become so ingrained in society’s consciousness?

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Empirical studies have left little doubt that few factors affect an individual’s level of happiness for longer than a few days. The only issue that empirical research repeatedly shows to have the ability to affect an individual’s long-term happiness is the existence of long-term close relationships with others (family, friends, and one’s God). Interestingly, these are the very relationships which many individuals will so readily trade-off for the opportunity to make more money to acquire more things with the empty hope of achieving the sought-after goal of increased happiness. The supposed relationship between possessions and happiness, however, is wellcommunicated within today’s society. This relationship is formed, or at least is significantly strengthened, through marketers’ use of non-market need pairing. Non-market need pairing involves establishing a link between a particular marketer’s product and a specific non-market need in the consumer’s mind. (Non-market needs are those needs which cannot be directly satisfiable through the market, such as feelings of belonging, companionship, happiness, etc.). When the pairing is successful, consumers will view the specific non-market need in conjunction with the product – the product will be viewed as a means for fulfilling the non-market need. The key to this pairing is that the linking is not natural, but contrived. Indeed, the product is associated with a need which it, in fact, cannot truly fulfill. A Brief History Contrary to popular thought, a consumer culture amongst the masses has not always existed. In pre-modern times, product acquisition was not a priority, or even a possibility, for most. When excess resources were acquired (more than that required for subsistence living), the excess resources were typically saved or were used to acquire additional leisure time – not to acquire additional products. Furthermore, during this time, one’s self was often passively assigned. Everyone knew who they were and everyone knew who others were, and there was often little chance for significant changes in the self. Relationships with others (family and community) and with God (religion) provided the basis for the self. As a result, identity problems were virtually nonexistent. With the industrial revolution and the rise of modernism, however, the permanency and the level of influence which family, community, and religion exerted on individuals declined significantly. The social and geographic mobility afforded (or mandated) by the industrialization process acted to slowly sever individuals’ ties with family, disrupted entire communities, and caused many to question the need for religion. Furthermore, with a growth in the importance of science, dependence upon a Supreme Being seemed to become unnecessary. Under modernism, individuals were forced to make or develop their own identity – it was no longer merely inherited. The basis of the self also changed. The self was left to be fulfilled through transient, physical realities, primarily through one’s own actions – personal achievement, and to a greater extent, the acts of acquisition and consumption. Indeed, the marketplace became a primary channel through which a self could be acquired. Individuals began to become what they owned. One’s self then, could often be viewed as the result of an explicit choice which was often fulfilled through shopping and consumption activities. This marked the origins of the consumer culture. More recently, modernism has been replaced with postmodernism. In a postmodern environment, the presence of relatively permanent anchors upon which to base the self have vanished. Actually, in postmodernism, the self, as a single concrete reality, simply does not exist. Instead of speaking of a singular self, it is more common to refer to multiple roles or images, where individuals are encouraged to consume symbols consistent with the role or image desired at any particular time. The self, therefore, exists merely to display – to display the articles which portray a desired image. As a result, consumption becomes the defining feature of postmodern societies and the consumer culture reigns supreme. In postmodern societies, the acquisition of physical possessions is viewed as the primary, if not the only, source of individuality, happiness, and satisfaction. Within postmodernism then, marketing has achieved an unforeseen level of societal significance. Instead of focusing on identifying and meeting consumer wants and needs, the focus is instead on providing consumers with the building blocks necessary to build personal images and to construct desired realities. The logical outcome then, is a focus on pleasure and on attempts to acquire it during this earthly life – clearly a primary quality of today’s culture. Similarly, as pleasure in itself proves to be insufficient to meet the fundamental needs of individuals, a logical outcome is a growth of hopelessness and despair, again common qualities in today’s culture. All indications seem to point to fatal problems in the basis of a consumer culture – the consumer culture appears to be unable to deliver what it has promised. Although it has very successfully increased standards of living beyond initial comprehension and has provided products which offer forms of comfort and entertainment alternatives which were inconceivable only a few years ago, it has been unable to bring increased happiness and increased fulfillment to people’s lives. The continuing desire to increase consumption necessitates ever increasing levels of income. The need for ever-increasing levels of income in turn, leads to the need to maximize time spent in work activities, usually at the expense of leisure and social activities. This is why, even in the face of significant gains in productivity, the amount of time spent working has risen steadily and substantially over the past forty years. We have become prisoners to the need to make greater incomes – relationships and the needs of others have been cast aside in the strivings to obtain more belongings. In summary, Tripole, S.J. speaks of our students: “They have been influenced by our society to such an extant that they take it for granted that life is fulfilled in terms of the values our secular culture provides them, the values that are largely a product of our 134


production-consumption society. In that society, human value is defined by the amount of money made and the degree of power and the kind of reputation enjoyed: greed is accepted as a legitimate human virtue, and one’s own needs take precedence over the welfare of the community” (1994, p. 132). Tripole, S.J. further states that service activities, although valuable, have little effect on the point-of-view of students – “In spite of the efforts at justice, the basic structures remain untouched, ... our understanding of who we are, what the meaning of life is, and where we are going remains the same” (1994, p. 135). In addition to not being in a position to attend to the justice and faith of others, students themselves as prisoners – prisoners to a mindset which prevents them from experiencing true happiness and which prevents them from truly helping others in need. “What is necessary, then, is to change the inner lives of people, to restructure their dominant motivating values, the values by which they formulate their own criteria for self-fulfillment” (Triple, S.J. 1994, p.137). Course Component The course component of this project is subject-based. It consists of integrating a new content section into the “understanding consumers” part of the MKTG 801 (Marketing Concepts) course. This course is one of the first courses taken by students entering the MBA program. It is required of all students entering the program who have not pursued a business undergraduate degree. As such, the students generally have no background in marketing or in understanding the consumer and the consumer culture. The course component includes the following issues: 1) 2) 3) 4)

Provide an historical basis of the development of a consumer culture (to break the commonly held myth that the consumer culture has always existed). This includes an examination of the alternative conceptions of the substance and meaning of life that have been dominant in the past and the basis of each. Develop an understanding of today’s postmodern consumer culture, its impact on the individual, and its inability to positively affect an individual’s well-being. This includes 1) truly understanding the role of marketing in the consumer culture and the process of non-market need pairing, and 2) gaining an understanding of the prevalent product-based identity structure. Provide students with a basis for understanding the role of products in their own personal lives and to help them be able to critically analyze the effects that marketing activities have on culture and on the lives of individuals. This is accomplished through extensive discussion and reflection in class. Develop an ability to examine marketing activities and choices within the context of the effect that they have on the lives of individuals in society.

An explicit object of the course component of this project is to develop students’ reasoning abilities – to provide students with the insight necessary to truly evaluate the outcome of marketing activities and choices on society. The effectiveness of the course component in conveying knowledge is assessed during the midterm exam. Whether the course is effective in affecting student’s attitudes and opinions is assessed by a before-and-after questionnaire (described below). Scholarly Component The scholarly component of this project directly relates to the course component of this project. Specifically, the scholarly component of this project examines the effect that the course component has on students’ views toward money and belongings in their personal lives. This is accomplished by a pretest and posttest. On the first day of class, students are immediately required to complete a questionnaire that includes scales to measure the following constructs: 1) Love of Money 6) Prestige Sensitivity 2) Possession Satisfaction Index 7) Desire for Unique Consumer Products 3) Materialism 8) Need to Belong 4) Time Orientation Toward Money 9) Social Connectedness/Social Assurance 5) Ethics and Social Responsibility 10) Importance of Connectedness Students are required to complete the same questionnaire immediately prior to the final exam to permit an assessment of the effect that the course may have on individuals’ attitudes and beliefs. RESULTS Attempt #1 801-81A Discussion: Several students were very defensive. Exam: Question on the midterm exam (1/4 of the exam) went very well – students knew the material. Questionnaire: Problems were encountered – students were unwilling to participate without compensation. 135


Attempt #2 801-84B Discussion: Revised discussion went very well. Exam: Question on the midterm exam (1/4 of the exam) went very well – students knew the material. Questionnaire: “Before” and “after” questionnaire administration completed (points were awarded). Although the sample size was very small (22), t-tests were run to test whether differences exist in the “before” and “after” responses (See Table 1). Significant (at the .05 level) differences were observed for four of the 25 pairings. As a result of the course, 1) Students were more likely to consider money as an indicator of success. 2) Students were more likely to believe that success equals possessions. 3) Students were less likely to be envious of other’s possessions. 4) Students were less likely to believe that social responsibility and profitability are compatible. The results were surprising. Although it is difficult to draw conclusions from the relatively small sample size, in three of the four instances where significant results were observed, results were opposite of that hypothesized. This result may indicate the need to adjust the classroom component of the course. Table 1/ Results Scale Love of Money Overall Factors Budget Evil Equity Success Motivator Possession Satisfaction Index Overall Factors What Possessions Can Do What Possessions Cannot Do Public Image Success Equals Possessions More is Better -1.517 .144 Materialism Factors Possessiveness Nongenerosity Envy Time Orientation Toward Money Overall Ethics and Social Responsibility Factors Social Responsibility & Profitability Long-Term Gains Short-Term Gains Prestige Sensitivity Overall Desire for Unique Consumer Products Overall Need to Belong Overall Belongingness Factors Social Connectedness Social Assurance Importance of Connectedness Overall

t-Value

Level Significance

-1.580

.129

-.934 -.458 -.289 -2.209 .847

.361 .652 .776 .038 .406

-1.494

.150

.794 -1.121 .755 -2.241

.436 .275 .459 .036

.208 1.530 2.137

.837 .141 .044

.357

.725

4.454 -.678 -1.646

.000 .505 .115

-1.204

.242

-1.563

.133

.305

.763

-.440 .209

.664 .837

-.335

.741

Paper presented at the Colleagues in Jesuit Business Education Conference, Milwaukee, WI, July 8-11, 2010. 136


MARKETING Materialism and Macro Marketing Mee-Shew Cheung, PhD Mentor: Philip Glasgo, PhD (Finance)

Course Marketing 300: 2 sections, 30 students each, Spring 2007.

This course is designed to introduce marketing to the undergraduates who have not formally studied the area previously. It serves as a vehicle by which students can become familiar with the area of marketing. It provides a basis for future study in marketing and a better understanding of the business world and the role which marketing plays therein. With my participation in the Ignatian Mentoring Program, I made the following changes to incorporate a mission driven teaching component that stresses the need for discernment and responsible action. With this inclusion, the course content is broadened to a macro level. Syllabus addition Assignment Each student is required to turn in a 3 to 5 page paper on his/her understanding of the phenomenon of materialism and his/her thoughts on the topic. For this assignment, students are required to (1) visit the library databases such as ABI Inform or Business Source Premier and understand the meaning of the term ‘materialism’, (2) read articles/books/websites (such as ‘The World is Flat’, ‘Micro-lending: Banker to the Poor’, the ‘Product RED’), (3) write a research paper elaborating the implications of materialism for individuals, business organizations, and society as a whole and linking the concept of corporate social responsibility to some of the real world examples in the marketplace. Lecture & Class Discussions While lecturing the chapters on Segmentation and Targeting, and Global Marketing, I used the following questions to guide the class discussions: (1) Does marketing promote materialism? (2) Does the practice of segmentation and targeting create class issues within our society? (3) International marketers tend to overlook poverty stricken people in less developed countries. Why is this? (4) Can marketing be applied to help lift poverty and improve the quality of life in an impoverished society? How? Materialism and Ignatian/Jesuit Pedagogy This teaching component seeks to: - Involve students to practice critical thinking in understanding the high price of materialism, and linking social responsibility to firms’ marketing decisions. - Inspire students to change our society and the world for the better by engaging them in a discernment process to: (a) understand the high price of materialism (b) link social responsibility to firms’ marketing decisions (c) seek ways to break the material values cycle (d) focus on values for self-acceptance, good relationships and contributions to the community. Materialism defined: Materialism in economic psychology and consumer research has been defined as “the importance a consumer attaches to worldly possessions” (Belk 1985) or as “an orientation which views material goods and money as important for personal happiness and social progress (Ward and Wackman 1971). Not only are materialists viewed as “driven” to consume more, but they are also seen to focus on the consumption of “status goods” or unique consumer products. The popular notion of materialism also associates materialism with excessive status consciousness, condescension, envy, disregard of others and of social issues, self-centeredness, a lack of principles, possessiveness, insecurity, and interpersonal detachment. Sociologists describe materialism as a personal value that encompasses concern with material things, competitiveness, and emphasis on making profit as opposed to human well-being. Learning Outcome Students met the challenge of this assignment in articulate ways. I present some of the highlights of their responses:

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Student reflection “When individuals in a society are driven by material values, weakened interpersonal connections, disrupted community life, resource depletion and environmental damage result.” “The best ways to break the material values cycle are focusing on values for self-acceptance, fostering good relationships and contributing to community.” “Marketing and materialism go hand in hand. On one side of the argument, marketing is a profitable experience for business as well as helping the consumers to improve their standard of living. On the other hand, marketing and materialism create unattainable goals for the public as well as pushing aside thoughts of inner self-improvement and more toward conformity.” “Perhaps it is about time to forget about possessions and get back to the days where community and family were the most important things in life.” “Marketers have the self-interest in selling their products to consumers because this affects their bottom line. While it is their job, marketers need to act in responsible ways so as not to destroy the social fabric of our culture by shifting all focuses to materialistic concerns.” “Materialism helps economy grow and flourish, but at the same time drives people to unhappiness.” “Materialism in essence is like a drug. It relieves the pain temporarily but offers no promise of a cure.” “Before I was exposed to the concept of ‘Product RED’, I never thought that marketing can be used to impact the world in such a positive and powerful manner.” “International marketers tend to assume that people in the poor nations do not have enough money or business sense to buy or sell products. Thus, marketing is strongly promoted only in the affluent nations, which leads to a worsened situation in materialism in these nations. The affluent nations might be able to enjoy all the branded goods and services, but people in these nations are not necessarily happier.” “The primary goal of business corporations is to maximize shareholder wealth, but perhaps of equal importance is the social responsibility these companies have towards their employees and the areas in which they operate. The world is becoming interconnected, and some countries may be left behind because of their inability to afford products or the inability of their citizens to operate them. Micro-lending and similar concepts have proven they have a positive affect on all participants. Multi-national corporations have the resources and international marketers have the knowledge to present programs and products so as to improve the global standard of living, and not leave any nation behind.” “As multinational corporations play a significant role in improving the standard of living in developing nations, international marketers are called to help promote the product effectively to the right people. All of the programs designed to help the poor, need to be marketed correctly to appeal to the potential beneficiaries. Micro-lending and the One Laptop Per Child are two great examples.” “International marketers need to be ready to help the developing countries establish the best industries in which to invest. Furthermore, marketers are encouraged to look at the product and consider a few questions to see if their products can become a global product: is our product too sophisticated for this new market? How do we make our product image more attractive to a larger segment of the total population? How do we match our product quality and purchasing power to create real and long term demand?” “As a next generation international marketer and entrepreneur in an era of globalization, I recognize that it is becoming the trend to create new markets and not merely adapt to the existing ones. By creating new markets, international businesses can pave the way for emerging markets and promote economic reform in the poorer nations of the world.”

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Instructor Reflection In preparing for this new teaching component, I was challenged to explore new topics to broaden my research agenda. I became interested to research topics on macro marketing and the role of international marketing in a flattened world. I am also planning to incorporate this new teaching component in all other marketing courses that I will be teaching in future semesters. In conclusion, this added component in M300 was very beneficial to the students and the instructor. During discussion all students agreed that this assignment should be included as part of the course in future years. The assignment was able to instigate a selfreflection by the students as well as the instructor to help them find a new anchor in their life and their career. References Belk, R.W. (1985), “Materialism: Traits aspects of living in the material world,” Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 12, No. 3, pp. 265-280. Ward, S. and Wackman, D. (1971), “Family and media influences on adolescent consumer learning,” Am Behav Scientist, 14, 415 427.

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MARKETING An Investigation of Compulsive Buying in a University Setting Vishal Kashyap, PhD Mentor: Peter Bycio, PhD (Management and Entrepreneurship) Course Information (MKTG 300 -Principles of Marketing): Marketing involves exchanges. The activities involved in marketing products, services, and ideas are examined within a framework of customer management. Topics include global marketing environment, market analysis and segmentation, consumer behavior, product development and management, pricing, promotion, and distribution. Marketing is examined from its role as a central function of business and non-profit organizations, and from its dominant role in a market economy. Student Profile: Undergraduate students fulfilling the core of their marketing course requirements. Given that this course is an introduction to marketing, students are not expected to have prior knowledge of marketing in a structured academic format and as such the academic research on compulsive consumption. Background on Compulsive Consumption Research: Compulsive buying has been defined as “chronic, repetitive purchasing that becomes a primary response to negative events or feelings” (O’Guinn and Faber 1989). Compulsive consumption has been the focus of consumer researchers since the mid-1980s (Hirschman 1992). Researchers have argued that compulsive buying is conceptually connected to a larger category of compulsive consumption behaviors that include alcoholism, drug abuse, eating disorders, and compulsive gambling (O’Guinn and Faber 1989). In addition, compulsive buyers are characterized by lower self-esteem, higher scores on general measures of compulsivity and a higher propensity for fantasy than the general population. Faber, O’Guinn and Krych (1987) find that several characteristics of compulsive consumption exhibit commonalities with other manifestations of addictive behavior such as (i) the presence of a drive, impulse or urge to engage in the behavior (ii) denial of the harmful consequences of engaging in the behavior, and (iii) repeated failure in attempts to control or modify the behavior. Effects of Compulsive Buying: Compulsive buying can have serious implications on, for example, the mental states of the compulsive consumer, personal bankruptcies and credit card debt and the natural environment, among others (Roberts 1998). Compulsive consumers are affected by depression, anxiety, frustration and low self-esteem (Desarbo and Edwards 1992). Increases in personal bankruptcies and credit card debt are other negative consequences of compulsive buying. While compulsive buyers engage in frequent consumption, they might not have the financial wherewithal to pay for their purchases. Credit card debt keeps mounting nationwide and compulsive buying has become more noticeable with the rapid growth of the bank card industry (Faber, O’Guinn and Krych 1987). Further, compulsive buying can have a negative effect on the environment as well. A culture of consumption discourages the assignment of value to environmental concerns and detracts people from involvement in the public domain (Droge and Mackoy 1995). From a consumer policy perspective, it is important to educate consumers about the potential effects of credit card debt as well as the proper use of credit. Currently most advertising for credit cards appeal to desire for status and instant gratification (Roberts 1998). Adolescents and compulsive buyers are particularly vulnerable to such appeals (Faber, O’Guinn and Krych 1987). Marketers could refrain from aggressive marketing campaigns targeted at such vulnerable segments of the population. Compulsive Buying and Ignatian and Jesuit Pedagogy: The young adults of today have been reared in a rapidly changing world where mass consumption and instant gratification are common. An understanding of the incidence of compulsive consumption and its negative consequences can assist such young adults in making prudent choices. Specifically, given that graduates from the Williams College of Business may choose careers where they might be in charge of developing and executing marketing campaigns, it becomes important that such potential marketers are aware of the effects of targeted marketing campaigns. An understanding of compulsive buying will assist in fulfilling the objectives of Jesuit and Ignatian pedagogy in the following ways: (i) (ii) 140

Prepare students for lifelong learning, by raising awareness about the potentially harmful effects of compulsive buying that students can use in their careers later when designing marketing campaigns. Develop responsible citizens who are sensitive to the needs of our times by understanding that marketing programs targeted at vulnerable segments can have the effects of promoting unsustainable consumption habits among such segments. Particularly with an increase in personal bankruptcies and an increase in credit card debt, the need of the times is to


(iii)

promote responsible, not irresponsible consumption. Inspire graduates to change society and the world for the better by engaging them in a discernment process concerning unsustainable consumption both among themselves and the populations that they serve and thereby refrain from compulsive buying themselves. This also ties in with the Ignatian ideal of ‘discernment’.

Course Component and Objective: The course component consisted of integrating a content component into one section of the MKTG 300 (Principles of Marketing) course for the Spring 2006 semester. The instructor was responsible for teaching two sections of MKTG 300 for the first time, with each section enrolling 28 and 27 students respectively. The course is the first marketing course that is taken by students in the Williams College of Business and so students have limited prior knowledge of marketing tools and techniques. The course component consisted of a short research project to promote the understanding of compulsive buying and to test for the effectiveness of the new component. The syllabus for the course was designed keeping this component in mind and the introduction of the component was a specific outcome of the Ignatian Mentoring Program. Specifically a study design was executed across two sections of the Principles of Marketing course to achieve the goals of understanding the effectiveness of and the implications of introducing a course component on compulsive buying. Participants. Approximately 30 participants in each section of the MKTG 300 course were asked to complete a scale on Compulsive Buying (Table 1) that was introduced by Faber and O’Guinn (1992). This is a reliable and valid scale that has been used in multiple prior studies on compulsive buying. Method and Procedure. Participants were administered the scale twice over the duration of the semester. While one section was treated as the test group, the other section was treated as a control group. In the first administration, both the groups were asked to fill out the questionnaire on the first day of class. Subsequently, the syllabus of one section of the course with the integrated component, where the students were required to complete a short research project (approximately 2 pages) on their understanding of the effects of compulsive buying and their thoughts on the topic. This was the test group. The control group was asked to complete a project on designing a marketing plan that had nothing to do with compulsive consumption. On the day both the projects were due in class, the students were administered the compulsive buying questionnaire for the second time. As a manipulation check, towards the end of the questionnaire, an additional 4 items were included (e.g. “I am very aware of the consequences of compulsive buying”) anchored on a 5-point scale by ‘Strongly Agree’ to ‘Strongly Disagree’. Table 2 presents the complete list of manipulation check items. Differences within groups will be observed both on the scale items as well as the manipulation check items. The group with the research project paper on compulsive buying is expected to exhibit a higher level of awareness on the phenomenon of compulsive buying with regards to the manipulation check. Overall, it is expected that there will not be a significant difference between the two groups during the first administration of the compulsive buying questionnaire. After the test group completes the course requirements on the research paper, it is expected that the mean scores on compulsive buying will be significantly different between the two groups on the second administration of the compulsive buying questionnaire. Results With the first administration of the compulsive buying questionnaire, participants indicated on 5-point scales that they were not compulsive buyers (MExperiemntal = 1.85, MControl =1.88). (See Table 1.) All scales were reverse coded. The difference was not significant across the two groups t (44) = -.171, p> .05. A principal component analysis with Varimax rotation of the four manipulation check items indicated that that the four variables in the measure of awareness of compulsive buying loaded onto a single factor (eigenvalue = 2.98). This measure of awareness showed a relatively high level of reliability for a new scale ( = .85). With the second administration, the manipulation check showed that the test group displayed a higher awareness of compulsive buying (MExperiemntal = 4.70) than the control group (MControl = 4.24). This difference was significant t(47) = 3.36, p<.01. However, the means of the two groups with regard to their compulsive buying behavior patterns (MExperiemntal = 1.84, MControl =1.95) did not vary significantly, (t(47) = -.77, p >.05. ). Table 2 presents a comparison of the two groups with regard to their compulsive buying behaviors and the manipulation check items used in the study. (See Table 2.) Conclusion: As predicted, we found no difference between the compulsive buying patterns of both the groups prior to their completing the research project. This is consistent with our expectations. Scores between the two groups after the completion of the research project were not significantly different. While not consistent with our predictions, this is not very surprising. The compulsive buying questionnaire measures behavior, and given the relatively short time between project completion and the subjects responding to the questionnaire, any change in behavior that can be attributed to the research project might be arbitrary. However, what is interesting is that the awareness of compulsive buying varies significantly between the two groups that completed different projects. The group which completed a project on compulsive buying shows higher awareness of compulsive buying than does the group which completed a general marketing project. This awareness is indicative of the impact of the project on student’s perception of 141


compulsive buying. Awareness can be critical in the formation of attitudes (Priluck and Till 2004). As such the significantly different awareness scores between the two groups suggest that this is an important step in the formation of attitudes which might have an effect on student behavior. The inclusion of course components in classrooms that can emphasize and promote awareness of phenomena consistent with Ignatian pedagogy can be important in shaping student attitudes and may hold promise in promoting the objectives of the IMP program. This exploratory study enables us to measure the effectiveness of course components that are introduced into the classroom. The measurement of such classroom components has the potential of informing the instructor about the use and effectiveness of such components. Any future work should try to extend this study across multiple sections of a class. A larger sample size as well as a longitudinal approach in which students attitudes are measured at multiple points can also aid in furthering understanding of the effects of the introduction of such course components. References Desarbo, Wayne S. and Elizabeth Edwards (1996), “Typologies of Compulsive Buying Behavior: A Constrained Clusterwise Regression Approach,” Journal of Consumer Psychology, 5(3), 231 – 262. Droge, Coreila and Robert D. Mackoy (1995), “The Consumption Culture Versus Environmentalism: Bridging Value Systems with Envi ronmental Marketing,” in Proceedings of the 1995 Marketing and Public Policy Conference, eds. P.S. Ellen and P. Kaufmann, Atlanta, GA: Marketing and Society Special Interest Group: 227 – 232. Faber, Ronald J., Thomas C. O’Guinn and Raymond Krych (1987), “Compulsive Consumption,” in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. 14, ed. M. Wallendorf and P. Anderson, Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research, 132-135. Hirschman, Elizabeth C. (1992), “The Consciousness of Addiction: Toward a General Theory of Compulsive Consumption,” Journal of Consumer Research, 19 (September), 155 – 179. O’Guinn, Thomas C. and Ronald J. Faber (1989), “Compulsive Buying: A Phenomenological Explanation,” Journal of Consumer Re search, 16 (September), 147 – 157. Priluck, Randi and Brian D. Till (2004), “The Role of Contingency Awareness, Involvement, and Need for Cognition in Attitude Formation,” Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 32 (3), 329-344. Roberts, James A. (1998), “Compulsive Buying Among College Students: An Investigation of Its Antecedents, Consequences and Implications for Public Policy,” The Journal of Consumer Affairs, 32 (2), 295 – 319. Table 1: Compulsive Buying Scale Items 1. Please indicate how much you agree or disagree with each of the following items. Place an X on the line which best indicates how you feel about each statement. Neither Strongly Some what agree nor Some what Strongly agree agree disagree disagree disagree a. If I have any money left at the end of a pay period, I just have to spend it.

2. Please indicate how often you have done each of the following things by placing an X on the appropriate line. Very often Often Sometimes Rarely a. Felt  others would be horrified if they knew of my spending habits.    

Never 

b. Bought things even though I couldn’t afford them.

c. Wrote a check when I knew that I didn’t have enough money in the bank to cover it.

d. Bought myself something in order to make myself feel better.

e. F elt anxious or nervous on days I didn’t go shopping.

f. Made only the minimum payments on my credit cards.

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Table 2: Mean Comparison Between Groups Test Group Control Group Pre test Post Test Pre test Post Test μ μ μ t(d.f.), p μ μ μ t(d.f.), p 1a. If I have any money left at the end of a pay period, 2.04 2.12 .28 (44) 1.95 2.20 -.22 (47) I just have to spend it. 2a. Felt others would be horrified if they knew of 2.13 2.17 .00 (44) 2.13 2.36 -.76 (47) my spending habits. 2b. Bought things even though I couldn’t afford them. 2.17 2.04 -.65 (44) 2.35 2.20 -.61,(47) 2c. Wrote a check when I knew that I didn’t have enough money 1.17 1.21 .35 (44) 1.13 1.08 1.10,(47) in the bank to cover it. 2d. Bought myself something in order to make myself feel better. 2.91 2.79 .95 (44) 2.70 2.68 .37 (47) 2e. Felt anxious or nervous on days I didn’t go shopping. 1.26 1.25 .30 (44) 1.22 1.20 .37 (47) 2f. Made only the minimum payments on my credit cards 1.27 1.33 -1.59 (44) 1.65 1.96 -2.21 (46)** Overall Mean 1.86 1.85 -.17 (44) 1.88 1.95 -.78 (47) 3a. I am aware of the consequences of 4.50 4.08 1.91 (47) compulsive buying. 3b. I understand the meaning of compulsive buying. 4.83 4.36 3.41 (47)** 3c. I understand the concept of compulsive buying. 4.79 4.28 3.41 (47)** 3d. I am aware of the significance of compulsive buying. 4.67 4.24 2.75 (47)** Overall Mean 4.70 4.24 3.36 (47)** ** indicates significance at p<.05 level.

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MATHEMATICS/ COMPUTER SCIENCE Statistical Inference Max Buot, PhD Mentor: Nancy Bertaux, PhD (Economics) I attempted to incorporate the Ignatian mission into the Statistical Inference (MATH 312) class I taught in the Spring 2008 semester. This course is typically offered every two years, and is aimed at advanced majors in mathematics, especially those undergraduates who are interested in pursuing advanced degrees in statistics. Although the list of topics in MATH 312 is typical for such a course, my effort to include Jesuit values made it a unique pedagogical experience. To be honest, I found the task of explicitly demonstrating the Ignatian mission in an upper-level statistics course to be challenging. In my view, fulfilling this responsibility would require creative and careful planning to ensure that the course remains true to its objectives: introduce abstract statistical theory, prove the main results rigorously, and apply the results to solve a wide array of data analysis problems. As a significant number of students in the class may continue their mathematical education in graduate school, a solid foundation on the course topics is of utmost importance. Assignments dealing with Jesuit principles may not appear relevant or appeal to a student in a math class. In order to create an avenue through which Ignatian ideals could be integrated in MATH 312, I interpreted the Ignatian phrase Finding God in All Things as a general invitation to “see the big picture”. In particular, students are encouraged to appreciate the wonder of God in their daily lives, search for God’s presence in past events, and contemplate the future path that God’s will has in store for them. Specific to the Statistical Inference course, this means providing a sense of perspective that elevates their understanding of the ideas presented in the class. To this end, I created supplementary assignments involving journal article readings. The purpose for each article reading can be classified into one of three categories which correspond to my basic interpretation of Finding God in All Things. For classification into the first category, the article should demonstrate the wide applicability of MATH 312 topics in the present-day. For the second category, the article should place the statistical methods discussed in the course in historical context: Why was the statistical inference method needed? What problems motivated the development of the theory? And for the third category, the article should illustrate some questions and problems which are at the forefront of statistics research today. The following is an example of how an article reading was incorporated into MATH 312. The theory of maximum likelihood estimation is based on the assumption that the parameter of a probability distribution is a fixed constant, whose value is unknown, but is to be estimated using a random sample of data. Within the statistics community, methods developed in this context are called frequentist methodology. However, if the parameter itself is modeled with a probability distribution, then the statistician is said to be employing Bayesian inferential methods. To better understand the differences between the frequentist and Bayesian paradigms, I assigned article readings from various sources, such as statistics journals and mainstream periodicals such as The Economist and Scientific American. This activity extended the students’ perspective on the historical implications of these two statistical philosophies, since scholarly arguments between frequentists and Bayesians played a key role in the development of statistics as a discipline in and of itself in the 20th century. To help encourage dialogue among the students, I set aside time during the semester for discussion of the articles. I also required that each student write down a brief summary of their readings. Although there were only a few occasions in which article readings were assigned, the students found this activity to be a valuable component to the course and a welcomed excursion from the usual lecture dynamic. The phrase Finding God in All Things captures the spirit of Ignatian values. With thoughtful consideration, each one of us can discover evidence of God’s wonder, inspiration, and love every day. As a second-year faculty member at Xavier, my involvement in the Ignatian Mentoring Program has given me an opportunity to reflect on how God is revealed in my own life, on and off campus. It has truly been a worthwhile endeavor. Eight years prior to my arrival at Xavier, I was a busy graduate student and post-doc who was consumed with scholarly activities in the field of statistics. As a participant in the Ignatian Mentoring Program, my perspective on my academic career path has been positively broadened. 144


Although I have described a special approach I implemented in MATH 312, I have also developed a clearer sense of my role as a faculty member at Xavier University. As a professor, it’s important for me to view Jesus Christ as the ideal teacher. One specific event, the washing of the disciples’ feet on the night of the Last Supper, is a valuable reminder for those who are called to lead: The act of leading requires the willingness to be of service. A teacher, who in fact is a “leader of students”, needs to anticipate situations in which students seek guidance and direction. This means being organized and prepared for each lecture, and being able to provide examples to elucidate abstract mathematical concepts to the student. As Jesus often made use of parables to illustrate religious lessons, moral truths, and apparent paradoxes, the use of examples, demonstrations, and discussion can serve a similar purpose in my own classroom. With respect to scholarship, an active research program is an exemplary way for a faculty member to contribute to the advancement of knowledge in his academic specialty. Engagement in research is not only an exercise of discovery in which the scholar strives to uncover new and exciting ideas, but it also supplies the scholar a deeper perspective on the discipline he teaches, which in turn is reflected in a student’s educational experience.

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MATHEMATICS/COMPUTER SCIENCE The Secrets to Peace and Joy: Change Myself by Love Huizhen (Jean) Guo, PhD Mentor: Daniel Otero, PhD (Mathematics/Computer Science) I am a happy person. You may ask why I am happy. Am I healthy? I am not very sick but I am not strong either. I always feel cold and wear much more than other people do. I need more sleep than other adults do. That is the reason I exercise on a regular basis. Am I rich? I am certainly not poor; I have food to eat, clothes to wear, and a bed to sleep in. I am satisfied with my living conditions, but I am definitely not rich. Do I have a happy family? My daughter and I often sing the song “I love you; you love me; we are happy family,” and we do love each other and get along well, but my husband has not been living with us for many years, he is not eligible to work in the United States. How about my work? I do enjoy teaching and my students, but my students do not seem to enjoy their classes that much and I have been working hard on that. The reason I have joy and peace in mind is that I have faith in God’s will, not my own will. God will lead my life. I love God and people as Jesus did. Because of my love, I am willing to change myself: changing my thoughts, perspectives, the way I look at the world, the way I look at other people. Just as the Bible says that all things work together to benefit those who love God, I would like to share what I have experienced spiritually with anybody who reads my article. Parenting Since I mentioned “change”, you can guess I was not happy before I was willing to change. You are right. I was unhappy, actually anxious, for years. I was worried about too many things and did not realize the danger of my unhealthy mood. When my daughter reached the age of 15, the confusing and suffering age, the conflict between us triggered hidden problems in both of us. The resulting conflict made me even sadder. I was concerned and pondered, “If I can’t get along with my daughter, how can I get along with other people? Who else can I get along with?” I have been walking in dark and struggling, seeking light since then, to find the path to happiness and peace. Human wisdom is limited. My friends’ help didn’t solve the problem. I turned to God, trying to find answers. I started reading the Bible, attending Bible study and Sunday worship more often. Then the turning point came. That was love, which God put in all creatures’ hearts. After a particularly miserable night, the words came to me that “I love you, you should love others.” When my heart is filled with love, I see hope and feel joy and strength while when I distrust others, the doubts hurt me first before they hurt others. Once I chose love, the remedy to any wounds, it began to work: changing me and letting me see the other side of me. As the phrase states, I too “focused on the stick in others’ eyes, and didn’t see the big log in my own eyes.” Unconsciously, I set up two standards, the higher one for others and the lower one for myself. I put myself at the center, and expected others to run around me. When I look at my daughter in a different way, the view is changed. I was upset because she paid too much attention to how she looked. But, do I want her to look unattractive? Certainly not. When I was in high school and college, though I was a top student in all subjects, I was not very confident because I didn’t think I was pretty. In fact, I like to see people dressed beautifully, because they decorate the city just like trees, grass, and flowers do. I guess I didn’t like the way my daughter dressed. But should a teenage girl have the same perspective on dressing as me? Actually, I have come to ask her opinion when I purchase dresses for myself, because she has a good fashion sense. I was upset because my daughter didn’t do well in math and science classes. The truth was, she thought she was not good at those subjects and gave up before trying. Now I ask myself: am I really good at everything when I was in high school? My handwriting was terrible, and I was often tardy for the first bell, in college too. Because I made good grades, my parents and teachers never criticized me. They spoiled me. Why don’t I look at the subjects my daughter is good at, such as English, history, and journalism? She also excels at drawing and cooking. She is making progress everyday and even getting A’s in math and chemistry now. 146


My daughter is in a vital stage of her life. She needs love, care, comfort, encouragement, and guidance. I should be the provider of her needs. God created her and has a plan for her. I don’t need to worry about her future. I will love her no matter how much she achieves or accomplishes. I will help and support her as long as I can. She is changing too, while I am changing. Now I am “the most caring mom in the world” and she is “the most lovely daughter.” Sometimes I am wondering if what I said or did is correct or not, since it will influence her. So, I pray to God to give me wisdom to teach my daughter. I thank God for putting love in our hearts. This love has saved us. The biggest lessen I have learned is that people are different. Every living life is created by God uniquely. We need to accept and respect the differences. People have different talents. Everyone is born to be useful. Teaching Better understanding my daughter helps me understand my students better. The experience of working out the relationship with my daughter helps me a lot when I am trying to work out the relationship with my students. I know all problems can be solved if I can love my students as I love my daughter. Some students complained that my class was rigorous. My reaction was that math class is not like going to see a movie; it is supposed to be rigorous. College is the place where professors and students should work hard, not the place where they always have fun. Now I am thinking I should try to make the teaching process interesting by changing my teaching style. Maybe studying can be fun if we make it more interesting. That is part of my teaching responsibility. Some students also complained about my English. I was very upset and thought: if other people could understand me, why didn’t the students. It was just an excuse. Now I understand it from their point of view. An accent is a barrier when the material itself is hard to understand. I need to practice to continually improve my spoken English. I was disappointed when some students could not solve linear equations or couldn’t calculate the area of a triangle. I used to think that they had poor mathematics skills, and wondered what they did in high school and how they could learn college math if they were unprepared. Now I think this way: they are not math majors; it is understandable that they forget mathematics. While I took chemistry and physics in high school, I don’t remember anything about those subjects now because I never use them. My students are here sitting in the class because they don’t know, and I am here teaching because I do know. I used to complain that the students were lazy; they didn’t want to attend classes and didn’t want to do their work. Now I often remind myself that there were times in high school I skipped study hall and watched a movie. There were times in college I missed classes and went shopping. The students are young adults; they still need time to mature. Even adults make mistakes and delay work sometimes. I began to spend more time preparing for classes. I give group quizzes, individual quizzes, group exercises and individual exercises, and hands-on activities in class to make it more interesting. For example, when I was driving to school one day an idea came to my mind. Random variable is a basic concept in statistics. I can let the students use either the miles away or times spent to measure “distance from home to school,” and collect data on the two variables respectively. This helped them to understand the concept easily. I used to get mad when I read students’ evaluations. The good comments didn’t make me happy while the negative comments hurt me at first then the hurt turned to anger. I still don’t feel comfortable reading negative evaluations, but now I have learned I can, indeed, find something I can do to improve my teaching skills and to teach more effectively. Statistics is used in research in a growing number of disciplines. When people say they don’t like something, it may very well be because they don’t like it. But, it may be sometimes they think they are not good at it. I hope, by teaching statistics, that I can help those who are not good at math/statistics realize that math/statistics is useful and not as hard as they thought. They can learn the material. I hope what they learn in school will benefit them in their work later. I attended the Lilly Conference, a conference on college teaching, and the workshop prior to the conference in November 2005. The speaker at the workshop was Louis Schmier, author of “Random Thoughts”. One thing he said impresses me, even now: you teach who you are. Students can tell if I am happy or sad, nervous or relaxed, prepared or unprepared. They can tell everything in my mind by my tone, the expression on my face, my attitude, my posture, etc. When I walk into the classroom with love, care in mind, they can feel that and can be affected by that.

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I have been thinking about why I love my career. One reason is that teaching provides me with an opportunity to speak, to spread my thoughts and influence others. Yet, it is a big responsibility. I need to think carefully about what I say and what I do in classes. I was nominated as a “professor of the year” recently. I know there is much to learn to become an effective teacher. I am confident and look forward to the challenge. God will help me and give me wisdom and strength to reach the goal. Current Challenges The biggest challenge I face now is that I am trying to accept the fact that, while my husband lives with us, he doesn’t work. Even if he gets a work permit later, he might not work. However, he may change his attitude once he settles down and absorbs the US culture. In China, many people don’t admire those who do certain types of jobs, such as farmers, and bus drivers. Instead, they admire those who make money or have power. God has a plan for me and will guide me. I must listen and yield to God’s will. God has prepared the best for me, just as parents always give the best to their children. In Summary When anger, hatred, and bitterness were controlling me, my brain was like a pot of glue and didn’t function. That made me frightened. What was I going to do if I could not work? When joy and peace are comforting me, I can think clearly and my brain works well. I need to work. I need to support my daughter and myself, but I also enjoy working. Bad moods consume a lot of energy. Such a waste they are. I wished I could use all my energy in work. Now, I can, because I have learned to love and forgive others, to thank God for everything. Everyone has three worlds, a spiritual one, an emotional one and a physical one. When my spiritual world is in right order, I am emotionally stable and physically energetic. Spiritual growth is a gradual process; it doesn’t happen in one night. I am still up and down sometimes. Every time when I am falling down I pray to God, and He lifts me up. I need to build up my spiritual world stronger and stronger by feeding myself with spiritual food just as I need to feed my physical body with earthgrowing food. Some day, it will be strong enough and not be knocked down easily. I grew up in a non-religious family. I was told there were no saviors in the world. Only people can save themselves. I would never have become a Christian if I had not come to the United States. There is an old Chinese saying, “It is easy for mountains to change to rivers and for rivers to change to mountains, but it is difficult for people to change.” Look at me, I have changed; I am a new person, a happy person. The more I change, the happier I am. Nothing is impossible in God. I hope you can find joy and peace in God, too.

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MATHEMATICS/COMPUTER SCIENCE Ignatian Pedagogy: Connecting Biology Majors to Mathematics Hem Raj Joshi, PhD Mentor: Lisa Close-Jacob, PhD (Biology) Super goal: • Facilitate Understanding in Personally Relevant Manner • Magis - Novel Ways to Serve Students and University by Trying New Things • Cura Personalis - Considering Needs of Students • Challenging Students to Connect Topics The discovery of the microscope in the late 17th century caused a revolution in biology by revealing otherwise invisible and previously unsuspected worlds. Mathematics broadly interpreted is a more general microscope. It can reveal otherwise invisible worlds in all kinds of data, not only optical (Cohen, PLOS Biology, 2004). For example, computed tomography can reveal a cross-section of a human head from the density of X-ray beams without ever opening the head, by using the Radon transform to infer the densities of materials at each location within the head (Hsieh, Computed Tomography, 2003). The importance of mathematical and computational tools in every area of biological studies is well documented (Levin et. al, Science 275:334-343, 1997). Mathematical and computational challenges in population biology, ecosystems science, and epidemiology in particular have long been recognized. With new conceptual advances and technology, research initiatives that focus on integration of mathematics and biological issues are expanding very rapidly. There is a general and diffuse dissatisfaction with mathematics among the biologists (i.e. why I need math?). Today biology is becoming more mathematical, and all biologists need some mathematical skills to understand complex biological systems. We would like to explore results from different biological experiments and connect them to relevant mathematics. To achieve this we will communicate with Biology faculty and develop a need based course (i.e. Teach mathematical skills that will be useful for biology majors). Why should biology students study more math? There are two types of reasons: Abstract reasons • Improve logical/rigorous reasoning ability • Ability to build models • Better appreciation of mathematics & computation • Appreciation and understanding of important phenomena: exponential growth and decay, limited growth… Concrete reasons • Ability to perform important mathematical operations • Learn to interpret graphs • Ability to analyze data: Statistics Designing a New BioMath Course for Xavier University As a first step we will modify the existing calculus-based math course, and it will be offered for the first time in fall 2005. This course will help biology majors to understand the importance of mathematical models in biological sciences and use the knowledge in biology research projects. In the future, we will develop an entirely new math course for the biology major.

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MATHEMATICS/COMPUTER SCIENCE Ignatian Pedagogy in Collegiate Mathematics Education Joy Moore, PhD Mentor: Leslie Prosak-Beres, PhD (Childhood Education & Literacy) During my participation in a Manresa Experience in the Fall of 2007, I was introduced to the concept of Ignatian Pedagogy. Considering myself to be a practitioner of culturally relevant pedagogy, I was struck by the similarities between the two pedagogical approaches. I became interested in viewing my classroom practice through the lens of an Ignatian pedagogical framework. I have always maintained a reflective journal of my classroom practice and so I decided to use that as a place to begin accounting my observations. I made journal entries during the Fall and Spring semester of the 2008-2009 academic year, presented here in summarized form. The courses discussed include MATH 120 (Elementary Functions), MATH 150 (Elements of Calculus I), MATH 201 (Foundations of Arithmetic for Early Childhood Education) and MATH 211 (Foundations of Arithmetic for Middle Childhood Education). Ignatian Pedagogy embodies five key teaching elements—Context, Experience, Reflection, Action, and Evaluation. Under each element, I provide a brief overview of the tenets of that element (referenced from Jesuit Education and Ignatian Pedagogy September 2005, Association of Jesuit Colleges and Universities, Rev. Peter-Hans Kolvenbach, S.J., Superior General of the Society of Jesus http://www.ajcunet.edu/index.aspx?bid=526). I then provide my observations (italicized) regarding that particular element in my own pedagogical practice. Context What needs to be known about learners (their environment, background, community, and potential) to teach them well? Cura personalis--personal care and concern for the individual--is a hallmark of Jesuit education, and requires that teachers become as conversant as possible with the context or life experience of the learner. Since human experience, always the starting point in a Jesuit education, never occurs in a vacuum, educators must know as much as possible about the actual context within which teaching and learning take place. This is something I really try to instill in my preservice teachers. The tenet itself is supported by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. In its description of a worthwhile mathematical task, two of the 11 points delineated are as follows: The teacher of mathematics should pose tasks that are based on… 2. knowledge of students’ understandings, interests, and experiences; …. 10. display sensitivity to, and draw on, students’ diverse background experiences and dispositions; …. At the beginning of the semester we explicitly discussed these points. Preservice teachers are asked to consider every assignment within this framework of context and to explicitly state how their homework addresses these tenets. This tenet of Ignatian Pedagogy is very much in line with culturally relevant pedagogy, in that the culture of the learner is recognized, appreciated, and incorporated in the learning experience. Culture here is defined as the political, socioeconomical, religious, racial, and moral background of the learner. Experience What is the best way to engage learners as whole persons in the teaching and learning process? Teachers must create the conditions whereby learners gather and recollect the material of their own experience in order to distil what they understand already in terms of facts, feelings, values, insights and intuitions they bring to the subject matter at hand. Teachers later guide the learners in assimilating new information and further experience so that their knowledge will grow in completeness and truth. I find I do this more (or better) in my calculus and precalculus classes. Using prior knowledge as a springboard for acquisition of new knowledge is the foundation of my pedagogical approach. In particular, I want my students to realize that they do know SOMETHING about mathematics. Overcoming issues of math anxiety is the greatest challenge in MATH 120 and MATH 150. The first thing students say on entering the classroom or my office hours is “ I am not good at math”,” I have never been good at math”, “Math is not my best subject”, “Math has always been my worst subject”. Helping them realize they have a valid starting place in what they do know, empowers them, motivates, them, encourages them to try to learn more. So considerable time is spent gathering and recollecting “the 150


material of their own experience in order to distil what they already understand” as a spring board for what knowledge I want them to acquire. My approach is different with my preservice teachers. Particularly in MATH 201 and 211, students enter the classroom believing that they already know the content and are more than willing to “gather and recollect the material of their own experience”. In fact, most preservice teachers enter the classroom with the intention of teaching the way they have experienced their own learning. So my intent here is to show many of them a different way of understanding what they know, so that they can create different learning opportunities for their future students. I want them to experience and consequently learn to facilitate learning opportunities that expand beyond rote memorization of facts, rules, and formulas and that delve into conceptual understanding of the mathematics at hand. Reflection How may learners become more reflective so they more deeply understand what they have learned? Teachers lay the foundations for learning how to learn by engaging students in skills and techniques of reflection. Here memory, understanding, imagination, and feelings are used to grasp the essential meaning and value of what is being studied, to discover its relationship to other facets of human knowledge and activity, and to appreciate its implications in the continuing search for truth. Preservice teachers in my courses are required to keep reflective journals. This practice may be considered unusual in a mathematics content course. But I want my students to reflect on their own learning experiences as a way to inform their future teaching practices. Thinking about how they felt about (affective domain) or how they understood (cognitive) a particular mathematical concept should inform their future practice. Student comments like, “I wish I had been taught this way. It makes more sense” or “I am frustrated by this method and my students will probably be too” are important aspects of the learning process for which I want my preservice teachers to make note. However, when I review their reflective journals, the content is not as reflective as I would like. Perhaps I need to rethink my direction for this requirement. Maybe check the journals more than twice a semester. Future goal: to be more specific about content of the reflective journal. Future requirement: it must be separate from class notes. Action How do we compel learners to move beyond knowledge to action? Teachers provide opportunities that will challenge the imagination and exercise the will of the learners to choose the best possible course of action from what they have learned. What they do as a result under the teacher’s direction, while it may not immediately transform the world into a global community of justice, peace and love, should at least be an educational step towards that goal even if it merely leads to new experiences, further reflections and consequent actions within the subject area under consideration. I try to create opportunities for my preservice teachers that allow them to actually practice what they are experiencing. I require them to design lessons and make class presentations. Class discussions and peer feedback from these presentations add to their opportunity for reflection on actual practice. We have had very explicit conversations about issues of diversity in background, socioeconomic status, and types of learners. We have discussed issues of bias in standardized testing. Hopefully these types of conversations contribute to the development of this particular tenet. Though mathematics is often viewed as rote memorization of facts and figures, I want my students to experience it within various contexts so that they will teach it in like manner. Despite the fact that my courses are content courses and not method courses, I think it is important to give students an opportunity to do, practice, and teach mathematics, not just study it. Student feedback on my course evaluations indicates that this is a valuable part of the course for the majority of them. Future goal: incorporate mathematics as social justice into my MATH 120 and Math 150 courses. Evaluation How do we assess learners’ growth in mind, heart, and spirit? Daily quizzes, weekly or monthly tests and semester examinations are familiar instruments to assess the degree of mastery of knowledge and skills achieved. Ignatian pedagogy, however, aims at evaluation which includes but goes beyond academic mastery to the learners’ well-rounded growth as persons for others. Observant teachers will perceive indications of growth or lack of growth in class discussions and students’ generosity in response to common needs much more frequently. Open class discussions have been extremely revelatory for me this year, particularly in MATH 201 (Foundations of Arithmetic for Early Childhood Teachers). These preservice teachers have been very willing to be open in class discussions about their opinions, viewpoints, and understandings (or lack thereof as the case may be). This is has really serve to validate my requirement of class attendance and participation as 20% of the final grade. It makes evaluation much more difficult for me if a student never says anything in class. Class participation also often differs from performance on standardized assessment methods. So students may exhibit understanding in their oral communication that does not translate to written assessment. Hence I include alternate means of assessment such as: board presentations, curriculum development 151


projects, and worthwhile mathematical tasks. In MATH 120 and MATH 150, the students who exhibit the most improvement in their academic performance are those who are willing to talk to me and others in class. Small group work really seems to help those students who are struggling with a concept, particularly when they are grouped with a student who exhibits strong academic performance. They may not be comfortable talking to me, but they seem to work well with their peers, if I form the groups appropriately. Conclusion Having identified the five aspects of Ignatian pedagogy in my own practice, I realized that I not only value the aspects of the pedagogy, but I believe all teachers should incorporate these aspects into their practice. Hence, my experience in the Ignatian Mentoring Program has led me to the development of a future research project (Fall 2009) that will investigate preservice teachersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; beliefs about teaching mathematics within the framework of an Ignatian pedagogical approach. In an effort to provide preservice teachers with a learning experience that models the way I hope they will teach mathematics, my desire is to exemplify these tenets in my own classrooms, such that future teachers will exemplify like tenets in their classrooms; thereby perpetuating an endless cycle of Ignatian pedagogy within countless mathematics classrooms throughout the world. My desire, my prayer, is to fulfill Matthew 5:16:

Let your light so shine before men, that they may see your good works, and glorify your Father which is in heaven.

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MUSIC Incorporating Discernment into a Music Course Kaleel Skeirik, PhD Mentor: Maggie King, PhD (Nursing) Abstract: A model of academic learning that uses music to link traditional academic content (intellectual primary and secondary source data plus critical analysis) to the process an individual uses in forming values and moral decisions made through the application of the Ignatian discernment process. There is a long history that speaks to the power of music to move people, from the story of the Walls of Jericho in the Bible to the settings of Wilfred Owen’s poetry by Benjamin Britten in his “War Requiem.” Yet, all too often the music instructor, the published texts and the scholarly histories go out of their way to remain “scientific,” adhering to the rigors of excellent musicological standards when teaching students about music. In this course, all the standards of traditional music research and instruction are woven into a deeper review of music not just as an art to be studied and appreciated but as a cultural expression to move people and ultimately influence and affect them in a personal way. Traditional instruction would include the composer biography, the music history surrounding a work, and a musical analysis all presented to a depth appropriate to the course level. These include the musical score, a live performance or a audio/video recording, the lyrics or musical program, documented historical associations with the work, primary writings by the composer, evaluation of the validity of all musical evidence and evaluation of the interpretive elements of the work of music. Also the work of art must be evaluated in a social context that would include the social, political and cultural history of the era. For this course, these would specifically relate to selected wars, peace movements, issues in censorship, key philosophical writings, class structure and government structure. The traditional academic model for music study demonstrates academic rigor through study by the student, exams, and papers. Listening to music is essential and combines the sensual experience with the intellectual understanding of the art. The student would exit the experience with distilled knowledge as packaged by the course and from the sensual experience of listening to the music. Often, this is the end of the experience and the learning. The model discussed below incorporates the necessary and expected step that artists themselves use and experience in the creating of the artwork itself, discernment. Music might be viewed both as an inspired and constructed work of art. It is easier to understand the construction process (its history and analysis) and to teach that process retrospectively than the inspired process that ignited and imbued the work with its special quality that makes it art. Typically music appreciation centers its work on finding ways to deliver the construction process to a student in a pre-packaged and digestible form. How could we teach or learn something from the privacy of the composer’s inspiration, something they themselves can barley articulate? We would need the language of the soul to teach such material. It is precisely this silent language that resides in the listener and it is also the proper intent of all music that artfully derived sounds activate this language. Thus, the only way to completely understand and own a piece of music is to go through the reverse composition process. The listener must decompose (reconstruct the work) and then sensually accept the inspiration that the music fires up in the listener’s soul, an inspiration not necessarily equal to the composer’s inspiration. Both components are key to understanding music, yet the latter remains almost impossible to accurately and academically articulate not to mention evaluate. Discernment is thinking and feeling combined. It is a holistic evaluation, both objective and subjective. The making of a decision is key to this process, a process that is founded upon facts (academic data) and imagination (fantasies). Wisdom, the well-wrought decision, is the goal and results from intellectual analysis of distilled knowledge blended with spiritual intuition, the seeking of beauty and truth. The problem is finding a method, especially in a classroom setting. Once we accept the fact that learning is both hierarchical as presented in our traditional methods of studying music and also equally a wondering, searching series of thoughts that are both structured and unstructured we come close to activating the discernment process in the student. The extreme end of this method is to incorporate prayer or meditation, something the traditional music classroom has little experience in managing as a goal. 153


We as teachers need to accept the fact that the student’s mind is their own and most of us do, but where we as teachers are challenged is how to incorporate that individual’s wondering mind into a curriculum that can be evaluated. This requires a targeted process. The instructor, the course, and the area of study provide the discipline. In the case of music, this is musicology in its largest sense. The less structured elements of the class depart from the listening to the music. Here the instructor makes a decision. One can adhere to the traditional music history, analysis and style study and stop there or one can bridge from the sensual experience that results when listening to music into the world of discernment. In the best of all experiences a synergy takes place between the analytical and spiritual dimensions and between the student and the instructor and the music. We hope that the listening experience ignites the intellectual and spiritual knowledge in the student. Thus, the outcomes are academic knowledge infused with values and moral content that can inform a group or individual decision. Hopefully the student has formed a bridge for the soul to influence and participate in the actions of everyday life through this musical experience. No one will question the study of physics of sound in time, music, but to reach into the intention of music to move people requires a new step. Teachers need to recognize that the evaluation and application of a spiritual language that delivers meaning to listeners is a benefit to that individual and therefore holds a place in the classroom experience. Incorporating spiritual elements into a course comes with a significant burden: the spiritual language of music is undefined and therefore, cannot be subject to evaluation in the traditional sense. It is easy to assume that issues of values, spirituality and meaning ultimately belong to the student in their private world. This paper argues that there is a place for both the process the student goes through and the decisions that the student arrives at in the classroom itself. Education is knowledge based upon organized facts, analytical data and understanding of the relations between the facts. Wisdom goes beyond this and is the result of discernment. Thus, the classroom experience would incorporate time for reflection and distillation of the student’s thoughts, values and derived meanings, not just the “lectured” information. The teacher and the student need to accept the confusion that is normal for this process and is in fact, possibly, the opposite of what a traditional course of study would hope for. Once, the spiritual evaluation takes hold of an idea there can be a lack of clarity in sorting and understanding the thoughts acquired through the rigors of academic study because one allows the sensual experience and the feelings to influence the thought process, thus it is not pure, but is more holistic. It is the trust in the spiritual self and the reflecting process that includes prayer, no matter where it leads one, that ultimately delivers a conclusion of a moral nature to the student. Once this has happened the discernment process has contributed to the academic and intellectual process. It is reasonable to say that the music has now led the student to wisdom, the combined understanding of knowledge through education with a recognition of a discerned truth about the nature of a specific beauty, the music. Application is always more difficult than theory. In the course Music, War and Peace, incorporating the discernment process was entered into gradually mostly through writing assignments and in-class discussions. Writing assignments generally progressed from purely reporting about the music to reporting plus personal observations to reporting plus observations plus imagination and correlation to any extra musical information about the music under study. For example, the war symphonies of Shostakovich were challenging for a classroom full of students that had only listened to limited genres of American popular music prior to taking the course. However, as archival video footage of the siege of Leningrad was shown and primary source statements from Soviet composers and citizens at the time were incorporated into the course, the sarcastic and somewhat obscure musical language of Shostakovich came alive. At this point in the course students had already been writing about other war or peace music. They had developed some degree of technical writing skills related to music criticism. Now, it was time to add in a component of discernment. This was done by asking the students to not only write about the music but to offer their personal reflections on the music, the war, current wars the U.S. is waging and their values about these topics. Their first efforts were of limited success as one might imagine, but they all did take the step to seriously reflect, to be honest about the confusion that resulted and to exercise their imaginations. Throughout the last third of the course similar assignments were made, each with various degrees of success, some more that others. All students cannot relate to all pieces of music presented, but with a variety of music in the syllabus (ethnic, folk, popular music, traditional classical music, world music and 20th and 21st century concert music) most students made progress incorporating discernment. Discernment, inspiration and imagination were given time at the lecture podium and as part of classroom discussion, although not of long duration, these were important because they licensed the idea as acceptable in the course. Students, through conditioning in other courses, would typically not venture to discover these ideas (discerned musings from a fantasy, from imagined relationships, or from confused information) within the classroom setting. By the end of the course students created their own group wiki on a current topic in music that related to war and peace. As a concluding segment, the students were asked to step beyond the usual reporting, analysis and formatting of information to include a short section that offered what they had arrived at about this music using the discernment process. In each case, the results were constructive. The student response was very positive and they appreciated the freedom to reach beyond the usual academic boundaries. One would not expect great revelations in learning by the end of the course as it relates to those elements learned through discernment. More important is the exposure to the discernment process within the context of an academic discipline that begins a life-long learning experience for the student, one that is hopefully broader than an academic course confined to academic study and evaluation. It may be easier to integrate discernment as a process into courses about the arts than some other disciplines; imagi154


nation, feeling and sensuality are part of the academic package in the arts. These last elements may be less evident in a pre-med Biology course and more appropriate in a medical ethics class later in the students study. This is precisely the contribution the arts can make to the undergraduate liberal arts study, practicing discernment is a natural for the arts because it was part of the original creative process and thus must be experienced in the listening process. Even though the listener will arrive at a different place than the composer started, this is the nature of art, to take the listener beyond themselves and into their world and hopefully, a little bit wiser.

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NURSING Teaching Nursing Using the Ignatian Principles Kelly P. Beischel, RN, MSN, MEDd, NCSN Mentor: Cecile Walsh, MSN, RN, CNS (Nursing) When I was asked if I would like to participate in the Ignatian mentoring program, it was with trepidation that I agreed. I am a full-time doctoral student as well as a full-time faculty member. I was not sure I could give it the time it deserved or even wanted to. However, I was afraid to pass up the opportunity to delve into the Ignatian principles with Cecile Walsh and Cathy Leahy. I am fortunate that I said yes. We were asked to incorporate the Ignatian principles into a course we were teaching in the Spring semester. The decision to incorporate this project in the Senior Seminar class was an easy one. I believe nurses naturally manifest the Ignatian principles and I wanted the senior nursing students to express how they visualize themselves using these principles as nurses. The Senior Seminar course description is as follows: Course Description: This seminar course, to be taken in the last semester, focuses on the student’s transition to entry level practice. An inspection of personal transitions within the practice of nursing is examined. This capstone course allows the student to explore the edu cational transition of the program and to anticipate the professional transition into practice. Professional responsibilities of the holistic nurse are reviewed. Concepts emphasized relate to the nurse as an instrument of healing engaged in a transper sonal human caring process, self care, care of the environment and the global community. This description lends itself to addressing the Ignatian principles. I believe that, as the senior nursing student transitions into the work place, it is an important time to, as Father Kolvenbach states, transmit “the distinctive mark of Jesuit education” (1989). This transition period proved to be a perfect time to elicit student expressions of how one would emulate the principles in nursing practice. I hoped that leaving Xavier with this fresh in their minds would imprint the mark of Jesuit education. I created two components to this project. First, I assigned the senior students to journal weekly on a designated Ignatian principle. They were to reflect on either how they incorporated the principle in clinical, a time they witnessed a nurse using the principle or believed they would use it when they joined the work force. I graded this as a portion of the participation grade. I periodically assessed the journaling for completion and thoughtful reflection. The class met weekly on Wednesday afternoons. I found myself looking forward to this class as their reflections never ceased to amaze me. The second component was a group presentation. I asked them to sign up in groups of 5-6 to present one of the Ignatian principles. They were asked to present an Ignatian principle that illustrates how the nurse in the workplace uses that principle. They were also challenged to express how this principle would guide their practice. The following are a few reflections they shared in class and in their presentations: While discussing “Finding God in All Things,” Jackie told us that the following scripture guides her when she does not feel like giving it her all. Matthew 25:35-40: “For I was…ill and you cared for me….Amen, I say to you whatever you did for one of these least brothers of mine, you did for me. She said, “So, when I am tired and do not feel like giving my all, I think of this scripture and I ask myself is this how I would give care to the Lord?” One student asked if it was okay that she say, “Finding Good in All Things” instead of God because she was not sure she believed in God. When I told her that was fine and that I wanted her to feel comfortable in exploring her beliefs, she visibly relaxed. Another student stated, “Through prayer is where I find God. I can find Him in almost every situation.” “Witnessing a birth,” “Not everyone has the same spirituality. Respecting that as a nurse is most important.” and “A nurse finds God when she works with the poor and suffering” are a few of the comments we heard in the presentation. When discussing what Cura Personalis means to them, “Honesty with self and others,” “Nurses caring for themselves to be able to provide holistic care to their patients,” “Holism,” “It is the ideal.” were a few of their comments. During the presentation, one student expressed that “Balancing is what Cura Personalis is all about. This is not the same as juggling. When we juggle we are bound to drop something. That something may be very important….” Another stated, “Treating others as you would like them to treat you no longer works. Instead it should be ‘treat people like they want to be treated’.” While another commented that Cura Personalis means “involvement” to him. He believed in the importance of remembering that patients are involved in many activities that make 156


up who they are outside of the hospital. They are not just an entity to be cared for as if they have nothing that concerns them outside of being a patient. One student’s reflection on Discernment was that seeing patients and friends making bad decisions with negative consequences has affected his decision-making. To another, Discernment is equivalent to “… the intuition that guides us”. One student spoke of the vulnerability of patients making her emotional. She stated “Walking into a room seeing a patient making the decision to use an incentive spirometer after I taught him the importance of it makes me emotional. It makes me so happy.” Still another expressed that Discernment meant making a difference by making the right decision. The group who presented Magis expressed it with the mantra that “The Sky Is the Limit.” They presented quotes from famous achievers who have strived and reached their goals. The students were not at a loss for words when we discussed this principle. They stated that “using evidenced based practice,” “achieving goals,” “staying curious,” “challenging self,” and “surrounding yourself by people with the same values and expectations from life” were their visualization of what Magis means. The Service of Faith and Promotion of Social Justice provided lively discussion. There were moments I was dismayed by what I thought were ‘hardened’ comments. However, I applauded their honesty. I was thrilled that it allowed me into their world so that I could impart a bit of mine. Few times when our students present their perceptions of reality, can we afford the time to delve into important issues such as this one? I feel blessed that I had the luxury to discuss this important issue with them. Comments such as “providing holistic service to patients,” “faith in self is important to growth,” “It’s important to see the patient as a person not defined by race or religion,” “promoting patient spirituality,” and “praying with patients is important to me” went a long way in restoring my faith. I believed this class was equipped to provide service of faith and to promote social justice, both on which a Jesuit education is based. The discussion and presentation about Jesuit Pedagogy included comments such as the act of “learning independence teaches one to grow.” They expressed, “we are all teachers” and “teaching is what a nurse does.” I loved the proclamation, “teaching is an art” and Jesuit Pedagogy means “a love for learning.” Last, the discussion about Men and Women for Others included comments about serving coworkers, being a community, and team building. They saw this principle as guiding them to be advocates for their patients. They presented that paying it forward means serving others. One student discussed the importance of being open-minded if you are a man or woman for others. It was with unanimous agreement that this principle was the definition of nursing. They believed that nursing is a vocation, a calling. “You do not choose it, it chooses you.” I had a student come to my office after class as she had something she wanted to add to the discussion of this principle and was too emotional to do so in class. She related a story about her uncle recently dying and her young cousin reminding his mother as she struggled to allow people to help her that it is important to be a receiver. This student emoted “The Jesuit ideal can be taken at face value as simply “doing” for others – being a servant – but isn’t it just as important to allow others to do for us? This is at times “doing”. Being a receiver can be just as valuable as being a giver.” As I reflect on the experience of being in the Ignatian Mentoring program, I am reminded of what I teach my novice nursing students. I teach them that they “Stand on holy ground” when they are afforded the privilege to care for the sick, the vulnerable. Equally, I have come to believe that as an educator I too stand on holy ground, as it is a privilege to be a part of my students’ journeys. This experience has served to engrave that belief in my heart. I will forever remember my students’ willingness to expose their vulnerability each Wednesday in our classroom discussions. Likewise, their thoughtful reflections regarding how the Ignatian principles will guide their nursing practice have influenced my own practice and will not soon be forgotten.

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NURSING Cura Personalis: The Gift of the MIDAS Student Art and Science of Nursing Practicum

Barbara Harland RN, MSN MEd Mentor: Margaret King, RN, PhD (Nursing) I joined the Xavier faculty family in the fall of 2005. This year marked a new venture for the Nursing program at Xavier. The nursing department launched their new nursing program called MIDAS. The program allows students who have an undergraduate degree in a non-nursing discipline to seek a graduate degree in nursing. I was assigned to teach the fundamentals nursing lab practicum, the second semester medical-surgical clinical, and to facilitate preceptor experiences in both the psychiatric and complex care clinical areas. The MIDAS students come with a wide variety of backgrounds including but not limited to theology, social work, journalism, Spanish, physical education, early childhood education, social work, and geology. Both my concern and my challenge was to teach nursing fundamentals to students who had no background in nursing and to lay the foundation that would prepare them to fully accept the role of a professional nurse. A person might ask how is this program different from the traditional nursing program? The traditional program takes four years to complete. The MIDAS student is a full-time student for only nineteen months, terminating with a master’s degree in nursing science and developing the knowledge base that will allow them to sit for board licensure as a registered nurse. In 2005, I was invited to participate in the faculty Manresa retreat. It was here that I began to understand the impact of Ignatian values and principles on my role as a professional educator and as a member of the Xavier community. During the discussion of cura personalis, my thoughts immediately jumped to the MIDAS students. It was at this time I made a conscious decision to focus on the gifts the MIDAS students brought from their initial degree discipline, and not on their lack of nursing knowledge. In collaboration with my mentor, a discernment process took place. We met and discussed my observations of the class and how I thought Ignatian principles were being integrated. I thought back to the discussion of the gift of the person. As novice nursing students, the students tend to focus on what they do not know and forget what talents and knowledge they actually possess. My goal was to design a project that gave the students an opportunity to reflect on their gifts and not their deficits. My Ignatian project was incorporated into NURS 565. One of the course assignments is a group project that promotes collaboration of the student nurse team with the manager of the hospital clinical unit. The students in collaboration with the manager identify a quality improvement issue. The students and manager with faculty approval, decide on the project focus. Within the assignment the students identify the purpose of their project, provide research to support their actions, present a plan to implement their intervention, and describe a mechanism to evaluate the effectiveness of their project. To incorporate the cura personalis principle, the students were to submit a self reflection identifying what knowledge, talent, or gift they contributed to the project that was reflective of their initial degree or life experience. They are also asked to identify how this knowledge or talent would be complimentary with nursing process and/or the professional development of nursing. The reflections were amazing and at times unexpected. The following are some of the personal reflections that I would like to share: • I really enjoyed working on this part of the project. It was terrific hearing what things my fellow classmates had done. I learned a lot about them as a person. • I liked working with other professionals. I am amazed at the talent in nursing. • I did not think anything I had done before had anything to do with nursing, now I know that is not true. • I am amazed that something I learned in geology could actually be applied to nursing process. • Nursing process is very similar to scientific process. I like that there is a logical way to solve problems. • My degree in journalism really helped with condensing information for the poster. • A background in education really helped with this. I was able to share that at the meeting with the manger when we talked about learning styles. • I was able to utilize my Spanish language education and develop a hand-out in Spanish. • I really enjoyed working with the second year MIDAS student. I can appreciate the program and it was good to speak with someone who went through the program and survived. I think I found a new friend.

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• This really made me stop and think. It was nice to think of something positive I did. • We all worked very well as a team and we all had something very positive to give. It was fun to see everyone step up and take charge of their part. • I learned a lot about my fellow classmates. • My research came in handy when teaching others about infection control. • I have presented to large groups, so I think that really helped me to present the staff education part of the project. I was very confident. Overall evaluations of the self-reflection component were very positive, and I feel that the goal to recognize personal gifts as well as the gifts of others was met. This component will become a permanent part of the project assignment. In conclusion, I would like to share my analogy of a gift box. The discipline of nursing provides the framework and knowledge base that forms the foundation of nursing practice. The Jesuit principles represented by the ribbon connect us to our students, our peers, our clients, and to the world in which we live. The students are represented by the multiple loops of the bow. Just as the loops go in multiple directions, represent different sizes, and appear at different levels, so do our students. However, the loop is continuous, leading back to the Jesuit principles that guide our interactions with others, and to our nursing heritage that provides direction for excellence in practice, making us nurses and nurse educators serving others for the greater glory of God, while recognizing the gifts each person adds to this package we call nursing education.

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NURSING Journaling as a Strategy for Developing Reflective Practitioners Cathy Leahy, MSN, MEd, RN Mentor: Cecile Walsh, MSN, RN, CNS (Nursing) The Ignatian Mentoring Program provided the opportunity in the fall of 2006 for me to spend dedicated time with my friend and colleague, Cecile Walsh. Because Cecile mentored two people, I was fortunate in that I was also able to share this experience with Kelly Beischel a friend from the department of nursing. I gained an even greater appreciation of Ignatian spirituality through our discussions. As a result of this sharing I chose to incorporate Ignatian characteristics into the curriculum through journaling which would serve as a strategy for 60 junior year nursing students and six faculty members to reflect on how they incorporate Ignatian characteristics into their daily living. Journaling is a method frequently discussed in nursing and educational literature as an “active learning technique that is meant to enhance reflective practice” (Blake, 2005). Reflective practice is a means of self-examination that involves looking back over what has happened in practice in an effort to improve, or encourage professional growth (Ruth-Sahd, 2003). Why is journaling important? The literature cites numerous reasons for utilizing journaling/reflective practice in the academic setting. According to Pinkstaff (1985), students find that ideas become clearer when they must write them down. Students get a better sense of the whole as they view their own actions embedded in the complex interactions between self and others (Cooper, 1991). Writing requires students not only to make connections, but to declare them in concrete form. Students are thereby involved actively in the process of their own teaching/learning (Pinkstaff). Since the nursing students at Xavier already engage in reflective journaling in all of their practicum courses, it occurred to me to ask the question “could reflecting through journaling on Ignatian characteristics advance the integration of these spiritual characteristics into the everyday living”? It is from this platform that I included criteria in the syllabus for both NURS 373 and 361, in addition to the existing journaling framework, for weekly reflection on the personal application of Ignatian characteristics. During orientation to the course, each student was presented with two documents; Do You Speak Ignatian? and Student Life in the Jesuit Tradition. The objective of the weekly assignment was discussed by the faculty and students. The journaling activity was worth ten percent of the final grade for both courses. I was hopeful that as discussed by Blake (2005) regarding the many advantages of journaling as a means of developing reflective practice that these students and faculty would experience a heightened awareness that includes the following: • Discovering meaning • Instilling values of the profession • Gaining perspectives of others • Developing affective skills • Caring for self (page 2) Witherall (1991) states that journaling enables the writer to discover connections between self and other barriers to understanding, and to know more deeply about the meanings of one’s own cultural narrative. Journaling provides a form of educational encounter that renders us human and frees the moral imagination. Below are some of the quotes excerpted from over 500 journal entries. Student excerpts: “Ignatian principles and characteristics work really well with holistic nursing” “I’ve actually never been asked to include Ignatian principles/characteristics into my care and truthfully have never thought about it while I was caring for someone. But, I’ve always tried to keep a positive attitude about what I’m doing even though I’m nervous. I do my best to stay respectful of the patient and others on the unit by talking calmly in the hallways and addressing needs for the patient at the first available opportunity. If students need help, I assure them every thing will be ok because we are all in this clinical journey together.” “Ignatian principle that I witnessed today was seeing “good” in the universe and being grateful for the gift. The entire surgery staff seemed really aware of respecting the patient and wanting to provide the best care possible. They respected each other and the roles they each played in the surgery as well. When I went to the PACU, I also saw this respect for the patients. The nurses were with them the whole time, giving them support as they came out of anesthesia. It gave me a positive feeling to see this consistently happening.” 160


“Discernment and ‘magis’ are two Ignatian principles I have been thinking about lately. As a nurse (and also just a person in general), I always hope to make good decisions. In the nursing profession, it is especially important to make decisions that are good for clients and staff. Making good choices is not always easy because of the number of factors to consider or the nature of the issue (legal/ethical dilemmas). The idea of “magis” has become a challenge for me. I try to push myself beyond basic expectations in the classroom, at clinical and also other areas of my life. I have found that the highest expectations I encounter are the ones I have for myself. My hope is that these expectations will help me to always strive for excellence, for more.” “I found God in all things with my patient. Although she was grumpy at first, I was able to be patient and help her have less pain. I did not become angry with her, but I understood and tried to put myself in her position.” “I told my patient everything that I was doing, held her hand, and sat with her in hopes that she would feel less anxious and more like an individual of importance. I did not yell at her like I heard someone else do, I really wanted her to feel like a respected human being. I see this as women and men for others not just doing what I am supposed to do as a student nurse.” “I feel that this clinical experience has opened my eyes wider to the Ignatian principle of being ‘men and women for others.’ Through my interactions with the nurses, my fellow classmates and Shannon, I have come to realize that this is our main purpose in life, to be ‘men and women for others.’ As a nurse, I will get this opportunity everyday.” Faculty response: “I think the principle of “magis” can be a double-edge sword. In striving for more or excellence, it is sometimes hard to know when enough is enough. Over the last couple of weeks, I have had two students that have been very hard on themselves, in terms of grades on assessments, written in their journals or verbalizing frustrations that they were not more independent, functioning at a higher level or getting better grades. While I can certainly understand their striving for more or excellence (which I do encourage), I have tried to impart that this time in their education, is a time for learning and growing. It is unreasonable for them to expect to have mastered all those skills at this time. I don’t want them concentrating only on the negative, I am trying to get them to acknowledge the significant advances they have made and will continue to make throughout the remainder of their education. I believe that I encouraged caring for self or Cura Personalis through my reflections.” In conclusion, the assignment of weekly reflective journaling upon personal application of the Ignatian characteristics for many was a meaningful experience. I valued the opportunity to witness growth in awareness and understanding over time and most students agreed that the assignment should be included in subsequent years. As described by Cooper (1991) “these small, insignificant objects, filled with the simple words of our lives can serve to make us whole.” References Blake, T. (2005). Journaling: An active learning technique. International Journal of Nursing Education Scholarship, 2 (1) (7), 1-13. Cooper, J.E. (1991). Telling our own stories: The reading and writing of journals or diaries. In C. Witherell & N. Noddings (Eds.), Stories lives tell (pp.96-112). New York: Teachers College Press. Pinkstaff, E. (1985). An experience in narrative writing to improve public health practice by students. Journal of Nursing Education, 24, 25-28. Ruth-Sahd, L. (2003). Reflective practice: A critical analysis of data based studies and implications for nursing education. Journal of Nursing Education, 23 (11), 488-497. Witherall, C. (1991). The self in narrative: A journey into paradox. In C. Witherall & N. Noddings (Eds.), Stories lives tell (pp. 83-95). New York: Teachers College Press. Paper presented at the Nurse Educator Institute, Branson, MO, March 31-April 3, 2009 and at the Association of Community Health Nurse Educators National Conference, Chicago, IL, June 11-13, 2009.

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NURSING Community Nursing Practicum Cecile Walsh, MSN, RN, CNS Mentor: Ginger McKenzie, PhD (Education) In the Fall of 2004, being a member of the Ignatian Mentoring Program, I was given the challenge of integrating the Ignatian mission into a course that I would teach in the Spring semester. I chose the course NURS 443, Community Nursing Practicum. This course is unique to the university in that it is a “bridge” course. In the Department of Nursing we refer to courses that segue a registered nurse (RN) without a college degree into master level courses as “bridge” courses. The typical student in this course has an RN license from a diploma nursing program or associate degree program. Often the student is middle aged as will be evident in the student profile that follows. I chose this group because the required course is offered before these students begin graduate work and therefore occurs early in their years at Xavier. I also chose this group because they are adult learners. Adult learners are always challenging and I believed that they may not have been exposed to the Ignatian mission. As the syllabus states, Community Nursing Practicum focuses on health care management and various nursing roles within communities of increasing complexities. Nursing strategies aimed at disease prevention, promotion and restoration of health are applied to the management of identified community health problems. This course is a co-requisite with Nursing and Community Health (NURS 442). The course objectives involve using epidemiological methods to describe the state of health of a community; implementing problem solving processes to design resolutions for identified community health problems; enacting the role of a community health nurse in selected settings; and analyzing interpersonal communication patterns with various groups. In reality, the student chooses an aggregate within the community. Through an assessment process, the student determines a health care need within the aggregate. After research, the student develops a plan of care and implements and evaluates its effects. An additional requirement - due to the professor’s philosophy- involves a service component. The aggregate must be chosen by the student on the basis of having unmet needs, largely due to financial limitations. Evaluation methods include participation in seminar discussion, practicum logs, and a written paper discussing the project. So how might one integrate Ignatian mission into a community nursing course? NURS 443 was an ideal course in which to integrate a mission driven teaching component. Each student was working with a group in the community and the course had a service theme. A profile of the students helps to illustrate their receptivity to this project. For the Fall semester, NURS 443 consisted of 10 adult learners. They were all female ranging in age from 40-55 years. Their years of nursing experience ranged from 13-31. The students’ areas of nursing expertise included emergency room, surgery, ICU, research, cardiac, pediatric, and oncology nursing. The purpose of the mission driven teaching component was to familiarize the graduate student with the Ignatian way and promote an understanding of Ignatian values. Adult learning principles were utilized. The student was assigned to read “Cura What?” This booklet, written by Patricia Marik and Debra Mooney, is a graduate student’s guide to understanding and living the Jesuit mission. When the student returned to seminar, each component of “Cura What?” was discussed. The components of the booklet cover cura personalis, discernment, finding God in all things, men and women for others, magis, and the service of faith and promotion of social justice. After self-reflection, each student shared how she integrates principles of the Ignatian mission into her life and her proposal to implement the mission in her project. The last aspect of this assignment entailed writing a short paper discussing the implementation of the mission. The seminar discussion was enlightening. Author Debra Mooney was able to join the class for observation and input. The scholarly papers also offered insightful comments by the students. The following quotes are excerpted from the written papers and seminar discussion. • Integrating the Jesuit mission into my clinical experience and project was a natural fit. In my 30-years plus as a nurse I have implemented all of the Jesuit values outlined in “Cura What?” without even knowing they were Jesuit values. • In Cura Personalis it is clear that Xavier is driven to shape its students as a whole individual, not merely intellectually. This can be a difficult piece to integrate into my own life. I have always been the major money maker, taking care of the children and other family members while going to school. I often lose sight of taking care of my own self, body, soul and mind. However, after I made the decision to return to college, it has been extremely refreshing and supportive, that the Xavier staff respect and acknowledge my personal and work life. This environment allows graduate students to provide and care for either families as well as their education.

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• Discernment: As a nurse who cares for premature infants, there are often several possible courses of action, all of which are potentially good and you must choose the best option for each individual infant as what is good for one infant many not be good for another. • The community project practicum brought me much discernment. I could have made it easy on myself and chose a path that had already been taken, but in my heart, I felt pulled in a different direction. Deciding to start and implementing a support group for adolescents who self-injure was not an easy decision. • As a nurse, I believe I have a gift for seeing good (God) in all things and in all people. I believe all persons have some good in them. I believe God is always present with us in our lives; I also believe all things happen for a reason. Seeing the good in all persons is really a gift; a gift of patience and understanding. • I have always felt that challenged children, no matter the source of the difference, possess a gift from God. A child’s gift from God to others may be simply that they enrich the lives of those with whom they come in contact thereby offering a glimpse of Christ known to be found in everyone. • Finding God in all things: a smile from a patient, a compliment from the family, or a satisfied feeling when I know I have done my best at the end of a very long day, even if I did not get everything done. • Men and women for others: I feel that nursing for me has always embodied this ideal and what nursing is all about: a mission and service to the community. I do not really think most individuals would continue to stay in this field just for a paycheck. The work is too difficult and demanding. There has to be something more spiritually and psychologically driving most individuals to stay in it. • Striving for excellence, or magis, is the foundation of my clinical experience. It is truly refreshing to discover that there are many new things to learn…even after age 50. The feedback I have received in class and in my log entries has helped me to think more about what I’m doing and how to do it. As I have challenged myself to think about my project, I have revised my plan several times in an effort to “strive for more.” • I have been raised with many of the Jesuit values such as you must see God in all things and you cannot tolerate social injustice towards people. If you can bring about a change, do so in a non-violent way that brings God the Glory. I was raised in an activist household, every Sunday after church we would listen to Martin Luther King speeches and had to reflect on them. The Jesuit mission enforces many of these values to me and helps to bring everything in my life in perspective. We, as students, are here to learn at a scholarly level and also to gain understanding of how to serve the community better with our enhanced knowledge. In conclusion, the assignment of integrating the Ignatian mission into a course was very beneficial to the student and the professor. During discussion all students agreed that the assignment should be included as part of the course in future years. The assignment instigated a self reflection by the student that would not have occurred otherwise. Paper presented at the Nurse Educator Institute, Branson, MO, March 31-April 3, 2009 and at the Association of Community Health Nurse Educators National Conference, Chicago, IL, June 11-13, 2009.

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OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY Integrating the Jesuit Mission in E Pluribus Unum “Persons with Disabilities as a Discriminated Minority” Georganna Joary Miller, MEd, OTR/L Mentor: Cecile Walsh, MSN, RN, CNS (Nursing) The Opportunity: This class titled “Persons with Disabilities as a Discriminated Minority” is one of the many offerings of the University Studies courses known as “E Pluribus Unum”, which is required as part of the Xavier core curriculum for students in their sophomore year. The basic intent for any section of E Pluribus Unum is to broaden the student’s understanding of cultural diversity, and hopefully an appreciation for commonality among humans or developing awareness that they are “one out of many” as the translation for the course implies. Many sections of E Pluribus Unum focus on the discrimination experienced by minorities based on racial differences. This specific section is devoted to educating students about the minority population of persons with disabilities, who also face discrimination in their lives. “Disability is a combination of the condition, limitations in functioning, and societal prejudice and discrimination.” (Smart, J., 2001, Disability, Society, and the Individual. Austin, TX: Pro-Ed. p. 18.) Over 50 million Americans are disabled, which is roughly 20% of the population. One in five people worldwide is disabled, most of them impoverished. (Stone, K., 1997, Awakening to Disability. Volcano, CA: Volcano Press p. 4.) The Americans with Disabilities Act was signed into law in 1990 to end discrimination towards the disabled and open doors for employment and independence in community living. Yet the unemployment rate today for people with disabilities is 70 percent, the same as it was in 1990. In many cases, people with disabilities are penalized for working because they stand to lose critical medical benefits if they make more than a few hundred dollars a month. The Challenge: Being part of the Ignatian Mentoring Program encouraged me to examine the methods I have used in this class for three previous semesters and to search for ways to more closely align this course to reflect the Xavier mission and the goals of Jesuit education. The coursework has been intentionally based on select principles outlined in the Xavier University mission statement, including involving students in “intelligent engagement with questions of peace and justice.” The EPU courses are designed to “increase awareness of stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination and their relation to the exercise of power in American society” (Xavier University 2004-2006 Catalog, p. 420). One goal of this specific class is to develop an appreciation for the opportunities that people who are disabled present to other individuals and to society. Class discussion includes a look at America’s cultural roots and myths regarding disabilities, as well as the history and evolution of American laws created in response to society’s perception of the needs of the population who are disabled. This design aligns nicely with the Jesuit education goal to develop a world view that is oriented to responsible action and to recognize the intrinsic value of the natural and human values. The specific focus for this class is to have the student gain insight into their own values and views based on the myths and misinformation given to them by their culture. Course assignments and classroom projects have been designed to engage students in dialogue and critical thinking surrounding ethical issues and values, which is another key component of the Xavier mission. For the Spring 2006 Semester, I wanted to evolve the course so that the student would be moved “out of their comfort zone” and allowed to personally experience diversity in their community, and hopefully inspire the student to change society and the world for the better. “Jesuits value self awareness …one achieves self awareness not by reading how someone else achieved it, but through focused reflection on one’s own experience” (Lowney, C., 2003, Heroic Leadership Chicago, IL: Loyola Press, p. 114). I wanted to expand the course assignments to allow the student an opportunity to integrate the knowledge from the classroom with real-world situations where they could further develop their comfort level and competence in finding God in all things. In order to accomplish this evolution in the course, two assignments were modified and one assignment was added. “Many people with disabilities internalize society’s view of [them] and [their] disability; a person’s response is very closely tied to the larger society around him or her” (Smart, J. 2001, Disability, Society, and the Individual. Austin, TX: Pro-Ed. p. xiii). Two course assignments are used to expose students to stereotypes found in contemporary media that reflect society’s attitudes towards persons with disabilities. These attitudes often prevent individuals with disabilities from being given equal rights to fully participate in their communities. For this semester, students were asked to read a contemporary novel that was written from the point of view of a teenage boy with Autism. The students were then to write a summary discussing/identifying the stereotypes facing the main character as well as discussing their personal reaction to the character’s behavior, adding any personal experiences they may have had with 164


someone in their own life that has a disability. The students were also given the task to watch a newly released movie titled “Murderball” that follows a group of young men with disabilities who play a modifi ed form of rugby for persons in wheelchairs. The movie gives a candid and sometimes shocking examination of details in the daily lives of these men. Again, the student was expected to write a summary of their reaction to the movie and to include any new information or insights gained from watching the video. One new assignment was added to encourage the student to have direct communication and contact with a person who has a disability in hopes of dispelling myths, increasing the student’s personal comfort level and opening opportunities for future involvement and “service in the community of mankind.” Students choose to complete this assignment by doing one of the following: • Participate in Natural Ties, a Xavier service group pairing college students with persons in the community who have disabilities and may have limited opportunities to socialize in mainstream activities. • Participate in a game of wheelchair football with a local group of persons with disabilities. Wheelchair football is a weekly sports activity organized within the Cincinnati Recreation Commission. The Outcome: To examine the effectiveness in attaining the goals established for this course, it is first important to review the “Course Objectives” as outlined in the syllabus: 1. Examine the history of America’s treatment (and mistreatment) of citizens who are disabled and increase personal knowledge of current laws and legislation designed to enable independent living for the disabled. (QUESTIONS OF PEACE AND JUSTICE) 2. Increase self awareness of stereotypes, prejudice, and discrimination with the intent of forming new attitudes towards individu als with disabilities based on knowledge of factual information rather than myths. (ETHICAL ISSUES AND VALUES) 3. Develop a sensitivity to the subtle (and not so subtle) prejudices towards disability inherent in everyday life, including mes sages communicated in film, literature, mass media, architecture, and healthcare practices. (ETHICAL ISSUES AND VALUES) 4. Develop an appreciation for challenges facing the disabled and recognize opportunities for personal influence in effecting posi tive changes in society’s treatment of those who are disabled. (QUESTIONS OF PEACE AND JUSTICE) Outcomes for this course were measured in two ways: 1. Use the Attitudes towards Disabled Persons Scale as a pre-test/post-test evaluation. Results: ALL students showed some degree of change in attitudes towards persons with disabilities at the end of the course as evaluated by the Attitudes towards Persons with Disability Scale. Total results for students who completed both the pre-test and post test are as follows: One student showed a 46.6% change in answers. Three students showed a 53.33% change in answers. One student showed a 56.66% change in answers.

One student showed a primary shift in thinking/attitude on 6/ 30 questions on the post-test. This could indicate the student gaining insight and awareness into the human attributes shared by both able-bodied and individuals with disabilities. On question # 19, which asks for the student’s attitude regarding “Most disabled persons do not get discouraged easily”, four out of five students changed their attitude from a degree of agreement to a level of disagreement, which could imply that the students gained a better understanding of one typical emotion that is common in all human beings, disabled or able-bodied. Only two questions on the scale showed no change in student responses, keeping their rating of “I disagree very much” on both the pretest and post-test evaluations. Those specific questions are as follows:

Question # 27 “Physically disabled persons are often less intelligent than non-disabled ones.” Question # 30 “The way disabled people act is irritating.”

2. Ask students to reflect on “Lessons Learned”. A few key responses from the students are as follows: “This course really opened my eyes to a world that I probably would have only had limited contact with had I not taken this class. I understand and recognize how society and public places are what make people handicapped, and there are solutions to these problems.” -EPU Student D.R. “I used to think that sympathy was the answer. I thought that all I could do, and all I needed to do, was show pity and compassion. I disguised those emotions as support and concern for the disabled. Now, however, I realize that sympathy was the entirely wrong approach. I know it is not my fault, though, because I was uneducated and unaware. Instead of sympathy, I now realize that empathy and genuine understanding through education is the reaction that not only I, but also society, should have in regards to people with disabilities. Our concern and support for this population needs to be proven through interaction, knowledge, and action. It takes courage to step out of our comfort zones and associate with people ‘different’ from us. However, if we overlook the differences, much could be learned from people with disabilities.” -EPU Student C.M. 165


“…I think the basic message [is persons who are] disabled can lead full, happy, healthy lives. This class has made me a lot more conscious of the things in my life that I look at as normal but a person with a disability sees as an obstacle that has to be overcome before they can move on with the rest of their day.” -EPU Student E.R. “One thing that impacted me the most is learning about all the loopholes in the government system that prevents people with disabilities from getting the things they need to live a normal life. I did not realize that such a large number of disabled live in poverty, and I didn’t realize that the social security disability program barely covers the expenses of these individuals. I am extremely disappointed to learn that the equipment necessary to provide a good quality of life for people with disabilities is so expensive, and not covered by disability benefits—especially after all the money working Americans put into the system through taxes.” -EPU Student C.R. “I learned that it is the environment that is the main barrier for individuals with disabilities not the individual’s limitations. One is only limited because of the limitation society puts on the individual. I know that I will take an extra moment to think twice about the disabled, whether it be when I am voting for issues to help the disabled, or taking the extra time to mention to others about making sure things are accessible…I will speak to the principal at my mother’s school about making sure the children learn more about disabilities because they are our next generation and they too can make a difference.” -EPU Student J.S. “Unfortunately, laws will never be completely fair or entirely perfect. The only thing that we can do is try to make them better… by trying to break stereotypes and crush stigmas; we may just have a fighting chance at living in the world everyone dreams of. By teaching our children that everyone deserves love and respect, perhaps one day that perfect world we dream of will be at hand.” –EPU Student M.M. Appendix Other assignments for this course: Write two pages on one movie you watched from the list below. In your paper, reflect on what you experienced or learned from watching the movie. (You can get these movies from the MacDonald Library, a local public library, Blockbuster, or from the class instructor.) If others watched the movie with you, what was their reaction and how did it differ from yours? What in the movie shocked you or impressed you? What stereotypes, prejudices, attitudes or myths were conveyed in the movie? What one point did you find it hard not to think about for the rest of the day or week? Mask (1985) Shine (1996) I am Sam (2001) One Flew over the Cuckoo’s Nest (1975) House of D (2005)

My Left Foot (1989) Door to Door (2002) The Other Sister (1999) Radio (2003) What’s Eating Gilbert Grape (1993)

Regarding Henry (1991) Molly (1999) Sling Blade (1996) The Man without a Face (1993)

Obtain a wheelchair from the course instructor or from the guest services desk at a local shopping mall. Spend at least two hours in the wheelchair (propelling the wheelchair with just your arms). Go into at least four different stores in the mall. Try to “shop” and eat something in the food court while seated in the wheelchair. DO NOT CHEAT and get out of the wheelchair to reach things or get yourself “unstuck” if you run into an obstacle. (You may want to take a friend along with you to assist you for these situations.) Make mental notes about the experience, focusing especially on how you felt, what frustrated you, how often you had to ask for help, what were others reactions towards you, and how anyone who may have gone with you reacted to you while you were “shopping.” Reflect upon the experience in a two page minimum summary after you have completed the two hours in the wheelchair.

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Men and Women with Others: Learning Occupational Justice and Service in Guatemala Joan Tunningley, MEd, OTR/L, BCP Mentor: Cecile Walsh

â&#x20AC;&#x153;Xavier University is dedicated to engaging and forming students

intellectually, morally and spiritually, with rigor and compassion, toward lives

of solidarity, service and success.â&#x20AC;? Fr. Michael J. Graham, S.J., President Xavier University www.xavier.edu/about/leadership.cfm

Photographs courtesy of students, clinicians and faculty from the Occupational Therapy Department International Service Learning Project to Guatemala, June 2008; album names as credited; shared via www.snapfish.com

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In a country where many poor and oppressed scavenge the city dump for their livelihood, being disabled usually leaves you abandoned; orphaned.

Overview I. Occupational Justice (HOCS 405) and Service Learning II. Ignatian Mentoring Program III Inspiration III. I i i – Transformation T f i

Four pillars: self-awareness, ingenuity, love and heroism

IV. Supporting the future

For more information about the Guatemala City dump, see http://research.unc.edu/endeavors/win2008/guatemala.php

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Occupational Justice? Orphans in Guatemala

Service Learning : Connection to the Occupational Therapy Course of Study The Occupational Justice courses (HOCS 323 and HOCS 405) are designed to promote the understanding of occupational justice through study and service.

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Occupational Justice II: HOCS 405 Course Description - Summer/Fall 2008

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Life meaning

• Students will build an understanding for issues of justice and occupational patterns in the construction of life meaning through participation i i i in i service i learning l i hours h • In-depth study of occupational justice theory in relationship to local or international communities is supported • Learning via self-generated objectives, discussion, and personal/group reflection 5

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Study

Why Service Learning?

Participation

Fr. Peter-Hans Kolvenbach, S.J. stated, “Students, in the course of their formation, must let the gritty reality of this world into their lives, so they can learn to feel it, it think about it critically, critically respond to its suffering, and engage it constructively. They should learn to perceive, think, judge, choose, and act for the rights of others, especially the disadvantaged and the oppressed.”1 8

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Jesuit modo de proceder: be mobile, open to new ideas, blind to national borders, mutually supportive, and restlessly disposed to continuous improvement. 2

Engage constructively

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Ignatian Mentoring Program

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Jesuit “Fieldwork”

1. Monthly meetings to reflect with Cecile Walsh 2. Reading Heroic Leadership by Chris Lowney 3. Support student participation in service learning to Guatemala 4. Facilitate student reflection on the impact of service learning on living the motto, “men and women with others” 11

Study

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Time to Reflect

1. Monthly mentoring meetings • Dedicated time with Cecile Walsh to share and reflect • Discerning how to connect Guatemala with Ignatian Mentoring Program • Begin with increasing my self awareness

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2. Heroic Leadership by Chris Lowney

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Steve: Our “leader” in Guatemala

• Leadership springs from within • Leadership is not an act. It is about who I am as much as what I do. • 4 pillars ill off success – Self awareness – Ingenuity – Love – Heroism

Leadership springs from within

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3. Support student participation I modeled Ignatian beliefs through: • Sharing my perspective of the impact the participation in the Service Learning Project to Guatemala in 2008 had on me • Application of the Ignatian Mentoring Program stipend to financially support one student toward his/her airfare • A prayer of discernment prior to the drawing of a student as the recipient of the financial support 17

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Air travel to Guatemala, part of the anticipation for the International Service Learning Project 18


“Men and Women with Others”

4. Facilitate Student Reflection: “Men and Women with Others” • Initial example provided through a self reflection by Joan Tunningley, spring 2009 • In the pre pre-trip trip reflection from the student recipient of stipend support for her airfare • In class, Fall 2009, students will be asked to share how their service learning experiences reflected “Men and women with others”

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Inspiration - Transformation

Pillar 1:

Self-awareness

• Inspiration from Heroic Leadership by Chris Lowney; four pillars of success – Self-awareness – Ingenuity – Love – Heroism • Transformation seen in students and clinicians who participated in Guatemala in 2008. • Supporting this transformation for future students was my aspiration. 21

“First look at yourself; then regard others. No one perceives others accurately without first achieving healthy self regard.” 3

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“Self-awareness, self understanding: Ignatius was able to pinpoint his flaws with greater maturity and accuracy y than ever before, yet at the same time able to appreciate himself as a uniquely dignified and gifted person.”4 23

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“Key to attaining self-awareness is identifying motivating core values and beliefs.”5

“Self-awareness roots and nourishes the other leadership virtues.” 6

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Pillar 2: Ingenuity

Knowledge and technical skills are less critical to leadership success than is mature selfawareness. 7 28

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“Jesuits prize personal agility: quick, flexible, open to ideas, imagination, creativity, adaptability, and rapid response.” 9

“Ingenuity blossoms when the personal freedom to p pursue opportunities is linked to a profound trust and optimism”8 29

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“But ingenuity encourages the embrace of new approaches, strategies, ideas and cultures.” 10

BEFORE

AFTER

“Ingenuity disposes people not just to think outside the box but to live outside the box … explore tactics and strategies that transcend the narrow mindset” 11

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Pillar 3: Love

“The Jesuit company mission to help souls remained a sterile abstraction until love made it personal.” 12 33

“Work with compassion and courage.”13

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“Love is the passion to see team members excel, “to run at full speed toward perfection.” And love is the glue that binds individuals into loyal, supportive teams…”14 36

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Pillar 4:

Heroism

“Love lends purpose and passion to ingenuity and heroism.” 15

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“Heroic leadership invites people to assess their daily impact, to refocus if necessary, and to articulate the leadership mark they want to make. It invites them too to replace accidental leadership with purposeful leadership, of self and others.” 16

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“Magis-driven heroes bring energy, imagination, ambition and motivation ti ti to t their work; the results take care of themselves.” 17

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“Heroism lies in the nobility of committing to a way of life that focuses on goals that are greater than oneself.” 19

“Magis-driven heroism encourages people to aim high and keep them restlessly pointed toward something more, something greater.” 18

Above: Nannys feed babies at orphanage in Guatemala Top right: People as scavengers at the dump Bottom right: wheelchair repairs 41

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Transforming souls for 2009

Transformation 2008

The student recipient of the stipend from Ignatian Mentoring Program to support her flight to Guatemala in 2009 wrote, “My

gratitude for other peoples’ selflessness and charity has spurred me to seek out service opportunities pp at Xavier. I chose this specific p service opportunity, because the Hispanic community has always been near and dear to my heart …. I am beyond excited to continue my family’s tradition of service in Hispanic communities….to help the children of Guatemala.” 20

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Supporting the future

Supporting the future - Plans

1 2 1. 2.

3. 4.

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Street in Antigua Wheelchairs at Hermonos Pedro Hospital Exploring volcano Student working with child 45

In what we do in the world there must always be…a strong sense of the sacred inseparably joined to involvement in the world. Our deep love of God and our passion for his world should set us on fire—a fire that starts other fires! 21

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• Summer 2009 return to Guatemala with new students for Service Learning Project • Summer 2009 after service learning in Guatemala,, student stipend p recipient p will write reflection of transformation • Fall 2009, class activity to reflect on transformations from service learning experiences toward becoming “Men and women with others” 46

Thanks to Carol Scheerer, department chair, for organizing the service learning to Guatemala; to Cecile Walsh for being a wonderful mentor and to the Ignatian Mentoring Program for making my dream to help a student go on the Service Learning Trip to Guatemala a reality.

A wall at Anini, one of the orphanages we visit in Guatemala, says, “Make your dreams a reality” (Spanish) . 48

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21.

References

Photo Credits, per slide

Kolvenbach, Peter‐Hans (2000, October 6).  The service of faith and the promotion of justice in American Jesuit  higher education.   Keynote address for Santa Clara University’s Justice Conference. Lowney, Chris (2003).  Heroic Leadership.  Chicago:  Loyola Press, p. 223. Lowney (2003) p. 176. Lowney (2003) p. 45. Lowney (2003) p. 250. Lowney (2003) p. 283. Lowney (2003) p. 107 Lowney (2003) p. 128 Lowney (2003) p.  128 Lowney (2003) p. 250 Lowney (2003) p. 281 Lowney (2003) p. 282 Lowney (2003) p. 282 Lowney (2003) p. 282 Lowney (2003) p. 282 Lowney (2003) p. 282 Lowney (2003) p. 284 Lowney (2003) p.  281 Lowney (2003) p. 280 Lowney (2003) p.  281 Sara Cassidy.  (personal communication, e‐mail, November 24, 2008).  Ladrigan‐Whelpley (2008). Retrieved from  http://www.scu.edu/ignatiancenter/publications/explore/fall2008/section07.cfm on March 28, 2009.

www.snapfish.com  account: gorea@xavier.edu • Samantha Ali’s album:  5 right, 6 left, 16 right, 18, 20, 24 top and bottom  left, 38 top, 44 left Amber Carpenter’s album:  27, 33 left, 35, 41, 44 bottom, 47 #1, 47 #3 Megan Federle’s album:  24 right, 29, 37, 39, 44 top right, 49 Amy Gore’s album: 12 bottom right, 30 left, 40 left, 47 #4 Melissa Holderby’s album 11 22 top left 42 50 Melissa Holderby’s album:  11, 22 top left, 42, 50 Jessica McCoy’s album: 4, 9 top right, 22 bottom left, 25, 40 right Georganna Miller’s album:  9 bottom right, 32, 36 right Leann Presley’s album: 5 left, 33 right, 38 bottom, 45 right, 47 #2 Carol Scheerer’s album:  6 right, 9 right, 12 left and top right, 14 left, 16  left, 26, 45 left • Joan Tunningley’s album:  8 left, 9 left, 22 right, 29, 30 right, 31, 34, 36 left,  42 • • • • • • • •

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PHILOSOPHY The Political Character of Ancient Greek Religion Eleni Tsalla, PhD Mentor: Arthur Dewey, PhD (Department of Theology) Course Information The ethics course (PHIL 100) is designed to familiarize the students with methodical attempts to answer the question what it means to lead a good human life on the basis of Plato’s Republic, which is the requisite text. The ancient political philosophy (PHIL 362) course is a survey of ancient political thought with an emphasis on Plato’s and Aristotle’s political writings. We touch upon religion in both courses. From a modern perspective, the ancient philosophical approach to religion is very distinctive. Both Plato and Aristotle understand politics as the architectonic art that oversees, along with everything else, religious institutions to ensure that their effects coincide with those of legislation. IMP Experience With Arthur Dewey, my mentor, we discussed Ignatius’ Spiritual Exercises and the significance of the faculty of imagination in Loyola’s thought. Under my mentor’s guidance, I read Antonio De Nicolas’ Powers of Imagining: Ignatius De Loyola, A Philosophical Hermeneutic of Imagining Through the Collected Works of Ignatius De Loyola (State University of New York Press, 1986). Spiritual Exercises: Composition, Contemplation, Colloquy Ignatius’ emphasis on taking the world as it is, made a particular impression on me, especially as it relates to the ancient philosophical way of approaching the realm of nature and culture. In the Spiritual Exercises again and again one becomes engaged in compositions of place. One sees “in imagination” [65] or “with the eye of imagination” [66]; one “hears, tastes, smells, feels” [67-70], one “applies the five senses” [121], immersing oneself completely into the images recalled or evoked, becoming part of their drama. The imaginative reenactment carries with it the faculties of the emotions and intelligence, effecting, thus, their active integration into what is envisioned. The act of imagining is a dynamic re-creation of the self called to engage anew with the realm of the familiar, the given, it inhabits. Such contemplative vision becomes the beginning and the end, the and the, of action, which, to the degree that it is human action, is also public. Course Objectives in Light of my Acquaintance with Ignatian Spirituality While my objectives have not changed in essence, I try to apply more consciously the imaginative pedagogy of the Spiritual Exercises. Composition of place: Both courses begin with a lengthy introduction to Ancient Greek Culture, which emphasizes the function of religion and myth as the carriers of the community’s collective experience and self-consciousness. We discuss the Great Dionysia of Athens, a religious festival funded by the city, which included drinking celebrations culminating in a religious procession that marched through the city to the theater of Dionysus for a three-day theatrical contest. The goal is to allow the students to recreate imaginatively the ancient eusebia (piety) embodied collectively by the citizens. Contemplation: The thought of the classical philosophers on religion is introduced as commentary of the established customary practice. (1) Ethics as Introduction to Philosophy: Socrates observes in the Republic (379a) that “it’s appropriate for [political] founders to know the patterns on which poets must base their stories and from which they must not deviate.” So, even though he and Adeimantus will not compose the poets’ poems for them, they will spend considerable time (bks II and III) determining precisely “the patterns for theology or stories about the gods.” Traditional religion is embraced as an indispensable dimension of the political life. This happens though only after an elaborate scrutiny of religious institutions, according to the principles established as paramount in guiding political action. True statesmanship depends on knowledge, and knowledge pertains to the intelligible world without which one is confined to the world of opinion. (2) Ancient Political Philosophy: To the pluralistic and disconnected list of human excellences, promoted by the agnostic Protagoras (Plato, Protagoras), who thinks that man is the measure, Socrates counters an organic model of virtue, where piety needs to be harmonized with the other virtues, primarily wisdom and justice. The students consider these suggestions in contrast to the modern assumption that the private can be isolated from the public, that 177


human beings are first individuals and then members of a social structure. The students think critically of pluralistic assumptions, especially in light of the fact that every legislative act is a definitive one embracing a certain set of values. The full theoretical implications of the ancient position are discussed. According to ancient political philosophy, the environment of the polis (culture) enables the development of logos both as language and as the continuity of human intelligence in the arts and sciences. Human intelligence is actualized in structured environments and channeled towards distinct skills, crafts, or arts, in the effort to satisfy common needs, i.e., all arts are in the service of the common good. While each art has its own objectives and goals, taken together these objectives and goals should be woven into the common political good. Failure to do so has dangerous consequences for the human well-being, as Plato provocatively shows whether in the case of rhetoric, poetry, or religion. Colloquy: No definitive answer is given. That the ancient polis embraces principles foreign to the ones of our age is no news. M. Schofield is pointedly advising that “it would be a mistake for those of us who are some species or other of democratic liberal to think we can find very much to identify within its [the Laws’] pages.” Acknowledging that there is a message for our times, he warns us that it is one “not beckoning us” (“Religion and Philosophy in the Laws,” in Plato’s Laws: From Theory into Practice, ed. S. Scolnicov, L. Brisson, Academia Verlag, 2003, p. 13). But if human beings are political animals, the student of Plato and Aristotle could retort, allowing the operation of diverse powers in the polis without understanding their origins and nature, and without conceiving of a plan to integrate their ends, leads directly, even inevitably, to deviations, what Plato calls hemart menai politeiai. What both courses stress are the inherent difficulties of some very popular modern assumptions. What is also stressed is that our and our students’ lot at this point in time is to think creatively of possible reconciliations or to continue to suffer the many injustices our deviant constitutions breed. The question of a common political good that goes beyond the negatives that the individual’s rights protect is upon us. While life and liberty are necessary, they are not sufficient goods. Happiness needs to be commonly defined and pursued. Loyola writes from the perspective of 16th century individualism. Imagining and understanding the ancient Greeks in their context raises the political problem as the most urgent in human life and allows for creative extensions of Ignatius’ thought. He compels us to do so. He taught us that by actively imagining we partake of the demiurgic divine activity.

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PHYSICS Forensics & Race - Teaching Diversity in a Physics Lab Gregory Braun, PhD Mentor: Ginger McKenzie, PhD (Education) As the importance of diversity becomes more significant to the University’s Jesuit mission, it becomes the responsibility of the faculty to address these issues in the classroom. Diversity is part of the Xavier University mission to “form our students intellectually, morally, and spiritually, with rigor and compassion, toward lives of solidarity, service, and success”. Because physics attempts objectivity and detachment from society, this provides a challenge. But, the course Physics and Forensics offers a strong connection between science and society, and so is well-suited to adapting to teach social issues. I decided to look primarily at racial diversity, and hoped to show that the detachment from society provides science with an objectivity that serves to avoid the racial prejudices so common in our society. Through the process, I learned both what does and does not work well. While the overall student response was mediocre, I do believe that important issues were brought to the minds of the students. Within the limitations of the physics laboratory class, I am satisfied with the results of the project. The course used was Phys 111, Our Universe: Forensics Lab, which we usually refer to as “Physics and Forensics”. This is a core science class (the reason for the Our Universe denotation), taken by non-science majors to satisfy the sciences requirement. Many of the students choose this course because of some small interest in forensics, or at least in forensics-based television shows. Other students take the class only because it fits within their schedule. One criminal justice student has taken the course each of the last two semesters, but other than this the students have no dedication to the science of forensics. The course consists of lecture twice a week and lab once, with the lab broken into two sections. I taught both lab sections, and wanted to see what could be done to bring diversity issues to this part of the course. The course teaches some of the methods used in forensics, but more importantly, teaches the science behind the methods. We want to show the students how scientists think and do things, rather than teaching them how to be forensic scientists. For our purposes, forensics is an example of an application of science. While the course topics include chemistry and biology in addition to physics, the focus is more on the nature of science itself, independent of any specific discipline. In the lab, we both practice these techniques and demonstrate the scientific processes that are involved. In some lab periods, we do not do anything that a forensic scientist would do, but instead deal with the phenomena that make the forensics possible. The science of forensics is intrinsically linked to the criminal justice system, which has obvious racial issues. I wanted to look at how these racial issues affect how scientists must deal with certain techniques. When dealing with a population of unequal proportions, it is always important to be aware of how this will affect the science. For instance, while 12% of the U.S. population is black, they make up 41% of the prison population1. This tells us that whatever the cause, we can expect similar disparities in those involved in criminal investigations. We must learn how to deal with these inequalities and provide the most accurate results. This concern with accuracy is not just moral, but also scientific. While I wanted to deal with racial diversity, I did not want to detract from the science in the class. In particular, I did not want this to become an ethics of technology course and debate the general use of forensics technology in the justice system. Rather, I want to look at specific ways in which race affects how we do forensics. Science still needs to be the focus of the course. So, while we mentioned the disparate treatment of different races, this was not the focus. Instead we focused on the extra thought needed by forensic scientists to prevent forensic evidence from contributing to this disparity. To this end, I discussed three topics involving racial issues, with increasing objectivity and reliability. I must say that for the remaining weeks of lab we did not mention race at all. Some topics, such as fingerprinting or glass fragment analysis simply have no racial issues. I should also mention that we did not discuss the racial differences in victims of crime, for the simple reason that forensic evidence tends to deal much more with the perpetrator than the victim. Course Topics Related to Diversity The first lab dealing with diversity was the lab on eyewitness identification. Here we discussed two issues, the first being the differences in identification of people of different races. Race is one of the most distinguishing characteristics of a person, and the

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races are not equally represented in the population. Identification of an individual with any minority trait is different from that of a majority trait, whether the trait is race, height, or any other obvious physical descriptor. If an individual is described with a height of 6’8”, this piece of information is of a different nature than that of someone 5’10”. A person of extreme height is more easily identified, because fewer people are of that height; thus the height of this person carries more information than the height of a mediumsized person. The danger is that this one piece of information blinds us to other characteristics, if height is the only factor we consider. The same is true of race. If a suspect is identified as a black male in a predominately white population, then this fact eliminates a large number of people and so carries a good deal of information. If we use this to ignore other factors, however, then we run the high risk of identifying the wrong person. At the scientific level, we have to treat identification of a minority race, height, etc., as different from that of a majority trait. This is an issue with any type of identification of any type of subject, but it becomes much more important when dealing with race. The fact is that the forensics techniques listed here may all discover the race of a suspect and nothing else. In a society that treats different races very differently, identifying a suspect by no more than their race can perpetuate stereotypes. In addition, this can lead to misidentification of innocent members of the same race. While any information is potentially useful to a scientist, this one piece of data can unfortunately strengthen the link in society’s mind between race and crime. The above effect is compounded by the fact that eyewitness identification is inherently subjective and unreliable. Whenever the judgment is being made by humans, personal prejudices are bound to interfere. And racial prejudices are some of the strongest, whatever those prejudices may be. We know that different races are not represented equally in the criminal justice system, whatever the cause. Finally, in addition to prejudices, any eyewitness identification is simply unreliable2. The other issue we dealt with in the eyewitness identification lab is that of the Own-Race Bias, also called the “other race effect”. Many studies over the years have shown that witnesses are about one and a half times more likely to make a mistake when identifying individuals of races other than their own2. While there are multiple theories for the reason behind this, our concern is the fact that it happens. As scientists, we would give less weight to interracial identification than to that of the same race, since it has shown to be less reliable. As a society, we have to consider the ramifications of determining the value of testimony based on race. The next lab dealing with racial diversity was one in which we observed some identifying properties of hair. Here the students looked at hair under a microscope and learned what can be done to match samples. Looking at strands of hair alone can tell us only a few things, one of which is possibly race. Again we are faced with race being possibly all we know of a suspect, and many of the problems with eyewitness identification return. Hair identification is also somewhat subjective, and so personal prejudices again may interfere with the science. While far better than eyewitness identification, hair analysis does depend on judgment calls by the analyst. Here we are dealing with the prejudices of the forensic scientist instead of a general witness, and we may have more confidence in the objectivity of the professional scientist. This is the middle step in the theme of progressing objectivity of techniques, being more objective than eyewitness testimony, but less so than DNA. Also, hair analysis is more reliable than eyewitnesses, but less so than DNA. The FBI used DNA to investigate the accuracy of hair analysis and found 11% of positive hair matches to be false3. Finally, we did a lab involving DNA. The actual lab itself dealt with beads showing the structure of DNA, as well as the steps taken to analyze it. However, at the beginning of the class we discussed some of the properties of DNA analysis related to race. The first thing I mentioned is that DNA has shown us there is no difference between races at the genetic level; there is no gene for “race.” This leads to that fact that DNA evidence is not subject to some of the problems that other forensic techniques are. DNA analysis is much less affected by personal prejudices than are eyewitness and hair analysis. DNA is thus more color-blind, and it is this objectivity we value in a science. Here was a great opportunity to show that good science is less prone to personal prejudice. We talked about using DNA to exonerate wrongly convicted suspects by groups such as the Innocence Project4. The statistics for these exonerations show that the racial makeup of those exonerated in general mirrors that of the prison population, which does not indicate or contraindicate any specific racial bias in the accuracy of convictions. The exception to this is if we look only at rape offenders, in which a disproportionate number of those exonerated are black. The significance of DNA exoneration to us was that it shows the unreliability of other, more subjective techniques. It is of note that false eyewitness identification played a part in 74% of the cases where the convicted was ultimately exonerated by DNA evidence5. Usually, a DNA sample from a crime scene is matched to a sample taken from an individual. If there is no individual with whom to compare, the race of the DNA samples source may still be determined. While DNA does not show definitive differences between races, it can show traits that are more common in one racial gene pool than another. These markers can give a probable match for race. This technique is prone to error, and is also controversial6, and all of the earlier issues with knowing only a suspect’s race remain problematic.

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The Student Response Laboratory classes are structured with an initial explanation and by the instructor, followed by the students performing the experiment or activity in pairs. The instructor helps individual groups during the entire period, but most of the presentation of material is done in the introductory lecture, and this is where most of my discussion of diversity occurred. The down side of this is that the students know that they are free to go upon completion of the experiment and so are eager to get started. This always makes student participation in the introductory lecture very limited, which is usually not a problem since they are participating throughout the lab. Since the diversity issues were dealt with primarily at the beginning of the class, student participation was limited. In future semesters, I hope to change this and involve diversity material throughout the lab period. A note of interest is that, at the beginning of the eyewitness identification lab period, I asked the students to list some of the traits used to visually identify someone. I found it interesting that in both sections race was one of the very last things mentioned, after height, weights, scars, tattoos, etc. I think this represents a reluctance to think about race at all. This reluctance to bring up the issue is one of the things that I wanted to overcome. At the end of the semester, we do a mock crime scene, where students and faculty were suspects in a staged crime. It happened by chance that in one section one of the students was identified as a black female by an eyewitness. I was very pleased when students brought up some of the issues we discussed at the very beginning of the semester. Although there was only one black student in the suspect pool (the other lab section), the students were quick to point out that this identification really had limited value in the case. Their discussion let me know that at least the few students working on this part of the case understood very well exactly what I had wanted to express upon them and remembered it months later. When analyzing hair samples for the mock crime scene, the students first looked at the hair, and then chose students from a â&#x20AC;&#x153;mug bookâ&#x20AC;? from which to acquire hair samples for comparison. Some of the hairs found at the scene of the mock crime were of a very dark color, which led the students to request hair from students with dark hair, including the few black and Hispanic students. We talked about the effects of selecting members of one race for further analysis, and whether or not this was good science. Since the issue was purely hair color, the students determined that race was not much of an issue here. Hopefully, they understood that part of the scientific process is determining whether any factor is relevant, race or otherwise. Near the end of the course, the class was assigned a short research paper on a topic showing the intersection of forensics and society. They were to look at some aspect of forensics that affected, or was affected by, not only those involved in the case but society at large. This could consist of looking at one specific case, a forensic technique, or some trend in forensics as a whole. While I expected many students would choose some diversity issue, only a few did so. Many students misunderstood the project, and failed to deal with any significant societal issue. Those that did deal with society covered interesting topics, but not many were diversity related. This may be partially due to the fact that students thought they needed to deal with something beyond what was done in the lab, and so they chose a topic other than diversity. Whatever the reason, I was disappointed that so few students did chose to further investigate diversity issues. While the student response was less than I had expected, I am still glad that this material was introduced into the class. I do feel that the project was a success, and will continue to implement this material in the course. I hope that as I become more experienced in teaching this material, it may be better integrated into the lab experience as a whole, becoming a more central part of the labs in which it is involved. When I started thinking about this project, I considered the possibility that this would be a candidate for the universityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s proposed diversity requirement. I have since reached the conclusion that this will not meet the requirements for such a course, at least as they are proposed now. The biggest issue is that there are only isolated topics which are relevant to diversity. The majority of the course (both lab and lecture) deal with scientific topics unrelated to diversity, and attempting to make diversity an underlying theme of the entire course would severely hinder the science. That being said, I think that the topics where race is a factor are very important, and need to be discussed. Whether or not Forensics fulfills a diversity requirement, I believe the university mission compels me to discuss these issues when they are relevant.

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References 1. Harrison, Paige M. and Beck, Allen J., Prisoners in 2005, Bureau of Justice Bulletin, www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/pubalp2.htm#Prisoners 2. Meissner, Christian A. and Brigham, John C., Thirty Years of Investigating the Own-Race Bias in Memory for Faces: A Meta-Ana lytic Review, Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 2001, Vol. 7, No. 1, 3-35 10 3. Saferstein, Richard. Criminalistics: An Introduction to Forensic Science. (8th ed.) Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, 2004. 4. www.innocenceproject.org 5. Rizer, Aurthur L., III, The Race Effect on Wrongful Convictions, William Mitchel Law Review, Vol. 29:3, 2003, p845-867. 6. Cho, M. and Sankar, P., Nature Genetics Supplement, Vol. 36, No. 11, November 2004.

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PHYSICS Modern Physics in the Spirit of the Jesuit Tradition Justin J. Link, PhD Mentor: David Mengel, PhD (History) Modern science has a tendency of being presented as the existence of facts found in nature. The pursuit of knowledge for the sake of the greater good is often not considered in the light of the search for fundamental truth. As technology continues to grow, impressively opening windows to new areas of research not previously realized, one must take into consideration the impact on society as a whole. It is here at Xavier University that we can create the environment that is “dedicated to engaging and forming students intellectually, morally and spiritually, with rigor and compassion, towards lives of solidarity, service and success.” With the topics presented in Modern Physics, excellent opportunities arise to illustrate the ethical and moral implications inherent in this pursuit of knowledge. Modern Physics (Phys 330 & 340) is a year-long course typically consisting of sophomore physics majors. The course addresses the important physical discoveries from 1890 to the present. Topics covered include Einstein’s Special Relativity, Bohr’s model of the hydrogen atom, quantum physics phenomena, radioactivity, nuclear reactions, high-energy physics, and fundamental particles. Due to the exponential growth of technological advances, there have been more breakthrough physical discoveries in the last century than there has been in previous millennia. The rigorous and ambitious objectives set in the course description truly limit the available time to have quality in-depth discussions concerning all of the moral repercussions involved in Modern Physics. As a result, the current international heated topic of nuclear power, both in electrical supply and weaponry, was the focus of our discussions. Text books for the modern sciences thoroughly cover the scientific aspects of nuclear power but fail to address any moral implications, therefore, class discussions are included to increase the scope of the course. The time allotment for such discussions was originally set for one fifty minute class period. Due to the enthusiastic response from the students and excellent discussion, several class periods were required for the exercise. Before any such discussions began, the issue of respect was thoroughly emphasized due to the heated topics addressed. The students were also instructed to put themselves in the shoes of the scientists working on the projects, not as outsiders looking in. This point of view gained by such instruction lead to extremely insightful discussion. As the facilitator of the discussion, I played the role of devil’s advocate trying to challenge the students to critically think about their comments in the discussion. It is with this challenge that the students appeared to dive deeper into the topics. The first topic addressed was the use and control of nuclear energy. To begin the discussion, several challenging questions were posted for all to review and consider. The questions were as followed:

• Is nuclear energy a safe and viable option? • What is the environmental impact of nuclear energy? • As nuclear power facilities reach their life expectancy, should they be allowed to continue to operate? • Would you want a nuclear power plant in your city? • Can nuclear power assist the socioeconomic status of troubled countries? • Can we responsibly supply the technology needed to these countries?

These questions were not intended to inject my personal opinion, merely to ask the hard questions that the students must address and consider. Each question stimulated more in-depth responses but the attitude of the class changed significantly when discussing the last three questions. In order to have the students understand the significance of this topic, I introduced them to the nuclear facilities close to Xavier. Discussing facilities such as the Davis-Besse Power Plant in Toledo and the Perry nuclear power plants located in Cleveland illustrated that these issues are relevant to each and every student’s lives. To bring the issue even closer to home, we discussed the history of the Zimmer Power plant and how it related to the mistakes made at Chernobyl and Three Mile Island. The implications of the new Piketon Nuclear Power Plant, which is only 90 miles away from Xavier University, were also discussed. The overall sentiment of the students was that nuclear power plants have an overall good effect but they didn’t want them in their back yards. The final two questions of the topic brought forth intriguing discussions. At the time of the discussions, the United Nations was attempting to control the Iranian procurement and control of nuclear enrichment facilities for the purpose of nuclear power and potentially weaponry. It became clear that most of the students had not critically thought about the implications or moral justifications for or against Iran obtaining the nuclear technology. Some students believed that the best solution was for the United States to build the facilities and control them at all costs. It soon became evident that this may not be a viable option and the complexity of the situation frustrated the students. This discussion was finalized at the end of the class period and nuclear weaponry was resumed in the following class.

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The use and control of nuclear weaponry was the second topic addressed. To begin the discussion, three short video clips were shown to prepare the students for the discussion. The first two clips were that of the Nagasaki bomb explosion, and the released military video of the aftermath of the Hiroshima bombing. The final video clip was that of J. Robert Oppenheimer discussing the attitude of the scientists on the Manhattan project after the first successful test of a controlled nuclear explosion. These clips visibly upset the students and illustrated to them the severity of the nuclear weapon discussion. Just as before, the same discussion technique was used and the questions were as follows:

• Do you, as a scientist, need to consider the moral implications of your scientific research? • Placing yourself in the shoes of the scientists of the Manhattan project, would you have completed the work on nuclear weapons? • Is the use of nuclear weapons necessary? • Do we still need to build more nuclear weapons? • Do other countries have a right to advance their nuclear weapon programs? • Do we have an obligation to share the technology with other countries?

These topics were by nature much more controversial and this fact showed in the discussions. The students quickly came to a heated discussion on the use of nuclear weapons and the building of the nuclear arms race. Being of the generation where the Cold War is something of the past and only discussed in text books, several students did not understand the need for the building of our own nuclear weapon stock pile. I personally found this rather eye-opening and was happy to hear the responses from other students. One student went as far as to research the topic and was happy to supply the class with several uncommon facts behind the fight for the first nuclear weapon. The last two questions introduced to the students once again challenged them to discuss the current events. At the end of the two-class exercise, the students were presented with two comments from the father of the Manhattan project J. Robert Oppenheimer. After the end of WWII, he stepped down from the nuclear arms program due to his moral convictions, and the project went on without him to develop the hydrogen bomb. I personally believe that these two statements truly brought home the message to the students.

“If you are a scientist you believe that it is good to find out how the world works; that it is good to find out what the realities are; that it is good to turn over to mankind at large the greatest possible power to control the world and to deal with it according to its lights and values.”

“[W]e have made a thing, a most terrible weapon, that has altered abruptly and profoundly the nature of the world. We have made a thing that, by all standards of the world we grew up in, is an evil thing. And by doing so, by our participation in making it possible to make these things, we have raised again the question of whether science is good for man, of whether it is good to learn about the world, to try to understand it, to try to control it, to help give to the world of men increased insight, increased power. Because we are scientists, we must say an unalterable yes to these questions; it is our faith and our commitment, seldom made explicit, even more seldom challenged, that knowledge is a good in itself, knowledge and such power as must come with it.” By the end of the two-day discussion, several comments truly exhibited the significance of this effort. Student comments such as: “If we don’t do it, who will?”, “Who would be better to do the job than those who have morals and consider the ethical implication of the research” and “If we were in the shoes of those working on the Manhattan project, if we quit to demonstrate our vested interest in the nuclear weapons program, the program would still go on without us and those who continue the work may or may not consider the impact on society.” These comments alone highlighted the importance and significance of our jobs as Xavier University professors to ask the hard and challenging questions to our students. These discussions emphasized the need for us to continue to be “dedicated forming students intellectually, morally and spiritually, with rigor and compassion, towards lives of solidarity, service and success.”

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POLITICAL SCIENCE International Political Economy Anas Malik, PhD Mentor: Trudelle Thomas, PhD (English) Interactions with Mentor (Trudelle Thomas) • knew Mentor from previous discussions about writing (we coauthored a piece on writing for Grapevine) • met numerous times, got to know Trudelle, her son Gabe and husband Bill better • discussed Ignatian values from our respective faith traditions (Muslim and Christian) • wrote regularly and extensively in an intense, exploratory journal • traded written reflections on our personal journeys • considering co-authoring another article that draws on this experience The course: International Political Economy (IPE) • Upper-level course examines how economics and politics interact internationally • challenging because it is heavy on theory and jargon • students sometimes don’t relate to course material • need to show relevance, where the rubber meets the ground • wanted students to feel empowered as agents of social change • wanted students to grapple with ethical trade-offs and choices Specific Change 1: Philanthropy Grant • Philanthropy Grant Program: class gets $4000 to give to a nonprofit (technically a 501(c)(3)) organization in the Cincinnati area • Decided to pursue this as a way to engage students directly with community organizations • with students, decided to focus on recent immigrant needs; worked on grant mission statement; brainstormed possible orga nizations; sent Request For Proposals • narrowed down to 4 organizations, students currently busy with site visits; have lively discussions; students take their task seriously, and have volunteered to put in extra time • class looks at big macro picture, and this is about the local micro effects; some disconnects but overall student engagement with issues has increased • has produced deliberation over values and preferences as students try to make choices between different yet worthy programs Specific Change 2: Nicaragua Interactions • met with Nicaragua Service Learning Program (NSL) students at the semester’s start, and their leader Irene Hodgson; outlined basics in International Political Economy • Discussed collaboration; agreed that students in Nicaragua would send my class two case studies by a set date; IPE students would respond with analysis and questions; NSL students would respond to the response; IPE students would send a response to that • IPE and NSL students would meet in person at a gathering at the end of the semester for further conversation • Goal was to increase student engagement by relating to their peers in another program overseas, and to increase their sense that the cases are real, live, current, and significant • Another goal was to demonstrate that IPE analytical tools have direct, relevant implications for understanding world situa tions

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Specific Change 3: Student Ownership Over Decisions • at several points when group decisions had to be made regarding the Philanthropy Grant process, decision making suffered confusion and grid-lock • students aware of the Arrow Theorem: majority voting is subject to strategic manipulation or arbitrary results where there are more than two voters and more than two choices placed in rank order; the resulting “cycling majorities” problem means that there is no obviously superior how-to rule in group decision-making • partly from time constraints, and partly to give students ownership, I simply set a deadline (eg., 25 mins), and said if by that time they hadn’t come up with an answer, I would impose a decision-rule • in every case, students came up with a group decision • students gained experience in group deliberation, decision-making, and responsibility • I also learned to trust my students as capable, responsible decision-makers Overall Impact • enriching, bonding experience with mentor • expect to continue conversations, and do more coauthoring • develop community involvement as strategy to generate interest and engagement with course material • students more aware that analysis can inform ethical choices; enhanced the informed value judgment component in class room discussion and student writing • more interdisciplinary/cross-course connections as way to enhance student learning • greater mutual trust and sense of common purpose between students and instructor

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PSYCHOLOGY Introduction to Social Psychology Development of a Jesuit Identification Measure and a Sense of Becoming “Women and Men for Others” Christian M. End, PhD Mentor: Ginger McKenzie, PhD Course: A primary purpose of PSYC 261 is to introduce students to the basic concepts, theories, and research in the field of Social Psychology with the hope that the students will be able to apply the content to aid in their understanding of social interactions. While “Walking Ignatian” themes were incorporated into multiple chapters, (i.e., Behavior and Attitudes, Aggression, etc.), the activities associated with the Social Self-concept and Altruism chapters will be the focus of this report. Objective 1: Critically consider what it means to claim the social identities of “Xavier Student” and “a student at a Jesuit institution”. Additionally, modify pre-existing social identity measures to gain an understanding of the students’ understanding of the “Xavier Student” and “Jesuit Identity”. Identification Activity: Incorporated into a week of lectures, readings, and discussion of the social self, students were divided into dyads (in some cases groups of three students) and asked to generate an agreed upon schema for “Xavier Student”. A spokesperson representing each small group presented the created schema, after which the class as a whole discussed common emerging themes. The characteristics/attributes of the “Xavier Student” included service, Catholic, politically involved, partiers, higher socioeconomic status, openmindedness, and well rounded were prominent. The groups then used the same process to generate schemas for the “Jesuit Identity”. The characteristics/attributes of the “Jesuit Student” included service, spiritually, focus on continual education, respect for all, valuing and contributing to a sense of community, global responsibility, and holding high academic expectations. The students concluded that although there were indeed commonalities across identities (i.e. service), it was possible for these identities to develop independently of each other. After completing the open-end portion of the activity, students were presented 55 items taken from a variety of social identity measures. Dyads were asked to indicate those items that they felt would be valid measures of a “Xavier Student” identity as well as items that would be indicators of the “Jesuit Identity”. Agreement between more than 75% of the dyads resulted in the item’s inclusion in the measure. The students completed both the “XU Student” identity measure (see Table 1) and the “Jesuit Identity” measure (see Table 2). Providing empirical evidence for the students’ conclusions mentioned above, scores on the “XU Student” identity measure were positively correlated to the scores on the “Jesuit Identity” measure, r (19) = 0.49, p < .05. Thus, the more one identified as being a “Xavier Student”, the higher one scored on the “Jesuit Identity” measure.

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Table 1: Student Created Measure of “XU Student” Identity Agreement Items: I am proud to be a Xavier student. I am a Xavier student. As a whole, Xavier students are united. There is a feeling of unity among persons who are Xavier students. I am glad I am a Xavier student. Being a Xavier student is an important part of my self-identity. Overall, I am proud to be a Xavier student. Personal Characteristics: Disciplined Moral Honest Note: Cronbach’s alpha = 0.87

Table 2: Student Created Measure of “Jesuit Identity” Agreement Items: Those who endorse Jesuit values can always count on each other. Being someone who endorses Jesuit values is important to the way I view myself. There is a feeling of unity among persons who endorse Jesuit values. Being a person who endorses Jesuit values is an important part of my self-identity. Overall, I am proud to be a person who endorses Jesuit values. Personal Characteristics: Respects authority Disciplined Dedicated Conservative Moral Law Abiding Ethical Traditional Honest

Lives by principles Likes to worship Prays often Goes to church Depends on God Spiritual Knows a lot about religion Shows respect for sacred things Active in the church

Devoted to my religion Committed Strong beliefs Faithful Believes in higher power Devout Devoted Tries to know and please God

Note: Cronbach’s alpha = 0.93

Objective 2: Complete an altruism assignment that includes hands-on volunteering and a reflection paper that compares/contrasts social psychological and Ignatian analysis of these altruistic activities. Altruism Activity: Over the course of the semester, students were required to spend at least one hour of their time volunteering. After completing the altruism activity, students composed an application paper analyzing their experiences from a social psychological perspective. The students were also encouraged to address how the Jesuit perspective of altruism compares/contrasts to social psychological perspective. Students’ volunteer experiences were diverse. Some students spent a week long alternative break preparing a summer camp for children with AIDS, while others spent a couple of hours working at a homeless shelter. Many students tutored young children, while others spent time socializing with the elderly. (For a list of volunteer activities/locations, please see table 3).

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Table 3: Volunteer Locations/Activities Alternative Break Battered Women’s Shelter Danville Elementary Drop Inn Center Freestore Foodbank Mercy Works Our Daily Bread Pregnancy Center Nativity Academy

Saint Gertrude (babysitting) Saint Vincent de Paul Senior Citizens, Inc Sherwood Elementary Carnival S. Avondale Stopped with Roman Umbrella Family Child Care Winton Woods R.C. Hindsdale School

Included below are excerpts from the students’ application papers. “The altruism assignment that I chose to do was an absolutely amazing, eye opening experience. I learned so much in such a short amount of time. I am looking forward to continuing to educate people about these issues, along with getting involved in more social justice programs at Xavier.”

“I believe that if the end result is helping others, the motivations are not extremely important in short-term assisting. However, for a long-term commitment to altruism, a person is more likely to continue helping if they have a sincere concern for others and are not seeking their own internal or external rewards. A Jesuit-based education supports this genuine altruism, and people who volunteer should strive for this attitude when serving.”

“Through my experiences at St. Vincent De Paul I have learned that it takes courage and humility to ask for help and admit that you can’t do it all by yourself. I also learned the value of persistence. Even when times are tough, people keep going and search for ways to get back on their feet and provide for their family. Volunteering also provided perspective and made me realize that small everyday problems aren’t all that bad in the scheme of things and that I should count my blessings. Volunteering is one way I can live up to the Jesuit identity and truly be a woman for others.”

“…the Jesuit mission exemplifies the empathy- induced route of altruism. The honest concern for others and serving to better society and focusing on other people and their needs are the key differences between empathy-induced and egotistic-induced altruism. A Jesuit-based education supports this genuine altruism and people who volunteer should strive for this attitude when serving.”

“I can sincerely say that going to the Drop Inn Center was an eye-opening experience for me. I love where I am from, but going to the Drop Inn Center made me realize how naïve I am to the world’s problems.”

“While the two perspectives approach altruism differently, they would both agree that any action taken to better society, whether entirely altruistic or unselfish or not, would greatly help the world in which we live today.”

Many students indicated that a parallel exists between social psychology’s social responsibility norm and the Jesuit perspective that one develops, “A world view that is oriented to responsible action“. Additionally, students noted the discrepancy between the perspectives in that social psychology tends to emphasize the motivation for helping acts. Most students seemed to endorse the following student submitted quote, “the people you are helping don’t need your reasons, just your help.” Despite being linguistically more demanding than a typical homework assignment, students enjoyed the Altruism Activity and expressed intent to continue helping others, something consistent with the students’ Jesuit and Xavier identities.

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PSYCHOLOGY Experiencing Ignatian Core Values in Health Psychology: Utilizing “Inspiration” and “Aspiration” Debra K. Mooney, PhD Overview of the Sub-field Over the past 30 years, Health Psychology has become a major subfield of psychology. Health Psychology is one of 56 divisions of the American Psychological Association, psychology’s major professional organization. The specialty is defined in the following way: Health Psychology seeks to advance contributions of psychology to the understanding of health and illness through basic and clinical research, education, and service activities and encourages the integration of biomedical information about health and illness with current psychological knowledge. Departmental Mission Statement In keeping with the Jesuit, Catholic, liberal arts tradition, the Department of Psychology educates students in the science of behavior and mental processes with sensitivity toward the diversity of all people so students may use psychological knowledge and insight to address human concerns. Ignatian Mission and Identity Objectives As part of the annual assessment of college life by XU’s Office of Strategic Information Resources, Xavier students (and students at other participating Jesuit universities) are asked the following questions during their freshman and senior year in order to obtain students’ understanding and experience of Xavier’s core values arising from its Jesuit identity: To what extent has your experience at this institution contributed to your development of each of the following? 1. Understanding the mission of your institution. 2. Devoting effort to help others in need. 3. Leading by example. 4. Increasing your awareness of the relationship between global and ethical issues. 5. Actively working to further social justice 6. Defining your own values and beliefs. 7. Demonstrating respect for other’s differences. 8. Actively working toward a more inclusive community. 9. Ability to look critically at society and its institutions. 10. Making ethical decisions in professional situations. 11. Making ethical decisions in personal situations. 12. Understanding what it means to be men and women for others. 13. Making connections between your intellectual and spiritual life. (The response scale is: Very much =4, Quite a bit= 3, Some=2, Very little=1) Teaching Component As part of the Ethic, Religion and Society’s annual lecture series, Paul Farmer, PhD, M.D., presented his work, HIV/AIDS Crisis: Research and Advocacy (Community-based Treatment for HIV/AIDS) at Xavier University on April 23, 2007. In preparation, and as part of the course unit on “International Health”, students read, Mountains Beyond Mountains: The Quest of Dr. Paul Farmer - A Man Who Would Cure the World (Tracy Kidder, 2003), engaged in multiple small group discussions, and reflected upon and responded, in writing, to the following question: AS YOU CONSIDER YOUR LIFE AND WORK IN THE FUTURE, WHAT ASPIRATIONS AND GOALS HAS DR. FARMER’S EXPERIENCE INSPIRED IN YOU? The goals of this teaching component were to: - Facilitate students’ understanding and experience of the University’s core values in a personally meaningful way. - Enhance self-reflection, awareness and insight (a skill critical to professional psychologists and a significant component of Ignatian spirituality and Jesuit education [see Heroic Leadership by Chris Lowney, 2003 or chapter 4 in Jesuit Saturdays by William Byron, SJ, 2000]).

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Quotes from Student Responses … As I entered into college, I found myself continuing this passion [medicine] through volunteering in children’s hospitals and eventually working in the research section of Cincinnati Children’s Medical Center. Also, in college I found a way to a new passion of service. Through Alternative Breaks, it opened up a whole new world of opportunities to serve people. My eyes were opened to issues of homelessness and poverty in cities of the United States, and then this was expanded to issues in Ukraine and Jamaica. I found myself wondering about other social justice issues, those of children’s issue, health care inequality, disabilities, women’s issues, etc. Once I was exposed to one issue, I wanted to find a way to deal with each issue. Senior psychology major, chemistry minor

I have always wanted to be a writer but knew that most people could not make a living on a writer’s salary so I abandoned the idea for a different major once I came to college. I also essentially gave up writing because I adopted an “all or nothing” feeling towards it, believing that if I was not going to spend all of my energy on it, I should not spend any on it. However, seeing how Farmer seems to successfully balance his job and his passion rekindled the idea that perhaps I could be a writer – in whatever free time I can find. Psychology may be my job but writing is definitely my passion so I pulled out the novel that I started a year ago and wrote twenty more pages on it over the last break. I am still unsure whether I will ever have the nerve to get it published but at least I can still continue writing for the joy of writing. Senior psychology and finance major

Farmer’s experience showed me that you must use the talents that God gave you…. My talents of empathy and insight are the reasons I chose psychology. Junior psychology major, philosophy minor

Farmer’s story has taught me so many things, first of all reinforcing my desire to go into the helping field. My goal is to study social work and become a therapist. I want to help people by letting them know that someone is there for them and will listen to their problems. Just as Farmer corrected my misconceptions about poverty and disease, I too want to help with other’s misconceptions. I want to be a mediator for others, allowing them to educate one another through their miscommunications. I feel things such as miscommunication will only lead to ruin, so someone needs to act and help them. Junior psychology major

My understanding is that we are all born into certain lives that we don’t always have control over, but I also believe that we were born into certain lives for a reason. Am I better than a Haitian born into poverty? Am I lesser than a European born into royalty? Perhaps the question shouldn’t be who is better or more deserving of certain rights and amenities, but instead we need to ask what is that all human beings should be entitled to. As is mentioned in MBM, all human beings should be entitled to proper living conditions: clean water, food, shelter, clean air, and proper health care. If we are blessed enough to be given these things at birth, shouldn’t we work to ensure that others also are provided with these essentials? Senior psych. major, gender & diversity studies minor

I know that I have a few gifts. I am compassionate, I am analytical, I am empathetic, and I am outgoing. I know I have a few weaknesses. I am lethargic, I am pessimistic (in viewing myself), I am doubtful of myself. I also have a few traits that I am not sure are helpful or hurtful. I am easy going, I am fun, I am highly based on the here-and-now, and I am sarcastic. I know that I have everything necessary to be a successful person; I just do not know what it is that I am going to be successful at. …. I know that I can be a source of guidance for people. Coaching has allowed me to be that lifeline or that safety net for some people. Junior psychology major

As a student at Xavier, I have had the privilege to receive an education concerning the many branches of structural violence and its victims and, consequently, have chosen to remember the images of the poor instead of living in the ignorance that my actions do not directly affect those who are suffering. Senior psych. major, natural sci. and Spanish minor

It has always been difficult for me to express my emotions, as I was taught to keep them inside like the rest of my family. Farmer has made me rethink the manner in which I express my emotions, which is often not at all. In the future, I would like to be able to open up more to people, especially to those that are important in my life. Senior psych. major, gender & diversity studies minor

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[Recently] I was juggling my schoolwork and helping my mother take care of her father who was very ill. I spent much of the last month helping my mother because family has always been something that has meant a lot to me. I decided that my grandfather needed my undivided attention because he was so critically ill. I spent almost everyday helping my mother take care of him because I felt like it was something that I needed to do. Almost everyday my grandfather and I would talk about sports and then he wanted to know if I had decided yet where I was going to go to law school. My grandfather was so proud because he already had one lawyer in the family and he was on his way to having another one. He knew that I was happiest when I was helping others. We got the call that no one ever wants to get, my grandfather had passed away. As I continue on with my life, I look back to the conversations I had with my grandfather in the last month of his life. I will never forget his words about the fact that I would be a great lawyer because I had more ambition than anyone he knew at the age of twenty-two. Between the words of my grandfather and Farmer, I have been inspired to help people in the only way I know how, to be there for them in a time of need. Senior political science major, psychology minor

I put my family before everything else in my life. I was raised to believe that your family is the only support system you will have for the entirety of your life….I hope that when I get married, my wife will be a major part of everything that I do; including every decision that needs to be made regarding our family. I also want to be a major part of the raising of my children. I cannot imagine leaving my children in their beginning years when they are learning everything about the world. This is the time when they learn to trust and value people and I hope to be there for this important stage in their lives. Junior psychology major I, like most people, am guilty of making assumptions about people, just because he or she is different.....just because someone acts differently than I would act in the same situation, does not mean that we are unlike each other in every aspect. Junior psychology major

…I can see myself as a person who chooses a career focused upon passion, vocation, and selflessness. Farmer’s life has helped inspire me to realize where true happiness in life lies. His works have made me realize that I should follow my passions, I should find a career that I enjoy, and that I should make the world a better place. Junior psychology major, English minor

The absolute most important lesson I learned from Farmer’s story is that the only thing that can hold me back is inaction. Senior psychology major

Student Feedback I’ll remember how the International Health unit challenged me to evaluate my priorities/goals in my future career and service to others. The reflection paper was a great way to incorporate my thoughts about the book with my life. It is important to take the time to look at how things affect your own life. It was really great to write the paper. I liked the paper because it is good to be asked, “What about you?” in some courses. I enjoyed writing the paper because it really made me think about what I’d like to do with my life. The reflection paper was a good follow-up to reading the book. It allowed expression of opinions, reactions, and considerations. It was a nice open-ended subject. The reflection paper was good because it gives us the chance to respond to the book and evaluate our own goals, etc. Farmer was just one person that affected so many people. I learned that if you have a drive to do something - then it can be done. I liked the paper because it helps individuals reflect and learn about themselves. The paper helped tie up our thoughts about the book in regards to our own lives. It made me think critically about the book and Paul Farmer’s life while also looking at my life in the past and future. The book combined with Farmer’s presentation and my personal reflections – was really an inspirational/educational aspect of this course. 192


PSYCHOLOGY Is More Ethics Training in General Psychology Better? Reneé A. Zucchero, PhD Mentor: Bob Ahuja, PhD (Marketing) Rationale Training in ethics is fundamental to Jesuit education; but, ethics are infrequently discussed in courses other than theology and philosophy. One-fourth of Xavier undergraduates enroll in General Psychology (PSYC 101) at some time during their time at the University. Yet, ethics are infrequently addressed in undergraduate psychology courses and are most likely covered in advanced courses, such as research or practicum/internship, or at the graduate level. Nevertheless, ethical issues pervade roles of a psychologist, including researcher, practitioner, and teacher. Therefore, increased content in the area of ethics would expose an array of students to a key component of Jesuit education. Furthermore, future psychologists and consumers of psychological services might develop a better understanding of psychologists’ ethical behavior.

The following question is posed: “Are PSYC 101 students who are exposed to additional psychology ethics content more knowledgeable about psychology ethics at mid-semester than those who are not?”

Method Participants were students enrolled in four sections of PSYC 101 in the spring, 2008 semester. The prototypical participant was a 19 year-old, Caucasian, freshman female enrolled in the College of Arts and Sciences. Notably, only six percent of participants had declared psychology as a major. Psychology majors might represent a larger percentage of the sample if this study occurred in the fall semester. Forty-four percent of participants had previously been enrolled in a psychology course, while 41% had previously been enrolled in an ethics course. Procedures: Two PSYC 101 sections were exposed to a curriculum infused with ethics (n= 49), while two sections received the standard curriculum (n= 52). The author sought the assistance of two fellow Xavier psychology instructors to conduct this study. Nicholas Salsman, PhD infused ethics content into the curriculum of the course section he taught and Julie Rowekamp, MA agreed for two course sections she taught to be used as the control group. This study was submitted to the Xavier University Institutional Review Board (IRB) and deemed exempt from IRB review. Infusion of ethics occurred in the following course sections: careers in psychology (focused on the teaching of psychology), research, learning, social psychology, and clinical practice. Students were exposed to examples of a psychologist’s ethical and unethical behavior throughout the course. Initially, the American Psychological Association (APA) code of ethics (2002) was presented to the students to serve as a foundation for future discussions. A specific focus was on the General Principles, which guide psychologists’ behavior, but are aspirational in nature. Students were also presented with specific ethical standards when appropriate during the semester. Table 1 provides a description of the ethics content, including the course topics, specific subjects presented, and instructional methods used. Measures: There were two measures utilized for this study. A 15 item multiple-choice achievement test was administered to participants. It was scored as the number of items correct (0 to 15). Three case studies were presented. Utilizing an open-ended response format, students identified the ethical issues and discussed how the situation could be more ethically resolved. Possible total case study scores ranged from 0 to 10. The achievement test and case studies were administered at the first class meeting (Pre-Test) and at mid-semester (Post-Test). Students were given 30 minutes in class to complete both measures.

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Table 1 Ethics Content for General Psychology (PSYC 101) COURSE TOPIC Careers in Psychology/Teaching of Psychology

SUBJECT Teaching Competence, Evaluation of Students, General Beneficence, Allocation of Authorship Credit, Dual Relationships

METHOD(S) USED Introduction of APA Code of Ethics, Classroom Discussion, Case Studies

Research

The Ethical Researcher, Use of deception, Informed & Voluntary Consent, Institutional Review Board (IRB)

Classroom Discussion, Case Studies

Learning

Unethical Research Practices (deception, authorship credit); Watson’s Little Albert Case Study

Case Studies, Supplemental Reading, Video Clip, Classroom Discussion

Ethics Refresher Ethics of research and teaching

Case studies, Small Group Discussion, Class Discussion Mid-semester post-test administered

Social Psychology

Ethics in social psychology research (Classic studies conducted by Zimbardo, Asch, Milgram), use of deception in social psychology, informed and voluntary informed consent, secondorder [informed] consent, IRB

Classroom Discussion, Video Clip, Supplemental Reading

Clinical Practice

Confidentiality, Limits of Confidentiality, Tarasoff Case, Duty to Warn, Informed Consent, Boundaries, Multiple Relationships, Competence, Exceptions to Competence

Classroom Discussion, Case Studies, Small Group Discussion

Results Statistical analyses revealed several interesting findings. First, students in the experimental group displayed greater understanding of ethical situations and how to resolve ethical situations than the control group at midterm (case studies). However, there was no difference between the control and experimental groups on their basic knowledge of ethics at mid-term (the achievement test). In addition, students in the experimental group displayed greater knowledge of ethics, a greater understanding of ethical situations, and how to resolve these situations at the post-test (mid-term) when compared to the pre-test (beginning of the semester). Specifically, students in Zucchero’s course section displayed improvement on both the ethics achievement test and the case studies from pre-test to post-test, whereas students in Salsman’s section did not display an improvement on either measure. Discussion Let us revisit the initial question, “Are PSYC 101 students who are exposed to additional psychology ethics content more knowledgeable about psychology ethics at mid-semester than those who are not?” The findings suggest that the increased presence of psychology ethics content in general psychology (PSYC 101) may result in increased student knowledge of psychology ethics. The findings also suggest that the increased psychology ethics content may result in an increased ability to recognize unethical behavior and a better understanding of ethical behavior of psychologists. The author describes these findings in a tentative manner, due to the observed differences in the experimental group sections at post-test (mid-term). Zucchero’s experimental section displayed significantly improved outcomes on both measures at post-test, while Salsman’s experimental section did not. Moreover, Zucchero’s section displayed significantly higher case study scores at posttest than Rowekamp’s and Salsman’s course sections. There are a few possible explanations for the observed differences between the experimental sections. First, students in Zucchero’s

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course section completed ethics take home essay questions for tests one and two, while students in Salsman’s section did not. The task of developing comprehensive essays related to ethics may have solidified the students’ knowledge of the APA Ethics Code (2002) General Principles. Moreover, the essay question for test 2 required students to consider how they might conduct a flawed research study in a more ethical manner, similar to question 2 for each of the case studies. See Appendix A for the take home essay questions for tests 1 and 2. Also, Zucchero may have more successfully integrated the use of case studies into a “refresher ethics lecture” prior to the post-test (mid-term) than Salsman. Case studies were presented to exemplify ethical situations involved in teaching psychology and conducting psychological research. Students formed small groups and were instructed to review an assigned case study, identifying the violated ethical principles and areas of concern, as well as how the situation could be ethically resolved. After discussion, each group reported back to the class. Students in each group described their case study and the aforementioned points of interest. This sparked additional discussion among the class as a whole. The post-test results presented in this paper were administered at mid-term, rather than the end of the semester. Between midsemester and the semester’s end, ethics content in the areas of social psychology and clinical practice will be presented to students in the experimental condition. The true post-test (at the semester’s end) might be a more accurate measure of cumulative student learning of psychology ethics for the course. Thus, it is possible that at the end of the semester, students in Salsman’s section may display an improvement in their knowledge of psychology ethics and understanding of ethical situations, due to additional exposure to psychology ethics. Finally, there may be an inherent difference between the course section taught by Zucchero and that taught by Salsman which cannot be controlled. That is, Zucchero taught this course for five consecutive semesters prior to the study; whereas this study was conducted during the first semester Salsman taught this course. The differing levels of the instructors’ experience may account for some observed inequities. Teaching Implications The infusion of ethics into general psychology increased the author’s enjoyment of teaching the course, despite the significant commitment (time and energy) to modifying the course content. The students appeared better engaged and were genuinely interested in learning about psychology. In class, they quickly identified unethical behavior and were able to indicate why it was unethical. They clearly articulated changes in case study situations that would result in a psychologist’s ethical behavior and research that would be more likely to adhere to current ethical standards. Students effectively completed the take home essay questions about ethics. However, such questions would be difficult to integrate into an in-class testing format due to the intricate detail required and the necessary time to effectively answer the questions. One disadvantage of take home essay questions was the considerable increase in time and effort required to score the answers. However, the increase in student engagement and learning were certainly worth the extra exertion. The Future Again, the current paper describes part of a study designed to assess the utility of integrating psychology ethics into general psychology. A true post-test (semester’s end) will be administered to the control and experimental groups on the last teaching day of the semester. The experimental group scores are expected to increase subsequent to the inclusion of additional ethics content. It is likely that the author will continue the infusion of ethics in general psychology in future semesters. Author’s Note: The author would like to thank the several people for their assistance with this project. Nicholas Salsman, PhD and Julie Rowekamp, MA assisted with data collection. David Bull and Erica Eienman assisted with data entry.

Appendix A Take Home Essay Questions for Zucchero’s General Psychology Section Test 1 (Focused on ethics related to teaching psychology and conducting psychological research) Discuss the general principles of the American Psychological Association (APA) Code of Ethics (APA, 2002). What behaviors would an ethical teacher of psychology display? What behaviors would an ethical psychology researcher display? Test 2 (Focused on research ethics specific to a classic case study about learning/ classical conditioning) We discussed Watson’s “Little Albert” case study at great length in class. Discuss this experiment, including how it was conducted. On your own, consider the ethical issues surrounding this case. What ethical principles were violated and what is the basis for your answer? Knowing what you know about ethical behavior of psychology researchers, what was unethical about Watson’s behavior in this case? Given the same set of circumstances, how would you conduct this study so that it would be conducted in an ethical manner? What were the implications of this study for the field of psychology? 195


SOCIAL WORK Taking the Next Step to Social Action: Gender Identity Disorder and the Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Stephanie Brzuzy, PhD My Process As a newly hired faculty member at Xavier, I was anxious to know more about the mission and identity of a Jesuit institution of higher education. How does teaching to the mission actually happen? I began to meet on a regular basis with my mentor, Ed Cueva, at which time we discussed many issues that helped me to understand the context, culture, and rich traditions that are Xavier. I am grateful for his kindness and the vast knowledge he willingly shared with me. Upon my arrival at Xavier, I was struck by the passion of the faculty to sustain, support, and critically reflect on the core curriculum that makes Xavier University unique. Now, upon more reflection, I see this as a living example of Jesuit traditions in action. I am pleased to be a part of this on-going conversation and reflection on what a living and breathing core curriculum embodies on a day-to-day basis in the lives of our students and what we hope they will leave us with as they go forth in the world. The Project Mission statements in social work departments across the country are similar. Ours reads, “social workers are committed to making society more equitable and responsive to people’s needs. Social work offers a practical approach to solving problems and strengthening individuals, families, groups, organizations, communities and society”. Xavier’s department of social work, however, is one of the few undergraduate programs in the nation that places a heavy emphasis on social justice and a call to community action to eliminate poverty, fight discrimination, and be a voice for the most vulnerable citizens in our communities. I believe the focus of the social work curriculum at Xavier is no accident. It is sustained by the Jesuit traditions that support it. A component of the Jesuit mission “a faith that does justice” rings true here. The call to social action demands social work students to evaluate in critical ways their communities of practice in order to challenge social injustice in its multiple forms. We often work with people when they are most vulnerable and in need of someone to advocate on their behalf. Students must recognize that institutions of caring can be sites of discrimination and when this occurs it requires action. Institutions of caring cannot go unexamined and our students must be prepared for the ethical challenges they will face. To help students connect with the necessity to be critical of the possible social injustices that can occur in sites of caring, I developed the following learning project which is based on my belief that Gender Identity Disorder as a mental diagnosis must be reassessed by social work practitioners. Background on the Issue In 2012, the American Psychiatric Association is scheduled to release the next version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V). Its work will constitute the first major rewrite of the document allowing additions and deletions of diagnostic categories since 1994. Gender Identity Disorder (GID) is probably the most widely contested diagnosis of a mental disorder in the current version of the DSM (DSM IV-TR, 2000) published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA). The diagnostic criteria define GID as: A. A strong and persistent cross-gender identification (not merely a desire for any perceived cultural advantages of being the other sex.) In children, the disturbance is manifested by four (or more) of the following: 1) repeatedly stated desire to be, or insistence that he or she is, the other sex; 2) in boys, preference for cross-dressing or simulating female attire; in girls, insistence of wearing only stereotypical mas culine clothing; 3) strong and persistent preferences for cross-sex roles in make-believe play or persistent fantasies of being the other sex; 4) intense desire to participate in the stereotypical games and pastimes of the other sex; 5) strong preference for playmates of the other sex.

B. Persistent discomfort with his or her sex or sense of inappropriateness in the gender role of that sex.

C. The disturbance is not concurrent with a physical intersex condition.

D. The disturbance causes clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning (APA, DSM-IV-TR, 302.85, 2000). Social work professionals use the DSM on a regular basis to support their work 196


with individuals who have mental health issues. The DSM is powerful and should not go unquestioned when its diagnostic categories do harm. GID is a diagnosis that potentially imposes harm on individuals for non-conforming gender expression. This is not without serious consequences for individual lives. Homosexuality was removed from the DSM in 1973 and the call to action in 2011 should be the removal of GID.

The Assignment In order for students to better understand the connections between the diagnosis of GID and the potential harm it creates, they will read Daphne Scholinski’s memoir, The Last Time I Wore a Dress (1997), which documents her life when she was institutionalized in various mental hospitals from the ages of 15-18 for being “an inappropriate female.” During her institutionalization, she was taught how to “walk like a girl,” apply makeup and style her hair. She was also inappropriately restrained, sexually assaulted and placed in solitary confinement. Next, they will read Tre Wentling’s article “Am I Obsessed? Gender Identity Disorder, Stress, and Obsession” in Gender, Sex and Sexuality by Ferber, Holcomb and Wentling, eds. Oxford University Press (2009). In this article, Wentling discusses the stress and anxiety s/he negotiates everyday from societal interactions to his/her non-conforming gender expression. S/he emphasizes how the diagnosis of GID and its pathologization of non-conforming individuals creates added layers of unnecessary stress and discrimination. Once students have completed these readings, they will be asked to write a reflection paper on how caring institutions can shift from being sites of potential discrimination, regulation and harm to sites that take into account social work principles and accept people as they truly are without recourse.

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SOCIAL WORK Teaching to the Mission: Spiritually-Based Professional Development of Self in Field Education - An Ignatian Approach Shelagh Larkin, MSW/LISW Mentor: Trudelle Thomas, PhD (English) The Context The purpose of the Ignatian Mentoring Program, a faculty mentoring program offered through Ignatian Programs at Xavier University, is to provide faculty an opportunity to explore the values of Jesuit education and pedagogy in the context of a mentoring relationship with the goal of integrating mission and identity into their teaching and or scholarship. My participation in the program has provided a wonderful foundation from which to explore the integration of the University’s mission and identity into the professional development of self capstone paper in SOCW 420 Senior Seminar course which is the integrative seminar that runs concurrent with field instruction. How I arrived at this program and the process of the experience itself are as important as the outcome, thus I will provide some background with regard to both. I have a long and personal history with Xavier University. My father was on the faculty for 43 years and I grew up with the campus as my backyard. I, myself, attended Xavier and graduated in 1985 with a BS in Psychology. However, even though I am Jesuit educated, I did not know much about the Jesuits nor did I participate in mission and ministry life of the University. What I did get from my father, however, was a great respect for the Jesuits values of free inquiry and the pursuit of learning. When I joined the faculty in 1998, as a part of my orientation I attended Manresa, the on-campus orientation program that introduces faculty to the mission and values of Jesuit education. I found it quite interesting, not at all what I had expected. I was intrigued by the story of St. Ignatius of Loyola, the rise and eventual suppression of Jesuit Education in Europe and the role female students played and continue to play in Jesuit education in America. However, after that afternoon the experience became overshadowed by the demands of the day. So much so that the first time I received an invitation to the IMP, I glanced at it and dropped it in my waste can. A year or so ago, I attended a Salon dinner on the topic of Diversity at the residence of Father Michael Graham, the President of Xavier University. The dinner was an opportunity to meet new people and have an uncensored, conversation about diversity. In order to prepare for the dinner and discussion, we were asked to read the president’s diversity paper. One thing that stood out to me was the notion of “listening” for the sake of listening or “listening without an agenda” as described by Father Graham. That got me thinking about the profession of social work and the role that listening plays. As a social worker, we are trained to use “active listening” to help individuals, families, groups and communities function better in society as well as work to improve society’s ability to assist those in need. So this notion of listening without an agenda was freeing and exciting. This coupled by the opportunity to meet new people, listen to their diversity story and share my own became an extremely valuable experience in my personal and professional development. In addition, as a result of some things going on in our department, I have been thinking more deeply about Undergraduate Social Work education at Xavier a Catholic, Jesuit University. Namely, last year, the department brought in a consultant to assist in the redesign of several key social work courses in the hopes that they will be included in the core. Several foundational principles of social work namely, service, our societal and personal responsibility to the poor and oppressed, and the underlying values of the profession seemed to fit well with the overall mission of the university and were concepts and information that could benefit all students at Xavier. The Problem It became increasing clear to me that the mission of social work couldn’t be more aligned with certain aspects of the mission of Jesuit education if you manufactured it that way yet, I don’t think I had ever thought about it or talked with faculty or students about this. Nor, do I think that the average student, when they think about the mission and values of Jesuit education, even when it emphasizes social justice and service, think about social work. In fact, in some ways I feel I had avoided the topic of religion and spirituality and social work practice, but why? What had caused this gap in the curriculum? Integrating issues of spirituality into social work practice and curriculum has been a struggle for the social work profession. Canda and Furman have identified several theories to explain this: 1) it has been hard to find an agreed upon definition of spirituality, and 2) most social workers feel unprepared to address this issue with clients. As a result, the thinking is that it is best to refer clients to 198


those who are better trained to discuss theses matters, such as pastors, rabbis and priests. When I first heard Canda and Furman speak at the Council on Social Work Education Annual Program Meeting in Dallas in 2001, I felt much the same way. As much as I agreed that this was an important area to consider, I thought, for me, discussions of religion and spirituality were best left up to those better trained and qualified. The same holds true for social work education. Many of the reasons for not addressing this area share the same idea, namely, that social work faculty by and large is not trained to address such issues and thus it is better to ignore them. In a Jesuit, Catholic institution such as Xavier, I would say that an additional argument could be made that, the core courses in theology and philosophy and the programs of mission and ministry provide students with this content, and, therefore, the social work department does not need to. In addition, the social work curriculum is overburdened with specific content, and we cannot mandate more content in the curriculum, yet we are doing our students a disservice. Our department has made some attempt to address this need by offering a course entitled, Religion, Spirituality and Professional Practice, which is a team-taught course with a professor from the theology department. However, since this course is an elective, students will only get this important content if they can fit it into their schedules. I would argue that, due to the widespread interest in spirituality and religion in the US over the last 10 years, we need to prepare students to serve the client who may need to explore issues of spirituality and religion within the context of the professional helping relationship which is supported by the idea of treating the “whole” client and starting where the client is. Similarly, this same idea is important to consider with regard to social work education. Educating the “whole” student, with spirituality being a part of the student is equally important. Thus, it is important to consider the student’s own spiritual and religious development as well as the possible role this may play in her or his development as a social worker. Interestingly enough, Hodge reports that the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO) now requires that a spiritual assessment be conducted on all patients. However, an important issue to consider is how equipped social workers feel to complete a spiritual assessment. In fact, Canda and Furman found that only 17% of social workers felt prepared to conduct a spiritual assessment. I recently shared this research with the seniors in my seminar class and asked them if they felt prepared to discuss matters of religion and spirituality with their clients, and they also felt that they have not had an opportunity to explore or be trained in this area. Moreover, two students reported specific ethical dilemmas that revolved around issues of religion and spirituality and professional practice and both felt unprepared at the time to manage the situations. When discussing the topic of religion and spirituality in practice with the juniors, several students felt that religion and spirituality would be an important part of their practice and were surprised that this was even an issue. Thus, it struck me as interesting that students at a Jesuit, Catholic institution in the profession of social worker, both of which share similar and deeply held values, both of which are rooted in a religious and or spiritual tradition, had not had an opportunity to discuss and be prepared to practice in this area, while also clearly identifying that for some this would be an important area of their future practice. Thus, I have become curious about what my students think and how they feel their religious and/or spiritual values and Jesuit education interacts or not with their social work education, with specific emphasis on who they see themselves becoming as social workers. I have realized that on the one hand, I may have been taking the mission and values of the University for granted, saying to myself, what could be more closely aligned with the mission of social work while simultaneously discounting it because of the pressure to train professionals and my personal thought that the integration of institutional values and professional values was not my responsibility or an area of comfort. So, this time, when the letter came across my desk it was almost as if it were illuminated and something that I felt compelled to pursue. To have an opportunity to form a relationship with a mentor I didn’t know and explore the values and mission of Jesuit education in the context of the profession of social work, social work education, field instruction and visa versa as well as look at ways to encourage my students to explore their experiences religious, non-religious and spiritual and reflect on those experiences as well as tell their own stories -- all this was not something that was going to end up in the waste can. The Process Thus the journey began. When I first meet with Dr. Debra Mooney, the director of Ignatian Program, I shared with her my thoughts and how I had arrived at this place, and she asked me if I had any thoughts about who I would like to mentor me. I said, “No” and felt that I would defer to her. She suggested Dr. Trudelle Thomas and gave me a copy of her book, Spirituality in the Mother Zone. As I was reading the book, I read a passage she wrote where she mentioned Brown County. I remember thinking to myself, “is this the same Brown County boarding school that my mother went to.” Well, the first time I met Trudelle, she told that she knew my mother, and that my mother had in fact taken her on a tour of the Catholic boarding school which she herself had attended for a book Trudelle was writing about the history of the Convent. I instantly felt comfortable and felt that this was an added bonus. Unfortunately, our lives became very busy, and we initially had trouble getting together. However, I continued to study, reading up on the 199


values of both Jesuit education and social work, the history of religion and social work and spiritually-based social work practice. In the beginning of my work and relationship with my mentor, a very disturbing thing happened in my neighborhood that swiftly propelled my life in a completely unexpected direction. A neighbor of mine, Phil Bates, was shot and killed in front of his house on Rosehill Avenue. Several days later another neighbor (a close friend of mine) and her two children were held up at gunpoint on their way home from the candlelight vigil for Phil Bates. Both of these events galvanized my realization that I needed to take specific, engaged action. As a social worker, some things came easily, providing support, assisting in community organizing, i.e. helping to establish a Block Watch program and attending the Citizen on Patrol training to establish an active chapter in North Avondale. Other things were not so easy: dealing with my own trauma and grief at the loss of my perceived or perhaps misperceived safety, the sadness I felt for the Bates family and his friends and family members, explaining all of this to my children who were understandably frightened and upset and as my 8-year-old said one night when I went out, “I don’t want you to get shot.” Then an important thing happened that I found very helpful. I attended the burial mass for Phil Bates at Bellarmine Chapel and listened to the wonderful words of the priest, Father Richard Bollman, as he eloquently managed to deal with the complex issues that presented themselves. What he said had a major impact on me as he tried to deal with the complex emotions of fear, sadness, anxiety and grief for the Bates’ family, the neighbors and the city as a whole into 3 words: faith, hope and love. It was in those three words that I found such comfort and realized that, with those important things, we can overcome events and experiences that seem insurmountable. At the time, I didn’t really think that it related to my work for the IMP, and in fact, I was concerned that my time was so consumed by neighborhood meetings, e-mails, patrols, etc. that I was neglecting what I was supposed to be doing. However, as I continued to reflect on the values of Jesuit education, I saw that this was an important experience in the process. The next and equally amazing experience as a part of the IMP came when Dr. Debra Mooney sent out an e-mail announcing a conference that was coming up at Fairfield University in Fairfield, Connecticut called, “Jesuit and Feminist Education: Transformative Discourses for Teaching and Learning Conference.” I almost couldn’t believe what I was reading. To see those two words, Jesuit and Feminist, in the same title was amazing to me because they are at the core of who I am. I immediately contacted Debra and asked if I could use my stipend money, and she said she thought that would be great. Once again, I almost did the oh, it’s too expensive, it’s too far away, it’s too short notice, etc., but fortunately something again told me to go for it. Words cannot describe the impact this conference had on me personally and professionally. It was an incredible experience in two primary ways. First of all, the tone of the conference was so welcoming, and I felt as if I were home. To be surrounded by such wonderful women, and, yes, some men and Jesuits, made me proud, proud of who I was, and the level of the scholarship and the complex ideas that were discussed was dizzying. I felt that my Jesuit education prepared me well; however, I admit that one presenter had me reeling. The day was spent looking at this intersection, what is it to be both Jesuit and Feminist, where do they compliment each other, and, of course, where do they diverge. The further grounding in Jesuit pedagogy was extremely exciting and helpful to me, but, for it to be in the context of Feminist theory, was icing on the cake. In terms of the major Jesuit idea of “Who Am I,” or identity, I felt the conference helped me find myself, and who I am is an interesting combination of things. It also encouraged me to embrace who I am in all its commonalities and differences and bring that “magis” or excellence to the table as I participate in my students’ and future social workers’ lives who are also in a process of answering that same question. What better way to assist others in this journey then to reflect on my own. I spend a great deal of time studying the values of Jesuit education and reflecting on those values in the context of my current teaching activities. One of the values that most significantly impacted my thinking is “cura personalis” or the educating of the “whole person.” The idea of considering the student from a holistic perspective, encompassing all aspects of who she or he is, with specific emphasis on spirituality, fit well with my vision of what I wanted to bring to the table in my teaching. In addition, I became very interested in feminist spirituality and exploring my own spiritual development and the impact that spirituality may have on one’s professional development. Lastly, I explored the history of religion and spirituality in social work practice and the values of the profession. Toward the end of my year-long mentoring relationship, my mentor asked me to think about what she had done as a mentor that was helpful and to share that for other mentors. As I thought about that question, it occurred to me that some of it was serendipity, meaning, I think so much of what I got from her was based on who she was. However, in addition, my mentor provided excellent reading suggestions that seemed to be on target and helped advance my thinking. She also helped me address my writer’s block which was very beneficial. I found myself looking forward to my time for reading and writing. Lastly, our discussions were wonderfully stimulating, and she was able to help me focus my ideas and always challenged me to look deeper. The outcome of my yearlong mentoring experience was the adaptation of the professional development of self capstone paper to better integrate the values of 200


Jesuit education with specific emphasis on what I call spiritually-based professional development of self. In addition, it has stimulated me to look at other ways to bring the mission and identity of Xavier to life in the field education program. The Outcome In the spring of the senior year, in the Senior Seminar course, which is the integrative seminar that goes along with field instruction, the seniors write a Professional Development of Self Capstone paper. The objectives of the seminar course are to provide an opportunity for students to share their experiences in field and integrate the course work into their professional practice as social workers. Field education is often referred to as the capstone experience, where the students are able to bring together their classroom and “real” life experiences as social workers. Field education is an excellent and appropriate avenue for the integration of the mission of Jesuit education and social work education. At a national gathering of Jesuits at Santa Clara University, Peter-Hans Kolvenbach stated that,

“The real measure of our Jesuit universities, [then,] lies in who our students become. Tomorrow’s “whole person” cannot be whole without a well-educated solidarity…Solidarity is learned through “contact” rather than through “concepts.” When the heart is touched by direct experience, the mind may be challenged to change.” (cited in Traub, 10).

Thus, field instruction becomes an opportunity for the student to not only pursue and reflect on what it is to be a social worker, but, more importantly, what is it to be a Jesuit-educated social worker. This is what is truly at the heart of mission-driven education. Thus, the professional development of the self capstone paper is an opportunity for students to reflect on their professional development as soon-to-be professional social workers. They review writings from their texts that explore this area of curriculum, as well as engage in personal reflection, exploring from their perspective what the process of engaging in field instruction has been for them and how it has assisted them in who they are becoming as social workers. Prior to the Ignatian Mentoring Program, this activity had only been focused on the students’ professional development as social workers as it relates to various skills, values and behaviors and only specific to their experiences in field and in seminar. As a result of the IMP, I have expanded this reflection to encourage the student to consider larger questions of, who am I? And, who am I called to be? Thus, by taking into account cura personalis, the value of considering the whole person, which is central to Jesuit education, students have a more grounded and better integrated perspective from which to view the notion of professional development. Professional Development of Self in Field Education Professional development of self in field education is an area of social work education that I have been interested in throughout my 8 years at Xavier. According to the Council on Social Work Education, schools of social work are mandated to produce professionals who demonstrate an infusion of professional knowledge, values and skills. Professional development of self is often defined as the acquisition of a set of skills. For instance, Cochran and Hanley define, “markers of active practice” (Cochran and Hanley, pg 117). Some of which are: being grounded in practice, practicing self-care, continued education (life-long learning), use of self, use of supervision, developing a support system, acting to eliminate oppression and injustice and pursuing social or organizational change. In addition, professional development is viewed as an adherence to the profession’s values and engaging in ethical practice. Lastly, professional development is identified as engaging in professional behavior versus that of an employee and related to attire, arriving on time, managing one’s workload and being able to function within an organization. Professional Socialization Although the above mentioned attributes of a professional are fairly agreed upon, according to Mariatta Barretti, “relatively little is know about how social work students become professionals” (Barretti, pg 9). The notion of how it is that students become professionals (individuals who engage in the aforementioned professional behaviors) is something that has intrigued me as the Field Education Coordinator for the Social Work program. It has been humbling and heartwarming to watch from year to year, the development, even transformation, that occurs from the first day I meet the juniors in the pre-placement seminar to the last day when they graduate. It is hard to describe what exactly it is that I am witnessing. I contend that it is more than just the maturational development that occurs as a student moves from the second semester of the junior year to graduation. Although one cannot deny that simply aging over a year and half, particularly for our traditional students, is significant, it is clear to me that there is more going on. Something significant is happening in that year and half which is more than just aging. This can best be seen in our non-traditional students, who, even though the minority, appear to have an equally significant process of development as people, students and soon-to-be professional social workers. It is tempting to try to reduce this transformation to simply the acquisition of a set of skills or behaviors, but I would argue that it is much more than that and name it the realization of a professional identity. 201


The Realization of a Professional Identity Every year I have students write a Professional Development of Self Capstone paper where I ask them to reflect on their field experiences and their development as professional social workers. The students share many common experiences that could easily be reduced to skill sets and a strong integration of values or simply the development of basic professional behaviors, but it is also important to explore that which may be less visible, the process that results in the realization of a professional identity or ability to bring to life or make “real” one’s professional identity. The idea that the development of a professional self is more a process as opposed to simply gaining a set of behaviors or values is supported in the literature. Marretta Barretti found in her study “that students undergo a journey consisting of roughly six phases of professional socialization to the social work profession” (Baretti, pg 15). They are as follows: expectation, revelation, refutation, negotiation, adaptation, and affirmation. In the second phase, revelation, students identified the field as “the most significant aspect of training for student’s professional identity” (Barretti, pg 17). In addition, Cochrane and Hanley articulate a developmental process that students go through during field education and identified 4 stages: Beginning, Reality Confrontation, Relative Mastery and Closure. The most interesting finding in Barretti’s study was the notion that professional development begins long before students enter social work programs. Barretti states: “Because students hold well-defined conceptualizations of social workers and of the profession through previous experiences with both, it behooves social work programs to start where the ‘client’ is by building upon students’ breadth of experience rather than assuming they are blank slates on which only they will write “(Barretti, pg 22). Thus, the realization, or making “real,” of the professional identity is a process as well as the acquisition and articulation of a critical set of values, knowledge and skills. By moving from the inward out, meaning starting where the student is, taking a holistic approach and acknowledging what they are bringing to the table while simultaneously socializing them into the profession, is how the student realizes herself or himself as a professional. So how does social work education go about facilitating the student to realize their professional identity? Spiritually Based Professional Development Spiritually in social work practice has been written about extensively for the last 10 to 20 years. David Derezotes writes about a “second phase of spirituality,” one that is concerned not only with personal spiritual growth, but also with a transformation that leads to a deeper awareness of responsibility for the well-being of others. He goes on to say that, “there is a growing awareness that spiritual development brings with it an increased responsibility to serve, and that personal spirituality and service are themselves interconnected and interrelated” (Derezotes, p2). He further advocates a holistic model, a biopsychosocialspiritual model, when viewing clients. Thus, it becomes critically important to recognize the possibility that the spirituality of the student may be a driving force in the realization of her or his identity as a social worker and may be one of the things that the student is bringing. In order to combat one of the previously identified arguments for not addressing spirituality, namely, that there is no agreed upon definition, I offer a definition of spirituality that will provide the foundation from which students can look at their development, both as people and professionals. Canda and Furman in their book “Spiritually Sensitive Social Work Practice,” provide a definition of spirituality that is an excellent backdrop to this discussion. They state that, “spirituality relates to a universal and fundamental aspect of what it is to be human— to search for a sense of meaning, purpose, and moral framework for relating with self, others and the ultimate reality” (Canda and Furman pg 370). They go on to say that, “spiritually sensitive social workers address clients as whole persons, applying professional roles, rules and assessment labels in a flexible way that is responsive to the values of the client and his or her community” (Canda and Furman, pg 32). In addition, they espouse a model for integrating spirituality across the curriculum. David Derezotes distinguishes spirituality from religion by stating:

“Spirituality can be seen as the individual’s sense of connectedness, meaning, peace, consciousness, purpose, and service that develops across the life span. In contrast, religiosity can be seen as socially shared rituals, doctrines, and beliefs that may or may not support and enhance the individual’s spiritual development” (Derezotes, p3).

I chose to look at and ask students to reflect on spirituality and the definition that I offer as opposed to religion. However, I recognize that for many they are inseparable; thus, I leave it up to the student to decide how she or he frames the reflection.

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Three Areas of Spirituality Based Professional Development of Self Thus, it becomes important to apply the above-mentioned ideas of spiritually sensitive practice to social work education and more specifically the area of field education. There are three main areas of spiritually-based professional development that I asked students to reflect on specifically. They are meaning and purpose in professional life, reflection and discernment for ethical practice and spiritually-based self-care. I will provide a discussion of each and link them to the values of Ignatian and Jesuit education. 1) Meaning and Purpose in Professional Life The first area is meaning and purpose in professional life. Cochran and Hanley in their text Learning through Field specifically address the area of meaning and spirituality and relate them to one’s professional identity. Social workers become intricately involved in the deepest of issues their clients are struggling with, such as the social worker who works with Hospice, and is intimately involved in a client’s process of dying. It is in the moments of intimate human interaction that recognizing and drawing on spirituality can be very beneficial to both the client and the worker. The Ignatian Mentoring Program was first and foremost an incredible opportunity for me to consider my identity and spiritual development. The time I spent in discussion with my mentor and the reading and reflection I engaged in throughout the entire process of the IMP has helped me embrace who I am as a whole person. Thus, for me Identity and Self are central to meaning and purpose. Without having a strong sense of who you are and what you are being called to do, it is very hard to understand your purpose. Furthermore, meaning and purpose are central to spirituality and to the realization of a professional identity as a social worker. Most social workers state feeling called to the profession or joke that they don’t know what else they would do if they stopped being a social worker. Finding meaning in one’s work is an important idea that has been well articulated by Matthew Fox in his book, The Reinvention of Work. He states:

“Good living and good working go together. Life and livelihood ought not to be separated but to flow from the same source, which is Spirit, for both life and livelihood are about Spirit. Spirit means life, and both life and livelihood are about living in depth, living with meaning, purpose, joy, and a sense of contributing to the greater community. A spirituality of work is about bringing life and livelihood back together again. And Spirit with them (Fox, pg 1&2).

Thus, an increased clarity around meaning and purpose in one’s work is also important to sustaining one’s professional life or, as Trudelle Thomas calls it, “composing your life.” However, the ability to fully embrace one’s identity and one’s greatest resource as a social worker can be complicated by how the individual and the wider society view that individual’s identity. I experienced this first hand in that I rejected my brand of spirituality which tends to humanistic, feminist and non-religious because I didn’t think it was right particularly in a Catholic, Jesuit institution. However, as a result of the mentoring program, I have fully embraced my identity and see that I have been missing an important aspect of who I am as a faculty member. Thus, it is critical that faculty be open to enabling the students to discover, embrace and fully utilize their identity and true selves. Canda and Furman go on to talk about spirituality in the everyday. I love this idea, and I think it is helpful for students as they embark on looking at meaning and purpose for themselves. The three words that really exemplify for me spiritually based practice in the everyday are faith, hope and love. Often in my practice, I would have to take a leap of faith that a child that I was working with would be okay when I left for the evening or how I tried to routinely bring hope to the table during very difficult situations or lastly show measures of love, or, as I would rename, positive unconditional regard for the uniqueness, dignity and worth of each person with whom I worked. These aspects of my practice were decidedly spiritual in nature, found in the everyday, provided deep meaning and grounded me in my purpose as a social worker. However, it has only been through the result of the IMP that I could see this. Prior to the IMP, I would have said the above mentioned activities were just what social workers do, which is fine, but now I see them as deeper, more meaningful and thus sustaining. 2) Reflection and Discernment for Ethical Practice Janice Staral in her paper, “Introducing Ignatian Spirituality: Linking Self-Reflection with Social Work Ethics,” emphasized the need for self-reflection, decision-making and self-care and relates those specifically to her experiences with Ignatian spirituality. She states that Ignatian spirituality supports the social work values of social justice, the dignity and worth and the person, and the value of personal growth and self-care. She also felt compelled as I do, to bring these ideas to life particularly at Marquette University, a Catholic, Jesuit institution. She states, “It seems important to find appropriate means to introduce social work students to some concepts from Ignatian spirituality” (Staral, pg 39). The ideas of self-reflection, decision-making and self-care are equally important as they relate to professional development. The Examen of Conscience, as Staral describes it, supports a need for reflection as a critical aspect of Jesuit education. She explains it as, “This prayer form concentrates on a key principle of Jesuit (or Ignatian) spirituality, which is ‘reflecting on daily life’ and gaining insights and resolutions regarding daily experiences as a result of this reflection” (Staral, pg 40). She goes on to suggest that this would be helpful for students in making professional decisions and navigating the waters of professional life. 203


For me, this supports the emphasis that I place on refection and the Jesuit value of discernment as it relates to the day-to-day of social work practice. The processing of what happens in the field and the need for the student to be able to take in what it is that they are experiencing and process it such that it can be integrated into who they are and who they are becoming as people and professional social workers becomes incredibly important. Furthermore, developing the skill of reflection and discernment is critical to the practicing professional social worker not just the student. The field students engage in weekly reflection that results in them writing a journal entry where they have engaged in what I call “reflective experiencing,” a term I adapted from Canda and Furman’s idea of “reflective reading” (Canda & Furman, p. xxi). In order to accomplish this, students engage in a four step process, first outlined by Trudelle Thomas, English professor, and then adapted for field education: 1) attending to the experiences of field, 2) engaging in critical thinking regarding those experiences, 3) acting through writing or establishing specific action plans and 4) sharing either through the journal entry or in the senior seminar class. This process was laid out in a handout I wrote called “Reflective Reading and Experiencing: An Ignatian Model for Writing Reflection Journals,” the purpose of which was to take the weekly log assignment and adapt it to reflect a deeper sense of the student’s experiences in field and reactions to those experiences. I have received positive feedback from the students, one of which said that he felt the new direction, away from a blow-by-blow of the day, was “freeing” and more fun. Reflection and discernment are also critical skills for the professional social worker to develop and to consider ways to utilize this skill for on-going professional development. 3) Spiritually-Based Self-Care The last area I asked students to consider is spiritually-based self-care. Janice Staral makes the link between spirituality and selfcare. For me, this is incredibly important and one that I think our students will benefit from greatly. Ruth Barton in Sacred Rhythms discusses the concept of “a rule of life.” The author describes it as an important part of the Christian tradition that supports a process of spiritual transformation “day in and day out.”

“A rule of life seeks to respond to two questions: Who do I want to be? How do I want to live? Actually, it might be more accurate to say that a rule of life seeks to address the interplay between these two questions: How do I want to live so I can be who I want to be?” (pg. 147)

“A rule of life” supports the idea of spiritually-based self-care and one that intentionally looks at what is it that we need to do daily, weekly, monthly, yearly to sustain ourselves, our spiritual development, and, I would add, our professional development. The idea is to go beyond the consumer-oriented “me time” of spa treatments and retail therapy, and develop a deeper sense of how one goes about sustaining a professional life. I think this is also important, given that social work is a profession based on care that its professionals develop ways to engage in meaningful self-care. This is not an easy expectation given that caregivers tend to see their needs as secondary to others, particularly female caregivers who are often socialized to see the needs of others as more important to themselves. Spiritually-based self-care is going beyond the surface to consider the needs of the inner self. This can be very challenging given our superficial, consumer-oriented culture which tends to be very externally focused. Spiritually-based self-care demands an inward out perspective, drawing on the inner most fundamental aspects of who we are as people and what is important to us as opposed to a more superficial outward emphasis on manicures, facials, working out, shopping etc. It is through meeting the deeper inner needs that one develops the ability to sustain oneself as a person and a professional. The challenge for all of us is to find those inner things that bring deeper meaning to us and nurture them. Thus, the critical first step is placing one’s self-care as primary and discovering ways to build it into one’s day-to-day life. One area I have discovered that has been helpful to me in my recent professional development has been having a mentor. It has been very beneficial, and, although my current mentoring relationship is coming to an end in the context of the IMP, it is clear to me that I need to continue this model in my professional life. In addition, having time for quiet reading, reflection and discussion has been invigorating for me. The notion of self-examination in the context of consultation is very helpful, having professional peers with whom you can share your concerns and ask questions and open yourself up to receive feedback, support and encouragement as well as to be challenged and questioned is very helpful. Margorie Thompson states that, “self-examination is an occasion for spiritual refreshment, whatever we discover within ourselves at the time of the review. Its purpose is always to bring us into greater intimacy with the Lover of our souls…,” (Thompson, pg 104). In addition, one may find keeping a journal as very helpful in exploring one’s personal and work life. Lastly, finding ways to connect with family and my home life has been very important to me as well.

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The Method I provided an opportunity for students to reflect on several things: • Values of Jesuit education: Values of Social Work: - Discernment - Dignity and worth of the individual - Service of Faith and - Service Promotion of Social Justice - Social Justice - Finding God in all Things - Importance of Human Relationships - Cura Personalis - Competence - Women and Men for Others - Integrity - Magis

The student’s own religious and spiritual development

Three areas of spiritually based professional development 1) Meaning and purpose in one’s work, 2) Reflection and discernment for ethical practice, 3) Spiritually-based self-care.

Their individual professional development

• Seminar Session: Integrating Spirituality and Work: Developing a Personal Rule of Life presented by Dr. Trudelle Thomas – Professor, English Department o The students participated in a session of the senior seminar course that was devoted to laying the foundation for their reflection and the writing of the capstone paper. In order to prepare for this discussion, the students read chapter 5, Composing Your Life, from Dr. Thomas’ book, Spirituality in the Mother Zone. In addition, they read a paper I wrote on spirituality sensitive professional development and two booklets on the values and mission of Jesuit education supplied by Ignatian Programs. The class was experiential and provided the students with an opportunity to explore spirituality as a means to define and sustain their professional life. Trudelle presented her wheel of creating a Personalized Rule of Life with specific emphasis on two areas, solitude and home front economic. (For more information on Dr. Thomas’s work, see in this book under “Mentor Reflections.”) • Additional areas to consider: - Individual strengths, weaknesses, successes and challenges related to your development - Any value-driven or ethical issues, dilemmas that you have encountered in the field and discuss what you learned from them - How you define yourself as a professional. What has been easy for you? What has been challenging? - Your own spiritual and/or religious development and the role it has played or not in your development as a professional social worker - Your observations of professionalism as it relates to your supervisor, co-workers, peers and agency, as well as the pro fession as a whole as you have observed and experienced it in your field placement

Note: It is important to state that I had no expectation for what any of this should mean to a particular student, I can only speak to my own process as a result of my participation in the IMP over the past year and reflecting on these areas. What is important for me, however, is to provide an opportunity and invitation for students to look at the bigger picture of who they are, who they are called to be, and how they can sustain themselves throughout their professional lives. For me, these questions reflect spirituality and are extremely useful for the professional social worker.

The Papers Overall the feedback from the students verbally and in writing was supportive of this content area and the paper. In fact one student stated, “If this paper had not had the spiritual focus, I don’t think I could have written it, I mean I would of, but I don’t think it would have been as helpful or meaningful to me.” Most all of the students connected to the idea of meaning and purpose stating that they feel “called” to be a social worker. Several appreciated the opportunity to reflect on their own religious and spiritual development, stating that even though Xavier is a Catholic, Jesuit institution, they have not had a chance to explore their own religious and spiritual development. Furthermore, many reported feeling that they didn’t think that spirituality was an important area of who they are as people until they were asked to reflect on it and then realized that it was important to consider. They reflected a continuum from deeply religious and spiritual to not at all, but all agreed that, regardless of where each of them were as individuals, from a professional practice perspective, this was an important area to consider. One student shared a story of having had an 205


uncomfortable experience with a client and not knowing how to handle it at the time. She states she now has an understanding of how she would handle that same situation in the future and feels that this has made her a stronger social worker. In terms of spiritually-based selfcare, they all reported feeling that this was important to consider and could be a valuable resource in managing a professional life. One student stated that for him reflection was interwoven with self-care and both had a spiritual foundation. Through quiet reflection and listening, he was able to make better choices professionally and thus take better care of himself throughout the process. Lastly, the notion of spirituality flowing through all aspects of one’s professional identity and being an important resource was supported by many students. The Future Although the official IMP program is ending, it is my plan to continue to develop my work in this area. Several future directions, include but are not limited to, introducing field instructors to the mission of Jesuit education through either a specific training or inviting them to attend Manresa on Campus. Looking more specifically at the student field instructor relationship and providing opportunities for field instructors to reflect on the quality of field education supervision from a spiritual or mission-driven context. Further exploring this area for students and continuing to develop and refine those initiatives outlined above. For the general Xavier student, I have an interest in offering these ideas around composing an academic life, particularly finding ways to mentor and encourage quiet reading and reflection. Lastly, to consider offering social work students an opportunity to participate in the “spiritual exercises.” The central purpose of all of these activities is to offer more inclusive mission-driven education that truly reflects and considers the “whole” student. With regard to the field education program, at the suggestion of one student who stated she wished she had received this information earlier, I will introduce the content area of religion and spirituality earlier in the curriculum in the pre-placement seminar given that it is the beginning of the field education program. Similarly, I will encourage students to reflect on the three main areas of spirituality sensitive professional development in the beginning of the senior year. By laying this foundation earlier, it is my hope that the student will achieve a deeper, more integrated reflection at the end of the field education program. The Ignatian Mentoring Program proved to be an important experience in my development as a social work educator. Mission-driven work is not new to social work practice; however, mission-driven education is not something that I have read much about. Thus, I feel this is an important area for further exploration and scholarship. I feel fortunate that I have this opportunity and feel that it has greatly benefited myself, my students and, hopefully, will contribute to others. Thus, I would like to thank my mentor, Dr. Trudelle Thomas, English Department, Dr. Debra Mooney, Director of Ignatian Programs, and the University for this incredible opportunity. References Barretti, M. (2004). The professional socialization of undergraduate social work students. The Journal of Baccalaureate Social Work, 9(2), 9-30. Canda, E. R., & Furman, L. D. (1999). Spiritual diversity in social work practice: The heart of helping. New York: The Free Press. Cochrane, S. F., & Hanley, M. M. (1999). Learning through field: A developmental approach. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon. Conn, J. W. (1996). Women’s spirituality: Resources for Christian development (Second ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Paulist Press. Derezotes, D. (2006). In Quinlin P. (Ed.), Spiritually oriented social work practice. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon. Edwards, R. L. (Ed.). Encyclopedia of social work (19th ed.). Washington, DC: National Association of Social Workers. Fox, M. (1994). The reinvention of work. New York: HarperCollins. Kolvenback, P. (2006). The service of faith in a religiously pluralistic world. Unpublished manuscript. Moessner, J. (1996). Through the Eyes of Women: Insights for Pastoral Care. Minneapolis: Fortress Press. Mooney, D. K. (2004). Do you walk Ignatian? A compilation of Jesuit values expressed in the work day (2nd ed.). Cincinnati, OH: Xavier University. Okundaye, J. N., Gray, C., & Gray, L. B. (1999). Re-imaging field instruction from a spiritually sensitive perspective: An alternative approach. Social Work, 44(4), 371-383. Popple, P. R., & Leighninger, L. (1999). Social work, social welfare, and American society (Fourth ed., pp. 141-172). Allyn and Bacon. Shelton, C. M. (1992, Fall). Helping college students make moral decisions. Conversations, 6-25. Staral, J. M. (2003). Introducing Ignatian spirituality: Linking self-reflection with social work ethics. Social Work & Christianity, 30(1), 38-51. Thomas, T. (2005). Spirituality in the mother zone: Staying centered, finding god. Mahwah, NJ: Paulist Press. Traub, G. W. (2002). Do you speak Ignatian? A glossary of terms used in Ignatian and Jesuit circles. Cincinnati, OH: Xavier University. Weitz, S. (1997, Spring). Who are our students? and whose responsibility are they, anyway? Conversations, (11) 5-13. Paper presented at the Social Work for Social Justice: Strengthening Social Work Practice Through the Integration of Catholic Social Teaching Conference, St. Paul, MN, June 3-6, 2007. 206


SPORTS STUDIES The Application of Ignatian Principles to Sport and the Development of the Integrated Coaching and Sport Education (I-CaSE) Model (Quinn, 2006) Ronald W. Quinn, EdD. Mentor: Maggie King, RN, PhD (Nursing) Introduction A value-oriented educational goal like ours — forming men and women for others – will not be realized unless it is infused within our educational programs at every level (Kolvenbach 1989). This I believe is the primary purpose of the Ignatian Mentoring Program. How do we in such a diverse and complex organization as a university achieve such a charge? In Teaching to the Mission, faculty writes how they have instituted Ignatian pedagogy of competence, compassion, and conscience to their teaching and classes. Some disciplines seem to be a natural fit such as education, nursing, psychology, social work and occupational therapy, but courses in accounting, marketing, chemistry, math to name a few seem to be more of a challenge due to either the bottom line syndrome or the sequential ordering of constructs. The fact that faculty have been able to infuse Ignatian Pedagogy into their teaching is certainly a credit to them, as well as demonstrating the strength and adaptability of Ignatian principles. The application of the Ignatian Pedagogy to sport would appear, on one hand to encompass the very essence of sport, but on the other hand, today could be viewed as an oxymoron. The sport society we have today has shifted from: its not if you win or lose, but how you play the game to whatever it takes to win. We have moved from the belief that the cream rises to the top, to last person standing. It is a sport system that starts at a very early age to select children out to find the best, rather than keeping children involved as long as possible so that the average and late blooming children have a chance for success. The discussions in the two classes presented here centered on this dichotomy. Because sport for the most part is a zero-sum equation, one wins, one loses and because of the abuses, i.e., illegal recruiting, gambling, sexual abuse, cheating, steroids, etc., that we see at our universities, professional sport, and society at large, is it a realistic belief that Ignatian Pedagogy can be applied to sport? The answer is: it depends. Sport for example can unite as well as divide, it can be healthy as well as destructive, it can be fair and foul, and it can be expressive and controlled (Eitzen 2006). It therefore depends on which side of the divide we want sport to be on? We need to make the decision at all levels, particularly in our educational institutions that sport is presented in such a way that the Ignatian principles become truly embedded into our sport fabric. As I began to reflect on my own teaching and coaching practices, I tried to follow what Vealey (2005) describes as balancing the triad, which means balancing optimal performance, optimal development, and optimal experience. I found that through the various coaching education programs that I instruct, the general focus on sport education was on performance, with development and experience given cursory attention. Certainly sport performance is important, we all play to win, but not at the expense of development and experience. Perhaps the only time performance takes ultimate center stage is at the professional level; at all other sport levels, especially sport linked to an educational enterprise balancing the triad should be the priority. In an attempt to further develop a model that would support this triad, I examined two concepts. The first concept was a cycle of success developed by Edward Hallowell, M.D. (2002). His major premise is that as parents, the most important thing we want for our children is to become happy adults. We just want them to be happy in whatever they do. Dr. Hallowell presents and discusses a success cycle that has five sequentially linked phases: connectivity, play, practice, mastery, and recognition. When this cycle is started in childhood it provides the roots to adult happiness. Second, was the Ignatian mentoring program and in particular the primary Ignatian principles of competence, compassion, and conscience. When I applied each model to sport, neither seemed to be completely applicable. The only real common link was the concept of competence. Hallowell’s success cycle was strong in the social development area, but doesn’t specifically address other concepts such as character, conscience or compassion. The Ignatian principles have strong moral components, and the principle of competence (the goal of every athlete and coach), can easily be applied. But how does someone show compassion for an opponent, or coach with a conscience when often your job is at stake? Is it compassionate to outscore your opponent by 50 points? Is it morally 207


acceptable to tell a recruit that they will start right away, when you know they won’t only to get them to come to your school? Obviously there are many individuals in sport who do demonstrate compassion and conscience, but how much value do we place on them on a daily and practical level? The phrase, start with the end in mind with regard to sport does not mean how are we going to win, but what is it that we want sport to look like? If, as is commonly believed that sport builds character, then we must integrate character lessons into practices and apply them in competition. Character development through sport should be our end, but it does not just happen through participation; in fact it is the perfect breeding ground to learn just the opposite. Where else can you overtly break the rules, cheat, or deceive the referee/official with the criteria that it’s only wrong if you get caught? When did acceptable deceit become as acceptable practice (Lumpkin, Stoll & Beller, 2003). If then we want sport to build character, then how do we narrow the gap between rhetoric and reality? The question then becomes, not how do we talk or walk Ignatian, but how do we play Ignatian? To address this I’ve been developing a new model called: The Integrated Coaching and Sport Education (I-CaSE) Model. This model is primarily a blending of the two models presented with the addition of one key factor primarily associated with sport: competition. In the I-CaSE model competition is viewed as one aspect of the construct—challenges, the four others include: connectivity, competence, compassion, and conscience. Character and leadership development is placed at the center to serve as the ultimate goal of sport participation. The development and application of this model (a work in progress) is currently through my sport ethics (SPMG 410) and contemporary coaching courses (SPMG 280), as well as through community based sport education programs. One of the assumptions of this model is that nothing happens in isolation. You cannot coach or teach an individual in a technique or strategy (the physical) without taking into consideration their mental, emotional and social states. In other words, better known as cura personalis, educating the whole person (Traub 2002). As stated above the I-CaSE Model is currently a work in progress, the refinement and application of the five areas through practical activities and exercises is currently underway. The information presented here specifically addresses how Ignatian Pedagogy should be or is currently applied in sport today. Course Information Contemporary Coaching Course Description: As sport continues to take a more prominent role in our society, sport education will assume a stronger role in community base sport. It is therefore incumbent of institutions that prepare individuals to be productive and contributing members of society, to educate them about sport development through a sound coaching education program. The purpose of this course is to identify the role of the coach in the sport setting from the technical, physical, psychological, and sociological perspectives. The course embraces the process of coaching from a developmental and character development viewpoint. Course Objectives: 1. The student will be able to identify the various functions and roles of the coach. 2. The student will formulate a personal philosophy of coaching statement. 3. The student will gain an understanding of a variety of coaching styles. 4. The student will understand how age, gender, race and developmental stage influence the coaching process. 5. The student will observe and document good coaching practices. 6. The student will understand the process of teaching sport skills. Sport Ethics Course Description: The course is designed to provide an examination and discussion of ethical, managerial and moral issues related to individuals who work and participate in the area of sport and physical activity. Course Objectives: 1. To recognize situations where ethical management is important in sport and society. 2. To better understand the relationship between sport participation, sportsmanship and character development. 3. To understand gender and racial equity and it’s various ethical issues when applied to sport programs. 4. To examine the relationship between violence and aggression in sport. 5. To understand the ethics and management issues associated with performance enhancing drugs, sports and society. 6. To identify ethical and management issues associated with the media and sport. 7. To identify ethical and management issues in higher education. 8. To identify ethical and management issues confronting primary and secondary schools. 208


9. To identify ethical and management issues associated with children’s sports training and competition. 10. To recognize and appreciate the ethical and management issues associated with coaching elite athletes. Student Responses Students in Contemporary Coaching must interview a coach. The purpose is to acquire a better understanding of the complexity of the coaching process. They follow a script of 20 questions. This is the last question: Ignatian teaching pedagogy is based on the principles of compassion, conscience and competence. Do you believe that these principles can be applied to coaching, if so how? Students collected data from 27 different coaches. The three themes were common throughout the responses, however competence was the most discussed with compassion and conscience viewed as something you should just be showing, for example you must be able to show compassion to your athletes, or demonstrate conscience in terms of making the right decision. Ten representative responses are presented below: •

As an educator, my personal philosophy is to develop young people who have the ability to think critically, but with intellect and compassion. Coaches are teachers of a sport. That is the least important thing we do. True caring and compassion for our neighbors is fading in America. We have to teach our young people better than that. Treat everyone with dignity and respect.

Absolutely, a coach needs to have understanding and compassion for their athletes. If a coach can’t relate to their kids they have no chance. A coach also must know what is going on around them and in their athletes lives at all times to fully connect and get through to them. And a coach must be competent in his knowledge of the game to correctly teach a player. Teaching and coaching are two things I have done for many years, and the similarities are all over the place.

Absolutely, you have to have compassion for your players for some of the things in football you make them do but you have to have some compassion for your opponents because every once in a while you will have a game that you could win 87-0 by halftime and you have to do the right things because sometimes the shoe will be on the other foot and you would hope the opposing coach would have compassion for you. Competence can apply to any profession; to be successful you have to be competent in what you are doing. As a coach I can raise the level of competence in my players by teaching them the right things and practicing. You have to have a conscience, you never know when the shoe will be on the other foot and there are some things I have done in coaching that have nothing to do with coaching because it is the right thing to do. You may have a kid who is at practice all the time working hard but he never plays, but you have to pick the time and you have to make sure they play, and you have to treat them right. Sometimes your conscience is what helps you make the right decision.

Compassion - a coach should recognize and respect the feelings of each player and try to teach on positives and learn on mistakes. Conscience - Teach the player to obtain success by playing the game in the spirit of how it was suppose to be played. You should reward a good effort and be conscience not to expand on the bad. Competence- It is okay to win -winning is good but wrong at all cost. It is important to be good winner and remember always how it feels to lose.

Yes, the coach needs to be compassionate about the game and to make sure their players respect them, and the coach needs to be conscious about knowing what they do is morally and ethically right and that they treat all their players the same way, and you need to be competent of the rules of the sport you are coaching and the sport itself.

I believe they are applied right now. Look at all the professional and college coaches you see on TV. Obviously they are competent because they are where they’re at. If you notice on a win or a loss level, the coach is very compassionate because he has worked hard with the student/students and feels their victories and pains.

Sure. Compassion is definitely needed within coaching. Player’s circumstances change from day to day and this inevitably affects the way they play. If a kid has a bad game, maybe he had something more important on his mind. Instead of running your mouth off at him at the end of the game, showing a little compassion and letting him talk to you about his play is one hundred percent more effective. Conscience and competence kind of go together. A coach needs to know what he is doing and should practice what he preaches. An incompetent coach only leads to frustrations between the players and coach as well as the parents and coach.

The words that the Ignatian teaching uses are similar to the words that I believe define the perfect coach. Compassion and Friend to me means the same thing, which understands another person to the point that a friendship is made. Conscience and

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Honest are similar in the way that it demands of an individual to be sincere with yourself and the others around you. Finally Competence and Leader relate for the fact that to lead a team one has to be competent.

When asked about the Ignatian teaching pedagogy, she replied with a look of utter befuddlement. After explaining the basis of this particular teaching pedagogy, she replied that it could be applied to coaching; however, not every coach can apply this to his or her athletes. The coach must already have a similar coaching style and philosophy in order to properly execute this pedagogy.

On the lighter side, I use to be a Marianist and, as it happened in Fort Worth, St. Louis, Houston, Cincinnati, our archrivals were always Jesuits. Those “Ignatians” always gave us a hard time. At the same time, the virtues listed above were the same virtues espoused by the Marianists. These are the same virtues I have applied to the classroom and to my coaching assignments. They are very relevant.

Students in Sport Ethics were asked to respond to a series of questions that focused on the application of Ignatian pedagogy: competence, conscience, and compassion (Jesuit Education and Ignatian Pedagogy: A desktop primer. Xavier University Ignatian Programs) as one aspect of their final exam (Fall, 2007). Competence is defined as a) a sufficiency of mean for the necessities and convenience of life, and b) the quality or state of being competent. Competent is therefore defined as a) having requisite or adequate ability or qualities, b) legally qualified or adequate, and c) having the capacity to function or develop in a particular way. Conscience is defined as the sense or consciousness of the moral goodness or blameworthiness of one’s own conduct, intentions, or character together with a feeling of obligation to do right or be good. Compassion is defined as a sympathetic consciousness of others’ distress together with a desire to alleviate it. THESE QUESTIONS WERE: 1. Do you believe that these Ignatian principles are present and observable in today’s sport environment? YES / NO. Please state why. 2. If NO to question #1, how would you apply or introduce these principles to sport? 3. If YES to question #1, describe how these are applied in coaching? In short, how would St. Ignatius coach? Question 1 Student Responses: Eight-Yes, Seven-No, and Three-Yes & No Question 1 YES Responses: All Yes responses contained some type of qualification statement; such as I believe that these Ignatian principles are present and observable in today’s sport environment. While not all athletes, coaches, and parents possess these qualities I think they are in the sport environment as a whole. Four representative student responses are presented below. •

To an extent, I believe that these Ignatian principles are present in today’s sport environment. Competence in sport definitely applies because in order to play sport, one must have the necessary ability and understanding of the game. Conscience is, I believe, for the most part that coaches attempt to teach players that one must play for the goodness of the game, but sometimes players (even some coaches) are in it just to win and will go against morals to win. However, I would say for the majority of athletes, they desire to play for the love of the game and thus are morally obligated to do good. Compassion for others is shown through a players’ sportsmanship. I believe that most athletes are not just out there for themselves; they are out there for their teammates as well.

• •

I definitely think that competence, conscience, and compassion are observable in today’s sport environment. However, they are not consistent throughout the entire sport world. Competence can be seen in many athletes and coaches who know the game they play and study film to improve their game everyday. Many players and coaches show their conscience when they follow rules and play for the spirit of the game. Coaches and players exhibit conscience when they exhibit sportsmanship rather than gamesmanship. Compassion is also present in sport. Players show compassion when they help each other up off the floor, when they congratulate each other after a game, and when they play the game to the best of their abilities, with no intention of hurting their opponents. I believe that Ignatian principles are present and observable but not to the extent that they should be. I believe that there are many coaches and athletes that exhibit competence, conscience, and compassion but also believe and can see many others

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who don’t exhibit these principles because they are concerned with winning.

I think that these principles are observable in the sport world today but they are quickly fading away. The emphasis on sport is changing from having fun to becoming a business in which someone can make money. So while these principles are seen today, they are nowhere close to what they were 20-30 years ago.

Question 1 NO Responses: Ignatian pedagogy not observable today. Four representative responses have been selected. •

I do not believe the Ignatian principles are present, let alone observable in today’s sport environment. First, competence is always being lied about. For example, OJ Mayo living with his coach to go to school in a certain school district is not legal, but was done. Players who play injured do not have adequate enough ability to play, but since it is more than others they still do. Secondly conscience exhibited by many athletes is skewed. Players blame coaches rather than accepting the team just did not play well enough. Or young children blame themselves for a loss when really there were many reasons. Lastly, compassion is barely ever seen. Coaches encourage athletes to foul and harm other players. Also, when someone gets hurt nowadays, players usually never go down on one knee out of respect anymore.

I think that if sport is played fairly and honestly the answer would be yes. As it is now, we place too much emphasis on winning in sport. This reward system encourages players to cut corners to gain an edge.

I think you don’t really observe these today. You see a lot of athletes who cheat and do things they shouldn’t be doing. A perfect example is with the Mitchell Report that just came out that showed how athletes are doing anything to get better. You see athletes do whatever it takes to win. When Sammy Sosa corks his bat that is not good for the sport of baseball. When you see the Chinese swimmers who took those drugs to be better swimmers. This shows that people don’t really care how they win they just want to win.

I do not believe that all of the Ignatian principles are present in today’s sport environment. I do not believe this because in sport today, we hear about scandals, as well as college players taking money from schools, different colleges cheating etc. I believe if “conscience” was present in sport today then a lot of the issues would not be on the news, such as the Michael Vick case, or the memorabilia heist with OJ Simpson. Another reason I don’t agree is because I do not believe that compassion is observable today. I feel if compassion was observable, then there would not be a brawl between the Pistons, Pacers, and the fans. Also, there would not be cases where the Patriots would beat the Redskins by over 50 points, while still going for 4th down conversions.

Question 1 YES & NO Responses: All three complete responses are presented below. •

For some people these principles are not present. In a general sense I would say that Yes they are present. The media seldom covers positive sport stories. In this aspect we seldom see the good things in sport. People do teach and understand the principles involved. Also the people learning these principles do become successful. However, the lack of importance shown by the media to cover good stories in sport cause some people to develop bad ideas about sports.

I think Ignatian principles can be seen in several players in the sport environment, but not in teams as a whole. There is too much violence, trash talking, intimidation, harmful coaches, etc., to say that competence, conscience, and compassion is the main components of sport. Sport today is defined by, too much winning, and not enough by ethical behavior and morality today define sport. Once teams begin to shift focus then Ignatian Pedagogy will be implemented.

I feel as if the answer is yes and no because some players really do go by these guidelines in sport today; while others don’t. For example the Mitchell report that just named so many players who everyone thought played fair and were honest. While other players just did it the right way.

Question 2: If NO to question #1, how would you apply or introduce these principles to sport? Four student representative responses are presented below. •

I would apply these to sport by teaching these at a young age to child athletes. Kids need to learn at a young age that it is not all about winning or competition, which are the opposite of these values. Competence can be taught to young kids to have

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responsibility. Conscience and compassion can be taught by a coach to be conscious of your actions. Also, one needs to be compassionate in general everyday in life. In regards to sport, you have to be conscious of what you do to others on the court/field. A coach can teach compassion to young kids through the lesson of teamwork and sportsmanship.

I would apply these principles because if you don’t follow the, you shouldn’t be playing. I would also post these in everyone’s lockers, so when they come it that is the first thing they see. I would also have one practice where we go through these and how they are important, just to see what everyone’s opinions are of these three. Throughout the season just keep repeating them. I would apply and introduce these principles to sport by introducing them at a young age to those participating in sport. Not only is it the coach’s role to show, teach, and demonstrate these qualities, but the parents need to do that as well. If I were a coach I would spend a part of practice that doesn’t deal with the physical attributes of sport, but the mental and emotional attributes as well. I think that although a lot of these qualities are inherent, they can be built upon with proper attention. I would give practice scenarios at practice, show video clips, and maybe even have a session with the parents to discuss their role in all of it.

I would introduce Ignatian principles by stressing the importance of morality to my team. It starts by educating coaches, and it will be introduced to the athletes by the behavior the coach tolerates. If someone is violent at practice and a coach does nothing, they are actually saying the behavior is acceptable. If coaches demonstrate competence, conscience, and compassion and expect it from the players it will become a big part of sport.

Questions 3: If YES to question #1, describe how these are applied in coaching? In short, how would St. Ignatius coach? The four student responses presented below are representative of the eight total responses. •

St. Ignatius would have a competent team. One that is highly skilled and motivated to play their best. The team would desire competition and fair play over winning. St. Ignatius would also have a team with a conscience. His players would know the ethical issues in sport and the correct way to behave when these issues arose. His team would be known for their good sportsmanship, and be a team others respected and enjoyed playing against. His team would also be compassionate. They would treat each other as family and do everything possible to help each other improve. They would respect their opponents and demand respect in return.

I think these principles – competence, conscience, and compassion – are applied in coaching through teaching moral values. I have had friends act inappropriately on the track and the coach kicked them out of the meet and suspended them because he felt it was the right thing to do. I understand that not all coaches are good but that overall they are and that sport is a very positive thing.

I think that these principles would make up a good coach or role model. If St. Ignatius were a coach he would teach competence by showing them the true meaning of sport, which is teamwork and fair competition. I think St. Ignatius would teach fair and moral competition and would have the belief that winning is not everything; this is his example of conscience. St. Ignatius would exhibit compassion by caring for the general well being of his athlete, not just as athletes, but also as people in general. This is how I think the Ignatian principles are applied in coaching, more specifically how St. Ignatius would coach.

Its’ hard to be a coach in today’s society because the only thing that matters is “what have you done for me lately?” So coaches have to win in order to keep their jobs and sometimes hey must act unethical to do so. St. Ignatius would coach very ethically. He would not accept a win if it was done by dirty means. He would think of winning as playing fair.

Summary Students today have grown up in our present, over-organized, over competitive youth sport environment which took root in the early 1980’s. This environment has gone relatively unchecked and unregulated for the past 25+ years. Generally the only qualifications an adult needs to be a youth coach is: I’m available! The question that I always ask whenever conducting a coaching education program or presentation throughout the country is: why does an adult need a four-year degree in education to work with a child from 9:00 – 3:00, but needs no preparation to work with that same child from 3:00 – 9:00? How do the needs of children change so dramatically at 3:00! The answer...they don’t. The responses from the students and the comments from the coaches reflect some of the paradoxes mentioned in the beginning of the article. However it does indicate that students are beginning to transfer these principles (compassion, conscience, and competence) into the sport arena. Some believe that they are already present and others believe they can and should be present. But believing and acting are two separate issues. It is my hope that when the opportunity to act presents itself, that the action

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would make St. Ignatius proud. One goal of both of these courses is to prepare individuals for the future. I would content that 90% will someday coach their child in some sport activity. It is therefore part of our responsibility to plant the seeds now. Father Graham (2006) stated: That the education that we offer our students in a University that calls itself Jesuit must be holistic and integrated, must be exacting but adaptable, must be reflective, must be ongoing, must be practical but located within a broad horizon, must be finally ordered to something greater. The legendary John Wooden is quoted as saying: You won’t know what kind of teacher you were until 20 years after the fact (Nater & Gallimore 2006). I would concur, but would like to conclude with email correspondence received February 2008:

I am one of your former students from last year and saw that you were honored in Lehigh Valley from the website announcements. I also saw that you were in Greensboro, NC just before that, I am in Kannapolis (less than an hour away). I just wanted to congratulate you and let you know that I gained valuable experience/and a changed perspective in your Sport Ethics class. Thank you so much, and congrats!! Sport Ethics student, Spring 2007.

Perhaps there is a sport Magis, that is alive and well (Traub 2002). References Eitzen, D.S. (2006). Fair and foul: Beyond the myths and paradoxes of sport. Lanham, MD: Roman and Littlefield. Graham, M. (2006). The influence of the spiritual exercises on six dimension of Jesuit Education. Academic Day address (October 3). Hallowell, E.M. (2002). The childhood roots of adult happiness. New York, NY: Ballatine Books. Kolvenbach, P. (1989). Themes of Jesuit Higher Education. As summarized by Callahan, J. IMP-handout. Lumpkin, A., Stoll, S., & Beller, J. (2003). Sport Ethics: Applications for fair play, New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. Nater, S. & Gallimore, R. (2006). You haven’t taught until they have learned: John Wooden’s teaching principles and practices. Morgantown, WV: Fitness Information Technology. Traub, G. W. (2002). Do you speak Ignatian? A glossary of terms used in Ignatian and Jesuit circles. Cincinnati, OH: Xavier University. Vealey, R. (2005). Coaching for the inner edge. Morgantown, WV: Fitness Information Technology.

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THEOLOGY Christian Sexual Ethics Jennifer Beste, PhD Mentor: Lisa Close-Jacob, PhD (Biology) Course Description This course introduces students to the method and fundamentals of Christian ethics and explores the moral visions, principles and teachings of the Christian tradition as they relate to sexuality. By the end of the course, students are expected to discern and articulate their own Christian sexual ethic. Mission-Driven Component: Since I teach theological ethics courses, my objective is to incorporate Jesuit values into my teaching. I seek to develop further their abilities to: 1) reason critically and think creatively 2) communicate effectively 3) integrate knowledge with experience toward wisdom, insight, and understanding 4) promote justice and be morally sensitive to the needs of the most marginalized and poor in society 5) appreciate human diversity and inclusiveness 6) seek to find the presence of God in all things. After reading and reflection about the Ignatian vision and values, I integrated two new components to my sexual ethics course this spring. First, I emphasized the relationship between the Jesuit value of social justice and specific sexual ethics issues. We began the course by analyzing the concept of justice and how it relates to sexual ethics. Students read about Foucault and how his insights help us analyze issues of justice involved in sexual ethics, such as the historical construction of black sexuality by dominant whites from slavery to the present, the portrayal and treatment of women and children in society, and Christian churchâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s stance towards gay and lesbian persons. Second, I am challenging students to reflect more explicitly and deeply on their moral character and become more critical of their individual gendered and sexual identity. A new assignment I have designed challenges them to analyze how their gendered identity has been constructed by religious and cultural gender norms. Students will write about how they conform to gender characteristics of masculinity or femininity. They will address the following questions: Are there any gender characteristics that they have internalized that 1) may actually be harmful to themselves and their ability to be a whole person, 2) may hinder their capacity to sustain intimate, healthy relationships, and 3) may cause them to treat others unjustly? Students who identify and struggle with harmful gender characteristics will discern ways to change and resist gender norms. Such analysis of gender will be crucial when addressing issues of justice between men and women addressed later in the course.

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THEOLOGY Theological Foundations Christian Doctrine Today Edward Hahnenberg, PhD Mentor: Ed Cueva, PhD (Classics) THE ROLE OF EXPERIENCE & MODELS OF MINISTRY THEOLOGICAL FOUNDATIONS Course Description This course introduces students to theology as an academic discipline by exploring the various ways individuals and communities articulate their experience of the divine. Working primarily from a Christian perspective—in dialogue with other views—we will study four related areas: (1) the Hebrew Bible, (2) selected world religions, (3) the Christian understanding of Jesus, and (4) the relationship of theology to current social and ethical issues. Mission-Driven Components The Ignatian Mentoring Program enhanced my ability to articulate the relationship of the Jesuit tradition to two components of my THEO 111 course: 1)

Human Experience as the Starting Point for Theology I introduced a new reading at the beginning of the course: William A. Barry, S.J., “Grounded in God: The Principle and Foundation,” chapter two of Finding God in All Things: A Companion to the Spiritual Exercises of St. Ignatius (Ave Maria Press, 1991). My THEO 111 course begins with reflection on human experience as a starting point for theological reflection, understood as “faith seeking understanding.” This new reading offers specific descriptions of “peak” or “limit” experiences that I used to begin discussion on the human encounter with the sacred. The reading allowed the opportunity to relate this reflection on human experience to Ignatius’ own methodology in the Spiritual Exercises, providing an introduction to the discipline of theology within the context of a Jesuit University.

2)

Experience-Based Learning In collaboration with Peace and Justice Programs, I encourage students to engage in a service learning project and write a paper that brings Theology into dialogue with a contemporary social or ethical issue. This project serves the E/RS focus of the course and invites reflection on the call of Jesuit education to serve the promotion of social justice.

CHRISTIAN DOCTRINE TODAY Course Description Ecclesiology is the theological study of the church in an effort to understand its nature and mission. This seminar explores the developments in Roman Catholic ecclesiology that have taken place over the past half century. The themes treated represent those movements that flowed into and out of the Second Vatican Council (1962-1965): the renewal of biblical studies, the liturgical movement, ecumenism, questions of authority, changes in ministry, and the church’s presence in the world. This survey of recent Catholic thought will also offer the opportunity to reflect on common Christian origins and the diverse ecclesiologies of other Christian traditions. Mission-Driven Component This course includes a component on structures of ministry within the Roman Catholic Church. In treating this topic historically, I included an essay by John O’Malley, S.J.: “One Priesthood: Two Traditions” (in A Concert of Charisms: Ordained Ministry and Religious Life, ed. Paul Hennessy). In this essay, O’Malley critiques the tendency of contemporary Catholic theology to assume a patristic, parochial model as paradigmatic for all priestly ministry. His historical research reveals that the rise of religious order priests—such as the Franciscans, the Dominicans, and, especially, the Jesuits—presents an alternative, complementary model. This model is focused more on mission than on pastoral (in the sense of parish-based) care. O’Malley’s presentation of early Jesuit ministry (particularly in his book The First Jesuits) has been helpful to me and will continue to influence the way in which I teach about structures of ministry in the Catholic Church.

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IMPLICATIONS FOR RESEARCH In addition to the direct revision of the courses described above, the IMP has had an impact on my current and future research in the following ways: 1)

Memory in the Thought of Edward J. Kilmartin, S.J. Studying the Spiritual Exercises as part of IMP deepened my appreciation for the role of memory in the work of the American Jesuit liturgical theologian Edward J. Kilmartin, S.J. The Exercises played an important role in Kilmartin’s understanding of how worshippers relate to Christ during liturgy. My essay: “The Ministerial Priesthood and Liturgical Anamnesis in the Thought of Edward J. Kilmartin, S.J.” will appear in the June 2005 issue of Theological Studies.

2)

Priesthood and Ministry O’Malley’s recognition of a historical diversity of models of priesthood has begun to shape my own research on lay ministry in the Roman Catholic Church. I will explore the connections between ordained and lay ministry in two papers this summer (an address to the National Association for Lay Ministry and a presentation at a Boston College conference on the Priesthood in the 21st Century).

3) Vocation IMP has fed my interest in the theology of call, election, and vocation. I hope to explore Ignatian discernment as one historical model within a larger future project on the theology of vocation.

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THEOLOGY Theological Foundations Jesuit Theology and Spirituality Chris Pramuk, PhD Mentor: Ginger McKenzie, EdD (Childhood Education & Literacy) I. Using Music and Poetry to Teach the Whole Person Theological Foundations Course Description This course introduces students to the academic study of theology by reflecting on the mysteries of human life and the divine dimension of reality. We approach the subject through many lenses: historical and critical analyses, sacred scripture, literature, and science; through art, poetry, film, and music; and inevitably, through the lens of our own experiences, questions, and personal histories as human beings. By exploring religious faith and theological questioning as a universal dimension of human life on the planet, this class provides a foundation for a deeper personal engagement with Catholicism and global religious traditions in general. Mission-Driven Components The Ignatian Mentoring Program has reinforced my desire as a teacher to engage the whole person of students through the use of poetry and music. As St. Ignatius wrote in the Spiritual Exercises: “It is profitable to use the imagination and to apply the five senses to [these contemplations], just as if I were there. Then, reflecting upon myself, I will draw some profit from this.” Through frequent exploration of music and poetry in the classroom, I aim to help students “get inside” the experiences of others in a holistic way, “just as if [they] were there.” That is, to get beyond the “literal” surface of things and immerse oneself in the depth (or mystical) dimension of reality, history, sacred texts, etc., thus giving them tools for exploring the transcendent dimension (and questions) of their own lives. Bill Huebsch expresses a very “catholic” (universal) truth when he writes: “Human beings stand constantly at the very edge of mystery. . . . The language of the poet is not ordinary, common language to us. It is a language that seems to come from the other side.” By exploring the life and poetry of Abraham Joshua Heschel, Thich Nhat Hanh, and many others, as well as the poetic landscape of the Bible, students are invited to place themselves “at the edge of mystery,” and to dwell there a while, even (or especially) when doing so opens up the most difficult and elusive questions: Is God real? Where is God when people are suffering? For what can I hope for in this life and the next? Where are my desires leading me? Does God (or Jesus) have anything to do with my sexuality? And so on. By opening up hidden realms of experience and imagination, music and poetry are uniquely positioned to help young adults get inside and wrestle with such questions. II. Protest Music in an Ignatian Context Jesuit Theology and Spirituality Course description The seminar seeks to understand the historical, theological, and imaginative roots of Jesuit (or Ignatian) spirituality as expressed in the Autobiography and Spiritual Exercises of St. Ignatius Loyola. Building on this foundation, students explore how aspects of this spirituality come to fruition in the lives and thought of four influential Jesuits of the 20th century: Teilhard de Chardin, Karl Rahner, Pedro Arrupe, and Anthony De Mello, as well as in a range of related Jesuit and non-Jesuit thinkers. The seminar prepares students to articulate their own vision of a “spirituality for the 21st century,” and to consider how Jesuit theology and spirituality might contribute essentially to that vision.

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Mission-Driven Component & Research Fruits Beyond the clear connections between this course and the Jesuit mission and identity of Xavier University, teaching this seminar has opened my eyes to the theological underpinnings of Ignatian spirituality. In particular, studying the Spiritual Exercises in great depth has helped me understand the intrinsically theological link between the “service of faith” and the “promotion of justice,” as articulated by GC 32 and carried forward by Pedro Arrupe. Ignatian spirituality trains us to “see” the world “from below,” as it were, as Jesus saw the world, with particular attention to the poor and suffering. As Johann Metz puts it, Ignatian spirituality cultivates a “mysticism of open eyes,” a spirituality that “sees more and not less. It is a mysticism that especially makes visible all invisible and inconvenient suffering, and—convenient or not—pays attention to it and takes responsibility for it, for the sake of a God who is a friend to human beings.” Again, one way I have sought to cultivate this kind of “seeing” in the classroom is through music, and in particular, through the venerable tradition of “protest music.” With much encouragement from my IMP mentor, Dr. Ginger Mckenzie, I shared examples of protest music with students in the seminar, and together we explored certain “resonances” with Ignatian spirituality, not least the impulse to firmly resist injustice and dehumanization in all its forms. One of the theological or mystical keys to this particularly Christian “way of seeing,” we discerned, is a living grasp of the “incarnation” of God in all things, and consummately, in the drama of human life. Another is the willingness to enter into communion with Jesus not only in the drama of his life, but also in his death on the cross, as Ignatius invites us to do in the First Week of the Exercises. In an analogous way, protest music draws us into the experience of “the crucified peoples” of history, and confronts us with the question of complicity and responsibility: “What are you going to do about it?” This “experimenting” with protest music in an Ignatian context has been tremendously thought-provoking, both for myself and, I believe, my students. It culminated in the writing of a full-length essay on the subject, which I have submitted for consideration to a volume on Justice in Jesuit Education being published by Fordham University Press.

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MENTOR REFLECTIONS Reflective Reading and Experiencing: An Ignatian Model for Writing Reflection Journals Shelagh Larkin, MSW/LISW (Social Work) Field Education is often referred to as the capstone experience. It is where the classroom and real life come together for the student. A critical part of field education is having opportunities to reflect on that which one is experiencing and then integrate that into what they have learned. One of the educational outcomes for field education as articulated by CSWE is a development of the professional self. Reflection Having opportunities to think about what you are experiencing and then talk about it becomes an important part of developing that professional self. Cochrane and Hanley in Learning through Field, discuss the importance of “reviewing your work”, they emphases the need for self-reflection and critical analysis of the work that you are doing. They go on to say, “You are responsible, in many ways, for the depth and breath of your learning by how honestly and openly you evaluate your work. This is not only the hardest part of being a student, but the most important part of being a professional” (Cochran & Hanley, pg. 65).They emphasize the need to engage in journal writing and encourage students to find a quite comfortable space to explore the journal assignment and thus learn how to process the work that the student is doing. Canda and Furman, in their book, Spiritual Diversity in Social Work Practice, emphasis being reflective as a critical part of both personal and professional growth. They state that “Personal engagement in learning is a transformative experience that requires reflectivity, the practice of introspective self-reflection about how one’s inner life reflects on the outer world “(Canada & Furman, pg. xxi). They relate reflection specifically to what they call “reflective reading” and state that the prerequisite is, “… silence-that is, quieting in order to know oneself, the inner stirrings of the heart, and the discerning wisdom of the intellect” (Canda, Furman, pg. xxi). They go on to explain that reflective silence requires, “a willingness to become introspective”, to “get centered,” and to pay gentle consistent attention to oneself and one’s situation” (Canda & Furman, pg. xxi). Reading and Experiencing During the semester there will be several articles to read as well as the assigned reading from the course texts. It is helpful to think about establishing a structure for how to approach reading, reflection and journal writing. Canda and Furman’s term “reflective reading” is also a useful idea to apply to the experiential aspects of field education and one that I will rename as “reflective experiencing”. Canda and Furman discuss the importance of building this skill by being regular, consistent and disciplined. Thus, I encourage you to set a time for reading or experiencing and reflection and keep to that, by building it into your day or week. It is important to go beyond the restating of events, although setting the stage is helpful, your writing should be more than a blow by blow or a laundry list of activities, it should reflect the thinking, feeling and doing aspects of your reading or experiences. Ruth Barton in Sacred Rhythms, discusses the concept of “a rule of life”. The author describes it as an important part of the Christian tradition that supports a process of spiritual transformation “day in and day out”.

“ A rule of life seeks to respond to two questions: Who do I want to be? How do I want to live? Actually, it might be more accurate to say that a rule of life seeks to address the interplay between these two questions: How do I want to live so I can be who I want to be?” (pg. 147)

This idea supports nicely the skill development aspect of reflection whether it is applied to a reading or an experience. Meaning, that reflection is not something that comes easy for all students, thus by approaching it as something that is important and needs to be incorporate into the day to day students will better develop their skills in reflection. Ignatian Pedagogy This is decidedly Ignatian in its philosophy and applicable to the process of professional development of self through the field experience. Ignatian Pedagogy refers to a model of education that looks at the whole student and is concerned with developing “men and women of competence, conscious, and compassion” (Traub, pg. 12). This is done by faculty considering several key areas, the context of students lives and encouraging students to reflect on past experiences, learn the skills of reflection and then challenge students to consider their actions. Although, the outcome is not spiritual transformation, the notion of what is it that I need 219


to do daily, weekly; monthly to support my personal and professional growth is an important question to reflect on. How do I want to start and end each day and more specifically each day of field, when and where will I build in time for reading and quiet time for reflection and how does that contribute to my development as a social worker. It is my hope that these will be things that you will build in your student and professional life beyond field and that they will sustain you throughout your professional life. Discernment and Ethical Decision Making One of the values of Jesuit/Ignatian education is discernment. Discernment refers to, “a process for making choices when the option is not between good and evil, but between several possible courses of action all of which are potentially good.” (Do you walk Ignatian? Pg. 6) The emphasis being on the process, a process that includes thinking, feeling and listening with an open heart, by refl-ecting on present and past experiences and noticing your reactions to people, events and ideas. All of this is used to help mitigate between two worlds, one, your outside experiences and the other, your inner dialogue. According to George Traub, S.J., in Do You Speak Ignatian?, “For Ignatius the process involves prayer, reflection, and consultation with others-all with the honest attention not only to the rational (reasons pro and con) but also to the realm of one’s feelings, emotions, and desires (what Ignatius called “movements” of soul)” (Traub, pg 2). Thus, it becomes a way of knowing oneself and the world which is another important value of Jesuit/ Ignatian education. The ability to engage in ethical decision making and resolve ethical dilemmas is at the heart of discernment which is a critically important skill in a professional social worker. However, moral decision making is not always innate and often complicated by the development of the student themselves. During late adolescence students are coming to grips with who they are and how they see themselves engaging in the world and particularly how they see themselves as a professional social worker, thus it is necessary to develop this skill through a process of listening, reflecting through attending to thoughts and feelings and then acting. Thus, developing this skill is critical. It is critical to be able to take in information and sit with it and integrate it with that which you already know or have experienced and then make some determination about that information. It is as equally important to be truly open and listen to the experiences you are having. One of the tools that can help develop this skill is writing reflection journals. Thus, each week students will have the opportunity to sit down in a quite place and think, feel, ask questions, make determinations and take action about the experiences they have had and then write about them. This is such an important part of the educational process that students will be able to count 1 hour of field a week toward this endeavor. On-going Reflection Process Trudelle Thomas has articulated a four step process for ongoing reflection that I think is an effective model for students to use to enhance their reflection journal writing as well as contribute to the larger process of professional development. I will lay out the four steps and then incorporate information relating to professional development of self as a social worker. ATAS:

Attend

Think

Act

Share

ATTEND paying attention to experiences in my own life, in field and in the world around me including “current events” This is closely aligned with the Ignatian value of “knowing the world”. In professional development this is so important because one of the measures of a true professional is the ability to fully understand the whole client system. Similarly, Ecological System theory suggests that the self is the result of the interaction between the individual and the environment, thus it is important to be as aware as possible of both the individual and the environment. This also relates nicely to the value of listening and having dialogue for the sake of understanding and not attending to things with an agenda. However, at some point in the helping process the professional social worker must have an agenda, a goal and a plan; however, in the initial engagement phase this skill is very helpful. One might pay attention to: • Content of the reading for a course • The specific experiences or tasks of that week • Various successes, concerns and challenges. • That which stood out to you • That which has stuck with you during the day or over the week • Feelings, thoughts and ideas

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THINKING THROUGH “critical analysis”, seeking insight, and finding significance… The skill of critical thinking is at the heart of Jesuit education as much as it is an outcome for Social Work education. Thus, some of the questions that one might ask as they are thinking critically about their experience could first be related to the self: • Choose a focus, retell the idea or event, and explain how this is important to you. • What do you recall was your reaction at the time? • What do you think about it now as you look back? • What is it about you that make this stand out? • How does this relate to you? (for example, does this relate to your areas of interest, life experience, strengths, limitations, feed back you have been given before.) • Try to connect this experience to who you are and why it is you are focusing on this. • What does this tell you about who you are as a person and a social worker and what does it tell you about further growth and development. • What are the systems and structures that have shaped and are shaping my life, who I am, and who I am becoming as a person and a professional? • Then apply these same questions to your field site, supervisor, peers, and client systems. • What forces are working to create wellness (peace, good will, satisfaction, freedom, social justice, human rights) • What forces are working against it? • Lastly, how might I create wellness? ACTION the “doing” Often writing a reflection journal leads to the need to act or the “doing” of Social Work. Thus, that is the next step. • What is it I am being called to do in my personal life or as a professional social worker? • Set a personal of professional and plan of action Separating the personal and professional can often help in areas where people feel conflicted as to how they should act personally versus professionally. It is also critically important in professional development to understand the self and see the intersection of the personal self and professional self. Some things that a professional does will be easy and closely align with who they are as a person while others may be hard. It will be through this process that one will better illuminate that distinction and thus become a more aware, fully integrated professional self. Sometime just the writing is the “doing” or action and results in a deeper sense of the self and your work. SHARE The last step in the process is to share. The pre-placement and senior seminar provides an excellent opportunity for students to share that which they are noticing and attending to about themselves, their client systems, placement sites and the world around them. It is important that the sharing happen in a safe environment, free of judgment, so that one can fully share. In my teaching I have worked on how to create such an environment and I think it takes a commitment by all participants and a willingness to be open and accept the diversity of ideas that will be shared. In Father Graham’s diversity Paper he speaks of “listening’ for the sake of listening or listening without an agenda. I think this is a useful concept to bring to life in seminar, by encouraging all members as well as myself as the teacher to just listen creates a new environment. It is also equally important to create an environment in which people can challenge one another with the goal of helping one another come into what Elizabeth Liebert refers to as “internalized and self-validated moral principles.” This is the ability to internalize your values such that your actions flow from within as apposed to doing something because you are told that that is the right things to do. It is the result of self-awareness and ultimately moral or ethical decision making that finds it core in both the personal and professional self because it is always important to look at your actions and decisions form both perspectives. It is important to note that this is not a hard and fast linear process; obviously these four steps could occur in any order. I have laid them out in the order that fits the best, however, sharing could be the trigger that leads to attending, thus it is more important to become comfortable with the four concepts and discover how the process enfolds for you. The primary purpose of the 4 steps is to facilitate deeper reflection journals, and better develop the skill of discernment but it is my hope that all four areas will be equally developed and thus contribute to ones overall professional development.

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Reflection Journal Writing Guidelines: 1. Read the assigned reading or engage in an experience. 2. Find a quiet place and get comfortable. 3. Title, date and number the journal, including the actual question if applicable. Hand write legibly or type, if it cannot be read it will be returned and you will need to type it. 4. Although the length is not as important as the time and content, a general guideline is as follows a minimum of 2-3 pages hand written or 1-2 typed pages (single spaced). 5. For Pre-Placement seminar respond to the reading and worksheet questions or ideas in full and explore the major concepts in detail as they relate to field. The purpose of the specific worksheet questions is to trigger you’re thinking about the reading. 6. The reflection journal is for you, it is a place to, process, ask questions, and explore your thoughts and feelings about the spe cific content areas, the placement/field process, field experiences, and general questions concerning field. My hope is that you will chose to use the journal in this way as apposed to simply completing the specific reflection piece. 7. Additional areas that a student could write about would be: • Diversity issues • Legal or ethical concerns • Organizational or systemic concerns • Role • Process and content of supervision • Overall learning 8. Read the Field Education Coordinator comments. One of the purposes of the feedback is to improve your journal writing skills so that you will get the most from the readings, discussions and experience and be well prepared for seminar. References Canda, E. R., & Furman, L. D. (1999). Spiritual diversity in social work practice: The heart of helping. New York: The Free Press. Cochrane, S. F., & Hanley, M. M. (1999). Learning through field: A developmental approach. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon. Conn, J. W. (1996). Women’s spirituality: Resources for Christian development (Second ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Paulist Press. Derezotes, D. (2006). In Quinlin P. (Ed.), Spiritually oriented social work practice. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon. Mooney, D. K. (2004). Do you walk Ignation? A complication of Jesuit values expressed in the work day (2nd ed.). Cincinnati, OH: Xavier University. Staral, J. M. (2003). Introducing Ignatian spirituality: Linking self-reflection with social work ethics. Social Work & Christianity, 30(1), 38-51. Thomas, T. (2005). Spirituality in the mother zone: Staying centered, finding god. Mahwah, NJ: Paulist Press. Traub, G. W. (2002). Do you speak Ignation? A glossary of terms used in Ignation and Jesuit circles. Cincinnati, OH: Xavier University.

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MENTOR REFLECTIONS Expanding Horizons: A Christian Female Talks at Length with a Muslim Male Trudelle Thomas, PhD (English) working with Mentee Anas Malik, PhD (Political Science) During the past year, my mentee has been Anas Malik, a new assistant professor in Political Science. We met at my home throughout the year to talk about the Ignatian heritage and aspects of his Muslim faith. Since we knew each other before beginning the mentoring program and shared a natural affinity, our discussions flowed easily. My son and husband both enjoyed getting to know Anas as well. The two of us also wrote letters to each other and traded readings about Ignatian and Muslim spirituality. Insights from our talks had an impact on both my teaching and research. Topics of Discussion in Our Mentoring Partnership: STUDY The value of research/study as a form of contemplation; Anas tells me that there is a longstanding respect for study as an important way of knowing God, something I had never thought much about before. KAREN ARMSTRONG A shared admiration for the books of Karen Armstrong, who is much loved by Muslims because of her insightful writing about the life of Muhammad and the history of Islam. Anas and I were able to share an intimate lunch with Karen when she visited Xavier University in April. The last two chapters of her The Spiral Staircase eloquently extol the value of study as an avenue to ecstasy: “‘Transcendence’ means climbing above or beyond. . . . Study can be a disciplined attempt to go beyond the ego [that] brings about a state of ecstasy. . . . We are most creative and sense other possibilities that transcend our ordinary experience when we leave ourselves behind” (279). THE HEART The importance of “the heart” as the center of knowing. Christian spiritual writers have spoken of the heart as the “core self,” the center of longing and knowledge, the part of the human person that is able to behold God, the source of charity. Both Christianity and Islam assert the importance of love and intention as important to true knowing. In Islam, “God-wariness” arises in the heart when a person learns to live from the heart, the spiritual human being is born. ISLAM AS OTHER Greater awareness on my part of the history of hostility toward Muslims in the past and today. Thanks to Anas, I am now much more aware when literature, textbooks, and politicians demonize Muslims. Ignatian Focus: Literature and the Moral Imagination During Fall semester, I incorporated Ignatian principles into my core course, Literature and the Moral Imagination, which focused on the theme of the Adult Life Cycle. In particular, the Ignatian themes of “finding God in all things” and “cura personalis” were woven throughout the course. Early on I developed a handout called “Spirituality, Adulthood, and Stress” (see below) which provides categories for thinking about how humans develop Purpose, Connections (personal and political), and The Amazement Factor. We used these categories several times to talk about the novels/stories we read and about students’ own lives. “The Amazement Factor” struck a chord in many, even those who regarded themselves as atheists—something that I didn’t expect. In our initial discussion, students said they felt amazement when in nature, when falling in love, when studying science (sometimes), and when spending time with young children. Some readily understood Rachel Carson’s famed comment: “If a child is to keep alive his inborn sense of wonder, he needs the companionship of at least one adult who can share it” (The Sense of Wonder). The Amazement Factor turned out to be an important theme in several of the works we read. For example, a few short stories showed grandparents instilling in children amazement toward nature. And in Chris Bohjalian’s novel, Midwives, characters spoke about the amazement evoked by childbirth and newborn babies.

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Students were surprised that adults might continue to experience amazement as they aged. One student wrote, “I always used to think my parents were ‘set’—that once you reached age thirty or so, you no longer grew or changed. Now I see that people can always continue to grow. You never really have all the answers.” “Age segregation” often causes students to be narcissistic and narrow-minded. The Amazement Factor promotes understanding across age barriers. Talking about how adults of various ages experienced Amazement helped students see beyond their adolescent ghetto. Mysterium Tremendum Once the course ended in December, I read more about the role of amazement in spirituality. I learned that there is a long-standing tradition of viewing God in terms of Mystery—a transcendent being that inspires wonder and awe. God’s Mystery was emphasized in the early centuries after Christ but was neglected during the Enlightenment. In the twentieth century, some theologians, notably Jesuit Karl Rahner, emphasized that God is characterized by “an essential incomprehensibility” that can be known partially but never grasped by the human mind. The Divine is spoken of as Mysterium Tremendum, and encountering God evokes awe, wonder, even fear, on the one hand, and enchantment, beauty, and joy, on the other. At best, humans can catch glimpses or intimations of the Divine. We come to see the limits of human understanding and appreciate what some have called that “sweet country of understanding nothing.” Scientific advances, perhaps more than theology, have inspired amazement. Photographic images from the Hubble Telescope, first available to the public in 1990, reveal that the universe is much vaster, more ancient, and more grand than we imagined. The majesty of the cosmos shows how limited the human perspective has been. Similarly, discoveries about DNA and quantum physics are inspiring awe in scientists and non-scientists alike. Such discoveries have caused some thinkers to see a profound connection between the human mind and the works of God. Viewing God as Mysterium Tremendum is conducive to dialogue among different religious traditions. In a time in history when many discussions deteriorate into stand-offs between the Left vs. Right, Saved vs. Unsaved, Enlightened vs. Benighted, appreciation for Mystery reminds us that all truth is limited. We can let uncertainty cause us to latch on to partial truths--or we can let it lead us into greater exploration. Here Rahner’s concept of the “anonymous Christian” is useful: anyone who embraces truth and goodness is ultimately embracing the God of Jesus Christ (regardless of the labels assigned). Even though religious creeds may be quite different, there is common ground in how God is experienced. Perhaps Jane Goodall says it best: “There are many windows through which we can look out into the world, searching for meaning. . . . [Often] we are confused by the tiny fraction of the whole that we see. It is, after all, like trying to comprehend the panorama of the desert or the sea through a rolled-up newspaper.” (Jane Goodall, Through a Window).

Spirituality, Integrity, and Stress in Early Adulthood [Student Handout] The goals of “self understanding” and “self-knowledge” are at the heart of liberal education, and of most of the great philosophical traditions. Yet, according to a recent study of the professional lives of professors, they are seldom discussed overtly in academic life. The following concepts will help you know yourself better now and also help you continue to grow as a person in your future lives, especially your future work. Please translate these into your own words, then see if you can apply them to characters in the works we’re reading, I’m especially interested in your application of 2, 3, 4, and 6. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 224

Knowledge—of various subjects; of various skill-sets (such as Instrumentation, Interaction, etc.); of self; of your religious and cultural tradition. Purpose—aka a sense of personal mission; vocation or calling in your work-life (and after-work-life); service. Often spoken of in terms of “priorities.” Connection—meaningful relationships with other humans; love relationships, including family and spouse; relationships with co-workers. A sense of connection (or solidarity) to the larger human family including the marginalized. A sense of connection to animals, nature, and God might be included here. An understanding of how social systems and institutions operate. Awareness of the political nature of all organizations. The Amazement Factor—a sense of awe, wonder, and mystery in the face of the world; the infinite; that which transcends time and the physical world; a sense of “the More” (W. James’s term); yearning, joy, beauty, and enchantment are also associated with amazement. Personal Renewal—what you do to keep yourself growing; how to avoid burnout; balancing the need for replenishment with the


need to be productive and effective. 6. Encounters with evil—Is evil real? In what forms do you encounter evil? Issues of good vs. evil in your future work? Reflection Questions re “The Amazement Factor” for Faculty (Mentors and Mentees) 1. What initially drew you to your area of study? Was there a moment of amazement that made you want to pursue this area? Has the amazement level increased or lessened in the course of your education? 2. Have you ever considered that study/research could be a form of spiritual devotion (or prayer)? That study involves more than information and sharpening the mind—that it might actually open a person to a transcendent level of reality? Have you experi enced this affectively? Describe such an experience if you feel comfortable doing so. 3. Have you experienced a paradigm shift in your view of a subject? If so, what prompted this? What was your emotional response to this shift? 4. Does sharing a subject with a different generation cause you to see it differently? 5. Have there been times when a discussion in class opened up new insights into a subject, even amazement? Was this a happy accident, or did you lay ground rules conducive to such an experience? 6. Have events in your personal life impacted your intellectual life? Has aging or awareness of your mortality affected how you think about your field of study? 7. Are there things in your life that evoke enchantment, wonder, joy, peace? Does your field of study inspire these? Do these things have anything to do with your experience of spirituality, faith, or religious tradition? 8. What causes you to feel cynical or closed down about higher education (or Xavier University)? How do you respond to such feelings? Might junior faculty benefit from learning about how you cope with disillusionment?

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MENTOR REFLECTIONS Mentoring: A Retrospective Trudelle Thomas, PhD (English) The following is an adaptation of my presentation on Ignatian Mentoring, part of a panel with Debra Mooney, Rich Mullins, and Stephen Yandell at the Heartland-Delta Faculty Conference at Spring Hill College (in Mobile, AL) in February 2008. Since we’ve talked about the value of stories this weekend, I’ll share a bit of my own story. I had a dramatic faith awakening when I was 18 that eventually led me join a lay community in my twenties. It was there that I met my first Jesuits. The church group I’d been part of earlier viewed higher education with great suspicion, believing that it would lure a person away from God. The three Jesuits in my community helped me to see that there didn’t have to be a separation between having a deep spirituality and a lively intellectual life. I was 25 at the time, just returning to college after some hardships, so the timing was perfect for me to encounter the idea of “finding God in all things.” The Spirit was present not just in church services or a private prayer life—but in all things— books, study, nature, even secular professors! I earned my undergrad degree at a Jesuit university and relished the opportunity to learn in a faith-oriented context. In the following years I went on to earn two master’s degrees and PhD, all in state schools. When I entered the job market, I was very intentional about ending up at a school that shared my belief that spirituality and an intellectual life were intertwined. When I was being interviewed at Xavier back in 1987, the mission statement was what convinced me that I wanted to be at XU rather than elsewhere. Then over the many years as a junior professor, I came to the harsh realization that the academic structure and reward system doesn’t often support the ideal of spiritual wholeness. For at least a dozen years I struggled with loneliness and the feeling that I shouldn’t talk about God or spirituality. It seemed ironic—the very values that had drawn me into higher education now made me feel like a misfit. Also during these years, the demands of tending to a young child and aging parents made me feel even more out of sync with my workplace. The Jesuit ideals had grown abstract and remote. Then five years ago Debra Mooney invited me to take part in the AFMIX program (Assuring the Future of Ministry and Identity at Xavier). That marked a change in my whole sense of what it meant to be part of Xavier. For the next two years I met with a group every week where we read articles and heard speakers. The leaders set the tone for what Gray and Appleyeard call “honest dialog and reverent conversation” about a wide range of topics. When I finished AFMIX, I jumped at the chance to become a faculty mentor. I’ve been a mentor now for three years, to three different faculty members, in three different departments—a Muslim, an agnostic, a Roman Catholic. This program has been one of the most fulfilling experiences of my life. My commitment to teaching—to Xavier’s mission—has been revitalized because of the mentoring experience. In the course of mentoring, I found a pattern that worked for me. First, at the start, I made it clear to my new mentee that I didn’t have an agenda, rather that she (or he) should lead the way; I would take my cues from her, what she wanted to talk and learn about. We used the five core Jesuit values as starting points (Magis, Cura Personalis, Finding God in all things, etc) but with lots of leeway. I also made it clear that I didn’t want to convert her to a certain way of thinking. Rather, I wanted the relationship to be mutual, a give-and-take where we both valued the insights the other brought to our conversation. Our conversation focused on shared questions, not fixed answers. Second, it was important that we both be able to be honest. I have many areas of struggle and disagreement in regard to the Catholic Church and Christian tradition, as well as areas of agreement. I wanted the freedom to speak frankly about struggle, doubt, and anger, and to offer the same freedom to my mentee. I wanted us both to be able to let our guard down. In all three relationships, we mostly met off-campus, at my home or in a coffee shop or restaurant, every three or four weeks (usually for about 90 minutes). Being in an informal place, a place without fluorescent lights, let us talk more freely. This candor and trust seemed to be mutual.

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Third, we cultivated a feeling of reverence. Talking about big life questions and time-tested traditions set the tone for an attitude of reverence. I learned from Shelagh Larkin, one of my mentees, that the field of Social Work has a phrase: “unconditional positive regard.” Social workers try to extend unconditional positive regard to their clients, no matter what hardships they are encountering. I’ve embraced this ideal in my family life, and also in my involvement with mentees. Faculty expend so much effort in the early years trying to prove themselves, being observed and critiqued, that it felt very freeing to simply be able to listen and enjoy the other person. We also generally avoided “shop talk” about university or departmental politics. These three values—mutuality, honesty, and reverence—opened the door to wide ranging conversations. My mentee would choose a focus for each session, and we’d find relevant reading material in advance which served as a springboard. Usually I would supply readings dealing with Jesuit history or spirituality (supplied by Mission and Identity Office) but sometimes other sources; sometimes the mentee would supply the readings. In the course of discussing Ignatius and Ignatian values, many other topics also came up: writing and overcoming writing blocks, Ramadan, mental illness in the family, aging parents, helping teenage children make good decisions, what constitutes “the good life”, marriage, what happens after death, worklife balance, forms of prayer, breastfeeding, childcare problems, money management, why we love literature, world events. The starting questions were often lofty—what is the purpose of life?—but the ensuing discussions focused on the nitty gritty. There was not a dichotomy between the spiritual and the intellectual, nor between the personal and the professional. Woven through all this were pedagogical questions—how to introduce Jesuit values into class discussions? How to find fresh language for introducing religious questions? Each of the three different mentoring relationships have had their own special flavor but they all have offered me a sense of freedom. Freedom to let down my guard. Freedom to talk frankly about the interplay of education and the rest of life. Freedom to learn about a new field of study. At the end of a recent session with my mentee, one of us remarked, “This is what I hoped being a professor would be like!” For those just now becoming mentors, here is what worked best for me and my mentees: • • • •

Mutuality (not trying to proselytize or defend the faith) Honest dialogue (openness about struggle and disagreement) Reverence (unconditional high regard for my mentee, avoiding shoptalk or gossip). Meeting off campus every 3- 4 weeks, starting with an article as a spring board. I usually reserved about 90 minutes or so to meet.

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MENTOR REFLECTIONS Rethinking Magis Trudelle Thomas, PhD (English) working with Mentee Shelagh Larkin, MSW/LISW (Social Work) 2006-2007 During the past year Shelagh Larkin and I met regularly to talk about Ignatian principles, particularly in regard to her seniors in Field Instruction, and juniors in Pre-Placement for Field. I supplied her with several articles on spirituality, some from a feminist perspective and some from a Jesuit perspective, and she supplied me with several readings about the pressing need to integrate spirituality in Social Work. I found our exchanges to be intellectually stimulating and spiritually provocative, as well as a lot of fun. We both felt that our mentoring relationship was one of the best professional development experiences we’ve had at Xavier. We shared similarities and differences. We both embrace feminism, and she allowed me to realize I too have “the heart of a social worker” toward the needy. Also the difference in our spiritual orientations was an asset; I view myself as a “post-denominational Christian” while Shelagh described herself as a “spiritual humanist.” My training as a writer/writing teacher and her training as a social worker allowed us to form an especially interesting partnership. As a result of our mentoring relationship, I developed three graphics that I plan to use with my students that I hope will be helpful to others interested in Ignatian spirituality: 1. 2. 3.

Rethinking Magis in an Addictive Culture: A Less-Is-More Approach Rule of Life: The Wheel of Practices for Creating a Personalized Rule of Life An Array of Healing Packages: Finding God in All Things Healing

All of these are especially suitable for using with seniors or others preparing to begin professional life. I have used them with students preparing for Service Learning Semesters and with pre-service English teachers. Shelagh used “The Wheel” with her seniors in Field Instruction in connection with their capstone paper, “Professional Development of Self.” Other faculty are welcome to use any of these three graphics provided you give proper credit. I also welcome correspondence about them at thomast@xavier.edu. The Problem with Magis Though I have an abiding appreciation for Ignatian principles, I have always felt ambivalent about the concept of Magis, a commitment to excellence, or “the more.” When I read the “generosity prayer” of St. Ignatius, these words make me uncomfortable: “Help me to give and not count the cost . . . to toil and not seek for rest.” Because we live in a society that often rewards addictive behavior (especially workaholism and materialism), defining Magis simply as “the More” can reinforce compulsive activity, particularly in the realm of work. It can also lead to exploitation of those on the lower rungs of any organizational hierarchy. Our mentoring relationship gave me a chance to devote some reflection time to my discomfort with Magis. As a female faculty member trying to find a sustainable balance between my work life (teaching, research, and service), my own interior life, and my family life (parent, spouse, daughter to aging parents, etc.), I have often been haunted by the sense that no matter how hard I work or how carefully I manage by time, I will never possibly accomplish enough to fulfill my responsibilities according to the high standards I set for myself. Defining Magis as “the More” or “the spirit of excellence” has reinforced this guilty feeling that I should be doing more, especially early in my career. In time, I came to realize that this was not simply a personal problem, but rather a problem faced by many people who are tending families while building careers in academia and other fields historically male. I discovered there is a psychological term for this feeling of “never-enough”: “insatiability” is a psychological term used to refer to people who compulsively seek more possessions, more money, more stimulation, etc. It is also applied to those who compulsively seek more activity and productivity. Whatever the object, insatiability undermines job satisfaction and can work against spiritual well-being. Unfortunately, U.S. culture reinforces the insatiable search for more consumption, work, and a narrow kind of productivity. As a result of my discomfort, I have begun to articulate another way to think about Magis. Now, for me Magis means a life of service that is sustainable and balanced. It is a life that is marked by quality and intentionality, rather than simply by quantity. I’m inspired by the Benedictines’ emphasis on a life balanced between study, work and prayer. A more contemporary example is that of Helen and 228


Scott Nearing, authors of Living the Good Life…How to Live Sanely and Simply in a Troubled World, who divided their lives among “bread work,” cultural work, and community involvement, devoting four hours a day to each. Shelagh explained to me that the question of “work life balance” is explicitly addressed in the professional literature in Social Work. Certainly the huge influx of women into the paid work force over the past thirty-five years makes the question especially significant. My new view of Magis led me to develop Figure 1 below, “Rethinking Magis.” It can help our students as they transition into the paid work force and parenthood. Rule of Life: A Sustainable Professional Life for Our Graduates (and Ourselves) Closely related to Magis is the idea of developing a personalized Rule of Life. Shelagh invited me to give a talk to her Senior Seminar (which runs concurrently with Field Instruction) on the need to find spiritual practices and habits as they transition into professional life. I explained to students that “practices” refers to habitual, intentional activities (also known as disciplines) that an individual or a religious community chooses to observe in order to deepen its openness to God. A “Rule of Life” refers to a set of such practices that serves as a sort of template for living. Historically a “Rule of Life” has referred to a set of communal practices but in recent years many lay people are developing a personalized rule of life adapted to their individual circumstances. The professional literature in Social Work addresses the need for self-care. Social workers are at risk for burn-out and compassion fatigue, so it is especially important for them to practice self-care. Yet often self-care is defined too narrowly as stress-management or commercialized “me-time” (vacations, shopping, exercise, manicures, etc.) without any attention to spiritual needs. We both felt the Ignatian tradition had something to offer soon-to-be social workers. I wanted to offer them a way to think about self care that was rooted in a sense of interiority that included listening to God and paying attention to daily experience as a place to encounter the Divine. This desire led me to develop Figure 2 below: Rule of Life: The Wheel of Practices for Creating a Personalized Rule of Life. This “wheel” grows out of the Ignatian tradition and also out of a renewed interest in the United States in contemplative “practices.” It includes six different types of spiritual activities. These activities appear in different world religions and are adaptable to different faith traditions or to a spiritual life apart from organized religion. In my presentation to Shelagh’s seniors, I described the six types of practices, with special emphasis on two: Silence and Solitude; and Home-front Economics (the use of resources of time, money, energy, etc.). Students were quite enthusiastic about the talk, and about my emphasis on these two categories. My presentation was followed by breakout questions, and Shelagh went on to tie Rule of Life presentation to the seniors’ capstone paper, “Professional Development of Self”, due a month or so later (at the end of spring term). She reports on this assignment elsewhere in this volume of Teaching to the Mission. This graphic on “Rule of Life” grows out of my own research for a book-in-progress. My research led me to discover several practical, beautiful books on the spiritual disciplines geared to contemporary readers. Although not all are explicitly Ignatian, they all offer valuable guidance on “finding God in all things” and developing an interior life. They are listed at the end of this essay. Healing Packages: Resilience in the Face of Suffering I’m regularly invited to give a presentation on journaling to Service Learning students who are preparing to spend a semester overseas. They write in a journal to record their service experiences, then use it as the basis for a reflection essay on the whole service experience. Upon their return students often feel depressed and cynical about how much lower the standard of living is in Third World countries compared to first world countries, and become alienated from the United States. I saw a need for a way to reflect on the strengths of their home countries as well as the shortcomings (in much the way that social workers are trained to assess clients in terms of their strengths, not simply their problems). When I give my journal talk, I use figure 3 to show practices or activities that many world cultures use to promote health and wellbeing. I invite students to compare the ways these practices appear in the U.S. with the way they appear in their host countries. This helps them to see the strengths of both cultures and countries, and to consider ways they might import some of what they have learned. Not all of them will be able to return to Nicaragua or India, but all will have opportunities to work for a more just and healthy world. I see these values as growing out of the Jesuit concern with “cura personalis”—care of the whole person. While the “Wheel of Practices” shows various practices that individuals can implement voluntarily, this graphic shows larger communal practices. (I drew upon various readings that Shelagh supplied and especially upon psychologist Mary Pipher’s 2002 book, The Middle of Everywhere: Helping Refugees Enter the American Community). The word “packages” is used by Pipher.) This graphic helps to consider many different aspects of a culture that can promote health and wholeness, including intangible aspects; it helps them see beyond a sole focus on economic resources. (During his Spring 07 visit to Xavier, Dr. Paul Farmer talked about the limitations of a “cost-effectiveness” approach to health in Third World countries; this graphic encourages students to look beyond a deficit model 229


and identify other resources.) Recommended Reading: The following are books that helped me develop the graphics above, especially “A Personalized Rule of Life.” I think any of them are valuable to other mentors, mentees, and students who want to adapt Ignatian spirituality to contemporary life. Barton’s book draws on St. Ignatius explicitly, though it was published by an evangelical publisher. Barton, Ruth Haley. Sacred Rhythms: Arranging Our Lives for Spiritual Transformation. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 2006. My personal favorite. Bass, Dorothy, and Don C. Richter, eds. Way to Live: Christian Practices for Teens. Nashville, TN: Upper Room Books, 2002. Foster, Richard J. Celebration of Discipline: The Path to Spiritual Growth. San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco, 1998. Nearing, Helen and Scott. Living the Good Life. . . How to Live Sanely and Simply in a Troubled World. Harborside, ME: Social Science Institute, 1954. Pipher, Mary. The Middle of Everywhere: Helping Refugees Enter the American Community. New York: Harcourt, 2002. Taylor, Betsy. What Kids Really Want That Money Can’t Buy: Tips for Parenting in a Commercial World. New York: Time Warner Books, 2003. Thompson, Marjorie. Soul Feast: An Invitation to the Christian Spiritual Life. Louisville: WJK Press, 2005. Dyckman, Katherine, et al. The Spiritual Exercises Reclaimed: Uncovering Liberating Possibilities for Women. Mahwah, NJ: Paulist Press, 2001. Figure 1 Figure 1

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Figure 2

Rethinking “Magis” in an Addictive Culture: The Less-is-More Approach to “The More” Magis – “Latin for more; suggesting a spirit of excellence; commitment to quality.” (From Do You Talk Ignatian? By George Traub). Thomas – A spirit of excellence invites us into a commitment to quality, intentionality, balance, and collaboration. It is marked by respectful relationships and by compassion for self and others. An Addictive View The Less-Is-More Alternative 1. Tunnel-vision 1. Perspective _ Specialization without larger context _ “Big picture” orientation _ Attachment to own agenda _ Detachment when needed _ Excessive seriousness and solemnity _ Sense of humor _ Excessive individualism _ Ability to collaborate 2. Excessive focus on work-life 2. Harmony and balance _ Strong separation between _ Congruence between personal values and work values inner and outer values _ Work always comes first _ Adequate balance between work and family _ Disregard for health and relationships _ Attention to health and honest (unless life-threatening) relationships (ongoing) _ Maintenance of status quo _ Commitment to growth and renewal 3. Over-reliance on outward signs of success 3. Inner authority _ Accept values of workplace uncritically _ Development of personal Rule of Life _ No time for daily examen _ Daily examen; discernment _ Quantifiable measures of success only _ Cultivation of an inner (achievement, affluence, attractiveness) compass to determine success _ Busy-ness seen as a status symbol _ A human pace of life 4. Lack of compassion for self and others 4. Compassion and respect for self and others _ Disregard for human limitations _ Care for the body _ Maintain appearance of success _ Candor about mistakes _ Deficit orientation (preoccupation with _ Strengths orientation perceived shortcomings of self and others) (focus on strengths of self and others) _ Perfectionism _ Unconditional positive regard assumed “Prove that you merit respect” for self and others My thinking has been shaped by Anne Wilson Shaef (The Addictive Society), Elizabeth Liebert, Christian Northrup, and others. Figure 3 Physical well-being. decent nutrition, sleep, physical activity, and sometimes medical intervention.

Worldview respect. Feeling that one’s worldview is respected by others. Respecting worldviews that are different than your own.

Outreach/ Safe, calm places. service. Places that are “Working for protected from the welfare of noise and tension. others is the Beautiful spaces. best antidote to Sharing joy or sorrow with others.

Contact with nature. The three salts—the sweat of hard tears, the sea. Pets. Walks in the countryside. Wilderness. Time alone outdoors. Gardening.

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Community. Beauty. “Unconditional Exposure to high regard”. beauty in music, Family and nature, language, friends. Caring. the visual arts. Encouragement. Beauty spaces. Texture and touch.

Creative Expression through visual arts, making music, writing, dance, crafts, and other creative endeavors.

Hope. Keeping hope alive by believing things will get better. Religious faith. Contact with children. Finding meaning for the future.

Self-determination. Having a say so about your life and your attitudes. Pride. Learning.

Rites of initiation. A sense of purpose. “Why am I here?” “The power of small gesture.” Rituals that mark the beginning.

Celebration & festivity. Parties. Sharing food, humor, dance, games, fun. Celebrating strengths and victories.

Prayer & meditation. Calming oneself down. Reaching out to God or a Higher Power.

Social activism & advocacy. Working for justice and better living conditions for others. Future orientation

Cleansing experiences. Deliberately letting go of negative experiences. Rituals to help absolve, release. Forgiveness.

Healing Packages: Finding God in All Things Healing Fifteen Curative Factors That Cross Cultures Based in part on Mary Pipher’s Ch. 10, “Healing in All Times and Places” in The Middle of Everywhere, 2002. And also “Cross Cultural Curative Factors” (Frank, 1972; Torrey, 1986), thanks to Shelagh Larkin.

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THE IGNATIAN MENTORING PROGRAM 2009-10 PROGRAM PARTICIPANTS FACULTY Laney Bender-Slack (Childhood Ed & Literacy) Ravi Chinta (Management & Entrepreneurship) Justin Link (Physics) Michele Matherly (Accountancy) David Randolph (Accountancy) Thomas Strunk (Classics) Teresa Young (Childhood Ed & Literacy)

FACULTY MENTOR Ed Hahnenberg (Theology) Diane Ceo-DiFrancesco (Modern Languages) David Mengel (History) David Burns (Marketing) Mark Sena (Management Info Systems) Stephen Yandell (English) Tom Kessinger (Education)

2008-09 PROGRAM PARTICIPANTS FACULTY Thilini Ariyachandra (Management Info Sytm) Kelly Austin (English) Sally Barnhart (Education) Jennifer Fager (College of Social Sciences) Dennis Frost (History) Rebecca Luce (Management &Entrepreneurship) Julie Kugler-Ackley (Education) Neema Nourian (Biology) Christopher Pramuk (Theology) Joan Tunningley (Occupational Therapy) Joy Moore (Mathematics & Computer Science) Paul O’Hara (History) Kaleel Skeirik (Music)

FACULTY MENTOR Nancy Bertaux (Economics) Trudelle Thomas (English) Barbara Harland (Nursing) Gillian Ahlgren (Theology/Mission & Identity) Sarah Melcher (Theology) Stephanie Brzuzy (Social Work) Edward Olberding (Sports Studies) Ron Cohen (Chemistry) Ginger McKenzie (Education) Cecile Walsh (Nursing) Leslie Prosak-Beres (Education) Ed Cueva (Classics) Maggie King (Nursing)

2007-08 PROGRAM PARTICIPANTS FACULTY Stephanie Brzuzy (Social Work) Max Buot (Math/Comp. Sci) Anne McCarty (English) Ron Quinn (Sports Studies) Greg Smith (Management Info. Systems) Eleni Tsalla (Philosophy) Kathy Winterman (Education) Victoria Zascavage (Education) Renee’ Zucchero (Psychology)

FACULTY MENTOR Ed Cueva (Classics) Nancy Bertaux (Finance) Trudelle Thomas (English) Maggie King (Nursing) David Burns (Marketing) Arthur Dewey (Theology) Ginger McKenzie (Education) Phil Glasgo (Finance) Bob Ahuja (Marketing)

FACULTY ASSISTANT Leslie Prosak-Beres (Education)

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2006-2007 PROGRAM PARTICIPANTS FACULTY Rashmi Assudani (Management and Entr.) Kelly Beischel (Nursing) Nancy Bertaux (Economics) Greg Braun (Physics) Mee-Shew Cheung (Marketing) Rachel Chrastil (History) Barbara Harland (Nursing) Shelagh Larkin (Social Work) Cathy Leahy (Nursing) Michael Rimler (Economics) John Thomas (Classics) Lifang Wu (Management and Entr.) David Burns (Marketing)

FACULTY MENTOR David Burns (Marketing) Cecile Walsh (Nursing) Ed Cueva (Classics) Ginger McKenzie (Education) Phil Glasgo (Finance) Lisa Close-Jacob (Biology) Maggie King (Nursing) Trudelle Thomas (English) Cecile Walsh (Nursing) Sarah Melcher (Theology) Danny Otero (Math/Comp Science) Peter Bycio (Management and Entrepreneurship) Peter Bycio (Management and Entrepreneurship)

2005-2006 PROGRAM PARTICIPANTS Roy Cohen (Chemistry) Christian End (Psychology) Huizhen (Jean) Guo (Math/Comp Science) David Hyland (Finance) Vishal Kashyap (Marketing) Anas Malik (Political Science/Sociology) Georganna Miller (Occupational Therapy) Richard Mullins (Chemistry) Kara Northway (English) Jennifer Tighe (Communication Arts) Thomas Wagner (Communication Arts)

Maggie King (Nursing) Ginger McKenzie (Education) Danny Otero (Math/Comp Science) Bob Ahuja (Marketing) Phil Glasgo (Finance) Peter Bycio (Management and Entrepreneurship) Trudelle Thomas (English) Cecile Walsh (Nursing) Ed Cueva (Classics) Sarah Melcher (Theology) Cecile Walsh (Nursing) Maggie King (Nursing)

FACULTY CONSULTANTS Bill Madges (Theology) Ida Critelli Schick (Health Services Administration) 2004-2005 PROGRAM PARTICIPANTS FACULTY Jennifer Beste (Theology) David Burns (Marketing) Ed Hahnenberg (Theology) Hem Raj Joshi (Math/Computer Science) Debbie Kuchey (Education) David Mengel (History) Ann Marie Tracey (Legal Studies) Cecile Walsh (Nursing) Stephen Yandell (English)

FACULTY MENTOR Lisa Close-Jacob (Biology) Peter Bycio (Management and Entrepreneurship) Ed Cueva (Classics) Lisa Close-Jacob (Biology) Ginger McKenzie (Education) Ed Cueva (Classics) Bob Ahuja (Marketing) Ginger McKenzie (Education) Gillian Ahlgren (Theology)

FACULTY ASSISTANT Maggie King (Nursing) FACULTY CONSULTANTS Bill Madges (Theology) Ida Critelli Schick (Health Services Administration)

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T eaching to the M ission A Compendium of the Ignatian Mentoring Program The Center for Mission & Identity at Xavier University is pleased to showcase the missionconscious work of our faculty who have participated in the Ignatian Mentoring Program in this book, Teaching to the Mission. The Ignatian Mentoring Program started from a 2004 mentoring grant from the Lilly Fellows Program in Humanities and the Arts and has been subsequently supported by the Xavier University Jesuit Community. The Program seeks to facilitate a deeper understanding of the Ignatian vision and Jesuit education through guidance by senior faculty. The outcomes are clearly evident within the classroom setting. Through this book, we share in celebrating the work of all faculty within the Association of Jesuit Colleges and Universities and their commitment to expanding the traditions of excellence in contemporary Jesuit higher education.

Affirming excellence in teaching, scholarship and mission consciousness Made possible by a grant from the Lilly Fellows Program in Humanities and the Arts, 2005; subsequently endowed by the Xavier Jesuit Community.


09.2010 300

TE ACH ING TO TH E MISSION

For more information about the Ignatian Mentoring Program contact:

for more information or for additional books: www.jesuitresource.org Copyright Š 2010

www.jesuitresource.org

VOLUME 5 2010

Debra Mooney, Ph.D. Assistant to the President for Center for Mission and Identity Xavier University mooney@xavier.edu

T eaching to the M ission the

A Compendium of Ignatian Mentoring Program