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London stories Architecture ●

伦敦建筑与背后的故事 BY Yuxuan Jia 贾玉璇


.Jia 2014 spring ć˜Ľ


“When a man is tired of London, he is tired of life.” “当一个人厌倦了伦敦,他便是厌倦了人 生。” -- Samuel Johnson - 塞缪尔·约翰逊


Contents 目录 Introduction ------- 简介 Trafalgar Square ----- 特拉法加广场

1 London Chinatown ----- 伦敦中国城

57

London Museums ----- 伦敦的博物馆

65

3

King’s Cross Station ---- 13 国王十字车站

Royal Festival Hall ----- 79 皇家节日音乐厅

Kensington Gardens ---- 23 肯辛顿花园

London Eye -------- 87 伦敦眼

London Churches ----- 33 伦敦的教堂

Greenwich -------- 95 格林威治

Covent Garden ------ 考文特花园

Reference -------- 105 引用

45


London, the capital of the United Kingdom, was founded by Romans around 50 AD.

1

The

period during which London became one of the most important cities in the world was between the Reigns of Queen Elizabeth I and Queen Elizabeth II, the current monarch of the UK . 1 伦敦是大不列颠及北爱尔兰联合王国的首都,它建立于公元前50世纪的罗马统治时期。1 但是伦敦 真正转变成一个国际化大都市是在伊丽莎白一世到现任女王伊丽莎白二世之间的这段时期 。1

1


London now consists of architecture that has survived, that has been built after World War

II, and also architecture that has been recently designed and built. Therefore, there are many different styles of architecture coexisting and it is this mix of styles from different time periods that makes the city of London. 如今伦敦的建筑,有些是两次灾难的幸存者,有些是在二战后重建的,还有一些是近几年才设 计并建造的。所以,这里充满了不同风格的建筑。但无论这些建筑建造于什么时期,都是组成伦敦 这令人惊叹的城市的一部分。

2


TRAFALGAR SQUARE 特拉法加广场

3


4


Trafalgar Square is one of the

most famous squares in London. It is a public space for visitors, and it is also used for many activities and events, such as the celebration of the Royal Wedding, St Patrick’s Day and Chinese New Year.1 The buildings around Trafalgar Square are also beautiful architecture, such as the British Council, located on the

southwest

side

of

Trafalgar

Square, and the South African High Commission located on the east side.

特拉法加广场是伦敦最有名气

的广场之一。它是一个开放式的广 场,同时也会承办一些活动,比如皇 家婚礼的庆典,圣帕特里克节和中国 新年的庆祝活动等等。1 而围绕着特拉 法加广场的建筑物也都是有独特魅力 的建筑,例如位于西南角的英国文化 委员会大楼,还有位于东侧的南非最 HAHN/COCK, or “the Blue Rooster”, by Katharina Fritsch, is one of the most special sculpture on Trafalgar Aquare. HAHN/COCK, 或被游客称为“大蓝鸡”的雕塑, 是特拉 法加广场上最独特的雕塑之一。

5

高委员会大楼。


The two fountains on the either side of Nelson’s Column was built based on Sir Charles Barry’s designs. 纳尔逊将军纪念碑两侧的两个喷泉是根据Charles Barry的设计建造的。

6


One of the most famous architectural landmark near Trafalgar Square is the National Gallery. 特拉法加广场周边最著名的建筑之一是国家美术馆。

7


People like to climb the four bronze Lions aroud Nelson’s Column. 人们喜欢去攀爬围绕纳尔逊将军纪念碑的四只狮子雕塑。

8


Will Hutt, 33, from London, is a

street performer who usually performs at Covent Garden and Trafalgar Square. His performances are dangerous. He has been doing this for 12 years in total, and 6 years in London. He usually works five days per week, seven days per week in the summer if the weather is really nice. He chose to work as a street performer because “it means I don’t need to do other jobs. I’m always performing. I was trained when I was a kid. London is an expensive city, and if I want to live here as a street performer, I need to do something special.” Will Hutt, 33岁,来自伦敦,是一位街头艺 人,经常在考文特花园和特拉法加广场表演。 他从事的是危险表演。他从事街头表演已经 有12年了,其中有六年是在伦敦。他通常 一周表演五天,在夏天天气非常好的时候有 时会是七天。他选择街头表演是因为“这样 我就不用干其他工作了。我从小就在被训练 表演。伦敦生活成本很高,如果想在这里生 活下去,就需要做些与别人不一样的事。”

9


Manu, 51, is a homeless man, but he is also the head of a five-person drawing group. They

draw different national flags on the ground at Trafalgar Square almost every day, “if it’s not raining,” he explained. The first reason he is doing this is because “the government is not giving me money for living,” and the second reason is because he hopes his work can make more people to think about love and peace in the world. Manu and his group draw 61 flags every day that they work, and he said the flags that get the most coins are the British and American Flags.

Manu,51岁,是一位无家可归者,但他同时也是一个五人绘画小组的领头。他们几乎每天在特拉 法加广场画各个国家的国旗,“只要不下雨,”他说。他做这个工作的第一个原因是“政府没有给 我钱让我能生活下去,”而另一个原因则是他希望他的工作能够提醒人们更多地关注世界的爱与和 平。Manu和他的小组每天都画61副国旗,而这些国旗中得到硬币最多的是英国和美国国旗。

10


British Council locates on the southwest side of Trafalgar Square. 位于特拉法加广场西南角的英国文化委员会大楼。

11


A pigeon is standing on the top of the Major General Sir Henry Havelock’s Sculpture on Trafalgar Square. 一只鸽子站在特拉法加广场上上校Henry Havelock塑像 的头上。

12


king's cross station 国王十字车站

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14


The King’s Cross Station was designed by Lewis Cubitt. 现在的国王十字车站是由Lewis Cubitt设计的。

15


King’s Cross station is one of the major railway stations in center London,

located in the King’s Cross area, and right next to St. Pancras International railway station. King’s Cross is primarily serves for the east coast main line and over 40 million people pass through the station every year.1 King’s Cross Station is not only one of the most important stations in London, but it is also one of the most famous stations in Britain.2 The station was designed by Lewis Cubitt, “whose uncle and cousin were engineers on the construction of the Great Northern Railway”.1 John and William Jay of the Euston Road Company built the station, and the 105ft by 800ft station roof was the largest at the time, which was “supposedly modeled on the riding school of the Czars of Moscow”.1 国王十字车站是伦敦最重要的火车站之一,位于伦敦的国王十字区域,在 St. Pancras 国际线火车站的旁边。国王十字车站主要运行在东海岸主线,每年有超过四千万乘客 通过这个火车站。1

国王十字车站不仅是伦敦最重要的火车站之一,也是英国名气最

大的火车站之一 。2 车站由 Lewis Cubitt 设计“而他的叔叔和表亲也是 Great Northern Railway 的工程师”。1 Euston Road公司的 John 和 William Jay 修建了这个车站,这个 车站的屋顶有105英尺宽800英尺长,是当时最大的车站屋顶,“据说是模仿当时莫斯 科沙皇的骑术学校的屋顶”。1

16


A half trolley embedded in the wall close to platform 9 in King’s Cross, which has a “Platform 9 ¾” sign above it. 国王十字车站靠近第九站台的地方的墙上真的镶了一个只 有一半的手推车,上面有个标示写着“9 3/4站台”。

17


The 105ft by 800ft station roof in King’s Cross Station was the largest at the time. 国王十字车站的屋顶有105英尺宽800英尺长,是当时最大的车站屋顶。

18


In Harry Potter’s magical world, students need to take the Hogwarts Express from

King’s Cross Station to the “Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry”.3 To get onto platform 9 ¾, students need to cross the magical barrier beside platform 9. There is a half trolley embedded in the wall close to platform 9 in King’s Cross, which has a “Platform 9 ¾” sign above it. Near the half trolley, there is a “Harry Potter Shop at Platform 9 ¾”. Michael Potsa, 31, has worked at the shop since the shop opened in December 2012, and one part of he’s job is to take pictures of the tourists with the half trolley. “Most of our customers are adults, I think”, Michael said. He introduced that this is also the place where the movies were shot, “but the platform filmed in the movie is platform 3 and 4”, he said.

19


在哈利波特的魔法世界里,学生们需要从国王十字车站的九又四分之三站台搭乘霍格 沃兹特快列车去霍格沃兹魔法学校上学。3而进入九又四分之三站台的方法,则是要穿过 第九站台旁边的围墙。如今在国王十字车站靠近第九站台的地方的墙上真的镶了一个只 有一半的手推车,上面有个标示写着“9 3/4站台”。在靠近这个手推车的地方,有个“9 3/4 站台的哈利波特商店”。Michael Potsa,31岁,从2012年12月这个商店开张时就在这 个商店工作了,而他的主要工作就是给游客和半截手推车合照。“我们店里的顾客还是以 成年人为主,”Michael说,《哈利波特》系列电影中的国王十字车站确实都是在这里拍 的,“但是电影中使用的站台其实是第三站台和第四站台”。

20


where are people going from KINg'S CROSS STATION ? 人们都从国王十字车站到哪里去?

Aberdeen

Edingburgh New Barnet

New Castle

Arlesey

Sandy

Biggleswade

Peterborongh Waterbeach

Ely

Royston

Watton At Stone

Potters Bar

Roger Vanshan, 62, is going to Wynondham. Roger Vanshan,62岁,准 备前往Wynondham.

Knebworth

Hull Thirsk 21

Tonia Wynna, 54, is going to Retford. Tonia Wynna,54岁,准备前 往Retford.

Hartlepool


Stevenage

Durham

Sunderland Watlington Welwyn Garden City

Northallerton

Doncaster

Darlington Cambridge Hitchin York King’s Lynn

Foxton

Ben, 21, is going to Skeyness. Ben,21岁,准备前往Skeyness.

Morpeen

Leeds

Little Port

22

Paaian, 23, is going to Leicester. Paaian,23岁,准备前往 Leicester.

Oakleigh Park


kensington gardens 肯辛顿花园

23


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Kensington Gardens, a 242-acre park, is one of eight Royal Parks in London.1

Formerly, it was a part of Hyde Park, and Hyde Park was first acquired by Henry VIII from the monks in Westminster Abbey in 1536 and turned into a private hunting ground.1 Charles I eventually inherited it and changed Hyde Park into a general public park in 1637.1 In 1689, William III bought what is now know as Kensington Gardens.1 肯辛顿花园是伦敦八个皇家公园之一,占地242平方英亩。1 最初,肯辛顿花园是 海德公园的一部分,而海德公园是亨利八世在1536年从威斯敏斯特大教堂僧侣手中 要来的,并把他改成了私人狩猎场。1 查尔斯一世在1637年将海德公园正式向公众开 放。1 而1689年,威廉三世买下了这片现在被称为肯辛顿花园的区域。1

25


Henry Moore’s sulpture “The Arch” in Kensington Garden derived form a fragment of bone. Henry Moore在肯辛顿花园中的雕塑“The Arch”是来自于一个骨头的形象。

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Kensington Palace is the official London residence of the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge.2 肯辛顿花园是剑桥公爵和公爵夫人在伦敦的官方住所。2

27


The Italian Garden is a 150-year-old water garden on the north side of the park and it is believed to be a gift from Prince Albert to Queen Victoria.3 位于公园北部的意大利花园是一个有150年历史的小花园,它被认为是阿尔伯特王子送给维多利亚女 王的礼物。 3

28


The Albert Memorial in Kensington Gardens is one of the most magnificent monuments in London.4 肯辛顿花园中的阿尔伯特纪念碑是伦敦最华丽的纪念碑。4

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The sculpture of Prince Albert stay on the midle of the Albert Memorial.4 阿尔伯特纪念碑的正中央是阿尔伯特王子的雕像。4

30


Claire Bueno is a TV presenter who has

been living in London for 9 years, likes to come to this park. “I come to this park every week,” she said, “it is really pretty here, London is such a busy place, but you can find a lot of peace in the park.” Sometimes the park is where she runs, so she can find a bit of peace and collect her thoughts. Sometimes she picnics with her friends in the park, especially in the summer. She thinks that this park is really important for her, and even for London. “If the city lost this park, it would be a massive loss. It is a unique part of London.” Claire Bueno是一位已经在伦敦居住了9年的 电视主持人。她非常喜欢到肯辛顿花园来,“ 我每周都到这里来”,她说,“这里很漂亮, 伦敦是一个如此忙碌的城市,但是每次来到公 园里,你就能找到一丝闲适。”通常公园是 她跑完步休息和整理思绪的地方。但有时她也 会跟朋友们来公园野餐,特别是在夏天的时 候。Claire认为这个公园无论是对她自己还是 伦敦来说都很重要“如果这个城市失去了这些 公园,那将是所有人的一个巨大的损失。它已 经成为这个城市不可缺少的一部分了。”

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Esop, 27, originally from Switzerland, has lived in London since the age of 4. He usually

comes to the park every week to relax. He likes the space here, because it does not feel crowded, “and it is also a very peaceful place in central London.” He used to live in Greenwich, but for him, he just did not feel right there. Therefore, when he felt he needed to escape, he would come to this park, walked around for few hours, and felt refreshed. Now he lives in Notting Hill, and one of the reasons he moved there is because he can be close to this park.

Esop,27岁,来自瑞士,但他四岁时就已经移居到伦敦来了。他通常每周都会来这个公园放松一 下。他喜欢这里的宁静,因为在这里他感觉不到城市的喧哗吵闹,“而这个如此宁静的地方居然在伦 敦市中心。”他以前住在格林威治,但是就他自己而言,他觉得他不适合住在那里,所以每当他觉得 他想逃离那里的时候,他便会到这个公园来,随便走一走耗上几个小时,然后他就会感觉他重生了。 现在他已经搬到了诺丁山居住,而他搬到那里的其中一个原因就是这样他可以离公园更近。

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London Churches 伦敦的教堂

33


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In The City of London area,

within square mile space, there are more than 42 churches, and most of them are Anglican Churches.1 Some of the churches are well known, such as Westminster Abbey, St. Paul’s Cathedral, and many of these famous churches are mainly used by the Royal Family.1 Therefore, they require an entrance fee for visiting. However, quite a few churches are open to the public and allow people to pray and worship there for free, such as Westminster Cathedral and St. Martin-in-the- Field.

在伦敦城区域(City of London)

有“不少于42间宗教场所”。1

这其中

有些教堂名声显赫,比如威斯敏斯特教 堂,圣保罗大教堂,而这些著名的大教 堂通常都是供皇家使用的,所以需要凭 票参观。但是还有很多教堂是免费对公 众开放的,以供人们祈祷和进行宗教活 动,如威斯敏斯特主教堂和圣马丁教堂。

35


St. Martin-in-the-Field 圣马丁教堂

St. Martin-in-the-Field is a vibrant, open and inclusive church that provides both English and

Chinese services.2 St. Martin church is located on the Northeast side of Trafalgar Square, and very close to Chinatown. 圣马丁教堂是一个开放的、同时提供中文和英文两种语言服务的教堂。2 圣马丁教堂位于特拉法加 广场的东北角,临近中国城。

36


St Martin-in-the-field was designed by James Gibbs and it was one of the most incredible places of architecture in the English-speaking world at the time.3 James Gibbs 设计了圣马丁教堂,这个建筑是当时英语世界 中最举足轻重的建筑之一。3

37


St Martin-in-the-field was first built around 1542.3 However, the church was pulled down in 1721 to be replaced by the current building.3

圣马丁教堂最早建于1542年。3 但是当时的教堂建筑在1721年被毁坏了,后来被现在这个教 堂建筑所替代,并最终在1726年完工。3

38


There is a Chinese community center in the St. Martin’s basement. Ms. Liu, 54, is

the center coordinator of the “Bishop Ho Ming Wah Association & Community Centre” in St. Martin-in-The-Field. She explained that this community center is about 30 years old, and at the beginning, the main purpose of the center was to help new Chinese immigrants, most of whom were from Hong Kong, and needed help with their English.The center is named after Bishop Ho, who was based in Hong Kong. He was the one who realized many Chinese immigrants still needed help after they settled in London. “Ming Wah”, means, “Understand Chinese needs” in Chinese. This center was set up in St. Martin-in-The-Field because the Pastor asked every one he helped to go to the church for Bible study and worship as well. The St. Martin Church agreed to lend them one floor in the basement to use. Now, the weekly worship has moved inside the Church, and the Community Centre uses the basement as the office and activity rooms. The activities that the center provides include Tai Chi Qi Gong class, Luncheon Club, Line Dancing etc., primarily for those who are retired.

39


在圣马丁教堂的地下室有一个华人的社区中心。刘女士,54岁,是这个何明华会督协 会暨社区中心的管理人员。这个中心之所以叫做“何明华”的原因是,最初在香港有个Ho 主教,他发现很多在英国的中国移民在伦敦定居后依旧需要许多帮助。其他人为了纪念他 们,就把他的名字音译为“何”,而“明华”是指明白华人的需要。中心举办很多的活 动,比如太极班,龙舟俱乐部,舞狮等等,而参加中心的人员主要以退休老人为主。而最 初选择在圣马丁教堂开设这个中心的原因是当时香港的何主教在帮助人们的时候经常鼓励 他们去教会,所以他便问圣马丁教堂是否能借地方给他们进行中文的崇拜,而圣马丁教堂 给了他们一层地下室让他们使用。现在,每周的崇拜活动已经移到了教堂内部,而地下室

40


Temple Church 圣殿教堂

Temple Church is the third oldest church in London. 圣殿教堂是伦敦第三老的的教堂。

41


Temple Church, according to their introduction on their webpage, “is one of

the most historic and beautiful churches in London”, located in the Temple area of London.4 The Knights Templar built the church, which is why it bears their name “Temple”.4 In 1841, Smirke and Burton restored the church, decorating the walls and ceiling in the high Victorian Gothic style, in the object of bringing the church “back to its original appearance”.5 圣殿教堂“是伦敦最有历史的和最美丽的教堂之一”,它位于伦敦的圣殿区域。4 这个教堂就是被圣殿骑士团建立的,所以才被命名为了“圣殿”。4 1841年时,教堂 进行了重建,墙壁和天花板都被 Smirke 和 Burton 修建成了维多利亚哥特式,他们这 样做的目的是为了“让这个教堂能够回到它最初的样子”。5

42


There are Bibles in front of most the seats in Temple Church. 在圣殿教堂里,大部分的椅子前都放着圣经

43


On the night of 10 May, 1941, the church

was badly damaged by bombs from Nazi air raids on London. Lady Sophie Caws, 69, who has become a volunteer in Temple Church about 4 years, explain that “it basically reconstructed now. Because it became a lawyers’ church, so the church was protected really well.” Now Temple Church has services every Sunday, holding concerts, weddings, and funerals from time to time. 在1941年5月10日,教堂在纳粹的空袭中被 炸弹严重损毁了。69岁的Sophie女士介绍说,“ 但是现在它已经基本被修复了。因为这里变成 了一个律师教堂,所以并不需要什么特别的保 护。”Sophia女士在圣殿教堂做了四年的志愿 者了。现在圣殿教堂依然每周日有主日崇拜, 不定期会有音乐会,也会承办婚礼或葬礼。

44


cOVENT gARden 考文特花园

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Covent Garden is one of the oldest markets in London, and this area has been

a trading port since the 1st century.1 In the 13th century, this 40-acre area was a large kitchen garden for the Covent or Abbey of St Peter at Westminster, and Covent Garden became a main source of fruit and vegetable for Londoners in the nest 700 years.1 After the Great Fire in 1666, because many markets in east London were destroyed, Covent Garden became the most important fruit, vegetable and flower market in the city.1 In 1980, Covent Garden reopened as Europe’s first specialty shopping center, and it became more and more famous.1 考文特花园是伦敦最古老的市场之一。1 这片区域早在公元一世纪就已经是一个集 市了。1 在公元13世纪的时候,这个40英亩的地方一度是威斯敏斯特圣彼得教堂和圣女 院的厨房花园,而在接下来的700年间这里则成了伦敦一个主要的蔬菜瓜果交易市场。1 在1666年的伦敦大火之后,因为东伦敦地区的市场几乎都被烧毁了,所以考文特花园变 成了伦敦最重要的水果蔬菜市场。1 1980年时,考文特花园作为欧洲第一个专门的购物 中心重新开放了,并且名气越来越大。1

47


Covent Garden is one of the oldest markets in London, and this area has been a trading port since the 1st century. 考文特花园是伦敦最古老的市场之一,这片区域早在公园一世纪就已经是一个集市了。

48


Apple Market is a market inside Covent Garden for hand make products. 苹果市场是考文特花园里一个专门售卖手工制品的小市场。

49


Now, Covent Garden is full of tables and chairs from the restaurants around. 如今的考文特花园到处都放置了附近餐厅的椅子和凳子。

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Nana, 54, has been working in Covent

Garden as a cleaner for almost 20 years. He came to work here initially because he liked Covent Garden. However, he said that the Covent Garden now is very different from the one in 1994, which is when he began to work here. “Previously, there were less restaurants, and some cheap shops ... Now, they have modernized, there are a lot of restaurants, and full of chairs and tables. And because of the building, the name, the shops are very expensive. The cheap shops, they all left, because of the rent, they all quit.” He is not really like the changes, “I like before, because you could feel the environment. Like this lantern, you see they put a pineapple on top to make it like before they sell pineapple and other fruits, but you can’t see the history because they’ve changed everything,” he said, with a little sadness.

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Nana,54岁,是考文特花园的一名清洁

工,而他已经在这里工作了将近20年了。他来这 里工作的原因是因为他喜欢考文特花园。Nana 说现在的考文特花园跟1994年他刚开始在这里工 作时候也完全不一样了,“以前,这里没有那 么多的餐厅,也有一些便宜的商店。但是现在, 这里现代化了,这里开了越来越多的餐厅,到处 都是餐厅的桌椅。另外因为这里的名气,这里的 房租也变得很高,以前那些便宜的商店也就都离 开了。”他并不是很喜欢这些改变,“我喜欢以 前,因为以前你可以感觉到这里的氛围还有这里 富有历史的建筑。就像这些吊灯,他们放了菠萝 雕塑在灯的顶端来表示这里以前售卖菠萝和其他 的水果。但是因为这些变化,你再也看不出这里 的历史了。

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Brooke Day, 35, from Canada, is

a street performer in Convent Garden. Performing in Covent Garden is his part-time job, but it is his main source of income, and Brooke and his group come here almost every day. However, even now, he knows very little about Covent Garden’s history. “I expect it to be a garden before I came, with trees and you know, flowers. So when I got here, it was kind of a shock. I was very excited, ‘cause its atmosphere, and tourism, and there are lot of bars and good shopping. It was not what I expected.” Brooke’s group perform classical music, but not as you would expect. They put a lot of movement into it, they even jump while they are performing. “It’s all about getting people who don’t know anything about the music to be interested. We need to do something different rather than just play the music. “

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Brooke Day,35岁,来自加拿大,是考文特花园的一位街头艺人。他说在这里表演虽然只能算是他的 兼职,但是却是他的主要收入来源。Brooke和他的团队几乎每天都来这里。但是直到现在,他还是对考 文特花园知之甚少,只觉得这是个不错的地方,“我原先以为这里就跟一般的花园一样,有许多花花草 草的。但是当我来到这里之后,我确实震惊了。这里很有趣,因为这里的气氛,也因为这里的游客、商 店和酒吧。这是我没有想到的。”Brooke和他的团队表演的是古典音乐,但是跟一般的古典音乐表演不 同的是,他们加入了许多动作元素在他们的表演中,他们甚至在表演的时候还蹦蹦跳跳的。“这都是为 了将人们的眼光吸引过来,让他们觉得感兴趣。我们需要做些不一样的表演来吸引他们。”

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Terence, 30, from east London, is working at Msrrand, a store that sells soaps in Covent

Garden. The store belongs to his friend, and it has been running for 13 years, but he only began working here from 2013 summer. He enjoys working here. “It’s a nice place to work, surrounded by nice people. What we do in our store is very beautiful and very unique. It’s cold now, but in the summer time, it’s very beautiful.” Msrrand’s soaps are very special, because there are real flowers on them, “we want to produce something beautiful and kind of show-stopping.” He said they have three main groups of customers: Americans, Asians, mainly Japanese, and a lot of Italians as well. He thinks the reason why those groups buy their soaps it’s because they are produced here by British people. The reason why they chose this location for the store is because they believe Covent Garden is the best market in London.

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Terence,30岁,来自伦敦东部,目前在考文特花园一个专门卖手工香皂的店

铺“Msrrand”工作。这个铺子已经开了有13年了,属于他的朋友,而他是从去年夏天才开始 在这里工作的。他喜欢在这里工作,“因为这里是个很适合工作的地方,人们都很和善,而 且我们卖的是很漂亮和很独特的东西。尽管现在很冷,但是到了夏天的时候,这里就会变得 特别的漂亮。”Msrrand卖的香皂非常地独特,因为在香皂的顶部缀上了许多真的小花,因 为“我们觉得我们所制造的东西不仅要漂亮,还要可以作为一种装饰品。”他们的顾客主要 来自三个区域,分别是美国,亚洲,主要是日本,还有意大利。他认为他们的香皂吸引人的 主要原因是因为他们是在英国生产并且是由英国人制造的。而他们把店开在考文特花园的原 因是因为他们相信这是伦敦最好的市场 。

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lONDON CHINATOWN 伦敦中国城

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The architecture in London Chinatown is not distinct from the architecture of other places in London, except for the exterior decoration of the shops and restaurants, the languages used on the streets, the three memorial gateways, and the Chinese pavilion. 中国城的建筑跟伦敦其他地方的建筑并没有太大的区别。能够把这个区域跟伦敦其他区域区分开的 就是这里的店铺餐厅,店门口的文字,还有三个牌坊,和一个中式亭子。

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The original London Chinatown first appeared in 18th century in London’s East

End.1 In 1950, many Chinese in London had no place to live and did not earn enough money to survive.1 However, when British soldiers returned from the Far East, they brought business to the Chinese restaurants in London, and a few restaurateurs began to open their businesses in Gerrard Street in the West End.1 This is the area where the current Chinatown now stands, and it drew more and more Chinese people to the area.1 The area around Gerrard Street did not truly became Chinatown until the great fire in 1666.1 18世纪,最早的伦敦中国城建立在 East End 地区。1 在1950年时,许多在伦敦的 中国移民没有地方住也没有足够的收入支撑他们的生活。1 不过,一批从远东回来的英 国士兵为当地的中国餐厅带去了生意,一些餐厅开始把店开在了位于现在中国城区域 West End 的 Gerrard Street 上,而这使得越来越多的中国人搬到了这个区域居住。1 但是 这一区域在1666年的大火之后才真正成为中国城。1

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Put the first character in each couplet on the three memorial gateways, it will bacome “London Chinatown” in Chinese. 中国城内有三个牌坊,将每个牌坊上的对联中的第一个字组合起来便是“倫敦華埠”四个字。

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The area around Gerrard Street did not truly became Chinatown until the great fire in 1666. Gerrard Street周边的这块区域直到1666年的伦敦大火之后才真正变成了中国城。

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Nicole Mccabe, 27, also came to Chinatown for the Chinese New Year

celebrations. She used to come when she was young, and she knows a little bit more than the others about the history of Chinese New Year. For example, she knows that there was a Chinese God who wanted people to remember his birthday, so he made his birthday the date of Chinese New Year and had 12 animals take turns to be honored each year. She is also know she is tiger.

Nicole Mccabe,27岁,同样是为了参加中国新年庆典来的中国城。她以前小的时

候也会来庆祝中国新年。她比别人更了解中国新年一些,她说中国新年是一个中国的神 为了让人们记住他的生日,所以就把他的生日变成了中国新年,还让十二个动物轮流 出来提醒大家。除此之外她还知道自己是属虎的。

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Coco Ye has been living in London for over 12 years, and she has worked at Nature And

Health Chinese Massage in Chinatown for 6 years. She said that only one third of their customers are Chinese. She does not usually have time off on Chinese New Year like she did when she lived in China. However, the shop owner orders dumplings for her and the staffs every year, and after work, she also has a small celebration with her family. She misses celebrating Chinese New Year in China, but she has a family here, so she does not feel as though she misses too much. Coco Ye 则来伦敦已经12年了,她在中国城的一家中式医疗按摩店“良医馆”工作了也有六年 了。她说她们店里只有三分之一的顾客是中国人。而在中国新年期间他们都是没有假的,所以春节 期间她基本上都还要上班。但是他们的老板一般都会给他们叫水饺外卖,在下班之后她也会跟她的 家人一起庆祝新年。她虽然也想念以前在中国庆祝新年的时光,但是因为她已经在这里成家了,所 以也就没有那么想了。

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london museums 伦敦的博物馆

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As a city that has a reputation for culture, it won’t be a surprise that

London has more than 300 museums and galleries.1 Some of the Museums are world famous, such as the British Museum, the National Gallery and the Natural History Museum. Some of them are not as big as the British Museum, but are still highly engaging, like the Sherlock Holmes Museum and the Jewish Museum. However, no matter what the size of the museums, they all have their specialty. 伦敦是一个拥有国际声誉的文化名城,在伦敦总共拥有超过300间博物馆和 艺廊。1 这些博物馆中有些名声赫赫,人尽皆知,如大英博物馆,国家美术馆和 自然历史博物馆。有些博物馆名气或规模没那么大,但是却也小巧精致,如夏 洛克博物馆和犹太博物馆。但是无论这些博物馆的规模如何,它们都拥有它们 各自的特点。

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The Victoria and Albert Museum (V&A Museum) 维多利亚和阿尔伯特博物馆 (V&A 博物馆)

The Victoria and Albert Museum is a world-leading museum of art and design.2 维多利亚和阿尔伯特博物馆是世界上最大的装潢艺术与设计博物馆。2

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The collections in the V&A Museum consist of 226,747 museum objects and works of art from all over the world.2 V&A博物馆展出了来自世界各地的226,747件展品。2

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The Victoria and Albert Museum is one of the world-

leading

museum of design art, and it provides the “practice

of design and increasing knowledge, understanding and enjoyment of the designed world”.2 The age of the art collections in the V&A Museum has a range of over two thousand years, and they are from many parts of the world.3 维多利亚和阿尔伯特博物馆是世界上最大的装潢艺术与设 计艺术博物馆,博物馆提供“艺术训练,以及增进知识,(使 人们可以)理解和享受艺术设计。2

V&A博物馆的藏品时间跨

度超过两千年,藏品来自于全球许多国家与地区。3

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There are many different types of benches in the museum for visitors to seat. 博物馆内有各种各样的供参观者休息用的长椅。

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The V&A Museum building is a typical Victorian style building.4 博物馆建筑本身是典型的维多利亚风格。4

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Gallery assistant Stephen, 51, described the museum as a wonderful “hotch potch,” which

means a mix of things. Stephen has worked here for nine years, and he first chose to work here because he liked art and design. “There are always things you haven’t seen; there are always things to do,” he said. On the topic of visiting the museum, he gave advice that “first, don’t do all galleries, there is too much in the museum, pick the things you like. It’s very easy to go it round and circle in the museum and not miss things, because the building is quite complicated.” He recommended the glass section, the Asian gallery specifically. 展馆助理Stephen,51岁,形容博物馆是一个“大锅烩。”Stephen已经在这个博物馆里工作了 九年了,而他最初选择来这个博物馆工作的原因是因为他喜欢艺术设计。“这里总有我还没见过的 东西,总有我还能做的事情,”他说。而对于游览博物馆,Stephen也给出了他的建议:“首先,不 要全部看完,因为这个博物馆里的东西实在太多了,选自己感兴趣的看就好了。而且这个博物馆 适合按环形顺序来参观,因为这个楼里面的结构比较复杂。”他推荐的展馆有玻璃展馆、亚洲展 馆等等。

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Holly Arnizo, 21, is an art student from The Princes Drawing School in London. She had

assignment that included the V&A Museum. They need to go to a gallery every Friday, and they come to the V&A museum about once a month. They focus on different aspects of the museum each time they visit. This time they were studying architectures, “because the museum is so big, we focus on something different each time.” She loves this museum, because every time she comes to the museum, it changes, so she will try to find the things she has not seen before. Holly Arnizo,21岁,是一位就读于伦敦王子绘画学院的学生。她到这个博物馆来是因为他们 的绘画作业里包括了对这个博物馆里的展品进行临摹。她们每周五都要选择一个博物馆进行绘 画,而她们差不多一个月就要来一次V&A博物馆,并且每次来这里画的东西都不一样,“因为这 个博物馆太大了,所以我们每次都只专注于一样东西。”她喜欢这个博物馆,因为每次来,这里 都会有些变化,然后她就会去找那些她以前没见过的东西。

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The Freud Museum 弗洛伊德博物馆

The Freud Museum is located at

20 Maresfield Gardens in Hampstead, London, was the home of Sigmund Freud and his family’s house after they escaped to London from Austria during World War II.5 It was also Anna Freud’s home, the youngest daughter, until she died in 1982, and it was her wish to make this house a museum in honor her father.5 弗洛伊德博物馆位于伦敦汉普斯特德 的20 Marefield Garden,它曾经是西格 蒙德·弗洛伊德和他的家人在1938年因 二战时纳粹对犹太人的迫害后来到英国 的住处。5 它也是西格蒙德·弗洛伊德 最小的孩子安娜·弗洛伊德的住处,直 到她于1982年去世。之后这里根据她的 遗愿改成了博物馆,她希望以此来纪念 他的父亲。5

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Sigmund Freud and his family’s escaped to London from Austria during World War II and lived in this house. 西格蒙德·弗洛伊德和他的家人因二战时纳粹对犹太人的迫害而来到英国后的住处。

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A group of student came here to learn the story about Freud. 一队学生来这里了解弗洛伊德的故事。

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Allessandro, 34, from Italy, became a volunteer in Freud Museum just a few weeks

ago. The reason why he became a volunteer in this museum is because he is getting a Freud-related degree at university, so he thinks he may get some inspiration here. He has learned a lot history and stories about Freud from his work, and he enjoys it, “I can talk to people about Freud here, and it helps me a lot.” Allessandro,34岁,来自意大利,是这个博物馆里的一名志愿者。他来这里当志愿者的 原因是因为他在考取一个跟弗洛伊德有关的学位,所以他认为来这里会给他一些灵感。他从 这里学到了很多关于弗洛伊德的历史和故事,而且他很喜欢在这里工作,“我能跟人们讨论 弗洛伊德,这对我的功课很有帮助。”

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Royal festival hall 皇家节日音乐厅

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The Southbank Centre is located on the south side of the Thames River and next to the London Eye. 南岸中心位于泰晤士河的南岸,离伦敦眼只有几步路的距离。

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The Royal Festival Hall is the main hall of the Southbank Centre

complex, which is open to the public.1 It opened in 1951 as a part of the Festival of Britain, and it is one of the world’s leading performance venues.1 It includes The Clore Ballroom, The Saison Poetry Library, The Southbank Centre shop, The Riverside Terrace Café, and many other functional spaces.1 皇家节日音乐厅是南岸中心的主要建筑。1 它于1951年作为“英国节庆”的 一部分开放,并且成为世界最好的表演场所之一。1 它的功能区域包括 Clore 舞厅,Saison 诗歌图书馆,南岸中心商店,以及河岸咖啡厅等许多区域。1

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The Royal Festival Hall is the main hall of the Southbank Centre complex, and The Saison Poetry Library is one of the main fuction spaces in The Royal Festival Hall.1 皇家节日音乐厅是南岸中心的主要建筑,而 Saison诗歌图书馆是皇家节日音乐厅的主要功能区域之 一。1

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The Royal Festival Hall was opened on May 3rd 1951 with cost 2 million pounds.2 耗资2百万英镑的皇家节日音乐厅在1951年5月3日开放。2

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Becky, 26, is a steward at the Royal

Festival Hall. She explained that the main function of the space is as a concert hall for classical music concert, “but it is also an open public space, so it can be used as a meeting point, and people can come to watch the free events here. .” In addition, there are free concerts every Friday at the Royal Festival Hall, “we call it Friday lunch, and we also do workshops for various events.”

Becky,26岁,是一名皇家节日音乐厅

的工作人员。她介绍说这个音乐厅的表演还 是以古典音乐为主,“但是因为这里免费对 公众开放,所以这里也可以作为人们的会面 场所。人们也可以来欣赏这里的免费表演。 。”而这里每周五都有免费的音乐会,“我 们称这个为周五午餐,而且这里也会承办很 多其它的活动。”

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Amy, 26, who lives nearby, usually comes here for “a little bit of quite”. “I don’t have

anything to do, so I thought I’d better come and read, and have something to eat.” She comes here about once a month, because she thinks, “this is a nice place to sit, it’s free. Sometimes I will come here and have a drink before I go to see a play.” She likes that there is an open, free space for people to come and sit, and without having to pay. “It’s public, and always has something going on, and I don’t think there are enough free spaces in London.”

Amy,26岁,住在离皇家节日音乐厅不远的地方,来这里寻找“些许的宁静”。“我在

家没什么事干,就想还不如来这里看看书,找点东西吃。”她基本上一个月来这里一次,因为 她觉得“这里是一个很适合来消磨时间的地方,因为它是免费的。有时我会在去看其它表演之 前来这里喝杯咖啡。”她很高兴附近能有这样一个免费温馨的地方可以让她来坐一坐。“它是 对公众开放的,而且总是会有一些活动,而我觉得伦敦的免费场所并不算多。”

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london Eye 伦敦眼

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The London Eye is a giant Ferris wheel on the south bank of the Thames

River. It is the world’s largest cantilevered observation wheel at 135m high.1 It was conceived and designed by Marks Barfield Architects and launched in 2000.1 However, at its creation, it was only supposed to stand for a few years as The Millennium Wheel,2 but now, it has become a symbol of modern London.2 In 2011, EDF Energy became a new partner of the London Eye, so the full name of The London Eye became EDF Energy London Eye.2 伦敦眼是一个位于泰晤士河南岸的巨大的摩天轮。它是世界上最大的悬臂式观景 摩天轮。1 伦敦眼高135米,由Marks Barfield Architects构思与设计,并于2000年建 成。1 但是最初,伦敦眼是一个只打算运行上几年的千禧轮。2 但是现在,它却已 经变成了伦敦的一个象征。而2011年新加入的EDF Energy则将伦敦眼的全名变成 了EDF Energy London Eye。2

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The London Eye is a giant Ferris wheel on the south bank of the Thames River. 伦敦眼是一个位于泰晤士河南岸的巨大摩天轮。

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Usually, the London Eye is blue at night. 通常,伦敦眼在晚上是蓝色的。

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January 30th, 2014, the London Eye turned red and gold from blue at 6pm to celebrate Chinese New Year. 2014年1月30日,伦敦眼从蓝色变成了红色和金色,以此来庆祝中国新年。

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What do people think of the London Eye? 在人们心中,伦敦眼是怎样的呢?

Paula Nadal, 37, from Argentina, said, “I like it, I think the design is funny.” Paula Nadal,37岁,来自阿根廷。她说:“我 喜欢它,它的设计很有趣。”

Brian Hunt is an artist in London and he likes to draw the London Eye and the Thames River. He said, “People like the London Eye, the Thames and the Parliament, because they are beautiful.” Brian Hunt是一位伦敦的画家,他喜欢画伦敦眼 和泰晤士河,“因为人们喜欢伦敦眼,泰晤士河 还有议会中心,它们很漂亮。” Ania Gorua, 23, from Poland, said, “I haven’t seen anything like this before.” Ania Gorua,23岁,来自波兰。她说:“我以 前从来没有见过类似的东西。”

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Sabine Hertusy, 51, from Germany, said “it’s … em… ok.” Sabine Hertusy, 51岁,来自德国。她说:“ 它…嗯…还行吧。”

Jerome, 40, from France, is in London for the first time for business, said, “oh, you are talking about the giant wheel, I don’t know what it is.” Jerme,40岁,来自法国。这是他第一次来伦敦 出差,他说:“你说的是后面那个摩天轮啊, 我不知道那是什么。”

Rebecca Reid, 21, from Canada, said, “it’s worth doing once, but not the second time.” Bebecca Reid,21岁,来自加拿大。她说:“ 第一次坐伦敦眼还是很值的,第二次就没必要 了。”

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greenwich 格林威治

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The St Alfege’s Church was the first church in Greenwich. St Alfege’s 教堂是格林威治的第一座教堂。

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Greenwich was originally a Saxon village called Green Wic (wic means

“port” ).1 At that time, Greenwich was a port for ships and boats to tie up, a fishing village, and a farming settlement.1 The first church in Greenwich was the St Alfege’s Church, and the original structure was built in the 11th century on the place where the Archbishop Alfege was killed in 1012.1 The present building was designed by Nicholas Hawksmoor and completed in 1718.1 In 1838, the railway finally connected Greenwich with London, and many people began to settle in Greenwich.1 Now, Greenwich has many tourist attractions, such as Cutty Sark, (a tea clipper launched in 1869), the National Maritime Museum, and Greenwich Market (a market well known for its books and antiques). 1 格林威治最初是撒克逊人的一个村落,名叫Green Wic (Wic的意思是港口)。1 在那时,格林威治是一个船只停靠的港口,一个渔村,也是一个农业区。1 格林威 治的第一个教堂是

St Alfege’s 教堂,最初的教堂于11世纪建在大主教Alfege在

1012年被杀的地方。1 而现在的教堂是由 Nicholas Hawksmoor 在1718年设计建造 的。1838年,铁路将伦敦与格林威治连接了起来,越来越多的人开始在格林威治 定居。1

现在,格林威治已经成为了一个旅游胜地,并且拥有许多值得一看的景

点,如 Cutty Sark (一艘1869年的运茶船),国家海洋博物馆,以及格林威治市 场(因为书和古董而闻名)。1

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There is a corridor that connect the Queen’s House and the National Maritime Museum. 一个连廊连接起了 Queen’s House 和国家海洋博物馆。

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The spiral staircase inside the Queen’s House was the first one in Britain.1 Queen’s House里有英国的第一个螺旋式楼梯。1

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Jane Cartwright, 50, has been working in

the Royal Observatory as an actor for 19 years, and her job is to present the Royal Observatory’s history through re-enactments and story telling. She also works at other museums in London by using drama to tell stories. As in the Royal Observatory, she feels she is more of a tour guide, then an actor. The reason she first started doing this kind of work was because she “was asked to come here and do one of the characters, and it went out very well, than they ask if I could come back to develop more characters. The job is challenging, because you have museum visitors, who were suddenly asked to become a theater audience, which is very different. It’s not in a theater, so the lights don’t go down, they are very aware of each other, and the rules are slightly different, you need to make sure people feel comfortable and you can adapt the information you have for the audience, so it’s very flexible. “ She loves history and communicating with people, so she feels this job is perfect for her.

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Jane

Cartwright,50岁,作为一名演

员在格林威治已经工作了19年了,而她的工 作就是通过表演的方式来给人们讲述格林威 ���的历史。她在伦敦很多其它博物馆也在做 着同样的工作。而在格林威治天文台,她觉 得她更像一个导游而不是演员。她最初选择 来这里工作的原因是因为“有一次我被叫来 塑造了一个故事中的其中一个角色,而那次 表演的效果非常好,所以他们问我愿不愿意 回来饰演更多的角色。这份工作非常有挑战 性的,因为人们都是来参观博物馆的,而他 们突然要成为一位戏剧观众,这是非常困难 的。这不是在剧院,灯光不会变暗,游客们 会在意旁边的人,而这里的表演规则也与剧 院里很不一样,你需要保证人们是觉得舒服 并且愿意接受你提供的信息,所以可变性非 常大。”她喜欢历史和跟人们交流,所以她 很喜欢自己的工作,她觉得这个工作特别适 合她。 The Royal Observatory is the home of Greenwich Mean time and the Prime Meridian Line.2 格林威治天文台是格林威治标准时间和本初子午线 的所在地。2

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reference 引用 Trafalgar Square 1.“Trafalgar Square.” Great London Authority. Web. 31 March 2014. www.london.gov.uk

King’s Cross Station 1. “History of King’s Cross Station.” Network Rail. Web. 17 March 2014. < www.networkrail.co.uk > 2. “Kings Cross Station.” The London & North Eastern Railway (LNER). Web. 17 March 2014. < www.lner.infor > 3. Rowling, Joanne. Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone. Scholastic Inc. Chapter six.

Kensington Garden 1.“History and Architecture.” The Royal Parks. Web. 22 Jan 2014. < Royalparks.org.uk > 2. “Kensington Palace.” The Royal Parks. Web. 22 Jan 2014. < Royalparks.org.uk > 3. “Italian Gardens.” The Royal Parks. Web. 22 Jan 2014. < Royalparks.org.uk > 4. “The Albert Memorial.” The Royal Parks. Web. 22 Jan 2014. < Royalparks.org.uk >

London Churches 1. “Our history.” Friends of the City Churches. Web. 2 Mar 2014. <www.london-city-churches.org. uk>

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2. “Church.” St Martin in the Field. 2014. Web. 2 Mar 2014. < www.stmartion-in-the-fields.org> 3. “History.” St Martin in the Field. 2014. Web. 2 Mar 2014. << www.stmartion-in-the-fields.org > 4. “Temple Church History.” The Temple Church, London. Web. 2 Mar 2014. < www.templechurch. com > 5. “The 20th Century.” The Temple Church, London. Web. 2 Mar 2014. <www.templechurch.com >

Covent Garden 1. “The History & Architecture.” Covent Garden London. Web. 10 Feb 2014. < www.coventgardenlondonuk.com >

London Chinatown 1. Ville, Tom. “Through the ages.” Chinatown London. Web. 27 Jan 2014. < chinatownlondon.org >

London Museums 1. “London Museums and Galleries.” LondonTown. Web. 21 Feb 2014. < www.londontown.com> 2. “About Us.” V&A, Victoria and Albert Museum. Web. 21 Feb 2014. < www.vam.ac.uk > 3. “History of the V&A.” V&A, Victoria and Albert Museum. Web. 21 Feb 2014. < www.vam.ac.uk > 4. “Architectural History of the V&A 1856-1861.” V&A, Victoria and Albert Museum. Web. 21 Feb 2014. < www.vam.ac.uk > 5. “About the museum.” Freud Museum London. Web. 21 Feb 2014. < www.freud.org.uk >

Royal Festival Hall 1.“Royal Festival Hall”. Southbank Centre. Web. 24 March 2014. < www.southbankcentre.co.uk > 2.“Southbank Centre History”. Southbank Centre. Web. 24 March 2014. < www.southbankcentre. co.uk >

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London Eye 1. “About us.” EDF Energy London Eye. 2104. Web. 13 Feb 2014. < londoneye.com > 2. “Timeline.” EDF Energy London Eye. Web. 13 Feb 2014. < londoneye.com >

Greenwich 1.“A Brief History of Greenwich, London.” Localhistories. Web. 12 April 2014. < www.localhistories.org > 2.“History of the Royal Observatory.” Royal Museums Greenwich. Web. 12 April 2014. < http:// www.rmg.co.uk/ >

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Independent Study of Photography London 2014 Spring


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