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London stories Architecture ●

伦敦建筑与背后的故事 BY Yuxuan Jia 贾玉璇


.Jia 2014 spring ć˜Ľ


“When a man is tired of London, he is tired of life.” “当一个人厌倦了伦敦,他便是厌倦了人 生。” -- Samuel Johnson - 塞缪尔·约翰逊


Contents 目录 Introduction -------- 简介

8

London Chinatown ------ 伦敦中国城

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Trafalgar Square ------ 特拉法加广场

12

London Museums ------ 伦敦的博物馆

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King’s Cross Station ----- 22 国王十字车站

Royal Festival Hall ------ 皇家节日音乐厅

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Kensington Gardens ----- 肯辛顿花园

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London Eye --------- 伦敦眼

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London Churches ------ 伦敦的教堂

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Greenwich --------- 104 格林威治

Covent Garden ------- 考文特花园

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Reference --------- 114 引用


introduction 简介

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London, the capital of the United Kingdom, was founded by Romans around 50 AD. 1 The period during which London became one of the most important cities in the world was between the Reigns of Queen Elizabeth I and Queen Elizabeth II, the current monarch of the UK . 1 As such an old city, the infrastructure in London, such as the streets, sewage system and buildings, has developed over centuries. However, time has only made the city increasingly beautiful, especially in terms of the architecture because there is a mix of styles from different periods. Sadly, London experienced two architectural disasters in its history. 3 The first was the Great Fire In 1666, which damaged 13,500 houses, 87 parish churches, 44 company halls.2 The second was the result of the bombing during World War II. 3 London now consists of architecture that has survived, that has been built after World War 10


II, and also architecture that has been recently designed and built. Therefore, there are many different styles of architecture coexisting and it is this mix of styles from different time periods that makes the city of London.

伦敦是大不列颠及北爱尔兰联合王国的首

都,它建立于公元前50世纪的罗马统治时期。 1 但是伦敦真正转变成一个国际化大都市是在伊丽 莎白一世到现任女王伊丽莎白二世之间的这段时 期 。1

历史悠久的伦敦到处都能发现时间留下的

痕迹,比如街道,水管系统,还有建筑。在这 里,想要找到一栋有超过百年历史的建筑并不是 一件难事。但是,时间并没有让伦敦显得老气, 反而给这里注入了特殊的韵味,特别是对这里的 建筑物。不过伦敦的建筑经历过两次大灾难。 3 一次是1666年的大火,超过13,500栋房屋被破 坏,87座教堂,44间商务建筑;2 而另一场灾难 则是二战时期德军对伦敦的轰炸 。3

如今伦敦的建筑,有些是两次灾难的幸存者,有些是在二战后重建的,还有一些是近几年

才设计并建造的。所以,这里充满了不同风格的建筑。但无论这些建筑建造于什么时期,都是组 成伦敦这令人惊叹的城市的一部分。

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TRAFALGAR SQUARE 特拉法加广场

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HAHN/COCK, or “the Blue Rooster”, by Katharina Fritsch, is one of the most special sculpture on Trafalgar Aquare. HAHN/COCK, 或被游客称为“大蓝鸡”的雕塑, 是特拉法加 广场上最独特的雕塑之一。

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Trafalgar Square is one of the most famous squares in London. It is a public space for visitors, and it is also used for many activities and events, such as the celebration of the Royal Wedding, St Patrick’s Day and Chinese New Year.1 The buildings around Trafalgar Square are also beautiful architecture, such as the British Council, located on the southwest side of Trafalgar Square, and the South African High Commission located on the east side. 特拉法加广场是伦敦最有名气的 广场之一。它是一个开放式的广场,同 时也会承办一些活动,比如皇家婚礼的 庆典,圣帕特里克节和中国新年的庆祝 活动等等。1 而围绕着特拉法加广场的 建筑物也都是有独特魅力的建筑,例如 位于西南角的英国文化委员会大楼,还 有位于东侧的南非最高委员会大楼。 What is now Trafalgar Square used to be the courtyard of the Royal Mews from 14th to late 17th century, which served Whitehall Palace.2 In the early 19th century, this area became an clear space, and the time that this place officially named Trafalgar Square was in 1830.2


Nelson’s Column, which is located at the front of Trafalgar Square, was designed by William Railton in 1843.2 There are two fountains on the either side of Nelson’s Column, and they were built based on Sir Charles Barry’s designs.2 Sir Edwin Landseer designed the bronze lions placed on guard at the base of Nelson’s Column in 1867.2 现在特拉法加广场所在的这片区域在14至17世纪期间是皇家马厩的花园。2 在19世纪早期, 这块区域被清理干净了。2 而这个广场在1830年正式被命名为特拉法加广场。2 位于广场前方 的纳尔逊将军纪念碑是在1843年由William Railton设计的。2 纳尔逊将军纪念碑两侧对称的两 个喷泉则是根据Charles Barry的设计建造的。2 守卫着纳尔逊将军纪念碑的四个铜狮子是在 1867年由Edwin Landseer设计的。2

The two fountains on the either side of Nelson’s Column was built based on Sir Charles Barry’s designs. 纳尔逊将军纪念碑两侧的两个喷泉是根据Charles Barry的设计建造的。

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One of the most famous architectural landmark near Trafalgar Square is the National Gallery. 特拉法加广场周边最著名的建筑之一是国家美术馆。

The most famous architectural landmark near Trafalgar Square is the National Gallery. In 1831 that Parliament decided to build a National Gallery at Trafalgar Square and the new building opened in 1838.4 Now, the National Gallery has a collection of Western European paintings from the 13th to 19th centuries, and it is open to the public everyday with free admission.3 特拉法加广场周边最著名的建筑就是国家美术馆。在1831年,议会正式决定在特拉法 加广场旁修建一座国家美术馆,并于1838年正式向游客开放。4 国家美术馆的藏品包含了 从13到19世纪西欧的绘画,并且每天向游客免费开放。3 16


Trafalgar Square is also a popular site for street performance. Manu, 51, is a homeless man, but he is also the head of a five-person drawing group. They draw different national flags on the ground at Trafalgar Square almost every day, “if it’s not raining,” he explained. People will put coins on their county’s flag and that is how he makes money and pays the other artists in his group. There are two reasons why he does this. The first reason is because “the government is not giving me money for living,” and the second reason is because he hopes his work can make more people to think about love and peace in the world. Manu and his group draw 61 flags every day that they work, and he said the flags that get the most coins are the British and American Flags.

National Gallery is also a good place to have a rest for visitors. 国家美术馆也是一个适合给游客休息的地方。

特拉法加广场也是街头艺人喜 爱的区域之一。Manu,51岁,是一位 无家可归者,但他同时也是一个五人 绘画小组的领头。他们几乎每天在特 拉法加广场画各个国家的国旗,“只 要不下雨,”他说。游人会在自己国 家的国旗上面放上硬币,而这便是他 们赚钱的方式。他选择在广场上画国 17


British Council locates on the southwest side of Trafalgar Square. 位于特拉法加广场西南角的英国文化委员会大楼。 18


Manu, street painter. Manu, 街头画家。

旗有两个原因,第一个原因是“政府没有给我钱让我能生活下 去,”而另一个原因则是他希望他的工作能够提醒人们更多地关 注世界的爱与和平。Manu和他的小组每天都画61副国旗,而这 些国旗中得到硬币最多的是英国和美国国旗。 Will Hutt, 33, from London, is a street performer who usually performs at Covent Garden and Trafalgar Square. His performances are dangerous, and one of his acts involves him lying on the ground and two men stand on top of him. He has been doing this for 12 years in total, and 6 years in London. His favorite spot is Covent Garden, because there are “really big and a lot nice audiences who expect to see street performance. Here [Trafalgar Square], it’s a little bit of a surprise to the visitors.” He usually works five days per week, seven days per week 19


People like to climb the four bronze Lions aroud Nelson’s Column. 人们喜欢去攀爬围绕纳尔逊将军纪念碑的四只狮子雕塑。

in the summer if the weather is really nice. He chose to work as a street performer because “it means I don’t need to do other jobs. I’m always performing. I was trained when I was a kid. London is an expensive city, and if I want to live here as a street performer, I need to do something special.”

Will Hutt, 33岁,来自伦敦,是一位 街头艺人,经常在考文特花园和特拉法加 广场表演。他从事的是危险表演,而他的 其中一个表演是他躺在地上,另外有两个 人站在他的身 上 。 他 从 事 街 头 表 演 已 经 Will Hutt, street performer. Will Hutt, 街头表演者。 20

有12年了,其中有六年是在伦敦。他最 喜欢的表演地点是考文特花园,因为“


那里有许多的观众,而且他们期待看到表 演。而这里,更多的是惊喜吧。”他通常一 周表演五天,在夏天天气非常好的时候有时 会是七天。他选择街头表演是因为“这样我 就不用干其他工作了。我从小就在被训练表 演。伦敦生活成本很高,如果想在这里生活 下去,就需要做些与别人不一样的事。” Trafalgar Square is a place that attracts in many people. Some people come here to play, some people come to climb the lions and some others just come to sit and have a rest here. Even the ducks are enjoying stay on the fountain at the Trafalgar Square. 特拉法加广场吸引了众多的游客前来。 有些人来这里是为了来参加活动玩游戏,有 些是来爬那些狮子雕塑,有些则只是来这里 坐一坐休息一下。连鸭子都在享受着在广场 的喷泉池中游泳的感觉。 A pigeon is standing on the top of the Major General Sir Henry Havelock’s Sculpture on Trafalgar Square. 一只鸽子站在特拉法加广场上上校Henry Havelock塑像 的头上。

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king's cross station 国王十字车站

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King’s Cross is primarily serves for the east coast main line and over 40 million people pass through the station every year. 国王十字车站主要运行在东海岸主线,每年有超过四千万乘客到访这个火车站。

King’s Cross station is one of the major railway stations in center London, located in the King’s Cross area, and right next to St. Pancras International railway station. King’s Cross is primarily serves for the east coast main line and over 40 million people pass through the station every year.1 King’s Cross Station is not only one of the most important stations in London, but it is also one of the most famous stations in Britain.2 The station was designed by Lewis Cubitt, “whose uncle and cousin were engineers on the construction of the Great Northern Railway”.1 John and William Jay of the Euston Road Company built the station, and the 105ft by 800ft station roof was the largest at the time, which was “supposedly modeled on the riding school of the Czars of Moscow”.1

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国王十字车站是伦敦最重要的火车站之一,位于伦敦的国王十字区域,在 St. Pancras 国际 线火车站的旁边。国王十字车站主要运行在东海岸主线,每年有超过四千万乘客通过这个火车 站。1 国王十字车站不仅是伦敦最重要的火车站之一,也是英国名气最大的火车站之一 。2 车站 由 Lewis Cubitt 设计“而他的叔叔和表亲也是 Great Northern Railway 的工程师”。1 Euston Road 公司的 John 和 William Jay 修建了这个车站,这个车站的屋顶有105英尺宽800英尺长,是当时最 大的车站屋顶,“据说是模仿当时莫斯科沙皇的骑术学校的屋顶”。1

The King’s Cross Station was designed by Lewis Cubitt. 现在的国王十字车站是由Lewis Cubitt设计的。

J. K. Rowling’s world famous novel, Harry Potter, is the reason many people have heard of King’s Cross Station. In Harry Potter’s magical world, students need to take the Hogwarts Express from King’s Cross Station to the “Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry”.3 Rowling began to write Harry Potter series on a delayed train from Manchester to London King’s Cross, so she chose 25


King’s Cross Station is located on the cross of Euston Road and York Way. 国王十字车站位于Euston路和York路的交界处。

King’s Cross Station to be the place to begin the journey.4 To get onto platform 9 ¾, students need to cross the magical barrier beside platform 9. There is a half trolley embedded in the wall close to platform 9 in King’s Cross, which has a “Platform 9 ¾” sign above it. Near the half trolley, there is a “Harry Potter Shop at Platform 9 ¾”. Michael Potsa, 31, has worked at the shop since the shop opened in December 2012, and one part of he’s job is to take pictures of the tourists with the half trolley. “Most of our customers are adults, I think”, Michael said. He introduced that this is also the place where the movies were shot, “but the platform filmed in the movie is platform 3 and 4”, he said. 26

J.K.罗琳的小说《哈利波特》是很多人第一次听说国王十


The 105ft by 800ft station roof in King’s Cross Station was the largest at the time. 国王十字车站的屋顶有105英尺宽800英尺长,是当时最大的车站屋顶。 27


Many visitors come to King’s Cross station to have a photo with the half trolley every day. 每天都有许多游客来国王十字车站跟镶在墙里 的半截手推车合影。

Michael Potsa, 31, has worked at the shop since the shop opened. Michael Potsa,31岁,从这个商店开始营业时便开始在这 里工作了。

字火车站的地方。在哈利波特的魔法世界里,学生们需要从国王十字车站的九又四分之三站台搭 乘霍格沃兹特快列车去霍格沃兹魔法学校上学。3 罗琳之所以会选择国王十字车站的原因是“她 最开始写《哈利波特》是在一辆延误了的从曼彻斯特到伦敦国王十字的火车上”,所以她选择了 国王十字车站来作为魔法旅行的起点。而进入九又四分之三站台的方法,则是要穿过第九站台旁 边的围墙。如今在国王十字车站靠近第九站台的地方的墙上真的镶了一个只有一半的手推车,上 面有个标示写着“9 3/4站台”。在靠近这个手推车的地方,有个“9 3/4 站台的哈利波特商店” 。Michael Potsa,31岁,从2012年12月这个商店开张时就在这个商店工作了,而他的主要工作 就是给游客和半截手推车合照。“我们店里的顾客还是以成年人为主,”Michael说,《哈利波 28


Harry Potter Shop at Platform 9 3/4 was opened in December 2012. 9 3/4 站台的哈利波特商店于2012年12月开始营业。

特》系列电影中的国王十字车站确实都是在这里拍的,“但是电影中使用的站台其实是第三站 台和第四站台”。 A new square was added in autumn 2013.5 At the Victoria and Albert Museum, there is a description about this square in the Architecture Section – “At more than 7000m2, the new public square designed by architects Stanton Williams will open up the space previously occupied by the 1970s concourse extension and reveal the stunning Grade I listed Victorian station façade for the first time in almost 150 years.” Today, King’s Cross Station is no longer just a train station, it is the hub of the King’s Cross area, and it is helping to make the area to more lively. 29


国王十字车站在2013年增加了一个新的站前广场。5 在维多利亚和阿尔伯特博物馆的建筑展 区有一段对这个广场的评价:“这个由建筑师 Stanton William 设计的超过7000平方米的空间,是 到20世纪70年代建立的维多利亚车站广场为止的150年中所有过的最惊人的广场扩展”。如今, 国王十字车站不再仅仅是一个车站而已,它成为了一个区域的中心,而这也使得国王十字区域成 为了一个更加生活化的地方。

King’s Cross Station is no longer just a train station, it is the hub of the King’s Cross area. 国王十字车站不再仅仅是一个车站而已,它成为了一个区域的中心。

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Potters Bar

Stevenage

Oakleigh Park Northallerton

Aberdeen Doncaster

Darlington

Peterborongh

Welwyn Garden City

Watton At Stone Biggleswade

York

Ben, 21, is going to Skeyness. Ben,21岁,准备前往Skeyness.

Tonia Wynna, 54, is going to Retford. Tonia Wynna,54岁,准备前 往Retford.

Waterbeach Sandy

Royston

Hull

Cambridge

Morpeen

Paaian, 23, is going to Leicester. Paaian,23岁,准备前往 Leicester.

Hartlepool Arlesey

Little Port

Ely

Knebworth New Castle

Durham

King’s Lynn

New Barnet

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Hitchin

Leeds

Foxton

Edingburgh Sunderland

Thirsk Watlington

Roger Vanshan, 62, is going to Wynondham. Roger Vanshan,62岁,准 备前往Wynondham.


where are people going from KINg'S CROSS STATION ? 人们都从国王十字车站到哪里去?

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kensington gardens 肯辛顿花园

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Kensington Gardens, a 242-acre park, is one of eight Royal Parks in London.1 Formerly, it was a part of Hyde Park, and Hyde Park was first acquired by Henry VIII from the monks in Westminster Abbey in 1536 and turned into a private hunting ground.1 Charles I eventually inherited it and changed Hyde Park into a general public park in 1637.1 In 1689, William III bought what is now know as Kensington Gardens.1 肯辛顿花园是伦敦八个皇家公园之一,占地242平方英亩。1 最初,肯辛顿花园是海德公园 的一部分,而海德公园是亨利八世在1536年从威斯敏斯特大教堂僧侣手中要来的,并把他改成了 私人狩猎场。1 查尔斯一世在1637年将海德公园正式向公众开放。1 而1689年,威廉三世买下了这 片现在被称为肯辛顿花园的区域。1 Kensington Palace is one of the most famous pieces of architecture in the park.2 It has been a royal residence since the 17th century, and it is the official London residence of the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge.2 It is also the residence of the Prince and Princess Michael of Kent, the Duke and Duchess of Kent, and the Duke and Duchess of Gloucester.2 Kensington Palace was built with bricks instead of stone because Nicholas Hawksmoor, the clerk of the works, was required “to do the job quickly and cheaply”.2 Now the Palace is open to the public, and people can visit the King’s State Apartment, the Queen’s State Apartments, and the Gardens.2

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Henry Moore’s sulpture “The Arch” in Kensington Garden derived form a fragment of bone. Henry Moore在肯辛顿花园中的雕塑“The Arch”是来自于 一个骨头的形象。


Kensington Palace is the official London residence of the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge. 肯辛顿花园是剑桥公爵和公爵夫人在伦敦的官方住所。

肯辛顿宫殿是肯辛顿花园中最著名的建筑之一。2 它从十七世纪开始便是王室居所,它是 剑桥公爵和公爵夫人在伦敦的官方住所。2 它同时也是肯特郡迈克尔王子和王妃、肯特公爵与 公爵夫人还有格洛斯特公爵和公爵夫人在伦敦的住所。2 与大多数的英国王室建筑不同的是, 肯辛顿宫殿是由砖块而不是石头建成的,这是因为当时的建筑监督官 Nicholas Hawksmoor 被 要求将这个宫殿完成的又快又便宜。2 现在肯辛顿宫殿已经向公众开放了,游客可以参观其中 的 King’s State Apartment、 Queen’s State Apartments 还有花园部分。2 The Albert Memorial in Kensington Gardens is one of the most magnificent monuments in London, which is located on Albert Memorial Road in Kensington Gardens, and was designed 35


The Albert Memorial in Kensington Gardens is one of the most magnificent monuments in London. 肯辛顿花园中的阿尔伯特纪念碑是伦敦最华丽的纪念碑。 36


by George Gilbert Scott in 1872.4 The memorial is a tribute to Prince Albert, Queen Victoria’s Husband, who died at 42 years old.4 肯辛顿花园中的阿尔伯特纪念碑是伦敦最华丽的纪念 碑,它是由 George Gilbert Scott 在1872年设计,位于肯辛顿 花园的阿尔伯特纪念路上。4 它纪念的是42岁便过世的维多 利亚女王的丈夫,阿尔伯特王子。4 Kensington Gardens and Hyde Park as the most famous park in London, also hold a certain weight in Londoners and visitors’ hearts.

The sculpture of Prince Albert stay on the midle of the Albert Memorial. 阿尔伯特纪念碑的正中央是阿尔伯特王子的雕像。 37


肯辛顿花园和海德公园是伦敦最著名的公园之一,因此在当地居民与游客的心中也占据了 一定的地位。 Claire Bueno is a TV presenter who has been living in London for 9 years, likes to come to this park. “I come to this park every week,” she said, “it is really pretty here, London is such a busy place, but you can find a lot of peace in the park.” Sometimes the park is where she runs, so she can

The Italian Garden is a 150-year-old water garden on the north side of the park and it is believed to be a gift from Prince Albert to Queen Victoria. 位于公园北部的意大利花园是一个有150年历史的小花园,它被认为是阿尔伯特王子送给维多利亚女王的礼物。 38


find a bit of peace and collect her thoughts. Sometimes she picnics with her friends in the park, especially in the summer. She thinks that this park is really important for her, and even for London. “If the city lost this park, it would be a massive loss. It is a unique part of London.” Claire Bueno是一位已经在伦敦居住了 9年的电视主持人。她非常喜欢到肯辛顿花 园来,“我每周都到这里来”,她说,“ 这里很漂亮,伦敦是一个如此忙碌的城 市,但是每次来到公园里,你就能找到一 丝闲适。”通常公园是她跑完步休息和整 理思绪的地方。但有时她也会跟朋友们来 公园野餐,特别是在夏天的时候。Claire 认为这个公园无论是对她自己还是伦敦来 说都很重要“如果这个城市失去了这些公 园,那将是所有人的一个巨大的损失。 Claire Bueno is a TV presenter who has been living in London for 9 years. 它已经成为这个城市不可缺少的一部分 Claire Bueno是一位已经在伦敦居住了9年的电视主持 了。” 人。 Esop, 27, originally from Switzerland, has lived in London since the age of 4. He usually comes to the park every week to relax. He likes the space here, because it does not feel crowded, “and it is also a very peaceful place in central London.” He used to live in Greenwich, but for him, he just did not feel right there. Therefore, when he felt he needed to escape, he would come to this park, walked around for few hours, and felt refreshed. Now he lives in Notting Hill, and one of the reasons he moved there is because he can be close to this park.

39


Esop, 27, has lived in London since the age of 4. Esop,27岁,他四岁时就已经移居到伦敦来了。

Esop,27岁,来自瑞士,但他四岁时就已经移居到伦敦来了。他通常每周都会来这个公园 放松一下。他喜欢这里的宁静,因为在这里他感觉不到城市的喧哗吵闹,“而这个如此宁静的地 方居然在伦敦市中心。”他以前住在格林威治,但是就他自己而言,他觉得他不适合住在那里, 所以每当他觉得他想逃离那里的时候,他便会到这个公园来,随便走一走耗上几个小时,然后他 就会感觉他重生了。现在他已经搬到了诺丁山居住,而他搬到那里的其中一个原因就是这样他可 以离公园更近。 Kensington Gardens and many other parks in London, are called Londoner’s back yard, and they are already an irreplaceable part of London. 肯辛顿花园以及伦敦的其他许多公园,被称为伦敦人的后花园,而它们也已经成为了伦敦 不可替代的一部分。 40


41


42


London Churches 伦敦的教堂

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It is quite easy to find a church in London. You can come across one by just walking around. In The City of London area, within square mile space, there are more than 42 churches, and most of them are Anglican Churches.1 Some of the churches are well known, such as Westminster Abbey, St. Paul’s Cathedral, and many of these famous churches are mainly used by the Royal Family.1 Therefore, they require an entrance fee for visiting. However, quite a few churches are open to the public and allow people to pray and worship there for free, such as Westminster Cathedral and St. Martinin-the- Field.

想要在伦敦找到一间教堂并不是 一件难事。你经常可以不经意间就在街 角发现一间教堂。而仅仅在伦敦城区 域(City of London) 就有“不少于42间 宗教场所”。1 这其中有些教堂名声显 赫,比如威斯敏斯特教堂,圣保罗大教 堂,而这些著名的大教堂通常都是供皇 家使用的,所以需要凭票参观。但是还 有很多教堂是免费对公众开放的,以供 人们祈祷和进行宗教活动,如威斯敏斯特 主教堂和圣马丁教堂。 44

You can have a clear view about St.Pauls Cathedral on Millennium Bridge. 从千禧桥上,你可以清楚地看到圣保罗大教堂。


St. Martin-in-the-Field 圣马丁教堂 St. Martin-in-the-Field is a vibrant, open and inclusive church that provides both English and Chinese services.2 St. Martin church is located on the Northeast side of Trafalgar Square, and very close to Chinatown. 圣马丁教堂是一个开放的、同 时提供中文和英文两种语言服务的教 堂。2 圣马丁教堂位于特拉法加广场的 东北角,临近中国城。 St Martin-in-the-field was first built around 1542.3 However, the St Martin church is located on the Northeast side of Trafalgar Square, and church was pulled down in 1721 to be very close to Chinatown. replaced by the current building, which 圣马丁教堂位于特拉法加广场的东北角,临近中国城。 was designed by James Gibbs and completed in 1726, and it became one of the most incredible places of architecture in the English-speaking world at the time.3 圣马丁教堂最早建于1542年。3 但是当时的教堂建筑在1721年被毁坏了,后来被现在这个 由 James Gibbs 设计的教堂建筑所替代,并最终在1726年完工,而这个建筑变成了英语世界中最 举足轻重的建筑之一。3 The person St Martin was born in 316 AD in Pannonia, which is a part of Hungary today.3 From a young age, he rejected the “old religion adhered to by his mother and father”. When he was eighteen years old, as a soldier posted in Amiens in France, he saw “an almost naked beggar huddled against 45


St. Martin Church is not only a place for worship, but also a beautiful piece of architecture. 圣马丁教堂不仅是一个宗教场所,更是一座独具特色的建 筑。

the stonework” on a winter’s night while he went through the city gate.3 Martin cut his cloak with his sword and gave half to the beggar, and Christ appeared in his dream that night to thank him in the form of the beggar.3 Martin rushed to be baptized the next day, and became a “soldier of Christ”.3 “圣马丁”出生于公元前316年的 一个名为潘诺尼亚,如今属于匈牙利, 的地方。3 在他十八岁的时候他拒绝 了“他的父亲和母亲所信奉的旧信仰” ,并作为一个士兵被送到了法国的亚 眠。在一个冬夜里,当他穿过城门的时 候,他看到了“一个几乎全裸的乞丐在 墙角缩成一团”。3 所以圣马丁就把他 的斗篷用的他的剑割开,将其中的一半 给了乞丐。而耶稣当晚便出现在了他的 梦里并且以那个乞丐的姿态感谢了他。3 所以圣马丁第二天就接受了洗礼,并成 为了一名“耶稣的士兵”。3

Since St. Martin-in-the-Field is near Chinatown, it also provides Chinese services. In fact, there is a Chinese community center in the St. Martin’s basement. Ms. Liu, 54, is the center coordinator of the “Bishop Ho Ming Wah Association & Community Centre” in St. Martin-inThe-Field. She explained that this community center is about 30 years old, and at the beginning, the main purpose of the center was to help new Chinese immigrants, most of whom were from Hong Kong, 46


Ms. Liu, 54, is the center coordinator of the “Bishop Ho Ming Wah Association & Community Centre”. 刘女士,54岁,是这个何明华会督协会暨社区中心的 管理人员。

and needed help with their English. The center is named after Bishop Ho, who was based in Hong Kong. He was the one who realized many Chinese immigrants still needed help after they settled in London. He therefore sent a pastor to London to help them. “Ming Wah”, means, “Understand Chinese needs” in Chinese. This center was set up in St. Martin-in-The-Field because the Pastor asked every one he helped to go to the church for Bible study and worship as well. The St. Martin Church agreed to lend them one floor in the basement to use. Now, the weekly worship has moved inside the Church, and the Community Centre uses the basement as the office and activity rooms. The activities that the center provides include Tai Chi Qi Gong class, Luncheon Club, Line Dancing etc., primarily for those who are retired.

因为圣马丁教堂临近中国城,所以它也提供中文的崇拜和圣经研习活动。事实上,在圣马 丁教堂的地下室有一个华人的社区中心。刘女士,54岁,是这个何明华会督协会暨社区中心的管 理人员。这个中心之所以叫做“何明华”的原因是,最初在香港有个Ho主教,他发现很多在英 国的中国移民在伦敦定居后依旧需要许多帮助,所以他派了一位牧师来英国帮助这些移民们。其 他人为了纪念他们,就把他的名字音译为“何”,而“明华”是指明白华人的需要。中心举办很 多的活动,比如太极班,龙舟俱乐部,舞狮等等,而参加中心的人员主要以退休老人为主。而最 初选择在圣马丁教堂开设这个中心的原因是当时香港的何主教在帮助人们的时候经常鼓励他们去 教会,所以他便问圣马丁教堂是否能借地方给他们进行中文的崇拜,而圣马丁教堂给了他们一层 地下室让他们使用。现在,每周的崇拜活动已经移到了教堂内部,而地下室则变成了活动室和办 公室。 47


Temple Church 圣殿教堂 Temple Church, according to their introduction on their webpage, “is one of the most historic and beautiful churches in London”, located in the Temple area of London.4 Heraclius, Patriarch of Jerusalem, consecrated with this church in honor of the Blessed Virgin Mary on 10 February, 1185, and it was the Chapel serving the London headquarters of the Knights Templar.5 The Knights Templar built the church, which is why it bears their name “Temple”.4 In 1841, Smirke and Burton restored

Temple Church is the third oldest church in London. 圣殿教堂是伦敦第三老的的教堂。 48


There are Bibles in front of most the seats in Temple Church. 在圣殿教堂里,大部分的椅子前都放着圣经

the church, decorating the walls and ceiling in the high Lady Sophie Caws, 69, who has become a Victorian Gothic style, in the object of bringing the church volunteer in Temple Church about 4 years. “back to its original appearance”.7 On the night of 10 May, 69岁的Sophie女士在圣殿教堂做了四年的 1941, the church was badly damaged by bombs from Nazi 志愿者了。 air raids on London, and the round church roof burned first and soon spread to the nave and choir because of the wind.8 Lady Sophie Caws, 69, who has become a volunteer in Temple Church about 4 years, explain that “it basically reconstructed now. Temple Church is the third oldest church in London that is still in use. Because the Church is always in use, and it became a lawyers’ church, so the church was protected really well.” Now Temple Church has services every Sunday, holding concerts, weddings, and funerals from time to time.

圣殿教堂“是伦敦最有历史的和最美丽的教堂之一”,它位于伦敦的圣殿区域。4

它“是

49


在1185年2月10日被耶路撒冷族长用来荣耀 圣母玛利亚的”,而且他是圣殿骑士团在 伦敦的主教堂。5 事实上,这个教堂就是被 圣殿骑士团建立的,所以才被命名为了“ 圣殿”。4 1841年时,教堂进行了重建,墙 壁和天花板都被 Smirke 和 Burton 修建成了 维多利亚哥特式,他们这样做的目的是为 了“让这个教堂能够回到它最初的样子” 。7 在1941年5月10日,教堂在纳粹的空袭 中被炸弹严重损毁了,“教堂的屋顶首先 烧了起来,而大火很快蔓延到了中殿和唱 诗班”。8 69岁的Sophie女士介绍说,“ 但是现在它已经基本被修复了。圣殿教堂 是伦敦第三老的还在使用中的教堂。因为 这个教堂一直都在使用中,而且这是一个 律师教堂,所以并不需要什么特别的保 护。”Sophia女士在圣殿教堂做了四年的志 愿者了。现在圣殿教堂依然每周日有主日 崇拜,不定期会有音乐会,也会承办婚礼 或葬礼。 Temple Church’s roof was badly damaged by bombs from Nazi air raids on London, but it is now basically reconstructed. 圣殿教堂的屋顶在二战时被纳粹的炸弹严重损毁了,但 现在已经基本修复了。

a church is still to provide spiritual comfort to people. 50

Temple Church and St Martin-in-thefield are both really old and beautiful churches in London. However, even this two churches and many others already became a unique style of architecture, but the main function of

圣马丁教堂和圣殿教堂都是古老而美丽的教堂,尽管现在教堂已经成为了一个独特的建筑


群体,但是教堂最主要的功能,依然是为人们带来心灵上的寄托与慰藉。

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52


cOVENT gARden 考文特花园

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Covent Garden is one of the oldest markets in London, and this area has been a trading port since the 1st century.1 In the 13th century, this 40-acre area was a large kitchen garden for the Covent or Abbey of St Peter at Westminster, and Covent Garden became a main source of fruit and vegetable for Londoners in the nest 700 years.1 After the Great Fire in 1666, because many markets in east London were destroyed, Covent Garden became the most important fruit, vegetable and flower market in the city.1 In 1980, Covent Garden reopened as Europe’s first specialty shopping center, and it became more and more famous.1 Due to its renown, many people come to work here.

Covent Garden is one of the oldest markets in London, and this area has been a trading port since the 1st century. 考文特花园是伦敦最古老的市场之一,这片区域早在公园一世纪就已经是一个集市了。

考文特花园是伦敦最古老的市场之一。1 这片区域早在公元一世纪就已经是一个集市了。1 在公元13世纪的时候,这个40英亩的地方一度是威斯敏斯特圣彼得教堂和圣女院的厨房花园,而 在接下来的700年间这里则成了伦敦一个主要的蔬菜瓜果交易市场。1 在1666年的伦敦大火之后, 因为东伦敦地区的市场几乎都被烧毁了,所以考文特花园变成了伦敦最重要的水果蔬菜市场。1 1980年时,考文特花园作为欧洲第一个专门的购物中心重新开放了,并且名气越来越大。1 而作 54


为一个久负盛名的市场,在这里工作的人也是多种多 样的。1

Nana, 54, has been working in Covent Garden as a cleaner for almost 20 years. Nana,54岁,是考文特花园的一名清洁工, 而他已经在这里工作了将近20年了。

Nana, 54, has been working in Covent Garden as a cleaner for almost 20 years. He came to work here initially because he liked Covent Garden. “It’s a very nice place, you always can see different people, and that keeps me working here.” He always talks to people, so that he can improve his customer service. He knows a lot about Covent Garden’s history, “Covent Garden was a fruit and vegetable market, for the old people carry their baskets selling their products here, but now you can see, there is nothing like that here. That’s why they set up the Apple Market [within Covent Garden], to sell hand make products .” Nana also said that the Covent Garden now is very different from the one in 1994, which is when he began to work here. “Previously,

Now, Covent Garden is full of tables and chairs from the restaurants around. 如今的考文特花园到处都放置了附近餐厅的椅子和凳子。

there were less restaurants, and some cheap shops ... Now, they have modernized, there are a lot of restaurants, and full of chairs and tables. And because of the building, the name, the shops are very expensive. The cheap shops, they all left, because of the rent, they all quit.” He is not really like the changes, “I like before, because you could feel the environment. Like this lantern, you see they put a pineapple on top to make it like before they sell pineapple and other fruits, but you can’t see the history because they’ve changed everything,” he said, with a 55


little sadness. Nana,54岁,是考文特花园的一 名清洁工,而他已经在这里工作了将近20 年了。他来这里工作的原因是因为他喜欢 考文特花园,“这里非常得漂亮,而且总 是能碰到各种各样的人,所以我留在了这 里工作。”他也很喜欢跟人们聊天,他认 为这能促进他提供更好的服务。他对考文 特花园的历史很了解,“考文特花园最初 是一个卖水果蔬菜的市场,许多老人带 着他们的篮子来这里卖东西。但是现在你 看,这里已经完全没有那个样子了,”他 说,“这就是为什么他们又设立了这个苹 果市场[考文特花园里的一个小市场], 这样人们就能来卖些手工艺品之类的 。” Nana 说现在的考文特花园跟1994年他刚开 始在这里工作时候也完全不一样了,“以 前,这里没有那么多的餐厅,也有一些便 宜的商店。但是现在,这里现代化了,这 The Pineapple on the lantern shows that here is a fruit and 里开了越来越多的餐厅,到处都是餐厅的 vegetable market before. 桌椅。另外因为这里的名气,这里的房租 吊灯上的菠萝是为了表示这里以前是一个蔬菜瓜果市场。 也变得很高,以前那些便宜的商店也就都 离开了。”他并不是很喜欢这些改变,“ 我喜欢以前,因为以前你可以感觉到这里的氛围还有这里富有历史的建筑。就像这些吊灯,他们放了 菠萝雕塑在灯的顶端来表示这里以前售卖菠萝和其他的水果。但是因为这些变化,你再也看不出这里 的历史了。

56

Brooke Day, 35, from Canada, is a street performer in Convent Garden. Performing in Covent Garden


is his part-time job, but it is his main source of income, “because it’s always available, every day of the year, it’s always bustling, so I’m here six days a week.” Brooke and his group come here almost every day. The reason why he started performing here was because when he was in college, a friend who was already performing here asked him if he wanted to join him. However, even now, he knows very little about Covent Garden’s history. “I expect it to be a garden before I came, with trees and you know, flowers. So when I got here, it was kind of a shock. I was very excited, ‘cause its atmosphere, and tourism, and there are lot of bars and good shopping. It was not what I expected.” Brooke’s group perform classical music, but not as you would expect. They put a lot of movement into it, they even jump while they are performing. “It’s all about getting people who don’t know anything about the music to be interested. Here, the people passing by, they don’t know anything about the music, so we need to do something to draw people in. We need to stand up and run around, make eye contact and get involved with little kids and stuff like that. We need to do something different rather than just play the music. “ Brooke Day,35岁,来自加拿大,是考 文特花园的一位街头艺人。他说在这里表演虽 然只能算是他的兼职,但是却是他的主要收入 来源。“因为这里总是开放的,每天都可以在 这里表演赚钱。”Brooke和他的团队几乎每天 都来这里。他选择来这里表演的原因是因为当 他还在大学里的时候,他的一个朋友已经在这 里表演了,而他邀请Brooke加入他们。但是直 Brooke Day, 35, from Canada, is a street performer in Convent 到现在,他还是对考文特花园知之甚少,只觉 Garden. 得这是个不错的地方,“我原先以为这里就跟 Brooke Day,35岁,来自加拿大,是考文特花园的一位 街头艺人。 一般的花园一样,有许多花花草草的。但是当 57


Apple Market is a market inside Covent Garden for hand make products. 苹果市场是考文特花园里一个专门售卖手工制品的小市场。 58


我来到这里之后,我确实震惊了。这里很有趣,因为这里的 气氛,也因为这里的游客、商店和酒吧。这是我没有想到 的。”Brooke和他的团队表演的是古典音乐,但是跟一般的 古典音乐表演不同的是,他们加入了许多动作元素在他们的 表演中,他们甚至在表演的时候还蹦蹦跳跳的。“这都是为 了将人们的眼光吸引过来,让他们觉得感兴趣。这里人来人 往的,他们并不是很熟悉古典音乐,所以如果我们要让这些 路过的人知道我们在做什么,我们就需要做些不一样的表演 来吸引他们。” Terence, 30, from east London, is working at Msrrand, a store that sells soaps in Covent Garden. The store belongs to his friend, and it has been running for 13 years, but he only began working here from 2013 summer. He enjoys working here. “It’s a nice place to work, surrounded by nice people. What we do in our store is very beautiful and very unique. It’s cold now, but in the summer time, it’s very beautiful.” Msrrand’s soaps are very special, because there are real flowers on them, “we want to produce something beautiful and kind of show-stopping.” He said they have three main groups of customers: Americans, Asians, mainly Japanese, and a lot of Italians as well. He thinks the reason why those groups buy their soaps it’s because they are produced here by British people. The reason why they chose this location for the store is because they believe Covent Garden is the best market in London. Terence,30岁,来自伦敦东部,目前在考文特花园一 个专门卖手工香皂的店铺“Msrrand”工作。这个铺子已经开 了有13年了,属于他的朋友,而他是从去年夏天才开始在这 59


Brooke and his group put a lot of movement into their performance, they even jump while they are performing. Brooke和他的团队在他们的表演中加入了许多动作元素,他们甚至在表演的时候还蹦蹦跳跳的。

里工作的。他喜欢在这里工作,“因为这里是个很适合工作的地方,人们都很和善,而且我们卖的是 很漂亮和很独特的东西。尽管现在很冷,但是到了夏天的时候,这里就会变得特别的漂亮。”Msrrand 卖的香皂非常地独特,因为在香皂的顶部缀上了许多真的小花,因为“我们觉得我们所制造的东西不 仅要漂亮,还要可以作为一种装饰品。”他们的顾客主要来自三个区域,分别是美国,亚洲,主要是 日本,还有意大利。他认为他们的香皂吸引人的主要原因是因为他们是在英国生产并且是由英国人制 造的。而他们把店开在考文特花园的原因是因为他们相信这是伦敦最好的市场 。 Today, Covent Garden is a tourists’ market, and fruit and vegetable are no longer sold here. Some people may think this is a pity, but this change brought a lot of new and exciting energy to the place. 60


There are real flowers on Msrrand’s soaps. Msrrand出售的香皂上镶有真的花朵。

如今,考文特花园已经转变成了一个游客 市场了,人们也不再能在这里看到水果蔬菜了。 有些人觉得这对于考文特花园来说是一个遗憾。 但是不可否认的是,这为考文特花园注入了新的 活力 。

Terence, 30, from east London, is working at a store that sells soaps in Covent Garden. Terence,30岁,来自东伦敦,目前在考文特花 园一个专门卖手工香皂的店铺工作。

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lONDON CHINATOWN 伦敦中国城

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The area around Gerrard Street did not truly became Chinatown until the great fire in 1666. Gerrard Street周边的这块区域直到1666年的伦敦大火之后才真正变成了中国城。

The original London Chinatown first appeared in 18th century in London’s East End.1 This is because at that time, the East India Company employed thousands of Chinese workers, and some of them chose to settle in the Limehouse area of London.1 In 1914, there were about 30 Chinese businesses run by Chinese people at Limehouse, and most of the businesses were just small shops and restaurants.1 However, by 1950, many Chinese in London had no place to live and did not earn enough money to survive.1 However, when British soldiers returned from the Far East, they brought business to the Chinese restaurants in London, and a few restaurateurs began to open their businesses in Gerrard Street in the West End.1 This is the area where the current Chinatown now stands, and it drew more and more Chinese people to the area.1 The area around Gerrard Street did not truly became Chinatown until the great fire in 1666.1 64


18世纪,最早的伦敦中国城建立在 East End 地区。1 因为那时的东印度公司聘用了数千名 中国工人,而他们中的一部分选择了在伦敦的 Limehouse 地区定居下来。1 到了1914年,这个地 区已经有超过30家由中国人经营的商家了,虽然其中的大部分都只是小商铺和餐厅。1 但是在 1950年时,许多在伦敦的中国移民没有地方住也没有足够的收入支撑他们的生活。1 不过,一批 从远东回来的英国士兵为当地的中国餐厅带去了生意,一些餐厅开始把店开在了位于现在中国城 区域 West End 的 Gerrard Street 上,而这使得越来越多的中国人搬到了这个区域居住。1 但是这 一区域在1666年的大火之后才真正成为中国城。1

Put the first character in each couplet on the three memorial gateways, it will bacome “London Chinatown” in Chinese. 中国城内有三个牌坊,将每个牌坊上的对联中的第一个字组合起来便是“倫敦華埠”四个字。

The architecture in London Chinatown is not distinct from the architecture of other places in London, except for the exterior decoration of the shops and restaurants, the languages used on the streets, the three memorial gateways, and the Chinese pavilion. There are two Chinese couplets written on the three memorial gateways (two of the gateways have the same one) , and if you 65


Dragon dancing performance during the Chinese New Year celebration on 2nd February, 2014. 2014年2月2日伦敦中国新年庆典时的舞龙表演。

combine the first Chinese character in each couplet, it says “London Chinatown” in Chinese. 中国城的建���跟伦敦其他地方的建筑并没有太大的区别。能够把这个区域跟伦敦其他区域 区分开的就是这里的店铺餐厅,店门口的文字,还有三个牌坊,和一个中式亭子。三个牌坊上 共写了两幅对联,分别是“倫肆遙臨英帝苑,敦誼克紹漢天威”和“華堂肯構陶公業,埠物康 民敏寺鍾”,横幅均为“倫敦華埠”。 With such a significant Chinese population in London, Chinese New Year is also celebrated in London Chinatown every year. Celebrations involve lion dancing performances and red lanterns hung on midair in Chinatown. The main celebration was on February 2nd this year. According to BBC 66


news, there were thousands of people came to join the New Year celebration on that day.2 作为一个中国人聚居的区域,伦敦中国 城每年也都会庆祝中国新年。春节期间,中国 城内会有许多组舞狮表演,街道各处都会挂上 大红灯笼,十分喜庆。而今年的庆祝日是在2 月2日星期日。根据BBC的报道,有数千人参 加到了今年的春节庆典中.2 Anike, 19, is from Germany, and she came to Chinatown for the Chinese New Year celebration this year. She finds this Chinatown quite big and nice. “It’s very different from what it was years ago”, but she does not think the food here is authentic. She understands that Chinese New Year is based on the lunar calendar, unlike the western New Year, and she also knows that it is now the year of the horse. Anike,19岁,来自德国,专门到 中国城来参加中国新年的庆典,因为她 想要看看这里的热闹景象。她觉得这个 中国城很大很漂亮,“但是这几年好像 变化了很多。”她计划晚上吃一顿中餐 以此来庆祝中国新年。不过她觉得这里 的中餐并不正宗,对于中国新年她只知 道跟西方的新年是不一样的,而今年是 马年。

Anike, 19, is from Germany, and she came to Chinatown for the Chinese New Year celebration this year. Anike,19岁,来自德国,专门到中国城来参加中国 新年的庆典。

Nicole Mccabe (right), 27, and her friend also came to Chinatown for the Chinese New Year celebrations. Nicole Mccabe(右),27岁,和她的朋友也是为了看中国 新年而来的中国城。 67


Nicole Mccabe, 27, also came to Chinatown for the Chinese New Year celebrations. She used to come when she was young, and she knows a little bit more than the others about the history of Chinese New Year. For example, she knows that there was a Chinese God who wanted people to remember his birthday, so he made his birthday the date of Chinese New Year and had 12 animals take turns to be honored each year. She is also know she is tiger.

Xuechun Jin, 19, is an A-Level student in London from China. 金雪纯,19岁,是一名在伦敦就读A-Level的中国学生。

Nicole Mccabe,27岁,同样是为了参加中国新年庆典来的中国城。她以前小的时候也会来 庆祝中国新年。她比别人更了解中国新年一些,她说中国新年是一个中国的神为了让人们记住他 的生日,所以就把他的生日变成了中国新年,还让十二个动物轮流出来提醒大家。除此之外她还 知道自己是属虎的。 Xuechun Jin, 19, is an A-Level student in London from China, and this is the second year she has been away from home during Chinese New Year. She really misses celebrating Chinese New Year at home in China, because she cannot feel the atmosphere of Chinese New Year as much here. However, she and her friends still came here to have lunch together to celebrate. She thinks this Chinatown is nice over all, even though she does not think the food here is very good, because she is from the northern part of China, and the food in Chinatown is more southern with adaptation to fit the British palate. However, most of the time when she comes to Chinatown, it is still for Chinese food.

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Coco Ye has been living in London for over 12 years, and she is now working at Nature And Health Chinese Massage in Chinatown. Coco Ye来伦敦已经12年了,她在中国城的一家中式医疗按摩 店“良医馆”工作。

金雪纯,19岁,是一名在伦 敦就读A-Level的学生,这是她第 二次在英国度过春节了。她非常想 念在中国庆祝新年,因为她觉得这 边没有什么春节的气氛。但是她还 是会跟朋友们一起出来吃个饭庆祝 新年。至于这个中国城,她总体来 说还是满意的,不过因为她来自北 方,而中国城的食物口味都偏南 方,同时为了迎合英国人的口味而 改变了太多,所以她觉得不是很满 意。即使如此,她来中国城大部分 时候也还是为了来吃饭的。 Coco Ye has been living in London for over 12 years, and she has

worked at Nature And Health Chinese Massage in Chinatown for 6 years. She said that only one third of their customers are Chinese. She does not usually have time off on Chinese New Year like she did when she lived in China. However, the shop owner orders dumplings for her and the staffs every year, and after work, she also has a small celebration with her family. She misses celebrating Chinese New Year in China, but she has a family here, so she does not feel as though she misses too much. Coco Ye 则来伦敦已经12年了,她在中国城的一家中式医疗按摩店“良医馆”工作了也 有六年了。她说她们店里只有三分之一的顾客是中国人。而在中国新年期间他们都是没有假 的,所以春节期间她基本上都还要上班。但是他们的老板一般都会给他们叫水饺外卖,在下 班之后她也会跟她的家人一起庆祝新年。她虽然也想念以前在中国庆祝新年的时光,但是因 为她已经在这里成家了,所以也就没有那么想了。

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London Chinatown is not just a scenic spot for tourists; it is a thriving community for British Chinese immigrants. London Chinatown can give Chinese immigrants, and Chinese students the feeling of home, and it is also a place where other people can learn more about China and Chinese culture. London Chinatown has become an irreplaceable part of the multicultural fabric of London society. 伦敦中国城不仅仅是一个旅游景点,它更是众多中国移民真实生活的地方。它能够提供给 中国移民和中国留学生故乡的感觉,更是外国人了解中国的一个窗口。伦敦中国城已经成了伦 敦多重文化社会中不可取代的一部分了。

A family was standing in the “Children Zoon” of the Chinese New Year Celebration. 一家四口站在伦敦中国新年庆典的儿童游乐区内。 70


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london museums 伦敦的博物馆

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As a city that has a reputation for culture, it won’t be a surprise that London has more than 300 museums and galleries.1 Some of the Museums are world famous, such as the British Museum, the National Gallery and the Natural History Museum. Some of them are not as big as the British Museum, but are still highly engaging, like the Sherlock Holmes Museum and the Jewish Museum. However, no matter what the size of the museums, they all have their specialty. 伦敦是一个拥有国际声誉的文化名城,在伦敦总共拥有超过300间博物馆和艺廊。1 这些博 物馆中有些名声赫赫,人尽皆知,如大英博物馆,国家美术馆和自然历史博物馆。有些博物馆名 气或规模没那么大,但是却也小巧精致,如夏洛克博物馆和犹太博物馆。但是无论这些博物馆的 规模如何,它们都拥有它们各自的特点。

The Victoria and Albert Museum (V&A Museum) 维多利亚和阿尔伯特博物馆 (V&A 博物馆) The Victoria and Albert Museum is one of the worldleading museum of design art, and it provides the “practice of design and increasing knowledge, understanding and enjoyment of the designed world”.2 The age of the art collections in the V&A Museum has a range of over two thousand years, and they are from many parts of the world.3 维多利亚和阿尔伯特博 物馆是世界上最大的装潢艺术 与设计艺术博物馆,博物馆提 74

The Victoria and Albert Museum is a world-leading museum of art and design. 维多利亚和阿尔伯特博物馆是世界上最大的装潢艺术与设计博物馆。


There are many different types of benches in the museum for visitors to seat. 博物馆内有各种各样的供参观者休息用的长椅。

供“艺术训练,以及增进知识,(使人们可以)理解和享受艺术设计。2 V&A博物馆的藏品时 间跨度超过两千年,藏品来自于全球许多国家与地区。3 The museum was established in 1852, and the principle was to make the works of art available to everyone.4 It moved to its current location in 1857 and was renamed the “South Kensington Museum” .4 It became “Victoria and Albert Museum” because Queen Victoria laid the foundation stone for the new building designed for the main entrance in 1899,4 but Queen Victoria really wanted to name it “Albert Museum” at first.5 Nowadays, the collections in the V&A Museum consist of 226,747 museum objects and works of art, and 2,014,971 display collections of books, drawings, prints, photographs and archives, which are available in the Museum’s Study Rooms or 75


by appointment.6 The collections, such as ceramics, glass textiles etc., span the cultures of Europe, Asia, North Africa and so on.4 V&A博物馆建于1852年,它的宗旨是让每个 人都能有机会欣赏艺术。4 它于1857年搬到了如今博 物馆所在的位置,并且改名为“南肯辛顿博物馆” 。4 而博物馆的名字最终变成维多利亚和阿尔伯特 博物馆是因为维多利亚女王在1899年时为博物馆新 楼的入口奠基。4 但其实维多利亚女王一直想把博 物馆命名为阿尔伯特博物馆。5 如今,V&A博物馆 展出的展品有226,747件,总共收藏的书籍、绘画、 照片及文件有2,014,971件,其中大部分在博物馆的 学习室或者通过预约都可以看到。6 而陶器、玻璃等 藏品则来自于欧洲、亚洲以及非洲等地区。4 The buildings of the V&A Museum occupy 12 acres of land.5 It is a typical Victorian building, and Price Albert designed the early architecture of the museum, the “iron house” by himself.7 Also, the V&A Museum has a lot of “firsts” in museums history: It was the first museum in the world that had a photographs collection as art in 1856; the first museum in the world to provide a public restaurant; the first museum in the world to use gas lighting in the galleries, which allowed evening opening.5

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V&A博物馆占地12英亩,博物馆建筑本身是典


The collections in the V&A Museum consist of 226,747 museum objects and works of art from all over the world. V&A博物馆展出了来自世界各地的226,747件展品。 77


型的维多利亚风格建筑,阿尔伯特王子曾亲自设计了博物馆的早期建筑“铁屋”。7 同时,V&A博 物馆也拥有很多博物馆历史上的第一:1856年,它是第一个把照片作为艺术收藏的博物馆;它也是 世界上第一个提供餐饮服务的博物馆;它还是第一个在博物馆中放置煤气灯的博物馆,让博物馆可 以在晚间也向游客开放。5

The V&A Museum building is a typical Victorian style building. 博物馆建筑本身是典型的维多利亚风格。

As a museum with so many categories, gallery assistant Stephen, 51, described the museum as a wonderful “hotch potch,” which means a mix of things. Stephen has worked here for nine years, and he first chose to work here because he liked art and design. “There are always things you haven’t seen; there are always things to do,” he said, “and it covers so much design, like the sculptures and the photographs, we have a massive collection of photographs.” On the topic of visiting the museum, 78


he gave advice that “first, don’t do all galleries, there is too much in the museum, pick the things you like. It’s very easy to go it round and circle in the museum and not miss things, because the building is quite complicated.” He recommended the glass section, the Asian gallery specifically.

作为一个拥有这么多展馆的博物 馆,展馆助理Stephen,51岁,形容博 物馆是一个“大锅烩。”Stephen已经 在这个博物馆里工作了九年了,而他最 初选择来这个博物馆工作的原因是因为 他喜欢艺术设计。“这里总有我还没见 过的东西,总有我还能做的事情,”他 说,“这里所展出的设计实在太多了, 像这些雕塑和照片,我们收藏了大量的 照片。”而对于游览博物馆,Stephen 也给出了他的建议:“首先,不要全部 看完,因为这个博物馆里的东西实在太 多了,选自己感兴趣的看就好了。而且 这个博物馆适合按环形顺序来参观,因 为这个楼里面的结构比较复杂。”他 推荐的展馆有玻璃展馆、亚洲展馆等 等。 The V&A Museum was the first museum in the world to provide a public restaurant. V&A博物馆是世界上第一个提供餐饮服务的博物馆。

The V&A museum not only provides entertainment service to the tourists, 79


it also has educational function. Holly Arnizo, 21, is an art student from The Princes Drawing School in London. She had assignment that included the V&A Museum. They need to go to a gallery every Friday, and they come to the V&A museum about once a month. They focus on different aspects of the museum each time they visit. This time they were studying architectures, “because the museum is so big, we focus on something different each time.” She loves this museum, because every time she comes to the museum, it changes, so she will try to find the things she has not seen before. 事实上,游客参观只是这个博 物馆功能的一部分,它也经常被用 于教学用途。Holly Arnizo,21岁, 是一位就读于伦敦王子绘画学院的 学生。她到这个博物馆来是因为他 们的绘画作业里包括了对这个博物 馆里的展品进行临摹。她们每周五 都要选择一个博物馆进行绘画,而 她们差不多一个月就要来一次V&A 博物馆,并且每次来这里画的东西 都不一样,“因为这个博物馆太大 了,所以我们每次都只专注于一样 东西。”她喜欢这个博物馆,因为 每次来,这里都会有些变化,然后 她就会去找那些她以前没见过的东 80

Gallery assistant Stephen, 51, has worked here for nine years. 展馆助理Stephen,51岁,已经在这个博物馆里工作 了九年了。

Holly Arnizo, 21, is an art student from The Princes Drawing School. Holly Arnizo,21岁,就读于伦敦的王子绘画学院的学生。


西。 The Victoria and Albert Museum, is one of the biggest museums, as provides an incredible experience to everyone who is interested. 维多利亚和阿尔伯特博物馆作为英国最大的博物馆之一,会一直免费为感兴趣的人们提供 精美的艺术作品。

A guid was introducing the “Fly Chair” to a group of students. 一名讲解员在向一队学生介绍“飞椅”。

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The Freud Museum 弗洛伊德博物馆 The Freud Museum, at 20 Maresfield Gardens in Hampstead, London, was the home of Sigmund Freud and his family’s house after they escaped to London from Austria during World War II.8 It was also Anna Freud’s home, the youngest daughter, until she died in 1982, and it was her wish to make this house a museum in honor her father.8 弗洛伊德博物馆位于伦敦汉 普斯特德的20 Marefield Garden,它 曾经是西格蒙德·弗洛伊德和他的 家人在1938年因二战时纳粹对犹太 人的迫害后来到英国的住处。8 它也 是西格蒙德·弗洛伊德最小的孩子 安娜·弗洛伊德的住处,直到她于 1982年去世。之后这里根据她的遗 愿改成了博物馆,她希望以此来纪 念他的父亲。8 The Freud Museum is located at 20 Maresfield Gardens in Hampstead, London. 弗洛伊德博物馆位于伦敦汉普斯特德的 20 Marefield Garden。

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Sigmund Freud, the founder of modern psychoanalysis, was an Austrian, Jewish Neurologist.9 He created an “entirely new approach to the understanding of the human


personality,” and his most famous book was The Interpretation of Dream in 1900, in which “Freud analyzed dreams in terms of unconscious desires and experience”.9 Sigmund Freud was born on May 6th, 1856 in Freiberg, Moravia.9 Freud began to study medicine at the University of Vienna in 1873, and then he went to Paris as a student of the neurologist Jean Charcot in 1885, where his study of psychoanalysis began.9 Anna Freud was the only one of Sigmund Freud’s six children who also became a psychologist, and she “continued to develop her pioneering psychoanalytic work, especially with children,” during the 44 years she lived in 20 Maresfield Gardens.8 西格蒙德·弗洛伊德是现代心理 学的创始人,在他搬来伦敦以前,他 已是一位奥地利籍的犹太神经学家。 他创造了“对于人性本身的一套全新 的理解,”而他最有名的著作是发表 于1900年的《梦的解析》,这本书表 现了“弗洛伊德对于梦中的无意识的 欲望的分析”。9 西格蒙德·弗洛伊德 于1856年5月6号在Freiberg, Moravia出 生。9 他于1873年在维也纳大学开始学

Sigmund Freud and his family’s escaped to London from Austria during World War II and lived in this house. 西格蒙德·弗洛伊德和他的家人因二战时纳粹对犹太人的迫害 而来到英国后的住处。

A group of student came here to learn the story about Freud. 一队学生来这里了解弗洛伊德的故事。

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习医药学,在1885年作为 Jean Charcot 的学生来到了巴黎学习神经学,这成为了他心理学研究的 开始。9 安娜·弗洛伊德是西格蒙德弗洛伊德的六个孩子中唯一一个也成为了心理学家的人,而 她在住在 20 Marefield Garden 的44年里“继续发展了精神分析学,特别是在跟儿童有关的方面” 。8 The Freud Museum “engages actively with Sigmund and Anna’s psychoanalytic legacy in contemporary ideas, art, and culture, while caring for the house and collections”.8 The museum has two floors: ground floor includes Freud’s study, which contains the book collections from Anna and Sigmund Freud, the desk that Freud used, and the psychoanalytic couch that was used by Freud’s patients during the psychoanalytic sessions.8 The first floor has Anna Freud’s Room, the Landing, a movie room and an exhibition room, which include Mel Calman’s cartoon about psychology.8 弗洛伊德博物馆保留了“西格蒙德和安娜·弗洛伊德的精神分析思想,艺术以及文化”。8 博物馆分两层:第一层是弗洛伊德的书房,里面放置了他和安娜收藏的书籍,弗洛伊德以前使用 过的书桌,还有他在心理咨询时病人 躺的椅子。8 第二层则包括了一个电影 播放室和一个展览室,里面展览的是 著名漫画家 Mel Calman创作的与心理 学有关的漫画。8 Now, the house is still a nice and comfortable house. It is even hard to notice there is a museum because of all other houses around. People who visit or work in the museum do so because they are interested in Freud and his work. 84

如今,这件房子依旧是一间温馨

Allessandro, 34, from Italy, is a volunteer in Freud Museum. Allessandro,34岁,来自意大利,是弗洛伊德博物馆里的一名 志愿者。


舒适的房子。它甚至很难从附近的众多民居中被辨认出来。来参观这个博物馆或者这里工作的人 也基本都是因为对弗洛伊德的生平和理论感兴趣的人。 Allessandro, 34, from Italy, became a volunteer in Freud Museum just a few weeks ago. The reason why he became a volunteer in this museum is because he is getting a Freud-related degree at university, so he thinks he may get some inspiration here. He has learned a lot history and stories about Freud from his work, and he enjoys it, “I can talk to people about Freud here, and it helps me a lot.” Allessandro,34岁,来自意大利,是这个博物馆里的一名志愿者。他来这里当志愿者的原 因是因为他在考取一个跟弗洛伊德有关的学位,所以他认为来这里会给他一些灵感。他从这里学 到了很多关于弗洛伊德的历史和故事,而且他很喜欢在这里工作,“我能跟人们讨论弗洛伊德, 这对我的功课很有帮助。” Needless to say, many people like to visit museums, no matter going alone with friends or with a group of people. However, why do people like to visit museums? Dr. Guillermo Caliendo, 51, a professor of “Intercultural and Global Communication” from Temple University, commented that, “First, the museums hold memories about culture,” he said. When two people could understand a same historical event, they will feel close to each other. Also, knowing the history about a place can provide the sense of belonging to a person, “For example, the

Dr. Guillermo Caliendo, 51, a professor of “Intercultural and Global Communication” from Temple University. Guillermo Caliendo博士,51岁,是天普大学“跨文化 与全球交流”课程的教授。 85


Museum of London has a section about the London Fire in 1666, so by visiting the museum, the person connects to the moment of history.” That is why people like to go to Museums. 许多人喜欢逛博物馆,无论是自己一个人还是跟一帮人一起。但是为什么人们喜欢逛博物 馆呢?天普大学的 Guillermo Caliendo 博士,51岁,是一位教授“跨文化与全球交流”课程的教 授,给出了他的观点。“首先,博物馆承载了记忆与文化,”他说。当两个人理解了同一件历史 事件的时候,他们会觉得他们的关系被拉近了。而且,了解了一个地方的历史会让人对这个地方 产生归属感,“比如说,伦敦博物馆有个关于1666年伦敦大火的展区,参观这个展区会让人与这 个历史事件产生联系感。”这就是为什么人们喜欢逛博物馆的原因。 In a city like London, which offers so many free museums for visitors, we should enjoy every museum we get into, no matter what the reason that brings you there. 像伦敦这样一个提供了那么多免费博物馆的地方,我们所要做的,就是享受这些博物馆, 无论最初是什么原因把我们带进了这个博物馆。

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Royal festival hall 皇家节日音乐厅

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The Royal Festival Hall is the main hall of the Southbank Centre complex, which is open to the public.1 It opened in 1951 as a part of the Festival of Britain, and it is one of the world’s leading performance venues.1 It includes The Clore Ballroom, The Saison Poetry Library, The Southbank Centre shop, The Riverside Terrace Café, and many other functional spaces.1

皇家节日音乐厅是南岸中心的主要建筑。1 它于1951年作为“英国节庆”的一部分开放,并 且成为世界最好的表演场所之一。1 它的功能区域包括 Clore 舞厅,Saison 诗歌图书馆,南岸中 心商店,以及河岸咖啡厅等许多区域。1

The Royal Festival Hall is the main hall of the Southbank Centre complex, and The Saison Poetry Library is one of the main fuction spaces in The Royal Festival Hall. 皇家节日音乐厅是南岸中心的主要建筑,而 Saison诗歌图书馆是皇家节日音乐厅的主要功能区域之一。 90


The Southbank Centre, which is located on the south side of the Thames River and next to the London Eye, is comprised of the Royal Festival Hall, the Queen Elizabeth Hall, the Purcell Room and the Hayward Gallery.2 Clement Atlee laid the foundation stone of the Royal Festival Hall on October 1949.2 The Royal Festival Hall was opened on May 3rd, 1951 with cost 2 million pounds.2 The concert hall of the Royal Festival Hall can includes 2,900 people and the orchestra platform can accommodate an orchestra of 100 and a choir of 250.2 On 1983, the Greater London Council decided to open the Royal

The Royal Festival Hall was opened on May 3rd 1951 with cost 2 million pounds. 耗资2百万英镑的皇家节日音乐厅在1951年5月3日开放。

Festival Hall to the public every day and all day, with free exhibitions, lunchtime concerts, evening Jazz performances and many other events.2 In January 1990, the London Philharmonic Orchestra was “announced as the Resident Symphony Orchestra at the Royal Festival Hall”.2

南岸中心位于泰晤士河的南岸,离伦敦眼只有几步路的距离。2 它包括了皇家节日音乐 91


厅,伊丽莎白女王厅,Purcell室和Hayward美术馆。2 1951年5月3日,耗资2百万英镑的皇家节日 音乐厅开放。2 皇家音乐厅的主音乐厅能够容纳2900名观众,交响乐舞台能够容纳一个100人的交 响乐团和250人的合唱团。2 1983年,伦敦市政府决定将皇家节日音乐厅免费向公众每天全天候开 放,同时提供许多免费的音乐会和爵士音乐会等活动。2 1990年1月,伦敦交响乐团宣布皇家节日 音乐厅成为他们的常驻表演地。2 Becky, 26, is a steward at the Royal Festival Hall. She explained that the main function of the space is as a concert hall for classical music concert, “but it is also an open public space, so it can be used as a meeting point, and people can come to watch the free events here. Another great thing about it is this is a public space and people can just come and use the Internet and meet friends.” In

BBC Radio 3 has live concert program from The Royal Festival Hall. BBC广播第三频道有来自皇家节日音乐厅的直播音乐会节目。 92


Amy, 26, who lives nearby, comes to The Royal Festival Hall for “a little bit of quite”. Amy,26岁,住在离皇家节日音乐厅不远的地方,来这里 寻找“些许的宁静”。

addition, there are free concerts every Friday at the Becky, 26, is a steward at the Royal Festival Hall. Royal Festival Hall, “we call it Friday lunch, and we Becky,26岁,是一名皇家节日音乐厅的工作人 also do workshops for various events.” Although, 员。 most of the concerts at the South Bank Centre are held in the Royal Festival Hall, Becky said, “we don’t just do classical music, we have a lot of contemporary gigs as well.” Becky,26岁,是一名皇家节日音乐厅的工作人员。她介绍说这个音乐厅的表演还是以古典 音乐为主,“但是因为这里免费对公众开放,所以这里也可以作为人们的会面场所。人们也可 以来欣赏这里的免费表演。而这里的另一个好处是人们可以只是来这里坐坐,使用这里的免费 网络上上网。”而这里每周五都有免费的音乐会,“我们称这个为周五午餐,而且这里也会承办 很多其它的活动。”事实上,大部分在南岸中心举办的音乐会都由皇家节日音乐厅承办,Becky 说,“我们不仅有古典音乐会,也有许多现代音乐会的演出。” 93


With such a welcoming free space available, Londoners also enjoy spending time here. Amy, 26, who lives nearby, usually comes here for “a little bit of quite”. “I don’t have anything to do, so I thought I’d better come and read, and have something to eat.” She comes here about once a month, because she thinks, “this is a nice place to sit, it’s free. Sometimes I will come here and have a drink before I go to see a play.” She likes that there is an open, free space for people to come and sit, and without having to pay. “It’s public, and always has something going on, and I don’t think there are enough free spaces in London.” She does not have tickets for any concert yet, but she said she is looking at the programs to find a show.

对于这么一个免费 舒适的场所,伦敦人也尽 可能地在享用着这里的空 间。Amy,26岁,住在离皇 家节日音乐厅不远的地方, 来这里寻找“些许的宁静” 。“我在家没什么事干,就 想还不如来这里看看书,找 There is a children area outside the The Saison Poetry Library with books and toys for 点东西吃。”她基本上一个 children to use. 月来这里一次,因为她觉 Saison诗歌图书馆的外面有一个儿童区域,里面有书和一些玩具可以供 得“这里是一个很适合来消 孩子们使用。 磨时间的地方,因为它是免 费的。有时我会在去看其它表演之前来这里喝杯咖啡。”她很高兴附近能有这样一个免费温馨的 地方可以让她来坐一坐。“它是对公众开放的,而且总是会有一些活动,而我觉得伦敦的免费场 所并不算多。”她还没有看过皇家节日音乐厅的表演,但是她已经在看简介想要寻找一些适合她 的演出。 94


The Royal Festival Hall is not only a functional free space for the public, it is also an architectural landmark. The architects who designed it were Sir Robert Matthew and Dr. Leslie Martin.2 A famous English Journalist, Bernard Levin, described his first impression of the Royal Festival Hall by saying “I was overwhelmed by a shock of breathless delight at the originality and beauty of the interior. It felt as if I had been instantly transported far into the future and that I was on another planet”.3 Also, writer Rosanna Holmes said that this fantastic modern public building is regarded as a “lift the spirits of a country beleaguered by years of privations, bombings and blackouts”.3 This Royal Festival Hall already became a kind of expression of British and London Spirit, and this makes it even more special for London. 皇家节日音乐厅不仅仅是一个功能性的表演场所,它同时也是一个非常独特的建筑物。设 计皇家节日音乐厅的设计师是Robert Mattem先生和 Leslie Martin博士。2 著名的英国记者 Bernard Levin 曾这样形容他第一次见到皇家节日音乐厅时的感受:“我被它内部的美丽和创意震惊地喘 不过气来。感觉我好象已经被运送到了未来,到了另一个星球上”。3 而作家Rosanna Holmes 则 说这个令人惊叹的现代建筑其实也是一个“在多年的困境、轰炸和停电后对国家精神的一个提 升”。3 皇家节日音乐厅已经成为了一个英国精神、伦敦精神的象征,而这也让它变得更为独特 了。

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london Eye 伦敦眼

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The London Eye is a giant Ferris wheel on the south bank of the Thames River. It is the world’s largest cantilevered observation wheel at 135m high.1 It was conceived and designed by Marks Barfield Architects and launched in 2000.1 However, at its creation, it was only supposed to stand for a few years as The Millennium Wheel,2 but now, it has become a symbol of modern London.2 In 2011, EDF Energy became a new partner of the London Eye, so the full name of The London Eye became EDF Energy London Eye.2

The London Eye is a giant Ferris wheel on the south bank of the Thames River. 伦敦眼是一个位于泰晤士河南岸的巨大摩天轮。

伦敦眼是一个位于泰晤士河南岸的巨大的摩天轮。它是世界上最大的悬臂式观景摩天轮。1 伦敦眼高135米,由Marks Barfield Architects构思与设计,并于2000年建成。1 但是最初,伦敦眼 是一个只打算运行上几年的千禧轮。2 但是现在,它却已经变成了伦敦的一个象征。而2011年新 加入的EDF Energy则将伦敦眼的全名变成了EDF Energy London Eye。2 The London Eye is currently the most popular tourist attraction in the UK.3 In each of its capsules, visitors can see up to 40 kilometers in all directions.4 There is an average of 3.5 million visitors every year, and it can carry 800 passengers per revolution, “equivalent to 11 London red double-decker buses”.4 Each capsule’s rotation takes about 30 minutes, and the circumference of the wheel is 424m, so a capsule travels 26cm per second, while still allowing passengers to step on and off without the wheel having to stop.4 98


如今,伦敦眼已经成为了英国最受欢迎的景点。3 在伦敦眼的胶囊舱中,游客们可以在伦 敦眼的顶端看到全���位40公里远的伦敦景致。4 平均每年有大约三百五十万游客乘坐伦敦眼,它 的每次旋转可以承载800名游客,“这相当于11辆伦敦双层巴士能够承载的旅客量”。4 每个胶囊 舱旋转一周用时30分钟,而伦敦眼的周长是424米,这就是说每个胶囊舱每秒可以“行走”26厘 米,但是这个速度依然可以保证伦敦眼在不用停止的情况下,乘客依然可以安全地上、下伦敦 眼。4

Usually, the London Eye is blue at night. 通常,伦敦眼在晚上是蓝色的。 99


What do people think of the London Eye? 在人们心中,伦敦眼是怎样的呢?

Paula Nadal, 37, from Argentina, said, “I like it, I think the design is funny.” Paula Nadal,37岁,来自阿根廷。她说:“我喜欢 它,它的设计很有趣。”

Brian Hunt is an artist in London and he likes to draw the London Eye and the Thames River. He said, “People like the London Eye, the Thames and the Parliament, because they are beautiful.” Brian Hunt是一位伦敦的画家,他喜欢画伦敦眼和泰 晤士河,“因为人们喜欢伦敦眼,泰晤士河还有议会 中心,它们很漂亮。” Ania Gorua, 23, from Poland, said, “I haven’t seen anything like this before.” Ania Gorua,23岁,来自波兰。她说:“我以前从来 没有见过类似的东西。” 100


Sabine Hertusy, 51, from Germany, said “it’s … em… ok.” Sabine Hertusy, 51岁,来自德国。她说:“ 它…嗯…还行吧。”

Jerome, 40, from France, is in London for the first time for business, said, “oh, you are talking about the giant wheel, I don’t know what it is.” Jerme,40岁,来自法国。这是他第一次来伦敦出 差,他说:“你说的是后面那个摩天轮啊,我不知道 那是什么。”

Lauren Deanus, 23, a resident of London, said, “It’s amazing how you can see the whole of London from it.” Lauren Deanus, 23岁,是一位伦敦人。她说:“只 要乘坐伦敦眼就能看到整个伦敦,这是多么地不可思 议啊。”

Rebecca Reid, 21, from Canada, said, “it’s worth doing once, but not the second time.” Bebecca Reid,21岁,来自加拿大。她说:“第一次 坐伦敦眼还是很值的,第二次就没必要了。” 101


The London Eye is not only a tourists’ spot, but also holds a lot of events. It held a Valentine’s Day celebration on Valentine’s Day, 2014.5 It also held a Halloween event in 2013.5 January 30th, 2014, the London Eye hosted performances and turned red and gold from blue at 6pm to celebrate Chinese New Year. 伦敦眼不只是一个旅游景点而已,它也会承办一些活动。如2014年的情人节,伦敦眼就举 办了一个情人节庆祝活动。5 2013年的万圣节也举办了万圣节活动。5 而2014年的中国春节,伦敦 眼从蓝色变成了红色和金色,还提供了一些表演,以此来庆祝中国新年。5 Compared to many other landmarks in London, the London Eye is fairly new and modern, but that is part of its attraction. It is now a key part of the London skyline, allowing people to appreciate London from above for many years to come.

January 30th, 2014, the London Eye turned red and gold from blue at 6pm to celebrate Chinese New Year. 2014年1月30日,伦敦眼从蓝色变成了红色和金色,以此来庆祝中国新 年。

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虽然跟伦敦其它地标相 比,伦敦眼算是年轻的一个。 但是这丝毫不会降低伦敦眼的 吸引力。相反地,伦敦眼其中 一部分魅力就是它的现代化。 伦敦眼会一直在那里,让人们 可以从空中欣赏伦敦这座美丽 的城市。


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greenwich 格林威治

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Greenwich was originally a Saxon village called Green Wic (wic means “port” ).1 At that time, Greenwich was a port for ships and boats to tie up, a fishing village, and a farming settlement.1 The first church in Greenwich was the St Alfege’s Church, and the original structure was built in the 11th century on the place where the Archbishop Alfege was killed in 1012.1 The present building was designed by Nicholas Hawksmoor and completed in 1718.1 In 1838, the railway finally connected Greenwich with London, and many people began to settle in Greenwich.1 Now, Greenwich has many tourist attractions, such as Cutty Sark, (a tea clipper launched in 1869), the National Maritime Museum, and Greenwich Market (a market well known for its books and antiques). 1

格林威治最初是撒克逊人的一个村落,名叫Green Wic (Wic的意思是港口)。1 在那时, 格林威治是一个船只停靠的港口,一个渔村,也是一个农业区。1 格林威治的第一个教堂是 St Alfege’s 教堂,最初的教堂于11世纪建在大主教Alfege在1012年被杀的地方。1 而现在的教堂是 由 Nicholas Hawksmoor 在1718年设计建造的。1838年,铁路将伦敦与格林威治连接了起来,越来 越多的人开始在格林威治定居。1 现在,格林威治已经成为了一个旅游胜地,并且拥有许多值得 一看的景点,如 Cutty Sark (一艘 1869年的运茶船),国家海洋博 物馆,以及格林威治市场(因为 书和古董而闻名)。1

The St Alfege’s Church was the first church in Greenwich. St Alfege’s 教堂是格林威治的第一座教堂。 106

The Royal Family has a long history with Greenwich too. Henry VII owned a palace in Greenwich in the early 16th century, and he and his daughters, Mary and Elizabeth, were born there.1 However, the palace was demolished by Charles II.1 In early the 17th century, James I built a new house for his wife, Queen Anne of Denmark, in


There is a corridor that connect the Queen’s house and the National Maritime Museum. 一个连廊连接起了 Queen’s House 和国家海洋博物馆。

Greenwich, which is now known as the Queen’s House.1 It was designed by Inigo Jones, and was completed in 1673, but sadly Queen Anne died before it finished.1 英国皇室也与格林威治有着千丝万缕的联系。16世纪时,亨利七世在格林威治拥有一个宫 殿,他自己还有他的两个女儿玛丽和伊丽莎白都出生在这个宫殿里。1 但是这个宫殿被查尔斯二 世拆除了。1 而在17世纪前期,詹姆斯一世为他的王后,来自丹麦的安娜女王在格林威治修建了 一座宫殿,也就是现在人们称之为Queen’s House的地方。1 它由 Inigo Jones 设计,于1673年建 成,但遗憾的是安娜女王在宫殿建成之前就去世了。1

However, Greenwich is most famous for the Royal Observatory, which is the home of Greenwich 107


Mean time and the Prime Meridian Line.2 The Royal Observatory is one of the most important historic scientific sites in the world.2 Charles II founded it in 1675 and made John Flamsteed became the first Astronomer Royal of the Royal Observatory.2 It is now the official starting point for each new day.2 Also, every place on Earth is measured in terms of its distance east or west from the Prime Meridian Line in Greenwich, and the line divides the eastern and western hemispheres.2 In 1884, forty-one delegates from 15 nations met in Washington DC for the International Meridian Conference, and they chose the Greenwich Meridian to be the Prime Meridian of the world, with just one vote against from San Domingo and two abstentions from France and Brazil.2

The spiral staircase inside the Queen’s House was the first one in Britain. Queen’s House里有英国的第一个螺旋式楼梯。

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但是格林威治最出名的,还是格 林威治天文台,它是格林威治标准时间 和本初子午线的所在地。2 格林威治天 文台在世界科学史上占有举足轻重的地 位。2 查尔斯二世在1675年建立了这个天 文台,并让 John Flamteed 成为了天文台 的第一任皇家天文学家。2 这里现在是世 界上每一天真正开始的地方。2 地球上的 其它地方也是根据离本初子午线的从东


This replica telescope tube was the kind that used in the Octagon Room until 1765. 这个复制品望远镜复制的是1765年以前在这个八角房 间里放置的望远镜。

往西或从西往东的距离来确定自己的经度。 2 1884年,41位来自十五个国家的代表在华盛顿 特区举行了国际子午线会议,他们选择了格林 威治的子午线作为这个世界的本初子午线,其 中只有来自圣多明哥的一个反对票和来自法国和巴西两个国家的弃权票。2 Here is the home of Greenwich Mean time and the Prime Meridian Line. 这里是格林威治标准时间和本初子午线的所在地。

Today, many people come to Greenwich to visit the Royal Observatory, and there is a group of people educating tourists about its history every day. Jane Cartwright, 50, is one of them. She has been working in the Royal Observatory as an actor for 19 years, and her job is to present the Royal Observatory’s history through re-enactments and story telling. She also works at other museums 109


in London by using drama to tell stories. As in the Royal Observatory, she feels she is more of a tour guide, then an actor. The reason she first started doing this kind of work was because she “was asked to come here and do one of the characters, and it went out very well, than they ask if I could come back to develop more characters.” She has performed at the Science Museum, Natural History Museum, Museum of London and many others in London, and she loves her job. “It’s challenging, because you have museum visitors, who were suddenly asked to become a theater audience, which is very different. It’s not in a theater, so the lights don’t go down, they are very aware of each other, and the rules are slightly different, you need to make sure people feel comfortable and you can adapt the information you have for the audience, so it’s very flexible. “ She loves history and communicating with people, so she feels this job is perfect for her. 如今,越来越多的人来格林威治参观格林 威治天文台,而这里也有一群人每天跟游客讲述

Jane Cartwright, 50, has been working in the Royal Observatory as an actor for 19 years. Jane Cartwright,50岁,是一位在格林威治天 文台工作了19年的演员。

着格林威治的历史。Jane Cartwright,50岁,就是她们中的一员。她作为一名演员在格林威治已 经工作了19年了,而她的工作就是通过表演的方式来给人们讲述格林威治的历史。她在伦敦很多 其它博物馆也在做着同样的工作。而在格林威治天文台,她觉得她更像一个导游而不是演员。 她最初选择来这里工作的原因是因为“有一次我被叫来塑造了一个故事中的其中一个角色,而 那次表演的效果非常好,所以他们问我愿不愿意回来饰演更多的角色。”她在科学博物馆,自 然历史博物馆,伦敦博物馆等许多伦敦的博物馆都有演出过,而且她喜欢这个工作。“这是非 110


常有挑战性的,因为人们都是来参观博物馆的,而他们突然要成为一位戏剧观众,这是非常困 难的。这不是在剧院,灯光不会变暗,游客们会在意旁边的人,而这里的表演规则也与剧院里 很不一样,你需要保证人们是觉得舒服并且愿意接受你提供的信息,所以可变性非常大。”她 喜欢历史和跟人们交流,所以她很喜欢自己的工作,她觉得这个工作特别适合她。 Greenwich, a pretty little town outside London, awaits visitors from all over the world to tell its stories. 格林威治离伦敦这喧嚣的大都市只有不到一小时的车程,却是一个非常精致小巧的小 镇。它期待着更多的人来发现它的故事。

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