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Studio Kathmandu Volume 6

Rebooting urbanism Understanding rapid urbanisation and vernacular planning techniques in order to propose a transition towards a culturally and naturally integrated urban environment in the Kathmandu valley, Nepal

Jessica Vandeperre Supervised by: Viviana d’Auria, Sangeeta Singh


Studio Kathmandu Volume 6

Rebooting urbanism Understanding rapid urbanisation and vernacular planning techniques in order to propose a transition towards a culturally and naturally integrated urban environment in the Kathmandu valley, Nepal

Jessica Vandeperre


Rebooting urbanism Understanding rapid urbanisation and vernacular planning techniques in order to propose a transition towards a culturally and naturally integrated urban environment in the Kathmandu valley, Nepal Jessica Vandeperre

Thesis submitted to obtain the degree of Master of Engineering: Architecture Promotors: Viviana d’Auria Co-promotors: Sangeeta Singh Academic Year 2018-2019 Master of Science in de ingenieurswetenschappen: architecture


Š Permission for Use of Content: The authors herewith permit it that the present dissertation be made available for consultation; parts of it may be copied, strictly for personal use. Every other use is subject to strict copyright reservations. Particular reference is made to the obligation of explicitly mentioning the source when quoting the present dissertation’s results. Leuven, 2018 All images presented in this booklet are, unless credits are given, made or drawn by the authors. The satellite images used, are founded by Google Earth, unless credits say otherwise. The interpreted maps are based on these satellite images. Š Copyright KU Leuven Without written permission of the promotors and the authors it is forbidden to reproduce or adapt in any form or by any means any part of this publication. Requests for obtaining the right to reproduce or utilize parts of this publication should be addressed to dept. Architecture, Kasteelpark Arenberg 1/2431, B-3001 Leuven, +32-16-321361 or via e-mail to secretariaat@asro.kuleuven.be. A written permission of the promotor is also required to use the methods, products, schematics and programs described in this work for industrial or commercial use, and for submitting this publication in scientific contests.


Rebooting urbanism Understanding rapid urbanisation and vernacular planning techniques in order to propose a transition towards a culturally and naturally integrated urban environment in the Kathmandu valley, Nepal Jessica Vandeperre

Thesis submitted to obtain the degree of Master of Engineering: Architecture Promotors: Viviana d’Auria Co-promotors: Sangeeta Singh Academic Year 2018-2019


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M a s t e r ’s T h e s i s f i l e 7

Student:

Jessica Vandeperre

Title:

Rebooting urbanism Understanding rapid urbanisation and vernacular planning techniques in order to propose a transition towards a culturally and naturally integrated urban system in the Kathmandu valley, Nepal.

Abstract:

Kathmandu valley. A water basin which is the home of Nepal’s capital and more than million of its inhabitants. Every year, more and more people migrate to the valley for various reasons. Every year, more and more open space is converted into built-up area. Every year the valleys’ ecosystems get more polluted. This is happening at a tremendous pace and in a context of earthquakes, natural sensitive areas and rich cultural heritage. The way in which urban growth is handled today is unsustainable. With estimates of six million residents in 2035, the whole valley will be covered with sprawl and its natural ecosystems will break down if no other approach is adopted. Drastic change and valley scale interventions are necessary to guide urban growth to a more sustainable and environmental friendly future. This thesis tries to understand the drivers and consequences of rapid urban growth. Current issues and policies are discussed and possible ways forward are investigated. An exercise in urban planning is conducted to uncover other possibilities in order to cope with urban growth on a macro and micro scale. Promotor:

Viviana d’Auria (KULeuven)

Co-promotor: Sangeeta Singh (Tribhuvan University) Thesis submitted to obtain the degree of Master of Engineering: Architecture Academic year 2018-2019


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Acknowledgements 9

I would like to thanks all people who helped me during the course of this thesis, those who were directly involved and those who supported me along the way. I thank my promotor, professor Viviana d’Auria for providing the opportunity of starting this thesis, for the critical feedback and the sharing of her knowledge. I would like to extend my thanks to professor Sangeeta Singh of the Tribhuvan University for her guidance at our arrival in Kathmandu valley and throughout the fieldwork. Special recognition goes to Prafulla Pradhan for sharing his time and knowledge beyond that which was asked. Thank you furthermore for bringing us into contact with many interesting others. Thank you professor Sudarshan Raj Tiwari for the studies conducted on vernacular building traditions and the way in which vernacular towns come to live. Your work is an inspiration. To Gopal Ojha and his family, I thank you for the food you gave, the jokes you made and the genuine warmth you shared. Not a single day was spent in Nepal that I not felt at home. To Indra Scheerlinck for accompanying me on the fieldwork. Thank you for asking the questions I did not. To Lumanti Joshi and Surena Shrestha, for making it possible to really get into the field. Thank you Surena, for sharing your opinion and knowledge, for overcoming the language barrier when there was one and for guiding me where I would otherwise never have gone. Thank you Lumanti, not only for helping me but others as well. Thank you for raising awareness and helping those without a voice. This goes for all people I interviewed, talked and worked with in Nepal. Never before have I met such a helpful people. Special thanks goes to professor emeritus Han Verschure, who we met unexpectedly in Nepal and who was always ready to provide guidance with his tremendous amount of experience in Nepal and beyond. Finally, I want to thank my parents and Ruben De Clercq, who where all directly involved and supported me throughout. Thank you, for making time to discuss every detail of which I felt uncertain, for brainstorming with me when I did not know where to go next and to make sure I thought things through before I wrote them down.


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Pr e f a c e 11

During the aftermath of the Ghorka earthquake of 25 April 2015, a first research team from the KU Leuven travelled to the Kathmandu valley. They started the study on the earthquake resilient architecture. Since then five volumes have been published: the first, an action plan for Bungamati, the second, an exploration of landscape urbanism, the third focussing more on urbanisation conducted a research by design on town extension. Volume four went back to the roots of earthquake resilient housing and revi[s|v]ed the Newari architecture and volume five, a technical report on seismic detailing and materials. This last and sixth volume will again focus more on the urbanisation issues at hand in the Kathmandu valley. A larger scale is taken on, urban planning is the focus instead of the building itself.

Studio Kathmandu Volume 5

Seismic construction techniques and adapted materiality Interpretations and calculations in the Southern Periphery, Kathmandu Valley, Nepal

Indra Scheerlinck

The Newari vernacular revi ed

Studio Kathmandu Volume 6

Rebooting urbanism Understanding rapid urbanisation and vernacular planning techniques in order to propose a transition towards a culturally and naturally integrated urban environment in the Kathmandu valley, Nepal

Jessica Vandeperre

Yanne Gillekens, Evelien Roelands, Katrien Valcke, Sophie Van Hulle

Academic Year 2016-2017

Kathmandu valley. A water basin which is the home of Nepal’s capital and more than million of its inhabitants. Every year, more and more people migrate to the valley for various reasons. Every year, more and more open space is converted into built-up area. Every year the valleys’ ecosystems get more polluted. This is happening at a tremendous pace and in a context of earthquakes, natural sensitive areas and rich cultural heritage. The way in which urban growth is handled today is unsustainable. With estimates of six million residents in 2035, the Studio whole Kathmandu Volume 4 valley will be covered with sprawl and s its natural ecosystems will break down v if no other approach is adopted.Seismic Drasticbuilding cultures in a context change and valley scale interventions of transition in Bungamati & Khokana, Valley, Nepal are necessary to guide urban growthKathmandu to a more sustainable and environmental friendly future. This thesis tries to understand the drivers and consequences of rapid urban growth. Current issues and policies are discussed and possible ways forward are searched for. An exercise in urban planning is conducted to uncover other possibilities in order to cope with urban growth on a macro and micro scale.

Rebooting urbanism

The Newari vernacular revi vs ed

On 25 April 2015, an earthquake with a 7.8 magnitude on the Richter scale struck Nepal, followed by several aftershocks. Countless houses have collapsed entirely and many more were severely damaged. Two years later, an enormous reconstruction task still lies ahead of the country. At the same time, the Kathmandu Valley is developing rapidly and urban sprawl is emerging, threatening the Newari vernacular architecture. These Newari settlements have a unique seismic building culture that developed over centuries, focusing on public spaces with life centred around a traditional water system. However, much of the knowledge has faded. The temporary shelters, that were built as an emergency relief, are still scattered in between and at the edges of the existing tissue, further increasing the pressure on the vernacular settlements. The question now rises: how can the reconstruction process take these challenges of urban pressure into account, while preserving the values of the Newari vernacular architecture? The reconstruction after the earthquake offers an opportunity to reinterpret the tradition while meeting the contemporary needs of the settlements.

Yanne Gillekens, Evelien Roelands, Katrien Valcke, Sophie Van Hulle Academic yearMeulder, 2018-2019 Supervised by: Bruno De Viviana d’Auria, Sangeeta Singh, Stefanie Dens, Annelies De Nijs, Padma Joshi

Jessica Vandeperre Supervised by: Viviana d’Auria, Sangeeta Singh

2 5 april 2 015

Su mmer St u d i o 2015

Sp ri n g Stu d i o 2 0 1 6

Th e si s Stu d i o 2 0 1 7

Th e si s Stu d i o 2 0 1 8

7. 8 magnitude ea rthquake struck Nepal

Vo l um e 1 Ac t i o n Pl a n f o r Bu n g a mat i

Vo l u m e 3 To w n Ex te n si o n s i n Ka rya b i n a y a k M u n i c i p a l i ty

Vo l u m e 4 Th e N e w a r i v e r n a c u l a r re v i [ s| v ] e d

Vo l u m e 5 S e i sm i c c o n str u c ti o n te c h n i q u e s a n d a d a p te d m ate r i a l i ty

+ Vol um e 2 L a n d s c a p e U rb a n i s m E x p l o rat i o n s

+ Vo l u m e 6 Re b o o ti n g u r b a n i sm


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Hypothesis The Kathmandu valley is a rich but sensitive natural and cultural area. The implications that rapid urban growth has brought are damaging both. By understanding the drivers behind this growth and the way it is coped with today, a more fitting plan of action might be proposed for the future. In order to make a proposal that is designed for the macro scale of the valley yet works on the micro-scale of a town as well, several existing tissues are studied: vernacular tissues to subtract the knowledge that has been built up in them over centuries and recent developments to understand contemporary changes and needs of residents of the valley.

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Methodology This thesis consist of an extended theoretical presentation of the current urbanisation situation in Nepal and the Kathmandu valley followed by a design part in which conclusions of previous chapters are applied in a tangible design. The theoretical presentation is the result of thorough literature study preceded by a nine week fieldwork together with Indra Scheerlinck who wrote volume 5 of the Studio Kathmandu series. The fieldwork started August 16, 2017 and ended October 16, 2017. During those nine weeks five new areas, or squares of 400x400 meter, were mapped and a follow-up was done of the villages Khokana and Bungamati. The areas were chosen based on their tissue layout and covered as different tissues as possible. The mapping started from maps made before our departure based on underlays of Google earth pro. Once in Nepal, they were readjusted to render reality. Houses, functions, streets and their materials, open space, building height and building typology were mapped in order to understand the tissues which we were studying. Along with the mapping we measured some houses, took pictures, made videos and observations and talked to inhabitants to create an accurate image of public life in the area. Furthermore a lot of knowledge was gathered by conducting interviews. On the one hand experts in our field of study were consulted: professors of the Tribhuvan University, UN-habitat employees, NGOs and people directly related to the government ministries and to Lalitpur municipality specifically. On the other hand, to gain insight in building materials and processes in the valley, several related companies were contacted. To supplement the fieldwork, an extensive literature research was conducted on our return. New insights were gained and assumptions made during the fieldwork were either underpinned or invalidated. While writing, several new questions arose which asked for further literature research. Some theoretical conclusions or the combination of them were found difficult to implement in the design, as they are interrelated. Further research was conducted to provide for solutions or examples in similar contexts.

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Co n t e n t Master’s Thesis file

7

Acknowledgements 9 16

Preface 11 Hypothesis 13 Methodology 15 Content 16 Structure 21 Characteristics of the Kathmandu valley

PART ONE

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Understanding urbanisation

I.

Urbanisation in Nepal 26 Urbanisation degree 28 Urban population growth Natural growth Zoom-in: Demographic transition Rural-urban migration Growth of urban areas Reclassification Zoom-in: Categorisation Distribution of urbanisation 40 Zoom-in: Urban Location National policies on urbanisation 42 Zoom-in: Urban primacy Zoom-in: Fragmented governance Conclusion 46

II.

Urban growth in the Kathmandu valley 48 History of urban growth 50 Land use change 54 Main drivers of urban growth 56 Population influx Rural-urban migration Economic opportunities Public service accessibility Socio-political situation Physical conditions Land market Urban planning Zoom-in: The Kathmandu Valley development Authority Zoom-in: Landpooling


Future urban growth 67 Planned projects Conclusion 70

PART TWO

Impacts

Introduction 74 Zoom-in: Waste accumulation I.

Soil 78 Heavy metals 80 Soil acidification 81 Zoom-in: Brick kilns

II.

Water 84 Water extraction 86 Vernacular Contemporary Zoom-in: Water recharge Zoom-in: Heritage along the river banks Water pollution 92

III.

Air 95 Socio-economic cost 96 Causes and status 99 Zoom-in: Vulnerability of the valley

IV.

Society 103 Community 104 Zoom-in: Social cohesion Food security 108 Overcrowding and low occupation 110 Zoom-in: Open space Zoom-in: Congestion Zoom-in: Urban poverty Conclusion 119

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PART THREE Tissues 18 Introducing ‘the tissues’ 122 I.

Vernacular tissues 124 Historic growth and adaptations 126 Kirata-period Zoom-in: Dyocchen & Pith | Town & Hinterland Licchavi-period Zoom-in: Prastara pattern Zoom-in: Guthi Zoom-in: Rato Macchendranath Malla-period Zoom-in: Bordering urban territory Zoom-in: Khyo Zoom-in: Jaat Zoom-in: Waterworks Zoom-in: Canal | Kulo Zoom-in: Stepwell | Hiti Zoom-in: Pond | Phuku Zoom-in: Well | Kwa Zoom-in: Waste management and cleaning rituals Urban characteristics 158 Streets Peti Pati Street front Pedestrian scale Public open space Inner courtyards Squares Case study: Khokana 185 Case study: Bungamati 191 Case study: Patan 197 Conclusions 201

II.

Recent developments 202 Organic growth 205 Case study: Nakkhu Characteristics


Plotted developments 217 Case study: Bhaisepati Characteristics Gated communities 227 Case study: Thecho development Characteristics Conclusion 237

PART FOUR

Rebooting urbanisation

Large scale proposition 240 Lubhu 243 Design guidelines 246 Lubhu extension 249 Timeline Community masterplan 256 Urban functions Circulation Destination Green network Blue network Calculations Conclusion 286

Bibliography 288 Interviews 292 Image credits 293

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Structure T h is th es is will give a s tand -al one com prehens i bl e expos i ti on for s ch olars an d n on -s chol ar s al i ke - of the cu r rent s i tu ati on of the K ath mandu valley’s u rbani s ati on and i ts d rivers, i ts hi s tori c con text an d its con s eq uences f or natu re and m en. Fu r ther m ore the cu r ren t livin g env i ronm ents i n the K athm and u val l ey i s dis cu s s ed and b as ed on the k nowl ed g e g ai ned f rom thi s r es earch a p ro po s al is made for fu tu re u rbani s ati on. In a firs t ch ap ter u rbani s ati on i n N e pal wi l l be pres ented to be aware of the b ig g er s cal e of the probl em . A n u nd ers tand i ng s h ou ld b e g ained o f the nati onal wi d e d rivers and the ways i n which it is cu r ren tly hand l ed . Secon dly, a focu s is p u t on the K athm and u val l ey i ts el f where u rbanis atio n is related to u rban g rowth. D rivers and cu r rent h an dlin g are p res en ted. Afterwards, fo u r s mall chapters are d ed i cated to env i ronm ental and s o cial con s eq u ences of u rbani s ati on and es peci al l y r api d , h ap hazard u rbanis atio n. In chapters s even and ei g ht the trad i ti onal l iv i ng env i ronm ent as well as th e mo re co ntem porar y s i tu ati on are ad d res s ed . From the differen t t ypes o f ti s s u e d i f f erent l es s ons wi l l be d rawn. T h es e will fin ally, in chapter ni ne, be u s ed i n a d es i g n exerci s e on h ow the u rb an is ation in the val l ey cou l d be hand l ed d i f f erentl y.

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C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f N e p a l a n d t h e Ka t h m a n d u v a l l e y

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N e pa l is loc ated in s o u th eas t A s i a, to the nor th of I nd i a and the s ou th of China . T he b order with C hina i s f or m ed by the Hi m al ayan m ou ntai n rang e. T he border with In dia are th e Terai or f l atl and s. A s s u ch i t i s u ns u r pri s i ng tha t inte racting an d trade with I nd i a took pl ace m ore of ten than wi th Chi na. In the low mou n tain s trip in b etween thes e f l atl and s and the Hi m al ayas l i e sever a l fer tile valleys. On e s u ch val l ey i s the K athm and u Val l ey, the f ocu s of this th es is. T his valley has always been of econom i c i m por tance d u e to i ts str a tegic and s n ow free p os ition al ong the I nd i a-Chi na trad i ng rou te. T he ele vation of th e K ath mand u val l ey rang es f rom 1 1 0 0 to 2 7 0 0 m eters a bove s ea level. T h e valley can be v i e wed as a bowl -s haped d e pres s i on wi t h a n elevat ed b as in ring ed by mou ntai ns. T he central area of the val l ey or the va lley’s f lo or co ns is t o f allu v i al pl ai ns * al ong a network of rivers and of eleva ted river ter races, o r dols and t ar s as they are cal l ed l ocal l y. 5 0 % of the va lley has s lop es les s th en 5 d eg rees whi l e 2 0 % has s l opes g reater than 2 0 deg r ees. T he valley is drained by the B ag m ati river s ys tem . I t prov i d es an im por tant s o u rce of water. T he cl imate of the valley is lar g el y i nf l u enced by the s ou th-A s i an m ons oon. It a f f ect s rainfall as well as wi nd d i recti on. 8 0 % of the annu al rai nf al l takes pla ce in the mon s oo n-per io d f rom Ju ne to S e ptem ber. It i s f ol l owed by a clea r, su nn y fall, a co ld win ter and a d r y s pri ng. T he annu al averag e rai nf al l a nd temp eratu re in th e valley are 1 4 0 7 m m and 1 8 . 1 C, res pectivel y (I s hti aq u e et a l. 201 7 ) . *An a l l uv ial p lain is a lar g ely f lat lan d f o r m created by the de position of sediment over a long period of time by one o r mo r e r iver s co m in g f r o m h ig h lan d r eg io n s, f rom which alluvial soil for ms. A f loodplain is par t of the process, being th e s ma l l er ar ea over wh ich th e r iver s f lo o d at a par ticular period of time, whereas the alluvial plain is the larg er area r e p r esen ti n g th e r eg io n over wh ich th e f lo o dp lains have shifted over g eological time.

Kath m a n d u | Ka n ti p u r Pata n | L a l i tp u r

B h a k ta p u r | B h adgaon


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Fa r-We ste r n

M i d -We ste r n

We ste r n

Ce n tra l

Himalay a s | Hi g h mo u n t a i n a rea Low-mo u n t a i n a rea | Hi l l s Tera i | F l at l a n d s

Bha k t a p u r | Bha d g a o n

Kath m a n d u Va l l e y

Kath m a n d u | Ka n ti p u r Pata n | L a l i tp u r

Ea ste r n


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25

I. Understanding urbanisation A situ at i on sket c h o f t he urbanisat i o n an d i t s g r owt h in Ne p al as a c o u n t r y an d i n the Kat hm an du Val l ey. An understan di n g of t he m ai n dri vers of u r ban i sat i on an d urban gr o wt h. ——

View over Panauti at the confluence of the rivers Rosi and Punyamati


Urbanisation in Nepal

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Bef or e t he K athman du valley i s s tu d i ed i n deta il, a zo om-o u t is made to a l arg er s cal e context. T his mainly to s ee i f nati on-wi d e inter ven tion migh t u n bu rden the K athm and u va lley an d to b et ter u n ders tand the m ai n dr iver o f rap id u rb an is ation i n N e pal as i t com es for th fro m nation al s cal e cau s es. Fir st, the definition of u rb an i s ati on wi l l be thor oughly dis c u s s ed. Secon dl y, the l ocati on of m a j or u rb an is ation centres and thi rd l y, the cur r en t nation al s trategies con cer ni ng u rban develop ment are addres s ed.

Introducing urbanisation - Urbanisation in Nepal

T he co nclu s ion will s how that r u ral -tour ba n mig ratio n is th e main d river cau s i ng r a pid u rbanis atio n in the dif f erent g rowth centr es. T he new federal s tr u ctu re and the a ppr oach of in teg rated s ys tems wi th l i nk ag e between r u ral and u rb an areas are a f orebod e of chang e. T h e o ptimal ou tcom e wou l d be decentralis atio n from the K athm and u val l ey a nd o th er major g rowth centres and the f ur ther develo pmen t of r u ral areas, thu s delim iting th e afo rementio ned r u ral -to-u rban m ig r a tion cau s ing fu r ther u rbani s ati on of a lr ea dy peop le-s train ed areas. However as lo ng as K ath mand u val l ey i s the pr im e u rb an area it will no t ceas e to attract m ig r a nts. Its po pu latio n an d cons eq u entl y its ur b an foo tp rint will g row, es peci al l y i f no pr oper way to manag e incomin g popu l ati on i s f ound.

Sunrise from Mohara Dande, 2017.


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Urbanisation degree

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N e pa l is s till o ne o f the leas t u rbani s ed * cou ntri e s i n A s i a. Onl y 1 9 . 7 % of its popu latio n lives in u rb an is ed areas. I n com pari s on to nearby cou ntri es, we see that this nu mber is low (CI A 2 0 1 8 ; UN D ES A 2 0 1 7 ). T he r a t e of ch an g e of th e u rb an popu l ati on i n N e pal or the u rbani s ati on rate is 3.15%. T his is s till high er than m os t of nearby cou ntri es, whi ch m eans tha t N e pal is s till u rb an is ing at a f as ter pace than m os t A s i an cou ntri es. D ata shows th at from 1 9 7 5 to 19 8 0 the 5 -year averag e rate of chang e was al m os t 7% , which is th e h ighe s t Ne pal has ever s een (UN D ES A 2 0 1 7 ). T he Central Bur ea u of Statis tics (2 0 0 3 ) s tates that i n the peri od of 1 9 7 1 ti l l 1 9 8 1 the yea r ly averag ed u rb an po pu lati on g rowth rate was 7 . 5 5 % . T he l ower nu m ber today d oes however n ot mean that the u rban popu l ati on g rowth i s s tag nati ng a nd that les s er meas u res to co pe wi th u rbani s ati on wi l l s u f f i ce. T hi s becom es m or e clear if the abs o lu te figu res are cal cu l ated . From 1 9 7 5 to 1 9 8 0 there wa s a su r p lu s of ~2 6 4 ,00 0 - rate of chang e: 6 . 8 7 % - i nhabi tants i n u rbani s ed a r ea s. Fro m 2 0 1 0 to 2 0 1 5 this nu m ber was ~7 8 7 , 0 0 0 - rate of chang e: 3 . 2 % . * T h e u r b an isatio n o f a co un tr y o r p o p ulatio n is defined as the percentag e of the total population living in urban areas, a s d ef i n ed by th e co un tr y. T h e ur b an izatio n r ate describes the projected averag e speed with which the siz e of the urban p o p u l a ti o n ch an g es over th e a p er io d o f tim e.

Introducing urbanisation - Urbanisation in Nepal

Urbanisation percentages and rates of change of South-Asian countries (UN DESA 2017) urbanisation

urbanisation rate

Nepal

19.7%

3.15%

India

34.0%

2.37%

Sri Lanka

18.5%

0.85%

Pakistan

36.7%

2.53%

Bangladesh

36.6%

3.17%

China

59.2%

2.42%

Thailand

49,90%

1.73%

Bhutan

40,90%

2.98%


As the u rb an is ation of a cou n tr y i s d ef i ned as the percentag e of the total populatio n livin g in u rban areas, as d ef i ned by the cou ntr y, i t i s af f ected by two parameters, n amely po pu lati on i n u rban areas and the nu m ber of u rban a r ea s defined by th e co u ntr y. T he popu l ati on i n u rban areas i n tu r n i s af f ected by na tural p op u lation increas e and by m i g rati on. I n N e pal , the l atter cons i s t m ostly o f r u ral-to-u rb an in-mi g r ati on. T he nu m ber of u rban areas i n N e pal is def i n ed by the g over n ment. Of thes e param eters m i g rati on i s the l arg es t contr ib u to r to u rban g rowth (M oUD 2 0 1 5 ) . T he m in is t r y of u rb an develo pment [ MoUD ] s tates that u rbani s ati on i n N e pal is the con s eq u ence o f three trans i ti ons cu r rent l y tak i ng pl ace i n the cou ntr y. T hese are: A demog r aphic tran s itio n* whi ch i s rel ated to total popu l ati on g rowth and the la rg en es s o f the work fo rce. It has an ef f ect on r u ral -u rban m i g rati on as well a s on n atu ral po pu latio n g rowth. A spatial tran s itio n wh ich is characteri s ed by r u ral -u rban m i g rati on. An econom ic tran s itio n cau s ing a f l ee f rom ag ri cu l tu re as m eans of l ivel i hood in sea rch fo r n ew o th er op tions. T hi s l as t al s o rel ates to the r u ral -u rban m ig r a tion (MoUD 2 0 1 5 ). * T h e s h i f t f r o m a t r a d i t i o n a l p a t t e r n o f r e l a t ive l y h i g h m o r t a l i t y a n d f e r t i l i t y t o a m o d e r n p a t t e r n o f r e l a t ive l y l ow m o r t a l i t y a n d f e r t i l i t y. B e c a u s e t h e d e c l i n e i n m o r t a l i t y u s u a l l y p r e c e d e s t h e d e c l i n e i n f e r t i l i t y, t h e r e i s a n i n t e r i m p e r i o d o f r a p i d n a t u r a l p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e d u r i n g t h e t r a n s i t i o n p e r i o d ( U N F PA 2 0 1 7 ) .

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Urbanisation degree

U R B A N P O P U L AT I O N G R O W T H | N a t u r a l p o p u l a t i o n g r o w t h

30

N e pa l has a cu r ren t p op u lation of arou nd 3 0 m i l l i on and a cu r rent popu l ati on g r owth rate of 1.1% ( UN DESA 2 0 1 7 ) . T hi s m eans that d u ri ng 2 0 1 7 there cam e to live ap proximately 3 3 0 ,00 0 extra i nhabi tants i n the cou ntr y. Proj ecti ons estim a te th at t h e po pu latio n of N e pal wi l l peak arou nd 2 0 5 5 at 3 6 . 3 m i l l i on inha bitants. T his is an es timati on and can var y as s hown on the UN es ti m ati on g r a phs s h own o n th e next p ag es. T he to tal po pu latio n g rowth and u rban popu l ati on g rowth of N e pal s eem s to be slowing down as can b e s een on the ad j acent g raph. T he u rban popu l ati on g r owth rate o f 3.15 % is however mu ch hi g her than the total popu l ati on g r owth rate of 1 .1% (UN DES A 2 0 1 7 ) . T hi s m eans that the u rbani s ati on of N e pa l is increas ing an d p eo ple are m i g rati ng f rom r u ral areas to u rban ones. Fr om the s ame g rap h we can d ed u ct a cor rel ati on between both u rban and tota l p op u lation . If th e total popu l ati on g rowth s l ows d own - g rowth rate declines -, th e u rb an p op u lation g rowth rate k nows a red u cti on as wel l .

Introducing urbanisation - Urbanisation in Nepal

N e pa l h as almo s t reached th e popu l ati on g rowth peak of i ts d em og raphi c tr a nsition *. It is however imp or tant to note that not al l of the f ive d evel opm ent r eg ions o f Ne p al are eq u ally d evel oped and as a cons eq u ence not al l reg i ons a r e a s far advanced in th is trans i ti on. Popu l ati on wi l l be g rowi ng f as te r s ti l l in the le s s advanced are as and throu g h m i g rati on thi s wi l l contri bu te to u rban g r owth els ewhere in Ne pal. T he sur plu s work fo rces a dem og raphi c trans i ti on bri ng s are of ten wel l schooled in Ne pal (Mu zzini & A pari ci o 2 0 1 3 ) . T hey of ten m i g rate to l arg e economic cen tres in th e cou n t r y to f i nd the bes t econom i c oppor tu ni ti es, thus co ntribu tin g to th e r u ral -u rban m i g rati on and u rban g rowth i n thos e centr es. * T h e s h i f t f r o m a t r a d i t i o n a l p a t t e r n o f r e l a t ive l y h i g h m o r t a l i t y a n d f e r t i l i t y t o a m o d e r n p a t t e r n o f r e l a t ive l y l ow m o r t a l i t y a n d f e r t i l i t y. B e c a u s e t h e d e c l i n e i n m o r t a l i t y u s u a l l y p r e c e d e s t h e d e c l i n e i n f e r t i l i t y, t h e r e i s a n i n t e r i m p e r i o d o f r a p i d n a t u r a l p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e d u r i n g t h e t r a n s i t i o n p e r i o d ( U N F PA 2 0 1 7 ) .


Population [millions]

2

10

1

5

3

20

Exponential growth rate [%]

31

1950

1970

1960

1980

1990

2000

2010

2018 2020

2030

2040

To t a l p o p u l a t i o n

To t a l p o p u l a t i o n r a t e o f c h a n g e *

To t a l u r b a n p o p u l a t i o n

To t a l u r b a n p o p u l a t i o n r a t e o f c h a n g e *

2050

Time

To t a l a n d u r b a n p o p u l a t i o n w i t h t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e r a t e s o f c h a n g e ( U N D E S A 2 0 1 7 ) .

* T h e r a t e s o f ch a n g e a r e ave r a g e d ove r 5 y e a r s. N u m b e r s f o u n d c a n d i f f e r a s t h e y a r e c a n b e ave r a g e d ove r d i f f e r e n t t i m e p e r i o d s

Sec o n d a ry s c ho ol atte n d a n c e 24.5 - 4 0 . 0 % 40.1 - 5 0 . 0 % 50.1 - 6 3 . 3 % S e c o n d a r y s c h o o l a tt e n d a n c e a s i n d i c a t o r f o r d e v e l o p m e n t ( U N F PA 2 0 1 7 ) .


32

Zoom-in: Demographic

t r a n s i t i o n i n u r b a n p l a nn i n g

T h e d e m o g r a p h i c t r a n s i t i o n h a s t wo m a i n f a c e t s. F i r s t t h e augmentation of health care and consequently the decrease in ch i l d m o r t a l i t y - t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f ch i l d r e n w h o d i e b e f o r e t h e a g e o f f ive. S e c o n d l y t h e d e c r e a s e o f f e r t i l i t y, b e i n g t h e ave r a g e a m o u n t o f ch i l d r e n a wo m e n g e t s i n a c e r t a i n a r e a . T h e l a s t c o n s e q u e n c e s t h e f i r s t . I n t h e p e r i o d w h e r e ch i l d m o r t a l i t y h a s l owe r e d b u t f e r t i l i t y h a s n o t y e t , t h e r e i s a r a p i d n a t u r a l i n c r e a s e o f p o p u l a t i o n ( G ove r s 2 0 1 7 ; U N F PA 2 0 1 7 ) . To e x p l o i t t h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s - a l a r g e, we l l e d u c a t e d wo r k f o r c e b r i n g i n g e c o n o m i c g r ow t h - o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n g r ow t h , w h i l e d e l i m i t i n g i t s p o s s i b l e n e g a t ive e f f e c t s, - s t r a i n o n o p e n l a n d a n d n a t u r a l e c o s y s t e m s, s h o r t a g e o f p u b l i c s e r v i c e s, p o p u l a t i o n a g e i n g ove r 5 0 y e a r s - r e q u i r e s f a r- r e a ch i n g p o l i c i e s o n e d u c a t i o n a n d h e a l t h c a r e ( G ove r s 2 0 1 7 ) a s we l l a s t h o r o u g h u r b a n p l a n n i n g.

Introducing urbanisation - Urbanisation in Nepal

Urban planning should thus include sufficient public facilities a n d s o c i a l h o u s i n g t o c o p e w i t h t h e u r b a n p o p u l a t i o n g r ow t h . These include institutions for healthcare and education but a l s o i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r c a r e - t a k i n g o f t h e e l d e r l y. O t h e r w i s e t h e g r ow t h m a d e by t h e wo r k f o r c e o f t o d ay w i l l p l u n g e d u e t o t h e s a m e y e t e l d e r l y p e o p l e t o m o r r ow.

Po pulation pyramids o f N ep a l 1950 - 2100* * It is projected that t he w i n d o w f o r p o t en t i a l a c c el erat ed ec o n o m i c g ro w th re su l ti n g fro m a l a rg e w o r k fo rc e w i l l c l o se i n 2 0 4 7 ( U N F PA 2 01 7 ).


33

UN p red i c t i o n g ra p hs o f mo rt a l i t y u n d er f i v e ( to p l e ft) , fe r ti l i ty ( to p r i g h t) a n d to ta l p o p u l ati o n ( b o tto m ) , 2 0 1 7 .


Urbanisation degree

U R B A N P O P U L AT I O N G R O W T H | R u r a l - u r b a n m i g r a t i o n 34

Accor d in g to the Mo UD in ter n al m i g rati on or r u ral -to-u rban m i g rati on i s the la r g est con trib u to r to u rban g r owth (MoUD 2 0 1 5 ). T hi s type of m i g rati on i s dr iven by pu ll factors fro m u rb an centres and pu s h f act ors f rom t he r u ral areas (M uzzin i & Ap aricio 20 1 3 ) . Pu l l f actors cons i s t of the g reater avai l abi l i ty of economic op po r tu nities an d th e g reater acce s s i bi l i ty to pu bl i c s er v i ces, s u ch as educa tion , electricity, water and heal thcare. Pu s h f actors, d riv i ng i nhabi tants away f ro m th e r u ral areas, are the l ack of the af orem enti oned pu bl i c s er v i ces a nd opp or tu n ities b u t als o pover ty, abs ence of bas i c am eni ti es - es peci al l y in ca se of natu ral dis as ters -, l ow l iv i ng s tand ard s, i ns ecu ri ty, s oci al s ti g m a a nd po litic al co nf lict (Is h tiaq ue et al . 2 0 1 7 ; S hres tha 2 0 1 1 ) . T here are thu s m ig r a nts wh o co me to the city i n s earch of better l iv i ng s tand ard s, cal l ed ‘pull mig ran ts ’, and mig ran ts who are f orced f rom thei r bi r thpl ace ‘ pu s h m ig r a nts ’ (Mu zzin i & Ap aricio 2 0 1 3 ) .

Introducing urbanisation - Urbanisation in Nepal

Map 1.3 POPULATION GROWTH RATE OF URBAN SETTLEMENTS (58 MUNICIPALITIES)

U r bTable a n g r1.5 o w t hUrban r a t e s densities b e t w e e n of 1 9191 9 0 aMuncipalities n d 2 0 0 1 a n d b e t w e e n 2Not 0 0 1accounting a n d 2 0 1 1 for ( M omigrants U D 2 0 1 5to) . urban areas from the same Density/Sq KM

Tarai

Hill

Mountain

Total

district (which could be significant), a total of 37.7% were

Less than 500

36

49

11

96

migrants to urban areas. In 2001, with the same number of

500 – 1,000

36

13

0

49

urban areas, ODB and foreign-born made up 30% (25.6%

1,000 – 2,000

20

9

0

29

ODB and 4.4 foreign born) of the total urban population.

2,000 – 5,000

4

8

0

12

5,000 – 10,000

0

2

0

2

While other-district born urban migrants numbered around 8.3 lakh in 2001, they numbered 15 lakh in 2011.

Above 10,000

0

3

0

3

Nearly 77 percent of these migrants were from rural areas.

Grand Total

96

84

11

191

The proportion as well as volume of migrants to urban areas

Migration is the largest contributor to urban growth and is

has clearly accelerated. The proportion of migrants is highest in the Kathmandu valley districts in general and Kathmandu


2,000 1,500 1,000 Far Western Midwestern Western Central Eastern

500

n

0

l rn

ra

es rW Fa

M

id

w

es

te

te

rn

rn

te es W

Ce

nt

st Ea

Destination

35

er

Number of migrants (thousands)

Figure O.2 Regional Migration Patterns by Origin and Destination, Lifetime Migration, 2008

Origin Eastern

R u r a l u r b a n m i g r a t i o n p a tt e r n i n N e p a l ( M u z z i n i & A p a r i c i o 2 0 1 3 ) .

Central

Western

Midwestern

Far Western

Source: Based on Labor Force Survey 2008 (CBS 2009).

Inter-district migration in Urban 2011 Growth (CBS 2011) and Spatial Transition in Nepal • http://dx.doi.org/10.1596/978-0-8213-9659-9 Other district Rural born as % born(ODB) as % of ODB of Native born

Urban born as % of ODB

Not stated

Foreign born % of Total Population

Nepal Total

14.8

80.1

6.4

13.5

1.8

Total Urban

34

76.5

10.3

13.2

3.7

Total Rural

11.1

82.3

4

13.7

1.5

D istr icts with larg e u rban centres have hi g her percentag es of l i f e-ti m e m ig r a nts * co ming fro m other d i s tri cts com pared to other d i s tri cts. D i s tri cts with over 2 5 % of life-time m i g rants i nc l u d e Chi twan, K anchanpu r, K as k i a nd J hap a. Mo rang, Su ns ari, K ai l al i , Ru pand ehi , B anke, N awal Paras i have between 20 -25 % in ter-dis trict l i f e-ti m e m i g rants (M oUD 2 0 1 5 ). It is impo r tan t to n ote th at the r u ral -u rban m i g rati on i n N e pal d oes not only add to th e lan d p res s u re i n u rban g rowth centres. It al s o cau s es under develo pmen t in the areas they l eave, d u e to l abou r s hor tag e s (I s hti aq u e et a l. 201 7 ). T his adds to a per petu ati on of pover ty and s oci al i neq u i ty i n these areas ( Por tn ov et al 20 0 7 ). * L i f eti me m ig r an ts ar e in div iduals wh o se p lace of residence on the sur vey date differs from their place of bir th; recent mi g r a n ts ar e in div iduals wh o se p lace o f r esiden ce on the sur vey date differs from the place of enumeration at the census


Urbanisation degree

GROWTH OF URBAN AREAS | Reclassification 36

Recla ssificatio n of r u ral areas to u rban areas by the g over nm ent i s achi eved by either en larg emen t o f exis ti ng u rban bou nd ari es or the ad d i ti on of a new ur ba n area (Mo UD 20 1 5 ). Eith er way, extra popu l ati on i s ad d ed to the total ur ba n pop u lation , h eigh tening the d eg ree of u rbani s ati on of the cou ntr y. From 1991 to 20 0 1 , 2 5 n ew u rban areas were d ef i ned . T hes e ne w areas accou nted f or ha lf of th e total u rb an g rowth d u ri ng thos e years (Mu z z i ni & A pari ci o 2 0 1 3 ) . In 2014, th e g over n ment decl ared 1 3 3 new u rban areas, bri ng i ng the total num ber to 19 1 . Today the nu mb er of u rban areas i n N e pal i s 2 1 7 . T he ad d i ti on of ur ban areas from 20 1 4 o nward bri ng s f or th a d i s cre pancy i n the d eg ree of ur ba ni s atio n given by th e Central bu reau of s tati s ti cs and the Uni ted nati ons.

Introducing urbanisation - Urbanisation in Nepal

T he cl as s ificatio n of areas is d ef i ned by the l aw of the cou ntr y. For each countr y thes e r u les are different. T hi s i s why the com pari s on of d i f f erent countries in the b egin ning o f thi s chapter i s i n f act not cor rect. In N e p al to tal p op u lation an d the annu al revenu e of an area d ef i ne i ts cla ssif i cation . Co ns eq u en tly, several cu r rent mu ni ci pal i ti es were created by m er g ing s maller, r u ral town s. T hi s m erg i ng of towns i nto mu ni ci pal i ti es i s a political decis ion , th u s makin g the recl as s i f i cati on proces s a pol i ti cal cal l as well. Urban areas in Ne pal are thu s not obj ectivel y cl as s i f i ed (MoUD 2 0 1 5 ; Ba kr a nia 2 0 1 5 ). Beca us e featu res as p op u lation d ens i ty and occu pati onal s tr u ctu re are not taken into a cco u nt, areas with mo s tl y r u ral characteri s ti cs are bei ng categ ori s ed as ur ba n. At th e s ame time emerg i ng towns are of ten cl as s i f i ed as r u ral yet s how a lot ch aracteris tics o f an u rban area (MoUD 2 0 1 5 ) . I n the f i rs t prov i d ed inf r a str u ctu re o ften beco mes u nd er u ti l i s ed (MoUD 2 0 1 5 ). T he l as t are g rowi ng under t h e radar an d are overl ooked f or f u nd i ng ai d of the g over nm ent to pr ovide neces s ar y fu tu re infras tr u ctu re. ( Mu z z i ni & A pari ci o2 0 1 3 ; Por tnov et a l. 2007) . Accor d in g to the World Devel opm ent Re por t (2 0 0 9 ) ag g l om erati on i nd ex of ur ba ni zation , which clas s ifies urban areas by popu l ati on d ens i ty and d i s tance to centr es o f hu man s ettlement of 5 0 , 0 0 0 or m ore, N e pal ’s u rbani s ati on l evel was a s hig h as 26 % in 20 0 0 . T h is r ate was hi g her than the 1 3 . 4 % when cal cu l ated by the u rb an areas defined by the N e pal es e g over nm ent (M u z z i ni & A pari ci o 2013; CB S 20 1 1 ).


37

N u m b e r o f u r b a n a r e a s i n N e p a l t o p : 1 9 5 2 ; c e n t r e : 2 0 0 1 ; b o tt o m : 2 0 1 5 ( Po r t n o v e t a l . 2 0 0 7 ; MoUD 2015).

Number of urban areas and the dgree of urbanisation according to the UN* and the CBS (UN DESA 2017; CBS 2011) 1971

1981

1991

2001

2011

2014

Number of urban areas

16

23

33

58

58

191

2018 217

Urbanisation UN

4%

6.4%

9.2%

13.9%

17.1%

18.2%

19.7%

CBS

4%

6.4%

9.2%

13.9%

17.1%

38.26%

NA

* T h e U N h a s n o t t a ke n t h e r e c e n t r e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s i n t o a c c o u n t .


Zoom-in: Categorisation

of urban centres

According to th e Lo cal S el f -G over nm ent act of 1 9 9 9 u rban areas in Ne p al are div i d ed i nto three categ ori es, nam el y Metro po litan city / Ma han agar pal i k a, S u b-Metropol i tan ci ty / Upa-Mahanagar palika, and Mu ni ci pal i ty* / Nagar pal i k a. I n 2 0 1 1 there was on ly on e metropol i tan ci ty - K athm and u - f ou r s u bmetro po litan citie s - B i ratnag ar, B i rg u nj , L al i tpu r, Pok hara and 5 8 mu n icip alities. Tod ay there are s i x m etropol i tan ci ti es K ath mandu , Lalitp u r, Pok hara, B haratpu r, B i ratnag ar, B i rg u nj - ele ven s u bmetro po litan ci ti es - Hetau d a, D haran, It ahari , B u twal, Ne p algu n j, Gho rahi , Tu l s i pu r, K al ai ya, Jeetpu r S i m ara, Jan akpu r, Dhang adhi - a nd no l es s then 1 7 6 mu ni ci pal i ti es.

38

* T h e l o c a l s e l f - g ove r n m e n t a c t ( 1 9 9 9 ) s t a t e s t h a t mu n i c i p a l i t i e s a r e o n l y s e m i - u r b a n a r e a s. ( M o L J PA 1 9 9 9 )

Kath m a n d u L a l i tp u r

Po k h a ra

B h a ratp u r

Introducing urbanisation - Urbanisation in Nepal

H e ta u d a Je e tp u r S i m a ra

Tu l s i p u r Dh angadi

N ep a l g u n j

G ho ra hi

Metropolitan (blue) and sub-metropolitan (yellow) cities in Nepal

B u tw a l B i rg u n j Ka l a i y a


As afo rementio ned s tr u ctu ral occu pati on and popu l ati on d ens i ty are no t criteria in the u rban-r u ral cl as s i f i cati on of s et tl em ent altho u gh this is p ar ticul arl y rel evant wi th res pect to prov i s i on o f infras tr u ctu re. In the nati onal u rban pol i cy of 2 0 0 7 [ N UP] 10 pers o ns p er hectare [ppha] i s s u g g es ted f or u rban areas. It i s n otewo r thy th at o f th e 5 8 ol d mu ni ci pal i t i es, 2 0 mu ni ci pal i ti es h ad den s ities les s th an 10 ppha (MoUD 2 0 1 5 ). An area can b e de clared as a m u n ic ip a lity i f i t has a popu l ati on o f 20 ,00 0 in Terai, or 1 0 , 0 0 0 i n hi l l s and m ou ntai ns, an annu al revenu e of 5 million r u pees [ R s. ] i n the Terai and R s. 5 0 0 , 0 0 0 in th e hill/mou n tain s an d m i ni mu m of u rban f aci l i ti es s u ch as electricity, ro ads, drinki ng water and com mu ni cati on. A s ub-me tr opolitan city i s a mu ni ci pal i ty wi th a m i ni mu m p op u lation s ize o f 1 0 0 , 0 0 0 , an annu al revenu e of R s. 10 0 millio n, facilities s u ch as el ectri ci ty, d ri nk i ng water, commu nication , p aved m ai n road s, ed u cati on and heal th s er v ices o f a high s tand ard , g ener al i nf ras tr u ctu re f or n atio nal and inter nation al s por ts events, prov i s i on of pu bl i c p ark s an d a city hall. T he area s hou l d al read y have received the s tatu s o f mu n icip al i ty. A me tr opolitan c ity i s a mu ni ci pal i ty wi th a m i ni mu m p op u lation s ize o f 30 0 , 0 0 0 , an annu al revenu e of at l eas t Rs. 40 0 million , facil i ti es of el ectri ci ty, d ri nk i ng water, commu nication , p aved m ai n and s u bs i d i ar y road s, prov i s i on o f s pecialis ed health s er v i ces, es s enti al i nf ras tr u ctu re f or inter n atio nal s p or ts events, hi g her ed u cat i on and at l eas t one es tablis h ed u nivers ity. I t s hou l d al read y have re ceived the s tatu s o f s u b-metrop oli tan ci ty (MoL JPA 1 9 9 9 ) .

D haran Itahar i

B iratn ag a r

T he MoUD (2015) recommends in its national urban development s trateg y [NUDS] th e es tabl i s hm ent of an obj ective, nonpo litical s ys tem. T his s ys tem s hou l d i ncor porate popu l ati on dens ity an d o ccu pation al s tr u ctu re. A par t of the s ys tem wou l d be the s ys tematic g rowth m eas u rem ent of s m al l er s ettl em ents wh ich h ave no t yet reached the s tatu s of mu ni ci pal i ty bu t wi l l do s o within du e time. T hes e s ettl em ents cou l d be pre pared i n advance of their mu nici pal f u ncti on by i ni ti ati on of pl anni ng fo r pu b lic in fras tr u ctu re. T hes e i n-between u rban-r u ral towns wou ld b e declared ‘censu s towns ’ and wi l l have to f u l f i l t hree criteria. T h e area has to have a total popu l ati on of pl u s 5 0 0 0 , with a po pu latio n d ens i ty of 5 ppha and 5 0 % of the econ omically active p opu l ati on s hou l d be eng ag ed i n nonag ricu ltu ral activities (MoUD 2 0 1 5 ).

39


Distribution of urbanisation

40

Ar ea s all over Ne p al are exp eri enci ng the ef f ects of u rbani s ati on. Mai nl y beca us e of to po g rap hy reas o ns, l arg e popu l ati on centres ar e not d i s tri bu ted evenly acro s s the cou n tr y. M ou ntai nou s reg i ons m ake hu m an s ettl em ent ha r der du e to hars h weather, r u g g ed ter rai n, s tee p s l opes, hi g h al ti tu d es a nd seas o nal h azards. Flatlan d s have m ore attractive q u al i ti es and road s and com mu nication netwo rks can be expand ed m ore eas i l y. B es i d es topog raphy other factors als o p lay imp or tant rol es. Urban popu l ati on g rowth d ecl i nes with increas ing dis tances to maj or rivers and hi g hways and i nc reas es wi th welf a r e levels. It is s hown that, i n N e pal , es peci al l y ci ti es cl os e to m aj or hig hways, th e In dian b order or i n proxi m i ty of a m aj or popu l ati on centre are g r owing fas tes t (Po r tnov et al. 2 0 0 7 ; Mu z z i ni & A peri ci o 2 0 1 3 ). T he ce ntral develo pmen t regi on i s econom i cal l y m os t i m por tant, whi ch ex pla ins its high u rb an is ation d eg ree - 2 3 . 5 % i n 2 0 1 1 - and the f act that i t ha r bours h alf of Ne p al’s u rban popu l ati on. (MoUD 2 0 1 5 ; B ak rani a 2 0 1 5 ) . It ha s th e th ree mo s t impo r tant popu l ati on centres, nam el y K athm and u a nd L alitpu r in th e h ills and B i rg u nj i n the Terai . B i rg u nj i s a key trad e g a teway fo r trade with In dia. K at hm and u and L al i tpu r have next to econom i c im por tance als o impo r tan t fu n cti ons as rel i g i ou s, cu l tu ral and pol i ti cal centre. In comp aris o n th e far- an d mid -wes ter n reg i ons are mu ch l es s u rbani s ed , they pr ovide les s o pp or tu n ities for econom i c activ i ti es and attract l es s tou ri s t due to a h ars h climate an d p oor road s (Por tnov et al . 2 0 0 7 ) . T he wes ter n Spatial Transition a nd ea s ter32 n develo pmen t region are s i tu ated i n between wi th an The u rbani s ati on deg r ee o f 1 7 -18 % in 20 1 1 (Mo UD 2 0 1 5 ) . Map 2.2 Development Regions, Corridors, and Urban Centers, 2011 Population Population of Urban Centers 10,000–25,000

Ecological Zones Mountains Hills Tarai

25,001–50,000

Introducing urbanisation - Urbanisation in Nepal

50,001–100,000 100,001–300,000 >300,000

Dhangadhi Bhimdatta Far We ste rn

Pokhara

Mid

we

ste

rn

Development Region Region boundary Transport Corridor/highway Road

Kathmandu

Lalitpur

B But harat wal pur Weste rn Ce

Dharan

Bir

ntr

gu

al

nj

Biratnagar

Easte

rn

D i s t2012). ribution of population of urban centres (Muzzini & Aparicio 2013). Source: Based on 2011 population census data (CBS Note: Kathmandu refers to Kathmandu Metropolitan City; Biratnagar, Birgunj, Lalitpur, and Pokhara refer to the submetropolitan cities; and all other urban local governments are referred to as municipalities.


Zoom-in: Urban

location

Urb an lo cation is defin ed * as rem otenes s f rom l arg e popu l ati on cen t res. Remo te u rban l ocal i ti es are l ocal i ti es phys i cal l y and frictio nally** dis tan t from econom i c and pol i ti cal centres. Areas with a remo te u rban l ocati on are of ten u nd erd evel oped as they are no t attractive f or i nves tors. Trans por tati on cos ts are high as th ey are far away f rom trans por t ter m i nal s and major markets, an d s k i l l ed l abou rers are of ten hard to f i nd . A region s ’ g eo g rap hica l l ocati on thu s l arg el y d eter m i nes i ts eco no mic p erfo r mance. I n g eneral , coas tal reg i ons, wi th thei r eas y acces s to s ea trad e, u s u al l y ou tperf or m i nl and areas. Tro pical lo cation s ten ds to l ower econom i c g rowth, d u e to the difficu lty of far ming u nd er hot weather. Ru ral -u rban m i g rati on h ap pens o ften fo r eco no m i c reas ons. T hu s, non-rem ote l ocati on ten d to g row fas ter (Por tnov et al . 2 0 0 7 ) . Under-develo ped regio ns or u rban rem ote reg i ons are fu r ther mo re n ot attractive to you ng and / or ed u cated peopl e looking for job oppor tunities or better living circumstances. T hey b ecome de po pu lated and cons eq u entl y s tay u nd erd evel oped . Ne p al is characteris ed by l arg e f ri cti onal d i s tances * * becau s e o f its var ying top og raphy and road cond i ti ons. (Por tnov et al. 20 0 7 ). T he con s tr u cti on of the Eas t-Wes t hi g hway i n t he 19 7 0 ’s to g et h er with No r th-s ou th connecti ons s hor tened s om e o f th e larg e fr iction al d i s tances between the hi l l area and the Terai. As expected th e popu l ati on d i s tri bu ti on i n N e pal s hows a s ou th-no r th o rien tati on. Wi th the exce pti on of K athm and u valley an d Po k hara all maj or u rban econom i c centres are i n the s o u th , alo ng th e b order wi th Ind i a, the f oothi l l s and cros s road locatio ns in th e eas t-wes t hi g hway (MoUD 2 0 1 5 ) . Urb an locatio n do es not onl y d ef i ne areas where econom i c g rowth an d u rbanis atio n wi l l take pl ace. It al s o pi n-poi nts is olated and u n derdevel oped reg i ons. T hi s i s ol ati on can be redu ced by deve lop in g an al l -weather road -network to l i nk u n derdevelo ped regio ns to hi g her d evel oped reg i ons. T hi s wi l l in fact als o p os itively af f e ct the r u ral -to-u rban m i g rati on as i t b rings pu b lic facilities and econom i c oppor tu ni ti es cl os er to remote are as (Po r tnov et al . 2 0 0 7 ). * Po r tn ov et al. 2 0 0 7 r ef er to C lar k , 1982; Krakover, 1987; Kr ugman, 1999; Por tnov, 2004; Gur ung 1 9 6 9 ; M cC all 1 9 8 5 ; Jo dh a 1 9 9 0 ; Sm ith 1992 and A guilar and Ward 2003. ** T h e f r ictio n o f distan ce is th e co nce pt that the length and difficulty of the jour ney affects the tim e n eeded to co m p lete th e jo ur n ey and thus the ‘distance‘.

41


National policies on urbanisation 42

In 2015 th e Min is tr y of Urba n D evel opm ent [ MoUD ] created the nati onal ur ba n develo pme nt s trateg y [N UD S ] . Tod ay, thi s i s the m ai n s trateg y f or ur ba n p lann in g on a n atio nal s cal e. It i s an ad d i ti on to the N ati onal u rban policy [NUP] of 2 0 0 7 wh ich encou ntered i s s u es concer ni ng f u nd i ng and im plemen tation (MoUD 2 0 1 5 ; B ak rani a 2 0 1 5 ). As a f o re men tion ed th e NUD S propos es a n o n -p o litic a l sy ste m o f categorisation of u rb an areas bas ed not s ol el y on s er v i ces, abs ol u te am ou nt of inhabitants and revenu e but al s o on popu l ati on d e ns i ty and vari ati on i n economic p u rs u its. If this is i m pl em ente d onl y the g row i ng cores i n need of g over nmen t al aid wo u ld receive f u nd i ng. Fi nanci al hel p wou l d thu s be distr ibu ted more ob jectively and accord i ng to need s of u rban areas.

Introducing urbanisation - Urbanisation in Nepal

T he N UDS als o emph as is es th e i m por tance of d e c e n tr a lisin g ( u r b a n ) p la n s and policies to s hift u rbanis ati on away f rom the pri m ar y K athm and u val l ey to several other areas. Decen tr al i s i ng pl ans are f or exam pl e the pl ans f or the N ijg a dh in ter n atio nal air p or t and accom panyi ng f as t-track ; the pl ans f or the tunnel high way o r the K athman d u -Hetau d a f as t-track ; and the real i s ati on of the Bardibas -Dhu likhe l h ighway. A l l of thes e pl ans s hou l d have a pos i tive im pa ct on the mig ration to th e K athm and u val l ey. Two majo r decen tralis ing po lici es are the new f ed eral s ys tem whi ch i s cu r rentl y being imp lemented and the p rom oti on of ef f i ci ent and i nteg rated nati onal a nd r egio nal u rb an s ys tems. T he new federal s tr u ctu re pu ts s om e chos en u rban centres f orward as pr ovincial c ap itals, givin g th em hi g her pol i ti cal s t atu s and attracti on (MoUD 2015). T his s h ou ld als o have an i m pact on i ntra-prov i nce road s tr u ctu res and ur ba n po licies. C on s eq u ently thi s s hou l d pos i tivel y af f ect u rban rem otenes s of cer tain areas, which th en cou l d d evel op f u r ther as they becom e m ore a ttr a ctive for e co no mic pu r po s es (B ak rani a 2 0 1 5 ) . E f f icien t an d in teg rated nati onal and reg i onal u rban s ys tem s em bod y enha ncemen t of p ro du ction , cons u m pti on and d i s tri bu ti on l i nk ag es. Fou r such s ys tems are dis cer n ed, two m ai n s ys tem s and to s u bs ys tem s. Of the m a in s ys tems o ne lies in th e ea s t centred ar ou nd B i ratnag ar and one l ocated centr a lly with K athman du , Po k hara, B u twal , B haratpu r and B i rg u nj as m ai n centr es. T he s u b s ys tems lie in the m i d - and f ar-wes ter n reg i ons res pectivel y centr ed aro u nd Ne p algu n j an d D hang ad hi .


An ur ban s ys tem is bas ed o n a f u ncti onal hi erarchy of s ett l em ents wi th f our tiers. T he divis ion of s ettl em ents i s d eter m i ned by road acces s, loca tional advantag es an d co m m ens u rate bu l k i ng , d i s tri bu ti on and s er v i ce a nd a dminis trative fu nction s. To u nl eas h the com parative and com peti tive a dva ntag es of an in teg rate d u rban s ys tem cri ti cal i nf ras tr u ctu ral i nves tm ents f or con nectio n between all ti ers are need ed (MoUD 2 0 1 5 ) . T hi s wi l l consequ en tly redu ce th e u rb an rem otenes s of the m ore rem ote s ettl em ents of the s ys tem redu cing the r u ral -to-u rban m i g r ati on to f as t u rbani s i ng areas. T he idea o f an integ rat ed s ys tem can be f ou nd on a s m al l er s cal e as wel l , na m ely a city wo rkin g in clo s e rel ati on wi th i ts hi nterl and and s u bs i d i ar y villa g es. T h is, as will b e s een i n the chapter on ver nacu l ar ti s s u es, k nows a long traditio n in the K ath mandu val l ey.

U r b a n s y s t e m s d e f i n e d i n t h e N a t i o n a l U r b a n D e v e l o p m e n t s t r a t e g y.

43


Zoom-in: Urban 44

primacy

Ne p al’s u rb an is ation is characteri s ed by a hi g h l evel of u rban p rimacy ( Mo UD 20 1 5 ). T hi s m eans that the cou ntr y i s ver y de p en dent on on e u rban area, m os t of ten the capi tal -ci ty, the main econ omic, p ol i ti cal and cu l tu ral centre. T hi s area con trols the f low of mos t econom i c and f i nanci al trans acti ons, indu s trial produ ctio n, and m os t i m por tantl y the g over nance of a co u ntr y (Is htiaq u e et al . 2 0 1 7 ). I f a cou ntr y has a hi g h l evel of u rb an primacy this po in ts to an i m bal ance i n d evel opm ent. T he primar y area g rows an d d evel ops whi l e i t aver ts d evel opm ent from other regio ns. It is a typi cal d evel opm ent m od el i n l ow to middle-income cou n tries (Is hti aq u e et al . 2 0 1 7 ).

Introducing urbanisation - Urbanisation in Nepal

In Ne pal th e level of u rban pri m acy i s d ecl i ni ng , al thou g h it remain s h igh (Mo UD 2 0 1 5 ). I n al l d evel opm ent reg i ons, with exce p tion o f th e central reg i on, u rban pri m acy i s s tead i l y declining o r s table. T hi s m eans that reg i onal l y s m al l e r towns are les s de pended o n th e l arg es t town (MoUD 2 0 1 5 ) .


Zoom-in: Fragmented

governance

Two min is tries are respons i bl e f or the s am e u rban s paces : mu nicipalities and s m al l er towns. On the one hand the MoFALD, Minis tr y of f ed eral af f ai rs and l ocal d evel opm ent which ar rang es its g over nanc e and ad m i ni s trati on. On the o th er h an d th e MoUD, m i ni s tr y of Urban D evel opm ent, was created in 2 0 1 1 . T he MoUD i s res pons i bl e f or u rban pl anni ng and infras tr u ctu re. T h e s h ared res po ns ibil i ty of u rban s paces m eans that g ood coo rdin atio n between both m i ni s tri es i s key, al thou g h not s el f ev iden t. As a re s u lt o f thi s d u al m anag em ent s ys tem actu al execu tion o f plan s and pol i ci es v i s -Ă -v i s i m pl em entati on of p ro g rams with in mu n ici pal i ti es has becom e ted i ou s and both their res ou rces re main und er u ti l i s ed . Recently, prog res s is m ad e by coope rati on on the proj ectlevel th ro u gh a s teering com m i ttee where both par ti es are re p res en ted. T h is co u ld be the s tar t of cooperati on between b oth on h igher le vels (MoUD 2 0 1 5 ) .

Urban Institutional Arrangement .

45


Co n c l u s i o n

46

D iscuss in g t h e defin itio n o f th e u rbani s ati on d eg ree of a cou ntr y has l ear ned us tha t th e comparis on of diff erent cou ntri es i s to be taken wi th a pi nch of sa lt, even tho u gh it is do ne in s everal wri ti ng s. T he f acets of thi s d ef i ni ti on a r e popu latio n inf lu x from na tu ral popu l ati on g r owth i n u rban areas, the m ig r a tion from r u ral - or other cou ntri es - to u rban areas and the nu m ber of ur ban areas defined by th e cou ntr y, whi ch i s i n N e pal a m ai nl y pol i ti cal decision . L ookin g at thes e facets it can b e s tated that i n-m i g rati on f rom r u ral to u rban a r ea s i s the main nation al-s ca l e f actor of the rapi d popu l ati on g rowth of ur ba n centres. T h e u rban remotenes s of cer tai n areas m akes i t hard f or them to develop an d g et ou t of pover ty, thei r i nhabi tants f l ee to the ci ty. Mos t m ig r a nts however move fo r econom i c reas ons, they g o to u rban areas i n sea r ch for job s o r to s tar t a s m al l u nd er tak i ng them s el ves.

Introducing urbanisation - Urbanisation in Nepal

Rur a l to u rban mig ration is a nati onal s cal e d river of popu l ati on g rowth and f ur ther u rbanis atio n and s ho u l d t hu s be ad d res s ed at a nati onal s cal e. T hi s i s done in the n atio nal u rb an devel opm ent s trateg y. I t propos es a non-pol i ti cal cla ssif i cation o f u rb an areas to m ake s u re the ri g ht areas g et the ri g ht f u nd i ng a s they face th e res p on s ib ilities of a mu ni ci pal i ty. I t al s o propos es i nteg rated ur ba n s ys tems where with in the s ys tem d i f f erent types and s i z es of u rban a r ea s will b e linked by well devel oped i nf ras tr u ctu ral l i nes - s hor teni ng thos e f r iction al dis tan ces - an d will work tog ether accord i ng to thei r own s i z e, cha r a cteris tics an d p os s ibilities, i n a way a town s hou l d al ways work tog ether with its h in ter land. A les s on lear ned l ong ag o.


47


U rban gro w t h i n t h e Kath m an d u v a l l e y 48

U r ba n g rowth o ccu rs whe re r ural l and s capes a r e tr ans for med in to u rb an l and s capes. I t occur s in u rban as well as in r u ral areas. T he la nd in q u es tio n u n derg oes f u ncti onal and physical chang es. Urb an lands capes cons i s t of houses and pu b lic o pen s p ace, g reen or paved , but a ls o tran s po r tation in fras tr u ct u re s u ch as r oa ds o r an air po r t, eco no mic f u ncti ons l i ke industr y and co mp an ies an d p u bl i c f aci l i ti es f or ins tance ho s pitals and u n ivers i ty cam pu s es.

I n t r o d u c i n g u r b a n i s a t i o n - U r b a n g r o w t h i n t h e Ka t h m a n d u v a l l e y

As the p rimar y c en tre o f Ne p al and i ts m ai n tour ist g ateway, K athman du va l l ey i s s u bj ec t to r a p id u rban g rowth (T h ap a & Mu rayam a 2010, Is h tiaq u e et al. 20 1 7 ). I t i s es ti m ated tha t urb an area g rew fro m 2 1 5 3 . 7 9 ha - 5 . 1 % of the valley - to 11 ,02 0 .62 h a - 2 6 . 0 6 % - f rom 1989 ti ll 20 1 6 (Is h tiaq u e et al. 2 0 1 7 ). Fr om th e 19 5 0 ’s o nwards s evera l d evel opm ents a r e im po r tan t in the con text o f u rban g rowth in the valley. A s ho r t over v iew of i ts u rban g r owth will be given as well as the evol u ti on of its lan d u s e. Later, th e mos t i m por tant f a ctor s cau s ing r u ral-to -u rban l and u s e chang e in the valley will be p res en ted to u nd ers tand its r ecent develo pments. Fi nal l y f u tu re pr edictio ns an d plan s are dis c us s ed .

View of Kathmandu and its ring road from atop the Westar towers, 2017.


49


History of urban growth

50

1 769: T he G hork a exp an s io n. It s tar ted the stor y of Ne pal as a c ou n tr y. R ana r ule: Jung B ahadu r Rana, the first r uler of the Rana-dynas ty embraced the wester n cu ltu re an d op en ed the va lley to the wo rld fo r th e firs t time. L iber a lisa tion u nder th e Ran a-dynas ty i nduced the f i rs t r u ral-u rban mig r an ts. People sta r t leavin g th e hills in s earch f o r la nd. Lack o f in fras tr u ctu re p revented la rg e u rb an g rowth (Amaya M a r in et a l 2015 ) . 1 955: T he open in g of the inter nation al a ir por t opened th e valley for a s eco nd ti m e to the world (Marin et al 20 1 5 ) .

I n t r o d u c i n g u r b a n i s a t i o n - U r b a n g r o w t h i n t h e Ka t h m a n d u v a l l e y

Fr o m 1 960: Ru ral-u rban mig ration rea ches hig her prop or tion s as dis p arity i n econom ic op po r tu nit ies in creas ed . (Por tnov et a l. 2 0 0 7 fo llowing Sh res ta 1 982).

1 970’s: U r ba n g rowth g ains momen tu m d u e to better acces s ib ility o f t h e valley. (T ha pa et a l. 20 0 8 ).

1 978: Constr u ctio n of the rin g ro ad . T he ex pa nsion o f bu ilt-u p s u rface b eg ins to spr ead from th e h is toric co re o f K a thm a ndu and Patan alo ng th e radia l r oa ds to the n ow eas ily acces s ib l e s u r r ounding ridg es (Shres tha 20 1 1 ; I shtia que et al 20 1 7 ).

1 7 th c e n tu r y : ~ 1 0 0 , 0 0 0 i n h a b i ta n ts i n th e v a l l e y ( Gu tsc h o w 2 0 1 7 )

1 9 2 0 : ~ 3 6 7 , 0 0 0 i n h a b i ta n ts ( Gu tsc h o w 2 0 1 7 )

1 9 6 2 : ~ 4 5 9 , 0 0 0 i n h a b i ta n ts ( Gu tsc h o w 2 0 1 7 ) 1 9 6 9 : P h y si c a l d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n fo r Kath m a n d u v a l l e y

1 9 7 2 ; Kath m a n d u v a l l e y p h y si c a l development plan 1 9 7 6 : L a n d U se P l a n o f th e Kath m a n d u v a l l e y

1988: Urban Development and Co n se r v ati o n S c h e m e 1 9 8 8 : Kath m a n d u v a l l e y D e v e l o p m e n t A u th o r i ty A c


1 9 8 8 : Tr yi ng to s u ppl y the d em an d o f hou s i ng the g over nm ent i ni ti ates t h e L and Pool i ng S chem e i n 1 9 8 8 . In 2 0 1 3 , 1 2 proj ects were i m pl em ented i n th e val l ey g enerati ng 1 2 , 1 6 0 hou s i ng p l o ts. Ong oi ng 1 1 proj ects i nvol ve 7 , 9 6 1 pl ots (S hres tha 2 0 1 1 ). 1989: ~ 5.1% b u i l t (I sh tiaque et a l 2017)

up

a rea

1991: Katma n d u va l l ey U rb a n Developm en t Pl a n a n d Pro g ra m

1989

1 9 9 0 ’s: 3 8 . 4 % of the popu la ti o n g rowth i n the val l ey was cau s ed by i n m i g rati on f rom r u ral areas. ( CB S 2 0 0 3 ) .

1990: ~ 9 40,000 i n ha b i t a n t s (Gutsch ow 2017) 1999: Env i ro n men t a l Pl a n a n d Managemen t o f Kat hma n d u va l l ey 1999: ~ 1 1.15% b u i l t u p a rea (I sh tiaque et a l 2017) 2009

2002: Lon g Term d evel o p men t Plan of Kat hma n d u Va l l ey 2009: ~ 2 4.16% b u i l t u p a rea (I sh tiaque et a l 2017) 2011: ~ 2 ,517,023 i n ha b i t a n t s * (CBS 2 011)

1 9 9 6 -2 0 0 9 : Pol i ti cal tu r m oi l ca u s es m any to f l ee t o the s af ety of th e val l ey. It k nows i ts m os t ag g res s ive f or m of u rban g rowth. T he bu i l t-u p area g rew wi th 1 1 7 % . S prawl exp a n d s eas t- and s ou th-eas tward s beyo n d B hak tapu r al ong the m aj or road s. T h i s trans f or m s the val l ey f rom a netwo r k of characteri s ti c towns to a m etro p o l i s s tr u g g l i ng t o pres er ve i ts hi s to r i ca l i d enti ty and ecos ys tem s (Is hti aq u e et al 2 0 1 7 ). Sq u a tte r s: In 1 9 8 5 , there were 1 7 s q u atter s ettl em ents (Zu ri ck & Ro s e 2 0 0 9 ). A 2 0 1 2 s u r vey i n K athm a n d u reveal ed that there were 2 9 river s i d e s q u atter s ettl em ents wi th 2031 hou s ehol d s. S event een s ettl em en ts i n other l ocati ons had 4 6 7 hou s eh o l d s (MoUD 2 0 1 5 ).

* Inh a bi t a nts i n Kath ma ndu La l i tpur a nd B h a k t a pur di s tr i c t

2012: KVDA i s c reat ed 2012: Nati o n a l l a n d u s e p o l i c y 2016: ~ 2 6.06% b u i l t u p a rea (I sh tiaque et a l 2017)

2016

Sin c e 2 0 0 9 : T he ag g res s ive ur b a n g rowth has s l owed d own s om ewh a t. T he m os t noti ceabl e g rowth took p l a ce i n K i r ti pu r mu ni ci pal i ty and ar o u n d the rad i al hi g hways l eav i ng the r i n g road (I s hti aq u e et al 2 0 1 7 ).

51


I n t r o d u c i n g u r b a n i s a t i o n - U r b a n g r o w t h i n t h e Ka t h m a n d u v a l l e y

52

Th apathali ri verb a n ks i n t he 1880’s .

Th apathali ri verb a n ks , 2017.


53

N o rt hern v i e w o f Ce n tra l Kath m a n d u a n d th e Tu d i k h e l fro m ato p D h a ra h a ra , 1 9 2 0 ’s.

N o r t h e r n v i e w o f Ce n t r a l Ka t h m a n d u a n d t h e Tu d i k h e l f r o m a t o p D h a r a h a r a , 2 0 1 4 .


Land use change D ur ing the las t th ree decades, the l and u s e and l and cover of the K athm and u va lley h as chang ed dras tical l y. T he bu i l t-u p area has s pread throu g h the ou ts tretch ed ag ricu ltu ral f i el d . T hi s d ecl i ne of f ar m l and has s eri ou s consequ en ces for the foo d s ecu ri ty of the val l ey. A ccord i ng t o Is hti aq u e et a l. (201 7 ) th e area o f fo res ts i n the val l ey has au g m ented i n the l as t d ecad e. T his is a re markab le and p os itive f eat i n the l and u s e chang e of the val l ey. T he su r p lu s of fores t area exis t m ai nl y f rom conver ted ag ri cu l tu ral l and s at the outer margin s th at are adj acent to the d ens el y f ores ted areas. T hey are of ten on margin al, s tee p -s lop ed l and s.

54

I n t r o d u c i n g u r b a n i s a t i o n - U r b a n g r o w t h i n t h e Ka t h m a n d u v a l l e y

Area [ha]

T he numb ers fou n d in different s tu d i es concer ni ng the chang es i n l and u s e over the years var y. T h is is du e to the d ef i ni ti on of the s tu d y-area. I n g eneral however thes e different s tu dies s hown the s am e res u l t: the bu i l d -u p area has ex pa nded u ncon trolled th e las t three d ecad es. T he nu m bers f ou nd i n the study o f Is h tiaq u e et al. (20 1 7 ) , the m os t recent, wi l l be em pl oyed i n thi s thesis.

A g r i c u l tu re

B u i l t- u p Fo re st Va c a n t Time

1989

1999

2009

2016

Land use land cover change in the period of 1989–2016 (Ishtiaque et al. 2017) 1989

1999

2009

2016

Area [ha]

%

Area [ha]

%

Area [ha]

%

Area [ha]

%

Built-up

2153.79

5,1

4712.88

11.15

10,216.20

24.16

11,020.62

26.06

Agriculture

34,057.40

80.54

31,069.20

73.48

27,007.37

63.87

23,387.06

55.33

Forest

4138.56

9.79

4172.76

9.89

3627.99

8.58

6227.37

14.73

Vacant

1854.54

4.39

2252.7

5.34

1355.13

3.21

1576.73

3.73

River

80.00

0.19

76.80

0.18

74.50

0.18

73.00

0.17

Total

42,284.30

100

42,284.30

100

42,284.30

100

42,284.30

100


55

B a n e s w o r 1 9 6 7 ( t o p ) , 1 9 9 1 ( c e n t r e ) , 2 0 0 0 ( b o tt o m ) .


Main drivers of urban growth

56

D r ivers fo r u rb an g rowth can be s e parated i nto two categ ori es. T he f i rs t ca teg o r y c o ns is t o f the biop hys i cal or natu ral d rivers whi ch i ncl u d e proces s ed a nd characteris tics of the n atu ral env i ronm ent s u ch as cl i m ate, l and f or m s, topog rap hy, s o il types an d the avai l abi l i ty of natu ral res ou rces. T he s econd a r e th e s ocio -econ omic or cu l tu ral d rivers. T hey i ncl u d e am ong others populatio n an d its chang e, indu s tri al s tr u ctu re and i ts chang e, and technol og y a nd tech no lo gical chang e. Di f f erent d riv i ng f actors are of ten cor rel ated (T ha pa & Mu rayama 20 1 0 *) .

I n t r o d u c i n g u r b a n i s a t i o n - U r b a n g r o w t h i n t h e Ka t h m a n d u v a l l e y

N o univers al drivers o f u rban g rowt h exi s t - al thou g h s i m i l ar ones can be f ound in different areas - and each area s hou l d be as s es s ed s e paratel y. A l s o, the deg ree to which th ey co ntri bu te to l and s cape chang e d i f f ers (T hapa & M ur ayama 2 0 1 0 **) . D if f er ent s tu dies s h ow differen t d riv i ng f actors. T hapa and Mu rayam a (2 0 1 0 ) def ine 7 main drivers, namely, p hys i cal cond i ti ons, pu bl i c s er v i ce acces s i bi l i ty, economic op po r tu nities, land market, popu l ati on g rowth, pol i ti cal s i tu ati on, a nd g over n ment plan s an d p ol i ci es. T he K athm and u Val l ey D evel opm ent Authority [KVDA] (2 0 1 5 ) als o d ef i ne 7 d rivers : bi ophys i cal cond i ti on, economic o pp or tu n ities, p op u la t i on g rowth, road network s and pl anned m aj or develop ment, acces s to infras tr u ctu re and s er v i ces, pl ans and pol i ci es and neig hbo u rh oo d characteris tics. I s hti aq u e et al . (2 0 1 7 ) d i s cer n onl y 4 d rivers - r ur a l-u rban mig ratio n, eco nom i c central i ty, real es tate boom and s oci opolitical facto rs. So me o f th e d rivers i n the f i rs t wri ti ng can be com bi ned into on e o f the s econ d writing as they are cor rel ated . We can concl u d e that they in fact de fine almos t the sam e s et of d rivers. In this th es is fou r drivers will b e d ef i ned coveri ng m os t of the af f orem enti oned dr iver s : population inf lux, p hy sic a l c o n d itio n s , la n d m a r ke t and u r b a n planning . * T h a p a & M ur ayam a 2 0 1 0 r ef er to Ver b ur g , Ritsema van Eck, de Nijs, Schot & Dijst,2004 and Briassoulis 2000 ** T h a p a & M ur ayam a 2 0 1 0 r ef er to Ver b ur g et al. 2004 and Zang & Huang 2006.


Main drivers of urban growth P O P U L AT I O N I N F LU X

T he 201 1 cens u s recorded th e popu l ati on of the K athm and u m etropol i tan ci ty a lone at on e millio n and in th e t hree val l ey d i s tri cts 2 . 5 1 7 m i l l i on (CB S 2 0 1 1 ). 4.288 and 6 .04 8 millio n are th e es ti m ate d proj ecti ons f or the years 2 0 2 5 and 2035 res p e ct ively (KVDA 2 0 1 5 ). In 2 0 1 5 K athm and u val l ey harbou red 2 9 % of N e p al’s total u r ban po pu lati on whi l e K athm and u ci ty al one harbou red 22.2% . Inf lux of p op u lation in th e K athm and u val l ey over the l as t f ive d ecenni a ha s had a major effect on lan d u s e chang e, es peci al l y i n the peri -u rban area of the valley (Is htiaq u e et al. 2 0 1 7 ). N ot onl y d o thes e s u r pl u s i nhabi tants incr ea s e demand of s pace fo r h ou s i ng bu t al s o f or pu bl i c f aci l i ti es (T hapa & M ur ayama 20 1 0 ; Mu zzini & Apari ci o 2 0 1 3 ; K V DA 2 0 1 5 ). T he sur plu s of in habitants in th e K athm and u Val l ey i s f or the m os t i m por tant pa r t cau s ed by the r u ral-to-u rb an m i g rati on, not by natu ral popu l ati on g rowth. Tour is m is an other key compo nent i n the val l ey’s l and u s e chang e. T he l arg e f low of to u ris ts need s everal fa ci l i ti e s. T hi s boos ts the economy of the val l ey, but a lso p u ts additio nal p res s u re on the avai l abl e l and (Is hti aq u e et al . 2 0 1 7 ).

Inter-district migration in 2011 (CBS 2011) Urban born as % of ODB

Not stated

Foreign born % of Total Population

80.1

6.4

13.5

1.8

Other district Rural born as % born(ODB) as % of ODB of Native born Nepal Total

14.8

Total Urban

34

76.5

10.3

13.2

3.7

Total Rural

11.1

82.3

4

13.7

1.5

Kathmandu

51.5

75.6

9.8

15.2

2.7

Lalitpur

34.9

68.1

16.4

16.3

2.1

Bhaktapur

32.5

71.3

14

15.6

0.6

Valley districts

46

74.2

11.1

15.4

2.3

* I n t r a d i s t r i c t m i g r a t i o n i s n o t a c c o u n t e d , a s i s r e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . N u m b e r s wo u l d t h e n b e h i g h e r. -

57


Main drivers of urban growth

P O P U L AT I O N I N F LU X | R u r a l - u r b a n m i g r a t i o n 58

As m en tion ed in the previo u s chapter there are m i g rants who com e to the city in s earch of b etter liv in g s tand ard s, cal l ed ‘ pu l l m i g rants ’ , and m i g rants who are fo rced fro m th eir bi r thpl ace by l ack of j ob oppor tu ni ti es, poor public s er v ices an d natu ral dis a s ters, the ‘ pu s h m i g rants ’ (Mu z z i ni & A pari ci o 2013). In 2 0 1 1 th e valley dis tri cts had a total of 4 6 % i nter-d i s tri ct m i g rant populatio n, 7 4 .2% o f which were bor n i n r u ral areas. T he m aj or reas ons f or m ig r a tion in the K athman du va l l ey d i s tri cts were s tu d y, work , d e pend ant and m a r r ia g e (Mo UD 20 1 5 , K VDA 2 0 1 5 ). Sur plus inh ab itan ts p u t s train on the e xi s ti ng pu bl i c s er v i ces, hou s i ng and economic o pp or tu n ities. To meet thi s extra d em and new pu bl i c f aci l i ti es and r esiden ces mu s t be b u ilt an d new bu s i nes s es d evel oped or ol d ones expand ed , conseq u ently p u ttin g s train on the avai l abl e l and wi t hi n the val l ey’s bou nd ari es.

Main drivers of urban growth

I n t r o d u c i n g u r b a n i s a t i o n - U r b a n g r o w t h i n t h e Ka t h m a n d u v a l l e y

P O P U L AT I O N I N F LU X | R u r a l - u r b a n m i g r a t i o n | E c o n o m i c

opportunities

K a thmandu valley is the eco no m i c centre of the cou ntr y. A s s u ch i t prov i d es jobs and bu s ines s op po r tu niti es i n d i f f erent s ectors - tou ri s m , f i nance, industr y, edu cation , h ealth, wh ol es al e and retai l (T hapa & Mu rayam a 2 0 1 0 ) . M or e an d mo re mig rants are p u l l ed to the K athm and u Val l ey by econom i c oppor tu n ities. Larg e difference s i n oppor tu ni ti es acros s l ocati ons m otivate people to mig rate and to reap the benef i ts of l iv i ng i n a m ore central and pr osperou s area ( Mu zzini & Apari ci o 2 0 1 3 ; I s hti aq u e et al . 2 0 1 7 ). E conomic mig ration h as two g eog raphi c characte ri s ti cs. Fi rs t, econom i c m ig r a nts ten d to s ettle in th e urban area i ns tead of the r u ral . S econd l y, they a r e wil ling to move larg er dis t ances com pared to m i g rants m ov i ng f or s oci opolitical reas o ns. B ecau s e eco nom i c oppor tu ni ti es tend to d ecreas e wi th dista nce from major u rban centres, m i g rants i n s earch of j ob oppor tu ni ti es would b en efit the mos t from travel i ng l ong d i s tances. (Mu z z i ni & A pari ci o 2013).


Main drivers of urban growth

P O P U L AT I O N I N F LU X | R u r a l - u r b a n m i g r a t i o n | P u b l i c

service accessibility

T he availab ility of p u blic s er v i ces i s not a m ai n reas on to m i g rate. I t i s onl y the deman d for pu b lic facilities by a g rowi ng popu l ati on that bri ng s abou t the strain o n land.

Main drivers of urban growth

P O P U L AT I O N I N F LU X | R u r a l - u r b a n m i g r a t i o n | S o c i o - p o l i t i c a l

situation

K a thmandu , as th e high es t p oli ti cal centre, i s the s af es t pl ace d u ri ng a peri od of conf lict (T hapa & Mu rayama 2 0 1 0 ). I n the peri od between 1 9 9 6 and 2 0 0 9 m a ny f led from po litical tu r m oi l , i n s earch of a s ave haven. I t i s d u ri ng this period o f time that K athmand u val l ey k new i ts s trong es t u rban g rowth (Ishtiaq u e et al. 2 0 1 7 ; Sh res tha 2 0 1 1 ). T he civil co nf lict dis placed an es ti m ate of one m i l l i on peopl e f rom thei r villa g e o f o rigin and dis r u pted the econom i c s ector of the cou ntr y (Mu z z i ni & Aparicio 2 0 1 3 *). Far mlan d i n af f ected v i l l ag es was l ef t u ncu l tivated and ur ba n pres s u re ro s e in s ec u re h avens as K athm and u val l ey (S hres tha 2 0 1 1 ) . Socia l ineq u ities are als o a s o u rce of r u ral -u rban m i g rati on. Mu z z i ni and Apa r icio (2 0 1 3 ) re p or t th at in 2 0 0 1 twi ce as m any wom en m i g rated com pared to m en .

“W o m e n

97% o f t h e t i m e , (M uzzini & apar icio 2013).�

reportedly migrate for social reasons

c o m pa r e d w i t h

64%

of the time for men

* M u z zi n i & Ap ar icio 2 0 1 3 r ef er to AD B 2 0 1 0 , Sengupta and Shar ma 2006 and Williams and Pradhan 2008

59


Main drivers of urban growth P H Y S I CA L CO N D I T I O N S 60

Physical con dition s, s u ch as to pog raphy and g eol og y pl ay a rol e i n d e chang e of la nd u s e o f the valley. Fo r exam pl e the hi l l ock s or ‘ t ar s ’ are the bes t s pots to built on in s tead o f o n fer ti l e al l u v i al pl ai ns. A l s o, the l and s wi th l ower slopes wh ich are in f lu en ced by river d ynam i cs are bes t f or bri ck f actori es (T ha pa & Mu rayama 2 0 1 0 ) . T he phys i c al cond i ti on of an area can thu s attract a cer tain typ e o f indu s tr y or functi on whi ch i n tu r n cau s es a chang e of l and use, often from ag ricu ltu ral.

I n t r o d u c i n g u r b a n i s a t i o n - U r b a n g r o w t h i n t h e Ka t h m a n d u v a l l e y

Fur ther mo re th e increas ing nu m ber of m i d d l e-cl as s f am i l i es i n the K athm and u va lley is deman ding p ar ty for n ew and m ore f aci l i ti es s u ch as, s af e res i d e nce with mo der n amen ities - p rivate park i ng , m od er n g rocer y s tores, res tau rants - In a more q u it and les s po llu ted area. T hi s f u r ther contri bu tes to r u ral -tour ba n land u s e chang e in the f ri ng e areas of the val l ey. T he s am e reas oni ng a pplies fo r larg e to u ris t res o r ts (S hres tha 2 0 1 1 ).

I nnactive bri c k k i l n t o t he n o rt h-ea s t o f Bu n g a mati , i n th e m i d d l e o f a g r i c u l tu ra l fi e l d s. B u n g a m ati , 2 017.


Main drivers of urban growth LAND MARKET

T he r eal es tate s ector has k nown a trem end ou s boom the l as t d ecad es. T he ca uses of th is b oo m inclu de the hi g h popu l ati on i nf l u x, d i s cu s s ed earl i er, and ca pita l f lows * wh ich are u s ed to bu y l and . T hes e i ncl u d e rem i ttances f rom em ig r an t wo rkers, tran s fers from l es s s ecu re areas of the cou ntr y and cred i t loa ns p rovided by domes tic fi nanci al i ns ti tu ti ons. Fu r ther m ore abs ence of str ong g over n an ce co ncer ning u rban pl anni ng , l and m anag em ent and the real esta te s ector lo bby has added to thi s boom . T hi s tog ether wi th t he pres ent la nd specu latio n cau s es th e s piral l i ng l and pri ces i n the val l ey (S hres tha 2 0 1 1 ) . Accor d in g to the K at hman du Val l ey D evel opm ent Au thori ty [ K V DA ] the m os t ex tr eme land valu e ris e was as hi g h as 2 5 ti m es over a d ecad e (K V DA 2 0 1 5 ) . T he r is e in lan d p rices is o ne of the key d rivers of l and u s e chang e i n the K a thmandu valley. It p recedes the s el l i ng of f ar m l and to the real es tate busines s fo r t h e fin an cial profi t i t bri ng s (I s hti aq u e et al . 2 0 1 7 ; K V DA 2 0 1 5 ; Zur ick & Ro s e 20 0 9 ). In g en eral : the l and g ets conver ted i nto m ore pr of itable u s e as its valu e i ncreas es (Is hti aq u e et al . 2 0 1 7 ; K V DA 2 0 1 5 ). T he decline o f far mlan d adds to the d erog ati on of the s el f - s u f f i ci ency and f ood s ecu rity of th e valley, wh i ch can prove d ang erou s, es peci al l y i n ti m es of la r g e n atu ral hazards. It prov i d es f or wi d e s pread u npl anned d evel opm ent a nd sp rawl wh ich can dis r u pt the i nf ras tr u ctu re of other f ar m ers and f ar m i ng com mu nities, fo rcin g them to s el l as wel l . Fu r ther m or e i s thi s s prawl not dense or efficiently laid ou t. S om e areas becom e u nu s ed as they are to f ar f r om ag ricu ltu ral area to be cul tivated ef f i ci entl y bu t are to s m al l to pl ot and sell. T he inefficient u s e of land pu ts enor m ou s ex tra s t rai n on the res t of the ava ila ble land (Sh res th a 2 0 1 1 ) . * C a p i t a l f l ow s a r e m a d e u p o f a l l o f t h e m o n e y m ov i n g b e t we e n c o u n t r i e s a s a c o n s e q u e n c e o f i nve s t m e n t f l ow s i n t o a n d o u t o f c o u n t r i e s a r o u n d t h e wo r l d .

“Land

levels.

s p e c u l a t i o n i s p r e va l e n t a t b o t h i n d i v i d ua l a n d i n s t i t u t i o n a l

Land

brokers

and

housing

development

c o m pa n i e s

hold

h u g e pa r c e l s o f l a n d i n u r b a n f r i n g e a r e a s f o r s p e c u l a t i v e p u r p o s e s

(S h r es tha 2011).�

61


62

I n t r o d u c i n g u r b a n i s a t i o n - U r b a n g r o w t h i n t h e Ka t h m a n d u v a l l e y

P lotted development t o t he ea s t o f Bu n g a mat i . L a n d i s p l o tt ed, stre e ts a re i n p l a c e , y e t n o th i n g i s so l d , th e l a n d i s ke p t a b a c k from the market for sp ec u l at i o n p u rp o s es . To d a y n at u re i s t ak i n g o v e r a g a i n . B u n g a m ati , 2 0 1 7 .

E mpty plots in the orga n i c a l l y g ro w n t i ss u e o f N a kkhu . They a re ke p t fo r sp e c u l ati o n p u r p o se s a n d i n th e m ea n ti m e th e y a re lying vacant and unm a i n t a i n ed .N a k khu , 2017.


63

In c rea se i n l a n d v a l u e 2 0 0 5 - 2 0 1 5 ( KV DA 2 0 1 5 )

T he increas e in land p rices als o l ead s to l and s pecu l ati on. L and i s bou g ht as a speculative inves tme nt, as it is m ore prof i tabl e to bu y l and w i th you r m oney tha n to s ave it in th e bank or inves t i t i n other econom i c s ectors. L and bou g ht f or specu lation is o ften left id l e. T hi s al s o contri bu tes to f rag m entati on of la nd a nd co ns eq u en tly to h ap haz ard g rowth.

“T h o u s a n d s

of formal and informal land brokers are operating

t o day i n b u y i n g c h e a p a g r i c u lt u r a l l a n d a n d s e i z i n g t h e m u n t i l prices

are

speculatively

Upa dyaya 2016).�

and

artificially

raised

(Seng upta a n d

T he lan d market o f th e valley i s d u e to i ts i nf or m al i ty d i f f i cu l t to control (Ha x by 2 0 1 7 ). B u t, as th e lan d m arket i nf l u ences l and u s e d ras ti cal l y, chang e in la nd market and con s eq u entl y the hou s i ng m arket wou l d reap the hi g hes t positive impact. A jo in ed initia tive f rom g over nm ent, bank s and N G O’s wi l l be needed. A rev is ion of cu r rent l and -acq u i s i ti on l aws i s need ed (S hres tha 2011) to g eth er with a cap on l oans to the real -es tate s ector and an i nj ecti on of la n d an d ho u s in g to decreas e l and pri ces. D ecreas ed pri ces wi l l m ake it poss ib le to prov ide for affo rd abl e hou s i ng f or al l i n a m ore pl anned and r eg ula ted way.


Main drivers of urban growth URBAN PLANNING 64

U r ba n p lann in g can affect lan d u s e chang e by opti m i z i ng the l and u s ed f or ur ba n facilities th ro u gh , fo r exam pl e: l and z oni ng , l and ref or m s and reg u l ati ons a nd la n d p oo ling. Plann in g is, a s s u ch, not a d river, bu t a pote nti al red u cer of ur ba n g rowth . Detrimental or no pl anni ng can however l ead to au g m ented or ha pha z ard u rban g rowth . A ph enom enon obs er ved i n the K athm and u val l ey.

I n t r o d u c i n g u r b a n i s a t i o n - U r b a n g r o w t h i n t h e Ka t h m a n d u v a l l e y

T h e e x p a n s i o n o f u r b a n g r ow t h i n t h e K a t h m a n d u va l l e y i s h a p p e n i n g i n a n h a p h a z a r d a n d u n p l a n n e d a n d o r g a n i c way. I t g r ow s f r o m t h e s e t t l e m e n t c e n t r e s a n d a l o n g t h e m a j o r r o a d s ( I s h t i a q u e e t a l . 2 0 1 7 ) . I t mu s h r o o m s i n f e r t i l e a g r i c u l t u r a l f i e l d s a n d e n c r o a ch e s r ive r b a n k s, e ve r y w h e r e w h e r e l a n d p r i c e a n d c l o s e n e s s t o t h e c e n t r e a r e i n b a l a n c e. S u r p r i s i n g l y t h e r e i s c u r r e n t l y n o l e g i s l a t ive f r a m e wo r k p r o h i b i t i n g t h e c o nve r s i o n o f a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d i n t o b u i l t - u p a r e a . F u r t h e r m o r e, p r i o r t o d e ve l o p m e n t , a p p r ova l o f t h e l o c a l g ove r n m e n t i s r e q u i r e d . T h i s m i g h t b e a m e a n s o f r e g u l a t i n g t h e l a n d c o nve r s i o n i n t h e va l l e y, b u t w i t h o u t t h e a l o n g t e r m z o n i n g p l a n i t c a n n o t b e u t i l i s e d a s s u ch ( Sen gu p ta & Upad yaya 2 0 1 6 ) . M a ny plann in g s trategies and pl ans have been propos ed , on a nati onal and a va lley s cale, yet no ne h ave a chi eved thei r s et targ ets. T hes e pl ans are not f a ulted in its e lf b u t are hindered i n thei r i m pl em entati on d u e to d i s cre panci es between b u ilding regu lation s a nd l and u s e pl anni ng , d i s cre panci es between the va l ley an d lo cal, o r macro and m i cro s cal e, no s ynchroni s ati on between pr ojects and p lans an d a lack of a s trong l eg al bas i s, control , pol i ti cal wi l l a nd ins titu tion al cap acity (B ajrachar ya et al . 2 0 1 5 , K V DA 2 0 1 5 ) .

Mi nor 0-3 3-6 6-9 9-12 12-15 Po pulation growth rates f ro m 1991-2001 (l eft ) a n d f ro m 200 1 - 2 0 1 1 ( r i g h t) . Wh e re at fi r st th e c o re a rea g re w m o st i n p o p u l ati o n , th e r i ng ro ad area grew in 2000 a n d t o d a y t he o u t l yi n g a rea s a re g etti n g th e i r tu r n (JICA 2 0 1 2 ) .


Z o o m - i n : T h e K a t h m a nd u V a l l e y D e v e l o p m e n t A u t h o r i t y T h e K athman du valley d evel opm ent au thori ty [ K V DA ] was created in 2 0 1 2 . Sin ce then they com pl eted the par ti ci pator y lan d develo pmen t of 4 , 3 6 6 Ropani es of l and throu g h ten p ro jects, 7,27 1 Ro panies ong oi ng i n ni ne proj ects and m ore p ro jects in pipeline. T hey have al s o i d enti f i ed 8 8 7 s i tes f or p u blic land pres er vation, of whi ch pres er vati on have been s ecu red in 2 4 s ites (K V DA not d ated a) . T h e K V DA d e ve l o p e d t h e m o s t r e c e n t l o n g t e r m d e ve l o p m e n t s t r a t e g y f o r t h e va l l e y : t h e s t r a t e g i c d e ve l o p m e n t m a s t e r p l a n 2 0 1 5 - 2 0 3 5 . I t r e p l a c e s t h e l o n g t e r m d e ve l o p m e n t p l a n o f K a t h m a n d u va l l e y ( 2 0 0 2 ) w h o ’s we a k i m p l e m e n t a t i o n i s b l a m e d t o t h e c iv i l i n s u r g e n c y p e r i o d , ove r l a p p i n g j u r i s d i c t i o n s, l a ck o f c o o r d i n a t i o n b e t we e n s t a ke h o l d e r s a n d l a ck o f a d e t a i l e d a c t i o n p l a n . B y its own accou nt the s trateg i c d evel opm ent actio n plan 20 1 5 -20 3 5 h as onl y two l i m i tati ons : i t i s a pu rel y s trategic develo pmen t pl an and i ts i m pl em entati on wi l l d e pend o n the op eration al plan that wi l l be pre pared af ter the approval o f this s trategic plan (K V DA not d ated b) . T h e impact o f th es e afo rem enti oned com pl eti ons are however s mall. And the q u es tion rem ai ns i f thi s m as te r pl an wi l l achi eve its s et targ ets.

65


Z o o m - i n : L a nd 66

pooling

Lan d po olin g is a par tici pator y pl anni ng m od el exec u ted wi th the p ar ticipation of th e l and owners and the techni cal as s i s tance fro m the g over n ment a nd rel ated ag enci es. L and pool i ng has two key con ce pts. Firs t u n(d er)d evel oped l and s of i r reg u l ar s h ap es and s izes are co m bi ned to a s et of parcel s s u i tabl e f or p lo ttin g. With it the parcel s are eq u i pped wi th acces s, s er v i ces and amenities benefiting the owners d i rectl y. T hi s cons eq u e ntl y adds to th e valu e of th e l and thu s com pens ati ng the owners f or the land u s ed fo r s aid acces s, s er v i ces and am eni ti es. It is a low co s t alter n ative f or the g over nm ent i ns tead of bu yi ng the lan d for in fras tr u ctu re work s or pl anned d evel opm ent. Fu r t h er more it makes i t pos s i bl e to reorg ani s e the l and to cou n teract haph azard g rowth (MoUD 2 0 1 5 ) . However i t c an b ecome a difficu lt and ti m e cons u m i ng proces s i f neg oti ati ons with lan downers are ha rd , whi ch i s of ten the cas e (S hres tha 20 1 1 *). T ill to day land po olin g proj ect s have had l i ttl e i m pact on meeting th e h ou s ing dem and or the d em and f or i nf ras tr u ctu re (Sh res th a 2 0 1 1 ; K VDA 2 0 1 5 ).

I n t r o d u c i n g u r b a n i s a t i o n - U r b a n g r o w t h i n t h e Ka t h m a n d u v a l l e y

* Sh r esth a 2 0 1 1 r ef er s to Jo sh i an d S ang achhen 2000 and K arki 2003


2020

2020

2 0 2 5 : ~ 4 . 2 8 8 m i l l i o n i n h abi tants ( KV DA 2 0 1 5 )

2030

2030

2 0 3 5 : ~ 6 . 0 4 8 m i l l i o n i n h abi tants ( KV DA 2 0 1 5 )

2040

2040

2050

2050

Fu t u r e u r b a n g r o w t h T ha pa an d Mu rayama (2 0 1 2 ) cal cu l ated two pr ojection s wh ich are po s s ib le f or f u tu re u rban g r owth in th e valley. T he left de pi cted hereu nd er is the bu s in es s as s u s u al-s cen ar i o. T he ri g ht one could happ en if environ men tal cons trai nt are ta ken i n to accou n t.

67


Fu t u r e u r b a n g r o w t h P L A N N E D P R OJ E C T S 68

Two majo r p ro jects are b eing pl anned i n the K athm and u val l ey to ad d res s the way in which u rb an g rowth i s tak i ng pl ace: the mu ch d i s cu s s ed ou ter ri ng r oa d a nd acco mp an ying model towns.

Outer

ring road

T he ou ter ring road [ORR] mus t becom e the connector of the val l ey. Eas y a ccessibility b etween the s ettl em ents s hou l d rei n i n s prawl and prom ote densif i cation o f s ettlemen ts. T he ou ter ri ng road i s thu s s een as a m eans to g uide u rban expans ion (K VDA 2 0 1 5 ) . Accor d in g to the KVDA (2 0 1 5 ) trans por t l i nk ag es between d i f f erent settlemen ts can als o play a maj or rol e to red u ce the am ou nt of s er v i ces to be distr ibu ted for the increas in g d em and of popu l ati on. T he ri ng road wi l l be equipped with a 25 0 m s trip o n the both s i d es d es ti ned f or m i xed econom i cr esidential u s e. T h ro u gh th is the res i d ents of m ore rem ote s ettl em ents wi l l be a t clo s er proximity to emp l oym ent oppor tu ni ti es and s er v i ces u l ti m atel y r educing the traffic con g es tion .

I n t r o d u c i n g u r b a n i s a t i o n - U r b a n g r o w t h i n t h e Ka t h m a n d u v a l l e y

M ost recen t plan s abandon the f u l l y cl os ed ri ng road , d u e to ri s k s ens i tive a r ea and to po g rap hical difficu l ty i n the nor th-we s t. From N ayapati to Bha tedhik hu ro and th e s o u th of A rani ko Hi g hway to S atu ng al the or ig inal des ign was ke p t. It is propos ed that the areas f or the ri ng road i s to be a cqu ire d th ro u gh lan d po oli ng. (K V DA 2 0 1 5 ) . Cer ta in remark s s h ou ld be mad e: Ta king the in ner rin g road as an exam pl e, Mu z z i ni and A pari ci o (2 0 1 3 ) wa r n f or a re petition . At firs t th e in ner ri ng road al l ev i ated the core area traf f i c. Today h owever the ring ro ad area and the core area are cong es ted . Cong es ti on issues were th u s n ot s o lved on the l ong ter m . Secondly, h ap hazard u rban g rowth i s m ai nl y tak i ng pl ace al ong the ri ng road a nd oth er larg e ar teries con necti ng the val l ey wi th i ts centre. A n exam pl e of unco ntro lled ribb on devel opm ent i s the hi g hway between K athm and u a nd Bhaktapu r where an u rb an cor ri d or has f or m ed . T he cons tr u cti on of the inner ring road made mo re rem ote and at the ti m e u nd evel oped areas a ccessible fo r u rb an g rowth . It thu s nu r tu red haphaz ard u rban g rowth i ns tead of dens ification of th e e xis ti ng bu i l t-u p area. A g ai n, a re peti ti on s hou l d shunned (Sh res th a 2 0 1 1 ).


T hir dly t h e develo pmen t of the 2 5 0 m s tri p on each s i d e d oes not s u ppor t centr a lity o f towns. It will no t bri ng em pl oym ent oppor tu ni ti es to rem ote a r ea s, on ly t ho ro u gh develo pm ent of thes e areas wi l l . B y pl aci ng thes e oppor tu n ities alo ng a rin g ro ad red u ces the val u e of the centres i n the val l ey. Fur ther mo re, inh ab itan ts o f the val l ey wi l l want to m ove cl os er to thei r j ob incr ea sing u rb an s pr awl alo ng the ou te r ri ng road , not to m enti on the l eap of the la nd pric es th ere.

Model

towns

T hr ee model t own s in th ree d i s tri cts s hou l d red i rect f ocu s of the ever ex pa nding K ath mandu cen tre. Fu r ther m ore they s hou l d be d es i g ned to bri ng em ploymen t eco no mic cen tres cl os er to exi s ti ng s ettl em ents. T hes e towns should s er ve as an example on cl i m ate res pons ive d es i g n, d evel opm ent of ur ba n i nfras tr u ctu re and s er vices, ef f i ci ent l and u s e, technol og y, pres er vati on of cultu re an d n atu ral env iron m ent and the prom oti on of m i xed u s e s ettl em ent with su fficient ho u s in g op tion s (K V DA 2 0 1 5 ). T hr ee areas wh ere thes e s ettl em ents can be d evel oped have al read y been a ppr oved.

A p p ro v e d d e v e l o p m e n t a rea s a n d c u r re n t l a y - o u t o f th e o u te r r i n g ro a d .

69


Co n c l u s i o n

70

It ca n b e con clu ded that u rba n g rowth, even s l owed d own i n com pari s on to the tu r n of th e cen tu r y, is s ti l l a m aj or i s s u e i n the K athm and u val l ey. Population inf lu x is the main d riv i ng f actor of u rban g rowth and i s i ts el f m ostly driven by r u ral to u rba n i m m i g rati on. T hi s popu l ati on i nf l u x i s al s o ver y mu ch related to th e in crea s e of the l and pri ces whi ch bri ng f or th i s s u es of la n d acq u is ition for p u blic f aci l i ti es and pl anned d evel opm ent, as thi s would brin g fo r th to o high a cos t f or the g over nm ent to car r y. L and pool i ng i s seen a s a s olu tion alth ou gh it is of ten a d i f f i cu l t and ti m e cons u m i ng proces s. M or eover, th e way in wh ich thi s popu l ati on i nf l u x i s cu r rentl y hand l ed , or r a ther no t h an dled, p rovides f or haphaz ard d evel opm ent and l ow d ens i ty develop ment addin g to u rban g rowth throu g h i nef f i ci ent pl anni ng

I n t r o d u c i n g u r b a n i s a t i o n - U r b a n g r o w t h i n t h e Ka t h m a n d u v a l l e y

Fur ther mo re it is imp or tant to k now that i n com i ng years the popu l ati on inf lux in to the valley will no t ceas e, even i f the d ecentral i s ati on of the val l ey ta kes h old. As lon g as th ere is thi s m aj or popu l ati on i nf l u x i n the val l ey the la nd prices an d the land market are g u i d i ng the way i n whi ch and where u rban g r owth is tak in g p lace. It takes pl ace haphaz ard l y, f or the hi g her m i d d l e cla ss and in areas where p rices are s ti l l l ow. A s tri ct u rban pl anni ng reg i m e should be imp lemented to better g u i d e u rban d evel opm ent f or the com i ng yea r s. Fin ally s u itab le regu lations and pol i ci es concer ni ng the l and m arket, la nd a cq u is itio n and land u s ag e are need ed to open the m arket to m ore and counteract s pecu latio n.


71


72


73

II. Impacts Positi v e an d n egat i v e i n f l u en c es of rapi d an d haphazar d u r ban gr owth on n at u r e an d c u l t u r e i n the Kathm an du val l ey —— The state of the Bagmati river banks between Thapathali and Teku.

So l i d w a s t e s t rew n a l o n g o n e s i d e o f th e b a n ks o f th e B a g m ati r i v e r, th e o th e r i s sq u atte d b y u r b a n p o o r w h o d o not h av e th e m ea n s to b u y l a n d a n d / o r h o u si n g i n th e v a l l e y. . Te ku, 2 0 1 7


Introduction Population g rowth , availab le technol og y and cons u m pti on l evel are m ai n f a ctor s for env iron mental chang e. A s s u ch, u rbani s ati on i s too. Fou r topi cs, on whi ch th e rap id u rb an is ation of the val l ey has a, m os tl y d etri m ental , ef f ect will be dis cu s s ed in the followi ng chapters. T hey are: s oi l , water, ai r and society.

74

“Urban

development in

environment, ignored

the

and

N e pa l

urban

historical

h a s p l ay e d h av o c w i t h t h e n a t u r a l

planning

and

experience

of

m a n ag e m e n t ag ro p o l i ta n

has

largely

cities

where

n a t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t wa s v e ry m u c h a pa r t o f t h e u r b a n s c h e m e o f things

(M oUD 2015).�

It seems th at th e eco s ys tem of the K athm and u val l e y i s no l ong er abl e to cope with the con s eq u ences of s o m any peopl e i nhabi ti ng i t and i n ad d i ti on the way in wh ich th ey do. T he am ou nt of water need ed , the am ou nt of area occupi ed, the amou n t o f emis s i ons f rom vehi cu l ar t raf f i c, the am ou nt of vehicles, the amou n t of was te prod u ced s eem to be j u s t to mu ch. N ot onl y na tur a l ecos y s tems s u ffer, th e cu l tu ral , hu m an ecos ys tem , that the val l ey has known for cen tu ries, is deteriorati ng and s oci al cohes i on i s cr u m bl i ng. T he valley is no t able to p rovi d e f or enou g h water, the pol l u ti on of water r esults in water-bo r n e dis eases, m i cr o-d u s t nu r tu res l u ng d am ag e, s oi l deg r a dation is a fact an d n on -soci al c om mu ni ti es wi l l be the res u l t (Haack & Kha tiwada 2 0 0 7 ; T hapa & Mu rayam i 2 0 0 9 ; I s hti aq u e et al 2 0 1 7 , Mu z z i ni & Apa r icio 2 0 1 3 , Mo UD 20 1 5 , K V DA 2 0 1 5 ).

Impacts

N ote sho u ld be taken th at urbani s ati on has benef i ts. Overal l pover ty i s a lleviated an d u rban areas con tri bu te m ore to the econom i c g rowth of the countr y (Mu zzin i & Ap aricio 2 0 1 3 , MoUD 2 0 1 5 ) . If s u f f i ci ent i nf ras tr u ctu re f or wa ter, was te an d s ewerag e wou l d be prov i d ed and m ai ntai ned , the pos i tive ef f ects o f u rbanis atio n, mean i ng pover ty el evati on and g eneral pros peri ty, would no t be nu llified in th e li g ht of i ts neg ative ones.


75

The Kathma n d u va l l ey i s t he ho me o f t ho u s a n d s o f p e o p l e , e v e r y o n e p u tti n g stra i n o n th e n atu ra l re so u rc e s o f th e v a l l e y, 2017.

S o l i d w a ste a n d sq u atte r s l i n i n g th e r i v e r b a n ks. Te ku , 2 0 1 7 .


76

Waste collection. Nakkhu, 2017.

Impacts

Solid waste lining the streets. Pulchowk, 2017.

Solid waste lining the streets close to Patan core area , 2017.


Zoom-in: Waste

accumulation

A larg e p op u lation in f lu x and i ncreas i ng l iv i ng s tand ard s eq u al s more an d mo re was te. Urban ci ti z ens cons i d er i t the wors t p ro blem in u rb an areas i n N e pal (Mu z z i ni & A pari ci o 2 0 1 3 * ) . In 2 0 1 1 the As ian devel opm ent bank es ti m ated that the val l ey g en erated 61 1 ton s p er d ay - hou s ehol d , com m erci al and ins titu tion al was te - of whi ch 5 0 8 tons was col l ected (A D B 20 1 3 ). However, co llecti on d oes not eq u al recyc l i ng or d u m pi ng in a s an itar y lan d fill . T he m ai n was te d i s pos al s i tes are de p res s ed lan ds, o pen pi ts and pi l es and riverbank s (Mu z z i ni & Aparicio 2 0 1 3 ) . T hes e s paces are u s ed by i nd iv i d u al s, private o rg an is ation s and mu ni ci pal i ti es al i ke (G oN & N T N C 2 0 0 9 ; Pers on al in ter v iew T h apatal i res i d ents 2 0 1 7 ) . T he abs ence of s anitar y lan dfills in th e val l ey i s d i re. Onl y one - S i s d ol l and f i l l - is con s idered s anitar y, al thou g h i t d oes not m eet the neces s ar y req u ire me nts (Mu zzin i & A pari ci o 2 0 1 3 * * ) . T he b u dg et s p en t on s o l i d was te m anag em ent d i f f ers s trong l y between the five valley-mu ni ci pal i ti es. In 2 0 1 3 K athm and u and B hak tapu r s pent ap prox i m atel y R s. 2 0 0 per res i d ent per year wh ile s maller mu n icip al i ti es as Mad hyapu r T hi m i and K i r ti pu r on ly Rs. 10 . C on s eq u entl y the f or m er col l ected m ore than 7 5 % of th e was te g en erated i n thei r res pons i bl e area w hi l e the l atter on ly reach 40 %. 6 0 -70 % of the b u dg et for s ol i d was te m anag em e nt i s g eneral l y u s ed for co llection an d s treet wi pi ng , 2 0 -3 0 % to trans por t of th e collected was te - firs t tot the trans f er s tati on f or recycl i ng an d afterwards fu r th er on to the l and f i l l , the rem ai nd er i s s pent on final dis p os al and rec ycl i ng (A D B 2 0 1 3 ). T he cu r rent s itu atio n and th e s tatisti cs s how that a l arg er s hare s hou l d be s pent in th e fin al d i s pos al and recycl i ng. Cos ts s pent on co llection and s treet s wi pi ng cou l d be red u ced throu g h m ore efficien t manag ement (MoUD 2 0 1 5 ) . * M uzzin i & Ap ar icio 2 0 1 3 r ef er to GoN 2008 and WaterA id 2008 ** M uzzin i & Ap ar icio r equir es th is date from the Solid Waste Manag ement Technical Center

77


Soil 78

T he soil in th e K ath mandu valley i s k nown f or its high deg ree o f fer tility. T he ‘ bl ack cl ay’ ha s been th e b u ilding g rou n d f or the crops of the valley s in ce men b eg an to i nhabi t i t. Today h ap hazard u rb an is ation has not onl y excessively redu ced th e area o f s oi l that can be used fo r ag ricu ltu ral p u r pos es. It al s o pollutes it.

Impacts - Soil

Two types of s oil p ollu tio n wil l be ad d res s ed , na m ely acidificatio n o f the s oi l and the pr esen ce of heavy metals in t he s oi l . B oth a r e m ainly cau s ed by du mping was te on open spa ce, the p ollu tio n of ir rig ati on water and the de p os ition o f po llu ting p ar ti cl es i n the a ir. It i s fu r th er more impo r tan t to real i s e that soil po llu tion an d g ro u nd water pol l u ti on are str ong ly re lated.

The w at er Bu n g a mat i f i el d s i s Bu n g a mat i ,

o u tl e t fro m th e v i l l a g e o f to w a rd s i ts a c c o m p a n y i n g l i g n e d w i th so l i d w a ste . 2017.


79


Heavy metals

80

S o i l i s t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t nu t r i e n t b e a r i n g e nv i r o n m e n t f o r p l a n t - l i f e. I f t h e s o i l i s c o n t a m i n a t e d i t c a n a l s o d e l ive r t ox i c s u b s t a n c e s t o t h e c r o p s. I m p o r t a n t t ox i c s u b s t a n c e s a r e h e av y m e t a l s i n c l u d i n g z i n c, c o p p e r, l e a d , c a d m i u m , a r s e n i c a n d m e r c u r y. W h e n e a t e n , t h e s e c a n c a u s e s e ve r a l h e a l t h p r o b l e m s. T h e y a t e f o u n d t o b e o n e o f t h e c a u s e s o f i n c r e a s e d n e u r o l o g i c a l p r o b l e m s i n N e p a l ( K ay a s t h a 2 0 1 4 * ) . T h e p o l l u t i o n o f t h e s o i l w i t h h e av y m e t a l s n o t o n l y c a u s e s h e a l t h i s s u e s, i t a l s o n e g a t ive l y a f f e c t s t h e p hy s i o l o g i c a l a c t iv i t i e s o f p l a n t s. T h i s c a u s e s a r e d u c e d p l a n t g r ow t h , c o n s e q u e n t l y r e d u c i n g t h e c r o p y i e l d . C o n t a m i n a t i o n of the soil also further contributes to the pollution of ground and surface wa t e r, l i ke r ive r s a n d c a n a l s ( K ay a s t h a 2 0 1 4 ) . L o n g t e r m a p p l i c a t i o n o f wa s t e wa t e r f o r i r r i g a t i o n , s y s t e m a t i c d u m p i n g o f s o l i d wa s t e a n d a t m o s p h e r i c p o l l u t i o n a m o n g o t h e r s l e a d t o a h e i g h t e n e d l e ve l o f h e av y m e t a l s i n t h e s o i l . F u r t h e r m o r e, h e av y m e t a l s a r e n o n b i o d e g r a d a b l e a n d n o n - t h e r m o d e g r a d a b l e. T h e y c a n t h u s e a s i l y a c c u mu l a t e t o t ox i c l e ve l s i n t h e s o i l ove r t i m e. C o n t i nu o u s o b s e r va t i o n a n d t i m e l y i n t e r ve n t i o n i s t h u s n e c e s s a r y ( K ay a s t h a 2 0 1 4 * * ; M o U D 2 0 1 5 ) .

Impacts - Soil

* K ay a s t h a 2 0 1 4 r e f e r s t o D u r u i b e e t a l . 2 0 0 7 , K h a n e t a l . 2 0 0 8 , S i n g h a n d Ku m a r 2 0 0 6 a n d H e i ke 2 0 0 4 . * * K ay a s t h a 2 0 1 4 r e f e r s t o B o h n e t a l . , 1 9 8 5 , N i ch o l s o n e t a l . 2 0 0 3 a n d Z h a n g 2 0 0 6

Po l l u t i o n o f t he s o i l a n d c o n s eq u en t l y t h e sh a l l o w a q u i fe r w i th h ea v y m e ta l s.


Soil acidification Acidic elements SO 2 an d NO X em i tted by the i nd u s tri al s ector operati ng i n a nd near th e valley are trans p or ted throu g h the ai r - as ai r pol l u ti on - to and f r om th e valley. T h es e elements can be d e pos i ted on pl ants, on s oi l and i n wa ter throu gh dr y o r wet de po s i ti on. D r y de po s itio n takes p lace wh en aci d i c el em ents s i m pl y f al l to the g rou nd or stick to plan ts th ey en co u nter. Wet d e pos i ti on takes pl ace when thes e elem ents dis s o lve in to th e water i n the ai r, l ater preci pi tati ng to the g rou nd in the fo r m of rain. T he heighten ed levels o f SO 2 an d N O X i n the s oi l and the water have d etri m ental ef f ects. In s u rface water it hinders the hatchi ng of eg g s and k i l l s f i s h, i ns ects, m icr obes and o th er aq u atic life. T hi s d eteri orates the aq u ati c ecos ys tem s of r iver s and lakes. Acid rain is s peci f i cal l y i m pactf u l f or the B ag m ati river system as it is main ly fed by natu ral s pri ng s and rai nwater i ns tead of m el t wa ter fro m glaciers ( Go N & NTN C 2 0 0 9 ). In the s o il acidic elemen ts are at f i rs t neu tral i s ed by the l i m e, m i neral s and or g a nic material - h u mu s - in th e s oi l . W hen the capaci ty of thi s natu ral bu f f er is r ea ch ed the elements kill es s enti al m i crobes and react wi th the nu tri ents i n the soi l, s u ch as calciu m and m ag nes i u m . T hrou g h thi s reacti on the s oi l l os es its nutrien ts, co ns eq u en tly les seni ng the nu tri ti onal val u e of the cr ops and r elea sing toxics like alu miniu m i nto the s oi l and eventu al l y the g rou nd water.

Soil acidif icati o n t ro u g h a i r p o l l u t i o n f o l l o w ed b y we t o r d r y d e p o si ti o n . A fte r w a rd s i t a d d s to th e p o l l u ti o n o f th e sh a l l o w a q u i fe r as wel l .

81


Zoom-in: Brick 82

kilns

Several brick kilns are active i n t he val l ey. I n 2 0 1 7 1 1 0 k i l ns were in o peration in th e val l ey: 1 5 i n K athm and u , 3 2 i n L al i tpu r and 63 in B hak tapu r distri ct (D oEnv 2 0 1 7 ) . T h e kilns u s e an u nu s u al prod u cti on rotati on s y s tem . D u ri ng the wet s eas on th e fields are u s ed f or ag ri cu l tu re, bu t d u ri ng d r y s eas o n th e kilns h ar ves t the f er ti l e cl ay f or bri ck prod u cti on. T h is rot ation is eco no m i cal l y i nteres ti ng f or f ar m ers. T hey can leas e their lan d yet u s e i t them s el ves d u ri ng the m os t f er ti l e p erio d of the year. However, d u e to the har ves ti ng of the clay the fer tility o f th e s oi l red u ces d ras ti cal l y year af ter year. W hen th e k iln relo cate to new areas the l and they l eave i s almos t bar ren . T h is is especi al l y the cas e i f the f er ti l e tops oi l i s removed b efo re excavati on. Far m ers es ti m ate that the d ecreas e in p ro du c tio n is du e 5 0 % by the rem oval of the tops oi l . Afterwards far mers tr y to recti f y the l os s i n prod u cti on u s i ng exp en s ive ch emical fer ti l i z ers, whi ch i n tu r n have a neg ative imp act o n s o il an d g ro u nd water pol l u ti on (Haack & K hati wad a 20 0 7 )

Impacts - Soil

In additio n th e exh au st of bri ck k i l ns has an i m pact on ai r, water an d s o il po llu tion i n the val l ey. It d oes not onl y af f ect the area o n which th e clay u s ed i s excavated , bu t al s o by pol l u ti ng the s u r rou n ding fields and crops throu g h d e pos i ti on of the g as e o u s po llu tants an d par t i cu l ate m atter they em i t i nto the air. It was fou n d th at the neg ative ef f ect on the s u r rou nd i ng fields les s ens with dis tance to the bri ck k i l n (B i s ht & N eu pane 20 1 5 ).


83

Photo 2-3: Brick factories in Kathmandu Valley

B r i c k k i l n s i n th e Kath m a n d u v a l l e y.

Photo by the author.

Note: Most of the housing structures in the valley are built by bricks. Many brick factories can be seen around the urban periphery of Kathmandu. The bricks are made from the rich valley soils, the same soils used for agriculture. The brick kilns are intense in several locations of the Valley and have an interesting pattern of using the same lands for bricks during the dry season and then conversion to rice during the wet, summer monsoon months (Haack and Khatiwada, 2007), an interesting seasonal land use pattern. Fi ri n g b ri c ks re q u i re s a l o t o f h eat, th u s fu e l a n d c o n se q u e n tl y p ro d u c e s l a rg e a m o u n ts o f tox i c e m i ssi o n s. B h a k ta p u r, 2 0 1 8 .

27

A c ti v e k i l n n ea r B h a k ta p u r , O k to b e r 2 0 1 7


Wa t e r Wa ter has always been th e s o u rce of l i f e and pr ocr eation . To day it is a s o u rce of energ y and industrial proces s es as we ll. T he i m por tance of wa ter is mir rored in th e cu l tu re of the va lley: in ritu als where water, water bod i es a nd r ivers often play s an impo r tant r ol e and in the layo u t of s ettlemen ts wh i ch have water bodies at th eir fo cal po in t s.

84

“I t

is believed that the civilization of

the

Kathmandu

the

river

side

Valley starts from (Gon & NT NC 2009).�

I m p a c t s - Wa t e r

T he K ath mandu valley its elf s er ve s as a m aj or wa ter bas in th at h as s u pp lied and s ti l l s u ppl i es its inh ab itan ts o f water. T he water bas i n of the K athman du valley con s is t o f two aq u i f ers : por ous s oil layers co nt ain in g larg e am ou nts of wa ter. T h e s h allow aq u ifer is lo cated near the g r ound s u rface and has been the m ai n water supply fo r the valley s in ce anci ent ti m es. I t is r e pl enis hed trou gh rain and penetrati on of sur f a ce water into the water-car r yi ng l ayer. T he dee p aq u ifer is p os ition ed u nd er neath the sha llow aq u ifer an d div ided by a thi ck l ayer of clay. T his aq u ifer h as o nly been i n u s e to supply water deman d of the val l ey s i nce the 1960’s. Du e to the thick layer of cl ay i t i s not a s ea sily refilled as th e s hallow aq u i f er. Two main is s u es with reg ard to wate r i n the valley will b e dis cu s s ed. Fi rs t the overdr a ining o f b oth aq u ifers which cou l d cau s e sever e water s h or tag es in th e fu tu re. S econd l y the po llu tion of s u rface and g rou nd water which is a threat to th e h ealth of the val l eys ecosys tem an d to the health of i ts i nhabi tants.

The Ba g m ati r i v e r to th e w e st o f K ho ka n a i n a se e m i n g l y u n p o l l u te d s t at e. K ho ka n a , 2 0 1 7 .


85


Wa t e r e x t r a c t i o n VERNACULAR 86

U ntil 1 9 6 0 the water s u pp ly of the val l ey rel i ed s ol el y on the s hal l ow aq u i f er a nd the B agmati river-s ys tem. T hi s i nd i g enou s s ys tem tapped water f rom r iver s in to canals for ir rig ation and u s ed wel l s and s te pwel l s to d i rectl y u s e the water fro m t he s h allow aq u i f er. T he u s ed water was eventu al l y d rai ned ba ck into t h e river an d th e aq ui f er was re pl e ni s hed wi th the hel p of pond s a nd th rou gh p recip itatio n du ri ng the wet s eas on. T he water u s ag e of the inha bitan ts of the valley did n ot af f ect other areas.

Vernacular s i t u at i o n (t o p ) a n d c o n t emp o ra ry s i t u ati o n ( b o tto m ) .

I m p a c t s - Wa t e r

Deep a q u i f er

Compositio n o f t he va l l ey b a s i n .

Clay

Po ro u s so i l

S h a l l o w a q u i fe r


Wa t e r e x t r a c t i o n CO N T E M P O R A R Y

In the 1 9 6 0 ’s t h e firs t dee p wel l s were d ri l l ed i n the val l ey, openi ng u p the usa g e an d exp lo itat ion of th e dee p aq u i f er. S i nce then the am ou nt of d ee p wells h as in creas ed tremen do u s l y cau s i ng a cri ti cal d e pl eti on of the d ee p a quif er. T he shallow aq u ifer is in n o better s tate. D u e to the i ncreas e of nonper m eable s u rface s it is in s u f f i ci entl y recharg ed . T hi s al s o cau s es the indig en ou s water s ys tem to mal f u ncti on, whi ch cou l d s ti l l prov i d e potabl e wa ter (Pers o nal inter view P. Prad han 2 0 1 7 ) . Fu r ther m ore i t i s too heav i l y polluted to p rovide po table wa ter wi thou t proper treatm ent. Cons eq u entl y a dding to the p res s u re o n th e d ee p aq u i f ers res er ves. Today th e aq u ife rs o f th e valley bas i n are not abl e to cover the hi g h d em and of potable water, alth ou gh the averag e water cons u m pti on i n the val l ey is estimated at on ly 35 litres per capi ta per d ay [ l pd ] (MoUD 2 0 1 5 ) . I n com pa ris on : 1 0 0 -20 0 lpd wo u ld prov i d e opti m al acces to water (WHO 2 0 1 1 ). T he New Melamch i water s u pp l y proj ect [ MWS P] s hou l d cover 1 7 0 m i l l i on litr es per day by tapp in g the Mel am chi , the Yang ri and L arke rivers (G oN not da ted) . T his wo u ld cover th e d em and of the val l ey f or now.

Water demand and supply of the Kathmandu valley (MoUD 2015; GoN) Wet season

Dry season

Water demand

350

350

KUKL*

154

95

Deep extration

40

40

Private vendors

10

10

Melamchi

170

170 * Kathm andu Upatyaka Khanepani Ltd.

87


88

Shallow aquifer and cl a y l a yer (l eft ), d eep a q u i f er (mi d d l e) a n d re c h a rg e a rea s ( r i g h t) 0-10 m depth

25-50 m depth

10-25 m depth

50-100 m depth

25-50 m depth

100-150 m depth

50-85 m depth

150-200 m depth

Clay layer

200-285 m depth

Zoom-in: Water

recharge

I m p a c t s - Wa t e r

T h e s h allow aq u ifer can be recharg ed al m os t ever ywhere i n the valley wh ere th e s o il cover i s per m eabl e. T he d ee p aq u i f er can o nly be recharg ed at cer tai n areas. T hes e areas are d ef i ned by the per meab ility of t he above s oi l l ayers, f or water need s to s ee p trou gh all of th em, of ten m ak i ng i t a ver y ti m e-cons u m i ng p ro ces s. Du e to th e th i ck , al m os t i m per m eabl e l ayer of cl ay u n der th e K ath mandu val l ey, the area of recharg e f or the dee p aq u ifer is ver y s mal l and conf i ned to the f oothi l l s on the n or th an d s o u th edg es of the val l ey. T hes e areas are of u tm os t imp or tance an d its p er m eabi l i ty s hou l d thu s be pres er ved (K VDA 20 1 5 ). However, haphaz ard u rban g rowth has covered a s evere amou n t o f them i nto u rban, i m per m eabl e areas (T hapa & Mu rayama, 20 0 9 ).


Zoom-in: Heritage

a l o n g t h e r i v e r b a nk s

T h e B agmati river s ys tem has d evel oped a hi g h cu l tu re and h eritag e valu e over th e ye ars. S ever al i m por tant tem pl es, s h rines an d ghats are si ted al ong the bank s of the rivers and their co nf lu ences. Many ri tu al s and cu l tu ral activ i ti es take pl ace there. T h e du mp in g o f sol i d was te, the wi d eni ng and nar rowi ng o f th e river, th e dec lin e i n water d i s charg e, the d eteri orati on o f th e rivers ’ n atu ral sys tem and the i nf or m al occu pati on of the riverb an k s con trib u te to the d eteri orati ons and d eval u ati on o f th e s tr u ctu res an d ri tu al s s i ted and perf or m ed there (G oN & NT NC 20 0 9 , Zu rick & ros e 2 0 0 9 ). Fu r t h er more the po tenti al the rivers i d e has f or recreati on and cu ltu ral tou ris m are n ot em pl oyed , al thou g h thi s cou l d be a catalys ato r fo r u rb an revi tal i s ati on, f or the val l eys l ivabi l i ty, f or the creation of jo bs and f or d ecl i ni ng pover ty rates (Mu z z i ni & Aparicio 20 1 3 , Zu rick & Ros e 2 0 0 9 ). I n 2 0 1 0 the g over nm ent o f Ne p al iden tified to u ri s m as the s ector wi t h the hi g hes t exp or t po tential (GoN & MoCS 2 0 1 0 ) .

D e te r i o rati n g o f Gh ats, Te ku , 2 0 1 7 .

89


90

Deterioration of temples and historical buildings. Teku, 2017.

I m p a c t s - Wa t e r

Historical walkway. Teku, 2017.

Historical walkway. Teku, 2017.


91

Squatting near historical walkway. Teku, 2017.

Squatting of vernacular building near river edge. Teku, 2017.

Squares in front of vernacular buildings. Teku, 2017.


Wa t e r p o l l u t i o n T he con tamination of th e B agmati river s ys tem i s s everel y af f ecti ng i ts water qua lity, co ns eq u en tly cau s in g m any water bor n d i s eas es. T hes e are af f ecti ng m en - th e po or and mar ginali s ed the m os t - and ani m al al i ke (Mu z z i ni & Apa r icio 20 1 3 ; Zu r ick & Ro s e 2 0 0 9 ). Fu r ther m ore, the pol l u ti on of rivers does n ot o nly affect the water i n the K athm and u val l ey, bu t i t i s a m eans of tr a nspor tin g water po llu tion to other l ocati ons.

92

T he tribu taries o f th e B agmati river s ys tem ar rive heal thy at val l eys ’ ed g es. However, after its pas s ag e, it i s heav i l y contam i nated , bas i cal l y an open sewer ag e (Mu zzini & Aparicio 2 0 1 3 ; G oN & N T N C 2 0 0 9 ). L ack of s u f f i ci ent wa ste man ag emen t and co r res pond i ng reg u l ati ons are i m por tant cau s es. G a r ba g e, h ou s eho ld s ewerag e p i pel i ne and toxi c i nd u s tri al was t e i s d u m ped , of ten u ntreated, into the river a nd onto the riverbank s (MoUD 2 0 1 5 ; Mu z z i ni & Apa ricio 2 0 1 3 ). T h e river’s capaci ty to pu ri ty i ts el f throu g h i nteracti on between its biotic an d abiotic characteri s ti cs has been s l owl y f ai l i ng (G oN & N TNC 2 0 0 9 ) and man y s cien ti s ts have d ecl ared the rivers “ d ead ” becau s e ha r dly any fis h can s u r vive in them . Recent s tu d i es s how that the popu l ati on of f ish h as b een completely wi ped ou t i n the 1 0 - to 1 5 -k i l om eter s tretch of the Bagmati River f lowin g throu g h the K at hm and u Val l ey (B hu s hal 2 0 1 1 ; M uzzini & Ap aric io 20 1 3 ). T he i m pl em entati on of an overal l s ewerag e s ys tem a nd water treatment p lants is a bas i c cond i ti on i n red u ci ng the contam i nati on of the g ro u ndwater.

“With

increased

urbanization,

the

socioeconomic

costs

of

i n a d e q ua t e wa s t e wa t e r c o l l e c t i o n a n d t r e a t m e n t a r e r i s i n g i n t h e

Map 8: Water quality in different zones

K a t h m a n d u V a l l e y ( M u z z i n i & A p a r i c i o 2 0 1 3 ) .”

Unpolluted Heavily polluted Extremely polluted No data available Grade of p o l l u t i o n i n t he t ri b u t a ri es o f t he Ba g m ati r i v e r sy ste m , 2 0 1 5

29

Bagmati Action Plan 2009-2014

I m p a c t s - Wa t e r

Moderately polluted


93

Draina g e b ec o mes o p en s ewera g e, Bha i s ep at i , 2017.

S i tu ati o n o f th e r i v e r a l o n g A r n i ko h i g h w a y, 2 0 1 7

S i tu ati o n o f th e r i v e r a l o n g A r n i ko h i g h w a y, 2 0 1 7


94


Air T he Worl d Heal th Org ani z ati on [ WHO] d ef i nes ai r pol l u ti on as contam i nati on of the i nd oor or ou td oor env i ronm ent by any chem i cal , phys i cal , or bi ol og i cal ag ent that m od i f i es the natu ral characteri s ti cs of the atm os phe re. It cons i s t m ai nl y of ai rbor ne par ti cu l ate m atter [ PM] , g as eou s pol l u tants , s u ch as CO, S O2 , N O3 , O3 , and benz ene. A i r p o l l u t i o n h a s been emerging as a major threat to the whole e c o s y s t e m . ( S a u d & Pa u d e l 2 0 1 8 ) . T he WHO s tates that, i n 2 0 1 6 , am bi ent ai r pol l u ti on was res pons i bl e f or 4 . 2 m i l l i on prem atu re d eaths worl d wi d e. 9 1 % of thes e occu r i n l ow- and m i d d l e-i ncom e cou ntri es (WHO 2 0 1 8 ). I n 2 0 0 5 , the Mi ni s tr y of Popu l ati on and Env i ronm ent es ti m ated that am bi ent ai r pol l u ti on was res pons i bl e f or u p to 1 , 6 0 0 prem atu re d eaths i n K athm and u val l ey (CEN / UN -HA B ITAT 2 0 1 4 ).

Ea g l e fl y i n g o v e r th e r i c e fi e l d s o f K h o ka n a a n d S a n o K h o ka n a . K h o ka n a , 2 0 1 7 .

95


Socio-economic cost

96

T he expo s u re to po llu ted air can have a m aj or i m pact on hu m an heal th. Continu ou s expo s u re is s h own to i ncreas e noncom mu ni cabl e d i s eas e* [ N CD ] , f or ex ample lu n g an d hear t dis eas es and cancer. B u t al s o i n the s hor t ter m it ca n indu ce res pirato r y dis eas es and al l erg i es ( S a u d & Pa u d e l 2 0 1 8 ) . Fi ne pa r ticles, s u ch as PM 2 . 5 , es p ecia l l y cau s e heal th ri s k s. T hey can travel i nto the lung s, e nter the b lo ods tream, a nd reach org ans (WHO 2 0 1 8 ) . M a jor ho s pitals in the valley have record ed a s tead y i ncreas e i n chroni c obstr u ctive pu lmo nar y dis eas e [ COPD ] . T hey al s o noted that m ore pati ents wer e admitted du ring winter m onth N ovem ber ti l l Febr u ar y. A red u cti on of PM 10 levels to W HO-s tan dards wou l d red u ce 1 3 5 thou s and cas es of acu te br onch itis in children, 0 .5 milli on as thm a attack s, 4 thou s and cas es of chroni c br onch itis and th ou s ands of hos pi tal ad m i s s i ons and em erg ency room v i s i ts (CEN 2 0 1 4 **).

“MaYa Fact Sheet # 5”

T hese h ealth is s u es trans late into an econom i c cos t. S tu d i es f ou nd that the r eduction in air po llu tion fro m the cu r rent l evel to nati onal am bi ent ai r qua lity s tan dard wo u ld s ave K a thm and u and L al i tpu r R s. 3 1 5 m i l l i on annu al l y (Adhikari 2 0 1 2 ). Fu r ther more, the tou ri s t s ector i s ad vers el y af f ected by m a jor air po llu tion an d air po l l u ti on ad d s to the aci d i f i cati on of s oi l and StAtuS oF AMBIEnt AIr wa ter, as was dis cu s s ed earlier.

350 300 250 200 150 100

Dec '06

Sep '06

Jun '06

Mar '06

Nov '05

Aug'05

May '05

Feb '05

Nov '04

Aug '04

May '04

Feb '04

Nov '03

Aug '03

May '03

Feb '03

0

Nov '02

50

Month

Patan TU Kirtipur

Bhaktapur Maysyagaon

Putali Sadak National Std.

Thamel WHO Standard

PM 10 level s i n t he Kat hma n d u va l l ey, 2002-2006. Th e y a re h i g h e st i n w i n te r m o n th s ( M o ST E Fig. 3 Monthly PM10 Levels in Kathmandu Valley Nov 2002- Dec 2006 2 013). Study on exposure to airborne particulate matter shows in Kathmandu valley in 2009 showed high personal PM2.5 exposures with hourly personal PM2.5 levels reached >500 μg/m3 and averaged 51.2 μg/m3 (Gurung A. and Bell M.L., 2012). A quick

(Source: MoSTE)

Impacts - Air

In the year 2012, ambient air pollution was responsible for 3.7 million deaths, representing 6.7% of the total deaths. About 88% of these deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries,

PM10 (micrograms/m3)

Although data are for 2-hr average, the results suggest Several studies have shown that Kathmandu’s air is the PM diseases, level has potential for of high health risks and are the result of seriously polluted, particularly during season * No n co m mun icab le diseases [ N Cthe D s]dry , also k n own that as chronic tend to be long duration a co mb i n atio n o f g en p hysio lo g ical, env ir o nmental behaviours factors (WHO). to city and dwellers in the valley. (Nov-May). Ambient airetic, quality monitoring data ** C2002 E N 2to0 12006 5 r ef(Fig er s 3) to shows C EN /EN 2 0 0traffic 3 from that PH theOhigh The 2012 emission inventory by ICIMOD indicates density areas such as Putalisadak and Patan have very that PM10 pollution hotspots were along the main high level of PM10 levels exceeding WHO guidelines roads and in industrial areas, and PM2.5 hotspots by several times and National Ambient Air Quality include the road network, the city core area, and Standard (NAAQS) (MoEST, 2006).

industrial areas. The ambient air quality monitoring showed that the daily PM10 level from October 2013-March 2014 in urban core areas (Putalisadak) exceed the NAAQS at all times and several times higher than the WHO guidelines. The data shows


97

View o n t he Hi ma l a ya n mo u n t a i n ra n g e. Thi s v i e w w a s o n l y se e n o n c e d u r i n g 1 0 w e e ks sp e n t i n th e Kath m a n d u v a l l e y. B h a k ta p u r, 2 0 1 7 .

V i ew o n t he H i m a l a y a n m o u n ta i n ra n g e h i d d e n b e h i n d a i r p o l l u ti o n . B h a k ta p u r, 2 0 1 7 .


98

Resuspen d ed d u s t , N a kkhu , 2017

Impacts - Air

Vehicular ex ha u s t i s a ma j o r a i r p o l l u t o r. Teku 2 0 1 7

U n p a v e d p a r t o f r i n g ro a d , N a k k h u , 2 0 1 7


Ca u s e s a n d s t a t u s T he con centration o f PM1 0 and PM2 . 5 * i n the val l ey were f ou nd to be sever a l times high er than th e WHO d ef i ned l i m i t: i n 2 0 1 3 they were 8 8 μ g / m 3 ins tead o f 20 μg/m 3 for PM 1 0 and 4 3 μ g / m 3 i ns tead of 1 0 μ g / m 3 f or PM 2.5 (WHO 2 0 1 6 ). T he levels of g as eou s pol l u tants were not f ou nd to be ver y hig h. With increas ing motoris a ti on however thi s i s i ncreas i ng (D oEnv 2 0 1 7 ) .

99

100

In thousands

T he a i r co nditio n in th e valley i s l arg el y d u e to the i ncreas e of vehi cl es a nd ong oing road expans ion . T hei r e xhau s t, contai ni ng PM 2 . 5 and the road dust th at is res u s p en ded from u npaved and poorl y m ai ntai ned road s, PM 1 0 , em it man y s mall par ticu lates in t o the ai r. (CEN / UN -HA B I TAT 2 0 1 4 ; MoUd 2015; KVDA 2 0 1 5 ). Notab le is the trend toward s bu yi ng private vehi cl es. T he g r owing middle clas s finds a way ou t of the crowd ed pu bl i c trans por t s ys tem by buying th eir own car ( Z u r i ck & Ro s e 2 0 0 9 ) . In 2 0 0 0 / 0 1 t he nu m ber of r eg istered vehicles in the B agm ati z one was 2 4 thou s and , i n 2 0 1 7 / 1 8 thi s num ber was 1 2 9 .5 tho u s an d (DoT M 2 0 1 7 ). Bla ck s mo ke p lu mes from b ri ck k i l ns, ref u s e bu r ni ng , chem i cal s u s ed f or a g r icul tu re an d the u s e o f diesel g enerators d u ri ng power cu ts are ad d i ti onal sour ces o f air po llu tion in th e val l ey (K V DA 2 0 1 5 ) . * T h e nu mb er stan d f o r th e diam eter o f th e p ar ticulate matter in micrometers. Typically PM10 and PM2.5 are measured.

Motorcycles Ca r s & J e e p s Busses Tr u c k s & A m b u l a n c e s Other

40

20 10

1989

1990

1991

1992

1994

2000

2017

Re g i ste re d v e h i c l e s i n th e B a g m ati z o n e ( D o T M 2 0 1 7 ).


100

Zoom-in: Vulnerability

of the valley

T he K athman du valley is par ti cu l arl y v u l nerabl e to ai r pol l u ti on. Its bowl-s haped top og ra phy obs tr u cts wi nd m ovem ent, kee pi ng th e po llu tants in th e val l ey. T hi s i s es peci al l y the cas e f rom Novemb er till Feb r u ar y. A that ti m e ther m al i nvers i on occu rs in late nigh t an d early m or ni ng. Col d ai r f l owi ng d own f rom the mo u ntains s u r ro u ndin g the val l ey g ets trapped u nd er a l ayer of war mer air. Du e to thi s trapped col d ai r t he pol l u tants s tay s tu ck clo s e to the g ro u nd and can not g et away wi th the wi nd s th at are b lowin g over th e val l ey. Fu r t her mo re t he valley hi g h l oc ati on and vari abl e topog raphy do es no t lend its elf for m i ni m al vehi cu l ar exhau s t.

Impacts - Air

Th erma l i n vers i o n


101


102


Society T he i m pact of rapi d u rbani s ati on on m ank i nd i s twof ol d . Urbani s ati on tend s to red u ce overal l pover ty. Ye t the u rban poor are g rowi ng and l iv i ng i n s q u atter s ettl em ents becau s e there i s a l ack of s oc i al hou s i ng and j ob oppor tu ni ti es f or u ns k i l l e d workers. Urbani s ati on al s o benef i ts the ec onomy of a cou ntr y, bu t an econom i cal l y bas ed s oci ety s tand s i n s tark contras t to a s oci ety where s ol i d ari ty and tak i ng res pons i bi l i ty are central el em ents. Fu r t her m ore, u rbani s ati on, and es peci al l y haphaz ard , rapi d , l ow d ens i ty u rbani s ati on, i s d ecreas i ng g reen and paved open s paces. Cong es ti on i s a too com m on s i tu ati on and f ood i s m ore and m ore becom i ng an i m por ted g ood . N ext to env i ronm ental s u s tai nabi l i ty s oci al s u s tai nabi l i ty s hou l d al s o be cons i d ered i n the u rban pl anni ng proces s (K V DA 2 0 1 5 ) .

Wo m e n c h atti n g u n d e r a p e e p a l tre e i n K h o ka n a , 2017.

103


Co m m u n i t y

104

Tr a dition al co mmu nities, of whi ch the l arg es t are the f ar m i ng com mu ni ti es f ind it difficu lt to s u s tain thei r c om mu ni ty f eel i ng and new com mu ni ti es com pr i s ed from different ethn i ci ti es and back g rou nd f i nd i t hard to d evel op one. A s tro ng co mmu nity feel i ng or s oci al cohes i on pos i tivel y af f ects the livea bi lity o f a city and b attles i neq u i ty (S chi ef f er & van d er N ol l 2 0 1 6 ) . Following th e s p iralling land pri ces i n the K athm and u val l ey m any f ar m ers sold (par t of) their land. T h is topi c i s re por ted l y the s u bj ect of f am i l y c onf l i ct. Youths are o ften n ot interes ted i n tak i ng u p the f ar m i ng trad e, m ore s o with the falling ear nings and soi l prod u ctiv i ty, whi l e the el d ers s ee f ar m l and a s a su s tain ab le mean s of ear ni ng thei r l iv i ng. T he s el l i ng of f ar m l and i s f ur ther mo re des troying traditional s oc i al rel ati ons. Prev i ou s l y com mu ni ty l i f e wa s characteris ed by in terde p end ence between peopl e. You hel ped s om eone else one day and ano th er day, that pers on cou l d com e and hel p you the other way a r ou n d. Now, the increas ed weal th, created by s el l i ng l and , m akes m any f a r m in g families feel no lo ng er obl i g ed t o f reel y hel p thei r nei g hbou rs as they them selves have beco me co mp l etel y s el f -s u f f i ci ent d u e to thei r eas y acces s to f ina nci al s er v ices to meet th eir d em and s (S hres tha 2 0 1 1 ) . N ew commu n ities fin d it difficu l t to attai n s oci al cohes i on. T he l ack of open spa ce an d pu b lic facilities wh ere peopl e can m eet and the f ocu s on private tr a nspor t b oth play a par t in thi s. A l s o, the m i x of ethni ci ti es, back g rou nd s a nd socio-econ omic s tatu s co m i ng tog ether i n the val l ey m akes i t hard to a tta in a level o f b elon ging an d s ol i d ari ty i n the g rou ps f or m ed (S chi ef f er & va n der n oll 20 1 6 ) . T he amount of rented apar tm ents and hou s es i n whi ch r esidents often o nly s tay for a s hor t whi l e m akes i t hard to d evel op a bond between p eo ple as well (Pers o nal i nter v i ew G r u hu ng U. 2 0 1 7 ) .

Impacts - Society

T his lack of s ocial coh es ion i n the ver y d ivers u rban ti s s u e, f ou nd i n the va lley, res u lts in fear an d fu r ther i nd iv i d u al i s ati on. Many hou s es are bu i l t with a h igh walls delimitin g thei r pl ot, s tri ctl y s e parati ng thei r proper ty f rom the pub lic realm. T h e tran s itio n between pu bl i c and private becom es a hard line ins tead o f a g radu al trans i ti on.


105

Wa l l e d h o u se s. B h a i se p ati , 2 0 1 7 .

Wa l l e d h o u se s c reate a d e te r i o rati o n o f th e stre e tsc a p e . B h a i se p ath i , 2017.


Zoom-in: Social “T h e 106

cohesion

connections and relations between societal unit s such

a s i n d i v i d ua l s , g r o u p s

(and)

a s s o c i a t i o n s ’; i t i s t h e

that holds communities together.

Cohesiveness

‘glue’

is created

from connections based on a shared sense of belonging a n d a t t a c h m e n t , s i m i l a r va l u e s , t r u s t a n d a s e n s e o f

‘social s o l i da r i t y ’ (Au s tralian I ns ti tu te of Heal th and Wel f are 2 0 0 5 * )” “S t a t e

of

a f fa i r s

concerning

both

the

vertical

and

h o r i z o n ta l i n t e r ac t i o n s o f s o c i e t y a s c h a r ac t e r i z e d b y a

set of attitudes and norms that includes trust, a sense of b e l o n g i n g a n d t h e w i l l i n g n e s s t o pa r t i c i pa t e a n d h e l p , a s w e l l a s t h e i r b e h av i o u r a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n s

(Chan e t al . 2 0 0 6 )”

Impacts - Society

T he ab ove definition s given are bu t two of m any f or the conce pt of s o c ial co hes io n. C omm on f eatu res f ou nd i n the d ef i ni ti ons fo u nd in lit eratu re are s o ci al rel ati ons, i d enti f i cati on, ori entati on towards th e commo n g ood , s hared val u es, q u al i ty of l i f e and eq u ality. Of thes e s ix , the f i rs t three are cons ti tu ti ng el em ents of the con ce pt of s o cial cohes i on whereas the l atter are arg u ed to b e rath er con s eq u ences of s oci al cohes i on (S chi ef f er & van der No ll 20 1 6 ).


T h e ter m ‘s o cial coh es i on‘ has been u s ed by m any pol i ti ci ans and s ch olars alike. Most ag ree that i t i s a d es i red f eatu re, bu t als o o ne that is cr u mb l i ng i n m os t contem porar y s oci eti es (Schieffer & van der N ol l 2 0 1 6 ) . T hree g l obal cau s es are defin ed with reg ard to t he cr u m bl i ng of s oci al cohes i on. Fi rs t, glo balis atio n an d ac companyi ng econom i c chang es. S econd l y, mig ration movements and g rowi ng ethno-cu l tu ral d ivers i ty. T h irdly, new in fo r mati on and com mu ni cati on technol og i es (Schieffer & van der No l l 2 0 1 6 * * ) . * A u s t r a l i a n I n s t i t u t e o f H e a lt h a n d W e l fa r e 2005 refers to Berg er-Schmitt 2000 following M cC r acken 1 9 9 8 ** Sch ief f er & van der N o ll 2 0 1 6 r ef er to Chan et al. 2006; Chiesi 2004; Hulse & Stone 2007; Jenson 2 0 1 0 ; M itch ell 2 0 0 0 ; To ur ain e 2 0 0 0 and Beauvais & Jenson 2002; Cheong et al. 2007; Niessen 2 0 0 0 ; Putn am 2 0 0 0 ; Ar iely 2 0 1 4 ; H arell and Stolle 2014; Wickes et al.2014; Huntington 2004 and Fer lan der & Tim m s 1 9 9 9 .

L a rg e o pe n sp a c e s a re i m p o r ta n t fo r so c i a l c o h e si o n i n si d e th e c o m m u n i ty. B h a i se p ati , 2 0 1 7 .

O p e n sp a c e se r v e s stro n g e r so c i a l c o h e si o n , B h a i se p athi , 2 0 1 7

107


Fo o d s e c u r i t y

108

In 200 1 K athman du metro po litan ci ty al read y was a f ood d ef i ci t area. ( MoUD 2015). Sin ce then Lalitp u r dis tri ct was f orced to s tar t i m por ti ng bas i c f ood s a s well. Over time the valley h as becom e m ore and m ore rel i ant on the i m por t of f ood, du e to the lo s s of ag ri cu l tu ral l and and a ri s i ng popu l ati on (S hres tha 2011, Zu rick & Ro s e 20 0 9 ). In 2 0 1 1 9 0 % of veg etabl es and other ed i bl es were im por ted in to the valley (Sh res tha 2 0 1 1 ) .

Impacts - Society

Haphazard development in-between Bhaisepathi & Khokana, 2017.

Ongoing construction in the rice fields near Khokana, 2017.


109

Haphazard development near Bagmati river, 2017.

Haphazard development in-between Bungamati & Khokana, 2017.

Ongoing construction in the rice fields near Khokana, 2017.


Overcrowding and low occupancy

110

Population dens ity varies s ign i f i cantl y wi thi n the bu i l t-u p area i n the val l ey. Old co res are fou n d to h ave a h i g her d ens i ty than recentl y bu i l t ti s s u e. I n the old K athman du co re, dens ities of 2 1 1 2 pers ons per hect are [ ppha] and a ward wise dens ity o f 1 1 8 1 p ph a were f ou nd . T hi s i s ver y hi g h and i s cau s ed by i l l eg al up-top ping o f ho u s es an d overcrowd i ng , cons eq u e ntl y the res i d ents of ten live cr amped u p, in dreadfu l cond i ti ons and wi th hei g htened ear thq u ake and f ir e vu lnerability (B ajrach ar ya et al . 2 0 1 5 ). On the other hand , the s prawl i n the va lley has an averag e den s ity of 1 2 9 ppha. I f thi s conti nu ou s to g row, the built-up area o f K athman du wi l l overs hoot the ag ri cu l tu ral area by the year 2035 and s en s itive lands will be u rbani s ed (K V DA 2 0 1 5 ). T he K athm and u va lley develo pmen t au tho rity [ K V DA ] has pre pared a cons trai nt anal ys i s def ining th es e s ens itive areas. It i s bas ed m ai nl y on s tee pnes s of s l opes, f l ood pla ins, liq u efactio n ris k, water recharg e areas and heri tag e val u e. T he area f ound to b e con s traint free is o nl y 2 5 1 2 2 ha. T hi s i s 3 4 . 8 % of the total area of the valley an d 5 4 % of th e total ag g reg ate ag ri cu l tu re and bu i l t-u p area (KVDA 20 1 5 ). Both to o high and too low d ens i ty s hou l d be evad ed i n pl anni ng f or the K a thmandu valley. A balance s hou l d be f ou nd between a d ens i ty that s af eg u ard s the sens itive and n atu ral impo r tant areas of the val l ey and a d ens i ty that a ccom modate s a co mfor table and a heal thy l iv i ng env i ronm ent. T he ori g i nal Vision 2035 and Beyond density of o ld cores co u ld b e u s ed as a m eas u re. 20 Years Strategic Development Master Plan (2015 - 2035) for Kathmandu Valley

Impacts - Society

Chapter 5: Urban Growth Scenario and Forecast

Co n s t r a i n t - m a p

Figure 5-14 Urban Expansion: Constraint Analysis

The detail constraint analysis is given in the Annex - 3.0, summary of which is given hereunder: Table 5-4 Summary of Constraint Analysis

Constraint Free Area

Constraint

Total Area

Percent to Total

Percent to

Constraints Free


1991

111

Below 80 ppha 80 - 150 ppha 150 - 300 ppha 330 - 500 ppha 500 - 1000 ppha Above 1000 ppha

2001

2011

Po p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y i n t h e Ka t h m a n d u v a l l e y i n t h e y e a r s 1 9 9 1 , 2 0 0 1 a n d 2 0 1 1 (J I CA 2 0 1 2 ) .


112

N a k h u s p r a w l - l o w d e n s i t y d u e t o i n e ff i c i e n t l a n d u s e

Khokana core - desired density

B h a i s e p a t h i p l o tt e d d e v e l o p m e n t - l o w d e n s i t y d u e t o l o w o c c u p a n c y a n d i n e ff i c i e n t l a n d u s e

Bungamati core - desired density

Civil homes, phase III, gated community - low density due to low occupancy

Impacts - Society

Pa t a n c o r e a r e a - o v e r c r o w d i n g


Zoom-in: Open

s pa c e

Spaces wh ere p e op le ca n m eet i n s m al l or l arg e g rou ps have b ecome s carce an d are n ot pl anned i n i nto the haphaz ard u rban g rowth (KVDA 2 0 1 5 ). In N ak k hu , you ng s ters c om pl ai ned that th e vacant plots on wh i ch they u s ed to pl ay were tu r ned i nto a new de velo pmen t. T h ey were l ef t to l ear n ri d i ng thei r bi kes on the ro of ter race o f the i r hou s e (Pers onal i nter v i ew S hahi family 20 1 7 ) . In the core areas the open s paces, s u ch as cou r tyard s and s q u ares, are vanis hing d u e to d ecreas ed s oci al control and th e ab s en ce of leg al b ack i ng pol i ci es (K V DA 2 0 1 5 ) . In Patan, a family, livin g in a 10 0 ye ar ol d trad i ti onal hou s e next to a tradition al co u r tyard, menti oned t hat ol d hou s es re pl aced by n ew on es tu r n ed their back on the cou r tyard . T he f am i l i es s top ped p ar ticipating in i ts u pkee p and the s oci al l i f e arou nd it ( Pers o nal inter view C ou r tyard res i d ents i n Patan 2 0 1 7 ). T he dis ap pearan ce o f op en s pace i n the u rban ti s s u e al s o af f ects its ear th q u ake res ilience. Evacu ati on s pace f or s hor t and l ong ter m s ho u ld b e availab l e at al l ti m es. D u ri ng the 2 0 1 5 G hork a ear th q u ake, many op en s paces wer e u s ed to park cars and th e Du rbar s q u are, a s i g ni f i cantl y l arg e evacu ati on area, was immediately clo s ed fo r h eri tag e pres er vati on reas ons (Pers onal in ter v iew P. Pradh an 2 0 1 7 ). T hes e l os s es of evacu ati on s pace s ho u ld be taken into a ccou nt when pl anni ng f or ear thq u ake manag ement. For plan ned de velop ments the r u l e of thu m b i s 2 . 5 - 5 % of th e area needs to g o to pu bl i c open s pace -s tre et not i ncl u d ed (MoUD 2 0 1 5 ) . T h e percentag e open s pace d e pend s on the total area o f th e deve lop ment not on the popu l ati on.

113


Zoom-in: Congestion 114

Next to h eighten ed vehi cu l ar em i s s i ons, m ore peopl e, m ore traffic and es pecially m ore pr ivatel y owned cars ad d to traf f i c con g es tion . Own in g a private car opens the val l ey f u r ther. I t o pens th e op tion to l ive i n a m ore r u ral area whi l e work i ng i n the city cen tre. T h is i nd u ces s prawl and f u r ther f rag m entati on o f ag ricu ltu ral lan d i n thes e m ore r u ral areas. Fu r ther m ore, it makes it difficu lt to prov i d e ef f i ci ent and l ow-cos t pu bl i c trans p or t. To o man y b u s s tops need to be prov i d ed f or and m ore b u s es are needed then when peopl e l ive i n a l i m i ted nu m ber o f cen tres. Today, on l y 2 . 8 % of the reg i s tered vehi cl es i n the B agmati zo ne accou n t f or pu bl i c trans por t vehi cl es (D oT M 20 1 7 ). T his is too littl e to prov i d e s u f f i ci ent trans por t f or al l and con s eq u ently the s ys tem i s overcrowd ed , pu s hi ng peopl e to b u y their own private m eans of trans por t. T he c i rcl e i s cl os ed . It wou ld b e advis abl e to ag ai n create a l i m i ted am ou nt of u rban centres who are wel l c onnected throu g h l arg e trans por t infras tr u ctu re. T h is wou l d m ake i t pos s i bl e to prov i d e l owcos t pu b lic trans p or t wi th a l arg e capaci ty, cou nteracti ng the trend to bu y a p rivate car or m otorcycl e. Moreover, by creati ng cen t res, pu b lic faciliti es wi l l becom e near f or al l . Fu r ther m ore, larg e traffic ar teries s hou l d have a s u f f i ci ent am ou nt of l anes to p rovide fo r the amou nt of cars, m otorc ycl es ped es tri ans and more u s in g it.

“C a r s

give

opportunities.

people

But

wonderful

freedom

increase

their

t h e y a l s o d e s t roy t h e e n v i ro n m e n t t o a n e x t e n t

so drastic that they kill all social life

Impacts - Society

and

(Alex ander et al. 1977).�


Zoom-in: Urban

poverty

Urb an areas have co m parative ad vantag es wi th res pect to cu ltu ral to u ris m, ec o nom i c d evel opm ent, expor t and j ob creatio n. T he econ omic g rowth potenti al u rban areas ad d i s o ne o f th e main drivers of abs ol u te pover ty red u cti on. T he inciden ce of pover ty i n u rban areas l owered f rom 2 2 % to 15 % in b etween 1 9 9 5 / 9 6 and 2 0 1 0 / 1 1 - the peri od of m os t rap id u rbanis atio n. In r u ral areas i t d ecl i ned f rom 4 3 % to 2 7 % (Mu zzini & Aparicio 20 1 3 ). However, d u e to hi g h l and pri ces the lower econ omic class es are l iv i ng i n d e pl orabl e cond i ti ons. T h e g ap between rich and poor i s becom i ng wi d er and wi d er as lan d prices ris e. T h e h ou s ing demand i s mu ch hi g her than the s u ppl y and affordable ho u s in g is s carce. In f act, i t i s al m os t nonexis tent du e to high land pri ces (B aj rachar ya et al . 2 0 1 5 ) . T he K ath mandu valley devel opm ent au thori ty [ K V DA ] m enti ons h ou s ing co nditio ns as one of the m os t per ti nent s oci al i s s u es in th e valley (K VDA 2 0 1 5 ) . Fam i l i es wi th l es s econom i c m eans o r o f marginalis ed g rou ps f i nd i t hard to f i nd af f ord abl e h ou s ing. Many live in i nf or m al or s q u atter s ettl em ents al ong the riverb an k s. In 2 0 1 2 a s u r vey of K athm and u cou nted 2 9 s q u atters alon g the bank s wi th an es ti m ated 2 0 3 1 hou s ehol d s. Ano th er 1 7 s ettlemen ts were f ou nd not al ong the river. T hey compris ed ano th er 4 6 7 hou s ehol d s (MoUD 2 0 1 5 ). B aj rachar ya et al. (20 1 5 ) s tate th at a popu l ati on of 1 2 0 0 0 i s l iv i ng i n 4 0 s ettlements in th e valley. Sq u atter s ettlemen ts ar e m os t of ten l ocated on the s ens i tive riverb an k areas. T his is a d ang er f or the peopl e l iv i ng there b ecau s e th ey’re o ften s i tu ated i n f l ood pl ai ns and a d ang er f or the aq u atic life in an d arou nd the river. T he res i d ents of thes e infor mal s ettlemen ts h ave no bas i c am eni ti es and was te water is du mp ed directly in to the rive r. Fu r ther m ore they are m os t vu ln erab le to h u man heal t h ef f ects of ai r-, s oi l -, and water p ollu tio n (C EN/UN HA B ITAT 2 0 1 4 ; M u z z i n i & A p a r i c i o 2 0 1 3 ), as th ey, amon gs t others, u s e the pol l u ted river water f or daily p u r p os es (Go N & N T N C 2 0 0 9 ).

115


Inter v iews with res idents of i nf or m al s ettl em ents s howed that job o pp or tu n ities cl os e-by are as i m por tant f or them as decen t livin g con dition s. Prov i s i on hou s i ng d oes not cover the p ro blem as other expe ns es mu s t be pai d as wel l (Pers onal inter view T h ap atali res i d ents 2 0 1 7 ) . T hi s i s an i m por tant cau s e for faile d res ettlemen t proj ec ts. On the other hand , d em ol i ti on o f s q u atters als o h as h ad no l as ti ng ef f ect to red u ce s q u atter s ettlements (B ajrachar ya et al . 2 0 1 5 ) .

116

A combinatio n of res ettl em ent to centres of j ob-oppor tu ni ti es and u pg rading of existi ng s q u atters i n non-s ens i tive areas tog ether with low-s ki l l ed j ob creati on mu s t be u s ed as ins tr u ments to co pe wi th i nf or m al s ettl em ents. Fu r ther m ore, more q u alitative s o cial h ou s i ng s hou l d be prov i d ed i n the val l ey.

“More

than

75%

of

the

urban

population

does

s u f f i c i e n t i n c o m e t o a f f o r d t h e m i n i m u m s ta n da r d constructed house on

h av e

m2 self

m2 plot in the outskirts of a city and

t o p u r c h a s e a r e a d i ly bu i lt p ro p e r t y

Impacts - Society

95% can not afford Habitat 2010)�

80

not

50

Slums a l o n g t he Ba g mat i ri ver. Tha p at a l i , 201 7 .

(UN


117

S l u m s a l o n g th e B a g m ati r i v e r n ea r Te ku , 2 0 1 7 .

Rental rooms n ea r t he Ba g mat i ri ver. Two o f s u c h ro o m s house f i ve p eo p l e: a f a mi l y wi t h t wo c hi l d ren a n d a g ra n d mo t her. Tha p at a l i , 2 0 1 7 .

H o u se o f a p r i e st n ea r th e B a g m ati r i v e r. Th a p ata l i , 2017.


Co n c l u s i o n

118

Ra pid and u n co ntro lled u rbani s ati on i m pacts the whol e s ys tem of the val l ey not only the natu ral environ m ent bu t al s o hu m an l i f e. T he hu m an s oci ety is str on gly con nected to th e n atu ral s u r rou nd i ng of the val l ey, al thou g h i t ha s beco me les s an d les s directl y d i s cer nabl e i n the l es s and l es s ag ro-bas ed economy o f th e valley.

Impacts

Air, soil and water are po llu ted al l d i rectl y by the u rban s ys tem of the val l ey. Air po llu tion cau s es the p olluti on of the s u rf ace water and the s oi l , s oi l polluti o n affect s g ro u nd water, and s u rf ace water pol l u tes the s oi l . From the soi l the p ollu tants travel to crops and throu g h them and ai r and water i t enter s th e hu man b ody, cau s ing s everal heal th i s s u es and rel ated econom i c costs. Adding to th is th e s o cial is s u es rapi d u rbani s ati on bri ng s f or th: f rom i nad eq u ate housin g and s ewe rag e to cr u mbl i ng s oci al cohes i on and d i m i ni s hed f ood secur ity to a deficien cy in th e econom i c g ai ns pos s i bl y m ad e, the concl u s i on sta nds that th e way in which urbani s ati on i s hand l ed i n the val l e y cannot be susta ined mu ch lon g er.


119


120


121

III. Tissues A mix o f di f f er en t c i t ysc apes exist. Al l ha v e t hei r own adaptat i on t o hi st o r i c al or moder n day c i r c u m st an c es. —— Dattatreya square in Bhaktapur in early morning.


Introducing ‘the tissues’

122

In or der to des ign a s u s tain ab l e u rban pl anni ng f ram ework on m acro-s cal e with a n accompanying u rban pl anni ng m od e l on m i cro-s cal e, the s cal e of the settlemen t will b e dis cu s s ed. Ba sed on th e p e riod of exis ten ce two categ ori es of ti s s u e can be d i s cer ned . T he tr aditio nal or ver n acu lar ti s s u es that have g rown and been ad apted f or centuries and th e recent o r new d evel opm ents whi ch were bu i l t f rom the 1950’s o nward to cop e with the hou s i ng d em and or are a res u l t of rapi d u rban g r owth. Six ca ses will b e dis cu s s ed of whi ch three are ver nacu l ar and three are recent develop ments. T he new develo pm ents wi l l be ad d res s ed cas e by cas e as they a r e not inter related. T h e ver n acu l ar ti s s u es wi l l be d i s cu s s ed i n g eneral f i rs t a nd a fterwards cas es will be s hown as exam pl es. T hi s i s pos s i bl e becau s e ver na cu lar tis s u es have s imilar characteri s ti cs w i t h onl y contextu al d i f f erences between them. T he cas e-s tu dy areas are Kh ok ana, B u ng am ati and Patan core area f or the ver na cu lar an d B hais e pati, Nak k hu and a d evel opm ent near T hecho f or recent develop ments. A s q u are was cut ou t to d el i m i t the s tu d y area. I m por tant areas which are no t in clu ded in the s q u ares wi l l al s o be ad d res s ed . T he data pres ented in the followi ng chapters com e s par tl y f rom s tu d y res earch, m ea surement taken on s ite and i nter v i ews wi th res i d ents d u ri ng the ni ne week f ieldwork in th e valley.

Tissues

Location of studied areas


Nakkhu

Pa ta n

B h a i s e p a ti

K h oka na

B u n g a m a ti Th e c h o d e v e l o p m e n t

123


Ve r n a c u l a r t i s s u e s 124

It is i n teres ting to s ee h ow ag e-ol d ti s s u es have chang ed over the time. Even m ore inter estin g are the cau s es o f thes e chang es a nd their con temp orar y t wi n. A l ong the stor y of th e lo ng develo pment of thes e tissues s ome ch aracteris tics, l and m ark s and inter estin g q u irk s will be dis cu s s ed m ore i n de pth. Afterwards the lan dmark s and topi cs tha t have no t been elab orated on wi l l be discussed. Fin ally three cas e s tu d i es wi l l be put f orward as examples of the f i nd i ng s.

T i s s u e s - Ve r n a c u l a r t i s s u e s

T he ver n acu lar tis s u e are fa ci ng d i f f erent cha llen g es du e to rapid u rbani s ati on. In thi s cha pter an attemp t is made to l ook at them i n their origin al s hape. H owever, wi th each topi c the cur ren t co nditio n will als o be d i s cu s s ed .

Taumadhi square in the evening. Bhaktapur, 2017.


125


Historic growth and adaptations

126

Ever since men s tar ted to inh ab i t the K athm and u val l ey, its ur ba n area h as b een g rowin g. Of ten at an al m os t-z ero r a te, sometimes in b u rs ts, n ever at a rate k nown tod ay. T his tim id g rowth du rin g th e cou rs e of hi s tor y l ef t policym a kers with s u fficien t time to res pond appropri atel y to the imp acts th at g rowing towns and ci ti es i m pos e on m en a nd the ir s u r rou n dings. Need f or potabl e water, the a ccumula tion of was te, s h or tag e of g reen and pu bl i c s pace in dense u rban env iron ments, s ettl em ent bou nd ari es too sm a ll to hold all it s in habitants, retai ni ng s oci al cohes i on a r e a ll issu es faced in h is tor y, whi ch, tod ay, have f ou nd a contem porar y twin . Not mu ch i s wri tten on the u rban pla nning of ancient s ettlement, m os t k nowl ed g e com es f r om ‘r ea din g’ the immovable heri tag e that i s l ef t. It is interes ting to lo ok at th e devel opm ent of trad i t i onal cities a nd tow ns to s ee how they went abou t thos e i s s u es a nd see if their h is toric s o lu ti ons can be ad apted to contem po rar y times. A literally conti nu ati on wi l l of ten seem im po s s ib le or in adv is able i n cu r rent ti m es (T i wari 2007).

Kirata

D y o c h h e n & Pi t h

300:Licchavi

P r a s ta r a pat t e r Guthi Rato Macchhendranath

1200: Malla

Astra-matrikas Khyo Water works Waste management Growth towns

1769: Shah 1846-1951: Rana

T i s s u e s - Ve r n a c u l a r t i s s u e s

2006: Republic

A traditional courtyard in Patan with added storeys and used as a parking area for motorcycles. Patan, 2017.


127

Traditional coutyard in Patan used, among others, as parking space for motorcycles. Patan 2017


Historic growth and adaptation K I R ATA - P E R I O D 128

T he period des cribing the time f rom the f i rs t s ettl ers of t he val l ey - ~ 2 0 0 B C to the time of the Licchavi r u lers - ~ 3 0 0 A D - i s cal l ed the K i rata peri od . T he f ir st settlers left few traces and not mu ch i s k nown abou t them . A l l k nowl ed g e com es fro m in s crip tion s left by the L i cchav i ’s and Chi nes e t ravel l ers. T he inscr iptio ns refer to s ettlements s u ppor ted by pri m ar y activ i ti es as ag ri cu l tu re, their main econ omic bas e, an d m i ni ng. Fu r ther m ore s econd ar y and ter ti ar y a ctivities wh ich in clu de trading and m anu f actu ri ng are m enti oned . Ei g hteen cr a f ts are n amed in th e As ta-d as a-prak ri ti n of B as antad eva’s i ns cri pti on at T ha nkot. An other as ton is h in g f eatu re i s the m enti oni ng of d evel oped u rban ser vices s u ch as water s u p ply, s treet l i g hti ng , enter t ai nm ent and hos pi tal ser vices an d a s u pp or ting taxati on s ys tem (T i wari 2 0 0 7 ) .

Religion

T he f ait h they fo llow in clu ded the wors hi p of the f am i l y of S iva, Yak s ya. Ya ksyas are s ite s pecific deiti es, a f eatu re that i s s ti l l apparent i n N ewar r elig ion to th is day. An ot h er i m por tant rel i g i ou s f eatu re i s the wors hi p of a ncestors, wh ich is a place bo u nd wors hi p as wel l (G u ts chow 2 0 1 7 ) . T hei r m a in places of wo r s h ip are the D yo c c hen and the Pi t h , one i n the centre of the settlemen t and on e in the ag ri cu l tu ral hi nterl and , ref l ect thei r res pectf u l r ela tio n with an d de p en dency o n the natu ral ecos ys tem of the val l ey (T i wari 2007). T h e K iratas s tar t a long trad i ti on of pl ace bou nd wors hi p. Tod ay still ever y in habitant wo rs h ip s the s pace bou nd d ei ti es of i t s ci ty, both i n iconic as an icon ic for m. T he ani coni c re pres entati on of a d ei ty, of ten an ‘im m ovable s to ne‘ is never ke p t behi nd cl os ed d oors. R ather, i t i s treated as pa r t of the lands cape th at u nd er l i es the u rban f abri c. T he i coni c f or m s are som eti mes b ro u gh t b ack to th ei r ani coni c f or m s or s eats, s om eti m es the ol d p iths, to be re -infu s ed. It app ears to be the s ou rce of power and l i f e of the deities (Gu ts h ow 2 0 1 7 ).

T i s s u e s - Ve r n a c u l a r t i s s u e s

Urban

l a nd s c a p e

T he f irs t p er man en t s ettlements bu i l t i n the val l ey were cal l ed Pr i n g ga o r ‘per m an en t s ettlemen t’. T hey were l ocated on the f l at of hi l l ock s or the t ar , m a ny of th em were the p redeces s or of (par ts of ) towns and v i l l ag es pres ent in the valley to day. Phys ically they d i d not s tand the tes t of ti m e, bu t thei r over a ll layo u t often did. T h e f act that they s i tu ated thei r towns hi g her, on less eas y ir rig ab le s oil, exploiti ng the i r ri g abl e s l opes, d ol e, and the f l atl and nea r the riverb an k s, tala, to th e f u l l es t, ag ai n em phas i s es thei r d e pend ence on a nd r elation with ag ricu ltu re and natu re (T i wari 2 0 0 7 ) . T he s trateg i c l ocati on a nd sa fety p rovided by s ettling on hi g h g rou nd were ad d i ti onal benef i ts.


129

Relation town-hinterland through dyocchen, pith and festivals

Zoom-in: Dyocchen & Pith | Town

a nd h i n t e r l a nd

T h e pring ga of t h e K iratas was bu i l t arou nd a g od l i ke s tatu e, a temple or ano th er rel i g i ou s bu i l d i ng. T hi s central bu i l d i ng / s p ace was later called dyoc c hen or ‘ hou s e of g od ’ . I t was rel ated to u rban s o cial relation s hi ps as wel l as natu re. Ou ts i d e the tow n, in it’s hinterland, th e bas i s of thei r economy and res ou rces, s too d its complement, the pi t h , the natu ral abod e of the g od l y s p irit. T he pith was lo ca ted near an ecol og i cal l y i m por tant s i te, for examp le a s p ring s o u rce. T h e dyocchen and pith were two par ts of the s am e town and th e well b eing of on e d em and ed the wel l bei ng of the other. T he direct de penden cy of the K i ratas on natu re d i rectl y m ad e th em feel th e imp or tan c e of tak i ng care of thei r s u r rou nd i ng s. T he de penden ce on ag ri cu l tu re, and m ore s o on wat er, was g reat . It became a larg e as pect of thei r rel i g i on. Cons eq u entl y, th ro u gh religion , the care-tak i ng of natu re was g iven on f rom g eneration to g en eratio n. Es peci al l y the f ar m i ng com mu ni ty of th e Jyapus s till bear affin i ty to thes e ori g i nal pl aces of wors hi p (T iwari 2 0 0 7 ). Some of thes e dyocchen and pi t h can s ti l l be f ou nd i n the ci ti es of to day. We k now th at at l eas t f ou r K i ratta pr i n g gas were located in wh at is n ow Patan - K ad apri ng g a, T ham bu , G ang u l a and Tegvala (T iwari 20 0 7 ) and three i n B hak tapu r (G u ts chow 20 1 7 ). K ath mandu , as wel l , i s com pos ed ou t of s everal s m al l Kirata and Licch av i v ill ag es, or thei r rem ai ns (Tof f i n. 2 0 0 8 ) .


Historic growth and adaptation L I CC H AV I - P E R I O D

130

T he L i cchavi dyn as ty was a Hi nd u -I nd i an d ynas ty. T hey brou g ht the bas i s of what is n ow called the trad i ti onal N ewar archi tectu re to the val l ey. T he pr incip les were taken over f rom thei r s ou ther n nei g hbou rs, the G u pta (Seng u p ta & Upadhyaya. 20 1 6 ). T hey have l ef t an abu nd ance of i ns cri pti ons, telling u s abo u t their lives an d that of thei r pred eces s ors i n the K i rataper iod. T hey benefited fro m thei r l ocati on and thei r s now f ree cond i ti on in the H imalayas fo r it was a cri ti cal poi nt i n trad i ng and pi l g ri m ag e rou tes f r om In dia to C hina. T. Riccard i com m ente d , f ol l owi ng hi s excavati ons i n the va lley, that the abs ence of s u cc es s ive l ayers of f orei g n d om i nati on poi nts ou t tha t the civ ilis ation develo ped s l owl y and s tead i l y (G u ts how 2 0 1 7 ).

Religion

Town fes tivals develo ped con s i d eri ng the two com m on f ai ths, Hi nd u i s m and Buddh is m wh ile p res er vin g - an d extend i ng - the exi s ti ng f es tival s and pl aces of wors h ip o f th e K irata. Several f es tival s and ri tu al s were f ram ed to g u i d e the pu b lic b eh av io u r. Fo r exa m pl e, to protect water s u ppl y, f es tival s were initia ted in addition to th e law d ecreed by the r u l ers. N ot onl y the power of sta te bu t als o religiou s mediation pres er ved the rel ati on wi th the env i ronm ent on wh ich th ey s tro ngly de p end ed . More conc rete, the L i cchav i d ynas ty ex pa nded th e water netwo rk o f Patan to B u ng am ati , 4 k m f rom Patan, and la ter f ur th er s till, as far as Nala, 2 0 k m f rom Patan, s u ppl yi ng the hei g htened needs o f t h eir g rowin g city. An extens ive f es tival of S r i B u ng m a L okes wora, now po pu lar as Rato Macch en d ranath, was i ni ti ated by K i ng N arend rad eva. T his f es tival made s u re th at o nce a year the canal s and waterwork s u p ti l l Bung a mati were main tain ed (T i wari 2 0 0 7 ) . C o n t r a r y t o p o p u l a r b e l i e f, r i t u a l s a r e n o t a l way s t h e r e s u l t o f u n w r i t t e n m o r a l c o d e s, b u t o f t e n a n i n t e n d e d r e s u l t o f t h e i r s h a r p r u l e r s. T h e y we r e s e t u p a r o u n d c o m mu n i t y l i f e a n d e c o l o g i c a l d e p e n d e n c i e s, b i n d i n g t h e c i t y a n d i t s h i n t e r l a n d t o g e t h e r.

T i s s u e s - Ve r n a c u l a r t i s s u e s

Urban

l a nd s c a p e

N ew Licch av i towns were laid ou t accord i ng to the g ri d i ron l ayou ts of the Pr a sta ra patter n. A te mp le s till f or m i ng i ts central el em ent (T i wari 2 0 1 6 ) . Fur ther mo re, th e prin g g as o f the K i rata s tar ted to extend ou tward over thei r bor ders t owards their far mlan d . Onl y d u ri ng the Mal l a-peri od , centu ri es l ater, this issu e was ap prop riately tack l ed . Sm a ll s p ring s ou rces an d b asi c water i nf ras tr u ctu res cou l d not cover the r a ised water deman d o f the expand i ng towns. A n extend ed water s ys tem was develop ed which s tretch ed to the f oothi l l s of the val l ey. T he activ i ti es of the towns th u s exten ded beyo nd thei r own m i cro-ecol og y and becam e of sig nif icance to others s e ttlements i n the val l ey (T i wari 2 0 0 7 ) .


Zoom-in: Prastara

pat t e r n

T he Pras tara p atter n is a s q u are or rectang u l ar town pl an whi ch origin ated in In dia. T he pl an d ef i nes nei g hbou rhood s accord i ng to th e financial s tatu s of i ts res i d ents. Two per pend i cu l ar m ai n ro ads div ide th e city into f ou r q u ar ters : one f or the poor, the middle clas s, the rich an d the top of the s oci ety. T he s i z es of ho u s in g plots are th en d ef i ned accord i ng to the capaci ty of each afo rementio ned g rou p to bu y the pl ot and to bu i l t a hom e. T he patter n s e parates the d i f f erent econom i c cl as s es, bu t u nlike cu r ren t develo pment i t d oes prov i d e s pace to al l . T he per p en dicu lar main roa d s are nor m al l y wi d er than the other ro ads an d are often u s ed as f es tival rou tes f or town-s cal e fes tivals. T h ey s ho u ld be the connectors betwee n the f ou r town par ts.

Prastara pattern

131


Zoom-in: Guthi

132

G u thi, gosthi o r gosthika were re s pons i bl e f or the m ai ntenance of r eligiou s, s ocial and cu ltu r al ar tef acts, the org ani s ati on of d i f f erent a ctivities and th e man ag ement of s peci f i c pl aces. T hey were created by th e g over n ment or by private com m i tm ent (T i wari 2 0 0 7 ). T hey were an impo r tan t link between pol i cy and com mu ni ty. Of ten org anis in g the local fami l i es that were ti ed to the cas te-s ys tem . With the abo lis hmen t of the cas te-s ys tem , the g u t hi -s ys tem i s str u g gling to adap t (Spo d ek 2 0 0 2 ; G u ts chow 2 0 1 7 ). Fu r ther m ore, g uthi are fin ding it har d to ad apt to a m ore g l obal i s ed , em anci pated a nd moder n reality. T hey are tread i ng a thi n l i ne between trad i ti on a nd heritag e o r th orou gh ad aptati on ( Pers onal i nter v i ew Cou r ty ard r es iden ts in Patan 20 1 7 ). T h e guthi’s mediu m to kee p f i nanced over ti m e was the com bi nati on of annu al land g rants, fixed d e pos i ts f rom i ts m em bers and s om e ti m es do nation s fr om th e g over nm ent. T hey channel l ed i nd iv i d u al wealth in to p u blic activiti es. T he g u t hi ’s al s o brou g ht com mu ni ty par ticipation in th e maintenance of the ci ty and i n the u pkee p of th eir cu ltu re (T iwari 20 0 7 ; Mu z z i ni & A pari ci o 2 0 1 6 ; P r a d h a n a g a e t a l . 2 0 0 9 ). B efore th e recent l and ref or m s i n 1 9 6 1 , g u t hi -l and cou l d not be s old o r con fis cated by t he s tate. T hat wou l d be v i ewed as a hug e crime ag ain s t the g o d s (P r a d h a n a g a e t a l . 2 0 0 9 ; Tiwa r i 2007) . T h e lan d was ke p t in th e f am i l y-l i neag e throu g h i nheri tance f rom f ath er to s on . T h e lan d was l eas ed and ever y year a percentag e of th e h ar ves t was given for the cau s e of the g u t hi : of ten m ai ntenance, daily wo rs h ip and fes tivi ti es arou nd a s peci f i c tem pl e, bu t al s o cleaning th e s treets, man agi ng the waterwork s or org ani s i ng s peci f i c f es tivals.

T i s s u e s - Ve r n a c u l a r t i s s u e s

In the Malla period guthi-f u ncti ons were broad ened to cover m ore city s er v ices bu t als o cl an activ i ti es and s oci al f u ncti ons. For bi g g er fes tiv ities or edifices s everal g u t hi worked tog ether (Pers onal in ter v iew S. R. T iwari). At the end of the Mal l a-peri od , m ai ntai ni ng th e city an d its religio u s activ i ti es and as s ets were m anag ed and a dap ted by th e co mmu nity throu g h the g u t hi (T i wari 2 0 0 7 ). In an attemp t of the g over nm ent to central i s e the d i f f erent g u t hi thro u gh ou t the cou n tr y in ord er to m anag e and coord i nate them m ore effectively and efficientl y the G u thi S ans than, was es tabl i s hed . T hey are en tr u s ted to take care of and cond u ct rel i g i ou s, cu l tu ral a nd s ocial h eritag e o f the cou ntr y. A s s u ch they are the l eg al owner of many monu men t an d hi s tori c and rel i g i ou s bu i l d i ng s f or who’s mainten an ce th ey are thu s res pons i bl e (Mu z z i ni & A pari ci o 2 0 1 3 ) . T he Gu thi San s th an do es n ot receive any s u bs i d y or f u nd i ng and s ti l l m an ag es its fin an ce s with l and g rants (G u thi S ans than not d ated ) .


T h e cen tralis ation proces s d i d not proceed f l awl es s. Fi rs t, by cen t ralis in g t h e man ag em ent of al l g u t hi -l and , the bu reau crati c man ag emen t cos ts have hei g htened d ras ti cal l y. S econd l y, the cen t ral in s titu tio n h as d i f f i cu l ti es check i ng the exact revenu e o f the acq u ire d guthi-lan d s as they d i d not have l ocal k nowl ed g e. Fu r t h er more th e s hame brou g ht u pon peopl e not tu r ni ng i n the req u ired amou n t of revenu e l es s ened as the g u t hi d i d no lon g er con s is t of lo c al habi tants. T hi rd l y, s om e g u t hi l and s were n ot regis tered as s u ch and thu s d o no l ong er ad d to the guthi revenu e. T h es e are the m ai n reas ons why tod ay the G u thi San s th an o ften lack s fu nd i ng to s u ppor t f es tival s and m ai ntai n tan gible heritag e, es peci al l y s m al l er ed i f i ces and f es tival s are deterio rating (P r a d h a n a g a e t a l . 2 0 0 9 ; G u ts chow 2 0 1 7 ; Mu z z i ni & Apar icio 2 0 1 3 ). Ever y year d i s pu tes on f i nanc es ari s e d u ri ng the org anis atio n (Gu ts chow 2 0 1 7 ). T h e q u es tion migh t b e as ked i f i t wou l d not be better to, ag ain , p lace res po ns ibil i ty f or each f es tival wi th a l ocal g u t hi . T h is backed by a leg al f ram ework to m anag e them al l . T hi s wo u ld n ot on ly mean g r eate r ef f i ci ency i n cons er v i ng the l ocal h eritag e bu t als o at a l ower cos t. Fu r ther m ore the retu r n to local guthi s ys tems or as s oci ati ons wou l d ef f i ci entl y pres er ve local, tradition al crafts m ans hi p, k nowl ed g e, archi tectu re and min or cu ltu ral diffe re n ces (Mu z z i ni & A pari ci o 2 0 1 3 ) .

Music guthi singing and playing traditional songs and music in Bhaktapur in morning and evening, 2017.

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Z o o m - i n : R a t o M a c c h e nd r a n a t h 134

T h e fes tival of Sri B u ng m a L okes wora, or R ato (red ) Macch en dran ath, the p owerf u l rai nm aker was i ni ti ated and p op u laris ed by th e Licchav i k i ng N arend rad eva and hi s pri es ts following a failed mon s oon f or the pl anti ng and s eed i ng of rice with a famine as a cons eq u ence. T he s tor y of how G u r u Gorakhanath had impri s oned the N ag i , the bri ng ers of rai n was to ld to th e peop le. A nd how G orak hanath as per acci d ent releas ed them wh en h e had to pay hi s res pects to S ri L okes wora o r Macch en dran ath u p on hi s ar rival i n B u ng am ati . T hi s rel eas e o f the Nagi brou ght rai n ag ai n to the val l ey whi ch s aved i t. In reality h owever the extens i on and recons tr u cti on of a larg er ir rig ation s ys tem f or the ci ty of Patan and not a d iv i ne inter ventio n was to tha nk f or t he renewed water s u ppl y. T he afo rementio ned s to r y was tol d and an annu al f es tival was intro du ced t o s ecu re th e yearl y re pai rs to the waterwork s ri g ht b efore th e plan ting s eas on. For the proper cond u cti on of the fes tival, w h ich s tar ts wi th the ri tu al bathi ng of the s tatu e of Macch en dran th , th e La g ank hel and Pu l chowk pond s hou l d b e filled, th e s to ne water cond u i t of S u nd hara and even t he res er vo ir overf low can al s hou l d be r u nni ng. T hi s cou l d onl y be the cas e if the s ys tem was ag ai n properl y re pai red . In the Kirata days B u n g am ati hel d the tem pl e of the g od d es s B u n g ayu mi. Sh e app ears to have been a g od d es s of a natu ral wate r ho le. (T iwari 20 0 7 ) . T hrou g h R ato Macchend ranth B u n g amati was adjo in ed to Patan by f es tival l i nk ag e f or the con tinu ity of the water s ys tem (T i wari 2 0 1 6 ).

T i s s u e s - Ve r n a c u l a r t i s s u e s

Fes tivals and celebratio ns s u ch as R ato Macchend ranath pl ay and have p layed an impor tant rol e i n m obi l i s i ng the whol e commu nity t o p res er v in g the waterwork s. S everal G u thi s were es tablis h ed fo r the mai ntenance of one s peci f i c par t of the wate rwork s (Pradh an 19 9 0 ; S pod e k 2 0 0 2 ). Altho u gh this leg en d of Macchend ranath bel ong s to Patan, he is wors hipp ed in th e o th er ci ti es as wel l , f or rai n i s es s enti al to the Newars. For examp l e, i n B hak tapu r, K ar u nam aya, the m os t imp or tant B u ddh is t deity, i s a m ani f es tati on of Macchend ranath (Gu ts ch ow 2 0 1 7 ).


135

The Rato Macchendranath temple in Bungamati before the earthquake


Historic growth and adaptation MALLA-PERIOD

136

U n d e r t h e r u l e o f t h e M a l l a d y n a s t y t h e we l l - k n ow n t h r e e k i n g d o m s we r e f o u n d : K a n t i p u r o r K a t h m a n d u , L a l i t p u r o r Pa t a n a n d B a d g a o n o r B h a k t a p u r o f w h i ch B h a d g a o n wa s t h e f i r s t e s t a b l i s h e d c a p i t a l ( T i wa r i 2 0 0 7 ) . A l l we r e r u l e d by k i n g s o f t h e M a l l a d y n a s t y, a l t h o u g h t h e y o f t e n f o u g h t o n e a n o t h e r. T h e i r r iva l r y t u r n e d o u t t o b e a s t i mu l u s f o r a r ch i t e c t u r a l we a l t h a s we l l . Pa l a c e s, t e m p l e s a n d e x t e n d e d wa t e r wo r k s we r e r e g a r d e d w i t h awe a n d b r o u g h t m e r i t t o t h e p e o p l e. T h i s h a d i t s e f f e c t s o n t h e h i g h e r c l a s s e s, d we l l i n g s we r e e n r i ch e d t o m e e t t h e s t a n d a r d o f t h e p a l a c e s. I f t h e k i n g s a r e c o m p e t i t ive i n a r ch i t e c t u r e, t h e c i t y f o l l ow s s u i t . A s t h e M a l l a d y n a s t y f l o u r i s h e d t h e a r ch i t e c t u r e e vo l ve d a c c o r d i n g l y. T h e wo o d c a r v i n g , t e m p l e s, p a l a c e s a n d m o n a s t e r i e s, we s t i l l e n j oy t o d ay, we r e b u i l t i n t h i s p e r i o d ( R a n j i t k a r, 2 0 0 6 ) .

Religion

B a s i c s t r u c t u r e s a n d s o c i a l b e h av i o u r we r e i n h e r i t e d f r o m t h e L i c ch av i d y n a s t y b u t t h e M a l l a c a p i t a l s g r e w e n o r m o u s l y, o f t e n ove r t a k i n g s e ve r a l K i r a t a - a n d L i c ch av i - t ow n s. W i t h p o p u l a t i o n r i s i n g , m e a s u r e m e n t we r e t a ke n by t h e r u l e r s a n d t h e i r p r i e s t s t o c o p e w i t h t h e ch a n g e s i t b r o u g h t c o n c e r n i n g t h e i r u r b a n e nv i r o n m e n t a n d t h e s u s t e n a n c e o f i t s s u p p o r t i n g h i n t e r l a n d , t h r o u g h l aw a n d r i t u a l ( T i wa r i 2 0 0 7 ) .

Urban

l a nd s c a p e

T i s s u e s - Ve r n a c u l a r t i s s u e s

T h e M a l l a s p r e f f e r e d o l d K i r a t a t ow n s r a t h e r t h a n t h o s e o f t h e L i c ch av i s, w h e t h e r t h e y s u i t e d t h e i r u r b a n p l a n n i n g a p p r o a ch e s o r b e c a u s e o f a n e c o l o g i c a l p o i n t o f v i e w i s n o t k n ow n . T h e M a l l a t ow n - s t r u c t u r e w i t h i t s j a a t s o r p r o f e s s i o n a l d iv i s i o n c a n s t i l l b e s e e n t o d ay i n t h e m e d i e va l c o r e s o f t h e c i t i e s a n d t h e r u r a l N e wa r t ow n s. L a r g e r wa t e r s y s t e m s we r e i n s t a l l e d t h a t we r e d e p e n d e n t o n m o r e t h a n o n e s o u r c e t o s u p p l y i n c r e a s i n g d e m a n d . A s o l u t i o n wa s f o u n d f o r e x p a n d i n g t ow n s w h i ch we r e d a m a g i n g t h e i r s u r r o u n d i n g e c o s y s t e m a n d c o n s e q u e n t l y t h e i r e c o n o m i c v i a b i l i t y. Pe r i m e t e r g o d d e s s e s n ow d e f i n e d t h e b o r d e r o f t h e s e t ow n s. Fr o m t h e n o n wa r d s t h e c i t i e s b e g a n t o d e n s i f y, p u s h i n g g r e e n e r y o u t s i d e t h e c i t y ( T i wa r i 2 0 0 7 ) . T h e l a ck o f e n c l o s e d p r iva t e s p a c e wa s c o m p e n s a t e d by a n a b u n d a n c e o f d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f p u b l i c s p a c e ( G u t s ch ow 2 0 1 7 ) . O n a l a r g e r s c a l e, t h e k i n g - c i t i e s we r e s t r o n g l y l i n ke d w i t h t h e i r r u r a l v i l l a g e s ( M u z z i n i & A p a r i c i o 2 0 1 3 ) . A m o n g o t h e r s B u n g a m a t i , T h e ch o a n d K h o k a n a we r e s u b s i d i a r y v i l l a g e s t o t h e c i t y o f Pa t a n . T h e y d e l ive r e d e c o n o m i c g o o d s - c a r p e t s, mu s t a r d o i l - t o Pa t a n a n d Pa t a n m a d e s u r e t h e y h a d a r e l i a n t wa t e r s u p p l y t h r o u g h c o n s t r u c t i o n o f c a n a l s ( Pe r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w S. R . T i wa r i 2 0 1 7 ) .


137

Waterco l o u r p a i n t i n g b y H. A. Ol d f i el d d u ri n g th e re i g n o f Ju n g B a h a d u r Ra n a , m o re th a n 1 0 0 y ea r s a fte r th e fa l l o f th e Malla d yn a s t y. Ti mes ha d c ha n g ed a l rea d y, b u t th e i m a g e s g i v e a g o o d i m p re ssi o n o f th e v a l l e y u n d e r th e M a l l a k i n g s. To p : As h o ka’s ta n k i n Pata n . B o tto m : Th e M a n g a h i ti w ate r sp o u ts i n Pata n . 1 8 5 0 ’s


Zoom-in: Bordering

138

urban territory

I n l a r g e r c i t i e s, e s p e c i a l l y t h e k i n g c i t i e s, t h e A s t a - m a t r i k a s o r t h e e i g h t m o t h e r g o d d e s s e s we r e c a l l e d u p o n t o s e r ve a s p e r i m e t e r g o d d e s s e s. T h e y r e p r e s e n t e d t h e b o u n d a r y o f t h e c i t y a n d f e s t iva l s c o n c e r n i n g t h e A s t a - m a t r i k a c u l t we r e p o p u l a r i s e d t o m a ke s u r e t h a t t h e c i t i e s a n d t ow n s d i d n o t c r o s s t h e s e b o r d e r s ( T i wa r i 2 0 0 7 ) . A s s e ve r a l K i r a t a - t ow n s a n d L i c ch av i - t ow n s we r e f u s e d t o g e t h e r t o c r e a t e t h e s e l a r g e r c i t i e s, t h e d yo c c h e n a n d p i t h we r e a c c o m m o d a t e d t o b e p a r t o f t h e t h i s c u l t . E a ch p i t h wa s n a m e d a m o t h e r g o d d e s s a n d a d d i t i o n a l g o d d e s s e s we r e a s s i g n e d t i l l t h e r e we r e e i g h t . T h e d yo c h h e n s b e c a m e n e i g h b o u r h o o d t e m p l e s ( T i wa r i 2 0 0 7 ) . T h e f o r m e r p i t h s a n d t h e o t h e r g o d d e s s e s a r e r e p r e s e n t e d by ‘ i m m ova b l e s t o n e s ’ . T h e s e s t o n e s i d e n t i f y a s t h e p hy s i c a l l o c a t i o n o f t h e d e i t y a n d c a n t h u s n o t b e m ove d . T h i s i m m o b i l i t y i m p r e s s ive l y d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t t h e s p a c e bound aspect of religion is as strong as the moral aspect in N e wa r c u l t u r e ( G u t s ch ow 2 0 1 7 ) . A n e xc e p t i o n t o t h e A s t a - m a t r i k a s a s p e r i m e t e r g o d d e s s e s i s Pa t a n . T h e p i t h s we r e t o o f a r away f r o m o n e a n o t h e r t o d e f i n e t h e p e r i m e t e r o f t h e c i t y. F u r t h e r m o r e Pa t a n wa s predominantly Buddhist and the cult of the Asta-matrikas held n o l i n k a g e w i t h B u d d h i s m . I n s t e a d t h e D a s a - m a h a v i d ya s we r e i n s t a t e d a s t e n d e l i m i t i n g d e i t i e s ( T i wa r i 2 0 0 7 ) .

T i s s u e s - Ve r n a c u l a r t i s s u e s

To d ay m o s t d e l i m i t i n g d e i t i e s h ave o f f i c i a l l y e n t e r e d t h e u r b a n r e a l m . O n l y i n B h a k t a p u r c a n t h e y s t i l l b e wo r s h i p p e d i n t h e f i e l d o u t s i d e t h e c i t y.

The eight mother goddesses of Bhaktapur, laid out according to topography. They represent an ordered world view on the basis of a circle (mandala) .


Smaller towns did no t have to be bou nd ed by peri m eterg oddes s es. T heir g rowth was m i ni m al and they were bou nd ed by more s u bt le edg es. Fi rs t, ver nacu l ar s ettl em ents were m os t o ften s itu ated on h igher g rou nd . S tee p topog raphy of ten b orders th e u rb an s ettl em ent as i t i s phys i cal l y i m pos s i bl e to b u ilt th ere. Seco ndly, canal s brou g ht water to the s ettl em ent and s u r ro u ndin g far ms. T hes e canal s were l ai d ou t al ong the ed g es o f th e s ettlemen t to p rov i d e wate r to the hi g hes t ag ri cu l tu ral lan ds th u s creatin g a bo rd er f or the s ettl em ent.

139

Today, to po g rap hy an d u s ed canal s s ti l l prov i d e a bord er f or u rban expans ion o f th os e v i l l ag es. Canal s that are s ti l l i n u s e s till p rovide the mu ch need ed i r ri g ati on water and can thu s n ot b e ob s tr u cted with ou t s evere cons eq u ences. Far m ers are therefore the lo bbyis ts ag ai ns t u rban expans i on (Hoek et al . 20 1 6 ).

Farmland

Vernacular settlement

Easy to urbanise

Too steep

Vernacular settlement

Vernacular settlement

Too steep


140

Zoom-in: Khyo Open s p aces, g reen o r paved , i n u rban areas s er ve three m ai n p u r p os es. Firs t, th ey prov i d e s pace f or s oci al i nteracti on and recreation bu t als o beau ti f y the ci ty. T hi s ad d s to the imp rovement of phys ical , s oci al and ps ychol og i cal heal th of a city. Secon dly the y ser ve as evacu ati on s paces i n ti m es of dis as ter. T h irdly, wh en g re en, they s er ve as the l u ng s of the city as th ey mitig ate air pol l u ti on and bri ng cool er s paces i nto the u rb an tis s u e (Mo UD 2 0 1 5 Initially today’s den s ely bu i l t core areas had a cons i d erabl e amo u nt of op en an d g reen s paces. W hen the Mal l a r u l ers s et b ou n daries to their citi es, d ens i f i cati on was the cons eq u ence and th es e s paces we re f orever l os t. T he pau ci ty of encl os ed p rivate s p ace - on ly h igher cas te had private cou r tyard or s m al l veg etables an d s pices - was com pens ate d by an abu nd ance o f differen t typ es of pu bl i c s pace (G u ts chow 2 0 1 7 ), rang i ng fro m different s ized s qu ares to khyo, l arg e, g reen open s paces o n th e edg es of th e bui l t area. L ag ank hyo or L ag ank hel and Jawalak hyo or Jawalak hel ) i n Patan or Tu nd i k hyo or Tu nd i k hel in K athman du are exampl es s ti l l v i s i bl e tod ay (T i wari 2 0 0 7 ) .

T i s s u e s - Ve r n a c u l a r t i s s u e s

T h e main tenance and the s u r v ival of thes e s paces was l ai d i nto the h an ds o f g ods an d ri tu al s. Up u nti l now thes e khyo are u s ed fo r city-s cale, recu r ri ng f es tiv i ti es whi ch were extend ed thereto fo r th is pu r po s e - probabl y f or practi cal reas ons of s p ace to o (T iwari 20 0 7 ). To mitig ate over-den s ity of the ci ty, Patan chos e to res ettl e s everal families from s peci f i c q u ar ters to the s atel l i te town of Kir tip u r. Patan co re is unti l t od ay the l eas t d ens e of the three kin g-cities. Den s ities o f B hak tapu r, K at hm and u and Patan core are res p ect ively 1 0 4 1 , 8 8 3 and 7 6 7 pers on per hectare [ ppha] (T iwari 2 0 0 7 ).


“T h e w o r l d h e a lt h o r g a n i s a t i o n [W HO] a n d t h e f o o d a n d a g r i c u lt u r e o r g a n i s a t i o n o f t h e UN [FAO ] r e c o m m e n d s a m i n i m u m ava i l a b i l i t y o f 9 m 2 p e r p e r s o n o f g r e e n o p e n s pa c e f o r t h e c i t y d w e l l e r . B a s e d o n t h e P e r i o d i c P l a n o f t h e m u n i c i pa l i t i e s , i n K a t h m a n d u t h i s i s 0.25 m 2 p e r p e r s o n (M oU D 2015).” 141

L a n g a n k h e l c h o w k d u r i n g th e fe sti v a l o f Rato M a c c h e n d ra n ath .

L a g a n k h e l c h o w k i n i ts d a i l y fu n c ti o n a s b u s p a r k .


Zoom-in: Jaat

142

T h e larg er a town, th e hi g her i ts heterog enei ty i n popu l ati on. T h e amo u nt o f p ro fes s i ons and thei r i nterd e pend ence on au gmen ts b u t the ag ricu l tu ral hi nterl and i s prone to be f org otten as s econ dar y and ter tiar y activ i ti es are not d i rectl y connected to the h in terlan d. T he eigh teen craf ts, k nown i n the K i rata peri od , and new ly develo ped pr of es s i ons were reg rou ped i nto arou nd 64 divis ion s. T h is majo r s oci al recl as s i f i c ati on of popu l ati on o n th e bas is of p ro fes s i ons and thu s f am i l i es - prof es s i on was h ereditar y - is call ed jaat . T he Mal l a towns were rez oned accordingly. T hey placed as s oci ated prof es s i ons i n ad j acent n eigh bo u rh oo ds wh ich nu r tu red cooperati on (T i wari 2 0 0 7 ) .

T i s s u e s - Ve r n a c u l a r t i s s u e s

T h e jaat is differen t from , yet al s o s i m i l ar to, the hi nd u cas tes ys tem. T he jaat div is ion d e f i ni tel y i m pl i es a hi erarchy, yet a more h orizon tal h ierar chy wi th l es s d i f f erence i n s tatu s. T he main r u le is : the far ther away f rom the pal ace or du r bar , the lower in s tatu s you are. Prof es s i ons of wors hi p and ri tu al s, admin is tration and p oliti cs, were l ocated arou nd the pal ace. T he o th er profes s ion s occu p i ed s e parate t ol es , or nei g hbou rhood s, aro u nd th em, eq u idis tant f rom the centre, i n a way, phys i cal l y trans latin g the ho rizo ntal rel ati on between the prof es s i ons. T he town was th u s zon ed in concentri c ci rcl es wi th the pal ace as its fo cal po in t (T iwari. 2 0 0 7 ; Tof f i n, 2 0 0 8 ). N ote that rel i g i on differs w ithin th e jaat, bu d d hi s t l ive am ong hi nd u s and v i ce vers a (T iwari. 2 0 0 7 ). Patan was div ided in to 2 4 t ol es of whi ch one i s the royal and admin is trative q u ar ter, cor res pond i ng to the 2 4 broad trad e g ro u ps ( Pe r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w S. R . T i wa r i 2 0 1 7 ) . Each t ol e wa s cent ered arou n d a tu tel ar y i m ag e of G anes ha, eq u al l y revered in bo th Hindu is m an d B aj rayana B u d d hi s m (Tof f i n 2 0 0 8 ) . Lo cation s pecific deities ad d to the f or m ati on and s treng theni ng of neighb ou rho od co mmu ni ty behav i ou r. T hrou g h the l ocati on of g o d imag es, th e r u l ers al s o achi eved the cons er vati on of op en s pace, as no on e d ared to i ntr u d e u pon the pl aces of the g o ds. To day, th is is reg rettabl y not the cas e anym ore as the co re areas are overcrowd ed (Zu ri ck & Ros e 2 0 0 9 ) .


Today Hindu cas tes and N ewar jaat are abol i s hed by l aw and intercas te mar riag es happen m ore and m ore. Prof es s i on is no lo ng er heredita r y and m any new prof es s i ons s aw were c reated in Ne p al. T he s ys tem of jaat i s not pl au s i bl e anymo re. Strengthening nei g hbou rhood com mu ni ty and the interde penden ce o f pr of es s i ons m i g ht be achi eved throu g h an u rb an s ys tem of s u b cu l tu res (A l exand er et al 1 9 7 7 ) and a circu lar man ag eme nt.

2 4 N e i g h b o u r h o o d s o r to l e s i n B h a k ta p u r .

143


144

T i s s u e s - Ve r n a c u l a r t i s s u e s

Pimbah al pu khu w i t h p at i o r res t ho u s e, Pat a n , 20 1 7

Pond in th e vi l l a g e o f K i rt i p u r a l i g n ed wi t h b en c h e s a n d n e i g h b o u r h o o d sh o p s, C h i l d re n w e re a l so se e n p l a y i n g i n i t. It i s a place of inf o rma l en c o u n t er. K i rt i p u r, 2017.


Zoom-in: Waterworks Water is a the main sou rce of l i f e i n an ag ri cu l tu re bas ed s o ciety s u ch as that o f the earl y i nhabi tants of the val l ey. I n man y Hindu and B u ddh i s t cou ntri es - s u ch as N e pal - water is s carce. C on s eq u ently, there are an abu nd ance of f es tival s, s u ch as th e fes tival o f R ato Macchend ranath - and ri tu al s death rites amon g o t hers - d ed i cated to water. Fu r ther m ore, the ver n acu lar s ettlements have a s trong f ocu s on water. It has s h ap ed their s ettlements and s o thei r pu bl i c l i f e. Featu res of the water s ys tem are o ften accom pani ed by open res thou s es or pati, or trees prov idin g s had e. I t are pl aces of encou nter and res iding. Fo u r featu res u s ed fo r water s u ppl y are d i s cer ned : the c a n a l o r kulo brin ging water from s ou rces throu g h f i el d to towns and cities, the pond or pukhu u s ed f or water capti on and i nf i l trati on into th e aq u ifer, th e r egu la r we ll or kwa f or d ai l y water s u ppl y ins ide th e n eigh bo u rh ood and the ste pwe ll or hi t i prov i d i ng r u n ning water for all. T hes e f ou r f eatu res are al l connected to o ne an other directly - canal s to pond s - throu g h ter racotta p ip in g - po nds to s te pwel l - or throu g h the s hal l ow aq u i f er - p on ds to regu lar well s. T he g eni u s of the trad i ti onal water s ys tem lies in th es e co nnecti ons and i n that i t s ol el y rel i e s on g ravitatio nal fo rce. New o r extended waterwork s brou g ht m eri t to the peopl e and con s eq u ently to th e patron of the work s. Many k i ng s s howed commitmen t to their peopl e throu g h waterwork s (Prad han 19 9 0 ). T hes e were p ro jects whi ch req u i red hi g h techni cal s k i l l an d financial an d leg al org ani s ati on (Hoek et al . 2 0 1 6 * ) . Exten ded u rban g rowth has erod ed the trad i ti onal waterwork s. Fo llowing the ins tallati on of central i s ed , pi ped water s u ppl y mos t o f it fell into dis u s e. Canal s s topped bei ng m ai ntai ned and are now beyo nd re pair, pond s, wel l s and s te pwel l s are r u nni ng dr y. Effor ts were made to res tore the r ajk u l o - royal canal - of Patan which cou ld ir rig a te approxi m atel y 6 0 0 hectares of l and , b u t the project came to a s tand s ti l l trou g h l ack of f u nd i ng (B is h t 2 0 1 1 ). * H o ek et al. 2 0 1 6 r ef er to Becker-r itterspach 1995

145


Ca nals are laid ou t a long the to po g rap hy lines to no t los e heigh t while they tr a n s p or t water over la r g e dis tan ces.

Pond s are f ou n d i n three l ocati ons, i n th e v i l l ag e, at the ed g e and i n the f i el d s.

146

T i s s u e s - Ve r n a c u l a r t i s s u e s

River

Ca n a l

Can als tap water f r om elevated rivers, wh ich are in tu r n fed m ain ly by rainwate r spring s o u rces.

Po n d

Pond s onl y as s torag es recharg e aq u i f er.

s er ve not l arg e wa ter bu t al s o to the s ha l l ow


Ste pwells are featu res only fo u nd in cu ltu res wh ere ‘p u rity‘ is im por tant.

W hen the wate r has pas s ed throu g h the v i l l ag e i t d rai ns back i nto to canal s i nto the ag ri cu l tu ral f i el d s.

“A f ter the l as t f i el d s the water d r a i n ed eventu al l y i nto th e B ag m ati , cl os i n g th e wate r-cycl e (T i wa r i 2 0 0 7 ).” 147

Can al

Pond

St ep wel l

Po nds are often f o und in pa ir s at th e entr a nce of a villag e. T hey ser ve a s a g ate a nd pr ovide water fo r u rba n a nd r ur al areas.

Reg u l a r wel l

Po n d

Man y p ar ts of the wate rwork s are interconnected throu gh t er racotta p ip in g. Bef ore it reach es a d i f f erent p ar t it is of ten filtered throu g h a g ranu late fi l ter.

Ca n a l

Ca n a l

R i v er


Canal |

148

kulo

Du ring th e Kirata peri od s pri ng s ou rces s u f f i ced to s u ppl y the inh ab itan ts of th e val l ey of d r i nk i ng water and water for ir rig ation of th e ri ce f i el d s. D u ri ng the L i cchav i peri od can als were du g to trans por t water f rom f ar ther away s ou rces as well. Du ring th e Mal l a peri od canal s were d u g to s everal o th er s o u rces to s u pp ly a town, i ts i nhabi tants and i ts f i el d s. C an als f lowed fro m s o u rces al ong f i el d s to s m al l s ettl em ents and later to th e k in gcity. T he canal s thu s s aw to the need s of ever y s ettlement of the val l ey (T i wari 2 0 0 7 ). Each k i ng ci ty had its own s et of canals p rov i d i ng water f or them s el ves and thei r s u b s idiar y v illag es. C an al s d u g by the k i ng are cal l ed r ajk u l o o r royal can al. C an als trans p or t water over ver y l arg e d i s tances, cons eq u entl y they were b u ilt with a ver y g entl e s l ope and were l ai d ou t al m os t according to th e altitu d e l i nes. A l ong the canal s of ten l i es an ear th en walk way. T hey are u s ed when m ai ntai ni ng the canal and when travers ing the fiel d s toward s a s peci f i c pl ot, bu t they are als o u s ed, u p to today, by chi l d ren and el d erl y as they prov i d e a s afe, n on -motoris ed and non-s tee p road toward s the s ettl em ent (Ho ek et al. 2 0 1 6 ).

T i s s u e s - Ve r n a c u l a r t i s s u e s

T h e few, s till exis tin g, channel s s u f f er f rom s ol i d was te and u n treated s ewerag e water. T he am ou nt of s ol i d was te i n the chann els is fou n d to b e d i rectl y propor ti onal to the d eg ree of u rbanis atio n pres ent in i ts s u r rou nd i ng s (Hoek et al . 2 0 1 6 ).

Ca n a l o r ku l o i n th e a g r i c u l tu ra l fi e l d s. A ea r th e n w a l k w a y s a d jo i n s i t, 2 0 1 5 .


Stepwell |

hiti

Hiti or s te p wells are fou nd i n three s pots i n and arou nd the s ettlement. In s ide, to prov i d e i nhabi tants of potabl e water and water for daily u s e, j u s t ou ts i d e, to s u ppl y travel l ers and far mers, far th er away, at the f oothi l l s of the m ou ntai ns, to s u p ply traders and pilg ri m s (Mari n et al . 2 0 1 5 * ). Unti l now the wo rkin g hiti are s t ill reg u l arl y u s ed , s om e s ti l l prov i d e d i rectl y p otab le water, o ne o f them i s Mang a hi ti at Patan D u rbar s q u are (Pers o nal in ter v i ew P. Prad han 2 0 1 7 ) . T h e exis ten ce o f hiti is not ev i d ent. T hey are d u g d ee p i nto the g ro u nd in order to s u b tr act water f rom ei ther s hal l ow aq u i f er or fro m an other featu re in the waterwork s ys tem . If not d u g d ee p eno u gh water will no t f l ow. N or m al wel l s are i n thi s res pect mu ch mo re efficien t as they are l es s l abori ou s to d i g. T hei r exis tence is du e to th e as pect of pu ri ty i n the N ewar s oci ety. Altho u gh a mo re h ori z ontal cas te s ys tem exi s ts, i m pu ri ty b etwee n cas t s exis t. Stag nant wate r s hou l d not be tou ched by ano th er cas te th en yo u r own. H i t i were pl aced at the ed g es o f the s ame-cas te n eig hbou rhood s or t o l es . Here d i f f erent cas tes wo u ld meet, interac t and col l ect water. A s s u ch i t was imp or tant th at water shou l d be f l owi ng conti nu ou s l y. Ins i d e toles regu lar wells are n ever thel es s i n u s e (Pers onal i nter v i ew S. R. T iwari 2 0 1 7 ). T h e overf low o f th e s te pwel l g oes ei ther to a pond where the wate r can infiltrate in the aq u i f er once m ore or to another s te p well in th e s ettlemen t throu g h ter racotta pi pi ng. B ef ore l ed o u t in the later s te p well the water was f i l ter ed thou g h d i f f erent g ranu lation g ravel filters (Hoek et al . 2 0 1 6 * ) . T he f u r the r the hiti in the chain the dee per they need ed to be d u g to l et the g ravitatio nal fo rce do its work (S pod ek 2 0 0 2 ) . Fu r ther mo re, s te p wells were an i m por tant pl ac e of s oci al enco u nter, es pecially for wom en as cook i ng , d oi ng the l au nd r y and doing t h e dis hes al l req u i re water and were trad i ti onal l y female tas k s. T h e s te pwel l was thu s the pl ace t o be i nf or m ed of daily n ews and g os s ip (Pers onal i nter v i ew S. R . T i wari 2 0 1 7 ) . * M ar in et al. r ef er to Sush m ita & Bijaya 2008 * H o ek et al. r ef er to Becker-r itter spach 1995

149


T i s s u e s - Ve r n a c u l a r t i s s u e s

150

In 2 0 0 8 a s u r vey do ne by the N G O For u m f or Urban Water and Sanitatio n map ped 3 8 9 hi t i i n the val l ey i n the f ive m ai n u rban areas o f th e valley. Of thes e 2 3 3 were s ti l l work i ng as inde p en dent water s o u rce, others were ei ther r u n d r y, connected to t he cen tral water s u ppl y or have d i s appeared com pl etel y (NGO Fo r u m 20 1 0 ). T h es e work i ng s tone s pou ts cou l d s u ppl e 3 to 8 million litres o f water per d ay i n d r y res pectivel y wet s eas o n. T his amou n t o f water cou l d s u ppl y al m os t 3 0 0 , 0 0 0 res idents (Mu zzini & Apari ci o 2 0 1 3 ) .

Hiti dra w i n g w at er f ro m s ha l l o w a q u i f er. So m e h i ti also dra i n w at er f ro m a s p ri n g s o u rc e.

O n e o f th e th re e sp o u ts o f th e M a n g a h i ti at Pata n D u r b a r sq u a re . Pata n , 2 0 1 7 .


151

St ep p w e l at th e e d g e o f Pata n , 2 0 1 7 . .

Ste p w e l l i n B h a k ta p u r, 2 0 1 7 .

Three c hi l d ren p l a yi n g i n t he M a n g a h i ti a fte r sc h o o l . It i s tr u l y a p l a c e o f e n c o u te r a l l d a y l o n g . Pata n , 2 0 1 7 .


P o nd |

152

phuku

Ar tificial p on ds are the l arg es t water bod i es i n N ewar s ettlements. T hey are f i l l ed wi th rai nwater, the overf l ow of s te p wells an d can als. T hey can be f ou nd at the entrance of the town , in p airs, as can b e cl earl y s een i n K hok ana and B u ng am ati . At the lower edg es of th e town and i n the centre, bei ng a pl ace o f encou n ter. Po nds s er ve two main pu r pos es. Fi rs t they prov i d e a m eans for water s torag e fo r th e d r y s eas on. S econd l y, they are ver y imp or tant with reg ard to recharg e of the s hal l ow aq u i f er. T he wate r s to rag e po nds prov i d e i s u s ed d om es ti cal l y, of ten there i s a water t ap p rovided along a pond , bu t al s o i n ag ri c u l tu re, f or cattle an d in cas e of fire. T he overf l ow of pond s i s connect ed to th e canals in the ag ricu l tu ral f i el d s (T i wari 2 0 0 7 ) . Onl y s om e p on ds have ritu al mean i ng or are an i m por tant f eatu re on a ritu al ro u te (Gu ts chow 2 0 1 7 ), whereas m any are a pl ace of enco u nter.

T i s s u e s - Ve r n a c u l a r t i s s u e s

Today, po nds often h ave been f enced or wal l ed to protect them . T h is tu r n s th em redu nd ant as the water can no l ong er be u s ed and o ften rainwater does not d rai n i nto them anym ore. I ns tead the rain water f lows right i nto the s ewers. T hi s i s an i ncred i bl e was te of water th at cou l d recharg e the s everel y d rai ned aq u i f er.

Large pond at the edge o f Bha k t a p u r. A wo men i s c l ea n i n g h e r b u c ke t i n th e w ate r. B h a k ta p u r, 2 0 1 7 .


153

Pond in t he a g ri c u l t u ra l l a n d o f Su n a ko t hi . Ma n y p o n d s a re e q u i p p e d w i th ta p s , th e w o m a n i s u si n g o n e o f th e se to d o h e r l a u n d r y. S u n a ko th i , 2 0 1 7 .

Central po n d at Bu n g a mat i . I t i s u s ed i s ri t u a l s , i n p l a y, a s w ate r sto ra g e a n d fo r w ate r re c h a rg e o f th e sh a l l o w a q u i fe r. Th e yo u n g ste s o n th e p i c tu re h a v e m a d e a ra ft o f e m p ty b a r re l s. B u n g a m ati , 2 0 1 7 .


154

T i s s u e s - Ve r n a c u l a r t i s s u e s

Pond at one o f t he en t ra n c es o f t he vi l l a g e o f Bu n g a m ati . It i s u se d so l e l y fo r th e i n fi l trati o n o f w ate r to re c h a rg e th e sh a l l o w aquif er. Bun g a mat i , 2017.

Large pond at t he ed g e o f Bha kt a p u r. I n t he f a r b a c k o f th e p i c tu re , so m e y o u n g ste r s c a n b e se e n sw i m m i n g . B h a k ta p u r, 2017.


Well |

kwa

T h e regu lar well or wate rhol e i s s i m pl y a hol e i n d e g rou nd d u g dee p eno u gh to reach t he s hal l ow aq u i f er. T hey prov i d e water for do mes tic u s e in trad i ti onal s ettl em ents. T hey were u s ed o nly by th e s ame cas te g r ou ps f or pu ri ty reas ons and were thu s o nly fo u nd with in s ame-cas te nei g hbou rhood s. Today s ome wells h ave r u n d r y d u e to d rai nag e of the s hal l ow aq u ifer. T h ey are clo s ed of and re pl aced by a water tank .

I f wel l s ru n d ry, d u e t o t he o v e r- d ra i n i n g o f th e a q u i fe r, th e y a re re p l a c e d w i th c o mmu n a l w at er-b a rrel s whi c h ge t re fi l l e d th ro u g h d e l i v e r y o f w ate r fro m a tr u c k . K h o ka n a , 2 0 1 7 .

Three w o men a re f et c hi n g w ate r i n th e m o r n i n g . A t th e sa m e ti m e th e y c a n re fre sh th e m se l v e s. B h a k ta p u r, 2 0 1 7 .

155


156

Zoom-in: Waste

m a n a g e m e n t a nd c l e a n i n g r i t u a l s

Sithi

Sithi or sitinakah dates f rom the l ate Mal l a peri od and i s celebrated in par ticu la r by the f ar m i ng Jyapu s -cas te. S i t hi is a fes tival to kee p the pu bl i c f aci l i ti es of the ci ty i n g ood re p air. T h is means the cl eani ng of wel l s and waterhol es, pond s and drain ag e lin es b u t al s o cons tr u cti ons of new bu i l d i ng s and main tenance o f ex i s ti ng ones. Fu r ther m ore bu i l d i ng and re p aratio n o f p u blic faci l i ti es i s d one arou nd thi s peri od . Ju s t like th e Rato Macch en d ranath f es tival , whi ch s tar ts the d ay after Sithi, it is to b e v i ewed i n the context of an ag ri cu l tu ral b as ed s et tlement. T he rel ati on between m ai ntenance of the waterwork s to prov ide water f or the com i ng s owi ng s eas on i s ver y clear (T iwari 20 0 7 ; G u ts chow 2 0 1 7 ). Sithi, was intro du ced a s the nu m ber of wel l s i ncreas ed and deman ded co mmu nity attenti on. T he cl eani ng of the wel l i n a religiou s con text is s om ethi ng new. B ef ore the i ntrod u cti on o f the jaat divis ion , the s tag nant wat er of wel l s wou l d not h ave been acce ptab le in the context of rel i g i ou s pu ri ty. Wel l s p ro bably s tar ted as p rivate i ni ti atives (T i wari 2 0 0 7 ) .

T i s s u e s - Ve r n a c u l a r t i s s u e s

Today the sithi als o h as l os t i ts f u ncti onal m e ani ng as we ar e no lon g er s itu ated in an ag ri cu l tu ral bas ed s ettl em ent. Re parati on wo rks are don e all year rou nd and wel l s are not of ten cl eaned anymo re. On ly th e for m er f ar m i ng com mu ni ti es u phol d i t (T iwari 2 0 0 7 ).


Luku-Mahadeo

W hen s ettlements densi f y, the appearance of m i cro heat and was te prob lems is o nly nor m al . In trad i ti onal s ettl em ents s m al l inn er cou r tyards or sagah wou l d be u s ed as a was te accu mu l ati on s p ace. No win dows wo u l d be ad j acent t o thi s cou r tyard and o ften it wo u ld on ly be acces s i bl e throu g h one d oor. T he was te then was s olely b io lo g i cal and was m ad e i nto m anu re. T he h igher te mp eratu re with i n the ci ty-bas ed sagah q u i ckened the p ro ces s of co mp os tin g was te f or m anu re, yet heal th ri s k m ad e the timely removal of the com pos t of g reat i m por tance. T hi s clean in g o f the sagah was g iven a ri tu al i m ag i nar y, the L u k u mah adeo (T iwari 2 0 0 7 ). Lu k u -mah adeo, the hid i ng Mahad eva, i s m enti oned i n the Pu rana do cu men ts o f the earl y Mal l a peri od . T he Mahad eva h idin g u n der the was te i s however a l ocal i nnovati on and mu s t b elon g to late Malla peri od , when g arbag e i n towns wou l d have as s u med u n healthy prop or ti ons. Mahad eva i s an expres s i on of Shiva, wo rs h ip ped by both B u d d hi s ts and Hi nd u s. He was q u ite co mfor tab le u nder the was te, bu t on a cer tai n occas i on h e needs light and air, Pas achahre. T hen the L u k u -m ahad eo deman ds the firs t offer of wors hi p. T he sagah wou l d be cl eaned by th e lowes t o f cas tes and the L u k u -m ahad eo was brou g ht to the s u rface. T hrou gh the f es tival m anu re f rom the S agah wa s made availab le fo r the f ar m s, j u s t bef ore the s owi ng s eas on (T iwari 2 0 0 7 ). T h e ritu al of Pas achahr e and the L u k u -m ahad eo are no l ang er in u s e alth ou gh s ome f or m er sagah s ti l l s eem to be u s ed as a collectio n s p ot fo r waste. Was te col l ecti on and proces s i ng i s o ne o f th e main is s u es tod ay i n the val l ey.

157


U r b an c h a racte ri sti cs

158

“W i t h o u t

any

‘T ow n P l a n n i n g O f f i c e ’,

‘planners’ were able Indeed the wa s n e v e r c h a l l e n g e d , u n t i l t h e G o d s t h e i r p ow e r (Tiwar i not dated) .” our

t o a s s u r e c o n t i n u e d h e a lt h o f t h e t ow n ov e r t i m e . t ow n f o r m a n d s t r u c t u r e themselves started losing

W hen the Malla k in gs in trodu ced the jaat d iv i s i on i n thei r towns they ar rang ed the tiss u e of thes e towns acco rd i ng l y. T hey i ntrod u ced the ci rcu l ar, cos m i c hier a r chy arou n d th e Du rbar s q u are and a s em i -rectang u l ar g ri d whi ch i s ver y per ceivab le in th e layo u t of the K athm and u - and the Patan-core area. T he isla nds o f th e g rid are ap prox i m atel y 1 0 0 by 2 0 0 m eters i n K athm and u bu t a r e smaller in the firs t circle ar ou nd the D u rbar s q u are. Wi thi n thes e i s l and s the tiss u e of the s ettlement has g rown m ore i nf or m al l y arou nd cou r tyard s over the years. N o written s o u rces are fo u nd concer ni ng u rban pl anni ng g u i d el i nes i n the heydays of Newar architectu re, yet i t i s as s u m ed that s tri ct r u l es appl i ed . T hese r u les were h owever embed d ed i n rel i g i on. For exam pl e no res i d enti al house s h ou ld b e h igher th en tem pl es and hou s es cou l d not i ntr u d e u pon the dom a in o f th e g o ds. T he res u lt i s a ti s s u e d evel oped wi th am pl e open s pace, pedestrian in fras tr u ctu re and a ver y hu m ane s cal e as no-one, not even the r oya ls, s trived fo r height (T iwari not d ated ) . M or e sp ecific landmarks an d characteri s ti cs of the u rban ti s s u e of N ewar a r chitectu re at its fines t are dis cu s s ed i n the f ol l owi ng pag es to g ai n a better under stan ding on how cities were bu i l t and l ived i n and to s ee whi ch el em ents a r e still in u s e to day.

“ H a b e r m a s (2014)

p u t s f o r wa r d t h a t o n l y c o l l e c t i v e r i t e s e l i m i n a t e

t h e da n g e r o u s t e n s i o n b e t w e e n t h e i n d i v i d ua l a n d t h e r e s c u i n g

the community. Only collective rites renew group (G u t s h ow 2017). I n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e r i t ua l s i n t h e a n d c i t i e s i n t h e K a t h m a n d u va l l e y t h e c o l l e c t i v e r e -

violence

of

T i s s u e s - Ve r n a c u l a r t i s s u e s

s o l i da r i t y t ow n s

e n a c t m e n t r e n e w s s o l i da r i t y a m o n g p e o p l e b u t o f t e n a l s o t h e i r ow n p l a c e

(the

l i m i t s o f d i f f e r e n t q ua r t e r s ) a n d d u t i e s i n t h e c i t y

a n d t h e i r p l ac e i n s o c i a l h i e r a rc h y . city and its working principles

It thus anchors (Gutshow 2017).”

a person to the


To Tib e t

To Sw a ya m bu

159

To I ndia

To Patan

Gr i d i m p o se d b y th e M a l l a d y n a sty i n Kath m a n d u .

In fi l l o f th e g r i d o v e r ti m e . A n ex a m p l e i n Pa n a u ti .


U r b an c h a racte ri sti cs ST R E E T S

160

T h e s treets in Newar settl em ents are no m onotonou s, s trai t, traffic lin es. T hey nar row and wi d en creati ng m eani ng f u l pl aces o f activ ity an d en c ou n ter al ong the ci rcu l ati on path. T hey are des ign ed for p edes trian s and f es tival m ovem ent and even the p edes trian movemen t was s m al l as m os t work s hops were j u s t o n th e g rou n d f lo or o f the hou s es (T i wari ) . T hey venti l ate the h ou s es in s u mmer as they i nteract wi th the ad j acent cou r tyard s creatin g airf lows. T h ey are al i g ned wi th res thou s es or pat i and b en ch e s or peti invitin g i nf or m al u s e. S treets are par t of the netwo rk o f op en s paces i n the ver nacu l ar ti s s u e.

T i s s u e s - Ve r n a c u l a r t i s s u e s

Interes tin g is th e pavem ent of s treets and other open s paces. It defines and gu ides throu g h the u s e of d i f f erent m ateri al s.


161

Water is g u i d ed t o wa rd s t he d ra i n a g e. The p eti i s d e fi n e d a n d b o rd e re d . Pata n , 2017.

Stre e t m ate r i a l s g u i d e c i rc u l ati o n a n d i s th e b o rd e r b e tw e e n p r i v ate a n d p u b l i c rea l m . Pata n , 2 0 1 7 .

Circulati o n i s g u i d ed b y t he d i ff eren c e i n s i ze a n d o r i e n tati o n o f th e b l u e sto n e s. Th e a d ja c e n t sq u a re i s b o rd e re d b y a h e i g h t d i ffe re n c e a b o rd e r. . K i r ti p u r, 2 0 1 7 .


162

The p a vi n g d ef i n es t he sp a c e o f th e c h a i ty a . A b o rd e r i s m a d e b y a th i n tw o - b r i c k l i n e a ro u n d t he d a rk s t o n e . Pata n , 2 0 1 7 .

T i s s u e s - Ve r n a c u l a r t i s s u e s

The a rea o f t he wel l i s d e m a rc ate d b y a th re e - b r i c k ro w. Th e m i d d l e o n e i s su n k d eep er i n t o t he g ro u n d to ke e p o v e r fl o w o f w ate r fro m e n te r i n g th e c i rc u l ati o n a rea . Bha kt a p u r, 2017.

The d ema rc at i o n o f t he w e l l i s si m i l a r to th e a b o v e ex a m p l e . Th e sq u a re i n fro n t o f t he s ma l l t emp l e i s d e fi n e d si m i l a r l y to th e to p ex a m p l e . Th i s sq u a re i s u se d b y rel i g i o u s res i d en t s t o ‘g re e t ’ th e d e i ty. B h a k ta p u r, 2 0 1 7 .


163

The s q u a re, t he s t reet a n d th e h o u se a re str i c tl y d e fi n e d a s e n ti ti e s o f th e i r o w n t hro u g h d i ffe re n c e i n p a v i n g p atte r n a n d b o rd e r s. Pata n , 2 0 1 7 .

The t ra n s i t i o n i n p a vi n g n o t o n l y g u i d e s ra i n fa l l i t a l so d e fi n e s th e stre e t a n d t he ho u s es a s t w o d ef i n e d e n ti ti e s. Th e w i d th o f th i s tra n si ti o n i s a g re y z o n e b et ween t he p u b l i c s p a c e o f th e stre e t a n d se m i - p r i v ate sp a c e o f th e p e ti . B h a k ta p u r, 2 0 1 7 .


T i s s u e s - Ve r n a c u l a r t i s s u e s

164


165

H . A . O l d f i e l d . A s tre e t s c e n e i n Ka r th m a n d u d u r i n g th e 1850’s -


U r b an c h a racte ri sti cs ST R E E T S | p e t i 166

Peti or lacchi are elevated s trokes al ong the s treet, a cou r tyard or a s q u are. T hey are, tog ether with the bo rd ers of the s treet, a g rey z one i n between the public realm of the s tre et and the private real m of the hou s e. I n f act i t i s pr iva te p ro per ty that is don ated by the private owner to the ad d i ti on of the str eet (T iwari 20 0 7 ). Peti inv ite for in fo r mal u s e. T hey are u s ed as a bench whi l e chatti ng , as a spa ce to p erfo r m h ou s eho ld s hores s u ch as d oi ng the d i s hes, as weav i ng or peeling veg etables. If there is a s hop on the g rou nd f l oor of the ad j acent building, th ey are mo s t o ften us ed as an extens i on to exhi bi t g ood s.

T i s s u e s - Ve r n a c u l a r t i s s u e s

Today when tradition al ho u s es are re pl aced by new concrete s tr u ctu re, the p eti eith er dis app eared or are rebu i l d conf or m the aes theti cs of the newl y built ho u s e.

Peti used i n d a i l y l i f e. The l eft ha n d s i d e c a n b e v i e w e d a s a n i n v e r se a n d ex te n d e d p e ti d u e to h e i g h t d i ffe re n c e a n d i ts width . I t is u s ed a s a n ex t en s i o n f o r t he a d j a c en t w o r ksh o p. K h o ka n a , 2 0 1 7 .


167

Tradi t i o n a l p et i i n t he s t reet . On the left ha n d s i d e i t i s u s ed a s a n exten s i o n o f a s ho p. Bha kt a p u r, 2017.

Tra d i t i on a l p e ti i n a n i n n e r c o u r ty a rd , c o n si ste n a l o n g th e w h o l e e d g e . Th e y a re o fte n w i d e r th a n i n m o st stre e ts. Pata n , 2 0 1 7 .

N ewl y b u i l t p et i ref l ec t t he a es t he ti c s o f th e h o u se a n d a re a s su c h i n c o n si ste n t. Pata n , 2 0 1 7 .

Tra d i ti o n a l p e ti re b u i l t a s a c o n c re te str u c tu re . H e re th e y a re h o w e v e r c o n si ste n t. K h o ka n a , 2 0 1 7 .


U r b an c h a racte ri sti cs ST R E E T S | P a t i & P e e p a l t r e e 168

Pa ti a r e pavilio ns or re s t ho u s es. T hey are s i tu ated on s treet cor ners and i n com bination with a water po in t or tem pl e and i n the ag ri cu l tu ral hi nterl and . T hey can be b u ilt frees tandin g or ag ai ns t a wal l . T he pat i i s trad i ti onal l y a pla ce for men . Often in th e mo r ni ng g rou ps of m en can be s een exchang i ng novelties. In early times it wa s al s o u s ed as a s had y and d r y res thou s e f or tr avellers an d far mers. Es p ecia l l y on hot, s u nny d ays they s er ve as a wel com e r esting s po t in th e s hade. Today, amo ng o th ers, prov is ional s hops are of ten s et u p i n them , they act a s bus s to p o r they co ntinu e thei r f u ncti on as a s pace of encou nter. In the cor e a rea of Patan s p e cial care was taken to kee p u p and res tore the pat i a s they a re s till u s ed, mu ltifu ncti onal and i m por tant pl aces f or the i nhabi tants to ta ke p ar t in s o cial life. Mo s t of them are m ai ntai ned by the com mu ni ty (Tiwa r i 2 0 0 7 ). In times of dis as ter pat i can be u s ed as a pl ace to s tore d ebri s or buil din g materials.

T i s s u e s - Ve r n a c u l a r t i s s u e s

Pa ti in the ag ricu ltu ral hinter l and or at the ed g es of the s ettl em ents are a lter nated by pee pal trees o r ficu s r el i g i osa. T hes e l arg e trees too prov i d e s had e a nd a place to res t from the hard work i n the f i el d s. T hes e pee pal t rees are of ten placed on a view p oint o r near a tem pl e, as they hol d rel i g i ou s m eani ng in both Hindu is m and B u ddh ism .

M usic guth i playing tra d i t i o n a l mu s i c i n ea rl y mo rn i n g . Bha k ta p u r, 2 0 1 7 .


169

Rebuilding o f t he l a rg es t p at i o f t he s ett l emen t. It l i e s at th e c e n tra l square a n d en c o mp a ss es t he c o rn er o f t he s t re e ts. K h o ka n a , 2 0 1 7 .

Th e d e c o rate d c o l u m n s o f a tra d i ti o n a l p ati . Pata n , 2 0 1 7 .

M e n exc h a n g i n g n o v e l ti e s i n ea r l y m o r n i n g . B h a k ta p u r, 2 0 1 7 .


170

Pat i u s ed t o s el l g u i rl a n d es d u ri n g Ti h a r. Pata n , 2 0 1 7 .

T i s s u e s - Ve r n a c u l a r t i s s u e s

Pat i u s ed a s a p erf o rmi n g s t a g e f o r yo u n g m u si c i a n s d u r i n g th e fi r st c e l e b rati o n s o f t he Da s a i n f es t i va l . K ho ka n a , 2017 .

Pat i u s ed t o s t o re b u i l d i n g mat eri a l s a n d d e b r i s a fte r th e ea r th q u a ke i n 2 0 1 5 . Pat a n , 2017.


171

Peepal t ree o n t he s o u t h-ea s t ern s i d e o f Bu n ga m ati w i th a spl en d i d vi ew o ver t he vi l l a g e a n d i t s s u rro u n d i n g s. Bu n g a m ati , 2 0 1 7

Pe e p a l tre e a l o n g th e Eka n ta ku n a ro a d , c l o se to Ja w a l a k h e l . It u se d to sta n d i n th e h i n te r l a n d o f th e c i ty o f Pata n . Ja w a l a k h e l 2 0 1 7

Pe e p a l tre e o n th e n o r th - ea ste r n si d e o f B u n g a m ati . 2 0 1 7


U r b an c h a racte ri sti cs ST R E E T S | S t r e e t f r o n t 172

Althou gh differen t s tyles in ver nacu l ar s treet f ronts exi s t, there was a har m ony thr ough th e placemen t of win d ows, f l oor hei g hts and cor ni ce hei g hts. More a nd m ore of th e tradition al ho u s es are bei ng re pl aced wi th m od er n s tr u ctu r es. With th e u s e of co ncrete it is pos s i bl e to bu i l t hi g her and have l arg er f l oor heig hts as well. Placin g th e bu i l d i ng i n a row of trad i ti onal hou s es i s as such no t o nly dis as trou s for the ear thq u ake res i l i ence of s ai d trad i ti onal houses it als o des troys th e h ar mony of the s treet, the ci ty and i t s i nhabi tants. Fur ther mo re it claims the v iew and the l i g ht f or i ts own, whi l e tak i ng on a ver y patron izin g v iew on the res t of the hou s es.

There are (MZ) in the Kathmandu T he streets ’ seven h arMonument mon yZones and its hei g ht -to-wi d th ;ft ratij6fo;+kbfwiIf]th i ng sb'g] iGx]su' ;+kbf If]qt -;+If]_ b' . ;g\ !(&( n sf7df8f} pkTosfdf q -;+If]_the x? 5g\ bu . ;g\i l d:jlgun] valley. It is a very prestigious matter to have seven MZs in a !(&( df ljZj ;+kbf ;"rL leq c+lst ul/ Pp6f ;fgf] pkTosf ;+kbf ;"rL b'g] c+lst ofgf 5u' lrlsrf w+u' :jlgu f ur ther small deterio rated th ro u gh extend ed ver ti cal d iv i s i on and op-toppi valley, all of which were inscribed in the World leq ;ft j6f ;+If] x? x'g' g} xfd|f] lgldQ k|lti7fsf] ljifo eO{ ;+If]ng t bo\sof u" ' emLu' nflu k|lti7fof v+ HjL w'+s'u b' . Yj Heritage List in 1979. These MZs include two Buddhist ;s]sf] 5 . oL ;+If]x?df b'O{ j6f af}4 :df/sx? -:joDe'gfy / lgu' af}4 :df/s -:jo+e'gfy j jf}4gfy_ t, lgu' lx the ho u smonuments es. (Swayambhu and Bauddhanath), two Hindu jf}4gfy_ b'O{ lxGb' dlGb/x? -kz'kltgfy / rf+u'gf/fo0f_ / ltg -kz'kltgfy j rf+u'gf/fo0f_ j :j}u' nfo\s' t :j+u' -o]+,on temples (Pashupati Nath and Changu Narayan) and three palace complexes (Kathmandu, Patan and Bhaktapur).

j6f b/jf/ If]qx? -sf7df8f}, kf6g / etmk'/_ /x]sf 5g\ .

nfu' b' .

Fig. 6. Harmony of traditional architecture. Top: Intact street elevation of Bhaktapur houses. Bottom: The row of o shows the harmony of traditional architecture of the Kathmandu Valley. D Korn. Traditional Architecture of the Kathmandu Valley.

lrq ^= k/Dk/fut jf:t'snfsf] ;fdGh:o dflyM ;+Unf dNnsfnLg eQmk'/ 3/x?sf] ;8sb[Zo . tnM k'/fgf 3/x sf7df8f}+ pkTosfsf] k/Dk/fut jf:t'snf;+u ;fdGh:o emNsfpF5 . gS;f 6[fl8zgn cfls{6]Sr/ ckm b sf7df8f}+ EofnL .

lrq ^= k/Dk/fut jf:t'snfof ;fdGh:o Rj]M afFnflgu' dNnsfnLg Vjk 5]Fof n+of b[Zo . Sj]M k'nf+u' 5]Ftou' em\j k/Dk/fut jf:t'snfgfk+ af+nfu' ;fdGh:o So+ . gS;fM 8An" sf]g{= 6"fl8zgn ckm b sf7df8f}+ EofnL .

Ha rmo n y i n t he f ro n t s o f t ra d i t i o n a l a rc h i te c tu re . 1.3 Urban Context

T i s s u e s - Ve r n a c u l a r t i s s u e s

Heritage conservation management Uncontrolled development is not only having an effect on the visible heritage but also results in poor living conditions and inadequate services, such as poor water supply and sewage disposal. The cumulative effect of this is major pollution of the environment. The row of old buildings illustrates the harmony of the traditional architectural city created by 3-4 storey houses, always with sloped roofs. All the plinth levels and floor levels are same. The skyline of the houses is similar. The current trend to build high ceiling heights in the city core is

!=# zx/L ;Gbe{

!=# zx/L ;Gbe{

;Dkbf ;+/If0f Joj:yfkg clgolGqt ljsf;n] l;km{ ;Dkbfdf dfq k|ToIf k|efj kfl//fv]sf] 5}g, o;n] v/fa vfg]kfgL ljt/0f / 9nlgsf; h:tf sd;n /xg;xgsf] cj:yf / ckof{Kt ;]jfsf] ;d]t cj:yf >[hgf ul//fv]sf] 5 . o;sf] k|efj cGttM jftfj/0fsf] Ps d'Vo k|b"ifssf] ?kdf x'g cfpF5 . k'/fgf 3/x?sf] k+lQmn] ;bf t];f]{] 5fgf /xg] #-$ tNn] 3/x?åf/f >[lht k/Dk/fut jf:t'snfk"0f{ gu/;+u ;fdGh:o bzf{p5 . ;a}sf] k]6Ltx / e'O{ txx? Psgf;sf 5g\ . 3/x?sf cfsfzLo b[Zox? ;dfg 5g\ . leqL zx/df pRr tNnf o'Qm 3/ agfpg] gofF km]zgn] ;+u}sf gofF /

;Dkbf ;+/If0f Joj:yfkg clgolGqt ljsf;+ l;km{ ;Dkbfo\ hs tKo+ s k| e Rj+ u ' dv' y' s ] + Tjg] u ' n of af+ d nfu' ljt/0f j 9M lg hfu' sd;n /xg;xgof cj:yf j dufMu' ;] j fo cj:yf jof Rj+ u ' b' . Yj cGttM jftfj/0fof 5 k| b " i fsof ?ko\ h" jlg . k'nf+u' 5]Fto\u' em\jg+ Gx\ofan t];f]{] kf} b"u' #-$ t+of 5]Fto\;+ k/Dk/fut jf:t' b]gfk+ ;fdGh:o So+ . bSj l;of k]6L hf j aF t+t 5u b'\ . 5]F tou' cfsfzLo b[Zot ;dfg h'\ . gu/of b'g] 5]F bos]u' Gx'u' km]zg+ ofgf gfk+ Rj+u' Gx'u' 5]F j k'nf+u

12

Heritage Homeowner’s Preservation

8. Building height. 5]F hf NFig. ew hilane,g Patan h sDarbar t ruWHS. c t uNewreskyscraper i n built a justrobesidew Kathmandu o f t ra Sjfdlrqijxf*t=i3/uNnL, o prfO{ n kf6g a l b/af/ h oIf]uq se s i n th e g o l d e n te mSjflrqpjxf*l= euNnL, stre e t i n Pata n . Golden Temple . sf7df8f}+ pkTosfsf] ;jf{lws dxTjsf af}4 ljxf/ on nfos' lj=;+=If]q . :jlguof ;jf{lws dxTjof af}4 ljxf/ Sjfjxfoft Valley's most important Buddhist monastery Kva Baha. This example shows how unsympathetic the new skyscraper is to its older neighbors: the three floors of the new building are equal in height to four floors of the older house next to it. Drawing: 2nd year student of the Institute of Engineering as a training course in architectural documentation. 1993.

Sjf jxfnfO{ ;+u} lgdf{0f ul/Psf] gofF uugr'DaL 3/ . o; pbfx/0fn] gofF uug r'DaL 3/ cfkm\gf] k'/fgf] l5d]sL k|lt slt c;Dj]bgzLn 5 eGg] bzf{pF5M gofF 3/sf] ltg tNnfsf] prfO{ a/fa/ ;+u}sf] k'/fgf] 3/sf] rf/ tNnf 5 . gS;fM O{lGhlgol/+u ;+:yfgsf låtLo jif{sf 5fq, jf:t'snf clen]vg !((# sf] k|lzIffyL{ .

gfk+ bos"u' Gx"u' ;u{ Yo"u' 5]F . Yj pbfx/0f+ Gx"u' ;u{ Yo"u' 5]F yM k'nf+Dx hMnf vMnf k|lt u'ln c;Dj]bgzLn h" wsf So+ MGx"u' 5]Fof :jt+ j gfk+ Rj+u' k'nf+u' 5o]+\ of Kot+ kfol5 h" . 8"O{+uM O{lGhlgol/+u ;+:yfgof låtLo b+of 5fq jf:t'snf clen]vg !((# of k|lzIffyL{of ?ko\ .

centuries to come. Maintenance of buildings and the timely repair of a defect when it appears can often negate the major cost of rebuilding. Some people undertake maintenance but the lack of quality contractors to do the work makes it very difficult. More often than not the repairs are carried out in a poor manner, which hastens the decay of other elements of the building.. There are too few restored old

lbG5 . 3/x?sf] ;+ef/ / v/faL x'gf;fy ul/g] dd{tn] k'glgdf{0fdf nfUg] 7"nf] /sdnfO{ cS;/ sd ug{ ;lsG5 . sf]xL sf]xL JolQmn] dd{t t u/fpF5 t/ u'0f:tl/o 7]s]bf/sf] cefjdf ;d:of emg hl6n aGg hfG5 . w]/} h;f] cj:yfdf oL dd{t sfo{ v/fa tl/sfn] ul/Psf] x'G5 h;n] ubf{ 3/sf c? efux? emg l5§} gfz x'g k'U5 . pbfx/0fsf] ?kdf lng;lsg] w]/} sd dfq lh0ff]å{ f/ ul/Psf

. 5]Fto\u' ;+ef/ j :og]ls ofO{u' dd{t+ k'glgdf{0fo\ nUf]HjLu' cKj vr{oft cS;/ sd ofgf laO{ . u'ln+ u'ln+ dg't;]+ dd{t nf ofs' t/ u'0f:tl/o 7]s]bf/of cefao\ ;d:of emg hl6n h" jgL . cKj y]+ cj:yfo\ Yj dd{t Hof af+dnfu' tl/sf+ ofsf tM u's]+ ofgf 5]Fof d]d]u' efu t emg ofsg+ gf; h"j+ . pbfx/0fof ?ko\ Gx\oao\ Nju' k'nf+u' lh0ff]{åf/ ofgftu' 5\o]+t oSj x] Dx hs b', ps]+ 5\o]+y'jf jf

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Heritage Homeowner’s Preservation Manual


173

A so l e su r v i v o r i n th e c o n c re te ju n g l e . Pata n , 2 0 1 7

Narro w s t reet s l a c k a i r a n d l i g ht d u e t o t he n e w h e i g h t o f b u i l d i n g s . Pata n , 2 0 1 7

Ve r ti c a l d i v i si o n i s a n a g e o l d tra d i ti o n i n th e v a l l e y. Ye t w h e n a p a r t i s re p l a c e d i s h a s se v e re i m p l i c ati o n fo r th e str u c tu re o f th e re m a i n i n g p a r ts o f th e o l d h o u se . Pata n , 2017


U r b an c h a racte ri sti cs ST R E E T S | P e d e s t r i a n s 174

T he focu s on pedes trian traffi c i s apparent i n s everal f eatu res of ver nacu l ar tissues. Fir st, in th e interaction of hom es wi th the s treet: on the g rou nd f l oor wor ks ho ps were s itu ated where ar ti s ans were m ak i ng and s el l i ng thei r wares. T he roo m is in co ns tan t relati on wi th the s treet and i t pos s i bl e bu yers and other wo rks ho ps o n the g rou n d f l oor whi ch creates a conv iv i al work s pace. On the seco nd f loo r, the livin g areas were s i tu ated . T he l arg e wi nd ow wi th s eati ng on th e ins ide prov ided a p lace to e nj oy the s u n and i t was s ti l l l ow enou g h to the g rou n d to interact with p eopl e bel ow (T i wari not d ated ; R anj i tk ar 2 0 0 6 ) . T his is no lon g er po s s ib le o n the s econd f l oor of a new s tr u ctu re as thei r stor eys are to h igh.

T i s s u e s - Ve r n a c u l a r t i s s u e s

Secondly, in the s cale and the featu res of the s treet: pet i and pat i are ever ywhere to be fou n d and invite to s it a nd chat. T hey are u s ed am ong others as reg u l ar benche s which are o nly u s ed d i rectl y by ped es tri ans. A l s o, the wi d th of inter n al alleyways is to nar row even to pu l l a car t or a bu g g y. T hey were used, bu t o nly by th e ver y hi g h cl as s es (T i wari not d ated ). Fu r ther m ore i t should be n oted that th e in tens i ty i n ped es tri an traf f i c was mu ch l ower than today becau s e o f the work s hops were on the g rou nd f l oor of the hou s e. T he high way o f th e time was the s tai rcas e (Pers onal i nter v i ew S. R . T i wari 2017). Today the s cale o f the streets pl ays havoc wi th contem porar y m eans of tr a nspo r t. Motorcycles can m anoe u v re bu t cars are too broad and too heav y f or mos t ver n acu lar ro ads. Motori s ed traf f i c creates d ang erou s s i tu ati ons f or the pedes trian s and cyclis ts o n the road as thes e road d o not s e parate thes e dif f eren t mo des o f traffic.

Communi c at i o n wi t h s t reet t hro u g h th e wind o w o f a t ra d i t i o n a l ho u s e. Bh aktapur, 2017.

St ree t a re o fte n v e r y sm a l l a n d d o n o t su p p o r t v e h i v u l a r tra ffi c . Ca r p a ss i n g i n sm a l l stre e t i n B u n g a m ati , 2 0 1 6 .


175

Th e tra d i ti o n a l h o u se a n d th e p l a c e m e n t o f d i ffe re n t ro o m s a n d func ti ons.

22


176

T i s s u e s - Ve r n a c u l a r t i s s u e s

Mo t o rc yc l es a n d c a rs ma n o eu vri n g i n a n a r ro w stre e t. It i s d a n g e ro u s fo r a l l a n d c reat es a hi g h a mo u n t o f n o i s e n u i s a n c e . Pata n , 2 0 1 7 .

N o s p ec i f i c l a n es a re p ro vi d ed f o r pe d e str i a n a n d v e h i c u l a r tra ffi c . Th i s c reate s da n g ero u s s i t u at i o n s , es p ec i a l l y at n i g h t. Pata n , 2 0 1 7 .


Urban characteris ti c s PUBLIC O PEN S PAC E S

Open s p aces are pres ent in va r yi ng d i m ens i ons and wi th var yi ng u s es. On one han d th ere are th e inn er cou r tyard s whi ch are pu bl i cl y acces s i bl e bu t a r e used as a s emi-private s p ace by the nei g hbou ri ng f am i l i es. On the other ha nd there are th e p u blic s q u ares created by a wi d eni ng of the s treet. T hey a r e characteris ed by a p ro minent f eatu re whi ch i s an el em ent of s u r pri s e i n the otherwis e co ns is tent s treet. T hes e f eatu res can be l arg e or s m al l tem pl es m a king on e lo ok u p, o r a s to ne s pou t or wel l red i recti ng ones eye d ownward . T hese s q u ares can be u s ed as a recreat ive s pace, a m arket area, a s pace wi th r elig iou s mean in g an d many more. D e pend i ng on the s i te of the s q u are onl y cer ta in cas tes wo u ld min gle, al t hou g h al l were acces s i bl e by al l cas tes (T i wari unda ted) . T he shape an d o rien tation of the s q u ares i s of ten d ef i ned by i ts f u ncti on. In T hecho, an far min g v illag e many rectang u l ar s q u ares are f ou nd . I f pos s i bl e they were laid ou t alon g the nor th-s ou th axi s to g et as mu ch s u nl i g ht as possib le in order to dr y cro ps (Pers onal i nter v i ew L u m anti team i n T hecho 2017). In B hak tapu r the p ott er y s q u are i s d es i g ned to be s had ed i n ord er to let the clay dr y at a s low pace (Pers onal i nter v i ew S. R . T i wari 2 0 1 7 ) .

Co u r tr y a rd i n B u n g a m ati u se d fo r d r y i n g p e p p e r s a n d o th e r c ro p s. 2 0 1 7

177


U r b an c h a racte ri sti cs

PUB L I C O P E N SPAC E S | I nn e r c o u r t y a r d s 178

Inner co u r tyard are s u r ro u nded by m ore than one hou s e and are u s ed by the neig hbo u ring families as an extens i on of thei r private s pace: was hi ng cl othes, dr ying crop s, p layin g children. A s s u ch, the cou r tyard are rather m ore s em i pr iva te th an p u blic. However, of ten the entrance i s an open - s om e are cl os ed of f by a do or - alleyway u n d er neath one of the ad j acent bu i l d i ng s whi ch pr ovide acces s to th e s treet. It i s thu s i n f act pu bl i cl y acces s i bl e, al thou g h the a tm osphere is the mos t intimate. Fu r ther m ore, the s u r rou nd i ng hou s es bl ock the no is e from traffic and to u ri s ts onl y enter them when thei r hom es tay’s entr a nce lies with in (Pers on al i nter v i ew Cou r tyard res i d ents i n Patan 2 0 1 7 ). T he sys tem of cou r tyards has som e i nteres ti ng ef f ects. Fi rs t i t i s a s ou rce of str ong s ocial co hes io n as it prov i d es a s pace f or f req u ent i nf or m al encou nter. T he f amilies liv in g aro u nd s u ch cou r tyard s s hare res pons i bi l i ti es concer ni ng the up kee p of the cou r tyard and the wors hi p of the c hai t ya, i f there i s one ( Per son al inter view Co u r ty ard res i d ents i n Patan 2 0 1 7 ; B aj rachar ya et al . 2015). Secon dly it is a means o f kee pi ng the hou s e and the ci ty cool . T hi s i s a chieved by creatin g s hade which kee ps the bu i l d i ng s and s t reet m ateri al s f rom hea ting, n ar row s treets h elp in a s i m i l ar way. Fu r ther m ore, d u e to i nteracti on with a djacent co u r tyards or s treets, ai r ci rcu l ati on i s created throu g h the sur r ou n ding bu ildin gs which hel ps to kee p them ni ce and cool i n s u m m er (va n Leng en 20 0 7 ).

T i s s u e s - Ve r n a c u l a r t i s s u e s

In Pa tan a B u ddhis t proces s ion that pas s es throu g h al l thes e i nner cou r tyard s to visi t all Patan’s Ch aityas. It i s cal l ed Matya, the f es tival of l i g ht (Pers onal inter view C ou r tyard res iden ts i n Patan 2 0 1 7 ).

Th e air in the n a rro w s t reet - o r a s ma l l er c o u rt ya rd - i s c o o l e r th a n i n th e l a rg e c o u r ty a rd w h e re th e re i s l e ss sh a d e . Wh e n th e warm air in t he l a rg e c o u rt ya rd ri s es i t d ra w s t he c o o l e r a i r o f th e stre e t th ro u g h th e b u i l d i n g , c reati n g a re fre sh i n g b re e z e .


179

Sha d e i s p ro vi d ed t hro u g h t he u s e o f c o u r ty a rd str u c tu re s. Th i s c o u r ty a rd i s , sa v e th e a d d e d sto re y s, i n i ts o r i g i n a l state . Pata n , 2 0 1 7 .

“The

use of modern materials to incrementally increase building

heights to more than five storeys has in many instances disrupted the traditional aesthetic of the area and undermined the role of o p e n s pa c e s i n m a i n t a i n i n g v e n t i l a t i o n a n d s u n l i g h t

et al. 20 1 5 ).�

Sma l l c o u rt ya rd wi t h o p -t o p p i n g o f th e a d ja c a n t b u i l d i n g s. It i s a c o o l sp a c e b u t l a c ks l i g h t to b e u s ed a s a n ex t en s i o n o f t he p ri v ate a rea . S u c h c o u r ty a rd a re o n l y i n te re sti n g fo r c l i m ato l o g i c a l rea so n s. Pata n , 2 0 1 7 .

(B aj rach a r ya


180

T i s s u e s - Ve r n a c u l a r t i s s u e s

Th e entra n c e t o t he i n n er c o u rt ya rd i s ret a i n ed w h e n th e tra d i ti o n a l h o u se A tra d i ti o n a l e n tr y to a c o u r ty a rd . It i s n a r ro w was repla c ed . Pat a n , 2017. a n d l o w. B e fo re o n e e n te r s, h e | sh e sh o u l d b o w fo r th e g o d s ( Pe r so n a l i n te r v i e w Courtyard residents in Patan 2017). Pat a n , 2 0 1 7 .

A less na rro w en t ra n c e t o a c o u rt ya rd o f a b u d d h i st b a h a l . It i s b o rd e re d b y p ati . Pata n , 2 0 1 7 .


181

From f ro m t he i n s i d e o f a ho u s e t o wa rd s th e c o u r ty a rd . I sh o w s th e rel at i o n s hi p b et w een t he s u rro u n di n g h o u se s. Pata n , 2 0 1 7 .

Co u r ty a rd u se d fo r b u i l d i n g m ate r i a l s a n d d e b r i s fro m th e ea r th q u a ke . Pata n , 2 0 1 7 .

M e n p l a y i n g g a m e s i n a n i n n e r c o u r ty a rd . Pata n , 2 0 1 7 .


182

Pat a n Du rb a r s q u a re t he s o c i a l a n d re l i g i o u s c e n tre o f th e c i ty. In ea r l i e r ti m e s o n l y hi g h s o c i et y w o u l d mi n g l e here. N e w i t i s a v i b ra n t a rea w i th th e Pata n m u se u m a n d a n a b u n d a n c e o f s ho p s . I n mo rn i n g s th e m u si c g u th i p l a y s tra d i ti o n a l m u si c i n fro n t o f t he ro ya l p a l a c e w hi l e rel i g i o u s res i d e n ts p a y th e i r tr i b u te to th e se v e ra l d e i ti e s p re se n t. Pat a n ,2017.

T i s s u e s - Ve r n a c u l a r t i s s u e s

The Datt at reya s q u a re i n Bha k t a p u r i s a rath e r l a rg e q u a r te r sq u a re . Th e p i c tu re i s ta ke n f ro m t he s t ep s o f t he ma i n t emp l e a n d i n th e b a c k o f th e p i c tu re a sm a l l sta g e c a n b e d i s c ern ed . I t i s s u rro u n d ed b y ho t el s a n d sh o p s a n d i n fe sti v a l p e r i o d s i t se r v e s a s m a r ke t a rea . I t i s very c l ea r t hat t he s q u a re i s c o n str u c te d b y w i d e n i n g to b o th si d e s o f th e t ho ro u g hf a re w hi c h l i es d i a g o n a l l y o v e r th e sq u a re . B h a k ta p u r, 2 0 1 7 .

A rat her s ma l l ‘q u a rt er-s q u a re‘. i n Pat a n . It i s si tu ate d a l o n g a l a rg e r stre e t a n d i s i n fu l l p rep a rat i o n f o r t he Da s a i n f es t i vi t i es . S i n c e th e ea r th q u a ke i n 2 0 1 5 th e sq u a re a l so to o k u p t he f u n c t i o n t o s t o re b u i l d i n g mat e r i a l s a n d d e b r i s. D u r i n g th e ea r th q u a ke i t c o u l d h a v e s erved a s a c o l l ec t i o n a rea . Pat a n , 201 7 .


Urban characteris ti c s

PUBLIC O PEN S PACES | S q u a r e s Squa r es are th e co nn ecto rs between d i f f erent nei g hbou rhood s, q u ar ters and som eti mes the town as a who l e, they are of ten s u r rou nd ed by pu bl i c and economic fu n ctio ns, pati an d i n cas e of em erg ency they prov i d e open s pace f or collectio n an d temp orar y evacu ati on. A d i s ti ncti on i s m ad e between the r ur a l settlement an d th e larg er royal s ettl em ents. In the royal s ettlemen ts, th ere are ‘ nei g hbou rhood -s q u ares ’ wi thi n the t o l es between differen t p ar t o f this rather l arg e nei g hbou rhood . T hes e are rather sm a ll an d are ch aracteris ed by a s i m i l arl y s m al l tem pl e or a wel l . I n-between the toles t here are larg er ‘q u ar te r-s q u are s ’ whi ch are characteri s ed by l arg er tem ples, a s te pwell or a s mall s tag e that can be u s ed d u ri ng f es tiv i ti es. T he ‘qua r ter-s q u ares ’ co nn ect th e t ol es of cas ts s i m i l ar s tand i ng , or s pati al l y, the concentric rin g aro u nd th e Du rbar s q u are. T he D u rbar s q u are i s the central squa r e of th e city an d was in f act onl y u s ed by hi g h s oci ety, al thou g h i t wa s op en fo r all to en ter. Tod ay however i t has com e to act as a s q u ares connecting the who le town. In r ur al s ettlemen ts o nly ‘neighbou rhood -s q u ares ‘ and one ‘ q u ar ter-s q u are’ ex ist. T h e on e ‘q u ar ter-s q u are’ i s the centre of the v i l l ag e and connects al the dif f er ent neighb ou rho ods. T he nei g hbou rhood s i n the r u ral s ett l em ents are not a s larg e as the toles in t h e ci ty, yet they d o have thei r own ‘ nei g hbou rhood squa r es ’. In th es e s ettlements you have a l es s s tri ct cas te d iv i s i on com pared to the city, b ecau s e th ere are of ten bu t a s m al l nu m ber of jaat or occu pati ons is pr es en t in th e s ett lement.

Example of th e d i ff eren t s q u a res a n d t hei r a rea o f att e n ti o n . K h o ka n a i s a r u ra l se ttl e m e n t w i th so l e l y fa r m i n g fa m i l i e s a s re si d e n ts. Some res i d en t w i l l u s e t he ‘q u a rt er-s q u a re‘ m o re i n stea d o f th e ‘ n e i g h b o u r h o o d - sq u a re s‘ o u t o f p rox i m i ty rea so n s. K h o ka n a , 2 0 1 7 .

183


184

Fu n e ral route 22.6 m Eka n ta kuna road

A g r i c u l tu ra l terrac es

Gu th i h ouses

40 .2 m

400 m

B a g m ati ri v er

Two ponds: entra nc e ; bus par k

Ste ep sl opes

Mai n square and templ e

Fes ti val route

Pee pal tre e


Cas e s tudy: Khoka na T h e far ming villag e of K hok ana l i es to the s ou th of Patan and was a s u bs idiar y v i l l ag e of i t. I n rece nt d ecad es the v i l l ag e has los t man y of its trad i ti onal hou s es as they were re pl aced wi th n ew co ncrete s t r u ctu res. T he bel i ef i n concrete as a s u peri or b u ilding material has onl y s treng thened af ter the ear thq u ake in 20 1 5 which lef t m os t trad i ti onal hou s es s everel y d am ag ed o r in comple te sham bl es. T hes e d am ag ed hou s es are ei ther recon s tr u cted u s i ng concrete, res tored i f pos s i bl e or l ef t i n their damag ed s tate as s om e f am i l i es d o not have the res ou rces to reb u ild, re pair or even rem ove the d ebri s. On top, m any o f t he families in K hok ana d o not pos s es a l and ti tl e wi thou t which th ey do no t com e i nto cons i d erati on f or g over nm ental , fin an cial s u pp or t. More than two years af ter the ear thq u ake, man y s till live in s hel ters s u r rou nd i ng the v i l l ag e. To the wes t o f th e v i l l ag e l i es the B ag m ati river wi th whi ch the villag e has always had a s trong connecti on. To the eas t l i es the Ek an tak u na road f rom whi ch u rban s prawl s pread s toward s the villag e. Far t o the nor th-wes t - not on the m ap - l i es the S i k al i temple in the bent of the B ag m ati river, the pi t h of the v i l l ag e. T h e villag e is s ur rou nd ed by ag ri cu l tu ral ter races whi ch, i n recen t years h ave b een af f ected by haphaz ard bu i l d i ng practi s es, fragmen ting the far m l and s. Onl y on the s ou th-eas ter n s i d e i s the v illag e b ou n ded by s tee p s l opes on whi ch trees g row. T h e v illag e o f K hok ana and B u ng am ati , are m ore thorou g hl y dis cu s s ed in vo lu me 4 of the S tu d i o K athm and u s eri es.

185


186

Khoka na is the textbo ok example of a ver na cula r far mers ’ villag e. T h e u rban f abr ic ha s a con ce n tric lay-o u t ref lecti ng the cosm os. In it the s hape of th e swast i k a i s clea r ly visible. Fu r th er more the dyocc hen and p ith a r e still clearly pres ent and it contai ns m a ny ver na cu lar characteris tics di s cu s s ed p reviously. T he eas t-en tran ce of the v i l l ag e i s def ined by two po nds. T he op en s pace i n-between now acts as the bu s p ark of the v illa g e. In th e cen tre o f th e v illag e another p o nd is f ound - in total there are five pond s - tog ether with the man temple, o r dyoc c hen , a nd a la r g e p a ti. Streets h ave a traditional l ayo u t with a djacen t peti and s everal d i f f erent p aving pa tter ns defin in g, bo rderin g and g u iding entiti es an d f low s res p ectivel y. I nner cour tya r ds a nd differen t s ized s q u a res are p resent which con nect the p eo ple on d i f f erent s ca les. And f ive local guthi are pres en t whi ch a ll posses a guthi-h ou s e. T h ree of them are l oca ted on the no r th-wes ter n s q u are of the m a in a x is.

2010

T i s s u e s - Ve r n a c u l a r t i s s u e s

T he density o f r u ral v illag es was, and i s, s o m ewha t les s th en it in th e cities. T he s ettlem ent is ap proximately 1 0 .3 hectares i n a r ea a nd in 2 0 1 1 , 42 9 7 in habitants l ived ther e(CBS 201 1 ). T his brin gs the po pu l ati on d ensity to a pproximately 42 0 p ph a.

2003

2018


187

The Si ka l i t emp l e a n d i t s l a rg e , su r ro u n d i n g o p e n sp a c e i s u se d fo r fe sti v a l s a n d re c reati o n . 2 0 1 7 .

There a re t w o p a vi l i o n s a c c o m p a n y i n g th e S i ka l i te m p l e . Th e se p a v i l i o n s a re u se d fo r p a r ti e s o rg a n i se d b y g ro u p s o f fa m i l y a n d fr i e n d s. 2 0 1 7 .

Fe r ti l e fa r m l a n d su r ro u n d s K h o ka n a . 2 0 1 7 .


188

Kh okana bus park with t he t w o p o n d s whi c h s erved a s t he en tra n c e g ate to th e v i l l a g e . Kh okana, 2016.

T i s s u e s - Ve r n a c u l a r t i s s u e s

The central pond of Kh o ka n a i s u s ed f o r d a i l y p u rp o s es . I n t h e b a c k g ro u n d th e m a i n temple of th e village i s vi s i b l e. K ho ka n a , 2017.

V iew from th e main te mp l e o f t he rec en t l y reb u i l t p at i a d j o i n i n g th e c e n tra l sq u a re a n d p ond. Kh okana, 2017.


189

Main street of K ho ka n a w i t h d i ff eren t p a vi n g p att ern s a n d p e ti . K h o ka n a , 2 0 1 7 .

North - western squ a re o f K ho ka n a a ro u n d whi c h t hree o f th e fi v e g u th i h o u se s a re s i tuated. After th e eart hq u a ke i t ha s b een s u b s eq u en t l y u s e d a s sh o r t te r m e v a c u ati o n area, collecti o n a rea o f d eb ri s a n d l at er o f b u i l d i n g m ate r i a l s K h o ka n a , 2 0 1 7 .


190

Ka r y a b i n a y a k templ e

21.6 m

Tw o p o n d s: entranc e

M a c c h e ndranath Templ e

12 .2 m

400 m

Eka n ta kuna road N a k k h u ri v er

Funeral route

Two ponds: entra nc e ; bus par k

Fu n e ral route


Cas e s tudy: Bungama t i B u n g amati lies s ou th of K hok ana and i s al s o a s u bs i d i ar y villag e to Pata n. B u ng am ati , however, i s the hom e of the temple o f Rato Macchend ranath and as s u ch i t i s not a typ ical far mers ’ v i l l ag e. T he v i l l ag e has an extend e d f ar m i ng p op u lation but rel i g i ou s and m erchant cas t es were al s o p res en t. T hey s ti l l res i d e i n there own d ef i ned par ts of the town (Gilleken s et al . 2 0 1 7 ). B u n g amati too f el t the i ntrod u cti on of concrete and the ear th q u ake h eav i l y. B u t ag ai n, becau s e B u ng am ati i s a religio u s imp or tant s i te, i t has received m ore s u ppor t, wi th s p ecial atten tion to the ver nacu l ar bu i l d i ng trad i ti ons, i n the reco ns tr u cti on proces s. Fu r ther m ore, al l i nhabi tants o f B u n g amati are i n pos s es s i on of thei r l and ti tl e whi ch made it eas ier f or them to g ai n recons tr u cti on f u nd i ng. T he recon s tr u ction proc es s i n B u ng am ati i s i n a f u r ther s tag e than in Kh okan a. However, even here m any f am i l i es s ti l l l ive in emerg ency shel ters, s pread i n and arou nd the town. B u n g amati is si tu ated cl os er to the Ek antak u na road than Kh okan a which res u l ts i n s prawl that i s al read y conti nu ou s l y dis tribu ted on t he wed g e between the road and the v i l l ag e. B u n g amati lies cl os er to the N ak k hu river than to the B ag m ati river, yet has a s trong er connecti on to t he B ag m ati river i n the we s t du e to t opog raphy reas ons.

191


192

V iew over Bungamati f ro m t he E ka n t a ku n a ro a d . 2017.

T i s s u e s - Ve r n a c u l a r t i s s u e s

The square of the Rato M a c c hen d ra n at h t emp l e. I n t he ea rt hq u a ke th e te m p l e c o m p l e te l y b roke down. Restoratio n wo rks a re o n g o i n g . Bu n g a mat i , 201 7 .

Reconstruction of th e M a c c hen d ra n at h t emp l e i s o n g o i n g . B u n g a m ati , 2 0 1 7 .


Bung a m a ti has the s ame characteris ti cs of a ver na cula r settlemen t as K ho k an a a l thou g h with a less ou ts po ken s ettlemen t layou t. It i s a sym m etr ically centred arou n d th e R ato M a cchendr a nath temple and th e p ith i s the K a r ya binaya k t emple, which lies in betwee n the villa g es of Kh okan a an d B u ng amati . Two entr a nces a r e marked by two po nd s. T he s o uther n one now fu nction s as the b u s park o f the villa g e. T here is a clear dis ti ncti on b etween the fo u r po nds at th e v illag e entri es a nd the pond ins ide the villag e. T hos e at the edg es a r e s olely u s ed for capti on and i nf iltr a tion of water, wh ile the on e ins i d e the s ettlem ent is us ed in ritu als and for recreat i on.

193

2003

2010

2018


194

B ungamati bus park, 2017.

T i s s u e s - Ve r n a c u l a r t i s s u e s

The pond inside the vi l l a g e i s u s ed b y c hi l d ren . They ma d e a ra ft o f e m p ty b a r re l s to p la y on. Bungamati, 2017

One of th e ponds at the So u t hern en t ra n c e t o t he vi l l a g e. Bu n g a m ati , 2 0 1 7


195

Vertical division among s o n s w a s c o mmo n p ra c t i c e i n t ra d i t io n a l ti ssu e . If a p a r t o f th e divided whole is replaced by concrete housing it result in a danger for the surrounding parts. m orover, it creates cra mp ed l i vi n g q u a rt ers i f d i vi d ed s evera l ti m e s. B u n g a m ati , 2 0 1 7 .


B a g mati ri v er

196

8.2 m

M anga h i ti Pata n Durbar

10.7 m

400 m

Pi mba ha l pond

Rec tangul ar Ma ll a - gr i d*

R i ng road


Cas e s tudy: Patan core a rea Patan , Lalitp u r or Yala i s a k i ng -ci ty of the Mal l a-peri od . Patan lies to th e s o u th of the B ag m ati river, whi ch s e parates i t f rom K ath mandu , and to the nor th of the N ak k hu river and the exis ting rin g ro ad. It s proxi m i ty to K athm and u centre d es ti ned it to b ecome a fas t u rba ni s i ng area. T he bou nd ari es as wel l as the far mland of th e o ld ci ty have l ong been over taken by the u rban area. Here even m ore then i n K hok ana and B u ng am ati tradition al ho u s es ar e bei ng re pl aced wi th hi g h, concrete s tr u ctu res with no n-trad i ti onal f açad es, even al ong the D u rbar s q u are. T h e city is b ecomi ng as overcrowd ed as the core area of K ath mandu throu gh u s ur pati on of open and rel i g i ou s s paces, exten ded ver tical divis ion of hou s es and - i l l eg al - u p-toppi ng with on e or two f lo ors. More an d mo re the val u e of Patans ’ heri tag e becom es a p ro tag o nis t, no t o nly f or i ts hi s tori c and aes theti c val u e, bu t als o for the knowledg e of ol d bu i l d i ng techni q u es and the ear th q u ake res ilience o f ol d bu i l d i ng s and ci ti es. Many of Patan s ’ ver n acu lar b u ild i ng s are bei ng res tored and re pu r pos ed as res tau ran t an d/or h otel . B u t, the ci ty i s i n a s tate of dis re p air. Many owners of trad i ti onal hom es have res ettl ed to the o u tlying areas to new hom es wi th avai l abi l i ty of al l m od er n facilities. T h e tradition al hou s es are m os tl y rented to s everal low in co me families. T h es e however l ack bas i c f aci l i ti es s u ch as prop er ligh t, ventilati on and toi l et acces s. Wi th no ori g i nal h omeowners s till livin g there, no m oney i s s pent on the u pkee p o r facilitation o f th es e ol d hou s es and they, as wel l as the ci ty tu r ns into a s tate o f s eri ou s d i s re pai r (B aj rachar ya et al . 2 0 1 5 ; Sen gu p ta & Upadhyaya 2 0 1 6 ). Fu r ther mo re, Patan s u f f ers f rom the am ou nt of vehi cu l ar traffic p as s ing throu gh i ts nar row s treets wi th i ns u f f i ci ent fou n dation . It creates dang erou s s i tu ati ons f or ped es tri ans and n ois e nu is ance. * On ly p ar t o f th e M alla-g r id is de p i cted.

197


198

T he ver na cular tis s u e of Patan is ch aracteri s ed by the distinctive Malla-g rid wh ich s pread s o u t f r om the Du rbar s q u are an d an extend ed wa ter system . In K ho k an a an d B u ng amati onl y p o nds a nd r egu lar wells were p res en t. I n Patan a va r iety of pon ds, s te pwells and regu l ar wel l s a r e f ound. U nsur pr ising l y, almos t all ver n acu lar f eatu r es d i scussed pr ev io u s ly are p res en t in the u rban cor e of Pa ta n: firs t, s everal du o’s o f dyoc c hen a nd pith f r o m o ld Kirata-town s, s econd , the D a sa -m ah av idyas, alth ou gh overcom e by ur ba nisa tion , third, two khyo , Jawal ak hel a nd L a g a nkh el, fo u r th, the s tr u ctu re of jaa t division, s till v is ible th ro u gh the g ri d , a lthoug h not any more in p op u lation , f i f th, the ex tended wa ter s ys tem which drains b ack i n the Ba g m a ti r iver o n leav in g Patan, fu r ther m ore, the sever a l ch aracteris tics of s treets and p u blic open s p ace s, alth ou gh co ntes ted by contem por a r y u rb an is ation . T he o nly f eatu re tha t is not pr es en t is th e high locatio n. Patan i n situa ted on the f lat in between two l arg e river s.

2003

T i s s u e s - Ve r n a c u l a r t i s s u e s

2010

2018


199

Patan Durbar squa re l i es i n s ha mb l es . N o t o n l y d u e t o t h e re c e n t ea r th q u a ke b u t to t he rec o n vers i o n o f i t s ed g es t o a c o nc re te ju n g l e . Pata n , 2 0 1 7 .

In th e morning many a re f o u n d exc ha n g i n g n o vel t i es a n d en jo y i n g th e m u si c fro m th e music guth i, Many a re o n t hei r wa y t o w o rs hi p o r wo rk o r ta k i n g th e i r m o r n i n g w a l k . Pata n , 2 0 1 7 .

Adding storeys t o ho u s es i s d o n e i l l eg a l l y a n d b u rd e n s th e fo u n d ati o n s o f th e b uilding more th an des i g n ed f o r. I f , mo reo ver, i t i s c o n s t ruc te d i n c o n d re te , i t c reate s a n even hi g her ri s k d u ri n g ea r th q u a ke s. Pata n , 2 0 1 7 .


200

T i s s u e s - Ve r n a c u l a r t i s s u e s

Tra ditional h ouses are i n a s t at e o f d i s rep a i r, l i vi n g c o n d i t i on s a re b a d . Pata n , 2 0 1 7 .

A street recently paved wi t h l i g ht n at u ra l s t o n e. N o t e t hat th e w ate r d ra i n a g e i s n o t d eep enough for heav y ra i n f a l l . Fu rt hermo re, i t s ho u l d b e n o te d th at ea c h h o u se h a s added storey or has been reb u i l t w i t h a hei g ht o f mo re t ha n th re e sto re y s. Pata n , 2 0 1 7


Co n c l u si on Tr a dition al tis s u es h ave come a l ong way and have d evel oped accord i ng l y. T hey have beco me s ocial tis s u es, becau s e of the em phas i s they pu t on s pace of enc ou n ter, an d in g eniou s ti s s u es f or thei r s i m pl e, yet cl ever l ay-ou t, f ea tur es an d water manag ement s ys tem . B u t, s i nce 1 9 5 0 they are f aci ng rapi d ur ba n g rowth and moder nis ati on. I n thi s, s om e el em ents have proven thei r wor th and h ave s u r vived u ntil tod ay. Other el em ents f or m obs tacl es and are a ba ndon ed. M ost imp or tant is the n etwork of open s paces whi ch creat es s trong s oci al cohesi on on differen t s cales and s t reng then the ear thq u ake res i l i ence of the tis s u e and the creatio n o f enti ti es thou g h a s trong bord er whi ch al s o f unction s as a co nn ecto r. T h is creati on d oes not onl y happen i n the s treets of the u rb an tis s u e b u t als o in the d ef i ni ti on of the u rban s ettl em ent and the r ur a l hin terlan d.

201


Re c ent d e v e l o p m e n t s 202

Recent de ve lop ments can b e d iv i d ed i nto two br oad g ro u ps : plan ned devel opm ents, of which the p lo ttin g of lan d, the d i f f erent types of g ated commu n ities an d u npl anned or or g a n ic develo pmen t, which has s pread a ll over the valley f lo or, will be d i s cu s s ed . T his will often be refer red to as haphaz ard developmen t or s p rawl.

Tissues - Recent developments

T he three typ es, org anic d evel opm ent, plotted develo pmen t and g ated com mu ni ti es will be d is cu s s ed u s ing cas e s tud i es N ak k hu , Bha ise pati an d T h echo d evel opm ent r espectively. Finally g eneral co ncl u s i ons wi l l be dr awn.

‘The terraces� a high-end gated community near Sunakothi, 2017.


203


204

R i ng road 9.1 m

D r i v i n g l i c e nc e exam c entre

Gate d c o m muni ty : Pa d m a c ol ony

H i g h r i se tower

Gate d c o mmuni ty

1 1 .6 m

400 m

N a k k h u ri v er

Eka n ta kuna road


Organic growth CA S E S T U D Y: N A K K H U

N a kkhu, named after th e river f lowi ng throu g h the tissue, is s itu ate d ju s t ou t s ide the ri ng road to the south o f Patan co re area. In 1 5 years i t went f r om n early r u ral to almos t par t of the cor e a r ea o f g reater K athman du , f rom m ai nl y a g r icultural area to h ap hazardly b u i l t-u p area. Its loca tion clo s e to the in ner rin g road area a nd the Ek an tak u na ro ad cu tting throu g h i t a r e the mos t impo r tan t facto rs cau s i ng thes e cha ng es.

205

2003

T he tissue co ns is t of a s o cial mix of peopl e living in s h elte r-like h ou s es, fami l i es renti ng one or m ore ro oms in rentals, fami l i es l iv i ng in their own, walled ho u s e an d p eopl e l iv i ng in g a ted co mmu nities o r a high ris e apar tm ent building. H owever, th is s ocial mi x d oes not m ing le mu ch du e to a lack of pu bl i c open spa ce or pu b lic facilities. Strong s oci al cohesion only s eems to ex is t at th e ver y s m al l sca le of the b u ilding, and th en onl y am ong sem i-per man e nt res idents. T he m ost impo r tan t road is th e Ek antak u na r oa d a long which mo s t eco no mic and pu bl i c f unctions are s itu ated. T h is r o ad is par t of the vehicula r realm an d n ot de s ign ed f or i nf or m al encounter. T h e ring road on ly has m eani ng to the inhabitants o f Nak k hu as a ci rcu l ati on a r ter y, becau s e th ey are p ar ted by a l arg e heig ht differen ce. T he river ho lds s i g ni f i cant m ea ning fo r th e po orer in habitants al thou g h it is heavi ly po llu ted. Ot h er in habi tants were not seen alon g th e river banks.

2010

2018


206

Overview of th e centra l a rea o f t he N a kkhu -s q u a re f ro m t he ro o f o f th e h i g h r i se to w e r. In the lower right corn er t here i s a l o w ri s e g at ed c o mmu n i t y. In th e b a c k o f th e p i c tu re the h eigh t diff erence w i t h t he ri n g ro a d i s vi s i b l e. N a k khu , 2 0 1 7 .

Tissues - Recent developments

Overview of the western a rea o f t he N a kkhu -s q u a re f ro m t he ro o f o f th e h i g h r i se to w e r. The tissue is ch aracte ri s ed b y l o w d en s i t y ha p ha za rd g ro wt h , S o m e a g r i c u l tu ra l p l o ts are still visible. Nakkhu , 2017.

Overview of th e centra l a rea o f t he N a kkhu -s q u a re f ro m t he ro o f o f th e h i g h r i se to w e r. Nakkhu, 2017.


207

Some agricultura l f i el d s a re f o u n d s c att ered i n t he b u i l t- u p ti ssu e . N a k k h u 2 0 1 7 .

Street in th e newl y b u i l t Pa d ma c o l o n y wi t h 41 u n i t s . Ho u se s a re fe n c e d , g ate s a re kep t c l o s e a n d s t reet s a re u n m a i n ta i n e d . N a k k h u , 2 0 1 7 .

Th e f irst gated c o mmu n i t y o f t he a rea , 21 u n i t s . As a r u l e g ate s a re o p e n a n d th e street is maintai n ed a n d l i n ed w i t h g reen ery (Pers o n a l i n te r v i e w Ko i ra l a D. 2 0 1 7 ) . Nakkhu, 2017.


208

Tissues - Recent developments

The high - rise tower. The a p a rt men t s a re i n t en d ed f o r res i d e n ts o f th e m i d d l e to h i g h in c ome classes. Nakkhu , 2017.

The high - rise building t o w ers a b o ve t he t i ss u e. N a kkhu , 201 7 .


209

The Ekantakuna road f ro m Bha i s ep at i t o N a k khu . I n t he b ac k th e h i g h - r i se d o m i n ate s th e v i e w. N a k k h u , 2 0 1 7 .

The Ekantakuna road ru n n i n g t hro u g h t he a rea o f s t u d y. The si d e s a re u se d a s p a r k i n g and i t i s l i n ed w i t h s ho p s u n d ern eat h re n ta l ro o m s. N a k k h u , 2 0 1 7 .

A large, organicall y g ro w n , ro a d i s b ei n g rec o n s t ru c t ed t o p ro v i d e su ffi c i e n t p i p i n g . Nakkhu, 2017.


210

Tissues - Recent developments

The riverbanks are am o n g o t hers u s ed t o w a s h c l o t hi n g . H o w e v e r, o n l y b y th e l o w e r in c ome classes wh o do n o t o w n a w a s hi n g ma c hi n e. N a kkhu , 2 0 1 7 .

The f irst day of th e Da s a i n f es t i va l i n t he t emp l e-a rea . N a k kh u , 2 0 1 7 .


+ 40 m +

Distribution of functions in Nakkhu Economic Non-food shop Fo o d s h o p | s u p e r m a r ke t Hotel | restaurant | cafe Pu b l i c & p r i v a t e s e r v i c e s Religious Pr i v a t e s e r v i c e s School Sporting facilities Pa r k i n g Green & blue network Tr e e Recreative green Agriculture Wa t e r Housing Residential | other

T he Ek an tak u na ro ad, econ omi cal l y the m os t i m por tant road , a vari ety of hor eca facilities, fo od an d no n-f ood s hops l i ne i t, as wel l as s om e l arg er com pan ies wh ich p rovide s o m e j ob-oppor tu ni ti es i n the nei g hbou rhood . Spor ti ng facilities, s cho ols an d other pu bl i c f aci l i ti es on the other hand are f ound s cattered with in th e res i d enti al ti s s u e f u r ther f rom the Ek antak u na r oa d. G r eener y is fou n d on ly o n plots u s ed f or f ar m i ng , al ong the t em pl e-s i te, i n a sm a ll emp ty plot u s ed as a playg rou nd , on the park s i te and al ong the s tee p edg e from the wall of the h igh ri s e tower to the river.

211


212

+ 40 m +

Open and built space in Nakkhu Pu b l i c o p e n s p a c e Pr i v a t e o p e n s p a c e Building Wa l l

Tissues - Recent developments

Cour tyards an d s q u ares are di f f i cu l t t o f i nd i n the haphaz ard ti s s u e of N a kkhu . T he on ly defin ed o pen s paces, that i s not a s treet, are the t em pl e with cre mation area, s itu ated in the top l ef t cor ner of the s q u ar e and a s m al l pa r k in t he middle o f th e lower ed g e. Other pu bl i c open s paces are s i tu ated m a inly on u nu s ed plots or in s id e a wal l ed area tog ether wi th a pu bl i c f aci l i ty. T hese latter are no t acces s ible by al l . Fu r ther m ore the riverbank s, f or the wa shing of clothes, and th e area i n the bottom l e f t cor ner, as a m arket area, a r e used mo s t as pu b lic o pen space al thou g h they are not d ef i ned as s u ch. In som e stre ets, th os e wh ere walled hou s es are s carce, the s treets ’ ed g es are al s o used f or in fo r mal encou n ter o f s el l i ng f ood to pas s ers -by and cou l d thu s be viewed in par t as p u blic o pen s pace. T he info r mal o pen s p aces o r non-d ef i ned open s paces are u s ed m os tl y by lower i n co me clas s families. Fam i l i es of the hi g her i ncom e cl as s es u s e thei r r oof ter race as op en s p ace.

“E a r l i e r ,

t h e a r e a w h e r e n ow t h e

a s a k i n d o f pa r k s pa c e .

N ow

Padma

c o l o n y i s b u i lt wa s u s e d

t h e r e i s n o r e a l o p e n s pa c e l e f t .

e v e n h a d t o l e a r n h ow t o r i d e m y b i k e o n o u r r o o f t e r r a c e

dau ghter of a fa mi l y living in Nakkhu).�

I (eld es t


+ 40 m +

Number of storeys in Nakkhu Streets Wa t e r Low rise One floor Tw o f l o o r s Three floors Fo u r f l o o r s Fi v e f l o o r s Six floors High rise Eleven floors Tw e l v e f l o o r s Fi ft e e n f l o o r s

T he str eet patter n h as g rown in a rand om f as hi on away f rom the Ek antak u na r oa d. T he larg er s treets are th e m ai n ci rcu l ati on ar teri es, they are branched with several s mall s treets, often cu l -d e-s acs, whi ch are not acces s i bl e by ca r. D u e to haph azard develo pm ent, s treets had to be red evel oped f or the pla cem ent of s u fficient piping. Fu r ther m ore no park i ng s paces are f ou nd inside the res iden tial tis s u e. Mos t cars are parked al ong the Ek antak u na road or in parkin g fu r th er away, this d i s cou rag es the u s e of a private car. However if tr avelling dis tance to wo rk or the ci ty centr e i s hi g h and pu bl i c trans por t is not s u fficient, th is dis co u rag em ent hol d s no i m pact. T he number of s to reys is, apar t f rom the hi g h ri s e tower rel ativel y l ow. Mos t houses h ave o nly th ree s to reys. However, bear i n m i nd that s toreys i n newl y built hou s es are mu ch h igher then i n the trad i ti onal hou s es wi th a f actor of a ppr ox i mate ly 1 .5 to 1 .

213


Organic growth CHARACTERISTICS

214

Or g a ni c g rowth, h ap hazard g rowth or u rban s prawl i s s trew n arou nd the va lley at th e exp en s e o f ag ricu l tu ral l and . A s can be s een i n N ak k hu as wel l as in other areas, the s ite in q u es ti on u nd erg oes three s tag es i f s u bj ected to thi s kind of u rb an develo pmen t. A t f i rs t the l and s cape i s pred om i nantl y r u ral . Af ter th e develo pmen t alon g the m ai n road the l and s cape has trans f or m ed to a peri-u rb an s tate wher e the re i s an, al thou g h f rag m ented , bal anced distr ibu tio n between ag ricu ltu ral open s pace and bu i l t -u p area. Over ti m e the built-u p area takes th e u pp er-hand . D iv i s i on and f u r the r s u b-d iv i s i on of la nd is key to th is k in d o f devel opm ent cons eq u entl y l ead i ng to i ts thorou g h f r a g m en tation (T h ap a & Mu rayam a 2 0 1 0 ) . T he r es u lting tis s u e is placeles s and characterl es s d u e to a l ack of bas i c pu bl i c inf r a str u ctu re an d s er vices s u ch as s chool s, recreative f aci l i ti es and d rai nag e (Seng upta an d Up adyaya 2 0 1 6 ). D u e to i ts extens ivenes s i t i s hard to pol i ce or pr ovid e s u fficie nt pu b lic transpor t ((S eng u pta and Upad yaya 2 0 1 6 ) ), cau s i ng a ug m ented feelin gs of fear resu l ti ng i n as oci al m eas u res s u ch as the bu i l d i ng of pers o n-high walls alon g the ed g e of ones pl ot and t he f ocu s on private vehicles. Fu r the r more it is characteri s ed by a d ivers i ty i n res i d ents. Mi g rants a nd locals, p oo rer an d rich er de pend i ng on the ti m e of s ettl em ent i n the area. Or g a ni c g rowth is driven by the l and m arket and by the l eg i s l ative f ram ework . Hig h lan d prices drive the lower m i d d l e cl as s ou t of the central areas and som e move to th e fring e in o rder to be s u bj ected to l es s s tri ct bu i l d i ng byelaws (S engu pta an d Up adyaya 2 0 1 6 ) . A l ong the ri ng road thi s type of g rowth is m os t den s ified, els ewh ere it i s s ti l l m ore open.

“Evolving urban It is mixed with

forms are becoming increasingly disorganized.

i n c o m pa t i b l e l a n d u s e s , a n d d e c l i n i n g l e v e l o f

a m e n i t i e s s u c h a s o p e n - s pa c e s a n d pa r k s a s w e l l a s i n f r a s t r u c t u r e s e rv i c e s .

Neighbourhood

e n v i ro n m e n t b o t h s o c i a l a n d c u lt u r a l

Tissues - Recent developments

h av e c o m e t o b e a f f e c t e d a s a r e s u l t

( M o U D 2 0 1 5 ) .�


215

Sp ra wl ro a d f ro m Kat hma n d u to Lu b h u . 2 0 1 8 .

S p ra w l a l o n g th e r i n g ro a d to th e ea st o f Pata n. 2 0 1 8 .

Sp ra w l a l o n g t he ro a d b et w een Kath m a n d u a n d Th i m i . 2018.

Ea r l y sta g e o f sp ra w l i n - b e tw e e n B o d e a n d B h aktapur. 2018.

E a rl y s t a g e o f s p ra wl t o t he n o rt h o f Th i m i a n d B h a k ta p u r. 2018.

S p ra w l to th e so u t- w e st o f Go ka r n a re se r v e d fo re s t. 2 0 1 8 .


Eka n ta kuna road

216

9.4 m O p e n square for s peec h es

B us stop S p orts fi el d

Te n ni s c ourt S mal l park

5.5 m

400 m

Te m p l e, peepal tre e , o p e n s pac e for fe sti v a l s, bus stop

Te mpl e

Mai n sports fi el d

G ated c omm uni ty


P l o tt e d d e v e l o p m e n t CA S E S T U D Y: B H A I S E PAT I

Bha ise pa ti lies to the s o u th o f N ak k hu and r ig ht nex t to Kh okan a. It lies on the f l at of a hillock a n d knows no s tee p to po g raphy. It i s a settlem ent th at g rew alon g the Ek antak u na r oa d, thr ou gh w hich it is directly connected to the r ing r oad. Develo pment s tar ted org ani cal l y a long the edg es of th e ro ad, afterward s a la r g e a r ea to th e wes t s ide was devel oped and plotted into ho u s in g parcels. In f ras tr u ctu re such a s street ligh ting, pavin g an d pi pi ng was pr ovided by the develo per, h ou s es were bu i l t by the buyers o f the plot s. Today, at l eas t one thir d of the plotted land s till lies vac ant. M a ny dualities exis t between the org ani c developm ent an d t h e p lo tted land. T he pri m ar y or g a nic develo pmen t wo rks as a buf f er f or the noise a nd bu s tle o f th e Ek an tak u na road . T hi s m a kes the p lo tted develo pmen t a q u i et and ca lm a r ea. T he org anic develop m ent hol d s m ost economic fu nction s while the pl otted one holds almos t no ne. Alon g the road m os t houses have an op en s treet fro nt whi l e i n the plotted develo pmen t almo s t all are wal l ed . In the str eet t h ere are s everal ren tal u ni ts whi l e in the plotted develo pmen t there are none, which cr eates a ver y low den s ity. Fu r ther m ore the economic c las s of res idents al ong the r oa d a nd ins ide th e p lo tted devel opm ent i s dif f er ent. T he res idents alo ng the r oad s ettl ed her e when p rices were s till low and the area wa s still co ns idered remo te. T h ey thu s m ake up the lower econ omic clas s o f the area.

217

2003

2010

2018


218

V iew over th e large f ie l d t o wa rd t he p l o tt ed d evel o p men t o f B h a i se p ati . Th e l a rg e sp o r ts field is intensively used . Bha i s ep at i , 2017.

Tissues - Recent developments

The sports f ield is an i mp o rt a n t s p a c e f o r yo u n g s t ers t o meet. B h a i se p ati , 2 0 1 7 .

The street alongside t he p l o tt ed d evel o p men t i s b u s y wi t h v e h i c u l a r a n d p e d e str i a n traff ic, it is a vivid spa c e. Bha i s ep at i , 2017.


219

View of t he ma rket s q u a re a l o n g t he E ka n t a ku n a ro a d . B h a i se p ati , 2 0 1 7 .

Th e open space in the p l o tt ed c o mmu n i t y - s i t ed j u s t a b o ve th e to p e d g e o f th e sq u a re - i s u s ed f o r a p o l i t i c a l g ath e r i n g . B h a i se p ati , 2 0 1 7 .

The designed park l i es i n b et w een w a l l s a n d i s i n a d et e r i o rate d state . It i s w a l l e d , va n d a l i s ed a n d n o t a pp ea l i n g . B h a i se p ati , 2 0 1 7 .


220

The temple inside th e p l o tt ed c o mmu n i t y i s n o g a c c es i b l e. It i s sh u t o ff w i th a fe n c e d wall and a closed gate. Bha i s ep at i , 2017.

Tissues - Recent developments

Streets inside th e pl o tt ed d evel o p men t a re d es i g n ed f o r v e h i c u l a r tra ffi c , a l th o u g h m ostly used by pedes t ri a n s . Si d ew a l ks ha re ha rd l y u s ed a nd b e c o m e o v re g ro w n w i th vegetation. Bh aisepati , 2017.

A noth er street in whic h s i d ew a l ks a re o verg ro w n . Bha i s ep at i , 2 0 1 7 .


+ 40 m +

Distribution of functions in Bhaisepati Economic Non-food shop Fo o d s h o p | s u p e r m a r ke t Hotel | restaurant | cafe Pu b l i c & p r i v a t e s e r v i c e s Religious Pr i v a t e s e r v i c e s School Sporting facilities Pa r k i n g Green & blue network Tr e e Recreative green Agriculture Wa t e r Housing Residential | other

M ost econ omic fu n ctio ns are f ou nd at the cros s road s of the Ek antak u na r oa d a n d the ro ad alon g the pl otted d evel opm ent. Pu bl i c s er v i ces are f ou nd a long b oth roads and in s ide the ti s s u e m ai nl y s por ti ng f aci l i ti es are f ou nd . G r een op en s paces are fou n d a s ag ri cu l tu ral f i el d s whi ch are ei ther d i s pers ed in the p lo tted develo pmen t or i n l arg er expans es ou ts i d e i t and recreative a r ea s marked by s po r ts fields. Pee pal trees are f ou nd at nod al poi nts, nam el y the m arket s q u are and th e tem pl e to the s ou th-eas t of the s tu d i ed area, both a lso ser ve as b u s s top s. T he tiss u e is n ot den s ely b u ilt o r i nhabi ted . Es peci al l y the pl otted d evel opm ent wher e families where inter vi ewed who i nhabi ted a hom e wi th onl y two per sons, an extended family of s even whi ch res ettl ed f rom S ano K hok ana m a de an exce ptio n.

221


222

+ 40 m +

Open and built space in Bhaisepati Pu b l i c o p e n s p a c e Pr i v a t e o p e n s p a c e Building

Tissues - Recent developments

Wa l l

T her e are imp or tant, or u s ed, and l es s i m por tant, or u nu s ed , open s paces f ound in this s q u are. Firs t, there i s the l arg e, open s por ts f i el d . It i s not k nown if this was either p ar t o f the d evel opm ent or i nf or m al l y org ani s ed by the r esidents. Secon dly, the market s q u are at the cros s i ng of the Ek antak u na road a nd the road alon g th e edg e o f the d evel opm ent. Here, a s m al l s u per m arket i s f ound tog ether with o th er fo od s tores, peopl e s el l i ng thei r veg etabl es u nd er the pee p al tree an d n on -foo d s tores. I t i s the econom i c centre of the area. T hir dl y there is a temp le with a pee pal tree and f es tiv i ty s i te f u r ther to the south-eas t o f th e s q u are. It is not i ns i d e the s q u are bu t i t i s an i m por tant spa ce of encou n ter fo r its resi d ents. A f ou r th i m por tant open s pace i s the open sq u are ju s t to the n or th -wes t of the s tu d i ed area. I t i s u s ed to org ani s e speeche s and recent ly s ome restau rants and cof f ee bars have d evel oped al ong its sides tu r n in g it into a lively s pace. Fu r ther m ore f ive d es i g ned open s paces a r e f oun d in the plotted devel opm ent, a tem pl e, a tenni s cou r t, a ver y s m al l pa r k an d two s p or ts fields. T h ey are real i s ed by the d evel oper, f enced , not m a intain ed, no t q u alitative, ver y s m al l and em pty of peopl e. Str eet edg es are o nly u s ed as publ i c open s pace al ong the Ek antak u na road and in the road alon g the develo pm ent. Otherwi s e s treets are wal l ed , oveg rown a nd des ign ed for cars, no t men.


+ 40 m +

Number of storeys in Bhaisepati Streets One floor Tw o f l o o r s Three floors Fo u r f l o o r s Fi v e f l o o r s Six floors

T he streets in th e plotted devel opm ent s how a d i s ti nctive g ri d i ron patter n. T he a re all b lack-top pe d and mos t of the ti m e accom pani ed by a pavem ent f or pedes t rian s. T hes e s treets are however not f req u entl y u s ed by ped es tri ans nor cars du e to th e low den s i ty of the d evel opm ent. Fu r ther m ore, wal l s delim it th e ho u s in g plots and create a s tri ct bord er, wi thou t g rey z one, wi th the street. Many res idents leave thei r wal l ed hom e i n the m or ni ng by car and r etur n in th e evening by car to thei r wal l ed pl ots. Cons eq u entl y the pavem ent a nd streets are n ot maintaine d by the com mu ni ty as they d o not u s e or even see them freq u en tly. T hey are not ‘ owne d ’ by the com mu ni ty and thu s not m a intain ed by it.

223


P l o tt e d d e v e l o p m e n t s CHARACTERISTICS

224

Plotted develo pmen ts are fo u nd s pread arou nd the val l ey. L arg e expans es of f a r m la nd are bo u gh t at a cheap pri ce i n areas that are s ti l l cons i d ered rem ote. Af ter develo pmen t o f b as ic inf ras tr u ctu re and the pl otti ng of the res i d u al la nd, th e p lo ts are s o ld at a much hi g her pri ce. T he i ntend ed bu yers are thu s of higher in co me clas s es. Many d evel opm ents are l yi ng i d l e, onl y par ti al l y built-up. T h e s prawl aro u nd them g row s and d ens i f i es f as ter as pri ces f or undevelop ed lan d are lower.

Tissues - Recent developments

Plotted develo pmen ts are ch aracteri s ed by a m os tl y rectang u l ar g ri d of s treets, a ll des igned fo r vehicu lar traff i c. Many res i d ents own a private car whi ch i s pa r ked o n th eir plot. T he s treet are of ten neg l ected by the l ocal res i d ents a s they h ave no direct co nn ecti on to i t. A nother characteri s ti c of pl otted develop ments is walled, detached hou s i ng , al l wi th a d i f f er ent d es i g n, col ou r a nd scale. T he p lo ts are to larg e to reach a d es i rabl e d ens i ty and the occu pancy is a lso t o o low. Fu r th er more, i t i s characteri s ed by a s ens e of pl acel es s nes s. Only so me have a cen tral op en s q u are, and pu bl i c and econom i c com m od i ti es. For the latt er it de p en ds mo s tly on the org ani cal l y g rown, s u r rou nd i ng ti s s u e.


225

Devel o p men t s i t u at ed n ex t t o t he Tri b h u v a n i n te r n ati o n a l a i r p o r t [ T IA ] . 2 0 1 8 .

D e v e l o p m e n t n ex t to th e T IA a n d at th e c o n fl u e n c e of th e B a g m ati r i v e r a n d o n e o f i ts tr i b u ta r i es. 2 0 1 8 .

Devel o p men t n ex t to B h a k ta p u r. 2 0 1 8 .

D e v e l o p m e n t n ex t to B o d e. 2 0 1 8 .

Devel o p men t n ex t to Th i m i . 2 0 1 8 .

Ra n i b a n d e v e l o p m e n t to th e n o r th - ea ste r n e d ge of th e v a l l ey. 2 0 1 8 .


226

22.9 m

C i v i l H o m e s, ph ase V ( 70 uni ts) Co n str u c ti o n si te of g ate d c o m muni ty (8 uni ts) C i v i l H o m e s, ph ase III ( 1 96 uni ts)

Fe r ti l e gorge

1 4. 3 m

400 m

F10 2

Satdobato-Ti kabh ai ra b road


Gated community

Ca s e s t u d y : T h e c h o d e v e l o p m e n t s

T his develo pmen t lies to the s ou th of Suna kothi and to no r th o f the ver nacu l ar settlem ent o f T h echo. T he s tu d i ed area com pr ises th ree g ated co mmu ni ti es bu i l t by civil homes. T h e larg es t o ne cou nts 1 9 6 houses. T he s maller on es res pectivel y 7 2 and 8. T he th re e commu n ities differ f rom one a nother not on ly in s ize b u t als o i n pres ence of public facilities and level o f luxu r y.

227

2003

G a ted commu n ities are detached f rom each other a nd fro m t he o rg an ically g rown ti s s u e a r ound i t. Res ident s fro m b oth s m al l er com munities rely u po n eco no mic and pu bl i c f a cilities of th e s u r ro u ndin g tis s ue, res i d ents f r om the larg er, w ith man y facil i ti es of i ts own, less s o.

2010

2018


228

G ated communities are n o t o n l y g at ed , t hey a re g u a rd ed d a y a n d n i g h t a s w e l l . Th e c h o, 201 7.

Tissues - Recent developments

Treet fronts become imp ers o a l w a l l s a n d t he s t reet i s red u c ed to a m e re c i rc u l ati o n a rea . Thecho, 2017.

The wall of th is gated c o mmu n i t y i s t o p p ed w i t h b a rb ed w i re . Th e c h o, 2 0 1 7 .


229

View of th e ma i n s t reet o f C i vi l ho mes , p ha s e I I I , d e v e l o p m e n t. Th e c h o, 2 0 1 7 .

I nside th e gated c o mmu n i t i es , t he ro a d s a re l i n ed b y s i m i l a r h o u se s. Th e y a re a l l s ep erat el y f en c ed o n c e m o re . Th e c h o, 2 0 1 7 .

A gain barbed wire is f o u n d o n t o p o f t he wa l l o f a g at ed c om m u n i ty. It se n d a h o sti l e mess a g e t o th e o u tsi d e . Th e c h o, 2 0 1 7 .


230

The three gated commu n i t i es a re s u rro u n d ed b y f a rml a n d a n d v e r y l o w - d e n si ty sp ra w l . Thecho, 2017.

Tissues - Recent developments

In th e most haph azard p l a c es , b u i l d i n g s s p ro u t f ro m t he g ro u n d . Fa r m l a n d b e c o m e s fra gmented. Thech o, 2017.


+ 40 m +

Distribution of functions in Thecho development Economic Non-food shop Fo o d s h o p | s u p e r m a r ke t Hotel | restaurant | cafe Pu b l i c & p r i v a t e s e r v i c e s Religious Pr i v a t e s e r v i c e s School Sporting facilities Pa r k i n g Green & blue network Tr e e Recreative green Agriculture Wa t e r Housing Residential | other

T he a r ea is s u r rou n ded by ag ricu l tu ral l and . T hi s i s par tl y a cons eq u ence of a f er tile g o rg e literally cu ttin g throu g h the l and s cape and on whi ch d evel opm ent is not po s s ib le and p ar tly beca u s e i t l i es at a rather l arg e d i s tance f rom the r ing r oad o f K ath mandu . Fu r th er m ore onl y s m al l s hops are f ou nd i n the area a nd no pu b lic facilities exce p t thos e i ns i d e the g ated c om mu ni ty. Ag a in, it s ho u ld be emp has ized that thi s k i nd of rem ote d evel opm ent wi th la ck of p u blic facilities indu ce the u s e of private trans por t.

231


232

+ 40 m +

Open and built space in Thecho development Pu b l i c o p e n s p a c e Pr i v a t e o p e n s p a c e Building Wa l l

Tissues - Recent developments

Sim ila r to the p lo tted develo pment i n B hai s e pati , the l arg es t g ated com mu ni t y ha s some s mall, defin ed op en s paces. T he other d evel opm ents and the org ani c tissue s h ow no defined op en spaces wi th the exce pti on of a rel i g i ou s s i te at the south er n end o f a fer tile g org e cu tti ng throu g h the l and s cape. T he ed g es of the s treet leadin g toward th e g ate of the l arg e com mu ni ty and of the F1 0 2 a r e used as pu b lic s paces. A sur vey in the Civ il H omes, p has e II I d evel opm ent, the l arg es t one, noti ced a str ong s en s e of co mmu nity i n the d evel opm ent. S tree ts are u s ed by m os t r esiden ts for tak in g a walk in mo r ni ng and / or eveni ng , cons eq u entl y conver ti ng them into th e mo s t impo r tan t pu bl i c s pace. T he l i m i ted am ou nt of cars pa ssin g th ro u gh do no t for m a res tri cti on here. T he s peci al l y prov i d ed open spa ces however lacked q u ality, a central l ocati on and s u f f i ci ent m anag em ent sa m e as t h e o th er pu b lic faciliti es as the conveni ence s tore or the res tau rant. E conomic fu nction s in s ide the com mu ni ty have onl y a l ow tu r nou t m ak i ng it dif f icu lt fo r them to s u s tain . T he l ow tu r nou t i s s ai d to be d u e to thei r non-cen tral lo cation in th e devel opm ent and them not bei ng acces s i bl e by outsiders. T h e p ro po s itio n o f s om e res i d ents to m ake them acces s i bl e f or outsiders faced res is tan ce du e to s ecu ri ty i s s u es (Chi trak ar 2 0 1 5 ).


+ 40 m +

233

Number of storeys in Thecho development Streets One floor Tw o f l o o r s Three floors Fo u r f l o o r s Fi v e f l o o r s Six floors No data

Outside the g ated commu n ities, s treets are l ai d ou t org ani cal l y s i m i l ar to the way th ey we re in Nakk hu . In s i d e the g ated com mu ni ty the g ri d rem i nd s of the on e in B hais e pati, yet is ha s s m al l er m es hes and cons eq u entl y m ore s treet a r ea . T he averag e bu ildin g h eigh t i s once m ore arou nd three s toreys. Mi nd once m or e that thes e are high er s toreys than i n ver nacu l ar bu i l d i ng s. T he hou s es which are indicated with ‘n o d ata‘ were ei ther i n cons tr u cti on d u ri ng the f ieldwork of no in fo r mation was f ou nd abou t s ai d bu i l d i ng concer ni ng i ts heig h t.

“I n

c o n t r a s t t o d ow n t ow n

Kathmandu,

and even new independently

d e v e l o p e d a r e a s , b o t h s t r e e t s a n d o p e n s pa c e s i n s i d e t h e c o m p l e x l ac k e d a n y ac t i v i t y o r v i b r a n c y

(S e n g u p t a & U pa d h yaya ).”


Gated community CHARACTERISTICS

234

G a ted commu n ities are fou n d mu s hroom i ng i n the val l ey s i nce 2 0 0 0 (S eng u pta & U padhyaya 2 0 1 6 ). T h ey ap pear i n d i f f erent s i z es and l ay-ou ts. D u ri ng the f ieldwork g ated commu n iti e s were f ou nd var yi ng f rom 8 hou s es to 1 9 6 houses. B oth extremes are fo u nd i n the s q u are of the l as t cas e s tu d y. N ext to thr ee regu lar, low-ris e, g ated com mu ni ti es two hi g h-r i s e towers were v i s i ted . Hig h-ris e towers are g ated as wel l and thu s f al l i nto the categ or y of g ated com mu nities too. Reg ular g ated co mmu nities are l ai d ou t accord i ng to a s i m i l ar g ri d com pared to a plotted develo pment. T he m ai n d i f f erence l i es i n the d evel opm ent of the hou s es, wh ich are all b u ilt i n a s i m i l ar s tyl e and the avai l abl e am eni ti es in the develo pment. Ho u s e s are al l d etached and wal l ed s i m i l ar to the pl otted ver sion. B oth develo pmen t s ch em es m i m i c a wes ter n s u bu rban nei g hbou rhood (Seng u p ta & Upadhyaya 20 1 6 ). Fu r ther m ore, g ated com mu ni ti es are g u ard ed day a n d n ight at th e fro nt g ate, creati ng a actu al bar ri er between thos e l iv i ng inside an d o u ts ide es p ecially when al l pu bl i c s er v i ces are avai l abl e wi thi n the commu nity. If that is th e c as e, the pres ence of the g ated d evel opm ent a dds li ttle to n othing to th e su r rou nd i ng ti s s u e. T he s oci al cohes i on i ns i d e com mu nities are however fou n d to be rem ark abl y hi g h (Chi trak ar 2 0 1 5 ) .

Tissues - Recent developments

T he popu latio n den s ity in g ated com mu ni ti es i s l ow, even when al l hou s es are sold. T his is ag ain du e to a low occu pancy and a d etached hou s i ng s chem e. In this r eg ard high ris e will be an exce pti on. An interes t in g to pic co ncer ni ng g ated d evel opm ents i s the m anag em ent system of the commo n areas i ns i d e the com mu ni ty. Manag em ent i n l ow-ri s e g a ted co mmu nities is mo s t often d one by the d evel oper u nti l al l hou s es are sold. Fro m then o nwards it s h ou l d be car ri ed by the com mu ni ty i ts el f. I n sm a ller co mmu nities this was f ou nd to bri ng f or th onl y s m al l q u ar rel s or issues. In larg e develo pmen ts i t was f ou nd to be m ore d i f f i cu l t to com pl y a m ong s t t he res idents an d the d evel oper or the res i d ents mu tu al l y (Chi trak ar 2015). In high -ris e towers mana g em ent i s m os t of ten d one by an exter nal f i r m (Per sonal inter views Su nris e apar tm ents 2 0 1 7 ; Pers onal i nter v i ew Wes tar r esidence 2 0 1 7 ).


235

Gated c o mmu n i t y at t he s o u t h-w es t ern ed g e o f B h a i se p ati . Ev e n w i th i n Gate d c o m m u n i ty at th e e d g e o f B h a i se p ati . a guard ed g at ed c o mmu n i t y, i n d i vi d u a l ho u se s a re w a l l e d . B h a i se p ati , Th e re i s n o re l ati o n b e tw e e n th e i n si d e a n d 2017. th e o u tsi d e o f th e c o m m u n i ty. B h a i se p ati , 2017.

Gated c o mmu n i t y l yi n g a d j a c en t t o t he Wes t ar- to w e r s. It i s si te d to th e ea st o f Pata n a n d n ex t to th e r i n g ro a d . Pata n , 2017.


236

Gate d c o m m u n i ty i n N a k k h u . 2 0 1 7 .

Tissues - Recent developments

Civil h omes- towers in N a kkhu . Here, a s wel l , t here i s n o po si ti v e relation with th e outsi d e t i ss u e On l y a p at ro n i s i n g rel at i o n f ro m th e to wer over the tissue. N a k khu ,2017.

V iew f rom atop th e We s t a r t o wers . W i t hi n t he w a l l s t here a re se v e ra l p ublic facilities f rom a p o o l g ym a n d s a u n a t o a p ha rma c y. Pata n , 201 7.

Stre e t i n th e g ate d Pa d m a c o l o n y i n N a k k h u . 2 0 1 7 .


Co n c l u s i o n WA L L E D ST R E E T S

In a ll r ecen t develo pmen ts th e am ou nt of i nd iv i d u al l y wal l ed or f enced hou s es, even within a g ated commu n ity, was enor m ou s. Mos t wal l s were pers on-hi g h to m a ke s u re no o ne cou ld s ee i ns i d e. Fu r ther m ore, m any d i d not protect a nythin g as th ey were placed o nl y one or two m eters f rom the hou s es ’ f acad e. Only in s o me cas es, th e g ate was per m anentl y l ef t open. As a f o rementio ned, walls create a s trong bar ri er between the hou s e and the str eet witho u t a tran s itio n zon e between them . I t creates a d i chotomy between the ho u s e and th e s treets, the private and the pu bl i c l i f e. Fu r ther m ore thi s dichotomy creates a careles s n es s concer ni ng the m ai ntenance of the pu bl i c str eet in fro nt o f on es ho u s e, cons eq u e ntl y l eav i ng i t to ove rg row and deter iorate over time.

P U B L I C FAC ILIT IE S & C E NT RA LITY

T he scarc it y in p u blic facilities i n recent res i d enti al d evel opm ent i s notabl e. Residen ts travel to o th er areas wi th m ore f aci l i ti es i n ord er to f u l f i l thei r need s, of ten by p rivate car. Infor mal i nteracti on wi th nei g hbou ri ng res i d ents thu s g ets scarce, leading to a p oo r soci al cohes i on i n the nei g hbou rhood . W hereas a str on g s o cial co hes io n leads to l ivel y, active and s ol i d ar y nei g hbou rhood with conten t re s idents, a po or one l ead s to the exact oppos i te. W her e his to ric c ores were centred arou nd a cou r tyard / s q u are f or each l evel of inter action , recen t develo pm ent d o not have thi s ri chnes s of l evel s of centr a lity. Mo s t o ften they do n ot even have one m ai n s q u are, bu t are i ns tead linea r l y cen tred arou n d their mai n s treet. T hi s thu s d oes not create a centred populatio n.

D E NS I T Y & INC LU SIV IT Y

T he den s ity of all rece n t devel opm ent, exce pt hi g h-ri s e, i s not s u f f i ci ent to a cco mmodate the g rowin g h ou s i ng d em and . Es peci al l y the l ower-i ncom e cla sses have difficu lty in fin ding d ecent hou s i ng opti ons. Wi th the l and pri ces a s hig h as th ey are, an d s till risi ng , pl anned d evel opm ents, d evel oped to g ai n pr of it, are in tended fo r middle and u pper m i d d l e i ncom e cl as s es. Moreover, low den s ity h ou s ing exer ts mo re pres s u re on the s ti l l avai l abl e ag ri cu l tu ral la nd.

237


I V. Rebooting urbanisation Pr oposi t i on t o war ds a m or e sustainabl e way of c o pi n g wi t h rapid ur ban g r owt h. .


Larg e sc ale p rop osi ti on

240

In or der to p ro po s e a tran s itio n toward s an u rbani s ati on that prov i d es hou s i ng f or a ll, con s iders po llu tion in al l i ts f or m s and s i z es, takes i nto a accou nt cultur al as s ets an d emph as izes the i m por tance of the natu re and ag ri cu l tu ral la nd o f the valley, it is fo rem os t need ed to d e c e n tr a lise m ig r a tio n . T he K a thmandu valley will no t b e abl e to hand l e 6 m i l l i on peopl e whi l e kee pi ng its f r a gile eco s ys tem an d cu ltu ral s ys tem i ntact. T he m ai n as pect of thi s pr opos al, altho u gh n ot elabo rated on, l i es i n the d evel opm ent of an al l wea ther road netwo rk for Ne p al and the d evel opm ent of i nteg rated centres i n or der to develo p t o day’s remote areas. It mu s t be pos s i bl e to f i nd econom i c oppor tu n ities, p u blic facilities and a s ave haven i n a cl os e-by, l arg e towns or in their own s mall v illag e.

Rebooting urbanisation

Within the K athman du valley a s ys tem s i m i l ar to i nterconnected u rban s ys tem s is pr opos ed on a n atio nal s ca l e: a s ys tem of l arg er and s m al l er v i l l ag es, towns an d cities, al in terco nn ected by the ri ng road , the exi s ti ng rad i al s a nd the p ro po s ed ou ter ring road . I n-between the u rban areas i n the val l ey only extens ive ag ricu ltu ral land , f ores ts, water treatm ent pl ants and s ani tar y la ndf ills at s u fficient dis tance from res i d enti al and ecol og i cal s ens i tive areas. N o sprawl s h ou ld exis t. T his i m pl i es that the ri ng road , the rad i al s and the outer ring road are bu t lin es of trans por tati on, no m ore. T he propos al of the outer rin g road with its eco no m i c and res i d enti al bord ers s hou l d be l et g o, as it is on ly the p receding o f u rb an s prawl and hi nd ers cos t ef f i ci ent, s u f f i ci ent, public tran s po r t. Larg e tran s por tati on and ci rcu l ati on l i nes s hou l d be bu i l t with as little as po s s ib le imp act on i ts s u r rou nd i ng s wi th reg ard to v i s u al , noise and land price related as pec ts. Many of the exi s ti ng l i nes s hou l d be enla r g ed in the years to co me i n ord er to prevent cong es ti on and to s u ppor t the interco nn ectiv ity o f th e p ropos ed u rban centres. Sever al s mall an d larg er h is tor i c cores exi s t i n the val l ey. S om e have a ver y hig h heritag e valu e, as th ey r em ai n i n a m ore or l es s ori g i nal s tate, and should be protected. Some o th ers l i e on an i s ol ated hi l l top wi thou t expans i on possib ility. Yet, s ome are des igned and | or f u r ther d evel oped to becom e l arg er cities, for example: K athman du, Patan, B hak tapu r bu t al s o T hi m i and K i r ti pu r. Som e mo re are s u r ro u nded by a rather f l at topog raphy and s i mu l taneou s l y lie outs ide any co ns train t area, both wanted f eatu res f or u rban expans i on. Settlements with tho s e featu res are propos ed to becom e the l arg er towns and cities i n the valley, wh ile th e f i rs t wi l l s tay i n thei r pos i ti on of s m al l v i l l ag e in the r u ral land.


241

Sankhu exp a n s i o n a rea : 9 2 1 h a Ka th m a n d u exp a n s i o n a rea : 3 4 5 5 h a Th i m i exp a n s i o n a rea : 1 1 4 2 h a Ki rt i pur expan si o n area: 921 h a

Pa ta n exp a n s i o n a rea : 8 4 2 h a

B h a k ta p u r exp a n s i o n a rea : 5 9 1 h a

Lu b h u exp a n s i o n a rea : 3 3 0 h a

Sm a l l vi l l a ge s sum a rea s : 103 ha

Th e c h o exp a n s i o n a rea : 3 8 1 h

The Kath mandu valley wi t h p ro p o s ed u rb a n a rea s , w i t h t hei r re sp e c ti v e a rea s, i n th e u r b a n sy ste m . Th e ex i sti n g a n d p ro p o se d tra n sp o r t i n fra s truc ture are depicted in white. 2018.


242 Lubhu: its core, expansion topography and large road network

If the p ro po s ed u rb an areas on the m ap were to be the onl y u rban areas i n the va l le y, th es e wou ld n eed to have a popu l ati on d ens i ty of 4 9 3 ppha i n 2 0 2 5 a nd of 6 9 6 in 2 0 3 5 . In compa ri s on, i n 2 0 1 1 they wou l d onl y have need ed a population den s ity o f 28 7 ppha. T hi s s hows how f as t the popu l ati on of the va lley is g rowing. It als o means that, i f u rbani s ati on m oves toward s thi s pr opos ed s ys tem, s o me areas, f or exam pl e K athm and u core area, wi l l becom e less po pu lated, thu s creating s pace f or mu ch need ed ref u rbi s hm ent whi l e other areas will n eed to b e dens i f i ed s everal ti m es.

Rebooting urbanisation

In or der to gu ide u rb an is ation toward s thi s s ys tem , s om e i nter venti ons s hou l d be m a de. Firs t , th e lan d u s e pl ans s hou l d be m ad e f or the val l ey on m acro a nd m i c ro s cale. Seco ndly, a s peci al per m i t s hou l d be req u i red to trans f or m a g r icul tu ral lan d in to b u ilt-u p area, preventi ng f u r ther s prawl -d evel opm ent. T hir dly, a penalty s h ou ld b e given to l and owners who l eave thei r l and vacant f or m ore than a cer tain p erio d of ti m e, preventi ng s pecu l ati on (B aj rachar ya et a l. 201 5 ). Fou r th ly, the zo ning s hou l d be reg u l ated , not onl y i n a trad i ti onal m a nner, as it is cos t-inefficient and l abou r-i ntens ive, bu t throu g h ad apted ta x a tion where lan d an d bu ildi ng taxes var y accord i ng to the area. B u i l d i ng ta xes sh ou ld b e high in th e i n-between area and l and taxes l ow, whereas building taxes s h ou ld b e lower i n expans i on areas. T he hei g htened taxes in the ag ricu ltu ral areas will not onl y d i s cou rag e s prawl , bu t can al s o be invested in , amo ng others, th e d evel opm ent of the road network i n N e pal , in the K athman du valley, in t he prov i s i on of af f ord abl e hou s i ng , or i n the detox ificatio n of water and air. N ex t, a zoo m is made to th e trad i ti onal care of L u bhu and i ts propos ed ex pa ns io n. It is impo r tan t to propos e not onl y a l arg e s cal e s ys tem , bu t to pr ovide a po s s ib le in fill on t he s m al l er s cal e as wel l . A potenti al , conce ptu al m a ster p lan is made o n differen t s cal es.


243

The core area of Lub hu wi t h i t s res p ec t i ve ex p a n s i o n zo n e, ex i sti n g ro a d n e tw o r k a n d p ro p o se d o u te r r i n g ro a d i n th e n o r th - w e ste r n c o r ner. Th e drawing of th e ring ro a d i s n o t a c c u rat e, i t i s merel y d ra w n to state i ts p rox i m i ty to th e ex p a n si o n a rea . In - b e tw e e n tw o a l ti tu d e l i n e s i s 4 . 8 m h e i g h t d i fferenc e.

Lubhu L ubhu was ch os en for its even topog raphy, i ts l ocati on i n a cons trai nt f ree a r ea , i ts relation to th e prop os ed ou ter ri ng road and i ts cu r rent u rban condition . A plotted develo pment: a l and pool i ng proj ect (Mel s en et al . not da ted) , is s itu ated at the bo rder of the trad i ti onal core and s prawl i s f ou nd a long th e larg er roads. Fu r ther m ore the bu i l d i ng d ens i ty i s not yet that hi g h a nd cou ld th u s s er ve as a firs t, d i rect l y execu tabl e exam pl e, as l and pool i ng neg otiation s s h ou ld take les s ti m e than i n other areas. T he a rea’s bo u ndaries are defin ed by two s tream s, one to the s ou th and one to the n or th , s tee p top og raphy, to the s ou th-eas t, and exi s ti ng pl ot l i nes connecting th em co mp lete th e b ord er. T he area i s 2 . 9 k m m axi mu m l eng th and 1.6 km maximu m width an d h as an area and a peri m eter of res pectivel y 3 3 0 ha a nd 7 .5 km. It is a s mall town where m os t pl aces are at wal k i ng d i s tances.


L u bhu i s a trad i ti onal f ar m ers ’ s ettl em ent s i m i l ar to K hok ana. I t i s l ocated at the ou ts k i r ts of the K athm and u val l ey, res pectivel y 6 and 1 0 k m s ou th-eas t f rom Patan and K athm and u core area. T he 7 0 0 year ol d v i l l ag e has k nown a trem end ou s g rowth i n popu l ati on and bu i l t-u p area i n the l as t d ecad e (Mel s en e t al . not d ated ).

244

2003

2010

S everal concer ns wi th reg ard to pl anned extens i on i n the area can be f or mu l ated . Fi rs t, d u e to a ri s i ng tem peratu re trend wi th an i nd i f f erence i n the am ou nt of rai nf al l and the d eteri orati on of the trad i ti onal water s ys tem , the l ocal peopl e are f eel i ng the d ecreas e i n water tabl es ( Mel s en et al . not d ated ). Water prov i s i on al read y i s and wi l l becom e an even g reater concer n when pl anni ng u rban d evel opm ent i n the area. S econd l y, the two s tream s bord eri ng the expans i on area, thei r heal th and thei r f l ood pl ai ns, mu s t be taken i nto acc ou nt. T hi rd l y, the hi s tori c core of L u bhu mu s t be protected and ref u rbi s hed . To the s ou th-wes t i t i s bord ered by s tee p topog raphy and on the nor th-eas t s i d e l i es a pl otted d evel opm ent.

Rebooting urbanisation

B ef ore the m as ter pl an i s pres ented , g eneral d es i g n g u i d el i nes are f or mu l ated bas ed on concl u s i ons d rawn i n the prev i ou s chapters. T hey are com pos ed to take i nt o accou nt cu ltu ra l a nd his toric elem ents bu t a ls o com pris es new inf lu ences a nd cu r rent is s u es.

2018


245

V i e w i n th e to w n o f Lu b h u i n 2 0 0 1 .

V i e w i n th e to w n o f Lu b h u a n d i ts su r ro u n d i n g s i n 2 0 0 1 .

V i e w i n th e to w n o f Lu b h u i n 2 0 0 1 .


D e si g n g ui de l i ne s

246

Complementary I n ord er to let tw o or mor e count er par t s c o m pl em en t eac h ot her t hey sho u l d bo t h be p r esent, yet, strictly bounded by a t r an si t i o n z o n e. D ef i n i t i o n an d bi n di n g i m pl i es c entra lity in e ach bounde d ar ea. M a ny featu res in u rb an p lann in g can be com pl em entar y to one another : r u ral a nd ur b an , p edes trian o r s low a nd vehi cu l ar or f as t, cal m and bu s y, g reen and paved, p u blic and p rivate, econ om i c, pu bl i c and res i d enti al , and m ore. In the ver n acu lar u rban p lann i ng thes e com pl em ents are al l pres ent, bu t they a re n ot woven into o ne a nother. T hey exi s t next to one another, both om nipres en t in their own def i ned d om ai n and wi th a s trong bou nd ar y i nbetween , wh ich acts as a tran s i ti on z one. In r ecen t develo pmen t n ot mu ch thou g ht i s g iven to thi s rel ati on as i t g rows ha pha z ardly o r s o lely as res identi al ti s s u e wi thou t the ri chnes s of m i xed u s e settlemen ts. T h e named complem ents are ei ther par ti al l y or f u l l y non-pres ent a nd not clearly defin ed, cau s in g conf u s i on.

Hazard

resilience

Flood in g , ear thquakes, liquefaction o f t he soi l an d f i r es ar e t he m ost c om m o n hazar ds in the valley. Pr e v ention is better t han c u r e. Ever y res iden t of the K ath m and u val l ey has recentl y experi enced the deva statio n o f an ear th q u ake a nd i ts af ter m ath. K nowi ng i t i s a r eoccu r ri ng event, p recau tion s ho u ld be ta ken concer ni ng bu i l d i ng m ateri al s, s hape and heig ht o f bu ildin gs an d co llecti on and evacu ati on area.

Rebooting urbanisation

Fir e r is k is es pecially p re s ent i n ver nacu l ar ti s s u es. Many hou s es are onl y a ccessible by fo ot an d fire tr u ck s cannot pas s thr ou g h the al l eyways that cha r a cteris es the tis s u e.


Variety A va riety in open space, str eets and f u n c t i on s sho u l d ex i st i n an y par t o f t he set t l em en t in ord er to cr eate a li v ely and non- m on o t o n o u s t i ssu e. Hum a n s ettlements co mp ris e a nu m ber of d i f f er ent f u ncti ons and f eatu res. A n inter estin g an d lively s ettlemen t i s create d throu g h vari ety of thes e f eatu res a nd cen trality o f fu n ctio ns. Plotted develo pmen ts an d g ated com mu ni ti es of ten l ack vari ety i n f u ncti on as they ten d to b e s o lely res iden tial . T hey l ack vari ety of f eatu re: the whol e ti s s u e is plotted s imilarly, even o pen s paces f i t i nto the pl ot-s tr u ctu re, and road s a r e la id ou t, with s ame lay-ou ts, accord i ng to a re peti tive g ri d . A m onotonou s tissue, de p en dent o n th e s u r rou nd i ng ti s s u e, i s created . Ver na cu lar s ettlements comprise al l f u ncti ons a s ettl em ent need s as they were entities on th eir own at a cer tai n d i s tance f rom other s ettl em ents. T hey have economic an d pu b lic fac ilities bu t al s o s i g ni f i cant rel i g i ou s s i tes, com mu ni ty a r ea s an d th e s u r rou n ding p ro d u ctive f i el d s. T he res i d ent i al areas are m i xed use a nd laid ou t alon g a cer tai n patter n, yet m onotony i s abs ent thank s to a va r iety o f g reen or paved, pu bl i c open s paces and s treet l ay-ou ts on the dif f er ent s cales of th e s ettlem ent: the own hou s e, the nei g hbou rhood , the town-dis trict and the town its el f.

247


Environment 248

a nd c u l t u r e

T he p lanned settlement should pr ot ec t an d r e v i v e t he n at u r al an d c u l t u r al ec o syst em of the va lley. In this context, air, wat er, f ar m l an d an d i n c l u si v i t y, sho u l d r ec ei v e spec i al a ttention. Pr eser vation o f th e natu ral and cu l t u ral ecos ys tem s hou l d be a m ai n cond i ti on when develo ping a s ettlement i n the K athm and u val l ey as was m ad e cl ear when addres s ing the imp acts ra pi d u rbani s ati on has brou g ht f or th. Water has always been an impor tant par t of s ettl em ents i n the K athm and u va lley an d fo r g o od reas on s. W i thou t i t, no s ettl em ents wou l d have exi s ted . T he impo r tan ce o f water h as been neg l ected i n the l as t d ecad es. Tod ay i t is a g a in a ver y actu al to pic du e to heal th threats cau s ed by pol l u ti on and shor ta g es. Special care s ho u ld be taken i n a newl y d evel oped s ettl em ent to secur e the imp or tance of water i nto the res i d ents ’ m i nd . Pr eser vation of th e exis tin g f a r m la n d a n d f o r e sts has al read y been discussed o n the larg er s cale. Prov i d i ng a com f or tabl e and l ivel y, yet d ens e living e nviron ment will help to reach thi s g oal . If not pres er ved , the natu ral ecosys tem o f the valley and h u m an heal th wi l l m os t cer tai nl y f ai l . In or der to p rovide a sociall y i n te g r a te d tissu e , peopl e wi th f i nanci al i s s u es a s well as th os e with dis ab iliti es or el d erl y peopl e s hou l d be i ncl u d ed . N ow, due to h igh lan d p rices, n ew d evel opm ents or even bu i l d i ng pl ots are onl y ava ila ble to h igher in co me clas s es. L iv i ng cond i ti ons f or the u rban poor are intolerab le and the g ap b etween ri ch and poor i s onl y wi d eni ng.

Rebooting urbanisation

Ai r pol lu tio n is detrimen tal fo r the cond i ti on of the s oi l , the g rou nd water and the human h ealth. Us e of co ncrete, s and and cem ent whi ch has travel l ed m i l es to the valley an d a s olely car ba s ed road network are s everel y contri bu ti ng to it. L ocal, min or p ollu tin g materi al s and the d owns i z i ng of the road network with su fficient pu b lic tran s po r t wi l l d el i m i t the i m pact. T his g uideline fu r th er more imp l i es the reu s e of i nf ras tr u ctu re that i s al read y pr esen t on s ite ins tead of reject i ng i t. T hi s cou l d be s treet s, water bod i es, tr ees or p u blic s er v ices. It s imu l taneou s l y benef i ts the econom i c cos t.


Lubhu extensi on T he m as ter p lan fo r th e town of L u bhu has three m ai n f eatu res : i t i s bou nd ed , centr ed an d co nn ected by a s e p arated f as t and s l ow ci rcu l ati on net work . T he expans ion of Lu b hu is pred om i nantl y bord ered by two s tream s. For ecological reas on s an offs et of m i ni mu m 2 0 m eters i s m ai ntai ned f rom i ts ba nks. T his offs et tog ether wi th the river create s a bou nd ar y between the r ur a l far mlan d wh ich is envis ioned to s tretch ou t f rom the rivers, away f rom the ex p an s io n an d th e prop os ed u rban ti s s u e. Ru ral and u rban s tand as s u ch in complemen t y et b ou n ded. T he onl y l i nk i s the water s ys tem whi ch d rai ns in the rivers an d th e ag ricu ltu r al f i el d s. T he main c en tre o f the town li es to the nor th-eas t of the anci ent s ettl em ent, a ppr oximate ly the centre of the total expans i on area. R ad i al l y arou nd thi s m a in c en tre lie fo u r other centres of town-d i s tri cts. One s u ch d i s tri ct i s the a ncient s ettlement. T ho s e s u b-centres, i n tu r n, are s u r rou nd ed by com mu ni ty* centr es wh ich are ag ain s u r ro u nd ed by nei g hbou rhood * -centres. T hos e centres should all have a s q u are an d s om e pu bl i c am eni ti es and econom i c f u ncti ons in or der to beco me a main desti nati on f or the s u r rou nd i ng nei g hbou rhood , com mu nity o r dis trict. T his centered - nes s on d i f f erent l e vel s wi l l i nd u ce a f eeling o f b elon ging to all s ettl em ent s cal es. N ote that each nei g hbou rhood , ea ch commu n ity and each centre s hou l d be d ef i ned and appropri atel y bord ered to beco me ent it ies on their own, yet be i nterconnected (A l exand er et al . 1977). Slow and fas t traffic o r different traf f i c m od al i ti e s i n g eneral s hou l d be se pa r a ted as mu ch as po s s ib l e f or reas ons of s af ety and hi nd rance. Cars ca n hi n der the f lu en t u s e of pu bl i c trans por t and are a d ang er to cycl i s ts a nd pedes trians. In tu r n cyclists and can hi nd er or hu r t ped es tri ans. Cars, m otor cycles, tr u cks, bu s es an d other m otori s ed traf f i c are onl y al l owed on a lloca ted fas t traffic lines an d i n s e parat ed l anes. T he res i d enti al areas are solely des igned for pedes trians and cycl i s ts. T hi s s e parati on creates a s af e envir onmen t. T h e fas t an d s low network are per pend i cu l ar to one another and only me et at cros s walk s, which ar e at d i f f erent poi nts then the cros s road s, and in str eets wh ere ambu lan ces, f i re tr u ck s, was te col l ecti on tr u ck s and cars of per sons with dis abilities are all owed . Otherwi s e, they are s e parated by a l i ne of tr ees. B earing in mind th e a ir p o llu tio n that the ri s e i n private cars and m otor cycles b rings, focu s in t he f u r ther d es i g n wi l l be on pu bl i c trans por t a nd pedes trian s. T h e larg e traff i c cor ri d ors that connect the propos ed tow n to the res t o f th e valley, s u ch as the F0 9 1 and , potenti al l y, the ou ter ri ng r oa d, lie ou ts ide th e b ou n daries of the town. * A co mmun ity co m p r ises ideally 7 0 0 0 r esiden ts, a neighbourhood 400 to 500 (A lexander et al. 1977) .

249


250

Fur ther mo re, it s h ou ld b e n oted that, al t hou g h the s l ow and the f as t traf f i c m oda lities are s e p arated. T h ey s hou l d be attu ned to one another to f u ncti on optim ally. Fo r examp le: fro m you r hom e to the bu s s top you take you r bi cycl e, which yo u can leave there. Fro m the bu s park you can then take the bu s to the nex t town with ou t needin g to wal k another d i s tance. Apa r t from th e mixed-res iden ti al ti s s u e there are the g reen network and r esea r ch an d develo pmen t area s. T he f i rs t i s characteri s ed by two l arg e open g r een s paces, s imilar to a khyo , whi ch can s er ve as recreati on area, bu t al s o a s a co llec tion area du ring an ear thq u ake. A l arg er s pace, to s er ve as an eva cuation area, s h ou ld b e defi ned i n the ag ri cu l tu ral l and . T he two park s are inter conn ected th ro u gh a g reen wal k way whi ch can be l ai d ou t conveni entl y on slo pes which are too s tee p to bu i l t on. T he res earch and d evel opm ent a r ea s are laid ou t alon g th e ed g es of the town i n cl os e proxi m i ty to l arg e entr a nce roads. T h is locatio n i s chos en f or they s ti l l l i e i n proxi m i ty to the centr e o f th e town, yet commuters f rom othe r towns and ci ti es d o not need to r ide acros s th e town to g et to work . T hi s s af eg u ard s i t f rom cong es ti on. Resea rch an d develo pment areas com pri s e- s m al l i nd u s tr y and l arg er com pany of f ices.

Fast traffic network, green network and placement of research and development areas Green network Research and development Fa s t t r a ff i c a r t e r i e s Urban centre S l o w t r a ff i c

Rebooting urbanisation

To p o g r a p h y


Research an d development a rea

M a i n f a s t t ra ff i c a rt eri e s

O p e n g re e n sp a c e

251

Ol d t o w n s u b -c en t re

To w n c e n tre Su b -c en t re t wo

Su b -c en t re t hreee

S u b - c e n tre o n e


252

Developed mixed residential and economic tissue E x i s t i n g v e r n a c u l a r s e tt l e m e n t

Lu b h u E x te nsi on T I ME L I N E

Rebooting urbanisation

Bef or e constr u ction , firs t, a g ener a l co mmu nication s h ould be m ade th at no new b u ilding per mits will be wr itten f or the develo pment a r ea in or der to prevent h ar der neg a tions in the lan d p o oling pr oces s and to avo id the dem olishing of newly b u ilt houses.

T h e sec ond and l as t s te p b efore the real d evel opm ent is the es tabl i s hm ent of weal th in the area i n ord er to attract n ew res i d ents to the town. T h is is achi eved by attracti ng larg er com pani es to prov i d e eco no m i c oppor tu ni ti es. T h is in tu r n i s achi eved by con s tr ucti ng an eas y and s u fficient connecti on to the cen t re of the val l ey, nam el y the inn er ri ng road area of K ath m and u and by prov i s i on o f water and el ectri ci ty infras tr u ctu re to s u ppl y f or thes e com pani es.

A l ong s i d e the f i rs t a r ea d ef i ned f or thes e com p a n i es the f i rs t res i d enti al ti s s u e s hou l d be d evel oped al m o s t s i mu l taneou s l y i n ord er to prov i d e hou s i ng f or the f i r s t em pl oyees


Fo r the r esiden ts o f the firs t develo ped ti s s u e, t he pu bl i c f acilities of its co mmu nity to g eth er wi th thos e i n the ver na cula r town will s u ffice. W hen m ore res i d enti al ti s s u e i s developed mo re and larg er pu b l i c f aci l i ti es s u ch as a hospita l, a city hall or a p olice o f f i ce wi l l be req u i red . T he nex t pa r t of the develo pmen t wi l l thu s be the central a r ea which holds mos t o f th es e larg e f u ncti ons. A f terward s d evelopm ent sh ou ld g row radially ou tward f rom thi s centre. T he pa ce in which co nces s ion s are s o l d i s org ani s ed by the g over nm ent a nd s ho u ld ref lect the ho u s i ng d em and and t he s ale of a lr ea dy develo ped par ts.

From then onward differen t co nces si ons wi l l be s ol d to p riva te develo pers with s tric t con di ti ons concer ni ng the a m ount of affo rdab le ho u s in g, placem ent of bu i l d i ng s, p i ping , str eets and mo re, and ter ms f or the l and pool i ng p rocesses. Concessions are s old by th e g over nm ent and are i n f act b u ilding per mits to develo p a cer tai n area accord i ng to s p ecif ic g uidelin es and with cer tain cond i ti ons pres cri bed by the g over nment. After develo pmen t, the d evel oper, can s ell the plotted land o r the fin is h ed hou s es. T he u s e of concessions is p ro po s ed s o th e g over n m ent d oes not need to d evelop the wh ole area th ems elves whi l e s ti l l hav i ng i m pact o n the develop ment.

253


1:1700

254

Overviw map of the design Lubhu expansion with zoom-in on design area.

Rebooting urbanisation

Zoom-in to the current lay-out of the area where the designed community will be situated. 2018.

Wa t e r

Reed bed

Brick

Light natural stone

Pe t i

Dark natural stone

Earth

Co n c r e t e s u r f a c e

Pe e p a l t r e e

Va r i a t i o n o f n a t i v e t r e e s

Grass and shrubs

Solid waste container


Co m m u n i ty maste rp l an

256

T he poten tial develo pmen t of a com mu ni ty i s l ai d ou t on the f ol l owi ng pa g es. T h e commu n ity in q u esti on i s s i tu ated to the s ou th of the ol d town, se pa r a ted fro m it by s tee p top og raphy. It i s bord ered by a park area to the west a n d by other co mmu nities to the s ou th and the eas t. I t i s bou nd ed on thr ee sides with fas t traffic a r teri es of approxi m atel y 2 0 m eters wi d e. To the sou th , th e b order is fo r m ed by an ar ter y of the s l ow traf f i c network with a n averag e width of 18 meters. T he wi d th of the bou nd ar y wi th the ol d town i s enlarg ed by s tee p top og raphy. T hes e bou nd ari es are eq u i pped wi th la r g er p u blic facilities s u ch as a nei g hbou rhood hos pi tal , a s por ts cl u b or a school. T h es e are facilities whi ch are u s ed by nei g hbou ri ng com mu ni ti es as well a nd are an imp or tant par t of the trans i ti on z one the bou nd ar y creates. T he bou ndar y th u s beco mes n ot onl y a d el i m i tati on of the com mu ni ty bu t a lso a con nector b etween commu ni ti es. T he len gth o f the b ordering s l ow-traf f i c ar ter y, whi ch i s the l ong es t ed g e, i s a ppr oximate ly 32 0 meters, th e nor th to s ou th wi d th of the ti s s u e m e as u res 200 m eter s at its wides t po in t. Ever ythi ng i ns i d e the com mu ni ty thu s l i es at wa lkin g dis tance.

Rebooting urbanisation

T he different layers of t h e tis su e are d i s cu s s ed on the f ol l owi ng pag es. T hey a r e f a s t circu latio n, s low circu la ti on, d es ti nati on, g reen network , water s ys tem a nd r a i n water res p ectively.


Comm unity m as terpl a n URBAN FUN CTI O N S

L a r g e pu blic fu n ctio ns are either f ou nd al ong the bou nd ari es of the ti s s u e or in its centre. In th is cas e, two com mu ni ty hou s es and a tem pl e are f ou nd i n the cent ral s q u are. B ot h are o nl y u s ed by the com mu ni ty l iv i ng arou nd them a nd shou ld be p res en t in all co m mu ni ti es of the L u bhu expans i on town. I n the sou th wes ter n cor ner a pri m ar y s chool and a s por ts cl u b are env i s i oned , while in the n or th eas ter n co r ner a s m al l theatre s tand s. T hes e are pu bl i c a m enities that need n ot b e pres ent i n ever y com mu ni ty, wi th the exce pti on of the primar y s ch oo l. T hey a re l ai d ou t al ong f as t traf f i c ar teri es and i n pr ox imity o f a bu s s to p. T h i s m akes them eas i l y acces s i bl e and m akes i t possib le to prov ide parkin g s pa ce u nd er neath. M or eover s mall p u blic s er vi ces, cateri ng f aci l i ti es and s m al l econom i c enter p ris es are de fin ed in cer tai n areas. T he ped es tri an ar ter y wi l l s er ve as a shopp in g s tree t an d is lined wi th s hops and bars. A rou nd the m ai n s q u are, with the main temp le, s mall s er v i ce s l i ke a phys i ci an, a d enti s t, a bank are situa ted w ith o nly s o me o th er s hops or res tau rants. N ei g hbou ri ng the theatre is a r ow of caterin g facilities whi ch prov i d e f or a s pace to eat d i nner bef ore a per f or mance or to drin k s o m ethi ng af terward s. Fu r ther m ore, al ong s m al l er squa r es in s ide the tis s u e s o m e nei g hbou rhood s hops and nei g hbou rhood ser vices are fo u nd. Wa ter po in ts and s olid was te col l ecti on s i tes are f ou nd d i s tri bu ted evenl y a r ound th e tis s u e. Was te co llecti on s i tes are s i tu ated al ong l arg er s treets in whi ch was t e co llection tr u ck are al l owed i n ord er to m ake col l ecti on as ef f icient as p os s ible. Fu r th er more, the f ar thes t d i s tance a f am i l y s hou l d wal k to a was te collectio n area is 8 0 m eters i n ord er to prov i d e eas y acces s to r esidents. T h e co llection s ites exi s t ou t of f ou r to f ive l arg e bi ns, f ive i f g l as s disposal is p res en t o r no t, and s hou l d be em pti ed reg u l arl y.

257


L a rg er p u b l i c f u n c t i o n s a re s i t ed i n p rox i m i ty o f a b u s s t o p a n d f a s t t ra ff i c a rt e r i e s. To g e th e r w i t h t he a rt ery i t s el f i t i s t he b o rd e r a n d c o n n ec t o r o f t he t w o a d j a c en t c o m m u n i ti e s.

L a rg e p a r k i n g a rea s a re si tu ate d u n d e r n eath p u b l i c fa c i l i ti e s b o rd e r i n g th e fa st tra ffi c n e tw o r k . Pr i v ate a s w e l l a s p u b l i c p a r k i n g i s p ro v i d e d th e re .

The t heat re a n d p o l yva l e n t sp a c e i s a c c o mp a n i ed b y a ro w o f c ate r i n g fa c i l i ti e s t o ha ve d i n n er b ef o re o r ha ve a d r i n k a fte r a p erf o rma n c e o r even t .

259

Wo r ksh o p s a n d se r v i c e s l i n e th e m a i n c o m m u n i ty sq u a re . Th e w a l k w a y i n b e tw e e n tw o c o m m u n i ti e s se r v e s a s a sh o p p i n g stre e t. Pu b l i c f a c i l i t i es s u c h a s t he m a i n te m p l e o r t he c o mmu n i t y ho u s es a re s ite d w i th i n th e c o mmu n i t y. Thes e a re n o t o r n o t o fte n v i si te d b y n o n -res i d en t s o f t he c o mmu n i ty.

Wa ste c o l l e c ti o n c o n ta i n e r s a re p l a c e d i n o p e n p u b l i c a rea s, i n o rd e r to p re v e n t th e m fro m b e c o m i n g u n l o o ke d a fte r. Th e se c o n ta i n e r s a re d e fi n e d a n d b o rd e re d l i ke w e l l s i n v e r n a c u l a r ti ssu e s.

Co mmu n i t y ho u s es .

Wat er t a p s a re even l y d i s t r i b u te d i n si d e t he t i ss u e. They p ro vi d e ref re sh m e n t a n d i n ex p en s i ve wat er s u p p l y. Ea c h p o n d i s eq u i p p ed w i t h a t a p a n d t hree ste p w e l l s a n d o n e reg u l a r i s f o u n d i n t he t i ss u e

Sma l l n ei g hb o u rho o d t emp l e

Th e re si d e n ti a l ti ssu e i s o rg a n i se d a ro u n d c o u r ty a rd s a n d i s sh a p e d b y th e ex i sti n g l i n e s o f th e l a n d . Fo u r p l o t si z e s w e re e m p l o y e d : 5 0 m 2, 6 0 m 2, 7 0 m 2 a n d 8 0 m 2

L a rg e p a rk a rea

1:1700

Th e sc h o o l a n d sp o r ti n g fa c i l i ti e s a re p l a c e d t o g e th e r a n d b o rd e r th e l a rg e w a l k w a y w h i c h c a n se r v e a s i n p a r t a s a n ex te n si o n fo r o u tsi d e s p o r t o r g a m e s.

Slow traffic network

Intercommunity public service

Ca t e r i n g f a c i l i t i e s

Residential

Small public services

Shops

Solid waste container


260

T he m ixed-res iden tial tis s u e is bu i l t u p s i m i l ar to the way i n whi ch ver nacu l ar tissues develo ped over the year s. Hou s es are ar rang ed arou nd cou r tyard s and squa r es p rovidin g amp le venti l ati on, l i g ht and open s pace. T he pl ot s i z es used are 5 0 m 2 , 6 0 m 2 , 7 0 m 2 to 8 0 m 2 . T hes e are s m al l er s i z es t han the m inimu m plot s ize o f 8 0 m 2 pres cri bed i n the bu i l d i ng cod es, yet they are desig n ed to b e bu ilt u p over thei r f u l l area, creati ng a g rou nd cover that i s sim ila r or even larg er th an mos t recentl y bu i l t hou s es. I n ord er to reach a hig h po pu lat ion den s ity all res i d enti al bu i l d i ng s cons i s t of a com bi nati on of a pa r tments an d|or du p lexes, al thou g h thi s i s a f or m of res i d ence whi ch i s not pr efer red by mo s t (B ajrach ar ya et al . 2 0 1 5 ). Buildin g he igh t in the re s iden ti al areas rang e f rom 3 to 6 f l oors of 2 . 7 m eters under th e attic. T he f lo or h eig ht i s s et f or the whol e ti s s u e as f l oor s l abs of neig hbo u ring h ou s es s h ou ld be at the s am e hei g ht f or ear thq u ake res i l i ence. Only wh en to po g rap hy req u i res i t, g rou nd f l oors can have a hi g her or lower ceiling in order to let s la bs of ad j acent hou s es m atch hei g ht. A nother im plicatio n affectin g ear thq u ake res i l i ence i s the s hape and s tr u ctu re of the building. Firs t, all b u ildings s hou l d have thei r own s tr u ctu ral f ram e. S everal housin g s haring o ne s tr u ctu re i s onl y pos s i bl e i f they are bu i l t s i mu l taneou s l y a nd if, to g eth er, th ey des cribe a m ore s ym m etri cal s hape, f or onl y then i s i t the m ore ear th q u ake res is tan t opti on to prov i d e one s tr u ctu re f or al l bu i l d i ng s (M i n ke & S ch m i d t 2 0 1 5 ).

Rebooting urbanisation

With r eg ard to materiality of hou s es the u s e of bam boo and ram m ed ear th i s put f orward. Mos t compo nents of ram m ed ear th can be s ou rces l ocal l y, and i t is a cos t efficien t an d agile materi al to bu i l t. Fu r ther m ore i ts col ou r i s d ef i ned by the mu d u s ed and its g enera l cons i s tence whi ch m akes i t pos s i bl e to bu i l t distinctive ho u s es in s h ap e as wel l as i n col ou r. B am boo u s ed f or per m anent constr u ctio n can no t b e g rown i n the val l ey, yet i t i s a s trong , y et f l exi bl e, m a ter i al, which makes it s u itabl e to u s e i n ear thq u ake prone areas. B am boo ta kes on ly th re e years to g row f rom s eed u nti l i t i s read y to be har ves ted f or constr u ctio n and it can b e g rown i n the Terai by l ocal f ar m ers. T hi s g ives them an extra income, as b amboo i s pl anted al ong the u nu s ed ed g es of thei r f ields and redu ces th e damag e done to the crops i n cas e of f l ood i ng (Pers onal inter view Abari 20 1 7 ).


Anna Heringer wo rks wi t h ra mmed ea rt h a n d b a mb o o to b u i l t q u a l i tati v e y e t a ffo rd a b l e h o u si n g i n Ru d ra p u r n ea r B a n g l a d e sh , In di a. 2 0 0 7 - 2 0 0 8 .

An n a Heri n g er w o rks wi t h ra m m e d ea r th a n d b a m b o o to b u i l t a sc h o o l i n Ru d ra p u r n ea r B a n g l a d e sh , Indi a. 2 0 0 5 - 2 0 0 6 .

A b ar i is a Kath mandu based o ff i c e b u i l d i n g w i t h ra mmed ea rt h a n d b a m b o o. Le ft i s a l i b ra r y a n d a rc h i v e i n Pata n . R i g h t i s a sc h o o l i n ra m m ed earth bri c ks i n B al i mtar.


Co m m u n i ty maste rp l an CI R C U L AT I O N 262

T he slow traffic n etwork co ns i s t of a vari ety of road s rang i ng f rom 1 to 1 8 m eter s. Oth er often o ccu r rin g wi d ths are 4 and 8 m eters. T he s m al l es t s treets a r e only acces s ib le fo r p edestri ans as they r u n between and u nd er neath buildings and throu gh co u r tya rd s. S treets wi th a wi d th of 4 m eters can be a ccessed by a vehicle as well. A l thou g h thi s i s a s l ow traf f i c network , whi ch includes o nly p edes trian s an d cyc l i s ts, ever y hou s e s hou l d be reachabl e by a f ir e tr u ck, an amb u lance o r trans por t of el d erl y and pers ons wi th d i s abi l i ti es. T he slow traffic netwo rk is laid ou t accord i ng to exi s ti ng road s and bord ers of a g r i cu ltu ral ter races. As s u ch the ti s s u e i s ad apted to the topog raphy of the a r ea a n d p revents e ro s io n o f t h e s oi l as m os t l i nes are l ai d ou t per pend i cu l ar to the s lo pe.

Rebooting urbanisation

Inter estin g is th e material u s ed f or the pav i ng. B ri ck i s u s ed al ong l arg er pedestrian s treets and p r ovide a ‘ s af e pl ac e‘ f or ped es tri ans. Cycl i s ts or the spor a d ic vehicle are co nfin ed to a d ark natu ral s tone whi ch i s l ai d on a l ower level to create a h eigh t b ar rier as wel l as a d i f f erence i n m ateri al . T hes e d ark lines als o b in d th e neighb ou rho od s and car r y water, as wi l l be d i s cu s s ed l ater. Sm a ller s treets w ith in an d aro u nd the nei g hbou rhood s are paved wi th a l i g ht na tur a l s to ne. T h is ch an g e in m ateri al i s pref er red , becau s e the natu ral s tone f ound in th e valley is damp p roof whi l e bri ck becom es eas i l y m os s -cl ad i n da r ker an d damper env iron ments. Moreover, the l i g hter s tone wi l l ref l ect m or e l igh t wh ich will thu s lig ht u p the s m al l er pathways. To the nor ther n side of th e larg e walkway o f 1 8 m eters wi d th another l i ne paved i n l i g ht stone can be dis cer ned. T h is i s the l ay-ou t of the ori g i nal s treet whi ch i s com m emorated throu gh its s h ape.


T he f a s t traffic n etwork h as a concrete s u rf ace f or com f or tabl e d riv i ng and lined with trees to limit du s t res u s pens i on and f or v i s u al q u al i ty. A g ai n se pa r a tion b etween fas t and s low i s not onl y obtai ned throu g h u s e of d i f f erent m a ter ials bu t als o throu gh a hei g ht d i f f erence. D i f f erent l anes are prov i d ed f or ca r s and motorcycles on the one hand and bu s es and tr u ck s on the other. Cr ossr o ads and cro s s walk are si tu ated at d i f f erent l ocati ons. T hi s l i m i ts the aver a g e s p eed o f fas t traffic withi n the towns bou nd ari es and prov i d es a s af er cr ossing fo r pedes trians as drivers are not d i s tracted by other vehi cl es. A t cr osswalks, cars, bu s es b u t als o cycl i s ts encou nter a s peed bu m p cau s ed by the hei ght differen ces. T hes e, a g ai n, l i m i t averag e s peed and prov i d e a s af er cr ossing.

M a ter ials u s e d for p av in g are natu ral s tone, bri ck and tar m ac. T he natu ral stone is s o u rced in Sin du p alchok , cl os e to the val l ey (Pers onal i nter v i ew Sha k ya S. 20 1 7 ), an d has s h own to wi ths tand the pas s ag e of ti m e. T he colou r of s treets p aved wi th bri ck g ives a trad i ti onal atm os phere. Tr a dition al fired brick s wo u ld however not be s u s tai nabl e wi th reg ard to ai r polluti o n an d s oil deg radatio n, com pres s ed bri ck s wi th ad d i ti on of orang e colourant are availab le in th e val l ey (Pers onal i nter v i ew Praj apati B. 2 0 1 7 ) a nd wou ld b e prefer r ed. Concr ete s u rface is u s ed on ly as pav i ng f or vehi cu l ar road s as i t prov i d es suf f icient b earing s trength for cars, bu s es and tr u ck s bu t they of f er m i nor visua l q u ality.

263


L a rg e sl o w tra ffi c a r te r y o f 1 8 m e te r s w i d th . It i s o n l y a c c e ssi b l e b y p e d e str i a n s a n d c y c l i sts. Th e w a l k w a y o p e n s o n ea c h si d e to l a rg e r sq u a re s a n d se r v e s a s a sh o p p i n g stre e t. A f o rmer ro a d i s rememb ered t hro u g h th e u se o f a d i ff eren t p a vi n g mat eri a l

C ro ssw a l ks a re n o t c o m b i n e d w i th c ro ssro a d s i n o rd e r to p ro v i d e sa fe p a ssa g e fo r p e d e str i a n s a n d to l i m i t o v e ra l l sp e e d o f fa st tra ffi c .

St reet s w i t h mi n i mu m w i d t h o f 4 m e te r s to a l l o w emerg en c y vehi c l es

Th e sh a p e o f p ath s a n d ro a d s i s d e te r m i n e d b y ex i sti n g ro a d s a n d b o rd e r s. Th e y fo l l o w th e l a n d sc a p e l o g i c s o f th e a rea

Pat hwa y u n d ern eat h a b u i l d i n g o f 1 m e te r w i d t h. To g et her w i t h s i mi l a r p ath w a y s b et w een b u i l d i n g s t hey c reat e a n i n te r n a l n et w o rk Pat hwa y i n b et ween b u i l d i n g s Ro a d o f 4 met ers whi c h b o rd ers a n d d e fi n e s n ei g hb o u rho o d w i t hi n t he c o mm u n i ty. Stre e t p o c ket s a n d wi d en i n g s p ro vi d e o p e n sp a c e s b et w een d i ff eren t n ei g hb o u rho o d , th e b o rd e r t hu s s erves a s a c o n n ec t o r. Wh e re th e m i xe d re si d e n ti a l a rea i s o u tl i n e d b y a fa st tra ffi c ro a d i t i s b o rd e re d fi r st b y a c y c l i n g p ath a n d a si d e w a l k Ro a d o f 8 met ers i n wi d t h. They a re u se d fo r b y w a s t e c o l l ec t i o n t ru c ks , f o r p ro v i si o n i n g o f s ho p s , f o r emerg en c y t ra ff i c a n d tra n sp o r t o f el d erl y a n d p ers o n s wi t h d i s a b i li ti e s.

1:1700 Slow traffic network Brick

Light natural stone

Dark natural stone

Earth

Co n c r e t e s u r f a c e

265


Ca rs , b u s es a n d c yc l i s t en c o u n te r a sp e e d b u mp at a c ro ss w a l k. The hei g ht d e p e n d s o n i t hei g ht d i ff eren c e t o t he p ed es tr i a n w a l k w a y. Thi s i s 10 c m f o r c yc l i s t s , 20 c m fo r b u se s e n d 30 c m f o r c a rs

The mo s t c o mmo n l a y-o u t o f a fa st tra ffi c a rt ery i s t w o l a n es f o r c a rs i n th e m i d d l e a n d o n e l i n e f o r p u b l i c t ra n s p or t a n d tr u c ks o n ei t her s i d e o f i t . They a re s e p a rate d b y a hei g ht d i ff eren c e o f 10 c m a n d a ro w o f tre e s o r b u s hes .

Ro a d w i d t h a re 3.05 met ers f or b u se s a n d t ru c ks a n d 2.95 met ers f o r c a rs Ta rma c i s u s ed . I t p ro vi d es s u ff i c i e n t b ea r i n g s t ren g t h a l t ho u g h i t ha s l i mi t ed v i su a l q u a l i ty

The a rea w here f a s t t ra ff i c a re a l l o w e d i n th e p ed es t ri a n n et wo rk a re s t ri c t l y d e fi n e d b y a hei g ht d i ff eren c e o f 10 c m a n d t h e m ate r i a l i ty o f t he ro a d , whi c h i s d a rk n at u ra l sto n e .

1:1700 Fast traffic network Co n c r e t e s u r f a c e Dark natural stone

Brick

267


Co m m u n i ty maste rp l an DE ST I N AT I O N 268

Open s p aces come in a rather l arg e vari ety. L arg e pu bl i c f aci l i ti es are sur r ou n ded with larg e op en s pace and acc om pani ed by an i m por tant water f ea tur e. Other no dal po in ts in the water s ys tem are accom pani ed by an open spa ce. Sq u are s in an d aro u nd the nei g hbou rhood prov i d e i nf or m al areas of encounter and cou r tyards act as extens i ons of the private l iv i ng q u ar ters. All squares lie eith er next to or exi s t i n par t of ci rcu l ati on area. Of ten the cir culatio n p ath cro s s es th e s q uare d i ag onal l y. T hi s creates cons tant m ovem ent in the centre o f the op en s pace and cons eq u entl y a v iv i d open s pace. A reas of r esi dence in th e s q u ares lies at the bord ers i n the f or m of a pet i , a pat i , a wa ter featu re, a res tau rant o r a bar. Cour tyards an d s treets are lin ed wi th pet i . T hes e ‘ benches ‘ tu r n the s treet f rom a m er e circu lation path to a space of i nf or m al encou nter. S treet wi d eni ng s a r e tr a n s fo r med from res idu al s pace i nto cos y s treet pockets where exchang e of novelties take p lace or a s treet mu s i ci an can perf or m whi l e s pectators can sit a nd en joy. Peti occu r in th ree s izes : 7 0 cm i s u s ed as a s tand ard wi d th, they can be u s ed a s sea tin g bu t als o as a q u alitative extens i on of the i ns i d e of a bu i l d i ng. 50 cm is u s ed in nar row s tr eets, thes e can be u s ed as s eati ng , 1 2 0 cm as an eleva ted ter race an d to s tall vend i bl es. T hes e wi d e pet i are f ou nd al ong the shoppi n g s treet an d in th e ‘restau rant-s treet’ ad j acent to the theatre.

Rebooting urbanisation

In the p ark s everal o pen s p aces are f ou nd whi ch can be u s ed as a pi ck -ni ck a r ea or as a g ro u nd for n eigh bou rhood f es tiv i ti es. T hey are ei ther paved i n lig ht natu ral s ton e or u n paved


Comm unity m as terpl a n

GREEN N ETW O R K

Open g reen s pace is impo r tan t i ns i d e the u rban ti s s u e es peci al l y wi th hi g h populatio n den s ities. T he park area, whi ch tod ay com pri s es m os tl y ag ri cu l tu ral la nd, with p atch es o f u rban s p rawl , pres er ves i ts cu r rent f or m s. L i nes s u ch as str eets an d te r race bo rders are tu r ned onto wal k ways or ke pt as a wal l | bench to pr event s o il eros ion . Patches s u ch as ag ri cu l tu ral f i el d s and res i d enti al plots are either tu r ned in to a p aved or u npaved pi ck -ni ck area, g ras s l and or f or ested area. Fo res ted pat ch es s hou l d be pl aced al ong the bord ers of the pa r k to create a larg e dis tan ce between the f as t traf f i c ar teri es and the q u i t a nd open centre o f th e p ark . A l bu i l d i ng s that were pres ent i n thi s area are r e pla ces by larg e pee pal trees to conver t the f or m er bu i l t u p ti s s u e i nto a na tur a l on e. T he p ark area will as s u ch retai n i ts recog ni s abi l i ty and kee p i ts histor y an d lands cape logics, yet i s conver te d i nto a u rban g reen s pace to m eet the deman d of the trans for m i ng ti s s u e arou nd i t. In the re s idential area g ree n s paces are s carce i n ord er to create a hi g h populatio n de ns ity in order to saf e g u ard the res t of the val l ey f rom haphaz ard ur ba n develo pment. Trees acc om pany l arg e pu bl i c f aci l i ti es and pee pal trees a ccom p an y p on ds to limit eva porati on and prov i d e a s had ed pl ace. Trees line the fas t traffic ar teries, to l i m i t d u s t res u s pens i on and f or v i s u al q u al i ty. Fur ther mo re, trees act as entrance g ates i nto nei g hbou rhood . A t each entrance either a p ee pal tree is p lanted or a pai r of s m al l er trees d ef i ne the ‘ g ate ’ .

269


L a rg e p u b l i c f a c i l i t i es a re a c c o mp a n i e d b y re e d b ed s , s ma l l g reen s p a c es a s w el l a s p a v e d o p e n s p a c e. Al t ho u g h n o t a reg u l a r o p en s p a c e a n d m o re o f a p u b l i c f a c i l i t y, t he b u s s t o p i s ver y i m p o r ta n t. I t c o n n ec t s t he p ed es t ri a n n et w o r k to th e f a s t t ra ff i c n et wo rk a n d ma kes l arg e d i sta n c e s ma l l .. I n c l o s e p rox i mi t y a p eep a l tre e o r a p at i s ho u l d b e p l a c ed i n o rd er to p ro v i d e a s ha d ed w a i t i n g a rea .

C i rc u l at i o n l i n es o ft en c ro ss s q u a re s a n d c o u rt ya rd . They c reat e c o n s t a n t mo v e m e n t a n d c o n s eq u en t l y a vi vi d o p en s p a c e.

271

Wa ste c o l l e c ti o n c o n ta i n e r s a re p l a c e d i n o p e n p u b l i c a rea s, i n o rd e r to p re v e n t th e m fro m b e c o m i n g u n l o o ke d a fte r. Th e se c o n ta i n e r s a re d e fi n e d a n d b o rd e re d l i ke w e l l s i n v e r n a c u l a r ti ssu e s.

Wat er b o d i es a re o ft en f o u n d at t h e e d g e o f a n o p en s p a c e.

Co u rt ya rd s a re a n o u t s i d e ex p a n s i o n o f o n e s p ri vat e l i vi n g q u a rt ers . They a re p ub l i c y e t th e y a re n o t a c c ess ed b y ma n y a n d fu r th e r m o re s ec l u d ed f ro m o u t s i d e n o i s e . Pe ti o r ‘ b e n c h e s‘ a re p ro v i d e d i f p o ssi b l e . Th e y c o m e i n th re e w i d th s: 5 0 c m to u se a s a b e n c h , m o st c o m m o n l y 7 0 c m a s a ex te n si o n o f o n e s p r i v ate q u a r te r s o r a w o r k i n g su r fa c e a n d 1 2 0 c m a s a n e l e v ate d te r ra c e . Pe ti a re a b l e to tu r n a n u n u se d stre e t c o r n e r i n to a v i v i d sp a c e o f e n c o u n te r. N ei g hb o u rho o d s q u a res a re a n i mp o r ta n t sp a c e o f i n f o rma l en c o u n t er w i t h o n es ne i g h b o u r s

Pi c k-n i c k a rea s a re d ef i n ed i n t h e p a r k a rea . They c a n b e p a ved o r n o t a n d ca n se r v e fo r f es t i vi t i es a s w el l .

Pati a re p ro v i d e d o n stre e t c o r n e r s o r at th e e d g e s o f sq u a re s w h e re p e o p l e c a n o b se r v e th e a c ti o n o n th e sq u a re fro m a p ro te c te d sp a c e .

1:1700 Paved open space Brick

Light natural stone

Pa t i

Dark natural stone

Earth

Pe t i


L a rg e p u b l i c f a c i l i t i es a re a c c o mp a n i e d b y re e d b ed s , s ma l l g reen s p a c es a s w el l a s p a v e d o p e n s p a c e.

273

I f p o ss i b l e, p o n d s a re l i n ed w i t h a so ft b o rd e r t o ma x i mi s e wat er i n f i l t rat i o n .

As a ru l e t rees a c c o mp a n y p o n ds. Th e y l i m i t eva p o rat i o n a n d p ro vi d e a s ha d ed seati n g

Trees l i n e t he l a n es o f t he f a s t t ra ffi c a r te r i e s. They l i mi t res u s p en s i o n o f ro a d d u st, m a ke t he ro a d mo re vi s u a l l y p l ea s i n g a n d c reate a vi s u a l ‘w a l l ’ b et ween t he res i d en ti a l a rea a n d t he p a rk.

I n t he p a rk , t he ex i s t i n g p l o t str u c tu re i s ret a i n ed . E a c h p l o t g et s a d ef i n ed i n fi l l . S o m e a re f o res t , o t hers a re p o n d , p i c k-ni c k a rea s o r g ra ss l a n d s . C l o s e t o t he b o rd er o f th e p a r k mo re f o res t ed p l o t s w i l l b e f o u n d to c reate l a rg e o p en s p a c e i n s i d e whi c h a re c o m p l e te l y s ec l u d ed f ro m t he s u rro u n d i n g t i ssu e .

Fo rmer ho u s es a re rep l a c ed b y pe e p a l tre e s. The a rea i s c o n vert ed f ro m b u i l t -u p to n atu ra l .

1:1700 Green open space

Pe e p a l t r e e

Va r i a t i o n o f n a t i v e t r e e s

Grass and shrubs


Co m m u n i ty maste rp l an B LU E NE T W O RK 274

T h e i ntr od u ced water s ys tem s hou ld be a ble to provide wa ter to a ll h o useh ol d s and other pu bl i c and priva te bu ilding s. It s hou ld be a ble to let wa ter i nf i l tr ate i nt o the s oi l in order to recha rg e the s ha llow a q u if er a nd i t sh o u l d m ax i m i ze the u s e of ra inwa ter a nd f iltered dra ina g e wa ter. T h e wa ter sys tem in t ro du ced in th e s ettl em ent i s bas ed on the ver nacu l ar s ys tem but is en larg ed by the additio n of reed bed f i l ters. T h e f l ow of the s ys tem i s as f ollows : prim a r y provis ion of hou s ehold wa ter i s pr ov i d ed thr ou g h r a in wa ter which is collected f rom the roof sur f a ce i nto the r ai nwater ta nk of ea ch bu ilding on the one ha nd a nd th r o ug h centr al d i s tr i bu ti on on the other. Af ter u s e, wa ter is collected i n to sce pti c tank s wher e anaerobe brea kdown of pollu ta nts ta ke pla ce a s wel l a s t he s ettl i ng of s ol i d s a nd the f lota tion of oil a nd g rea s es (L is m ore C i ty C ou nci l 2 0 0 5 ). Af ter this prim a r y trea tm ent, wa ter f lows to a pond f o r i n f i l tr ati on. T hr ou g h the u s e of reed beds, ponds a re continu ou s ly p r ovi d ed wi th water, wi thou t ca na ls to f a r away s pring s or rivers. Ca na ls i n th i s contem por ar y s ys tem a r e the connection lines between dif f erent p o i n ts i n the water s ys tem . T h ey a re open a nd vis ible in the res identia l to cr ea te awar enes s conc er ni ng wa ter pollu tion. It f u r ther m ore provides a n i n ter es ti ng ed u cati onal topi c f or s chools in the town.

Rebooting urbanisation

Reed b ed s i n the r es i d enti al tis s u e m ig ht be looked a t neg a tively if it is co m m on k now l ed g e that they hold the contents of s ce ptic ta nks (Pers ona l i n ter view Koi r al a D. 2 0 1 7 ). Fu r ther m ore, they need a m ple lig ht to f u nction p r o p er l y and ar e thu s not par ticu la rly s u ited f or the res identia l tis s u e. In th i s com mu ni ty however two reed beds were incor pora ted f or edu ca tion a n d sens i ti s ati on of r es i d ents concer ning the wa ter cycle. T hey a re s ited a l o n g l ar g e pu bl i c f aci l i ti es. In order to f ilter a s mu ch wa ter a s pos s ible f o r m er ag r i cu l tu r al f i el d s ar e conver ted into ter ra ced reed beds. Ag a in, th i s conver s i on ad apts the exis ting to the cha ng ing context yet provides f a m i l i ar i ty and f ol l ows the l og ic of the la nds ca pe.


R a i n water that d oes not pr ecipita te on roof s u rf a ces bu t in cou r tya rds a n d o pen s paces i s col l ected in the ca na ls a nd lea d directly to the nea res t wa ter poi nt. I n the r es i d enti al a rea , g rou nd s u rf a ces a re non-per m ea ble. I n o r d er to l et the r ai n i nf i l tr a te the s oil loca lly a nd to m inim is e the ef f ect o n th e r iver s wi th r eg ar d to f looding , ponds a nd s m a ller inf iltra tion a rea s a r e p r ov i d ed i ns i d e the ti s s u e. I n o r d er t o d iv i d e r ai nwater a nd hou s ehold wa ter tha t dra ins onto the str eets, s e par ate pi pe s ar e provided f or dra ina g e of u s ed wa ter, which n eed s tr eatm ent, on the one ha nd a nd on the other ha nd dra ina g e of r a i n water, whi ch can d i r ectl y inf iltra te the s oil a g a in. Us ed hou s ehol d water dr a ina g e lies directly adjacent to the pet i . R ai nwater i s l ead to the m i d d l e of the cou r tyard or the s treet.

275


Reed b ed s p ro vi d e, a ft er t he p ri m a r y treatm e n t o f t he s c ep t i c t a n k, t he s ec o n d a r y treatm e n t. Aft erwa rd s , wat er i s p u re a n d c a n re c h a rg e th e s ha l l o w a q u i f er o r b e reu s ed i s ta p p e d fro m o n e o f t he w at er p o i n t s i n t he t i ssu e .

277

Pl a yf u l q u i rks i n t he s t reet w i t h a n c o n sta n t w at er f l o w p ro vi d e a n i n t eres t i n g p l a y g ro u n d f o r c hi l d ren . I n g en era l t he p erma n e n t strea m s c a n p ro vi d e wel c o me ref res hmen t.

Fre i b u rg b ea c h l e .

W here ri c e t erra c es f o rmerl y c ha ra c te r i se d th e vi ew, reed b ed s c ha ra c t eri s e i t n o w. Th e v i su a l d i ff eren c e wi l l b e mi n o r. St ep wel l

Te r ra c e d fi e l d s at th e ste e p e d g e s o f Lu bh u, th e so u th e r n e d g e o f th e d e si g n e d c o m m u n i ty, 2 0 0 1 .

The n at u ra l s t o n e f o u n d i n t he va l l e y i s d a m p p ro o f a n d i s t hu s a s u i t a b l e mate r i a l to c o at t he c a n a l s .

Wat er f l o ws f ro m reed b ed s to p o n d s to s t ep wel l s a n d a g a i n t o w a rd a p o n d . Wate r d ra i n s i n t o a l a rg e p o n d i n t he p a r k at th e . Th e o verf l o w o f t hi s l a rg e p o n d f l o ws to th e strea m . I f d u e t o hea vy ra i n f a l l o r o t her m e c h a n i sm s f l o o d i n g o f o n e o f t he s t rea ms sh o u l d o c c u r, o verf l o w a rea s s ho u l d b e d ef i n ed n ea r th e r i v e r b a n ks . They c a n b e i mmers ed s p o r ts fi e l d w h e n n o t i n u s e a s o verf l o w a rea s . Wel l

1:1700

A l th o u g h re e d b e d s m i g h t b e v i e w e d n e g ati v e l y, th e y a re i n c o r p o rate d i n to th e re si d e n ti a l ti ssu e fo r e d u c ati o n a l p u r p o se s a n d se n si ti sati o n c o n c e r n i n g w ate r m a n a g e m e n t.

Slow traffic network Reed bed

Open water flow in stone duct

Open water flow in earthen duct

Wa t e r

Underground water flow

Dark natural stone


G ra vi t at i o n a l f o rc e s t eers t he g e n e ra l w ate r s ys t em s ho wn o n t he p revi o u s p a g e a s w e l l a s t he ra i n w at er d ra i n a g e.. The s l o pe s l i e e i th e r f ro m n o rt h t o s o u t h - t he mo re n o r th th e h i g h e r - o r f ro m n o rt h-ea s t t o s o u t h-west. Th i s c a n b e d ed u c t ed f ro m t he t o p o g ra p hy l i n e s. N o te th at t here i s a 4.8 met ers hei g ht d i ff ere n c e b e tw e e n t wo l i n es .

279

Da rk s t o n e i s t he c o l o u r o f wat e r. Wh e re i t i s n o t u s ed , n o wat er f l o w s . Ra i n w at er f l o ws f ro m c o u rt ya rd s, stre e ts a n d s q u a res f l o w s t hro u g h u n d erg ro u n d p i p i n g t o wa rd s t he o p en c a n a l s i n t he n ea re st, l o w e r l yi n g s t reet . Fro m t hei r i t i s d i re c te d to w a rd w at er p o i n t s a n d f u rt her o n t o t he l a rg e p o n d s i n t he p a rk a rea .

Ra i n w at er t hat p rec i p i t at es o n ro o fs i s c o l l e c te d i n t he ra i n w at er t a n k o f t he ho use . Th i s w ate r c a n b e u s ed f o r d o i n g t he l a u n d r y o f fl u sh i n g t he t o i l et b ef o re i t i s d ra i n ed to w a rd s th e s c ep t i c t a n k a n d t he reed b ed s .

1:1700 Rainwater drainage Dark natural stone

Open water flow in stone duct

Wa t e r

Underground water flow

Rainwater tank


Co m m u n i ty maste rp l an CA LC U L AT I O NS 280

O n th e f ol l owi ng pag es cer ta in a rea s a nd releva nt ca lcu la tions a re s hown to g et a better u nd er s tand i ng of the des ig n. T he a rea , f or which the ca l cul a ti ons ar e val i d , l i es between the ou ter edg es of the f a s t a nd s low tr a f f i c ar ter i es. To cr eate a com f or tabl e, cl ean a nd lively environm ent, pu blic f u nctions a nd o p en s paces ar e i m por tant. More tha n 50% of the com mu nity is des ig ned a s o p en s pace. T hes e com e in la rg e va riety a nd ra ng e f rom pu blic to p r iva te. Fu r ther m or e, the m o s t im por ta nt pu blic f u nction is the prim a r y sch o o l. I f bu i l t two s tor eys hig h, the tota l a rea provided f or edu ca tion i s 108 0 m 2 . I f 1 . 5 m 2 i s r eq uired per child (B a jra cha r ya et a l. 2015), the sch o o l can pr ov i d e ed u cati o n f or 720 children. N ote tha t no s pecif ic f a ci l i ties f or el d er l y car e wer e def ined in this com mu nity, yet a ppropria te sp a ces s hou l d be pr ov i d ed al o ng the edg es of the s trea m s, s im ila r to in the o l d d ays when el d er s s pent their la s t days a t the river (Pers ona l inter view T h a p a tal i r es i d ents 2 0 1 7 ) . I mp o r tant f or the l ar g er s cale is s u es a t ha nd is the popu la tion dens ity. I n th i s par ti cu l ar ar ea, the d ens ity is 686 pers ons per hecta re. T his is o n l y achi eved i f al l bu i l d i ng s a re divided in a pa r tm ents a nd du plexes a n d a ll thes e u ni ts ar e i nhabited by a f a m ily of on avera g e 4.2 m em bers. Fur th er m or e, i f ever y ar ea des tined f or res identia l u s e wou ld have a si mi l a r d ens i ty, the popu l ati on of the town wou ld be 162 582. Ta king into a cco un t the l ar g e g r een network a nd the three res ea rch a nd developm ent a r ea s, i ts popu l ati on d ens i ty wou ld be 493 ppha . In the beg inning of this ch a p ter i t was s tated that, i f only the def ined centres in the va lley wou ld b e i n h abi ted , al l thes e centr es wou ld need to have a popu la tion dens ity of 493 p pha by 2 0 2 5 and one of 696 by 2035.

Rebooting urbanisation

I f th e ei g ht ex pans i on ar eas propos ed in the va lley a re developed a ccording to th e pr i nci pl es u s ed i n the Lu bhu expa ns ion a rea a nd in the m a s ter pla n o f th e com mu ni ty, the val l ey will not be a ble to cope with the ris e in p o p ul ati on that wi l l take pl ace a f ter 2025.


A ll a rea s giv e n a re g ro u n d s u rf a c e s

• Total area o f Lu b hu exp a n s io n [ ha * ] 330 h a Gre e n n e tw or k 5 5 h a Research an d d e v e lop m e n t 38 ha Resid e n tial 2 3 7 h a • Total a rea o f t he c o mm u n it y [ ha ] 7, 13 h a Fa s t traffic ar te r ie s 0 . 9 6 h a Pub lic b u ilt- u p sp ace 0 . 2 1 h a of w h ich S ch ool 0 . 0 6 4 S p or t 0 . 0 3 4 Th eatre 0 . 0 6 8 Com m u n ity sp ace 0 . 0 1 6 Re lig iou s 0 . 0 3 2 Resid e n tial 1 . 9 5 h a of w h ich e con om ic 0.35 ha Ope n w ate r ( p on d s) 0 . 0 3 9 h a Ree d b e d 0 . 1 8 h a Pub lic op e n sp ace 3 . 7 9 1 h a Pa r kin g ( u n d e rg rou n d ) 0 . 5 6 h a • Popu la t io n N um b e r of h ou se s 3 2 7 N um b e r of h ou sin g u n its 1142 Total p op u lation * * 4 8 9 3 of w h ich u n d e r 1 4 1274 of w h ich ov e r 6 5 326*** Pop u lation d e n sity [ p p h a] 6 8 6 * 1ha = 10 000 m 2 * * Ca l c u l at i o n o f th e to ta l p o p u l ati o n i s m a d e u si n g th e a v e ra g e h o u se h o l d si z e i n u r b a n areas i n N ep a l : 4.2 p er so n s p e r h o u se h o l d ( C B S 2 0 1 6 ) * * * Ca l c u l at ed w i th d e p e n d e n c y rati o ’s o f 2 0 2 5 . Th e se a re 3 8 . 7 a n d 9 . 9 fo r y o u n g ste r s a nd el ders res p ec t i vel y (U N D ES A 2 0 1 7 ) .

The a rea f o r whi c h t he a b o ve c a l c u l ati o n s a re v a l i d .

281


Po inted roofs with o u t wa rd ex t en s i o n s m a ximise th e collecta b l e ra i n wat er (Fa rren y et al. 2011). Roof s are sug g es t ed t o b e p a rt l y f l at f or th e creation of p ri vat e o p en s p a c e. Flat roof s are currentl y u s ed t o keep p l a n t s , to do househ old shores , o r p erf o rm t he d a i l y p uja. Most would tra d i t i o n a l l y b e p erf o rmed in the courtyards. Wi t h a p a rt men t s o n t o p o f one another and t he d i s a p p ea ra n c e o f courtyards, th e roof t erra c e t a kes i t s p l a c e.,

The s eq u e n c e o f d i ffe re n tl y si z e d c o u r ty a rd s a n d s t ree ts p ro v i d e c i rc u l ati o n o f c o o l a i r t hro u g h h o u se s to w a rd s th e w a r m e st c o u r ty a rd s.

A p e e p a l tre e o r a c o u p l e o f tre e s m ark th e e n tra n c e to th e re si d e n ti a l ti ssu e of th e c o m m u n i ty.


1:250 Ho u s eho l d w ate r d ra i n a g e Ra i n wat er d ra i n a g e

Courtyards provide a sa f e p l a c e f o r c hi l d ren t o p la y and an extension o f t he p ri vat e i n d o o rs . A s they are surround ed b y ho u s es , t hey a re quiet and secluded f ro m o u t s i d e b u s t l e

Peep a l t ree s n ea r p o n d s m i n i m i se e v a p o rati o n a n d p ro vi de a sh a d e d a rea . Th e a c c o m p a n y i n g reed b ed s a re p ro v i d e d w i th a m p l e su n l i g h t. A p at i i s ofte n fo u n d a l o n g si d e a w ate r b o d y as well

U n d e r n eath re e d b e d s a n d l a rg e publ i c fa c i l i ti e s p a r k i n g l o ts c a n b e b u i l t . Some a re to b e so l d to re si d e n ts o f th e c o mmuni ty o th e r s w i l l se r v e a s p a r k i n g a rea fo r th e publ i c fa c i l i ty.


284

Roof terracces can pro vi d e o p en s p a c e f o r t he family living on th e u p p ermo s t f l o o r. They ha ve almost no connec t i o n t o t he s t reet o r t he co urtyard and open spa c e o n t he ro o f c a n f i l l in th i s g a p.

Bu i l d i n g h e i g h t v a r y fro m 3 to 6 fl o o r s, th e ro o f exc l u d e d . H i g h e r b u i l d i n g s sh o u l d b e s i t u at ed a l o n g l a rg e stre e ts a n d o p e n sp a c e s t o a vo i d vi su a l c o n str i c ti o n o f n a r ro w stre e ts.

Th e i n te r r u p ti o n o f d a r k sto n e b e tw een th e p o n d a n d a c a n a l i n d i c ate s th e re i s no water fl o w b e tw e e n th e m .


Natural stones come i n l i g ht a n d d a rk s ha d es . They provide a smooth s u rf a c e whi c h c a n b e u sed f or cyclist and t he s p o ra d i c mo t o ri s ed veh icle. Furth ermore, t hey a re d a mp p ro o f (Interview R. Puri) an d c a n t hu s b e u s ed a s a base to tra n s p o rt wat er.

1:250

Trees c reat e a v i su a l b a r r i e r b e tw e e n th e sl o w an d th e fa st tra ffi c n e tw o r k . Severa l he i g h t d i ffe re n c e s c h a ra c te r i se th e f a s t t ra ff i c a r te r i e s. Th e y c reate a n ex tra s ep a rat i o n b e tw e e n c o n se q u e n tl y c reati n g a sa fe r e n v i ro n m e n t.

Th e o u tl e t o f th e se v e ra l re e d b e ds trav el u n d e r n eath th e ro a d d i re c tl y to w a rd the pond.


Co n c l u si on

286

T h e g u i d i ng pr i nci pl e of thi s des ig n is to s a f eg u a rd the na tu ra l a nd the cul tur al ecos ys tem s of the valley. In order to do s o, s evera l la rg e a nd s m a ll ur b a n centr es ar e pr opos ed on the la rg er s ca le of the va lley. Idea lly, thes e wo ul d be the onl y u r ban ar ea s in the va lley. A hig h dens ity, m ixed u s e ti ssue i s d es i g ned f or the L u b hu expa ns ion where f ocu s is la id both on the cr ea ti on of a hi g h popu l ati on dens ity, bu t a ls o on the livelines s a nd the n a tur a l i m pact of the ti s s u e. Principles of ver na cu la r bu ilding tra dition, a d a p ted to the l and s cape and the tra ditiona l cu ltu re, were m odif ied to f it co n tem por ar y cond i ti ons and needs. T h e p r opos e d ti s s u e has a cal cu la ted dens ity of 686 ppha a nd cons eq u ently, th e l a r g er f r am e wor k of the town ha s one of 493 ppha . B u t, the popu la tion o f th e K athm and u val l ey a nd cons eq u ently, the u rba n a rea req u ired to sup por t i t, i s g r owi ng f ast. In 2035 m ore tha n 6 m illion people a re p r o j ected to r es i d e i n the valley. T he propos a l however does not a llow th e cr eati on of other u r ban centres or the dens if ica tion of the pr opos ed ti ssue. T he f or m er wou l d cr eate centres which a r e either s itu a ted in clos e p r ox i m i ty to another one, d a m a g ing its r u ra l hinterla nd, or in s ens itive a r ea s, d am ag i ng the natu r al ecos ys tem . T he la tter wou ld im pos e too heavy a str a i n on the pr opos ed u r ba n tis s u e, both on its q u a lity of res idence a nd o n i ts pu bl i c f aci l i ti es and open s pa ces.

Rebooting urbanisation

T h e co ncl u s i on s tand s that th e developm ent of the va lley a ccording to the a b ove pr opos al wi l l have l i m ited im pa ct if the popu la tion g rowth of the va l l ey d oes not s l ow d own d r as tica lly. T he m a in priority is thu s to develop th o se r eg i ons wher e m os t m i g ra nts to the va lley orig ina te f rom . T he a bove p r o p o s al cou l d then be a m ean s to g u ide the rem a ining popu la tion g rowth a n d urban pl anni ng i n g enera l, in a na tu ra lly a nd cu ltu ra lly integ ra ted m a n n er.


287


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Image credits

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(bottom) Amaya Marin, V., Amir, S., Manna, A. K., & Matton, I. (2015). Studio Kathmandu volume 2: landscape urbanism explorations for the southern fringe of Kathmandu Metropolitan are, Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. KU Leuven. p. 40.

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(2,4,5) Adapted from: Ishtiaque, A., Shrestha, M., & Chhetri, N. (2017). Rapid Urban Growth in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal: Monitoring Land Use Land Cover Dynamics of a Himalayan City with Landsat Imageries. Environments, 4(4), 72. p. 9. Retrieved August 2, 2018 from: https://doi.org/10.3390/environments4040072

(3) Muzzini, E., & Aparicio, G. (2013). Urban Growth and Spatial Transition in Nepal An Initial Assessment. Washington, DC: World Bank. p. 65. Retrieved July 31, 2018 from: http://hdl.handle.net/10986/13110

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Kathmandu valley. A water basin which is the home of Nepal’s capital and more than million of its inhabitants. Every year, more and more people migrate to the valley for various reasons. Every year, more and more open space is converted into built-up area. Every year the valleys’ ecosystems get more polluted. This is happening at a tremendous pace and in a context of earthquakes, natural sensitive areas and rich cultural heritage. The way in which urban growth is handled today is unsustainable. With estimates of six million residents in 2035, the whole valley will be covered with sprawl and its natural ecosystems will break down if no other approach is adopted. Drastic change and valley scale interventions are necessary to guide urban growth to a more sustainable and environmental friendly future. This thesis tries to understand the drivers and consequences of rapid urban growth. Current issues and policies are discussed and possible ways forward are investigated. An exercise in urban planning is conducted to uncover other possibilities in order to cope with urban growth on a macro and micro scale.

Academic year 2018-2019

Studio Kathmandu 6: Rebooting urbanism  

Understanding rapid urbanisation and vernacular planning techniques in order to propose a transition towards a culturally and naturally inte...

Studio Kathmandu 6: Rebooting urbanism  

Understanding rapid urbanisation and vernacular planning techniques in order to propose a transition towards a culturally and naturally inte...

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