Mukai - Vukani No.74 | November 2019 |
From the editor
Christus Vivit - Christ is Alive
It is with much joy that the editorial team at Jesuit Communications Office for the Zimbabwe - Mozambique Province places this edition of Mukai/Vukani at your disposal for your reflective reading. Thanks to the different writers who took time and effort within their already busy daily schedules to write these articles for our common reading and reflection. Many thanks indeed to our writers!
This edition is themed around young people or the youth. It is inspired by Pope Francis’ Post Synodal - Exhortation Christus Vivit (Christ is Alive) published on the Solemnity of the Annunciation of the Lord, 25 March 2019. As should be the case with the writings of the Fr Emmanuel Gurumombe SJ Holy Father to the Church and people of good will in the world, there is always need to take time to reflect on the teaching in order to find ways to put it into a given context. That is the aim of this edition of Mukai/Vukani: to take into cognisance the Pope’s exhortation and use it as a launch pad for reflection about the situation of young people in our local context. The articles contained in this publication attempt to provide some food for thought in the following areas: the youth as the “now” of God, the dangers associated with human trafficking, which the youth are susceptible to; the question of unemployment; psychological challenges that the youth face in our context; the paramount importance of child protection as well as the safeguarding of children and vulnerable adults; spirituality and discernment appropriate for young people; the influential example of Mary the young woman of Nazareth; and of course the crucial matter of love among young people, which can make or break their lives depending on how it is handled.
I do hope that this edition serves as a useful reminder about some of the key matters that need the Church’s and the society’s attention in order to better assist young people in the current situation in which we find ourselves. Young people need adults from whom they can learn how to live well and fruitfully. Above all they need to be given a chance to exercise their potential within an enabling ecclesial and societal environment. The last thing that they would want is to be scandalised by either being misinformed, misled, misguided, manipulated or abused by those who should know better than themselves.
May the Lord inspire us all to help raise a generation of young people that is fit for God and responsible citizenry. Emmanuel Gurumombe SJ
MukaiMukai - Vukani - Vukani No.74No.74 | November | November 20192019 | |
Editorial Christus Vivit (Christ is Alive)
Young People - The â€˜New of God
Living without Work
Pope Francisâ€™ Church of the Young
Too Good to be True
Youth and Mental Disorder
A Search for an Effective Youth Ministry
Spirituality and Discernment for the Youth
Child Protection and the Jesuit Response
Laudato Si Conference
Mary: A Young Woman of Nazareth
Jesuit Magazine for Zimbabwe-Mocambique Province
No.74 November 2019 Publisher Jesuit Communications (JesCom) Editorial Team: Fr Emmanuel Gurumombe SJ Kudakwashe Matambo Layout and Design Frashishiko Chikosi Distribution and Advertising Frashishiko Chikosi Readers may contribute/donate to the production costs by ecocash or bank transfers NMB Bank Acc No: 00260139932 Borrowdale Branch Articles with full names of the authors do not necessarily reflect the opinion of the editorial board.
A God who is Love Cover Picture: Ms Tendai Karombo (National Catholic Youth Association of Zimbabwe) meets Pope Francis in a warm embrace after presenting a paper on Current situations, challenges and expectations of young people in Africa, at the Pre-Synodal Meeting held in Rome May 2018. Her presentation can be found at http://www.synod.va/cont e nt / s y n o d 2 0 1 8 / e n / n e w s / c ur re nt - s it u at i o n s - af f e c t ing-the-lives-of-young-people-in-africa.html or email us.
Mukai - Vukani No.74 | November Mukai - Vukani No.74 | November2019 2019| |
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Young People - The “Now” of God Fr Courage Bakasa SJ
ope Francis attractively addresses young people in his Post-Synodal Exhortation Christus Vivit (Christ is Alive) by describing them as the “Now” of God. There is life, hope and expectation inculcated in that description. Given a healthy and enabling environment, young people can always be counted as the future of any nation or family. The same holds for the Church as either the Pilgrim People of God, according to Vatican II’s Lumen Gentium or the Church as Family of God as the second Synod on Africa teaches. The Holy Father writes, “we cannot just say that young people are the future of our world, they are its present; even now, they are helping to enrich it. ... They are at a time of life when they begin to assume a number of responsibilities” (n.64). However, in the process of either preparing themselves to assume such responsibilities or actually carrying them out, there is no doubt that young people face difficulties. The major challenges facing the youth in my opinion have to do with a polarised world - in terms of religion, economics, ideologies and value systems. The different ideologies that present themselves to the youth today are a call for discernment as the Pope rightly stresses in chapter 9 of Christus Vivit. In religion, the influence and demands of jihadists who view violent struggle as necessary to restore God’s rule on earth and to defend the Muslim community, remains a challenge, whether that is understood as such or not. The
challenge posed by claims to truth or especially by some so called pragmatic or radical Christians in which one has to sever one’s ties with one’s family and culture thereby denying the world also leaves young people isolated and without anything to anchor them. In addition, the pervasive influence of the so-called gospel of prosperity, especially in poorer countries, is yet another hurdle. The society through the media, especially social media, spreads certain values. The supposed role models who do not espouse Christian values are not a help in the moulding of the lives of young people. On the economic front, the different economic systems and the gap between the rich and the poor, not only between the West and the global South but also within countries tempts young people to look to get rich quick sometimes in morally questionable ways. Ideologies like radical feminism, coupled with others like them, are proving to make relationships difficult among young people. An excessive obsession with unfettered freedom and an unaccommodative selfunderstanding of some women pressure groups are a contributory factor to this challenge. Relationships of a lifetime commitment to love, marriage and family have become hard to establish, realise or maintain. Religion itself now has a bad name in some places especially because of cases of abuse in the form of power, sex or conscience. However, it remains the challenge for religion to show the world its good side Mukai - Vukani No.74 | November 2019 |
aided by effective spirituality. In view of these factors, the challenge for young people who are the “now” of God is to be in the world and yet not be of the world.
The Church needs to listen to young people so that they feel accepted and welcomed, even when they do not agree with everything that the Church teaches. Perhaps it is also an opportune time for the Church to patiently sound her teaching so that young people may comprehend her doctrine, which without doubt is the message of salvation for all age groups. Many young people make mistakes in the process of growing, learning and exploration. The Church needs to preach the mercy
Members of Ss Agnes and Alois Guild 4
of God and creatively suggest ways for overcoming the challenges of maturation, while ever mindful that ours is a God who waits for the return of the prodigal son (or daughter). Teaching should be balanced with the Pope’s observation that “certainly (young people) need to be helped and guided, but at the same time left free to develop new approaches, with creativity and a certain audacity” (n.203). There is need to let young people take charge of the issues that they want addressed by adults or the Church in general. Even in the ordering of their guilds and groups, they should be allowed to exercise their minds, but with sufficient guidance given by those who are capable of working with and for them. The danger is that in some parish settings, the youth advisors become the organisers
of programmes and then blame young people for not turning up for such activities. The problem is that such organisers consider the youth as a people that is simply being prepared for the future, a future which may not come, while forgetting that young people are certainly the “now” of God.
Given the challenges that young people face as well as the hope and sense of purpose which is required for them to attain, it must be noted that both hope and a sense of purpose come from an understanding of our place in the world. The Principle and Foundation in the Spiritual Exercises of St Ignatius Loyola is a case in point: “Man is created to praise, reverence, and serve God our Lord, and by this means to save his soul. And the other things on
the face of the earth are created for man and that they may help him in prosecuting the end for which he is created. From this it follows that man is to use them as much as they help him on to his end, and ought to rid himself of them so far as they hinder him as to it.” Understanding one’s vocation in life is therefore important because it constitutes ‘the call of our friend Jesus’ as Pope Francis puts it. There are a number of biblical vocation stories that relate to young people. But one that is pertinent in view of the challenges that young people face in our time, the story of the rich young man is key. The story can be understood as an invitation to do more, that is, the Magis. As we journey with the youth in faith and vocational discernment we can interpret the rich young man as a good person called to do more and to be more in the service of one’s neighbour. Young people need to be rooted in Christian values and not be swayed by every new fashion that comes. Instead of constantly seeking new pleasures, they must immerse themselves in such values in order to contemplate and find God in the here and now, since they are the “now” of God. If necessary adjustments are made with regard to the way matters relating to young people are handled in the Church and society at large, it will be possible for them to experience more fully the three truths that Pope Francis alludes to in his exhortation: “God loves you, Christ died for you and Christ is alive”.
Mukai - Vukani No.74 | November 2019 |
Catholic Students in Tertiary Institutions Discussing about the Future of Work
Living without Work
Fr Gibson Munyoro, SJ
oday many Zimbabweans are living without jobs but with work! Do those with jobs have
Living without a job in most African countries, particularly in Zimbabwe, has more or less become normal and socially accepted. We note from the beginning that having work does not necessarily translate to having
employment or a job. A housewife works all day long, but she is not employed. Or does she have a job? And, of course, economists would not bother classifying a housewife as unemployed because she most likely is not looking for a job.
The traditional and widely held common definition of â€˜unemploymentâ€™ is people who are jobless and are actively seeking for a job but are unable to find one (https://www.investopedia. com). Accordingly, the official Mukai - Vukani No.74 | November 2019 |
unemployment rate for the nation is the number of unemployed or jobless employable people who are actively looking for jobs but are unable to find it, as a percentage of the labour force at the time of the survey. For that reason, school or college graduates who may not be looking for jobs at the time of an employment survey, are not considered as unemployed. People who may have looked for jobs and failed to get one, and given up, are not accounted for in the unemployment rates. People not able
data on unemployment rates by local statistics agencies tend to include self-employed people as employed people in Zimbabwe. Therefore, unemployment rates are not unquestionable indicators of an economic situation of a country. That is why unemployment rates have been a source of intellectual disputes among economists and labour force analysts. But this does not debunk the close link between unemployment and the health of an economy.
to look for jobs due to disabilities or other social discriminating factors, are not counted among the unemployed. According to Zimbabwe National Statistics Agency (ZIMSTAT) Fourth Quarter, 2018 report, “An employee is defined as a person who works for a public or private employer for more than 30 hours per week. Working owners of private liability companies are included within this definition. Following the above definition, self-employed persons who operate unincorporated enterprises rather than private limited liability companies are excluded.” But in most cases local
According to the ZIMSTAT, the unemployment rate in Zimbabwe has decreased to 4.90 percent in 2018 from 5.16 percent in 2017. In the meantime, The Economist: Pocket World in Figures 2015 Edition reported that in 2013 Zimbabwe had 86.4% of its employable population looking for jobs. The CIA World Fact Book 2015 reports that the 2009 established unemployment rate in Zimbabwe was 95%. All the three statistics above could be correct, only that they are using different indicators or analytical perspectives. The main source of the difference is whether to include the self-employed under the unemployed or the employed; and that decision is politically motivated. Those who align with the government which is responsible for the environment for job creation would include the self-employed and the informal sector, while those aligned to government critics would exclude self-employed or informal sector.
Whatever indicators are used, and whatever perspective is taken, it is universally accepted that unemployment and employment Mukai - Vukani No.74 | November 2019 |
rates are indicators of the social and economic situation of any country. “The unemployment rate is probably the best-known labour market measure and certainly one of the most widely quoted by media in many countries …. It reflects the inability of an economy to generate employment for those persons who want to work but are not doing so, even though they are available for employment and actively seeking work. It is thus seen as an indicator of the efficiency and effectiveness of an economy to absorb its labour force and of the performance of the labour market.” Whatever the employment or unemployment rates are in Zimbabwe, the truth is that millions of employable people are not employed. They have no jobs. Yes, most of them may be working, but, not as employees according to the above ZIMSTAT definition of an employee. Many in Zimbabwe, are living without jobs. This reality is abnormal and is a cause of great concern, hence the following reflections on the lives of jobless people in our beloved country.
In Zimbabwe, we also have a rare situation of some employed people risking to be classified as unemployed because they have ‘unpaying jobs’. Living with ‘unpaying jobs’ or without jobs directly implies poverty as manifested by poor family incomes, low life expectancy and high mortality rates. These are closely interlinked. In addition to that, “police and prison statistics
indicate that the bulk of crimes are committed by people from low socio-economic background with limited formal education, suggesting some form of association between disadvantage and crime”. It is undeniable that suspects of crimes are usually looked for in populated highdensity suburbs or in very poor villages.
of three-monthly licences to the municipality. At the same time landlords who own houses or working spaces rented by the poor in urban areas, exaggerate the rent for these workspaces or houses.
Unfortunately, government has not deliberately provided conducive economic and social infrastructure for the many Zimbabweans who try to make ends meet through Working conditions in Zimbabwe growing and selling vegetables, have always been government’s crossing borders to buy and sell concern since 1980, hence we various products that are scarce had minimum wages, and a very in the country, making furniture pro-employee Labour Relations and other household properties, Acts. I would like to focus on the and selling or offering various working and living conditions of services. Government has not the informally employed. adequately provided the physical structures for It is sad to start with the fact mostly the youth who want that the economic situation is to grow their small, informal such that there is no job creation, businesses. Government hence, the population has given has not protected the many up on seeking for jobs, and have young men and women engaged in all sorts of income who are harassed by ZIMRA generating initiatives. Almost officers at our borders, when every employable person in they cross to Botswana, Zimbabwe is engaged in one or Zambia or South Africa to more income generating initiatives. buy various items for sale. The problem that arises is that They are charged inflated, according to national and local unaffordable duty taxes so security behaviour and actions, that they leave their items at most of the income generating the border. And who knows activities by the poor citizens, what happens to those especially the youth, are deemed items? either criminal or illegal. If not, the national police or municipality Furthermore, our young police make it almost impossible men and women are for the jobless poor, employable harassed by the ZRP yet unemployed citizens to do officers and local council their income generating initiatives. police when they sit by For instance, a young woman the roadside to sell their engaged in cross-border trade or little items as survival in running a small salon is pursued strategies. No one wakes up by the municipality police and in the morning to go by the the Zimbabwe Republic Police roadside to sell anything (ZRP) officers with very high rates merely for the sake of Mukai - Vukani No.74 | November 2019 |
breaking any law. People wake up in the morning to struggle to get some family income for the survival of their families. Yet the police classify every economic activity of the poor as criminal. What is more frustrating than to have a university graduate engaging in a cat-and-mouse running about with the police? Gone are the 1980s and 1990s when we could still afford to talk about apprenticeship and getting a job even after graduating from ‘O’ Level. Today holders of Masters and PhDs are forced to loiter the streets of our cities and towns selling small items as a source of income and survival. The wages for low skilled employed
Young People Trained in Community Livelihoods by Silveira House
Zimbabweans decreased to 231USD per month in 2018 from 341USD in 2017 (ZIMSTAT, 2018). Today some of these low skilled workers are earning Real Time Gross Settlement (RTGS) or Bond notes, which is now eroded by the prevailing inflation rate recorded at 175.66 percent in June of 2019 (ZIMSTAT, 2019 Second Quarter report). Now if one is earning $231 RTGS and they need $120 monthly for transport to and from work, is $60 for daily food at work, and $150 TRGS for rent at home, how much is left for family provisions, health and education? This is what it means to have an ‘unpaying job’. The person has to find other ways of generating income, in addition to the pathetic wages they get from their ‘unpaying job’. When they engage in the extra economic activities to generate income, there they meet the police with their button sticks, waiting to illegalize everything the poor do. And the vicious circle of poverty continues to the next and future generations. The above described situation sounds very discouraging! So what is the way forward? Can the Church be part of the solution? Can government be the solution? I can only challenge the Church to mobilize more resources and continue to assist the poor in many ways. Nostalgia: what if the government were to revisit the early 1980s minimum working conditions, minimum wages, price controls of basic commodities? What will happen to the family incomes
of the millions of farm workers, mines workers, and the few workers employed by the few poor industries that are still operating now? What will happen to the self-employed or those in the informal sector if government intentionally creates conducive conditions for the poor to survive? What will happen if government removes duty tax for all small scale cross-border traders, and tax for all citizens in the informal sector? The dream in these questions is that government creates a conducive environment for the poor, especially the jobless, to at least survive in this country. I am not proposing the ‘impossible’ creation of jobs by government, but I am suggesting that government should at least create a conducive environment for the poor to benefit from their economic activities. The other solutions to the situation of the jobless and the ‘unpaid employees’ is for government to seriously review government revenue and expenditure, review and adopt proper management systems for extraction and sale of natural resources (especially minerals), and genuinely fight corruption in a way that makes the whole country benefit from the national resources, instead of the current situation where only a few politicians and business people accumulate all the wealth and resources of the country. We need a new revolution in the equitable redistribution of wealth and opportunities in Zimbabwe. And government has to be more deliberate and committed about this. Government officials have to convert and work for the common good of the country, more than they work for their selfish, personal or family wealth accumulation. Mukai - Vukani No.74 | November 2019 |
I am, more than before, convinced that the solution lies largely in the commitment of our national leaders in eliminating corruption and selfishness among government workers and leaders, as well as business entities. We have the natural resources, we have the human resources, and we have the basic infrastructure. What we lack is the will and commitment from government to channel the extraction or production and sale of our natural resources, mainly minerals, agriculture, and the human resources towards national development. The Zimbabwean situation risks getting worse if corruption is left to grow in the name of protecting some renowned politicians, or if our natural, national resources continue to be extracted and sold by a few politically connected individuals (sadly including the Chinese), without going through the national economic or treasury system. As the Bible laments “Woe to you, Chorazin! Woe to you, Bethsaida! For if the miracles that were performed in you had happened in Tyre and Sidon, they would have repented long ago in sackcloth and ashes. But I tell you, it will be more bearable for Tyre and Sidon on the day of judgement than for you…” (Mtt 11:21). So we also say, woe to you Zimbabwe! If the Chiyadzwa diamond, the gold, lithium and iron found in you were found in Singapore, it would have surpassed the First World by far. Yet even now, Singapore now has the fourth world highest per capita real income because of it’s very intentional policies and structures which were pro-national development, and not pro-elite wealth accumulation.
Pope Francis’ ‘Church of the Young’ Kudakwashe Matambo
ince his election in 2013, augmenting his Ignatian approach to spirituality and pastoral work, Pope Francis has amplified a key theme from an important conference of Latin American Bishops, that is, an effective ministry to the youth. In 2007, the Bishops of Latin America met to discuss how they can ‘transmit their values and faith’ in today’s context. Cardinal Mario Bergoglio was the main drafter of the document. Today the Church is engrossed with the same and does the Pope provide a guiding response?
Accompanying Young People in the creation of a Hope-Filled Future the Church, must be willing to listen, to seek to understand and to seize any chance to encourage and challenge young people and leverage on their capacities. The African Church can empower and transform its youth into a strong generation filled with faith. Direct conversations with the ‘Youths’
In 2007, like the recent Synod on Young People, Faith and Vocational Discernment, the Latin American Bishops’ major concern was to communicate faith to a younger generation. Today, Pope Francis challenges young people directly, and he speaks to them and writes to them, clearly and distinctly.
Certainly, this papacy is tapping into that experience, leading the Church through a moment of big change. Could Pope Francis inHe gives hope and encourages them spire a new pastoral approach for to become themselves, setting their formators of young people? hearts on fire, and to always seek the benefits of their positive enThe Pope is demonstrating how ergies. “Do not be afraid,” he says. Mukai - Vukani No.74 | November 2019 |
Whenever he travels to countries, like recently to Mozambique, he always meets and pushes young people to the edge, to do MORE. He demonstrates his understanding that in many instances, the society (including the Church) has built the wall so high that young people find it difficult to exploit their capacities. The Pope often invites young people to share their experience. Maybe our bishops in their plenary meetings, priests in their senate gatherings, and diocesan pastoral preparatory meetings and such important platforms need real voices of the youth, voices that express the perspectives and experiences of young people. The Holy Father takes every chance he can get to meet, listen, watch, laugh, hug and chat with young people, an opportunity our leaders can use to send out volumes of well-meaning messages.
A call to action
Pope Francis does not emphasize on the rights and wrongs, he calls young people to action. In Rio 2013, during the World Youth Day, he said to multitudes of youths “Here in Rio there will be plenty of noise, no doubt about that. But I want you to make yourselves heard in your dioceses, I want the noise to go out, I want the Church to go out onto the streets.” Six years later, in Poland, he asked them, “Can we change things?” He thinks like them, speaks like them and walks with them. His challenge should also be a call, a reminder to local leaders, that it is time to seek long term solutions to accompany and journey with the youths, not some piecemeal solutions. Discernment and Accompaniment
Pope Francis’ calls for a reflective, deep and engaging approach. The approach requires collaborative action towards catechesis, community life, evangelization, justice, service, leadership development, pastoral care, prayer and worship. Life should resonate with sacraments and faith and vice-versa.
At one meeting, the apostolic sectors coordinators in the Jesuit Province of Zimbabwe -Mozambique met with a group of young people to listen and learn from their challenges.
The youths highlighted their challenges, the cultural changes that affect the way faith is communicated, lived and evangelised. They also expressed their feeling of ‘hopeless’ and ‘helpless’ even after coming to Church. An effective youth ministry must offer ‘under-
standing, comfort and acceptance.’ It must aid deep faith formation and integral development, a commitment to holiness and discernment of personal vocation. A Church open to renewal
In Christus Vivit (Christ is Alive), Pope Francis notes that “a substantial number of young people, for all sorts of reasons, do not ask the Church for anything because they do not see her as significant for their lives” (Synod of Bishops 2018). For the ‘good of (young) souls’, there has to be a renewal of ways, as well as capacitating those who work with young people so that they can touch their hearts ‘truly, decisively and fruitfully.’
It is time the Church in Zimbabwe considers adopting long term plans and put in place strong implementing structures in order to address some of these problems. In May 2019, while discussing with young people at St Canisius Parish in Marlborough, Harare, Archbishop Robert Ndlovu outlined some breath taking ideas for the youth. He suggested training young people in theology and a deeper catechetical formation for the sake of peer evangelization. He stressed the need for drop in facilities. These can facilitate a number of progressive aspects: economic empowerment, transformational leadership, social and mental health programming and other enriching programs.
world offer for youth ministries? What can we learn from other denominations and other partners? Rich meetings
Youth leaders and those they report to must ensure that young people’s gatherings are planned creatively. There must be use of creative art, music, and poetry, over and above generic programming in order to give them the impetus to promote faith. We have seen these characteristics in Pope Francis’ meetings with youths in Africa and elsewhere.
Today’s young people, given their needs and challenging circumstances, require pastors who are ready to bring the healing power of God’s grace, and shepherds who are familiar “with the smell of the sheep” as Pope Francis famously remarked. Due to the challenges associated with mental health, spiritual problems, economic and social diversions, family disintegration, exclusion and sexuality, young people today require even more accompaniment than ever before.
Ministering to broken young people today requires a healing ministry that promotes contemplatives in action. I think that is the way the Church can rejuvenate young people and help them to be ‘full of life.’ That is Pope Francis’ vision. Many questions can be raised in He is walking towards it and seeking the path for renewal. How the journey can inspire more can we utilize our Catholic tertiary instructions for purposes of renewal? pilgrims. What opportunities does the digital Mukai - Vukani No.74 | November 2019 |
Too Good to be True - The Reality of Human Trafficking in Zimbabwe Sr Janice Mclaughlin MM
ave you ever received an offer that you couldn’t resist; that promised vast rewards for very little effort or input on your part? Perhaps your parents warned you not to fall for schemes that offered something for nothing. I learned my lesson the hard way when I paid a $50 registration fee to attend a leadership conference that was advertised in Cape Town, all expenses paid. That should have been a warning sign. Once I sent my fee, the website disappeared and the phone lines went dead. This was an embarrassment but it did not alter my life or destroy my future. Phony Scholarships Beware! There are much more serious offers that sound too good to be true and yet they tempt numerous people who are desperate for a job or for an education. Poverty and unemployment are drivers of trafficking, luring unsuspecting individuals into the net of unscrupulous organisations that take advantage of their plight. Young people are highly susceptible to this ploy.
Every Sunday, for instance, the local newspapers carry advertisements for education overseas in countries as far afield as India, Russia, China, Poland, Cyprus, Canada and Malaysia. The ads generally promise full or partial scholarships for these studies. The Sunday Mail of 30 December
2018, for instance, reported a scam that left young men and women stranded in China, owing hundreds of dollars when they thought that all expenses had been paid. Mr. Mquabuko Dube, Zimbabwe’s acting Ambassador to China urged young people and their parents to exercise caution when they consider possibilities for studying abroad and advised prospective students to check with the Department of Scholarships, as well as with the Embassy of Zimbabwe before they sign anything.
The Case of the Middle East Phony scholarships are one scam that has fooled some trusting Zimbabweans. Another scam is phony job offers in far-away places such as Kuwait and Saudi Arabia that turn out to be a ploy to get cheap domestic servants who are virtual slaves. Young people beware! Who can forget the plight of about a hundred Zimbabwean women who escaped from such domestic slavery in Kuwait in 2016 and sought safety in the Embassy of Zimbabwe in that country? The media attention eventually led to their repatriation through the assistance of the International Organisation for Migration (IOM) and the Zimbabwe Government. These cases are only the tip of the iceberg. No one really knows how many have been tricked and trafficked for labour, sex, body parts or marriage since it is a Mukai - Vukani No.74 | November 2019 |
hidden and illegal operation. In fact, human trafficking is the third largest global business after the sale of drugs and weapons.
Here in Zimbabwe some of the women who escaped from domestic slavery in Kuwait and Saudi Arabia have become powerful witnesses to the reality of this evil racket. They tell their stories at awareness-raising workshops organised by the African Forum for Catholic Social Teaching (AFCAST) at schools and churches in the Harare Archdiocese.
Rudo (not her real name), for instance, answered an advertisement on whatsapp for service abroad as a receptionist. The ad promised a salary of $800 a month and free accommodation. Within a week of applying, she had a visa to travel to Kuwait and an air ticket. She boarded a plane with a dozen other young women who were looking forward to earning a good salary and experiencing another culture.
To Rudo’s surprise when they landed in Kuwait they were herded into a room with no windows and had their passports and cell phones confiscated while they waited to be collected by a driver. She spoke no Arabic and the woman of the house spoke neither English nor Shona so she would shout and slap Rudo when she didn’t follow instructions or when she made a mistake. Instead of the $800 that was promised, Rudo was never paid and was told that the promised salary was being used to refund the
Whoever uses human persons in this way (human trafficking) and exploits them, even if indirectly, becomes an accomplice of injustice.”-Pope Francis agency for her airfare and visa. After six months of this oppressive situation, Rudo saw her chance to escape when she accompanied the owner of the house to buy food. A kind taxi driver took her to the Zimbabwean Embassy in Kuwait where she sought refuge and was eventually brought home. Rudo’s story is not unique. Each of the women who is participating in the AFCAST programme to combat human trafficking has been through a similar or worse experience. For many, their plight is not ended when they return to Zimbabwe, as their families are not happy that they return with empty hands, with nothing to contribute to the household. The International Organisation for Migration (IOM) has given the first group of women a small grant to start income-generating projects that range from hairdressing, to tailoring, baking and poultryraising. Each of the recipients is creating a new life for herself.
With the counselling they receive each week from a professional psycho-therapist and a social worker at AFCAST, they are gaining confidence and recovering from the trauma of their experience. They have become powerful advocates against this evil industry.
Closer to Home The case of the women who were trafficked to Kuwait is perhaps an extreme example. We are aware that trafficking also happens closer to home. Youth and even children are taken to South Africa to become cheap labor or to be used in the sex industry. Because it is illegal, it is hard to get actual statistics to expose the extent of the problem. According to Fr. Peter John Pearson, parliamentary liaison coordinator for the South African Bishops’ Conference and chairperson of AFCAST, South Africa is counted among the top 8 countries in Africa with regard to human trafficking with an Mukai - Vukani No.74 | November 2019 |
estimated 100,000 people being trafficked each year. At a regional AFCAST conference on the topic he said: “Recently newspapers estimated that 30,000 children were trafficked in and through SA mainly for the sex trade… It is well documented that SA is a source, transit and destination country for human trafficking.” He and others work to discourage trafficking and to welcome genuine migrants.
Culture or Exploitation ? In Zimbabwe and many other African countries, it is customary for families to employ a relative from the rural area to assist with chores in their homes in the city. These domestic workers are promised a better life and an education. Their parents readily release them to live with relatives in exchange for carrying out household tasks. The reality is often less rosy. These youth usually work long hours, are treated differently from their urban cousins and are never sent to
school. In the case of girls, a male relative may sexually abuse them.
Such cases are rarely reported to the police for fear of disrupting family harmony. The practice continues without question. Although some urban families keep the promise to send the rural relatives to school, often the children are too tired from their daily chores to concentrate on studies. Is this a practice that needs to be examined in view of evolving attitudes about exploitation of youth, especially the girl child? Worldwide Problem and Response The trafficking of human persons is a multi-billion dollar industry that turns the human person into a commodity to be bought and sold. The International Labour Organisation estimates that 40.3 million people have been trafficked globally, 80% of whom are female and half are children. The majority are in forced labor such as the domestic service mentioned above but a large percentage are also in forced marriages, which is another form of trafficking. The international community has recognised this evil and has passed laws to deal with it such as the Palermo Protocol that was passed in 2000. Most countries, including Zimbabwe, are signatories to this protocol and also have their own laws and regulations. It is rare, however, to read of the apprehension and prosecution of traffickers.
The Government of Zimbabwe has developed a National Plan of Action
(NAPLAC – 2016 – 2018) that is guided by specific principles to stop trafficking and also to support the survivors of this vile practice. It is in the process of being updated. Pope Francis has made the campaign against trafficking one of the pillars of his papacy by raising awareness about this practice that he has rightly termed “modern day slavery”. Aware that the majority of those trafficked are women and girls, Pope Francis has called for the rights and dignity of women to be upheld and for child protection to become front and centre at all Catholic institutions. The Synod on Youth also sought to renew the Church’s commitment “against all discrimination and violence on sexual grounds”. Christus Vivit Catholic Sisters have been in the forefront of working against trafficking and supporting the survivors. Ten years ago, the Union of Superiors General (UISG) launched Talitha Kum in Rome to combat trafficking. (www. talithakum.info)
By 2015 there were an estimated 1,100 Catholic Sisters working in 80 countries to prevent human trafficking and to support the survivors. The organisation provides shelters, safe houses, counselling, legal assistance, vocational training and microfinance to support small industries. It also carries out training to make people aware of the signs of trafficking, which differs from smuggling and from migration. What can you Do? We are all involved in one way or Mukai - Vukani No.74 | November 2019 |
another. Many of the products we buy were made in factories that use slave labour – clothing, shoes, jewellery, chocolates. Even the food we eat may be tainted by unfair labour practices that target children. Therefore, we need to be critical. Ask questions. Find out the source of the goods we purchase. If you or a member of your family have an offer of education or a job in another country, check it out with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and with the Embassy of the country concerned.
If you know of anyone who has been trafficked, report it to the police and to the Ministries of Foreign and Home Affairs. Refer this person to AFCAST (Arrupe Jesuit University, Mt. Pleasant) for counselling and other support services. Don’t fall for false promises. Check out all offers that sound too good to be true. They usually are just that – Not True.
Sister Janice McLaughlin, MM, is a founder member of the African Forum for Catholic Social Teaching – AFCAST- and editor of the booklet, The Scourge of Human Trafficking, Modern Trafficking. She and Mrs. Dadirai Chikwekwete launched the AFCAST Working Group to Combat Human Trafficking in 2016 that organises awareness-raising workshops, conducts research and advocacy, and provides counselling to survivors. The AFCAST office is located at Arrupe Jesuit University in Mount Pleasant, Harare.
Youth and Mental Disorders Fr Anesu Douglas Manyere, SJ
ental disorders have troubled us since the genesis of human existence. In Egypt and Greece documented records attest to the human efforts that tried to make sense of mental disorders and provide solutions since the sixth century B.C. But in this discussion, we shall focus only on three mental health issues that affect mostly the youth. What is Mental Illness? Mental illness describes a broad variety of symptoms that fall into several categories. Hunter, (ed. 2005), describes mental health as a condition of well-being in relation to self and others characterized by qualities such as (a) positive self acceptance, (b) accurate perception of others and the world, (c) stability and appropriateness in mood, (d) balance and purposiveness in behavior, (e) dependable sense of identity and values, (f) adaptability to oneâ€™s environment, (g) ability to engage in productive work and fulfilling love, and (h) commitment to a source of devotion beyond oneself. Hunter assets that mental health as is an active process, not merely the absence of illness. Its characteristics are not optimally present at all times; at best they represent general norms within which there is considerable variation.
Nevid, (2012), describes mental illness as a variety of recurrent disturbances in patterns of an individuals thinking, mood or behavior that are typically associated
Healing takes time, and asking for help demands courageous with painful distress and impairment of social, occupational and spiritual functioning. Nevid adds that the severity of symptoms may range from mild annoyance to extreme discomfort, from little or no violation of conventional norms to serious deviant behaviors, and from minor distortions of reality to significant impairment in reality testing.
How does mental disorders affect the Youth? Youth today may be affected by high levels of current or past stresses that may be provoked by many factors, including involuntary unemployment; serious marital problems; sexual confusion and guilt; or a childhood history of serious neglect, physical abuse, sexual exploitation and lack of affection. These abnormalities can be highly disruptive in the lives of people. One of the issues that youth struggle with is anxiety. Anxiety Hunter (2005) asserts that anxiety reflects various forms of Mukai - Vukani No.74 | November 2019 |
unresolved inner conflicts. It is a response to perceived danger and the individualâ€™s belief that he or she has lost control but lacks the resources to deal with the threat. Hunter adds that, anxiety has elements of both psychological and physiological conditions. Anxiety arises from threat, conflict, fear, unmet needs, biological influences, and individual differences. These emanate from unstable environments such as neighbourhoods with high crime, war, political instability in a country, violent weather, unexplained and unexpected illness, high rates of unemployment. In almost all of these situations, the individual feels out of control, uncertain about what to expect, and largely helpless to prevent or reduce the threat. In addition, we feel threatened by anything that might harm the self-image or imply to others or to ourselves that we are not competent. As they grow up, children learn values from their parents, peers,
teachers, religions, and media. While core values have remained the same for centuries, but all of it is changing drastically. Several highly visible scandals involving top political and business leaders shake the values that people have held onto for centuries. It seems it now pays to cheat than to do honest hard work. It becomes difficult to convince anyone that hard work pays and education is worth the energy, time and effort. The young ones suffer the consequences.
and loss of temper. When it comes to thinking patterns, depressed people frequently have negative thoughts. When youth are depressed the signs are manifested in their loss of spontaneity and they withdraw to themselves. In some extreme cases, we can witness a neglect of personal appearance and hygiene. Depression among younger people is very common which sometimes leads to physical self-mutilation that could be interpreted as a cry for help.
Collins, (2005) states that depression covers a wide variety of symptoms that differ in severity, frequency, duration, and origin. The signs of depression might be grouped into four categories: feelings, thinking, behavior, and physical health. Each of these is a change from what the person experiences and shows when depression is absent. A depressed person feels sad, sometimes for no apparent reason; they can experience low self-esteem that is often accompanied by selfcriticism; feelings of guilt, shame, worthlessness, helplessness; pessimism and hopelessness. More often than not they are irritable, and more prone to impatience
Hunter adds that repressive political regimes create fear, rob people of hope, drain their joy, and stimulate depression. These are not the only environmental causes of depression. In addition, more situations as being trapped in a demanding job with an unreasonable boss can lead to depression, and so are abusive marriages or relationships. Demands of caring for a chronically ill family member, financial difficulties that come when no jobs are available, all have the great potential of causing
Depression Apart from anxiety youth also suffer from depression. In fact anxiety may lead to depression. Depression has a significant impact on the economy as billions of dollars are lost annually because of depression in the workforce. Youth are among the most vibrant workforce we have. When youth are depressed, the economy is depressed too.
Hunter (2005) says that when children are deprived of ongoing, warm human contact with adults, they will manifest apathy, poor health, and sadness all indicative of depression that could continue into a later life of maturity. Teenagers who are in conflict with their parents, young adults who are having trouble becoming independent of their families, people who come from unstable homes, and college students who have negative opinions about their families-all are more inclined to be depressed.
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depresson. According to Hunter, there is increasing evidence that young people develop depressive symptoms following either divorce of their parents, the threat of parental breakups, the departure of a parent, or the acrimony that can follow a separation. Children who are brought up in war torn zones and conflict areas can manifest with depression symptoms. Among the youth loss of hope and lack of employment or something meaningful to do leads to depressive symptoms.
Substance Abuse Dependence on alcohol sometimes known as substance abuse is another major issue among the youth. According to Collins, (2005) the common symptoms include a strong need or compulsion to drink, an inability to limit oneâ€™s drinking at any given occasion, and withdrawal symptoms, including nausea, sweating, shakiness, and anxiety after a heavy period of drinking. Over time, the drinker develops a greater tolerance for alcohol and needs to consume greater amounts in order to get high. Alcoholics have been described as people with an uncontrollable need for alcohol that overrides their ability to stop drinking. This need can be as strong as the need for food or water. Abuse involves the development of problems that come from frequent drinking. These problems include among others failure to fulfill major work or home responsibilities, problems with relationships, having recurring legal problems, such as driving while drunk or arrests for disorderly conduct, including fighting. When he or she is sober,
the person understands how the drinking is causing problems, but the drinking continues nevertheless.
An example of how a teenage male might become addicted clarifies this point. Let’s name him Tapiwa for this purpose. Like most people his age, Tapiwa likes some things about himself and dislikes others. At times he experiences anxiety, fears, guilt, disappointment, and insecurity, but these are mixed with periodic feelings of enthusiasm and hope about the future. Even if there are tensions at home, he is likely to be accustomed to comfort and the immediate meeting of his needs and desires. The advertising messages that bombard his senses will teach him about acquiring possessions, enjoying pleasures. and experiencing endless possibilities. Because of this upbringing and formation that stresses on achievements and acquisition of things, assets and properties, adolescent stresses may hit with special intensity. In addition to his family at home and in school, Tapiwa has a second family consisting of his peer group and the pop culture. This is a highly influential group where leisure and pleasure are at the core, along with easily available drugs and alcohol, which may start being used in the upper primary school all the way to high school. Tapiwa may experience pressure from his friends and the desire to see what it is like to drink and get drunk takes over his reasoning. Issues of identity with a group or hero personality who drinks, or a belief that use of alcohol will prove his manhood will lead him to drink
more and more. He might even view the use of alcohol as a way to get even with his parents.
When Tapiwa starts to drink he may feel a sense of euphoria, despite the periodic hangovers. Drinking may make him feel tranquil, less nervous, more adequate, and socially at ease. His problems or stresses seem less severe, and the world looks rosy. If the drinking continues, there may be periodic regrets or remorse during times of sobriety, but the alcohol use persists because the mood change is so pleasant and the danger seems so minimal. By the time Tapiwa is into his twenties, drinking has become a habit. By the time he reaches thirty, his use of alcohol may have become an integrated part of his lifestyle. Maybe without giving it much thought, he has become addicted both physically and psychologically. Unlike earlier times, his body needs larger and larger quantities of alcohol to create new euphoria and to relieve anxiety. If the alcohol is withdrawn, sickness results. Only more alcohol can take away the symptoms, and sometimes there are severe withdrawal symptoms, including delirium tremens, disorientation, hallucinations, or seizures (Collins, 2005). Unless Tapiwa gets help in stopping, by the time he reaches middle age, getting and consuming alcohol has become so important that his personal life, family, social, and spiritual life all suffer. The person who began drinking as a way of relaxation, connecting with friends, has now become totally dependent on alcohol. Barlow and Durand, (2002) impress on us that substance
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induced disorders include a wide variety of mental conditions that are brought on by the use of alcohol or other harmful drugs. These are organic conditions, where the brain or some other part of the body is not functioning normally because of the excessive and continued use of a substance, such as alcohol. Examples include liver disorders, substance induced psychotic disorder, substanceinduced anxiety, and substanceinduced dementia. Other traits associated with abuse and alcohol dependence are emotional immaturity, limited ability to tolerate tension or frustration, low capacity to endure painful or unpleasant feelings, and excessive dependency. How can the Church help? Religious groups and institutions are the community’s greatest untapped resource for helping the mentally ill and promoting positive mental health. In 2001 Pope St John Paul II urged people not to be indifferent to brothers and sisters with mental illness, and stated that the church “looks with respect and affection on those who suffer from this affliction and urges the entire human family to accept them, giving special care to the poorest and most abandoned.” In an address to an international conference on depression, the pope encouraged mental-health workers to help people suffering with severe depression to ”perceive the tenderness of God, integrate them into a community of faith and life where they feel accepted, understood, supported, in a word, worthy to love and be loved.”
Helping youth with mental disorders and their families is one of the greatest and most important challenges of our time. As church we cannot do everything alone, but we need to work to prevent problems from getting worse. The Church needs to train and develop its own people both religious and lay in order to address some of these issues. The appointment of youth advisors has to be done carefully with thorough assessment of the brother or priest or sister who has to work with these people. The issues and stresses that come from unemployed youth are enormous. They require a mature and stable approach anchored in not just knowledge but an in-depth understanding of issues being raised. The Church can set up centres and develop programs to assist with this work. Trained persons will work in drug prevention programs or suicide prevention centres. Others will work with marriage enrichment programs; pre- and post - retirement counselling, counselling for the unemployed; and divorce recovery. Some can work with support groups that help the survivors of suicide, parents of handicapped children, unmarried pregnant teenagers, children of alcoholics, or others who could develop more severe emotional disorders such as those that emanate from economic and political crises. Youth like all of us are created in the image and likeness of God. As Pope Francis says, God loves them and they are loveable. As such whoever works with youth ought to understand that they are working with the imago dei.
Youth, for example, sometimes think and talk about the wonderful dream land they long to be in but have never been. Trained counsellors will have to point out that dreams are good but once we wake up we need to start living. Counsellors will have to point out to substance abusers that alcohol and other drugs of choice are a permanent solution to what might be a temporal problem. Counsellors try to show respect for the person, they don’t shame or belittle, they avoid arguments, and they let the individual know that they care in an honest and compassionate manner. In all of this, one has to remember the importance of prayer, asking God to grant wisdom and sensitivity. The Church through its ranks, can help reduce stress levels by journeying with the people. Pastoral work needs to be just that pastoral work not parish work. To pastor is to shepherd to be where the sheep are and if we to borrow from Pope Francis again pastors need to smell the smell of their sheep. There is need to go back and find ways in which the church needs to empower people with skills so they can get better employment or care for themselves as self employed. The poor among our people will need more health care, and housing. The church can usher in new ways of doing ‘business’ in order to be in the busyness of our Lord and Master. The church needs to help stop exploitation and manipulation of youths by the powers that be and do whatever is necessary to prevent the abuse of children, the mistreatment of women, minority Mukai - Vukani No.74 | November 2019 |
groups, immigrant workers, and others.
Conclusion Mental health issues have significant psychosocial features and are more prevalent than one may want to think. It will be incumbent upon the Church and its mental health workers to become more knowledgeable and better equipped to effectively deal with these conditions before it is too late. The church can improve coping skills of youth by teaching them money management skills, and basic living skills. The youth can increase their self-esteem by situation acceptance and through their ability to modify perceptions and reduce substance dependence while increasing health and wellbeing. This proposal involves intervention at all levels of Church. The Church’s challenge is to find within herself the capabilities, resources, and time to address these issues. Jesus whom we follow, demonstrated compassion, caring, and social concern, as he preached the Gospel and called people to repentance. We too, have to find ways to fulfill the great commission while we also care for the needy, including the mentally disabled and those who are especially susceptible to mental illness.
Collins, Gary R.,(2007). Christian Counseling: A Comprehensive Guide (3rd ed.) Thomas Nelson: Nashville Hunter, R.J. (2005). Dictionary of Pastoral Care and Counseling. Abingdon Press: Nashville. Nevid, J.S., (2012). Essentials of Psychology
The Energy and Exuberance of Young People must not be stifled.
A Search for an Effective Youth Ministry Authur Garande
have worked with young people in schools and parishes for a good part of my life after high school and what I present below is mostly personal experience accompanied by some personal reflection. But that experience enables me to make some observations and recommendations for youth ministry. An effective youth ministry today will necessarily have to include social media as that is the space where most youth are to be found. Granted, in Zimbabwe not all youth are in that space yet but they are making their way there rapidly. So, it will do us well to explore some features of that space. The
digital environment offers instant feedback and does not promote letting questions sit for long unanswered. The youth, in the face of doubt or controversy are quick to say, “Let’s check it out online.” This includes proper online searches or posing a question on WhatsApp or Facebook and waiting for feedback. Clearly there is a hunger for information accompanied by the desire to get it satisfied quickly and simply. In other words, today’s youth have their own questions, not necessarily the deep theological truths that characterized the theology of the textbooks. Further, Mukai - Vukani No.74 | November 2019 |
they desire to be listened to and heard, perhaps much more than the youth of previous generations. Throughout all ages young people have been known to love fun and games. Any youth ministry that is devoid of these elements is bound to struggle and eventually fail. Putting the foregoing boldly, anyone in youth ministry in an urban setting who is not on Instagram, Facebook, whatsapp, and does not join them in their games is missing a great opportunity to be effective. Other settings require a similar adaptability.
In my work I have observed that for the youth, there is a search for moral guidance in the face of a pluralistic world. “What about us, what are we to do?” (cf Lk 3:14) echoes in various forms in the questions the youth are asking. To me, the real question is about discernment. While we celebrate the multitude of sources of information, not all of it is helpful or true. Certainly, not all of it is consistent with the teaching of the Gospel of Christ. Therefore, training in discernment should be at the heart of youth ministry. Part of that training includes an anchoring in unshakeable values of the kingdom from which to evaluate everything else that comes at them.
I have heard it said that today’s youth get bored easily. I do not entirely disagree but I note that in my experience the youth never seem to run out of things to discuss among themselves. They are always talking to each other, including on social media of course. I would therefore recommend conversations around what captures their interest. In other words, the method has to suit the target audience. Conversations are the way to work with youth today, as opposed to directions and directives which they are often ready to dismiss. Listening is integral to this work. Dialogue follows from the listening. In fact, positive language is more likely to succeed, i.e., talk to youth more about the do’s and less about the don’ts. The message is “Christ is alive and he wants you to be alive! (Christus Vivit #1)”. Likewise, youth would like to be engaged in
the work of service just like any member of the community of God’s people. “… We need projects that can strengthen them [the youth], accompany them and impel them to encounter others, to engage in generous service, in mission” (Christus Vivit #30). The energy and exuberance of young people must not be stifled. It must instead energise and challenge the church to renewal. This takes courage on the part of both the adults in the youth ministry and the youth themselves who will invariably minister to one another and to the rest of humanity. The service element implies an engagement with real life issues but inspired by a reflective reading of the gospel.
In my work with parents in schools I have heard counsellors suggest that talking to teenagers while driving or doing some chore is more likely to yield results as opposed to dropping everything and saying, let us talk. Similarly, addressing the key pastoral issues while seemingly doing something else has a lot of potential. When you set time aside to address an issue you scare them. The formal and structured does not appeal much to them. The greatest teacher of all time, Jesus, used the power of story and personal example. I have found these remain powerful even with the youth of today. I therefore readily echo the words attributed to St. Francis, “Preach the gospel at all times and if necessary, use words”. In the era of many heroes, celebrities and models of diverse values, youth are also looking for a model with whom they can relate. Those in youth ministry, including the youth who would Mukai - Vukani No.74 | November 2019 |
minister to their peers are invited to offer themselves as models as well as present the stories of Saints who attained sainthood while they were still youth. The Father’s words to the son, “You are my beloved child…”(Lk 4:1-14) are echoed to all young people of all ages.
Christus Vivit acknowledges that youth today are in a world in crisis; broken homes, bleak futures, refugees, the drug menace and its allures, uncertainty about commitment etc. Thus the message of God’s love as demonstrated in and through Christ presented very simply will be attractive and effective. The tender love of the Father translating into clearly articulated child protection approaches gives young people the assurance they need. A gentler young person is not a weakling yet with the wrong training they can be violent. The promotion of healthy friendship bonds can often adequately make up for what is lacking in their world. The language in youth ministry today needs to be attuned to the young people more than ever before. If you cannot chill with young people and insert an emoji on their posts, you are missing a whole world of opportunity. It would be hard for you to then offer the accompaniment that the Holy Father refers to in Christus Vivit. Those of us working with young people are privileged to be forming youth who will critically look at global questions and see themselves as capable of impacting that reality through a blog, through an act of service over a weekend and through prayer. We are challenged to embrace this opportunity and revive the youthfulness in ourselves and in the Church.
Spirituality and Discernment for the Youth Fr José Julio SJ
Our Lady of the Wayside - Grotto
he dictionary of Christian theology defines spirituality as a spiritual quality, which denotes an inner movement inspired by the Holy Spirit. It is observed that in this understanding, spirituality is an open phenomenon which is not just for an individual but which is shared by others. In general spirituality includeda sense of connection with something bigger than ourselves and it typically
involves a search for meaning for in Life. Genuine spirituality has its origin in the inspiration of the Holy Spirit. In addition to inspiration, spirituality involves is a set of principles and practices that characterize the life of a group of people with reference to the divine, that is, to the transcendental life in the spirit. Stefano Dego and Tullo Goffi (1989) point out three ways for approaching Mukai - Vukani No.74 | November 2019 Mukai - Vukani No.74 | November 2019 | |
spirituality: • Spirituality - as a guiding, and unifying decisive spiritual attitude. • Spirituality - as listening to the religious spirit that is internal to man. • Spirituality - as meeting the living Christ: the source of freedom, of communion and of eternal life. The three ways of conceiving
spirituality characterize the situation in which a person takes the disposition of openness to the spirit that is within him. The spirit guides the person towards a decisive contribution for his benefit and the community. But, in order for this to be possible, the person should seek to listen to the spirit that dwells in the body, Temple of God (cf. 1 Cor. 6.19). But the attitude of listening to the Spirit happens when the person encounters Jesus Christ who is the source of freedom, of communion and of eternal life.
Given that spirituality results from the movement of the spirit, it is important to ask: What is spiritual discernment? Is it possible to have spirituality without discernment? Why is spiritual direction important for young people? The encounter with God can be experienced in the vital process of discernment, where the person judges, discriminates, and evaluates a particular situation, or a problem. The person is bound to discover the existence of two forces in his interior life. St John warns us “beloved, do not believe every spirit, but test the spirits to see whether they are from God, for many false prophets have gone out into the world” ( 1 John 4:1). These two forces can be distinguished through the discernment in several ways: • Moral and Material Discernment: This involves a person having to deal with good and evil within situations. One has to make the decision to choose freely and responsibly in these situations. In one instance, a person faced with two good things can choose the better of them for his happiness. For example, one can chose between alcohol and water. Both are good
in themselves. But it could be that the one is more important than the other for health purposes. In another circumstance, a choice may have to be made between two evils and the person opts for the lesser of two evils. This is concept of the ‘lesser evil’, for example making a choice between fighting a person and killing. This last one is the most difficult, since it requires a lot of reflection before making a decision. The best thing to do is to choose the good always. Christian morality is about choosing between the good and the bad. It is not like Kantian morality, for example, which is fundamentally based on respect for reason or one’s rational duty. • Spiritual Discernment: Saint Ignatius of Loyola, the Founder of the Jesuits, speaks of discernment as the capacity of a person to take an appropriate decision in order to choose a certain state of life. That decision and choice is made in the presence of God and, it must be made focusing on the intention to make a choice which is “to praise and glorify God and find the salvation of his own soul” [Spiritual Exercises n. 169]. Therefore spiritual discernment has a specific characteristic, which is the decision made before God, the Centre of all action; who guides, enlightens and encourages the soul in making a correct and irreversible decision, but always with the help of the word of God. The person seeks to understand distinctly the internal spiritual motions, whether they are from the good or evil spirit. The decision fails to bear fruit when we ignore the presence of God, when we want to be masters of our decisions, by not letting ourselves Mukai -- Vukani Vukani No.74 No.74 | |November November2019 2019 || Mukai
be guided by the Spirit of God who dwells and speaks in us. If we do not pay attention to the spirit of God, then we give importance to the evil spirit that only destroys our lives.
Discernment as an instrument for happiness: In His Post - Synodal Exhortation, “Christi-Vivit”, the Holy Father exhorts the youth to be attentive to the voice of Jesus Christ who speaks to them from the bottom of their heart in real situations of life: the political, social, cultural and religious. In this document the Holy Father challenges young people to look to Jesus who is the Young of all time, and who made happy decisions in his life. This is the Young man who showed to his disciples and friends that a correct and irreversible decision is a fruit of Prayer [Mt. 14.22]. In one of the meetings with young people Pope St John Paul II said to them: “Do not be afraid to respond generously to the Lord’s call. Let your faith shine in the world, that your actions show your commitment to the saving message of the Gospel.’’ This means that young people should be the Church so that the Church becomes young. And today, Pope Francis invites young people to build a rejuvenated but humble Church, which knows how to listen to the word of God. Such a Church serves the poor, speaks of love, justice and peace. It is a prophetic Church which defends human rights, becomes the voice of the poor while fighting against all kind of violence, as well as economic, social, political, religious, racial, tribal and genderbased discrimination. That would
Meditation for Discernment be a Church that follows the steps of the Master through prayer, discernment and work for the Kingdom of God For young people to identify themselves with the living Christ and follow his steps, they need to listen to the Lord through discernment, which is the inner sacred space of encounter with Jesus for the purpose of decisionmaking in the pursuit of personal and communal happiness. So, in my opinion, young people should do a sound discernment in four dimensions: • Personal dimension: relationship with oneself (who I am? why I do I exist?) • Sociological dimension: relationships with the neighbour
and society. • Ecological dimension: relationship with creation, (in view of St. Francis of Assisi and Laudato Si) • Religious dimension: man’s relationship with God, (the youth’s response to the call of God) Youth and spiritual direction: In human life there are always spiritual forces that go against us. Instead of leading us to God, they take us into darkness. Therefore, whether we like it or not we are subject to two spiritual forces: one from the light and the other from darkness. Often, these forces are in constant conflict and they wait for our decision, whether or not to embrace their promptings. In the face of these realities, young Mukai - Vukani No.74 | November 2019 | | Mukai - Vukani No.74 | November 2019
people need spiritual direction so that they can learn to discern and follow the light of the Holy Spirit while shunning the influence of negative forces. Spiritual direction contributes to human and spiritual maturity. Nobody grows alone. Help is needed for one to find out the will of God, although the experience of encountering God is very personal. The presence of the spiritual director, described by Pope Francis as “the keeper of historical memory” [Christ Vivit n.196], can contribute to the spiritual maturity of young people and the development of the choice of a particular lifestyle for happiness and salvation.
Child Protection and the Jesuit Response
- Fr Lawrence Daka SJ
he abuse of minors, that is, anyone under 18 years of age, and vulnerable adults, and how the Church is and can respond to this crisis, this evil, is probably the most challenging issue confronting the Church today. In his first decisive response to the scourge, Pope Francis wrote on 2 February 2015: “everything possible must be done to rid the Church of the scourge of the sexual abuse of minors and to open pathways of reconciliation and healing for those who were abused.” The Pope went on to encourage the Church at every level “to take whatever steps are necessary to ensure the protection of minors and vulnerable adults, and to respond to their needs with fairness and mercy.” He directed the leadership of the Church to take up this cause when he declared: “It is the responsibility of Diocesan Bishops and Major Superiors to ascertain that the safety of minors and vulnerable adults is assured in parishes and other Church institutions.” Since this letter was written, it is no longer
business as usual in the Church. Reacting to the Holy Father’s letter, the Superior General of the Society of Jesus (Jesuits) wrote to all Major Superiors across the globe giving them clear instructions: “Through this letter, let me remind you of your responsibility as a Major Superior to ensure that minors and vulnerable adults are protected from sexual abuse in the institutions and ministries of the Jesuits of your Province or Region through: (1) Guidelines that describe proper ethical and professional conduct for all who serve in our institutions, whether they be Jesuits, employees or volunteers; (2) Systematic training and ongoing formation programs that inculcate respectful ways of relating to others, identify inappropriate behaviors, and explain how to
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confront abusive people and situations; (3) Protocols that respond adequately to every allegation of sexual abuse.” (Fr. Adolfo Nicolás, Letter to Major Superiors, (18 May 2015)). Child Protection became a major concern during the 36th General Congregation in 2016. The Congregation, desiring not to rush through the issue so that proper discernment and structures are put into place, decreed: “GC36 asks Fr General to continue working with Major Superiors and Conferences to promote, within the communities and ministries of the Society, a consistent culture of protection and safety for minors, in keeping with the suggestions of the Congregation regarding formation, community life, ministries and governance.” Since then, several letters on the subject have been written by both the Pope as well as the General Superior of the
The Church is at the crossroads. Society is at the crossroads. Child abuse perpetrated in the name of God, or abusing minors and vulnerable adults by those meant to care, guard, and protect them has awakened in the Church a new reality that demands everyone’s attention and commitment. Abuse has had and is having an immeasurable negative impact and effect on the Church world over. The church is broken. God is wounded. If we are created in the image of God, Imago Dei, then it follows that God has afflicted pain upon himself and is therefore hurting. Child protection needs a collaborative intervention. The Jesuit Province of Zimbabwe has doubled its efforts from the seminal process already started by the Jesuit Education Office that has led the campaign for protection and safeguarding in the Zimbabwean Church. With the Jesuit Conference of Africa and Madagascar leading from the front, the vision is: “To make the Society of Jesus in Africa and Mad-
agascar a safe place where: 1) Children and vulnerable adults will be treated with respect and dignity; 2) We can create an environment where children can grow to their full potential; 3) We prevent recurrence in Africa of the scourge of sexual abuse of minors and vulnerable adults in the Church and in the Society of Jesus; and 4) We become a leader in building a culture of safeguarding in all ministries in the Conference.”
In this first phase of the program, focus is on raising awareness through training and setting up structures characterised by policies, guidelines, protocols and ensure tools for monitoring and evaluation are in place. Every institution needs to have these and all stakeholders trained so that they own the initiative. The best interest of the child should always be the focus. The Zimbabwe-Mozambique Province has a Safeguarding Commission that is coordinating this work. Several awareness workshops have been held over the past few years. This year has seen an intensified effort in
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this regard with all young Jesuits having had a training workshop in January at Silveira House. This was in May 2019 followed by collaborators from all our ministries in Zimbabwe: schools, parishes, social centres, hospitals and office administrators attending a three day workshop. A similar workshop was recently held at Satemwa in Mozambique. The next phase will be to identify gaps in the work done so that appropriate intervention is designed and applied. To underline the fight to eliminate child abuse, Pope Francis on 7 May 2019 issued a Muto Proprio: “VOS ESTIS LUX MUNDI” in which he decreed that it is now mandatory for all members of clergy to report abuse to relevant authorities. In Zimbabwe there is now a National Case Management System established in 2017 to manage all cases of child abuse.
Laudato Si Conference Clive Pawakwenyiwa
call upon you to dig deep, ask daring questions, make bold commitments, translate them into actions, and devise new solutions to old problems.’ - Joyce Msuya
These words are a summary of my takeaways from the Laudato Si Conference held by the Catholic Youth Network for Environmental Sustainability in Africa (CYNESA) in Nairobi between 15 and 16 July 2019. It ran under the banner “Young people caring for our common home.”
The conference was organized to commemorate the fifth anniversary of CYNESA and the fourth anniversary of the Laudato Si encyclical by Pope Francis. I was privileged to attend as the country director of CYNESA in Zimbabwe. It was supported by the The Vatican Dicastery for Integral Human Development, The Africa Office of the World Wide Fund for Nature and the hosts, the United Nations Environmental Program(UNEP), together with the UNEP’s “Faith for Earth initiative.” 300 people from about 50 countries attended, mostly young people from Africa, Asia, America and Europe. The focus of the gathering was on four areas, namely, the role of faiths and religions; youth; indigenous communities, and Africa in the care for our common home. Addresses were given on behalf His Holiness, Pope Francis, The United Nations Environmental Programi
and The World Wildlife Program and the Dicastery for Integral Human Development. Presentations were also given by young people from Africa, India, Samoa, Philippines, Germany, the USA, Mozambique and Rwanda to mention a few. Both presentations and addresses gave technical knowledge as well as ideas and insights of what faith and non-faith groups are accomplishing on climate action. Interactive sessions on the roles of the various actors formed an important part of the program. We got the opportunity to compare ideas and solutions to common problems. Particularly how to harness the so called youth dividend in changing opinions and attitudes around faith based climate action. Deliberations resulted in the budding Faith for Earth Council among other things I was struck by the diversity of communities and organisations that are doing something for the environment. Exciting initiatives like the Great Green wall that aims to plant 11 million trees over 11 countries and 800km to stop the advance of the Sahara desert is just one of the many ambitious actions being taken to reverse human damage of the environment. The New Deal for Nature and People championed by the WWF was another exciting initiative explored during the conference. Cutting edge research on the state of the climate agenda was tabled, especially focusing on how little time we have before the proverbial point of no Mukai - Vukani No.74 | November 2019 |
return, (12 years). Many voices have given a commentary on the positive outcomes of the conference, but allow me now to turn to the relevance of this conference on the local scene. What can be done here at home to join the climate fight? I think the first stage is to enunciate our own local commitment to the environmental issues and define what our priority areas are. While the conference, because of the global outlook, discussed issues as varied as glacier reduction and rising ocean levels, there are issues more pertinent in the Zimbabwean setting, like waste management, growing desertification, the need for increased community resilience in the face of both droughts and floods. The Church in Zimbabwe needs
TeamUp to CleanUp - Mbare, Harare to first define priority areas of environmental action, and then commit to goals to achieve these commitments. The trail has already been cleared in Philippines. At the conference, Rodney Galicha talked about their work with the Catholic Bishops and the pastoral letter they assisted with to this end. The second thing is awareness raising. While many young people are aware of Laudato Si, the knowledge especially of its content and invitation to care for our home is limited. We need to popularize the encyclical, especially as far as it undergirds the priorities and commitments we adopt locally. Awareness raising must also emphasize the urgency of climate action. A common belief is that the environment is important and there is time to fix
it, but this is just not the case. Environmental action in the church also needs to be seen, not as an appendage to the core business of evangelization, but as integral to the same. This demands capacitation both of the clergy and lay people in issues of climate justice. Holding private and public entities and individuals to account for their environmental impact will be an important outcome of this intervention. Advocacy and lobbying will grow out of these efforts. While institutional level interventions are key, there also needs to be emphasis on the individual level. A personal commitment program on the environment can change individual lifestyles. Such a program was run by the National Movement for Catholic for Students (NMCS.) Mukai - Vukani No.74 | November 2019 |
With more support and refinement, this can form a basis for mass attitude change that yields immeasurable impact. The Popeâ€™s message to the Laudato Si Conference was the hope that the gathering would promote best practice, to stimulate creativity in seeking new solutions and to encourage individual or group initiatives. Realizing this will require platforms and work that we as CYNESA Zimbabwe are more than committed to doing. Additionally, the youth voice on climatic issues must be loud and clear. As the â€œheirs apparentâ€? to mother earth, we must ensure we are bequeathed an earth worth inheriting.
Mary: A Young Woman of Nazareth Sr. Petronellah Musakanyi LCBL
eing a woman, young, and from a very humble background, Mary bore very little or no recognition at all among the religious leadership of her time. Insignificant though she was in the eyes of many, Mary found favour in the eyes of God. She was made worthy of undertaking the noble task of becoming the bearer of the Son of God for the redemption of humankind. This transformed the face of the earth. Through her brave ‘Yes’, God enabled Mary to surpass all stereotypes and misconceptions about the position and role of women in the life and mission of the Church. For this reason Mary has stood as a model of church women leadership since time immemorial. Through her example, modern young women are challenged and inspired to take up influential positions and roles in the church just like their male counterparts. In Mary young women also learn that leadership does not solely imply holding a high ecclesial position of an ordained nature but also being able to influence other people’s lives through the way one lives. The crucial matter is to advance the kingdom of God through varied ministries and responsibilities. This advancement of the kingdom of God demands having good influence on each other. We can call it a ‘ministry of holy influence’. Mary’s role in heaven is to exert such influence by praying for us and helping us to serve her Son, Jesus Christ. For quite some time there has been a plea from Catholic women that they may be fully included in the ordained ministry of the Church. The Church teaches that by the virtue of our baptism we have become members of the one Body of Christ.
Glorifying God Thus all members share “a common dignity” so that “no inequality arising from race or nationality, social condition or sex” exists for all are one in Christ (Lumen Gentium] Dogmatic Constitution on the Church], no.32). Since both male and female have received the same baptism, there might be no reason why both should not be given equal opportunities to express their vocation. Here the Church seems to contradict itself when it comes to the issue of women ordination. Some feminist theologians strongly feel that by being denied ordination, women are prevented from having the opportunity to fully participate in the leadership and mission of the Church. Others argue that, since Christ was incarnated as male and all the twelve original disciples were male, the Church decreed that God meant the priesthood for males alone. Thus Mukai - Vukani No.74 Mukai - Vukani No.74| November | November2019 2019| |
the Church does not take the issue of extending ordination to women as peculiarly an issue of human rights, but one of divine will, which cannot be changed by any human authority. This indicates that the ordination of women in the Catholic Church might be an impossibility.
However, in the midst of the women leadership crisis there seems to be a light of hope looming. After a meeting with the women superiors general in 2016, Pope Francis permitted a debate about the women’s diaconate to be undertaken. He set up a commission to look into the matter. As it stands now there are very slim chances for the institution of female deacons to take place any time soon, if it will ever take place. Previously in 1994, Pope St John Paul II wrote in the Apostolic Letter Ordinatio Sacerdotalis
that the Church has “no authority whatsoever to confer priestly ordination on women”, not to speak of female diaconate ordination. More recently, Pope Francis said that the commission that he set up to study the possibility of the ordination of women to the diaconate reached no agreement. He said even though there were female deacons in the beginning of the early Church “there is no certainty that theirs was an ordination with the same formula and the same finality of the male ordination.” Female deacon assisted in the anointing of the bodies of women after baptism by immersion, and also in assessing cases of physical abuse of women by men in marriage. In addition the formulas of female deacon ordination are not the same for the ordination of a male deacon and are more similar to what today would be the abbatial blessing of an abbess.
I personally think that apart from just being deaconesses in the Church, there is still more that young women can contribute to its leadership and mission. By imitating Mary’s humility and courage their leadership, can go beyond the ministerial leadership. Certainly, it is not only about what you are doing, but also how you are doing it. Mary’s leadership was that of
influence. Pope Francis in his Apostolic Exhortation, Christ Alive describes the role of Mary as that of “the influencer” of God; “she is the influencer.” By her fiat, Mary managed to inspire and guide the actions of many towards her Son. Her leadership is not exercised through dominance but rather by example and gently guiding persuasion. I believe that young women can also be powerful instruments in the Church’s mission by being people of influence wherever they are, more importantly by living exemplary lives. Mary’s leadership was characterized by profound humility. Tabitha Naisiko (2016) defined humility as knowing oneself and availing oneself to participate in more challenging tasks which cannot be fulfilled by meek people. Thus, Mary knew very well that she was able to say, “I am the handmaid of the Lord, let it be done unto me according to your word” (Luke 1: 3-38). She was convinced that she has the capacity to cooperate with God and be made into God’s useful instrument in the plan of redemption. Like Mary, for us to be able to influence others towards salvation, we must have confidence in ourselves, the confidence which is rooted in selfknowledge. In that confidence one is able to find one’s vocation.
If we want to be true leaders, we must also emulate Mary’s courage. Mary’s task did not only involve honour, but many challenges and sorrows too. She knew very well that there were possibilities of her getting stoned because of that pregnancy but she took up the mission still. This kind of courage shows that Mary was so committed to her mission to the extent of risk taking. At times our leadership role requires us to take risks, thus putting our lives at stake in order to save souls. I think to a certain extent the abuse cases in the church today might be attributed to women’s cowardice. Some atrocities happened before our eyes and we did nothing about it because of fear. Pope Francis in his letter to the youths encourages us to correct our priests if we find them not faithful to their calling. We must have the courage to question and challenge all that does not author life in the church. If we are able to do that then as young women we would have participated in God’s salvific plan. To conclude, Mary, the young woman of Nazareth has a lot to teach the young women of today concerning their role in the leadership and mission of the church. One does not really need to hold a high position in order to proclaim Christ alive in the Church. It is a matter of having the humility to accept one’s mission and the courage to do it.
Mukai- Vukani (“Arise”) magazine for the Jesuit Province of Zimbabwe-Mozambique serves as a magazine for theological reflection for Jesuits in the said Province and their friends. It seeks to help in finding the direction of life in the light of the Word of God at any given time. In this way the magazine facilitates dialogue among Jesuits and their friends based on study, prayer and discernment. Mukai- -Vukani VukaniNo.74 No.74| | November November 2019 2019 | | Mukai
‘A God who is Love’ -Theresa Patience Sanyatwe
he very first truth I would tell each of you [today] is this: ‘God loves you.’ It makes no difference whether you have already heard it or not. I want to remind you of it. God loves you. Never doubt this, whatever may happen to you in life. At every moment, you are infinitely loved.’ (Pope Francis, Post-Synodal Apostolic Exhortation, Christus Vivit, 2019) This article addresses the issues of Love, Boy Friends and Girl Friends, Infatuation and friendship which are common among the young people. What is this thing called love? There is a poet who wrote the following poem about love: To love is to live To live is to love They are both one and the same Yet they are both different How can the two be one But to have the one you must have the two? But to have the two you must have the one?
How can one truly love, If in order to love, one must first live? But in order to live, first one must love? But one cannot love without first having lived And one cannot have lived without having loved. For one to live, one must love Probably no other dimension of human experience has been
Youth for Magis. pondered, discussed, debated, analysed, and dreamed about more than the nature of true love. Love is said everywhere, in songs, books, radios, televisions, on our movie screens, social media, etc. Talk of love is always on the tips of our tongues, never far from our thoughts or our conversation. Yet, for all our thinking and talking, for all our discussing and debating, how many of us truly understand love? Do we really know what true love is? I like what Francois, Duc de La Rochefoucauld wrote, ‘True love is like ghosts, which everybody talks about and few have seen.’ Pope Francis also says that, ‘[True] love is not just what we see in movies - it takes work… [true] love is not empty words or what is depicted in romantic films -it is action and service toward others.’ As young people, where can we turn to for genuine knowledge in matters of true love? The world offers many different concepts and perspectives of love, but are they reliable? I believe that most of the Mukai - Vukani No.74 | November 2019 |
young people today tend to look at the western popular culture and try to imitate (mimic/copy) what we think is ‘true love’. Western popular culture tends to equate love with warm feelings, physical attraction, and sexual activities. This view of love is hammered into our brains every day through certain books, novels, magazines we read, the songs we watch and listen to, the types of movies and television shows/channels we watch, information which we access on the internet or on different websites, messages we access on our mobile phones and the messages, videos and images which we share in the chats rooms or on social media. Most of these social media are flooded with the epidemic of broken relationships, failed marriages, fake or unrealistic love which portrays the idea of ‘happy ever after’. I think that the best way to learn about anything is to consult an expert in any area which one wishes
to venture in. If you wish to be the best singer you should consult an expert in that field. Who is the expert on love? I believe that no one understands love better than God. Not only did God create love and establish it as a central foundation stone of human experiences, but according to 1 John 4:8,16 God Himself is love [Mwari Rudo]. Love defines God’s very nature. What then does God say about love? He says, ‘Love the lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your strength’ (Deut. 6:5). In John 13:34, Jesus also says something about love, he says that, ‘A new command I give you, that you love one another, even as I have loved you, that you also love one another. By this all men will know that you are my disciples, if you have love for one another.’ Now the question is, if God asks us to love, how do we carry it out? What does it mean to love another person?
Infatuation or Love? Let me point out that teenager love is usually open to abuse. Young people can be tempted to view love as a physical experience and not as a commitment, as a trance into which one falls and not as a relationship, which is built up patiently. Here is a messages from somewhere written by a teenager: I am a girl of 15 and my problem is that I am madly in love with a young boy of 17. Every time I think about him I feel funny inside. We both go to the same school and when he is at home during the weekends and away from me I get tired and sick. I have lost all interest in study because I cannot get him out of my mind. What am I to
do? Infatuation is a common experience of teenagers. It is a sudden feeling of great attraction for someone of the opposite sex. Something burns inside. In extreme cases it may cause you to lose your appetite or you may find it difficult to sleep. Often it ends as quickly as it appears and the ‘burning’ may switch to someone else. Infatuation is not love - even though teenagers often refer to the experience of infatuation as ‘falling in love.’ It is interesting to note that the word ‘infatuation comes from a word in the Latin language, which means “foolish.” Falling in love or infatuation can be part of the new impressions and dreams caused by the coming of puberty. In early teenage years especially, infatuation is more likely than real love. As one grows older and more mature, infatuation normally gives way to more mature love -even though infatuation can recur at any stage of life. Boy Friends and Girl Friends There is often much confusion among teenagers as to what boyfriends and girlfriends mean. Too often it is taken to mean something undesirable. For example, for a boy to have a girlfriend is taken to mean only one thing: to engage in sexual activities. This understanding of boyfriends or girlfriends destroys the whole understanding of friendship and is very wrong. Pope Francis pleads with the young people to take care of their lives and wait for the right time for everything. He says that, “Young people, beloved of the Lord, how valuable must you be if you were redeemed by the precious blood of Christ! Dear young people, “you Mukai - Vukani No.74 | November 2019 |
are priceless! You are not up for sale! Please, do not let yourselves be bought. Do not let yourselves be seduced. Do not let yourselves be enslaved by forms of ideological colonisation that put ideas in your heads, with the result that you end up becoming slaves, addicts, failures in life. You are priceless. You must repeat this always: I am not up for sale, I do not have a price. I am free!” (Christus Vivit n.122). Let me conclude by noting that love calls us to service, to suffer and to give. Love involves discipline and sacrifice. “Love is patient, love is kind. It is not jealous, [love] is not pompous, it is not inflated, it is not rude, it does not seek its own interests, it is not quick-tempered, it does not brood over injury, it does not rejoice over wrongdoing but rejoices with the truth. It bears all things, believes all things, hopes all things. Love never fails (1 Cor 13:4-8).
Mukai - Vukani No.74 | November 2019 |
This edition is themed around young people or the youth. It is inspired by Pope Francis' Post - Synodal - Exhortation Christus Vivit (Christ...
Published on Nov 20, 2019
This edition is themed around young people or the youth. It is inspired by Pope Francis' Post - Synodal - Exhortation Christus Vivit (Christ...