Smartconstructing constructingwith withinnovative innovativematerials materials Smart
OUT-OF-THE-BOX CONSTRUCTING AR0533 Innovation and Sustainability Designerâ€™s Manual 2014-2015 Q2 Tutor: Eric vd Ham | Peter Teeuw | Joris Smits By Ivo Sombroek | 4104242 Jeroen van Veen | 4085108 Nick van der Knaap | 4099842
OUT-OF-THE-BOX CONSTRUCTING Smart constructing with innovative materials
In the built environment two important roles are occupied by the architect and the engineer. The architect is in traditional processes described as the dreamer or visionary. On the other hand the engineer is seen as the calculator and safety regulator. The architect designs and sketches his ideas but doesnâ€™t know how and if it could be built, he dreams beyond the boundaries of possibility. The engineer thinks in proven structures and techniques and will translate the free ideas of the architect into strait and simple constructive solutions. This process could be described as the void between the architects brain and the engineers brain. If the architect should know more about materials and their strengths and weaknesses and the engineer more about expression and atmosphere of spaces beautiful and honest designs with the right material would be added to the built environment.
In an attempt to narrow the void between the architect and engineers brain this book is created. Projects where engineers and architects had dreams to go beyond the boundaries of proven techniques and materials, and created structures of pure beauty in that sense, are collected, analysed and ordered. It is up to the reader of this book to feel inspired by these projects and take up the underlying information about materials and their strengths, weaknesses and possibilities for the built environment, the beauty and expression of created objects and spaces and apply this knowledge in their own future processes. This could be an architect as well as an engineer.
UHPFRC Concrete has been through
a large development, especially in the last decades, towards Ultra High Performance Fiber Reinforced Concrete (UHPFRC). This material has great structural behaviour and durability as well as freedom in design. Despite these developments on the qualities with UHPFRC this material hasnâ€™t been used often as a load-bearing structure in the build environment nor has it reached its full potential. Costs and effort needed to put into the design and process have to be carefully weighed against the goals of the design and if the properties of the material are needed to fulfil them. If they come together beautiful load-bearing structures can be added to the build environment.
FRP FRPs (Fiber Reinforced Polymers) are widely used in multidisciplinary industries. FRPs have a large variety of different possible compositions which all have the property of a fiber embedded in a matrix in common. The fibers can be synthetic like carbon, aramid or glass, but can also have a natural origin like hemp, jute or bamboo. The building industry has a lag in the use of these materials. The unique properties of the material can have an evolutionary result on the design of buildings. Although several attempts and experiments have been done using composites very few have exploited the full possibilities of composites in the built environment.
GLASS All kind of new materials for
structural purpose are developed quite recently. But a material used in the building industry for decades, i.e. glass, is not known for its load-bearing qualities. Glass is a brittle material, but when this brittleness is taken into account it is comparable to other well-known structural materials. With its good quality in transferring compressive load, glass can be an excellent load-bearer. With threatening the glass, respectively heat-strengthened and tempering, or with laminating the glass it can even bear higher loads. To maximize its security extra layers can be laminated between the glass panes, this to make sure that the glass panels can bear loads even when they are damaged.
MUSEM MARSEILLE VILLA NAVARRA PEDESTRIAN BRIDGE PONT DU DIABLE MULIMATT BRUGG
QUANTUM BLADE LEAPFACTORY S1
MIDTASEN PAVILION YURAKUCHO STATION
TETRA GLASS ARCH
BUILDING BLOCKS AMAZING WHALE JAW
YITZHAK RABIN CENTER
TEMPLE DE L’AMOUR RAINBOW PANORAMA MAS ANTWERP
48 54 58
BULLE 6 COQUES
APPLE STORE 1.0 & 2.0
CALIFORNIA BAY HOUSE THE FLY’S EYE DOME
PAVILION CANOPY RESEARCH PAVILION
MIDTÅSEN PAVILION GLASS ROOF GLASS BEAMS
LUND HAGEM SKANDINAVISKA GLASSYSTEM
MIDTÅSEN PAVILION 2007 SANDELFJORD, NOR 1
ABOUT The sculpture pavilion at Midtåsen is designed as an walkway with light concrete walls and glass, creating a form which in many ways reflects the site’s topography. The pavilion opens up to the south with large panoramic windows capturing views towards the surrounding countryside, the city and the fjord. Light filtered through the surrounding pine forest in combination with the opaque ceiling, the differentiated translucency of the glass walls and the ever changing surrounding landscape and seasons all make up a unique environment.
MORE Line : Glass: End support: Flat: On-site: Bending:
12,18,22,26,30 12,26,48,54,58, 20,22,26 12,18,26,48,66 34,58,66,70,80 12,18,20,24,26 30,42,50,62,70
GLASS BEAM The roof is completely constructed out of glass elements. Between the stable concrete slabs horizontal structural glass fins are constructed. The fins consist of triple laminated, 450 mm high glass. This makes is possible to easily span 6 meters. Upon this fins the opaque glass plates are connected. The combination of the structural fins and the concrete slabs make it a solid construction. As seen in the picture this makes it possible to bear a pretty big snow-load.
GLASS ROOF Originally the architect designed the whole framework that caries the opaque glass out of steel. Scandinavian engineers were consulted to find a way to avoid all shadows cast by the frame, and soon they decided to construct the framework in glass, which again brought new challenges.The 20mm opaque laminated glass is attached to structural glass fins of 3x10mm laminated glass. The fins spans up to 6m and are placed every meter. They are 450mm high. All glass is free of iron to avoid colouring of the light. The structural fins are attached to the concrete slabs in small gaps only protected with 20mm of plastic in between. The glass façades are also supported by glass fins which are bolted to the concrete floor.
CONNECTION The structural fins, 3x10mm, are attached to the concrete slabs in small gaps only protected with 20mm of plastic in between. The rubbers and bolts are not visible for the spectators, therefore it looks like the fins are loose in the concrete slab. The opaque glass plates are blind connected with an adhesive bond to prevent making any shadow. The glass façades are also supported by glass fins which are bolted to the concrete floor with a metal shoe.
CONNECTIONS Because the building involves a sculptural park, exposing art, as little as possible shadow is wanted to optimize the experience of the exhibition. Therefore is chosen to construct the complete roof out of glass, which will not cast a shadow over the interior. This resulted is some challenges with the detailing. The fragile glass elements had to be connected with the heavy solid concrete. This is done in a very subtle way, where it looks like the glass is floating on the concrete. Besides of the gaps in the concrete does the glass not touch it. Also the glass fins are designed very subtle. They are only attached on the bottom, so again the roof seems floating above the facade. A little point of criticism is the big steel shoe which makes the connection to the ground. Compared to all the other parts it’s a little bit overdimensioned. 4 10
YURAKUCHO STATION CANTILEVER GLASS BEAM
RAPHAEL VIﾃ前LY ARCHITECTS DEWHURST MACFARLANE
YURAKUCHO STATION 1996 TOKYO, JAP 7
ABOUT The design was a glass canopy above the entrance of the Yūrakuchō’s underground train station in Tokyo, Japan. In 1995, Raphael Viñoly Architects designed the Tokyo International Forum and wanted to make a designing of a glass cantilevering glass entrance with steel beams. But then switched to the idea and they wanted to use laminated glass beams instead. Something that was never done before around that time.
MORE Line : 4,18,22,26,30 Glass: 8,34,48,58,66,80 Clamp cantilever: 24 Flat: 8,18,26,48,50 Pre-fab: 14,18,20,44,50,88 Bending: 8,18,20,22,26, 30,42,62,66,70
LAMINATED BEAM The structure that supports the glass canopy is constructed out of cantilevered beams, each one is built up of multiple glass plates that are connected to each other at the end and middle. At the bottom the beam consist of 4 glass blades surrounding one acrylic blade. The number of blades reduces to one at the tip.The blades are connected to each other with 40mm stainless steel pins. At the bottom of the cantilevered beam stainless steel V-shaped brackets are laminated between the glass blades. These are connected to a horizontal beam running the full width of the canopy.
GLASS CANTILEVER The canopy shelters an 8m x 4.8m wide staircase well leading to the Yurakucho underground station. The supporting structure comprises cantilevered beams each made up of 4 component beams pinned at their middle and end points to form an arch. Since completion the canopy has already withstood multiple typhoons and an earth tremor measuring 6 on the Richter scale. At the 1997 British Construction Industry Awards, the Yurakucho canopy received a special commendation for demonstrating British expertise in the design and construction of glass structures.
MUSEM MARSEILLE TREE-SHAPED COLUMNS BALANCE IN FORCES
LAMOUREUX & RICCIOTTI
MUCEM MARSEILLE 2013 MARSEILLE, FRA 10
ABOUT MuCEM is located in the french city Marseille. It houses a collection of historical and cultural attributes from around the Mediterranean sea which corresponds with the location of the museum. A channel runs along side the building which separates the museum from the Fort Saint-Jean, an important part of the museum. An UHPFRC bridge from the fort is the physical connection and entrance to the museum. The museum is designed by Lamoureux and Ricciotti in 2013. The museum houses exhibition on two levels, an auditorium for 400 people and a rooftop restaurant.
MORE Line : 8,12,20,22,26,30 UHPFRC: 20,38,50,70,84 Vertical support: 48,54,58,74 Doubly curved: 24,70,80,82,84,88 Pre-fab: 12,38,44,76,82,88 Compression: 34,48,58,76,82,84
BUILDING STRUCTURE The tree-shaped columns can be seen as a structural line element. In this building it works as a vertical line to, firs of all, restrain the loads of the floors, but together they work to also resist the wind-loads on the facade. The floors are connected eccentrically to the columns with an edgebeam so the floors seem to be visually not supported. The floorbeams are placed perpendicular to this edgebeam and transfer the weight of the floors. On the top floor a cantilever arc is placed, from this arc the skin is hung. These are UHPFRC panels which are connected at 4 point and transfer the windloads. The lightweight floors in between the skin and the tree -shaped columns is hung with cables from these cantilever arcs.
CHALLENGES The building has a modern structural design, but with that a challenging one as well. The use of UHPFRC is chosen on these challenges. This material is applied on different main element of the building, the tree-shaped columns, the main floor beams, the skin and the footbridge.The stability of the structure is of great importance since it must be able to resist the wind and seismic forces common in the area. Although not all element will be analysed since the columns and the cantilever elements are designed in a smart way in line with this book. The elements are slender and elegant and create qualities for the spaces in the building. The way the elements are functioning in a structural way makes this possible.
WINDLOAD The vertical loads are taken by the tree-shaped columns. The columns are loaded eccentric, this causes for the columns to withstand combined bending and axial loads as well as buckling. The columns are assembled with a foundation element and at the edgebeams, the columns are posttensioned after the assembly to great-en the flexural strength of the columns. This is done by a cable which runs through the column which has been saved during casting.
TREE-SHAPED COLUMNS The columns are positioned outside of the thermal skin which is a glass layer. Together with the natural form of the columns it creates the illusions that the floors are floating and not supported, but the contrary is true. The columns were an experiment for the architect and engineer. Never had such natural shaped columns been made out of concrete. Therefore test had to be done for the prove of strength en took time but is valuable knowledge for future projects.
WALKWAY STRUCTURE The structure for the walkways around the building are kept to a minimal to provide as less structural elements as possible in between the facades. This is done by hanging the walkways from the roof. An UHPFRC cantilever element is places here on one side the walkways are hung. On the other side the element is mounted to the floorbeams. In this principle there are some bending moments in the arms of the element, which the fibres can withstand. But the hole element is in balance so there are only compressive forces in the foundation. The out of plane force on the floorbeam is outlevelLed with its own weight which points in the other direction. The whole element could be kept elegant due to the use of the material.
VILLA NAVARRA ULTRA THIN STRENGTH WHERE NEEDED
RUDY RICCIOTTI R. RICCIOTTI M. BEHLOUL
VILLA NAVARRA 2008 PROVENCE, FRA 15
ABOUT Close to the Var coastline in the southern Provence of France a camouflaged object lies hidden in the natural vegetation of sloped hill. Only a single line of 40 m wide betrays his presence. There is Villa Navarra located which is used as an art gallery by the art dealer Enrico Navarra. The structure is designed by the architect Rudy Riciotti and engineered by Romain Riciotti and Mouloud Behloul in 2008. The art gallery tries to escape the mundane domesticity by the location, the implementation in the environment and the powerful stance of the structure.
MORE Line : 8,12,22,24,26,30 UHPFRC: 14,20,22,70,84 Single cantilever: 30,86 Flat: 8,48,50,66 Pre-fab: 14,38,44,50,88 Bending: 8,12,20,24,26, 30,62,66,70
ROOF STRUCTURE For the design of the roof the engineer designed only in terms of flexing and didnâ€™t want to use pre-stressing. Therefore the cantilever. The roof is made out of 17 prefab panels placed next to each other. They are made with Ductal, which is a brand name for a certain kind of UHPFRC. The prefab plate is designed on its forces and material is used only there where it was needed. The total size is 9.25 x 2.35 m and the bottom is a continuously 30 mm. On the sides the plate can be seen as folded and ribs are taking up the bending. Therefore the height of the ribs can be decreased toward the end of the plate and meet with the 30 mm. (Image x) Although there is traditional reinforcement placed in the upper part of the ribs, they are designed to perform without any, but is was necessary for safety reasons.
DESIGNERS MOTIVES The volume of the building is a 40 mm wide and 10 meter wide. The roof structure is made out of UHPFRC and is cantilevered for 7.8 meters. The roof structure ends up with a thin line of only 30 mm wide which reveals itself towards the surroundings. The engineers have chosen for a lightweight and shape-strong design not only for the visual expression wished for by the architect, but also for the structure to restrain natural forces as excessive wind-loads, thermal expansion and overloads due to weather. Which are considerable forces to be thought of in such a climate.
PEDESTRIAN BRIDGE STRONG DESIGN MODULAR
LAVAA FDN ENGINEERING
BOSSE PEDESTRIAN BRIDGE 2012 ROTTERDAM, NED 17
ABOUT The Bosse pedestrian bridge in Rotterdam in named after the architect Chris Bosse from the firm LAVA. He designed the geometric shape of the bridge. The whole project is created in collaboration with FDN Engineering and Construction. The bridge is made out of UHPC and spans 19 m, has a width of 3.4 m and can carry 12 tons. Due to the strong design and material the bridge is made out of only 9 m3 of concrete. The bridge is a modular design of 6 girder elements and the thin deck of the bridge. This makes for the bridge to be transported in containers all over the world.
MORE Line : UHPFRC: End support Flat Pre-fab Bending
8,12,14,18,26,30 14,38,50,62,70,84 8,22,26 8,12,18,50,66 18,76,82,86,88 8,12,18,26, 30,38,50,62,66,70
HIGH BEAM The way the girder is combined with the handrail and sides of the bridge is recognised as smart designing. For the span of 19 meters across the water and the ability to carry 12 tons above its own weight a great high beam was necessary. By using the sides and the handrail of the bridge as part of the girder this height is realized while creating an visual expression at the same time. Since the height is needed but not necessarily the full thickness of the beam, material could be spared from the beam which results in an implemented design of architecture and structure. The bridge is molded in modular parts which are structurally connected with steel tension parts to work as a single structure once applied.
STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS The bridge contains of modular elements that form the total bridge structure, sides and handrail. The girder is created as the side element of the bridge and therefore has great height. This height is used to resist the bending moment which is present in the structure due to the 19 m span. The material lends itself for this slender design due to its structural performance but also the weatherability of the material makes the outdoor and untreated use of the bridge for over 100 years possible. Next to this the moldable qualities of the concrete makes the production of the modular bridge possible and represents possibilities for other places.
BOSSE PEDESTRIAN BRIDGE
PONT DU DIABLE MODULAR 69 METER FREE SPAN
LAMOUREUX & RICCIOTTI
PONT DU DIABLE 2008 L’HERAULT, FRA 19
ABOUT A cross-way for pedestrians in the natural landscape surrounded by the grooves of lâ€™Herault was designed and calculated by Lamoureux and Ricciotti in 2008. It was an important part of the development plans for the area. A pathway through the natural landscape was created and the bridge was an essential link. The architects wanted the bridge to settle in the environment and therefore chose to use UHPFRC as a material and a constructive design that would intensify this. While designing the 69 meter span across they reached a height of only 1/38 which resulted in a record.
MORE Line : UHPFRC: End support: Curved: Pre-fab: Bending:
8,12,14,24,30 14,50,62,70,84 8,20,26 30,54,58 18,50,76,82,88 8,12,18,20,24,26, 30,38,62,66,70
NATURAL DESIGN A design for the bridge takes the girder, pathway, sides and handrail all into one strong design. It all starts with the pre-designed arc that works against the bending moment present due to the free span. Another smart design decision in the ability to save space in the mould for tension cables which can pre-stress the structure to equalize against the bending moment. For the forces to flow through the structure a great height is realized, the 1.8 meter high sides of the bridge are used while maintaining a natural shape. The walking deck of the bridge is designed to save weight and is conducted with a thickness of only 40 mm on supporting beams of 300 mm high.
PREFABRICATION The structure is pre-casted and consists of 15 elements. These prefab elements where connected and tilted into place at site. Although the bridge girder has a height of 1800 mm the deck of the bridge is place somewhere in between so the resulting height is only 1300 mm which provides a view on the surroundings for the pedestrian that is crossing the bridge. Since the bridge is pre-casted and made from a series of elements the bridge has possibilities to be created at other locations and with other spans as well.
PONT DU DIABLE
QUANTUM BLADE SUPER-SCALE LIGHTWEIGHT
QUANTUM BLADE 2005 ØSTERILD, DEN 21
ABOUT The worldâ€™s longest turbine blade measures 75 metres, with a rotor diameter of 5 metres. This delivers a capacity of six megawatt sweeping around an area of 18600 m2
MORE Line : 8,12,14,26,30 FRP: 30,82,86,88 Clamped cantilever: 12 Doubly curved: 24,30,42,74,84 Off-site: 18,20,22,26, Bending: 30,62,66,70
PRODUCTION The rotor blades are manufactured as fiber glass components. They are cast in two part moulds to make transportation easier. They join them together without glue. This way of making blades is called integral blade process. Air foils deliver enough strenght at higher wind speeds. By using this method of manufacturing the blades could be 10-20% lighter than usual. A special vehicle is needed to transport them 575 km over the road.
GLASS BRIDGES ALL GLASS SAFETY
KRAAIJENVANGER ABT /ROB NIJSSE
GLASS BRIDGES 1996 R’DAM/ARNHEM, NED 22
ABOUT This chapter will describe different glass bridges designed by the same architect and constructed by the same engineer. Therefore itâ€™s possible to name them in one chapter. The bridges have the same concept, a nearly invisible connection between two buildings. The bridge itself gives an unusual experience just because it is againts human
MORE Line : Glass: End support: Flat: On-site: Bending:
8,12,22,24,30 8,12,34,48,80 8,20,22 8,18,20,48,50,66 8,34,66,70,80 8,12,18,20,22,24, 30,66,70
LOADS The bridge primarily consists of two components: one to carry the load and one as protection against the elements. The constructive parts contains 2 glass beams with a span of 3.5m, each 30mm thick(3x 10mm float glass). This means all of the 3 layers carry the same amount of load. From safety point of view, maybe it should have been better to make a difference between inner and outer layers. The floor plates,2x 15mm float glass, are glued to the beams with a silicone adhesive. The glass walls and roof are also connected and can be seen as structural parts. The complete bridge could work like a big rectangular glass beam that is supported on two points.
INVISIBLE FLOOR The bridge itself gives an unusual experience just because it is against human nature to walk on a transparent surface. Certainly when this surface lifted a few meters above the ground. Because there were no designing guide lines, Rob Nijsse had to prove is strength by testing. At the opening heavy sand bags were crashed into the bridge, but nothing bad happened. After the employees saw it was safe and started to trust the glass they did a test with human weight and still everything was fine.When looking at the picture it becomes clear that the people look a little bit nervous. They are not used to this situation, that is what makes it even more fun.
DAMAGE BRIDGE After the opening the glass bridge immediately had to encounter damages. A hooligan destroyed one of the side panes, but it was only the outer layer.. So it didn’t damage the construction. But it did showed that laminating the panel was a good choice. Another bridge of Nijsse, build by the same principle, had even greater damage when a truck drove into the supporting beam. Still the bridge was intact and functional. This shows the potential of laminated beams, and that the bridge itself work like a beam.
SAFETY GLASS Theoretically, glass is an excellent loadbearing material, the biggest concern is its brittleness. When the brittleness is taken into account, it can be compared to other well-known structural materials. But it is far from easy designing a glass load-bearing structure. Brittle means that above a certain elastic zone the material suddenly fails. Compared to other construction materials glass has one big disadvantage, it doesn’t warm before failure. And due to the amount of the flaws, that are not visible, there is no certain stress level on which glass will fail. Therefore it’s hard to determine a fixed value to calculate with, and this means that it’s hard to write specific design guidelines. There are some European Norms, but these are still limited. So a lot of testing is needed to prove its strength. 25 28
LEAP S1 EXTREME INTEGRATED
LEAP S1 2011 COURMAYEUR, ITA 28
ABOUT The LEAPfactory (Living Ecological Alpine Pod) is the first alpine refuge of the latest generation. The pod provides the optimal combination of comfort and safety. A focus of LEAPfactory is also to have respect for the environment. It was installed in 2011 in Courmayeur on the Freboudze glacier in Italy. It is now ready for use by mountaineers and climbers.
MORE Line : FRP: Single cantilever: Curved: Off-site: Bending:
8,12,14,18,20 24,42,82,86,88 18,86 22,54,58 24,42,62,74,84 8,22,24,26, 38,42,62,66,70
STRUCTURAL SHAPE The form, shape and construction of the pod are derived from the resistance it should have to the extreme weather conditions in the alpine environment. The whole construction works as a well insulated structural shell. In case of a damage to the pod. The section that is damaged can be removed and replaced due to its modularity. 29
CONCEPT One of the main issues of the design have a strong consideration to the environmental impact. The design differs from traditional alpine structures form an aesthetic point of view. The look of the pod comes from the high-tech features it has and its ability to cope with the extreme environment. The pod is made in a such a way that when the life-cycle has ended, the element can be taken away without leaving any traces of its presence. It is entirely built off-site, suitable for transport by helicopter and easy to install at high altitude.
MODULAR The pod is made of independent parts which can be connected together in a desirable configuration. Each part has a certain function. Different modules can be connected together to get the desired facilities and capacity considering the location. The minimum unit sleeps four to six people. Larger units can have units independent from each other. The size can be changed in. If repair or maintenance is needed a module can be removed and flown away by an ordinary helicopter. This is only possible due to the low weight of the modules and makes it possible to be fully assembled in the off-site workshop. When installing the modules on-site no machining is necessary and the can be taken in use immediately.
FUNCTIONS Every module can house different functions. These vary from living, sleeping, toilets and an entrance. The entrance module provides access to the living area while the precious heat inside is preserved. It includes a storage space for bags, other climbing equipment and a compartment for emergency equipment. The living module is fitted out with a dining area, a kitchen and a small pantry. This module also accommodates the technological equipment needed. The sleeping module is based on a flexible layout so the varying number of guests can be accommodated. The beds are made without soft parts with resistant antibacterial materials. This increases the durability and reduces the need for maintenance. The sanitary Module is built up of a lavatory and a wash room. This module is located at the end of the pod where it also provides access to the emergency exits while the heat is preserved in the main area of the pod. The bathroom is equipped with a biological system that disposes all sewage through a filter without the need for further purification. 32
TETRA GLASS ARCH GLASS ‘TRUSS’ ALL GLASS
NICOLA BOGATZKI ET AL. JAN WURM ET AL.
TETRA GLASS ARCH 2000 BERLIN, GER 34
ABOUT The tetra arch is developed as proposal for a station platform in the time that the German railway association still had faith in the train becoming the number 1 transport vehicle. Railway station Berlin-Spandau, with its dimension of 20m by 150m was an sample project for this new station. The main function of the station would be a naturally ventilated hall that protected the visitors against the elements(rain, wind, etc.)
MORE Portal: Glass: Arc: Folded: On-site: Compression:
38,42,44 8,12,58,66,80 76,80,82,88 38 8,26,48,70,80 58,76,80,82,84
GLASS â€˜TRUSSâ€™ A semi-circular arch is constructed out of 12 equal tetrahydra. In the tetra arch linear elements, flat plates, are used to make load-bearing modules in the form of a tetrahydra. An important issue of glass is that is handle compressive stress very well, but is bad against tensile stresses. Therefore is it important that the glass is always subject to compressive stress. At the Tetra Arch this is done with additional prestressed elements, in this case cables. After calculations it became clear that with some modifications a span of 30m could be reached.
GLASS TRUSS ARCH The tetra arch is based on a modular construction system. Multiple of these arch should form a giant station hall. A prototype of a single arch was presented at the glasstec fair in 2000.With using an modular system the complete structure can be prefabricated, on which the individual plates can be cleaned and placed. The structural bond between the glass plates is essential in this design. A total of 3 plates are needed to form one tetrahydra. By cutting the plates in the right angle the edge length is optimized, making it easier to transfer the loads through the glass.
CONNECTION All the elements ere made of 2x6mm laminated heat-strengthened glass plates and all connections are made of anodised aluminium.All the joints accommodate a certain tolerance to resist minor inequalities in the fabrication and assembly process.
CONNECTING Due to the fact that the Tetra Arch is a modular system all connections had to be the same. Two different connections are used to make this load-bearing arch. Firstly the nodal connection at the bottom between the tetrahedra, secondly the top connection connecting the different glass plates. Because of the overall compression in the arch all the joint can be contact joint instead of fixed joints. This makes the modular structure even more feasible. All the edges of the plates are cut in the right angle and fit within the 3mm tolerance of the connection. The glasses are placed in U-shaped profiles which evenly distribute the force into the joints.
COMBINING TO PAVILION Multiple of the arches together can form the giant hall which was described in the project description. This complete building is never realised, only a few different scale-models of several opportunities are made. As opposed to the rest of this book, where no concepts are shown, are three of those are exposed on this page. With doing this it becomes more clear what the potential of this Tetra Arch is. It shows that with smart use of glass, and by making sure there is only compressive stress on the glass, you can make a pretty impressive glass load-bearing structure.
MÜLIMATT BRUGG ALL-IN-ONE-DESIGN MONOLITHIC ROOF SHELL
STUDIO VACCHINI ARCHITETTI FÜRST LAFFRANCHI
MÜLIMATT BRUGG 2010 BRUGG, GER 40
ABOUT The sports facility located in Brugg houses three gymnastics, several smaller gyms and some classrooms is built next to the recreational area besides the river Aare in Germany. It works as an eye catcher for rail-travellers due to its remarkable dimensions and distinctive build up shape. The structure can be seen as a all-inone-design since the lightweight and thin folded membrane keep the rainwater out, make sure the structure is stable, supports the glass facades, keep direct sunlight out of the interior and lead rainwater fram the roof down in between the folds.
MORE Portal: UHPFRC: Portal: Folded: Pre-fab: Bending:
34,42,44 14,18,70,84 42,44,66,70,84 34 44,50,76,86,88 8,12,18,26, 30,50,62,66,70
FOLDED WALLS By folding the walls a greater active section is realised to carry the loads. With this simple method the strength of the material is increased dramatically and thereby the conditions for a this visual presence are realized. The production of these folded V-shaped and Y-shaped walls were pre-casted upside down to ensure a complete filling of the mould and without any air occlusions.
STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS The structure can be seen as a roof shell structure, consisting from folded concrete portals. These portals are made out of precast, thin, folded walls with a height section of 2.59 m and a width of 2.93 m which cover a relative surface of 0.37 m. The span of a single portal frame is over 50 m and has a height of almost 15 m. These portal frames are repeated 81 times to realise the total facade of the building with a length over 65 m. The sizes of the elements are decides upon the number of joins but also on restrictions for transport.
SPORTZENTRUM MĂœLIMATT BRUGG
POST-TENSIONING To increase the compressive and flexural strength even more the elements are post-tensioned. The portal frames are tensioned in two directions. One direction along the roof span to minimize the bending moment, and one in the vertical direction to decrease the compressive force. To realize a flow of forces vertical through the foundation the floor slab of the gym is used to pull both columns towards the floor slab.
TEAMWORK To realize the strength of the structure the different element had to be connected to each other to be able to work together. This is done in multiple ways. One is the tensioned connection of the columns and the floor slab of the gym. Another is the steel plate connecting each frame to its neighbouring one and the tension cable running through all frames. The connection of the columns and their foundation base was poured on site with a high strength grout of the same mixture as the concrete used for the portal elements.
SPORTZENTRUM MĂœLIMATT BRUGG
STABILITY The structure is a stand-alone shell. It can restrain the bending moment and the compression due to its own weight but it is also stable in both directions. The stability in transverse direction in taken by the portal frames themselves, here the folded and post-tensioning is helpful. The stability in the longitudinal direction is taken by the diagonal panels in the corners of the frames, by the steel connection plate which connect 2 portals and a continuous tension tie.
SPORTZENTRUM MĂœLIMATT BRUGG
BUILDING BLOCKS MONOCOQUE SHELL
HODGETTS + FUNG THORNTON TOMASETTI
BUILDING BLOCKS 2012 LOS ANGELES, US 44
ABOUT The Building Blocks system was designed by Hodgetts + Fung for a competition launched by the Los Angeles Unified School District, the second largest school distict in Los Angeles. The goal was to find a replacement for the 10,000 little pre-fab classrooms that are now used by a large number of schools in Los Angeles. These classrooms are badly ventilated and old. The Building Blocks system is a modular system with an FRP roof/wall construction.
MORE Portal: FRP: Portal: Doubly curved: Off-site: Bending:
34,38,44 24,30,82,86,88 38,44,66,70,84 14,24,30,62,84 8,12,124,26, 30,38,50,62,66,70
SHAPE The designers of the roof shell started out with a sandwich panel. With an inside of foam and a skin of FRP. In the development of the design the sandwich element turned out to be unnecessary. The design of the roof with the V-shaped gutters and crown where the opening is form a rigid structure due to the curvature of the shell. The monocoque shell has a thickness of only 9 mm and weighs about 400 kg.
SHELL Three of the walls of the classroom are made out of FRP panels with windows above. The roof and part of the back wall are made of a single layer FRP shell with a opening which can be adjusted at the top to let light in and provide ventilation and cooling. The roof is both weather protection and a structural element. Lighting, fire safety system and the skylight are all integrated in the roof to reduce work on-site.
AMAZING WHALE JAW POLYSTYRENE BLOCKS CNC CUTTING
NIO ARCHITECTEN ZONNEVELD & ENGIPLAST
AMAZING WHALE JAW 2003 HOOFDDORP, NED 46
ABOUT The amazing whale jaw is a busstation in front of the Hospital of Hoofddorp in The Netherlands. The building is completely made of polystyrene foam and polyester. It was at the time the worldâ€™s largest structure made from synthetic materials measuring 50m x 10m x 5m. The budget that was available (â‚Ź1000000,-) meant that it could never have been created using conventional construction methods. The building is one of the first in the world from which the structural parts are manufactured directly out of a digital model using a computer-controlled grinder.
MORE Portal: FRP: Portal: Doubly curved: Pre-fab Combined:
34,38,42 24,30,42,7,88 38,42,66,70,84 14,82,84,86,88 12,14,18,20,22,82 74,86
STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS The polyester skin of the bus station has a surface area of about 900 m2 and has a varying thickness of 5 to 8 mm. The largest span measures 32 metres where the maximum deflection measures 100 mm due to the wind-load. There are differences between ratio of expansion of the polystyrene on the inside and the polyester skin. The skin deals with all the forces, the polystyrene functions as spacer preventing folding. At some parts the skin separated from the polystyrene. Therefore the radii had to be greater than 150 mm to prevent this. To lead the forces to the foundations plywood and steel plating is used. Actually the foundation was not normative for the pressure it had to take. Because the structure is so lightweight strong winds could blow it away.
MODEL The model of the design is completely modelled digitally. Including all the facilities like lighting and installations. This model has also been used to control the 5-axis cutter.
AMAZING WHALE JAW
PRODUCTION By using a 5-axis cutter the cutting could be done faster because less horizontal movement is required. The complete structure is divided into smaller blocks of polystyrene which are glued together. The EPS 15 blocks measured 4x1.25x1.25 m, totalling 200 blocks in the completed bus station. Special attention was given to the tolerances. Polystyrene has a tolerance of 5 mm/m. Also cutting the blocks led to a huge amount of waste. After cutting no extra work is needed to be done and the parts are ready for assembly. To get all the pieces in place on-site a temporary steel construction was made. The pieces are all glued together on-site and the polyester skin is applied a temporary tent. The white skin began to turn green in time, therefore there was chosen to apply a orange coating later. 49 46
AMAZING WHALE JAW
MATERIAL Polystyrene provided the necessary properties for the project. It is lightweight, which was needed for the high volume. The architectâ€™s first sketches were very organic shaped objects. The polystyrene allowed for the smooth and flowing shape.
AMAZING WHALE JAW
TEMPLE DE L’AMOUR LOAD-BEARING WALL FLOATING ROOF
TEMPLE DE L’AMOUR 2001 BOURONDIE, FRA 50
ABOUT Temple de l‘Amour II was built on the abutment of a former railway bridge. 2.5 m of limestone were crushed to reveal this beautiful space, formerly concealed. On the bridge a pavilion was made a contrast to the already existing Temple de l’amour, which was built in the 18th century. Any interference of construction has been avoided: glass itself carries the roof, creating a full panorama, but show the old abutment .The goal with this glass facade was to create a ‘floating’ roof, so everything had to be detailed very subtle.
MORE Plane: Glass: Vertical support: Flat: On-site: Compression:
50,54,58,62 8,12,26,80 14,54,58,74 8,12,18,50,66 8,26,34,54,80 14,80,82,84
LOAD-BEARING WALLS The glass panes that carries the roof are supported at the bottom at several points and therefore can evenly distribute the loads through the pane, but the panes itself are not stable. With connecting the four panes actually the whole structure can be regarded as an enormous rectangular column. The wider a column is the more stable it is. So with connecting the panels, one big column is created. Because the roof is designed lightweight, the glass can handle its dead-weight.
FLOATING ROOF The goal is a glass façade that also carries his roof. A flat glass pane doesn’t have the properties to carry the loads of a roof. Most of the times fins are needed to distribute these loads. This T-shape that’s created with these fins is much stronger than a flat sheet. But if several long flat sheets are connected they can work together as one stable structure. Dirk-Jan Postel used this constructive principle to design a floating roof. With using a glass facade more attention is drawn to the historic bridge and the with the use of a natural coloured roof the pavillion almost disappears in the forest.
TEMPLE DE L’AMOUR
ZONNESTRAAL FOLLY SMOOTH MOULD CANTILEVERED PLATE
HENKET & PARTNERS
ZONNESTRAAL FOLLY 2005 HILVERSUM, NED 52
ABOUT Sanatorium Zonnestraal was the first building made out of visible concrete in the Netherlands in 1928. This was the reason for the Dutch association Concrete, which celebrated its 75 birthday, to demonstrate the developments on concrete technology and construction. This resulted into the build of the Zonnestraal Folly in 2005, which is made out of UHPFRC and had a slender design combined with a, for concrete, huge overhang.
GEOMETRY For the design of the Zonnestraal Folly the use of a 3d finite element method was used since the design was to complex to calculate by hand. The main build-up for the geometry is the top plate, which actually is made out of 4 triangle elements connected into one, the ribs underneath and the 4 branches. The calculation was used to determine the thickness and position of the ribs underneath. The thickness of the plate itself was set on 25 mm since this was a size seen before. The tests resulted in ribs with a width of 40 mm and a variation in height of 50, 175, 225 and 275 mm. The tests also resulted in a folded end of the total plate of 50 mm to lessen the deflection. The total deflection of the folly is 45 mm which corresponds with 1/200 of the span and a horizontal movement by wind of 8 mm, corresponding with 1/500 of the total height. Both according to the limitations.
MORE Plane: 48,54,58,62 UHPFRC: 14,18,70,84 Double cantilever: 62 Flat: 8,12,18,20,66 Pre-fab: 12,14,18,20,86,88 Bending: 8,22,24,26, 30,38,42,66,70
THE FOLLY The folly has a top surface of 81 square meter, the result of a 9 x 9 meter concrete plate. The plate itself has reinforcement ribs in two direction and is connected to 4 concrete branches which lead to a RVS column connected to a foundation plate. The free height of the folly is 3.5 meter from the ground up. The surface of the folly is untreated concrete as it resulted from the casting process but will last for 100 years.
CONNECTIONS Since the plate was made out of 4 elements connections where needed. These connection are realized with RVS plates, anchors and bolts. The anchors and bolt could be place while casting and therefore the bolts could be used to mount the elements together. This also resulted in the goal for the folly to be demountable. In image x it is visible how bending tensile stress is directed towards the ribs underneath. This shows that the connection plates should also have a certain size to work as desired. RVS was also used for the connection at the branches.
MOULD For the plate the decision was made to create is from 4 triangle elements due to transportation and production techniques available. For the realisation of the mould a file to factory technique was used. The 3d model also used for the calculation could be converted and send to a CNC machine that would cut the shape out of triplex plywood. This plywood was then treated with putty and finished with a varnish for the surface to result smooth out of the mould. For the moulding process it was made sure the top plane of the plate was placed horizontally.
RAINBOW PANORAMA COLOURED GLASS CURVED GLASS WALL
SHL ARCHITECTEN NIRAS A/S
RAINBOW PANORAMA 2004 AARHUS, DEN 59
ABOUT ‘Your rainbow panorama”, designed by artist Olafur Eliasson, is a circular, panoramic walkway, in all colors of the rainbow, built on the roof of the ARoS Art museum designed by schmidt hammer lassen architects. The ARoS building design was inspired by Dante’s “Divine Comedy,” the nine circles of Hell and the journey up from the mountain of Purgatory, ending in perfection, Paradise. The completion of “Your rainbow panorama” on top of the museum represents the finishing touch of the building’s idea.
MORE Plane: Glass: Vertical support: Curved: On-site: Compression:
48,50,58,62 8,12,58,66,80 14,48,58,74 22,30,58 8,26,70,80 14,34,80,82,84
CURVED GLASS WALL The roof of Rainbow Panorama is all along the way carried by slightly curved glass panels. With curving the panels they gain slightly more strength, making it possible to carry the roof. It can be compared with a flat and curved piece of paper, one will immediately notice that the curved piece of paper is significantly more stable. With connecting all these curved glass panels a stable structure is created, comparable with a circular column with a great radius. This makes it possible to bear the loads of the roof and wind.
LOAD-BEARING GLASS To create an optimized panoramic view over the whole city the designers wanted to get rid of any column or window frame. This led to a design were an all transparent facade also has to carry its roof. To make this concept easier to realize a very lightweight roof is constructed, making the dead-load that the glass has to bear smaller. With connecting all the curved glass plates, two enormous circular ‘columns’ are created. With this principle the glass could easily carry the loads. With assembling the glass to the sides of the floor and roof the facade became all transparent from top to too. Now the concept of an unhindered 360degrees view is elaborated to the max.
YOUR RAINBOW PANORAMA
COLOURED PANELS Every panels has its own colour. So along the complete circle there is no panel that is the same. The glass panels in “Your rainbow panorama” are built up of 2 x 12 mm laminated glass, composed of up to 6 coloured sheets creating the individual shades. For the sake of safety, the annealed glass plates have been heat-reinforced and laminated together around the coloured sheets.
COLOURED GLASS ‘‘Your rainbow panorama establishes a dialogue with the existing architecture and reinforces what was already there, that is to say the view across the city. I have created a space that can almost be said to erase the boundary between inside and outside - a place where you become a little uncertain as to whether you have stepped into a work of art or into part of the museum. This uncertainty is important to me, as it encourages people to think and sense beyond the limits within which they are accustomed to function.’’ Olafur Eliasson, Artist To make the experience and concept even more distinct the artist wanted the complete facade to be an rainbow panorama. Therefore all the glass had to be coloured, a process that is not done a lot with structural glass. 62 56
YOUR RAINBOW PANORAMA
YOUR RAINBOW PANORAMA
MAS ANTWERP CURVED GLASS WIND LOAD
NEUTELINGS RIEDIJK ARCHITECTS
MAS ANTWERP 2010 ANTWERP, BE 65
ABOUT The plan to develop a new museum at the Antwerp city harbour came from the desire to improve the quality and atmosphere of the unused harbour near the historic city centre of Antwerp. This museum will house a great variation of subjects going from historic to modern art. Although the building itself is pretty interesting will this chapter focus on the corrugated glass facade. The height of this facade is at some placed two times the story height, 5,5m, which results in an 11m high facade. Of course this had to be all transparent.
MORE Plane: Glass: Vertical support: Curved: On-site: Compression:
48,50,54,62 8,12,66,80 14,48,54,74 22,30,54 8,26,70,80 14,34,80,82,84
CURVED GLASS Bending glass can be done in different ways. The principle used in this case is hot bending. The curved glass is manufactured by slowly heating up flat annealed glass, which is already cut into the right size, to the softening temperature. At this temperature the flat panel starts to deform by the force of gravity, and is it taking its curved shape from the custom made mould. Once the wanted shape is created a slow cooling process follows. Curved glass can also be produced out of tempered and heat-strengthened glass panels.
GLASS ELEMENTS The 11 meter high corrugated glass elements had to be produced to fill the full height corners. Unfortunately itâ€™s not possible to produce corrugated glass panels of 11 meter, due to the fact that the glass industry has a limitation to 6 meter because of production and transport restrictions. For these elements Sunglass was chosen to produce 5,5 meter high corrugated glass panels. So the 11 meter height is made out of two corrugated elements. A critical point in producing the elements is the exactness in which the panels can be made. To connect all the panels correctly the dimensions of each panels had to be the same. However, with the production process all the elements are made one by one, which makes it hardly impossible to create exactly the same elements. But with a severe inspection and secure measuring it was possible to create all the different elements within a tolerance of +/- 2mm. PLANE
WIND-LOAD The structural principle of a corrugated panel works the same as a flat glass sheet and a structural glass fin to take the wind-load. Because of the shape, curved panels with equal thickness as flat panels, will perform better against wind-loads. This is because of the properties of the curved shape that can reduce deflection of the panels. The corrugated panels consist a convex and a concave part. When the wind puts a pressure on the concave shape it will deform slightly, but the convex part will retain its shape and therefore keeps the panel in its original shape. The picture shows the effect of corrugateness on the deformation, from 750 mm (blue, flat) to 5 mm (yellow, corrugated)
CORRUGATED GLASS Corrugated glass is flat glass bended in the furnace into a certain shape. In this way more economic since corrugated glass panels can be much thinner then flat glass panels to take up the same windloads. Also architects like the corrugateness of the faรงades as well; it gives a lively reflections.
STEEL CONNECTION The steel connection is made to bear the wind-loads and lead them to the main load bearing structure. The end of the tubes are immediately connected to this structure, but at the corners of the facade the steel support is connected by a steel chain. By doing this a nice detail is created.
CONNECTING Because of the division in the facade, there has to be a support halfway. With the transparent concept of the facade this connection has to be a slender as possible. For this intermediate is support is chosen to make a steel tube. This support is only to carry the wind-load of the facade. The lowest corrugated panels are bearing the dead-load of the panels above. So they act like they are stacked on top of each other. At the top and bottom of the panels the glass is linear clamped in a metal shoe, protected with a rubber layer. This gives the panels some freedom in movement. This connection is made without penetrating the glass, by not doing this one prevents peak stress in the glass. This is an advantage because the glass will barely fail.
YITZHAK RABIN CENTER FLOATING GIANT WINGS
MOSHE SAFDIE ARCHITECTS
YITZHAK RABIN CENTER 2005 TEL AVIV, ISR 71
ABOUT Architect Moshe Safdie was asked to design the Rabin Centre ten years after the assassination of Israel’s prime minister Yitzak Rabin. The centre includes a museum focusing on Rabin’s life and times, a museum of defence, an auditorium, a research institute, a library, and a Great Hall for multi-purpose use. Both the Great Hall and the library are roofed by curved shell elements, which create shade over the glazed facade and reflect the light inside.
MORE Plane: FRP Double cantilever: Doubly curved: Off-site: Bending:
48,50,54,58 24,30,76,88 50 24,76,30,84 8,20,22,24,26 30,50,66,70
LIGHTWEIGHT STRUCTURE A total of five roof constructions (from 115 m² to 310 m²) are made of sandwich panels with glass fiber reinforced skins. Because of the complex shape, FRP is chosen over conventional materials like steel and concrete..This lightweight construction enabled the use of a fragile glass/steel support structure.
DEVELOPMENT First a welded grid of steel beams with concrete on top was proposed the structural engineers from Arup. Partly due to the request of a seamless covering of the roof by the architect to take a different design approach. The engineers from Octatube decided to fabricate the roof like a giant surfboard of foam with a pre-stressed GRP skin. The largest wing of the in total 5 different wings on the roof measured 30x20 m. The budget was a big issue. Early in the process the proposed solution went over budget. But the architect was convinced of the solution and an experimental preengineering contract was introduced to execute and develop the experimental design.
YITZHAK RABIN CENTER
PRODUCTION The production technique used for the roof segments was based on well-known production techniques for sailing ship hulls. The five segmented roofs were shipped to the building site in super-crates (3.5x3.5x15 m). The segments were assembled at the building site, upon which they were connected by reinforced strips and measured. Next the wings are finished with structural reinforcement meshes and filler. The bottom side gets a fire retarding layer and the top side was covered with an infra red-light resistant layer. Then the shells were turned over and the process is repeated before they can be hoisted up to be connected to the buildingâ€™s roof.
YITZHAK RABIN CENTER
YITZHAK RABIN CENTER
APPLE STORE 1.0 & 2.0 ALL GLASS TRANSPARENCY
BOHLIN CYWINSKI JACKSON ECKERSLEY O’CALLAGHAN
APPLE STORE NEW YORK 2011 NEW YORK, USA 76
ABOUT Apple ,a company known for its smooth and nice product designs, has exclusive flagship stores all over the world as nice as their products. To show the exclusivity of their products they built these extravagant stores all over the world, so also the Apple store in New York. As entrance of their flagship store Apple wanted a contrast against the enormous high-rise in New York City. With an all glass pavilion Apple wants to show to drag attention to the store, but also show their transparency.
DIFFERENCE 1.0 & 2.0 Only a few years after completing the Apple store 1.0 Steve Jobs, former owner of Apple was not satisfied with the design anymore. The cube had to be more simplistic, with less panels, columns, beams and connections. Therefore he contacted the architect and engineers of the first project to create a new design with the current techniques. This led to a completely new glass cube only 5 years after the completion of the ‘old’ one.
MORE Box: Glass: Portal: Flat: On-site: Bending:
2006 106 panels 20 columns 35 beams 164 glass units 250 primary fittings
70,74 8,12,26,58,80 38,42,44,70,84 8,12,48,50 54,58,70,80 8,12,22,24,26, 30,50,62,70
2011 15 panels 8 columns 2 beams 28 glass units 40 primary fittings
APPLE STORE 1.O The Cube 1.0, completed in 2006 was designed, built and fabricated at the limits of structural glass technology at the time. The 6m by 1,8m panels were one of the biggest glass panels ever produced. Engineers of Eckersley O’callaghan designed all new fabrication and connection technologies especially for glass Apple stores. Which Apple patent so no-one could ever copy the apple store. The roof is made of a grid of glass fins that carry the flat roof plates. The facade contain vertical fins to carry the wind-loads. By connecting the grid of fins at the top, with the fins of the facade a stable all glass structure is made. The flat plates are connected to the fins with inserts that are laminated between the different layers of glass. Therefore no cut-outs are made in the glass plates which makes them stronger. 77 BOX
APPLE STORE 1.0 & 2.0
APPLE CUBE 2.0 The new production techniques of making larger glass panels, laminating and tempering made is possible to produce new facade element with the dimensions of 18m by 3.6m. The structural behaviour works the same as with the first cube: * Stability maintained from the stiffness of the side walls. * Roof: 2 single beams spanning the complete structure, not structural grid as in the 1st version.
APPLE STORE 2.0 The Apple Cube 2.0, completed in 2011, has translated advancements of fabrication into improvements on the transparency levels. With this design is the first one to use 10.30 meters high fully laminated elements. This resulted automatically to less connections in the facade, and created even more transparency. Seele Sedak has developed a new, special oversized glass element for building structures, called glascobond. It’s a trademarked laminated glass product using Dupont’ s Sentry Glas films. The SentryGlas interlayer, a special ionoplast polymer, allows for greater bonding characteristics and improved structural properties. The interlayer is laminated between the glass panels, increasing the stiffness and load-bearing capacities. Also the insert connections are improved compared to the ‘old’ ones, these connections could bear more load. 78 68
APPLE STORE 1.0 & 2.0
METALLIC INSERTS The concept of connecting with laminated inserts between the glass layers has also been advanced. With doing this more sophisticated details have been developed that donâ€™t even use bolts and nuts anymore. The insert is designed to make it possible to rotate a metal pin inside it. By connecting the glass fin and panel, and than rotating this pin a secure connection is made without using bold and nuts, and without drilling holes. This makes the pavilion ever more interesting.
CONNECTING With the reduction of the amount of glass panels, automatically less amount of fins and connections were needed. With so little inserts the engineers tried the completely let them â€˜disappearâ€™. One of the reasons that the cube was rebuild was because they wanted to show their new developed connections. With the new technique of laminating, in combination with the PVB-interlayer, made is possible to make even stronger connections. The challenge they had was to design connections for the fins and plates where all the screws and nuts are not noticeable. Eventually the engineers succeeded in making this design that now is patented, and use in all of the glass Apple store. This makes is hardly impossible to copy one of the apple stores.
APPLE STORE 1.0 & 2.0
COCTEAU MUSEUM MONOCOQUE ROOF BOX
COCTEAU MUSEUM 2006 MENTON, FRA 81
ABOUT The monocoque structure houses the museum and the permanent collection. Next to this there are several other spaces such as, space for temporary expositions, for workshops, a library and a large cafe. The building is designed by an architect with a passion for UHPFRC, Rudy Ricciotti, and was finished in 2006 in Menton, France. The structural engineering is done by the same office. The building stands alongside the coastline and therefore has a direct link to the ocean and the beach.
MORE Box: UHCFRC: Portal: Doubly curved: On-site: Bending:
66,74 14,38,50,84 38,42,44,66,84 86,34,48,54,58 8,20,22,24,26, 30,38,50,62,66
SHELLED STRUCTURE The structure is used for architectural expression from the outside, to indicate certain pathways besides and towards the museum and exhibition. While using an overhang direct sunlight is kept out of the building while daylight can penetrate the building to exhibit the art in a proper way. The shell is also used in a smart way for insulation by positioning the boundary completely on the inside. In the concrete element savings are implemented so a glass layer can be easily installed and meet the regular insulating ceilings and walls.
BUILDING COMPONENTS The building consists of 2 levels. The basement, which was a pre-existing volume on the location, and the ground floor level. The concrete structure is placed on top of the existing basement and works as a shell for protection. The whole building covers 2700 square meters. The building only consists of a few components. There are the columns which are monolith. Then there is the roof surface which is a continues surface with raised edged, this is done for a finishing roof surface in between these edges to connect the different roof elements and realize a continues roof surface. And then there is the transparent layer of glass which is places vertically but also in horizontal plane underneath the roof openings.
JEAN COCTEAU MUSEUM
CONSTRUCTIVE ACTION The structure can be seen as a monocoque, were material is removed in three directions. North-South and West-East but also in Top-Bottom some material is removed. By this alteration columns are created. These columns transfer the load towards the foundation but they also work together for the structure to be stable in all the directions. The use of UHPFRC in this building is not only used for the strength needed to facilitate the structure, it may also could have been done with less compact concrete. But the untreated finish of the concrete could have only been done, especially over time, with high performance concrete. Besides this the amount of freedom realized in the design is also a result of the use of this material.
JEAN COCTEAU MUSEUM
JEAN COCTEAU MUSEUM
BULLE 6 COQUES REVOLUTIONARY HOLIDAY HOME
BULLE 6 COQUES 1968 GRIPP, FRA
ABOUT Jean Maneval was an architect urban designer and theorist. He died in 1986 at the age of 63. In 1964 he developed a living unit made of only synthetic materials. The idea was revolutionary at the time. In 1968 a vacation centre in Gripp in the Pyrenees of France was equipped with this new holiday accomodations.
MORE Box: FRP: Vertical support: Doubly curved: Off-site: Combined:
66,70 24,30,86,88 14,48,54,58 14,24,42,44,62, 24,30,42,62,84 44,86
TECHNIQUE Each pod is made from six identical shells. They are joined together by water-proof and easily removable seals. The concrete base carries a steel frame supporting the polyester shells. A round cap joins the six shells together and provide a protection against rainwater. The total living area of the whole unit was only 36 m2 and weighs 1.5 tons.
PLASTIC Each living unit consist of six identical shells. The shells were compact and weigh 210kg so transportation by truck was easy. The shells were made of methacrylate reinforced polyester insulated with polyurethane foam in white, green and brown and made in the factory. Twenty of the houses were built up in Gripp, while ten others went to other places. Only 30 factory built units have been made since.
BULLE 6 COQUES
CALIFORNIA BAY HOUSE MONOCOQUE SMALL PANELS
WALKER MOODY ARCHITECTS KREYSLER & ASSOCIATES
CALIFORNIA BAY HOUSE 2007 TIBURON, US 87
ABOUT The engineering challenge of this project was to construct a two-story residence using materials that makes its unique, curved shape configuration practically possible yet compliant with building codes and local fire ordinances. The design solution resulted in a 2-story composite monocoque shell formed from nine molded fiberglass-skinned panels in which the living room is situated. The shell itself provides the primary structure without the support of additional columns or bracing.
MORE Dome: FRP: Arc: Doubly curved: Pre-fab: Compression:
80,82 24,30,82,86,88 34,80,82,88 14,,84,86,88 12,14,82,86,88 14,34,82,84
ASSEMBLY Nine panels are joined together to form the structure. The window openings are integrated in the panels. The nine panels are unique and thus separately molded. The panels are connected mechanically by bolts and nuts. Wide joint flanges between the panels provide support for the second-story floor and interior walls. To create a smooth surface finish a stucco overlay is applied to the exterior. This layer is also needed to meet the local fire code.
ASSEMBLY The shell is built up from custom molded FRP sandwich panels using fire a retardant unsaturated polyester resin and a 38 mm thick balsa core. Panels were made from recyclable CNC-milled foam molds from digital data derived by laser scanning of the designerâ€™s scale model. Nine panels were shipped and assembled on site to create the structural skin of this building. The balsacored sandwich panel, with 50 mm thick core and 4.76 mm thick woven fiber glass mat skins. Sandwich design was preferred over a monolithic (without a core) laminate of fiber glass. This because the cored sandwich provided greater stiffness and thus less deflection, it also provided some insulation.
CALIFORNIA BAY HOUSE
LOAD BEARING STRUCTURE The double curved shape makes it possible to built up the construction of relatively thin panels of only 50 mm thick. The shape of the shell and the lightness of the construction provide enough strength. for the structure so no supporting structure is needed.
ENGINEERING The projectâ€™s design principal made a plaster model of a two-story living quarters. This was later laser scanned for digital manufacturing. The people the architects contacted were trying to come up with curved metal frames or wooden beams. These traditional means and methods just couldnâ€™t work costeffectively with this shape. The structural engineer Kreysler, agreed that a monocoque structure, without internal framework, could be realized easily with composites. Initially the engineer wanted to build the house as a single part, but they were not able to obtain permits for a helicopter to fly the complete house to the location. Instead, the overall shape was broken into nine segments that would be molded separately for assembly on site. How and where to break up the shape was determined digitally. Considering the size of the milling machine, transport and the manageable and stable parts. 78
89 CALIFORNIA BAY HOUSE
DETAILING The outer wet ply used during assembly is used to ensure a watertight joint. A shallow indent in the panels create space for a smooth finish. The balsa core tapers to the joints to create space to use the fasteners. At the points where the fasteners are located a indent is made to create enough thickness for the bolts and nuts.
CONNECTING The segmented design approach required a water- and weather tight design of the joints. The engineers devised keyed panel joints to create a smooth connection on the outside. The lay-up was designed such that the balsa core would taper at the edge of each panel. The two skins would be overlapped to form a flange of 50 mm wide. When the layers of fibreglass were pressed together and cured, indents are formed along the flanges. These could be drilled later to house the metallic fasteners. The flanges also double as supports for the interior walls and floors. To ensure a watertight joint a wet-laminate of fiber glass is cured over the joints on-site.
CALIFORNIA BAY HOUSE
GLASS DOME DOUBLE CURVED PANES ALL GLASS
WERNER SOBEK LUCIO BALDINI
GLASS DOME 2003 STUTTGART, GER 91
ABOUT A few years before the model was made the designers saw a smaller glass dome of only four glass panels and they thought this would be a nice starting point for a next experiment. Not only with making the doubly curved glass panels, but also make an adhesive bond that would be strong enough to take the force that arise in a dome. This model is the final result of the research they did, showing the potential of glass domes.
MORE Dome: Glass: Arc: Doubly curved: On-site: Compression:
76,82 8,12,26,58,66 34,76,82,88 14,24,42,4 26,54,58,66,70 14,54,58,82,84
DOMES Arches and Domes only have to bear compressive stresses and therefore are an ideal form as a glass structure. They span large areas by resolving forces into compressive stresses and eliminating tensile stresses. The forces on the dome are carried towards the ground, the dome will push outward at the base (called thrust). As the dome want to deform because of the load, the outward thrust increases. To prevent the arch from collapsing, the thrust needs to be restrained, either with internal ties or external bracing. In this example uses a steel external bracing to withstand the deformation.
DOUBLE CURVED PANELS This dome has a diameter of 8,5meters, with a rise of 1,75 in the middle. This whole dome is constructed out of doubly curved glass panels. These panels are composed of 8mm annealed glass and 2mm chemically strengthened glass. The plates are all connected with an epoxy resin bond of about 10mm thick. The ratio between the thickness and width of the span is 1:850, which is pretty impressive. Not only this ratio is impressive, it is also done with a high aesthetic quality. This structures shows the potential of the adhesive bonding. When use this as a connection no holes has to be made in the glass, which keeps the glass stronger. But it also is better looking because no connections are visible at all.
THE FLY’S EYE DOME CARBON MOLECULE MODULAR
R. BUCKMINSTER FULLER
THE FLY’S EYE DOME 1983 VARIOUS
ABOUT R. Buckminster Fuller made three Fly’s eye dome prototypes. Each in a different diameter of 3.5 m, 7.5 m and a big one meausuring 15 m in diameter. In 1965 Buckminster Fuller designed and patented the Fly’s Eye Dome. He called them an autonomous dwelling machine. He began to built the prototypes from 1977 until 1983 when they were finished. The dome possesses the same geometry as a carbon molecule. This molecule was not discovered until 1985, which was two years after Buckminster Fuller’s death. The molecule was named the fullerene in honor of him.
MORE Dome: FRP: Arc: Doubly curved: Pre-fab: Compression:
76,80 8,12,66 24,62,74,76,88 14,24,42,44,86 12,14,76,86,88 14,34,80,84
STRUCTURE Once assembled the Fly’s Eye Dome was able to support its own weight. The load was deforming the shape of some of the holes to a more oval shape. Small braces where made between the eyes to help the holes keeping their shape.
PANELS The complete dome is built up from 50 identical pieces. The pieces are produced with the help of a FRP mold with a balsa core to create a stiff mold. The panel thickness is about 4.5 mm of glassfiber. The sides of the panels are made by hand lay-up while the larger surfaces are done with a spray gun.
THE FLY’S EYE DOME
TRANSIT STATION THIN SHELL LIGHTWEIGHT
CPV GROUP AND LAFARGE
TRANSIT STATION 2005 SHAWNESSY, CAN 95
ABOUT For the light train railway station in Shawnessy in Calgary, Canada, a roof shelter was needed. The assignment called for a thin or light structure which could protect against the elements but would let light enter the platform. The project was finished in 2005 and was a cooperation between CPV group and Lafarge.
MORE Shell: UHPFRC: Portal: Doubly curved: Off-site: Compression:
86,88 14,18,38,50,70 38,42,66,70 14,42,62,70, 24,30,42,74 14,34,76,80,82
CURVATURE The strength of the canopy comes first of all from its light weight design and curved shape. The double curved shape of the shell improves the resistance for bending under its own weight or wind-loads. Therefore the shell can be realized with a 20 mm thick section. Were different parts of the structure meet or are connected to each other ribs are realized and for each of the shells are surrounded by thicker edge beams to take up the compressive or tensile forces.
FABRICATION The structure for the roof shelter consists of twenty-four thin-shelled precast concrete elements of five by six meter and only twenty mm thick which made for a light-filled shelter for the commuters. The design of the roof was made possible by the used material, UHPFRC. High enough strengths had been reached by the mixture and the added fibers, but also by the molding process. The material had to be mixed precisely and injected into the mold within twenty minutes. Next to this the mold had to have the right properties for the surface of the concrete to be as desired. It took an epoxy coating on the steel mold with bees wax as the dispersing agent and a controlled environment during mixing to reach the desired design as seen in figure 3. The complex shape of the design, together with the possibilities of the mold could have only created in an affordable manner with UHPFRC. SHELL
SHAWNESSY LIGHT RAIL TRANSIT STATION
PAVILION CANOPY UPWARD FORCE CANTILEVER
DARMODY ARCHITECTS GURIT LTD
PAVILION CANOPY 2014 CORK, UK 97
ABOUT The redesigned Mardyke Gardens in the Irish city Cork was meant to become an iconic attraction for tourists. The gardenâ€™s magnet should be a new pavilion with a modern canopy. The city hosts musical and theatrical performances there, as well as an outdoor cinema.
MORE Shell: FRP: Single Cantilever: Doubly curved: Pre-fab: Combined:
84,88 24,30,82,88 18,30 80,82,84,88 12,14,20,82,88 44,74
STRUCTURE The design had to cope with high new Eurocode standards for the loads and the stiffness. The stiffness criteria meant the structure could have a maximum deflection of 1:200. The primary load was an aerodynamic load. Because of the light structure and the shape of a parasail it wants to lift up. The total weight of the structure is 3.5 tons while the maximum uplift is 16 tons. The two steel brackets on both sides bear the uplift and downward loads. The fibers are laid in four directions (quadraxial) on the foam core to provide equal strength in all directions. In this way the material would behave like steel so it offered a good predictability of the structure.
DESIGN The initial design asked for a steel frame clad with wood. After an analysis it became clear that a shape like this is perfect to be produced with advanced composites. First a steel structure clad with glass fiber was proposed. Later investigation was done into a full FRP solution. Research was done to see if carbon reinforcements were necessary. In the end it became clear that glass fiber alone would provide sufficient strength and stiffness. An fully composite solution provided some benefits. No steel needed to be used which would eliminate the steel work and their connection. The complexity was reduced, the installation was simpler and less maintenance needed to be done throughout its lifetime. The canopy was built in two pieces in a cut along its length to make transportation possible and minimize on-site work.
RESEARCH PAVILION LONG FIBERS ROBOTICS
RESEARCH PAVILION 2014 STUTTGART, GER 99
ABOUT The Institute for Computational Design (ICD) and the Institute of Building Structures and Structural Design (ITKE) of the University of Stuttgart have constructed a bionic research pavilion. The project is part of a series of research pavilions which showcase the potential of innovative design, simulation and fabrication processes in architecture. The project was planned and constructed within one and a half years by students and researchers in a multi-disciplinary team consisting of biologists, paleontologists, architects and engineers. It took them 1.5 years to design and build the project.
STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS The elements are made using 6-axis industrial robots. These wind carbon fiber and glass fiber onto a frame. These fibers are chosen due to their high strenght (tension) to weight ratio. The first layer of glass fiber is tensioned between the two frames and forms the base for the next five layers. The layers of fibers lie on top of each other, tensioning each other. This results in a doubly-curved surface that is formed by the fiber layers instead of the wooden formwork. The layout of the carbon fibers is defined by the forces acting on each component. These forces are derived from the structural analysis of the complete structure.
MORE Shell: FRP: Arc: Doubly curved: Pre-fab: Tension:
84,86 24,30,42,86 34,76,80,82 14,80,82,84,86 12,14,18,82,86
STRUCTURE The pavilion is inspired by nature. The structure is based on the shells that protect the wings of beetles. These structures are made up from a double-layered system. These two layers consist of a natural fiber chitin (a glucose-like long-chain polymer) in a matrix of a protein. 3D models were made from the shells by using tomography and electron microscopes. By this they were able to create a double-layered, modular system for the architectural prototype based on the internal structure on the shells. The pavilion is built up of 36 unique elements. The largest element measures 2.6m in diameter and weighs only 24.1 kg. The entire pavilion has a footprint of 50 m2 and a volume of 122m3. The total weight adds up to 593 kg.
RESEARCH PAVILION 2014
FABRICATION The 36 components are all unique. They are based on the structural principles of beetle shells and the fiber layout is optimized according to the most efficient load-bearing system. With this system of two 6-axis robots collaborating the only form-work needed are the steel frames on which the fibers are winded. These define the edges of each component. The fibers are first tensioned in a straight line between the two frames. The winding of the fibers onto each other tensions them. This interaction between the fibers creates doubly-curved surfaces from first linear fibers. The order in which the fiber bundles, which are impregnated with resin, are wound onto the frames is essential for this process. This leads to a design process which is driven by the material taking control of the layout of every single fiber. The interaction between material, form, structure and fabrication are defined by the order of the winding process.
RESEARCH PAVILION 2014
RESEARCH PAVILION 2014
MORE Amazing Whale Jaw
W: http://www.mimoa.eu/projects/Netherlands/ Hoofddorp/Hoofddorp%20bus%20station W: http://www.nio.nl/wordpress/all-projects/ the-amazing-whale-jaw/
Apple Store 1.0 & 2.0 B: Challenging Glass 3 - Louter, C. Nijsse, R. Bos, F.
Bosse pedestrian bridge W: http://www.ultrabridges.com/#!projects/ c1vw1
Building Blocks W: http://compositesandarchitecture. com/?p=2410 W: http://hplusf.com/project/lausd-buildingblocks
Bulle 6 Coques W: http://www.designboom.com/eng/archi/ maneval.html W: http://jousse-entreprise.com/en/architectfurniture/artworks/six-shell-bubble-house-1968/ B: Telecharger le dossier Bulle 6 coques - Agence Captures
California Bay House W: http://www.kreysler.com/ka_ project/california-bay-house/ B: FRP-General-Info - Kreysler
Fly’s Eye Dome
Mulimatt brugg B: Hochbau / F. Persch Panorama Rainbow W: http://shl.dk/eng/#/home/about-architecture/ museum-exhibition/aros-kunstmuseum/ download
Pavilion Canopy W: http://www.compositesworld.com/articles/ pavilion-canopy-graceful-lines-strength-of-steel
Pont du Diable W: http://www.lamoureux-ricciotti.com/ passerelle-du-pont-du-diable-vallee-de-lherault-84/projet_detail-55.php
Quantum Blade W: http://www.designboom.com/technology/ worlds-longest-wind-turbine-blade-by-siemens/
Research Pavilion 2014 W: http://icd.uni-stuttgart. de/?tag=researchpavilion2013-14 B: FRP-General-Info - Kreysler V: http://vimeo.com/98783849
Shawnessy light rail transit station
W: http://compositesandarchitecture. com/?p=2436 V: Basic Bucky
A: PCI Journal: First use of UHPFRC in thin precast concrete roof shell for Canadian LRT station / H.H. Edwards
Temple de L’amour
A: Glas in constructieve toepassingen: Glazen brug Burgers’ Zoo - Ir. Erwin ten Brincke
Glass Domes B: Glass Structures Design and Construction of Self-supporting Skins - Jan Wurm
Jean Cocteau Museum W: http://aasarchitecture.com/2013/06/jeancocteau-museum-by-rudy-ricciotti.html
LEAP s1 W: http://www.leapfactory.it/en/ B: Leap s1 living nature on tip toe
MAS Antwerp A: GPD2011 - Corrugated glass facades - Rob Nijsse
Midtasen pavilion A: Projectbook Midtasen Pavilion: http:// www.lundhagem.no/#/about/ W: http://www.skandglas.se/references/ midtasen-skulpturpark
W: http://www.kraaijvanger.nl/nl/projecten/73/ temple-de-lamour/
Tetra Glass Arch B: Glass Structures Design and Construction of Self-supporting Skins / Jan Wurm
Villa Navarra A: Research innovation liflet: villa Navarra uk / F. Lamarre A: Journalist press kit: Navarra UK / F. Lamarre
Yitzhak Rabin Center W: http://www.octatube.nl/en/projects/3/yithzakrabin-center/
Yurakucho W: http://www.lusas.com/case/civil/cantilevered. html
Zonnestraal Folly B: Designing and Building with UHPFRC / F. Toutlemonde, J. Resplendino A: Cement 2005: constructie en uitvoering, utiliteitsbouw / F. van Herwijnen, R.W.S. Fielt
B: Projectbook Midtasen Pavilion
B: Projectbook Midtasen Pavilion
B: Projectbook Midtasen Pavilion
A: Research innovation liflet: villa Navarra UK / F. Lamarre Pg. 1
P: Glass complex structures / Presentation Rob Nijsse AR0532
B: Glass Structures Design and Construction of Self-supporting Skins / Jan Wurm Pg. 220
B: Hochbau / F. Persch Pg. 42/43/44
B: Designing and Building with UHPFRC / F. Toutlemonde, J. Resplendino Pg. 398/407
A: Cement 2005: constructie en uitvoering, utiliteitsbouw / F. van Herwijnen, R.W.S. Fielt Pg 42
B: Challenging Glass 3 / Louter, C. Nijsse, R. Bos, F.
B: Glass Structures Design and Construction of Self-supporting Skins / Jan Wurm Pg. 228
99,100,101,102,103,104 W: http://icd.uni-stuttgart.de/?tag=researchpavilion2013-14
OUT-OF-THE-BOX CONSTRUCTING In an attempt to narrow the void between the architect and engineers brain this book is created. Projects where engineers and architects had dreams to go beyond the boundaries of proven techniques and materials, and created structures of pure beauty in that sense, are collected, analysed and ordered. It is up to the reader of this book to feel inspired by these projects and take up the underlying information about materials and their strengths, weaknesses and possibilities for the built environment, the beauty and expression of created objects and spaces and apply this knowledge in their own future processes. This could be an architect as well as an engineer.
By Ivo | Jeroen | Nick
Out-of-the-box, constructing, manual, FRP, UHPFRC, glass, structural glass, inspiration