Page 1

00089 Cover Schem 2 (web)

12.22.2000

1:19 PM

Page 1

Extended Service Schools Putting Programming in Place December 2000

Karen E. Walker Jean Baldwin Grossman Rebecca Raley

with Veronica Fellerath Glee I. Holton


00089 Cover Schem 2 (web)

12.22.2000

1:19 PM

Page 2

Extended Service Schools Putting Programming in Place December 2000

Karen E. Walker Jean Baldwin Grossman Rebecca Raley

with Veronica Fellerath Glee I. Holton


2

I. Introduction

Extended-Service Schools: Putting Programming in Place

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Introduction

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3

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4

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Extended-Service Schools: Putting Programming in Place

#)/#,$1'?$9,/1C,)*2,+*(/+,*--*%#?15#5$',/1C,(*1'#%/51#' ')/-$,+*(/+,515#5/#5E$'3,,J)%*?.)*?#,#)$,$E/+?/#5*19,2$ 25++,"*(?',*1,2)/#,/'-$(#',*",#)$,/C/-#/#5*1,-%*($'',*% *#)$%,"51C51.',/--$/%,#*,@$,.$1$%5(,/1C,2)5(),'$$0 0*%$,0*C$+&'-$(5"5(3,, !++,"*?%,0*C$+',*""$%,'()**+&@/'$C,'$%E5($',/1C,;*?#) C$E$+*-0$1#,/(#5E5#5$',#*,()5+C%$1,+5E51.,51,-**%,(*0& 0?15#5$',C?%51.,1*1'()**+,)*?%',/1C,#)?',(/1,/++,@$ +/@$+$C,/"#$%&'()**+,-%*.%/0'3,,J)$,0*C$+,/C/-#/#5*1' 51,#)$,cII,(5#5$',-%*E5C$,*--*%#?15#5$',#*,+$/%1,/@*?# /"#$%&'()**+,-%*.%/0051.3,,B*2$E$%9,/++,"*?%,0*C$+' )/E$,0?(),@%*/C$%,.*/+'3,,!++,*",#)$0,/50,#*,"?1C/& 0$1#/++;,()/1.$,#)$,2/;,#)$,'()**+,/1C,#)$,(*00?15#; 51#$%/(#9,0/751.,#)$,51#$%/(#5*1,0?(),0*%$,(*++/@*%/& #5E$3,,J)?'9,51,/CC5#5*1,#*,/""*%C51.,?',#)$,*--*%#?15#; #*,+$/%1,/@*?#,/"#$%&'()**+,-%*.%/0'9,#)$,cII,515#5/#5E$ 25++,.$1$%/#$,"51C51.',/@*?#,'()**+^(*00?15#;,(*++/@& *%/#5*13,,D1,'?09,#)$,cII,515#5/#5E$,/1C,5#',$E/+?/#5*1 /%$,51#$1C$C,#*,-%*E5C$,-%/(#5#5*1$%'9,"?1C$%',/1C -*+5(;0/7$%',51,+*(/+,(*00?15#5$',25#),/,%5()$%,'$#,*" +$''*1',/@*?#,)*2,+*(/+,'()**+&@/'$C,(*++/@*%/#5*1' ?1"*+C,#)/1,(*?+C,@$,*@#/51$C,"%*0,$5#)$%,/1,$E/+?/& #5*1,*",/,'51.+$,/"#$%&'()**+,-%*.%/0,*%,/,'51.+$,'()**+^ (*00?15#;,(*++/@*%/#5*13,, J)$,1$K#,'$(#5*1,@%5$"+;,+/;',*?#,#)$,C$'5.1,*",#)$,cII $E/+?/#5*13,,J)$,()/-#$%,$1C',25#),/,C5'(?''5*1,*",#)$ %$-*%#F',.*/+',/1C,*%./156/#5*13

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Introduction

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6

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Extended-Service Schools: Putting Programming in Place


The Models, the Cities and the Schools

II. The Models, the Cities and the Schools

7

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8

Extended-Service Schools: Putting Programming in Place

Beacon National Intermediary: Youth Development Institute at the Fund for the City of New York. Original Model Sites: New York City Public Schools, primarily middle schools. Mission: To develop and operate school-based community centers; to create “safe havens” for youth and families in poor neighborhoods; to promote youth development and resiliency. Activities: A diverse array of youth development activities in five core areas: education, recreation and enrichment, career development, leadership development and health. Activities take place during nonschool hours and emphasize several factors important to youth resiliency: caring adult relationships; engaging activities; high expectations; opportunity to make a contribution; and continuity. Governance: Each Beacon Center has a lead agency that manages all activities at the school. A local organization provides technical assistance in organizational development as well as youth development practices. An over-sight committee, consisting of executive staff from key CBOs and school district staff, provide general policy and management oversight. Each school has a school-level decisionmaking body that includes parents and other community representation.

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%$`?5%$0$1#',"*%,#)$,-+/1151.,-%*-*'/+',2/',#)/#,#)$ (5#5$',C$E$+*-,-/%#1$%')5-',/0*1.,7$;,;*?#)&'$%E51. *%./156/#5*1',/1C,'#/7$)*+C$%','?(),/',"?1C$%'9,'()**+ ';'#$0'9,(*00?15#;&@/'$C,*%./156/#5*1',/1C,-/%$1#'3, D1,/CC5#5*19,#)$,.%/1#,%$`?5%$0$1#',1*#$C,#)/# C$(5'5*1&0/751.,')*?+C,@$,')/%$C,25#),#)*'$,'$%E$C,@; #)$,515#5/#5E$9,1/0$+;,;*?#),/1C,#)$5%,"/05+5$'3, a5#)51,#)$,.?5C$+51$'9,#)$,0*C$+',C5""$%,'5.15"5(/1#+;, 51,)*2,#)$;,C$E$+*-$C,C$(5'5*1&0/751.,'#%?(#?%$'9 @*#),25#),%$'-$(#,#*,2)*,2/',51(+?C$C,51,C$(5'5*1& 0/751.,/1C,#)$,751C',*",C$(5'5*1&0/751.,@*C5$',#)/# $K5'#$C3,,,J)$,>*00?15#;,I()**+',0*C$+,-$%)/-',)/' #)$,j#5.)#$'#k,C$(5'5*1&0/751.,'#%?(#?%$9,(*1'5'#51.,*" /,-%51(5-/+9,#)$,>*00?15#;,I()**+,C5%$(#*%9,/,%$-%$& '$1#/#5E$,"%*0,/,+*(/+,?15E$%'5#;,/1C,/1,$K$(?#5E$,*",/ (*00?15#;&@/'$C,*%./156/#5*1,g2)5(),$0-+*;',#)$ C5%$(#*%h3,,J)$,0*C$+,/+'*,51(*%-*%/#$',-/%$1#',/1C, Community Schools Original Model Sites: PS 5 & PS 8; IS 218 and IS 90 in the Washington Heights section of New York City. National Intermediary: Children’s Aid Society, NY, and the National Center for Communities and Schools at Fordham University. Mission: “Educational excellence, combined with needed human services, delivered through school, parent and community partnerships.” “Seamless integration of school-day activities with extended-day programs.” Activities: A wide range of youth development programs during the school day and in non-school hours. Social services, such as on-site clinics, legal assistance, and case management are also provided. Parent education is an important component of the Community Schools. Governance: Co-management of school facilities by the school and a community-based organization. To this end, management staff from the CBO have space in the school administrative offices so they can interact frequently with school principals. Additional characteristics of the National Adaptation: Local universities play a key role in technical assistance and planning. An oversight committee, consisting of university staff, executive staff from key CBOs, and school district staff, provide general policy and management oversight. In addition, each school should have a school-level decision-making body that includes parents and other community representation. 8


West Philadelphia Improvement Corporation (WEPIC) Original Model Sites: Turner Elementary School in West Philadelphia. National Intermediary: Center for Community Partnerships at the University of Pennsylvania. Mission: A school-based school and community revitalization program to produce comprehensive, universityassisted community schools that serve, educate and activate all members of the community, revitalizing the curriculum through a community-oriented, real-world, problem-solving approach. Activities: Academically based community service, such as graduate and undergraduate interns working in schools to provide educational assistance and mentoring to youth. Governance: School principals and staff play key decision-making roles, such as deciding what substantive areas will be addressed through the initiative. Community councils provide guidance on program content.

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Bridges to Success

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Original Model Site: Indianapolis, Indiana. National Intermediaries: United Way of America and the Institute for Educational Leadership. Mission: To increase the educational success of students by better meeting the noneducational needs of children and their families through a partnership of education, human and community service delivery systems, with a long-range vision of establishing schools as “life-long learning centers” and focal points of their communities. Activities: Vary according to site, but each site has an overarching goal of promoting positive youth development during nonschool hours. Activities include educational enrichment, career development, arts and culture, “life-skills,” counseling, case management, health and mental health services, and recreation. Governance: The Local United Way agency acts as lead organization and fiscal agent. A local governance structure made up of United Way, school district, social service and community representatives develops citywide programming strategies and oversees implementation. School-level councils assess the needs and assets of the community, and design and implement program interventions. The councils include a program coordinator, school principal and other school staff, parents, students and local partners.


10

Extended-Service Schools: Putting Programming in Place

Table 2.1 The Cities Involved in the ESS Model Adaptations and the Number of Schools in Each City Beacon

Bridges to Success

Community Schools

WEPIC

*Denver, CO (3)

*Central Falls, RI (3)

*Boston, MA (1)

Albuquerque, NM (1)

*Minneapolis, MN (5)

Guilford County and Highpoint, NC (2)

*Long Beach, CA (1)

*Atlanta, GA (1)

Oakland, CA (4)

Flint, MI (3)

Salt Lake City, UT (1)

*Aurora, CO (1)

*Savannah, GA (3)

*Jacksonville, FL (5)

Denver, CO (1)

Mesa, AZ (5) *Missoula, MT (5)

*Indicate cities to which research visits were made.

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The Models, the Cities and the Schools

Local Collaborations J)$%$,/%$,/,1?0@$%,*",2/;',51,2)5(),+*(/+,(*1#$K#, $5#)$%,"/(5+5#/#$',*%,50-$C$',50-+$0$1#/#5*1,*",#)$,+*(/+ $""*%#'3,,!0*1.,#)$,0*'#,50-*%#/1#,5',#)$,$K5'#$1($,*" -%$E5*?',(*++/@*%/#5*1'9,2)5(),')/-$C9,$/'$C,*%,()/+& +$1.$C,)*2,#)$,+*(/+,cII,(*++/@*%/#5*1',2$%$,"*%0$C3, a)5+$,0*'#,(5#5$',)/C,-/%#5(5-/#$C,51,-%$E5*?',(*++/@*& %/#5*1',g5#,2/',*1$,*",#)$,"/(#*%',#/7$1,51#*,(*1'5C$%& /#5*1,C?%51.,(5#;,'$+$(#5*1h9,#)$,'(*-$,/1C,(*1#$1#,*" #)*'$,(*++/@*%/#5*1',E/%5$C3,,G5''*?+/9,/,:%5C.$',#* I?(($'',(5#;9,"*%,51'#/1($9,)/',/,-%$&$K5'#51.,(*++/@*%/& #5*1,2)*'$,.*/+',/%$,E$%;,'505+/%,#*,#)$,cII,515#5/#5E$F'3, D1,/CC5#5*19,7$;,'#/7$)*+C$%',51,G5''*?+/,'?..$'#$C,#)$ $K5'#$1($,*",/1,*%./156/#5*1/+,(?+#?%$,#)/#,'?--*%#',#)$ (*++/@*%/#5*1'3,,D1,I/E/11/)9,2)5+$,#)$%$,/%$,E$%;, 50-*%#/1#,-%$&$K5'#51.,(*++/@*%/#5*1',/0*1.,;*?#)& '$%E51.,*%./156/#5*1'9,"*%,)5'#*%5(/+,%$/'*1',#)$,'()**+ ';'#$0,5',1*#,/1,/(#5E$,-/%#1$%3,,R*%,#)$,I/E/11/),cII 515#5/#5E$9,#)$,"5'(/+,/.$1(;,2*%7$C,)/%C,#*,1$.*#5/#$,/ (*++/@*%/#5*1,#)/#,51(+?C$C,#)$,'()**+'3,, D1,#)$,(?%%$1#,"?1C51.,(+50/#$9,51,2)5(),@*#),-)5+/1& #)%*-5(,/1C,.*E$%10$1#,"?1C$%',$1(*?%/.$,*%./156/& #5*1',#*,(*++/@*%/#$9,0/1;,(5#5$',)/E$,%$($1#,$K-$%5$1($ "*%051.,/1C,*-$%/#51.,(*++/@*%/#5*1'3,,B*2$E$%9, *#)$%',0/;,1*#3,,:$51.,/@+$,#*,5C$1#5";,#)$,751C',*", 1$.*#5/#5*1,#)/#,#)$,cII,(5#5$',?1C$%2$1#,#*,"*%.$ #)$5%,cII,(*++/@*%/#5*1',/1C9,51,*1$,51'#/1($9,+**751. /#,#)$,C$E$+*-0$1#,*",/,(*++/@*%/#5*1,2)$%$,1*1$,-%$& E5*?'+;,$K5'#$C9,-%*E5C$',50-*%#/1#,51"*%0/#5*1,/@*?# #)$,-%*($'',*","*%.51.,(*++/@*%/#5*1'3,,>)/-#$%,iD C5'(?''$',#)$,50-*%#/1($,*",-%$&$K5'#51.,(*++/@*%/#5*1' 51,C$#/5+3,, State and Local Support for Youth Services a)5+$,/++,#)$,c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

11

I?'#/51/@5+5#;,"*%,#)$,(5#5$',51,>*+*%/C*9,#)$%$"*%$9,5',/ E$%;,@5.,()/++$1.$3 D1,(*1#%/'#9,G511$'*#/,)/',/,+*1.,#%/C5#5*1,*",'?--*%# "*%,'*(5/+,'$%E5($'3,,G*%$,-/%#5(?+/%+;9,#)$,>$1#$%,"*% 8*?#),_$E$+*-0$1#,/1C,L$'$/%(),/#,#)$,H15E$%'5#;,*" G511$'*#/,/1C,#)$,I$/%(),D1'#5#?#$,)/E$,')/-$C,'#%*1. '?--*%#,"*%,/,;*?#),C$E$+*-0$1#,/--%*/(),51,G511$& /-*+5'3,,J)$'$,'#%*1.,-%*-*1$1#',*",/,;*?#),C$E$+*-& 0$1#,/--%*/(),)/E$,)$+-$C,#*,(%$/#$,/1,$1E5%*10$1#,51 2)5(),-)5+*'*-)5(/+,'?--*%#,g5",1*#,/(#?/+,"?1C51.h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ocal School Reform Efforts !+#)*?.),'()**+,%$"*%0,$""*%#',/%$,25C$'-%$/C,/(%*'' #)$,H15#$C,I#/#$'9,+*(/+5#5$',E/%;,#%$0$1C*?'+;,51,#)$ '#/.51.,/1C,$K#$1#,*",#)$,$""*%#'3,,I*0$,(5#5$',$K-%$'' C$$-,(*1($%1,/@*?#,'#?C$1#,-$%"*%0/1($,@?#,)/E$,1*# ;$#,'$##+$C,*1,'#%/#$.5$',#*,50-%*E$,/(/C$05(,-$%"*%& 0/1($3,,4#)$%',)/E$,$K#$1'5E$,'#%/#$.5$',51,-+/($,#*, 50-%*E$,@*#),'#?C$1#,*?#(*0$',/1C,#)$,`?/+5#;,*",#)$ $C?(/#5*1,-%*E5C$C,#*,'#?C$1#'3,,I#5++,*#)$%',/%$,@$.51& 151.,(*1E$%'/#5*1',/#,#)$,'#/#$,+$E$+,/@*?#,$C?(/#5*1/+ '#/1C/%C'9,@?#,C5""$%$1#,-$%"*%0/1($,'#/1C/%C',)/E$ 1*#,;$#,@$$1,50-*'$C,*1,'()**+'3, , J)$,cII,(5#5$',%$"+$(#,#)5',C5E$%'5#;3,,D1,:*'#*19,G511$& /-*+5',/1C,!#+/1#/9,"*%,$K/0-+$9,51(%$/'$C,'#/1C/%C' )/E$,/+%$/C;,@$$1,-?#,51,-+/($9,/1C,'()**+',/1C,-/%$1#' /%$,%$'-*1C51.,#*,#)$03,,D1,#)*'$,(5#5$'9,)$5.)#$1$C /##$1#5*1,#*,'#/1C/%C',/1C,/(/C$05(,-$%"*%0/1($,51"+?& $1($',50-+$0$1#/#5*1,'#%/#$.5$',*",#)$,+*(/+,!C/-#/& #5*13,,D1,>)/-#$%,DDD9,2$,C$'(%5@$,)*2,'?00$%,-%*& .%/0051.,5','()$C?+$C,/%*?1C,;*?#)F','?00$%,'()**+ '()$C?+$'3,,D1,*#)$%,(5#5$'9,'()**+,%$"*%0,/1C,/(/C$05( '#/1C/%C',/%$,?1C$%,C5'(?''5*19,@?#,)/E$,1*#,;$#,@$$1 50-+$0$1#$C3,,J)?'9,#)$;,/%$,1*#,;$#,/,(*1'-5(?*?' /1C,($1#%/+,"/(#*%,51,0/751.,C$(5'5*1',/@*?#,50-+$0$1& #/#5*19,/+#)*?.),5#,2*?+C,-%*@/@+;,@$,'/"$,#*,'/;,#)/#


12

Extended-Service Schools: Putting Programming in Place

'()**+,%$"*%0,/1C,'#/1C/%C',/%$,/,'?@#$K#,"*%,C5'(?'& '5*1,*",50-+$0$1#/#5*1,/(%*'',#)$,(5#5$'3,, Neighborhood Economic and Demographic Characteristics D1,/CC5#5*1,#*,#)$,"/(#*%',(*1($%1$C,-%50/%5+;,25#),#)$ 51"+?$1($,*",(5#;,-*+5#5(',/1C,"?1C51.,5''?$',*1,50-+$& 0$1#/#5*1,/#,#)$,(5#;,+$E$+9,#)$,()/%/(#$%5'#5(',*",-/%#5(5& -/#51.,1$5.)@*%)**C',/1C,(*00?15#5$',/%$,50-*%#/1# #*,50-+$0$1#/#5*13,,!',51,'*,0/1;,*#)$%,C50$1'5*1'9 #)$;,/%$,#%$0$1C*?'+;,C5E$%'$3,,a)5+$,0*'#,*",#)$ 1$5.)@*%)**C','$%E$C,@;,#)$,c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c1.+5'),!',/,I$(*1C,T/1.?/.$ gcITh9,/1C,%$`?5%$',0$$#51.,#)$,()/++$1.$,*",%$(%?5#51. '#?C$1#',"%*0,C5""$%$1#,$#)15(,.%*?-'3,,

J)$,C5E$%'5#;,/(%*'',#)$,(5#5$',5',50-%$''5E$3,,J/@+$,U3U -%*E5C$',/,'1/-')*#,#)/#,C$'(%5@$',$/(),*",#)$,51#$1& '5E$,%$'$/%(),(5#5$',25#),%$'-$(#,#*,#)$,-%$'$1($,*",-%$& $K5'#51.,(*++/@*%/#5*1'9,'?--*%#,"%*0,'#/#$,/1C,+*(/+ .*E$%10$1#9,/1C,2)$#)$%,+*(/+,'()**+,%$"*%0,$""*%#' /%$,?1C$%,2/;3,,a)/#,#)$,#/@+$,(/11*#,C*9,)*2$E$%9,5' C$'(%5@$,#)$,C5""$%$1#5/+,$""$(#',#)/#,(5#5$',0/;,$K-$%5& $1($,"%*0,'505+/%,(5%(?0'#/1($'3,,J)*'$,C5'(?''5*1',25++ @$,-%$'$1#$C,51,#)$,$E/+?/#5*1F','$(*1C,%$-*%#3

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Table 2.2 A Snapshot of Local Resources and Concerns That Affected Implementation City

Pre-existing Collaborations

State and Local Government Support

Local School Reform Under Way !

Atlanta Aurora Boston

!

Central Falls

!

Denver

!

Jacksonville

!

Long Beach

!

! !

!

!

! !


The Models, the Cities and the Schools

13

Table 2.3 School Demographics in ESS, by School Level Level of School

Number of Schools*

Median Percent of Students Eligible for Free/Reduced Lunch

Median Percent of Students Bused to School

Median Percent of Student Mobility

Elementary

18

78%

30%

33%

Middle

25

86

20

30

High

4

26

65

10

*Includes only those schools that responded to the organizational surveys.

)*2$E$%9,/%$,51,?%@/1,'()**+,';'#$0',51,2)5(),'#?C$1#' /%$,@?'$C,+*1.,C5'#/1($'3,,G511$/-*+5',V?@+5(,I()**+' gGVIh9,"*%,51'#/1($9,@?'$',OY,-$%($1#,*",/++,-?@+5( '()**+,'#?C$1#'9,2)5(),5',-/%#+;,/,%$'?+#,*",51#$.%/#5*1 $""*%#',/1C,-/%#+;,/,%$'?+#,*",/,-**%,"5#,@$#2$$1,2)$%$ '()**+',/%$,+*(/#$C,/1C,2)$%$,"/05+5$',25#),;*?1.,()5+& C%$1,+5E$3,,G5''*?+/,)/',/,%$+/#5E$+;,+/%.$,-*-?+/#5*1,*" %?%/+,;*?#),2)*,/##$1C,#)$,(5#;F',"5E$,'()**+'9,/1C,51 #)%$$,*",#)$09,*E$%,AQ,-$%($1#,*",#)$,'#?C$1#',/%$ @?'$C3,,!',>)/-#$%,i,C$#/5+'9,2)$#)$%,*%,1*#,'#?C$1#' /%$,@?'$C,#*,'()**+,)/',/,-%*"*?1C,/""$(#,*1,-%*.%/0 ()*5($'3,, !1*#)$%,50-*%#/1#,C5""$%$1($,51(+?C$',#)$,751C,*",-%*& .%/0',/E/5+/@+$,25#)51,#)$,'()**+',@$"*%$,cII,50-+$& 0$1#/#5*1,@$./13,,!+#)*?.),(*1'5'#$1#,51"*%0/#5*1 /@*?#,-%$E5*?',/(#5E5#5$',5',+/(751.9,#)$,/E/5+/@+$,51"*%& 0/#5*1,51C5(/#$',#)/#,'*0$,'()**+',)/C,$K#$1'5E$,'*(5/+ '$%E5($,*%,/"#$%&'()**+,-%*.%/0'9,2)5+$,*#)$%',)/C,%$+/& #5E$+;,+5##+$3],,R*%,$K/0-+$9,R+*%5C/,)/','#/#$&0/1C/#$C "?++&'$%E5($,'()**+',2)$%$,'$%E5($','?(),/',)$/+#),(/%$ /1C,0$1#/+,)$/+#),'$%E5($',/%$,-%*E5C$C,51,#)$,'()**+' @;,*?#'5C$,g1*1'()**+&C5'#%5(#h,/.$1(5$'3,,J)$,!C/-#/& #5*1,'()**+,51,f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

D1,/CC5#5*1,#*,'()**+&C5'#%5(#&%?1,/(#5E5#5$'9,(*00?15#;& @/'$C,*%./156/#5*1','*0$#50$',%/1,/(#5E5#5$',25#)51,#)$ '()**+',-%5*%,#*,cII9,/+#)*?.),5#,5','/"$,#*,'/;,#)/#,#)$; C5C,'*,0?(),+$'',"%$`?$1#+;,#)/1,/"#$%,50-+$0$1#/#5*1 @$./13,,8G>!',/1C,*#)$%,;*?#)&'$%E51.,*%./156/#5*1' )/E$,+*1.,%?1,"$$&@/'$C,/"#$%&'()**+,-%*.%/0',"*%,;*?#) 2)*'$,-/%$1#',2*%7,/1C,C*,1*#,2/1#,#)$5%,()5+C%$1 )*0$,/+*1$3,,

Conclusion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


14

Extended-Service Schools: Putting Programming in Place

III. The Programs in the Schools ,-".(/0'1.*-$%#.$2.*'.-"34.5$62.2)&&""67.*' 41"4/1".*-"(.*'.!".#''6.&$*$8"%2.$%.*-" 9:2*.&"%*)1+7.;-$&-.$%&3)6"2.&/1""17.</(= $3+7.4"12'%/3.2/*$2</&*$'%7./%6.*-".25$332.*' !".2)&&"22<)3>?;".%""6.*'@.#$A".*-"(./33 *-".25$3327.41"4/1".*-"(.<'1.*-".%"B*.2*"4 *-/*.*-"+C1".#'$%#.*'.(/5"D..E32'7.#"* *-"(.$%A'3A"6.$%.F)/3$*+.&'(()%$*+. /&*$A$*$"2D ,,,

\R5'(/+,!.$1#

!',2$,'/2,$/%+5$%9,$/(),0*C$+,51#$%0$C5/%;,/1C,*%5.5& 1/+,0*C$+,'5#$,)/C,?15`?$,.*/+',"*%,#)$,515#5/#5E$3,,J)$ :$/(*1,0*C$+,$0-)/'56$',;*?#),C$E$+*-0$1#9,2)5() 51(+?C$',/,1?0@$%,*",.*/+'3,,J)$,:%5C.$',#*,I?(($'' 0*C$+,"*(?'$',*1,50-%*E$0$1#',51,()5+C%$1,/1C ;*?#)F',$C?(/#5*1/+,-$%"*%0/1($3,,J)$,>*00?15#; I()**+,0*C$+,$0-)/'56$',#)$,51#$.%/#5*1,*",$C?(/& #5*1/+,/1C,'*(5/+,'$%E5($'3,,acVD>,)/',/,C?/+,"*(?'d 50-%*E51.,@*#),-?@+5(,'()**+,$C?(/#5*1,/1C,'$%E5($'9 /1C,?15E$%'5#;,$C?(/#5*13,a)/#,)/--$1$C,2)$1,#)$ 0*C$+',2$%$,/C/-#$C,#*,C5""$%$1#,$1E5%*10$1#'b,,_5C #)$;,0/51#/51,#)$5%,*%5.51/+,E5'5*1b,,4%,C5C,#)$,(5#5$' /C/-#,#)$0,#*,#)$5%,*21,-/%#5(?+/%,(*1#$K#'b,,a$%$,#)$ !C/-#/#5*1,-%*.%/0',/@+$,#*,#%/1'+/#$,#)$5%,.*/+',51#* %$+$E/1#,/(#5E5#5$',/1C,'$%E5($'b, V%*.%/0',*""$%,/,E/%5$#;,*",cK#$1C$C&I$%E5($',/1C /(#5E5#5$',"*%,;*?#),/1C,/C?+#'3,,a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`?/+5#;,*",-%*.%/0',/1C,;*?#)F',%$'-*1'$'9,2)5(),2$ 25++,C5'(?'',0*%$,';'#$0/#5(/++;,51,/,"?#?%$,%$-*%#3,,!' 2$,)/E$,$0-)/'56$C,51,-%$E5*?',()/-#$%'9,#)$,+*(/+ 515#5/#5E$',2$%$,51,#)$5%,$/%+;,'#/.$',*",C$E$+*-0$1#9 /1C,#)$,'1/-')*#',*",-%*.%/0,`?/+5#;,51,#)$,"*++*251. -/.$',-%*E5C$,/,@$1()0/%7,*",2)/#,/(#5E5#5$',(/1,+**7 +57$,/"#$%,/,;$/%,*",50-+$0$1#/#5*13,,!+#)*?.),2$,2$%$ *"#$1,50-%$''$C,@;,/(#5E5#5$'9,'*0$,(*?+C,@$,50-%*E$C3, 4?%,"?#?%$,%$'$/%(),25++,?1C*?@#$C+;,C*(?0$1#, 50-%*E$0$1#'9,/',#)$,'()**+,(**%C51/#*%',(*1#51?$,#* 2*%7,*1,#)$,'(*-$,/1C,`?/+5#;,*",#)$5%,-%*.%/0'3 D1,#)$,"*++*251.,-/.$',2$,/CC%$'',#)$,"*++*251., `?$'#5*1'd ,,,,,e ,,,,,e ,,,,,e ,,,,,e

a)/#,2$%$,#)$,.*/+',*",#)$,+*(/+,515#5/#5E$'b _5C,#)$,.*/+',E/%;,@;,0*C$+,#;-$b a)/#,/(#5E5#5$',2$%$,50-+$0$1#$C,/1C,)*2,C5C #)$;,%$+/#$,#*,#)$,-%*.%/0'F,.*/+'b a)/#,2/',#)$,`?/+5#;,*",#)$,/(#5E5#5$',/#,#)5' $/%+;,'#/.$,*",50-+$0$1#/#5*1b


The Programs in the Schools

Goals of the Adaptation Programs,

D1,/,'?%E$;,0/5+$C,#*,/++,cII,"5'(/+,/.$1#',/1C,-%*.%/0 (**%C51/#*%',51E*+E$C,51,#)$,!C/-#/#5*19,%$'-*1C$1#' 2$%$,/'7$C,#*,5C$1#5";,#)$5%,0/51,-%*.%/0,.*/+',@;, '$+$(#51.,#)%$$,*",151$,-*''5@+$,.*/+,()*5($',g'$$,J/@+$ ]3Nh3,,J)$,.*/+',0*'#,"%$`?$1#+;,+5'#$C,2$%$d,50-%*E$ /(/C$05(,-$%"*%0/1($Z,51(%$/'$,-*'5#5E$,%$+/#5*1',25#) -$$%',/1C,/C?+#'Z,C$E$+*-,'()**+&(*00?15#;,-/%#1$%& ')5-'Z,/1C,$1'?%$,#)$,'/"$,/1C,-%*C?(#5E$,?'$,*",;*?#)F' *?#&*"&'()**+,#50$3,,4#)$%,.*/+'9,'?(),/',51(%$/'$, -/%$1#/+,51E*+E$0$1#9,C$(%$/'$,;*?#)F',1$./#5E$,@$)/E& 5*%'9,/1C,(%$/#$,0*%$,*--*%#?15#5$',"*%,/#)+$#5(,*%,(?+& #?%/+,$1%5()0$1#,2$%$,/+'*,"%$`?$1#+;,+5'#$C3,, a$,"*?1C,*1+;,0*C$'#,C5""$%$1($',51,#)$,.*/+','$+$(#$C @;,(5#5$',/C/-#51.,C5""$%$1#,0*C$+'3,,D1,"/(#9,#)$,C5'#%5& @?#5*1,*",*1+;,#2*,.*/+',C5""$%','5.15"5(/1#+;3,,D1,@*#) (/'$'9,#)$,C5""$%$1($',2$%$,@$#2$$1,:$/(*1,/1C,#)$ *#)$%,0*C$+'3 Athletic and Cultural Experiences a$,"*?1C,#)/#,%$'-*1C$1#',51,:$/(*1,(5#5$',2$%$,0*%$ +57$+;,#)/1,2$%$,*#)$%,%$'-*1C$1#',#*,+5'#,#)$,50-*%& #/1($,*",$1%5()51.,#)$,()5+C%$1F',+5E$',25#),/#)+$#5(,/1C (?+#?%/+,$K-$%5$1($'d,2)5+$,'+5.)#+;,*E$%,)/+",#)$,:$/(*1 %$'-*1C$1#','/5C,#)/#,(?+#?%/+,/1C,/#)+$#5(,$K-$%5$1($' 2$%$,50-*%#/1#9,+$'',#)/1,/,`?/%#$%,*",*#)$%,%$'-*1& C$1#','/5C,'*3,,a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artnership Building J)$,*1+;,*#)$%,.*/+,#*,C5""$%,@;,0*C$+,5',-/%#1$%')5-& @?5+C51.3,,!./519,#)$,%$'-*1'$',-%*E5C$C,@;,'()**+, (**%C51/#*%',51,#)$,:$/(*1,0*C$+,C5""$%$C,'5.15"5(/1#+; "%*0,#)$,%$'-*1'$',*",'()**+,(**%C51/#*%',51,#)$,*#)$% 0*C$+'3,,:%5C.$',#*,I?(($''9,>*00?15#;,I()**+',/1C acVD>,(**%C51/#*%',2$%$,0*%$,+57$+;,#)/1,2$%$,#)$ :$/(*1,'5#$',#*,$0-)/'56$,#)$,50-*%#/1($,*",-/%#1$%

15

Table 3.1 Goals of ESS Adaptations

Number of Responses

Improving academic performance

27

Foster positive relations with peers and adults

26

Building partnerships between community organizations and schools

24

Using youth’s out-of-school time safely and productively

23

Involving parents more in their children’s lives and schools

15

Keeping youth off the streets and out of trouble

15

Enriching youth’s lives with more athletic and cultural experiences

14

Fostering school reform

5

Making more social services available to youth and families

3

51 surveys had valid responses.

')5-'d,*1+;,*1$&#)5%C,*",#)$,:$/(*1,(**%C51/#*%',0$1& #5*1$C,(*++/@*%/#5*19,2)5+$,#2*&#)5%C',*",#)$,*#)$%, (**%C51/#*%',C5C3,,a$,/%$,?1'?%$,2);,#)5',C5""$%$1($ $K5'#'9,'51($,#)$,-)5+*'*-);,?1C$%+;51.,/++,0*C$+', $0-)/'56$',(*++/@*%/#5*13,,D#,5',-*''5@+$,#)/#,#)$,%$'?+# 5',/1,/%#5"/(#,*",#)$,'?%E$;,`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


16

M$K#,2$,#?%1,#*,#)$,C$.%$$,#*,2)5(),#)$,-%*.%/0' 2$%$,/@+$,#*,*-$%/#5*1/+56$,#)$5%,.*/+'3,,D1,-/%#5(?+/%9 2$,$K/051$,2)$#)$%,#)$,#;-$,*",-%*.%/0051.,%$"+$(#' /,-%*.%/0F',$0-)/'5',*1,/(/C$05(,-$%"*%0/1($9,-*'5& #5E$,-$$%,/1C,/C?+#,%$+/#5*1')5-'9,/1C,/,'/"$9,-%*C?(#5E$ $1E5%*10$1#,"*%,#)$,'#?C$1#'3,,J)$,5''?$',*",(*++/@*%/& #5*1,/1C,-/%#1$%')5-,25++,@$,/CC%$''$C,51,+/#$%,()/-#$%'3

After-school Activities !"#$%&'()**+,/(#5E5#5$',2$%$,@;,"/%,#)$,0*'#,-%$E/+$1# #;-$,*",-%*.%/0051.,*""$%$C3,,J)$,*%./156/#5*1/+, '?%E$;,51C5(/#$C,#)/#,/++,#)$,-%*.%/0',)/C,/1,/"#$%& '()**+,(*0-*1$1#3,,G*'#,-%*.%/0',%?1,@$#2$$1,#)$ )*?%',*",]dQQ-30,/1C,YdQQ-3039,@?#,'*0$,@$.51,/' $/%+;,/',UdQQ-303,*%,$1C,/',+/#$,/',PdQQ-303,,!+#)*?.) (*1'5C$%/@+$,E/%5/#5*1,51,-%*.%/0051.,(*1#$1#,/1C 51'#%?(#5*1,'#;+$,$K5'#',/(%*'',-%*.%/0'9,#)$%$,5','#%*1. (*1'5'#$1(;,51,#)$,#;-$',*",/(#5E5#;,-%*E5C$Cd,/++,-%*& .%/0',*""$%,'*0$,"*%0,*",C5%$(#,/(/C$05(,'?--*%#,/1C (?+#?%/+,*%,(%$/#5E$,$1%5()0$1#,/(#5E5#5$'Z,/++,@?#,#)%$$ -%*.%/0',*""$%,'*0$,#;-$,*",/#)+$#5(,-%*.%/0051. g%/1.51.,"%*0,(*/()$C,'-*%#',#*,51C5E5C?/+,(+/''$',/1C *-$1,.;0,#50$hZ,/1C,*E$%,)/+",#)$,-%*.%/0',*""$%, (/%$$%,-%$-/%/#5*1,51'#%?(#5*19,C$(5'5*1&0/751.,/1C +$/C$%')5-,/(#5E5#5$'9,/1C,/,(*00?15#;,'$%E5($,*%,'$%E5($ +$/%151.,(*0-*1$1#3,,!--%*K50/#$+;,*1$,#)5%C,*",#)$ /"#$%&'()**+,-%*.%/0',*""$%,#)$5%,-/%#5(5-/1#',"%$$,#50$ /(#5E5#5$'3,,J)$,#$K#,@*K,*1,#)$,"*++*251.,-/.$,C$'(%5@$' /,-%*.%/0,/#,/1,$+$0$1#/%;,'()**+3,,J)$,-%*.%/0,5' #;-5(/+,51,-%*E5C51.,/,%/1.$,*",/(#5E5#5$',/"#$%,'()**+3,,D# C5""$%',"%*0,'*0$,*#)$%,-%*.%/0'9,)*2$E$%9,@$(/?'$ 0/1;,*",#)$,/(#5E5#5$',/%$,-%*E5C$C,@;,#$/()$%'3,,M*1$& #)$+$''9,5#,-%*E5C$',/,'1/-')*#,*",2)/#,5',-*''5@+$3,, V%*.%/0',E/%;,51,#)$,/0*?1#,*",#50$,#)$;,(*005#,#* C5""$%$1#,/"#$%&'()**+,/(#5E5#5$'3,,!(%*'',/++,-%*.%/0'9 /(/C$05(,/(#5E5#5$',#/7$,-%$($C$1($d,51,/,#;-5(/+,2$$79 ]O,-$%($1#,*",#)$,/"#$%&'()**+,#50$,5','-$1#,*1,)*0$& 2*%7,)$+-9,#?#*%51.,/1C^*%,/(/C$05(,$1%5()0$1#3,,f?'# *E$%,NO,-$%($1#,*",#)$,#50$,5','-$1#,*1,(?+#?%/+,*%,(%$& /#5E$,$1%5()0$1#,/(#5E5#5$'9,/1C,/1*#)$%,NO,-$%($1#,5' '-$1#,51,'*0$,#;-$,*",/#)+$#5(,/(#5E5#;3,,J)$,%$0/5151. U],-$%($1#,*",-%*.%/0'F,/"#$%&'()**+,)*?%',/%$,#/7$1 ?-,@;,/,E/%5$#;,*",*#)$%,/(#5E5#5$'d,Y,-$%($1#,*1,(/%$$% -%$-/%/#5*1Z,S,-$%($1#,*1,+$/C$%')5-,/1C,C$(5'5*1& 0/751.,/(#5E5#5$'Z,S,-$%($1#,*1,(*00?15#;,'$%E5($,*% '$%E5($,+$/%151.Z,/1C,A,-$%($1#,2/',"%$$,#50$3,,

Extended-Service Schools: Putting Programming in Place

An After-School ESS Program in an Elementary School The school runs programs for children and their families. After school, there are activities from 3:00p.m. to 5:30p.m. for approximately 50 youth. From 3:00p.m. to 3:45p.m., children can get help on their homework from high school youth who act as group leaders and mentors. A snack follows, and from 4:00p.m. to 5:00p.m. the children engage in a structured activity, the topic of which changes weekly (e.g., substance abuse prevention education, arts and crafts). From 5:00p.m. to 5:30p.m. children have free time to read, color or play board games until their parents pick them up. The activity runs throughout the school year. Teachers at the school run a variety of activities such as drama, science, hiking, multicultural and art clubs. The clubs are scheduled for one or two days per week after school. In the science club, we observed children working on a volcano project that involved making volcanoes that erupted as well as reading about volcanoes and hearing the teacher tell stories about volcanoes from her experience. The activities last approximately 8 to 12 weeks before a new cycle begins. Teachers also offer family math and reading club activities that target parents of third graders who are most at risk of academic failure. Parents and youth participate together, and parents learn strategies for helping their children with their academic work. Such strategies include tips on how to help children think through a problem and how to encourage them in their work. In the morning, program staff offer morning homework help on an informal basis to children who feel they need it. On weekends, the city Parks and Recreation department provides recreational activities on the school playground for area youth. Once or twice a year, a Saturday pancake breakfast is held to bring teachers, school staff, parents and youth together in a social setting. Parents in the ethnically diverse community that the elementary school serves attend ESL, computer and other parent education courses. Some parent programs are held during the school day and others are held after school.

!(%*'',#)$,0*C$+'9,#)$%$,/%$,0*C$'#,C5""$%$1($',51,#)$ #50$,/++*##$C,#*,C5""$%$1#,#;-$',*",/(#5E5#5$'3,,>*00?& 15#;,I()**+',C$C5(/#$,0*%$,#50$,#*,/(/C$05(,/1C,'$%& E5($,/(#5E5#5$',#)/1,C*,/++,#)%$$,*#)$%,0*C$+'3,,:%5C.$',


The Programs in the Schools

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a5#)51,/1;,cII,-%*.%/0,#)$%$,0/;,@$ '*0$,/(#5E5#5$',#)/#,0$$#,*1($,*%,#25($,-$%,2$$7,/1C *#)$%',#)/#,0$$#,C/5+;3,,I*0$,%?1,"*%,#2*,*%,#)%$$ )*?%',/"#$%,'()**+9,/1C,;*?#),-/%#5(5-/#$,51,#2*,*% #)%$$,'$-/%/#$,/(#5E5#5$',C?%51.,#)/#,#50$9,/',5',#)$,(/'$ 51,#)$,8G>!,-%*.%/0,C5'(?''$C,51,#)$,#$K#,@*K,*1,#)$ -%$E5*?',-/.$3 ,

Summer Programs !--%*K50/#$+;,#)%$$&`?/%#$%',*",c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c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

17

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gWlh9,C$(5'5*1&0/751.,/1C,+$/C$%')5/(#5E5#5$',gOlh9,(*00?15#;,'$%E5($,*%,'$%E5($,+$/%151. gYlh9,/1C,"%$$,#50$,gWlh3,,J*,/,+/%.$,$K#$1#9,#)5',0*%$ @/+/1($C,-%*.%/0051.,%$"+$(#',/,1/#?%/+,')5"#,51,-%5*%5& #5$'3,,B*0$2*%7,)$+-,5',C%*--$C,/',/1,/(#5E5#;9,2)5+$ #50$,'-$1#,*1,/(/C$05(,$1%5()0$1#,g51,'(5$1($9,0/#)9 %$/C51.9,$#(3h,%$0/51','#%*1.\#)$,)*?%',*",$1%5()0$1# *""$%$C,C?%51.,#)$,'?00$%,51(%$/'$','+5.)#+;3,,J)$,#$K# @*K,*1,#)$,"*++*251.,-/.$,C$'(%5@$',/,'?00$%,-%*.%/0 51,/,05CC+$,'()**+3 G*C$+,C5""$%$1($',51,'?00$%,-%*.%/0',/%$,'?@#+$,@?# 1*#/@+;,'505+/%,#*,#)*'$,"*?1C,51,/"#$%&'()**+,/(#5E5#5$'3, :%5C.$',-%*.%/0','-$1C,/,0*C$%/#$+;,.%$/#$%,/0*?1# *",#50$,51,/(/C$05(9,(?+#?%/+,/1C,(%$/#5E$,$1%5()0$1# /(#5E5#5$'9,2)5+$,:$/(*1,-%*.%/0','-$1C,0*%$,#50$,51 /#)+$#5(,/(#5E5#5$'3,,41+;,#2*,>*00?15#;,I()**+,-%*& .%/0',%?1,'?00$%,-%*.%/0'9,2)5+$,1*,acVD>,-%*& .%/0',C*,'*3 !',/1,/CC5#5*1,#*,'#/1C/%C,cII,'?00$%,-%*.%/0051.9 1?0$%*?',-%*.%/0',(**%C51/#$,25#),(*00?15#;,*%./& 156/#5*1',#*,)/E$,#)$5%,;*?#),-+/($C,51,'?00$%,(/0-'3 4%./156/#5*1',+57$,#)$,8G>!9,:*;',<,=5%+',>+?@',/1C '0/++$%,+*(/+,1*1-%*"5#',%?1,"%$$,/1C,+*2&(*'#,'?00$% (/0-',"*%,#)$,;*?#),51,#)$5%,(*00?15#5$'3,,J)%*?.) -/%#1$%')5-',25#),#)$'$,*%./156/#5*1'9,cII,'#/"",%$(*0& 0$1C,#)$5%,'#?C$1#',"*%,#)$,(/0-'9,2)$%$,'+*#',/%$, %$'$%E$C,"*%,#)$03,,_?%51.,*?%,'5#$,E5'5#'9,2$,*@'$%E$C #)/#,#)$'$,-/%#1$%')5-',2*%7$C,2$++,/1C,@$1$"5##$C,#)$ ;*?#),51E*+E$C3


18

A Summer ESS Program in a Middle School The Beacon program is scheduled for six weeks in the summer. Although the program serves primarily middle school youth during the school year, it serves a large proportion of elementary school students in the summer. Approximately 100 youth/day attend the program. The program provides a daily summer camp that provides elementary school youth with recreational and cultural learning opportunities. The summer program relies heavily on youth staffâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;12 are employed for the summer. Two of the youth staff are paid by a local summer youth employment program, the rest are paid by the program. Youth staff assist in activity instruction and provide office and general support. During our visit, youth staff were in and out of the programâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s office, helping younger students with problems and ensuring that they knew where they were going. In addition to the camp, there are activities once or twice a week for both elementary and middle school youth The activities vary. A nutrition and fitness activity accommodates approximately 12 youth and meets two afternoons per week for four hours. Youth in the class cook, exercise and learn about healthy nutrition. A low-rider model car club meets two times per week in which youth build customized model cars. The activity instructors act as positive role models for Latino youth. A basketball clinic meets four times per week in the afternoon for four hours. A gang education program meets twice per week for an hour and a half in the afternoon. The group serves 20 youth on a regular basis and permits other youth from the Beacon to join in activities that interest them; a computer lab meets four times per week after lunch; and Hip Hop Dance meets twice per week in the afternoons. Other summer activities include open gym, soccer, swimming and football. In accordance with Beacon philosophy and practice, many instructors encourage youth to join their activities informally. As a result, youth involved in the basketball clinic might spend part of the afternoon in the gang education program or the nutrition and fitness class.

Before-school, During-school and Weekend or Holiday Programs I51($,"$2$%,@$"*%$&'()**+9,C?%51.&'()**+,/1C,2$$7$1C *%,)*+5C/;,-%*.%/0',/%$,@$51.,%?19,#)$;,C*,1*#,$/'5+; +$1C,#)$0'$+E$',#*,';'#$0/#5(,(*0-/%5'*1Z,@?#,*?%,E5'& 5#',#*,#)$,51#$1'5E$,'5#$',0/7$,5#,-*''5@+$,#*,C$'(%5@$,#)$ #;-$',*",/(#5E5#;,-%*E5C$C3

Extended-Service Schools: Putting Programming in Place

Before-School Programming !#,#)$,#50$,*",#)$,%$-*%#9,*1+;,"*?%,-%*.%/0',)/C @$"*%$&'()**+,-%*.%/0'3,,4",#)$'$9,#2*,/%$,>*00?15#; I()**+',/1C,#2*,/%$,:%5C.$',#*,I?(($'',-%*.%/0'3, J)%$$,*",#)$,"*?%,-%*.%/0',*-$%/#$,51,$+$0$1#/%; '()**+',g#)$,"*?%#),5',51,/,05CC+$,'()**+h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chool-Day Programming c+$E$1,-%*.%/0',*-$%/#$,C?%51.,#)$,%$.?+/%,'()**+ C/;d,151$,:%5C.$',#*,I?(($'',-%*.%/0'9,*1$,>*00?& 15#;,I()**+,-%*.%/0,/1C,*1$,acVD>,-%*.%/03,, :$/(*1,-%*.%/0',C*,1*#,-%*E5C$,C?%51.&'()**+,/(#5E5& #5$'3,,=5E$1,#)$,-)5+*'*-)5$',*",@*#),>*00?15#; I()**+',/1C,acVD>9,5#,5',1*#,'?%-%5'51.,#)/#,#)$;,)/E$ /(#5E5#5$',C?%51.,#)$,'()**+,C/;3,,D#,5','?%-%5'51.9,)*2& $E$%9,#)/#,:%5C.$',#*,I?(($'',0*C$+',/%$,/+0*'#,/',+57$+; #*,)/E$,/(#5E5#5$',C?%51.,#)$,'()**+,C/;,/',/%$,#)$,*#)$% #2*,0*C$+',g/#,+$/'#,51,#)$,"5%'#,;$/%,*",*-$%/#5*1'h9 .5E$1,#)/#,:%5C.$'F,05''5*1,C*$',1*#,'#%$'',51#$.%/#5*1 51#*,#)$,'()**+,C/;,/',)$/E5+;3,,J)$,1/#5*1/+,51#$%0$C5& /%;,)$+-51.,#)$,:%5C.$'F,(5#5$'9,)*2$E$%9,C5C,'#%$'',#)$ 1$$C,"*%,j"?++,(**%C51/#5*1k,25#),#)$,'()**+3 J)$,'#%?(#?%$,/1C,(*1#$1#,*",#)$'$,/(#5E5#5$',E/%;,0*%$ #)/1,/1;,*#)$%\'*0$,%?1,"*%,#)$,C?%/#5*1,*",#)$ '()**+,C/;,"5E$,C/;',/,2$$79,*#)$%',"*%,*1+;,/1,)*?%,*% #2*,*E$%,#)$,(*?%'$,*",'()**+,+?1(),-$%5*C'3,,G*C$+ C5""$%$1($',/%$,C5""5(?+#,#*,5C$1#5";,@$(/?'$,2$,)/E$,%$+& /#5E$+;,+505#$C,C/#/Z,)*2$E$%9,5#,5',51#$%$'#51.,#*,1*#$ #)/#,*1+;,:%5C.$',-%*.%/0',*""$%,0$1#*%51.,C?%51.,#)$ '()**+,C/;3, Weekend and Holiday Programming !--%*K50/#$+;,)/+",*",#)$,-%*.%/0',%?1,2$$7$1C,*% )*+5C/;,/(#5E5#5$'3,,!./519,#)$%$,5',(*1'5C$%/@+$,E/%5/#5*1 51,#)$,"%$`?$1(;,/1C,'#%?(#?%$,*",#)$'$,-%*.%/0'3,,D1 0/1;,(/'$',-%*.%/0',-+/1,'-$(5/+,$E$1#',*%,/(#5E5#5$' "*%,;*?#),/1C,#)$5%,"/05+5$'9,51(+?C51.,'#?C$1#&-+/11$C


The Programs in the Schools

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Adult Programs !--%*K50/#$+;,/,#)5%C,*",#)$,-%*.%/0',*""$%,/C?+#, /(#5E5#5$',#*,(*00?15#;,0$0@$%',/1C,-/%$1#'3,,J)$ %/1.$,*",/(#5E5#5$',5',`?5#$,25C$9,@?#,'$+$(#5*1,*",/(#5E5& #5$',/#,/1;,.5E$1,'()**+,5',+505#$Cd,*1+;,#)%$$,-%*.%/0' (?%%$1#+;,*""$%,0*%$,#)/1,*1$,*%,#2*,/(#5E5#5$'3,,!C?+# -%*.%/0',*""$%,$C?(/#5*1/+,*--*%#?15#5$','?(),/',cIT9 =c_9,-/%$1#51.9,(*0-?#$%,#$()1*+*.;9,(5#56$1')5-9,/1C R5%'#,!5C,/1C,>VL,(+/''$'3,,4#)$%,/(#5E5#5$',51(+?C$,%$(& %$/#5*1/+,/1C,"5#1$'',(+/''$',+57$,/$%*@5(',*%,*-$1,.;0 #50$9,/1C,'*(5/+,*%,"/05+;,*%5$1#$C,/(#5E5#5$'3, a$,+$/%1$C,#)/#,@?5+C51.,-/%#5(5-/#5*1,51,#)$'$,(+/''$' 5','*0$#50$',C5""5(?+#3,,V%*.%/0',%$-*%#$C,#)/#,-/%$1#' *"#$1,$K-%$'',51#$%$'#,51,-/%#5(5-/#51.,@?#,'$+C*0, /##$1C3,,:$#2$$1,#)$,C$0/1C',*",2*%7,/1C,"/05+;9,-/%& $1#',)/E$,E$%;,@?';,'()$C?+$'3,,T/(7,*",#%/1'-*%#/#5*1 #*,/1C,"%*0,#)$,'()**+9,/+*1.,25#),/,+/(7,*",C/;,(/%$ C?%51.,#)$,(+/''$'9,0/;,+505#,-/%#5(5-/#5*13,,J)$,1$K# '#/.$,*",*?%,%$'$/%(),25++,+**7,0*%$,(+*'$+;,/#,#)$,()/+& +$1.$',/1C,'?(($''$',*",/C?+#,-%*.%/0051.3 Social Service Offerings 41+;,/,"$2,-%*.%/0',-%*E5C$,'*(5/+,'$%E5($',#*,#)$ ;*?#),/1C,"/05+5$',51,#)$5%,(*00?15#5$'3,,J)$'$,-%*& .%/0',(*1'5'#,0/51+;,*",)$/+#)9,0$1#/+,)$/+#)9,+$./+, /5C,/1C,5005.%/#5*1,'$%E5($'3,,J)$,=/%C1$%,c+$0$1#/%; I()**+,51,:*'#*1,g/,>*00?15#;,I()**+h,5',/1,$K/0-+$ *",/,-%*.%/0,25#),/,2$++&C$E$+*-$C,'*(5/+,'$%E5($, -%*.%/03,,D#,*""$%','#?C$1#',/1C,"/05+5$',%$"$%%/+',#* +*(/+,)$/+#),/1C,0$1#/+,)$/+#),(+515('9,(*1C?(#',C$1#/+ '(%$$151.',51,(+/''%**0'9,-%*E5C$',()$(7&?-',"*%,;*?#) 2)*,%$`?5%$,(/%$9,%?1',/,'$%5$',*",#/+7',*1,@/'5(,)$/+#) 5''?$','?(),/',);.5$1$,/1C,)?0/1,'$K?/+5#;9,/1C,-%*& E5C$',(*1"5C$1#5/+,+$./+,(*?1'$+51.,/1C,2*%7')*-',*1 5005.%/#5*1,-%*($C?%$',"*%,(*00?15#;,0$0@$%'9 0/1;,*",2)*0,/%$,5005.%/1#'3,, J)$,=/%C1$%,-%*.%/0,5',?1?'?/+,51,*""$%51.,#)5', @%*/C,/%%/;,*",'$%E5($'3,,D1,#)$,"5%'#,;$/%,*",50-+$0$1#/& #5*19,0*'#,-%*.%/0',2$%$,(*1'?0$C,@;,#)$,#/'7',*" -%*E5C51.,/(#5E5#5$',"*%,;*?#)3,:?C.$#/%;,(*1'#%/51#'

19

/+'*,+505#$C,*?#%$/(),/1C,'*0$,'()**+,C5'#%5(#',-+/($C %$'#%5(#5*1',*1,*""$%51.,)$/+#),'$%E5($',#)%*?.),'()**+'3

Program Quality cII,-%*.%/0',/(%*'',#)$,(*?1#%;,'#%5E$,#*,$1%5() ;*?#)F',+5E$',@;,(%$/#51.,-*'5#5E$,;*?#),$K-$%5$1($',#)/# -%*0*#$,)$/+#);,'*(5/+9,51#$++$(#?/+9,$0*#5*1/+,/1C -);'5(/+,.%*2#)3,,J)$,50-*%#/1($,*",#)5',-?%'?5#,0/7$' /''$''51.,-%*.%/0,`?/+5#;,/,(%5#5(/+,%$'$/%(),#/'73,,! ;$/%,51#*,*-$%/#5*1'9,2$,@$./1,*?%,$K/051/#5*1,*" `?/+5#;,@;,*@'$%E51.,/,'0/++,'/0-+$,*",C5E$%'$,/(#5E5#5$' /1C,#/+751.,#*,'#?C$1#,-/%#5(5-/1#'3,,J)$,.*/+,2/',#* C$#$%051$,2)/#,`?/+5#5$',/%$,E/+?$C,@;,#)$,-/%#5(5-/1#' /1C,2)/#,7$;,'?--*%#',/1C,*--*%#?15#5$',/%$,-%$'$1#,51 #)$'$,#;-$',*",-%*.%/03,,=5E$1,#)/#,(**%C51/#*%',2$%$ #%;51.,*?#,0/1;,*",#)$'$,/(#5E5#5$',"*%,#)$,"5%'#,#50$9,#)$ .*/+,2/',%'*,#*,0/7$,C$"515#5E$,'#/#$0$1#',/@*?#,#)$ -%*.%/0'F,`?/+5#;3,,D1'#$/C9,2$,)*-$C,#*,5C$1#5";, C50$1'5*1',*",;*?#),C$E$+*-0$1#,-%*.%/0051.,#)/# 05.)#,@$,0*%$,$/'5+;,50-+$0$1#$C3 a$,*@'$%E$C,-%*.%/0,/(#5E5#5$',51,"5E$,*",#)$,NQ,51#$1& '5E$,(5#5$'3A!!4?%,*@'$%E/#5*1',0/C$,#2*,#)51.',500$& C5/#$+;,(+$/%3,,R5%'#9,c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20

Extended-Service Schools: Putting Programming in Place

Adult/Youth Relationships 41$,*",#)$,0*'#,50-*%#/1#,(*0-*1$1#',*",-%*.%/0 `?/+5#;,51E*+E$',-*'5#5E$,%$+/#5*1')5-',@$#2$$1,/C?+# '#/"",/1C,;*?#)3,,V*'5#5E$,%$+/#5*1')5-',/%$,0/%7$C,@; 1?0$%*?',"/(#*%',51(+?C51.,'#/"",0$0@$%'F,(/-/(5#;,#* %$0/51,/(($''5@+$,C?%51.,/1,/(#5E5#;9,/1'2$%,`?$'#5*1' /1C,*""$%,)$+-,*%,'?--*%#,#*,$1'?%$,#)/#,$/(),;*?#) /()5$E$',/,+$E$+,*",'?(($''3,,8*?#)F',%$'-*1'5E$1$'',#* '#/"",51'#%?(#5*1,5',/+'*,/1,50-*%#/1#,(*0-*1$1#3,,R*% $K/0-+$9,'#?C$1#',0/;,'$$0,$/.$%,#*,-+$/'$,'#/"",@; %$0/5151.,*1,#/'7,/1C,+5'#$151.,#*,'#/"",51'#%?(#5*13,,!1 /(#5E5#;,-%*E5C$%,(/1,@$,$`?/++;,%$'-*1'5E$,#*,;*?#),@; +5'#$151.,/##$1#5E$+;9,(/++51.,'#?C$1#',@;,1/0$9,'05+51. /1C,.$1#+;,[*751.,25#),#)$03,

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The Programs in the Schools

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21

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22

Extended-Service Schools: Putting Programming in Place

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Decision-Making and Leadership _$(5'5*1&0/751.,/1C,+$/C$%')5-,*--*%#?15#5$',2$%$ *@'$%E$C,25#),+$'',(*1'5'#$1(;,#)/1,2$%$,`?/+5#;,%$+/& #5*1')5-',/0*1.,-$$%',/1C,@$#2$$1,;*?#),/1C,'#/""3, B/E51.,C$(5'5*1&0/751.,/1C,+$/C$%')5-,/',7$;,-/%#',*" -%*.%/0',%$`?5%$C,-+/1151.,*1,#)$,-/%#,*",/(#5E5#;,-%*& E5C$%',/1C9,'*0$#50$'9,'#/"",#%/5151.,51,;*?#),C$E$+*-& 0$1#,-%/(#5($'3,,:$(/?'$,0/1;,-%*.%/0',2*%7$C,?1C$% (*1'5C$%/@+$,-%$''?%$,#*,@$.51,-%*.%/0051.,/','**1,/' -*''5@+$9,#50$,"*%,#)5',751C,*",-+/1151.,/1C,#%/5151. 2/',#;-5(/++;,51,')*%#,'?--+;3 D1,#)$,/(#5E5#5$',2)$%$,C$(5'5*1&0/751.,2/',E5'5@+$9 ;*?#),2$%$,51E5#$C,#*,)$+-,-+/1,#)$,/(#5E5#;,/1C^*%, 2$%$,.5E$1,*--*%#?15#5$',#*,C$(5C$,)*2,#)$;,2*?+C (/%%;,5#,*?#3,,a)$1,C$/+51.,25#),()5+C%$19,51'#%?(#*%' *"#$1,C$#$%051$C,#)$,/(#5E5#;,@?#,+$#,#)$,()5+C%$1,(%$& /#5E$+;,C$(5C$,)*2,#)$;,2*?+C,.*,/@*?#,(*0-+$#51., 5#3,,J)$,"*++*251.,/((*?1#,"%*0,"5$+C,1*#$',5++?'#%/#$' #)5',@/+/1($C,/1C,$""$(#5E$,C5E5'5*1,*",C$(5'5*1&0/751. *--*%#?15#5$'d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d E3*-')#-.*-".+')*-.;"1".</$13+.+')%#.$% /#"7.*-$2./&*$A$*+.'<<"1"6./.;$6".1/%#".'< 6"&$2$'%=(/5$%#./%6.3"/6"12-$4.'44'1*)= %$*$"2D..T'1.$%2*/%&"./33.+')*-.6"2$#%"6./ (/4./%6./2./.#1')4.-/6.*'.6"&$6".;-$&(/4.*'.)2"7.;-$&-.&3)"2.*'.)2"./%6.;-"1" *'.43/&".*-".&3)"2D. I#/"",/%$,(+$/%+;,51'#%?0$1#/+,51,(%$/#51.,C$(5'5*1&0/7& 51.,*--*%#?15#5$',"*%,;*?#)3,,8*?#),%$-*%#$C,51,"*(?' .%*?-',#)/#,#)$;,2/1#$C,/C?+#,'?--*%#9,j'*0$#50$',5#F' .**C,2)$1,/C?+#',-?'),;*?,/1C,#$++,;*?,#)/#,;*?,(/1


The Programs in the Schools

23

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Summary cE$1,#)*?.),#)$,-%*#*#;-5(/+,0*C$+',$0-)/'56$,C5""$%& $1#,.*/+'9,2)/#,-%/(#5#5*1$%',/50,"*%,51,#)$5%,-%*.%/0' 5',%$0/%7/@+;,'505+/%3,,J)$;,2/1#,#)$5%,-%*.%/0',#* $1)/1($,#)$,/(/C$05(,-$%"*%0/1($,*",#)$,()5+C%$19,-%*& E5C$,#)$0,25#),-*'5#5E$,-$$%,/1C,/C?+#,%$+/#5*1')5-'9 /1C,.5E$,#)$0,'*0$#)51.,-%*C?(#5E$,#*,C*,51,/,'/"$ $1E5%*10$1#3,,,, !,'#%*1.,/1C,(*1'5'#$1#,(*005#0$1#,#*,/(/C$05(,2*%7 5',-%$'$1#,/(%*'',-%*.%/0',5%%$'-$(#5E$,*",'?@#+$,E/%5/& #5*1',51,#)$,0*C$+'F,E5'5*1'3,,a$,'-$(?+/#$,#)/#,#)5', *((?%',@$(/?'$,*",#)$,%$+/#5E$,$/'$,25#),2)5(),#)$'$ -%*.%/0'9,-/%#5(?+/%+;,)*0$2*%7,)$+-9,(/1,@$,'$#,?-9 /1C,@$(/?'$,0*'#,-/%#1$%',g51(+?C51.,-/%$1#'h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


24

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`?/+5#;,5','*0$#)51.,2$,25++,(*1#51?$,#*, $K/051$,0*%$,/',-%*.%/0',0/#?%$3,,4?%,$/%+;,*@'$%& E/#5*1',')*2,#)/#,E$%;,-*'5#5E$,%$+/#5*1')5-',@$#2$$1 '#/"",/1C,;*?#),/1C,/0*1.,-$$%'\@*#),(%5#5(/+,'5.1',*" `?/+5#;\2$%$,$K)5@5#$C,51,#)$,/(#5E5#5$',$E$1,C?%51. #)$,"5%'#,;$/%,*",*-$%/#5*1'3,,cK/0-+$',*",C$(5'5*1& 0/751.,*--*%#?15#5$',/1C,+$/C$%')5-9,*1,#)$,*#)$% )/1C9,2$%$,*@'$%E$C,+$'',(*1'5'#$1#+;,C?%51.,#)$,-%*& .%/0'F,$/%+;,50-+$0$1#/#5*13,,a$,$K-$(#,#)/#,/',#)$ -%*.%/0',0/#?%$,/1C,#)$,'#/"",%$($5E$,0*%$,#%/5151. /1C,@$(*0$,0*%$,$K-$%5$1($C,2$,25++,*@'$%E$,/(#5E5#5$' #)/#,,51(*%-*%/#$,0*%$,;*?#),51-?#,*--*%#?15#5$'3,,

Extended-Service Schools: Putting Programming in Place


Who Shows Up and How They Get There

IV. Who Shows Up and How They Get There

25

R/%,#**,0/1;,+*2&51(*0$,;*?#),+/(7,*--*%#?15#5$',51 #)$,/"#$%&'()**+,)*?%',#*,/--+;,/1C,@%*/C$1,#)$,'75++' #)$;,/%$,+$/%151.,51,'?-$%E5'$C9,"?1,'$##51.'3,,J)$, *-$151.,*",cIIF','()**+&@/'$C,/"#$%&'()**+,-%*.%/0' -%*E5C$C,#)$,'#?C$1#,@*C5$',*",#)*'$,'()**+',25#) $K-/1C$C,*--*%#?15#5$'3,,D1,#)5',()/-#$%,2$,C5'(?'' 2)5(),'#?C$1#',#**7,/CE/1#/.$,*",#)$,/(#5E5#5$',C?%51. #)$5%,"5%'#,;$/%,*",*-$%/#5*1,/1C,)*2,#)$;,2$%$ %$(%?5#$C3,,a$,C$'(%5@$,#)$,%$/'*1',-/%$1#',%$-*%#$C, "*%,'$1C51.,#)$5%,()5+C%$1,#*,#)$'$,1$2,'()**+&@/'$C -%*.%/0'3,,:$(/?'$,'*0$,(*00$1#/#*%',2*%%;,#)/# '()**+&@/'$C,/"#$%&'()**+,-%*.%/0',05.)#,C5'-%*-*%& #5*1/#$+;,'$%E$,0*%$,$1./.$C,'#?C$1#'9,2$,(*0-/%$ ()/%/(#$%5'#5(',*",#)$,;*?#),2)*,C*,/1C,C*,1*#,-/%#5(5& -/#$3,,J)5',/++*2',?',#*,/CC%$'',`?$'#5*1',*",#)$,%$+/#5E$ -$1$#%/#5*1,*",#)$,-%*.%/0,51#*,C5""$%$1#,'$.0$1#',*" #)$,'()**+,-*-?+/#5*13,a$,/+'*,C$'(%5@$,#)$,%/1.$,*" %$(%?5#0$1#,0$#)*C',cII,'()**+,(**%C51/#*%',?'$C,#)$ "5%'#,;$/%,#*,-%*E5C$,-*#$1#5/++;,?'$"?+,51"*%0/#5*1,#* *#)$%','#/%#51.,'505+/%,-%*.%/0'3,,J)$,'-$(5"5(,`?$'& #5*1',2$,/CC%$'',/%$d ,,,,,e

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a)/#,/%$,'*0$,*",#)$,()/%/(#$%5'#5(',*",;*?#) 2)*,$1%*++$C,51,#)$,-%*.%/0',51,'()**+,;$/% NOOOb _5C,#)$,-%*.%/0'9,51,#)$5%,"5%'#,;$/%9,C%/2 $`?/++;,"%*0,/++,'$.0$1#',*",#)$,'#?C$1#,-*-?& +/#5*1b,, a)/#,%$(%?5#0$1#,0$#)*C',/%$,?'$C,#*,@%51. '#?C$1#',#*,#)$,-%*.%/0'b

Why Parents Enrolled Their Children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`?$'#5*11/5%$,2)$1,#)$;,$1%*++$C,#)$5%,()5+C3W,,J* C/#$9,C/#/,"%*0,/--%*K50/#$+;,PQQ,-/%$1#',/%$,/E/5+& /@+$3,,J)$,%$/'*1',-/%$1#',./E$,"*%,51E*+E51.,#)$5%,()5+& C%$19,')*21,51,J/@+$,A3N9,%$E$/+,2)/#,#)$;,)*-$C,#)$,


26

Extended-Service Schools: Putting Programming in Place

Table 4.1 Parentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; Reasons for Enrolling Youth in ESS After-school Programs My child wanted to get involved. My child can make friends and have fun.

76% 54

It provides affordable after-school care. It provides dependable after-school care.

19 21

It will help my child do better in school. School staff suggested that my child enroll.

53 12

It is a safe place for my child after school. My child can get to and from the program easily and safely.

41 30

Sample Size

800

Note: Distribution adds to more than 100 percent because as many choices as applied could be checked.

Table 4.2 Number of Youth Enrolled in ESS Programs by Spring 1999 City by Models Beacons Denver Minneapolis Oakland Savannah Bridges Central Falls Flint Greensborough Jacksonsville Mesa Missoula Philadelphia

Number of Youth Enrolled 862 (3 schools) 850 (3 schools) n/a 748 (3 schools) 398 (3 schools) 380 (3 schools) 256 (2 schools) 300 (5 schools) 1,074 (3 schools) 559 (5 schools) 749 (7 schools)

Community Schools Boston Long Beach Salt Lake

145 (1 school) n/a 90 (1 school)

WEPIC Albuquerque Aurora Atlanta Denver

n/a 90 (1 school) 40 (1 school) n/a

n/a = not available.

-%*.%/0,2*?+C,C*,"*%,#)$5%,()5+C,/1C,"*%,#)$03S, J)%$$&`?/%#$%',*",#)$,-/%$1#',%$-*%#$C,#)/#,#)$5%,()5+C 2/1#$C,#*,@$,51E*+E$C,51,#)$,-%*.%/0,/1C,0*%$,#)/1 )/+",gYAlh,'/2,5#,/',/1,*--*%#?15#;,#*,$1/@+$,#)$5%,()5+& C%$1,#*,)/E$,"?1,/1C,0/7$,"%5$1C'3,,!++,-/%$1#'9,1* 0/##$%,2)/#,#)$5%,$(*1*05(,*%,'*(5/+,@/(7.%*?1C9,2/1# #*,-%*E5C$,#)$5%,()5+C%$1,25#),#)$'$,#;-$',*",$1%5()51. *--*%#?15#5$'3,,D1,-**%,(*00?15#5$'9,'?(),/',#)*'$ '$%E$C,@;,cII9,)*2$E$%9,"$2,*",#)$'$,*--*%#?15#5$' $K5'#9,,-/%$1#',0/;,1*#,@$,/@+$,#*,/""*%C,#)*'$,#)/#,C* $K5'#9,-/%$1#',/1C,()5+C%$1,*"#$1,C*,1*#,71*2,/@*?# #)$0,5",#)$;,C*,$K5'#9,*%,-/%$1#',/%$,(*1($%1$C,/@*?# #)$,'/"$#;,*",#)$,'$%E5($',g:%/1()9,NOOPh3,,J)?'9,#)$ cII,-%*.%/0,2/','$$1,@;,#)$,E/'#,0/[*%5#;,*",-/%$1#' 2)*,2$%$,/@+$,#*,$1%*++,#)$5%,;*?#),/',/,0*'#,2$+(*0$ $1%5()51.,/CC5#5*1,#*,#)$5%,()5+C%$1F',+5E$'3,, R*?%,*?#,*",NQ,-/%$1#','#/#$C,#)/#,#)$,'/"$#;,*",#)$,-%*& .%/0,2/',/1,50-*%#/1#,"/(#*%3,,!1C,;$#9,*1$&#)5%C g]Qlh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cII,-%*.%/0' E5$2$C,#)$0'$+E$',/',;*?#),C$E$+*-0$1#,-%*.%/0'9 1*#,-%50/%5+;,()5+C,(/%$,-%*.%/0'3,,

Profile of ESS Student Populations and Participants J;-5(/++;9,$1%*++0$1#,51,/1;,1$2,515#5/#5E$,5',0*C$'# #)$,"5%'#,;$/%9,/','#/"",-?#,#)$,-%*.%/0,51,-+/($3,,8$#,51 #)$,'-%51.,*",#)$5%,"5%'#,;$/%,*",50-+$0$1#/#5*19,cII -%*.%/0',$1%*++$C,W9QQQ,'#?C$1#'3,,J/@+$,A3U,')*2' )*2,#)$;,2$%$,C5'#%5@?#$C,/(%*'',0*C$+',/1C,(5#5$'3,


Who Shows Up and How They Get There

27

41,/E$%/.$9,#)$,:$/(*1',)/C,+/%.$%,-%*.%/0'9,25#),/ I-%51.,NOOO,$1%*++0$1#,*",US],'#?C$1#',-$%,'()**+3, :%5C.$',-%*.%/0',/E$%/.$C,N]],'#?C$1#',-$%,'()**+Z >*00?15#;,I()**+',/E$%/.$C,NNP,'#?C$1#',-$%,'()**+ /1C,#)$,acVD>,'()**+,$1%*++$C,AQ,'#?C$1#'3,gL$(/++ #)/#,#)$,acVD>,(5#5$',C5C,1*#,)/E$,/,-+/1151.,-$%5*C +57$,#)$,*#)$%,#)%$$,0*C$+'Z,#)$%$"*%$9,#)$;,/%$,-%*& .%/00/#5(/++;,;*?1.$%3h,,!',2$,25++,C5'(?'',51,>)/-#$% iDD9,:$/(*1,>$1#$%',)/C,%$+/#5E$+;,+/%.$,@?C.$#',(*0& -/%$C,#*,:%5C.$',/1C,acVD>,-%*.%/0'3,,J)$5%,/@5+5#; #*,)5%$,0*%$,'#/"",/1C,/(#5E5#;,-%*E5C$%',0/;,$K-+/51 2);,#)$;,'$%E$C,0*%$,()5+C%$13 :$"*%$,C$'(%5@51.,#)$09,2$,-%*"5+$,#)$,'#?C$1#,-*-?+/& #5*1',51,#)$,'()**+',51,2)5(),cII,*-$%/#$'3,,D1,#)$, *%./156/#5*1/+,'?%E$;'9,-%*.%/0,'#/"",-%*E5C$C,?',25#) 51"*%0/#5*1,/@*?#,#)$5%,#*#/+,'#?C$1#,-*-?+/#5*1',/1C #)$,()/%/(#$%5'#5(',*",'#?C$1#',2)*,$1%*++$C,51,#)$,-%*& .%/03,,!',C5'(?''$C,$/%+5$%9,cII,-%*.%/0',/%$,+*(/#$C 51,'()**+','$%E51.,/,+/%.$,-%*-*%#5*1,*",+*2&51(*0$ "/05+5$'d,-%*.%/0,'#/"",$'#50/#$C,#)/#,SU,-$%($1#,*" '#?C$1#',%$($5E$,"%$$,*%,%$C?($C&-%5($C,+?1()3,,J)$,cII '()**+',/%$,$#)15(/++;,/1C,%/(5/++;,C5E$%'$d,AU,-$%($1#,*" #)$,;*?#),/(%*'',/++,'()**+',/%$,!"%5(/1,!0$%5(/19,]Q -$%($1#,,2)5#$9,U],-$%($1#,T/#51*9,/1C,Y,-$%($1#, @$+*1.$C,#*,'*0$,*#)$%,%/(5/+,.%*?-3 J)$,'#?C$1#',2)*,/(#?/++;,$1%*++,51,-%*.%/0',/%$,`?5#$ '505+/%,#*,#)$,.$1$%/+,'#?C$1#,-*-?+/#5*1',"%*0,2)5() #)$;,/%$,C%/213,,J)$,$#)15(,/1C,%/(5/+,0/7$&?-,*",#)$ $1%*++$$',2/'d,AY,-$%($1#,!"%5(/1,!0$%5(/19,]],-$%($1# 2)5#$9,NO,-$%($1#,T/#51*9,/1C,],-$%($1#,'*0$,*#)$% %/(5/+,.%*?-3,,J)?'9,#)$,-%*.%/0',/--$/%,#*,)/E$,@$$1 $`?/++;,/##%/(#5E$,#*,/++,.%*?-'3

Table 4.3 Enrollees’ Gender by School Level Male

Female

Total

49%

51%

Elementary

46%

54%

Middle

51%

49%

High

49%

51%

Sample Size

2,157

2,266

a$,/+'*,"*?1C,#)/#,#)$,'#?C$1#,@*C5$',/%$,'-+5#,$E$1+; @$#2$$1,@*;',/1C,.5%+'3,,V/%#5(5-/#5*1,*",.5%+',51,$K#%/& (?%%5(?+/%,-%*.%/0',#;-5(/++;,C$(+51$',C%/0/#5(/++;,/' #)$;,.$#,*+C$%\-$%)/-',@$(/?'$,#)$;,#/7$,*1,0*%$ )*?'$)*+C,%$'-*1'5@5+5#5$',ga/%%$19,NOOOZ,=/0@*1$ /1C,!%@%$#*19,NOOSh3,,B*2$E$%9,J/@+$,A3],')*2',#)/# $E$1,51,#)$,05CC+$,/1C,)5.),'()**+,-%*.%/0'9,.5%+',/%$ @$51.,$""$(#5E$+;,%$(%?5#$C3,,J)5',5',/1,50-*%#/1# /((*0-+5')0$1#3,, a$,71*2,0*%$,/@*?#,#)$,$1%*++$$',51,/,'?@'/0-+$,51 #)$,51#$1'5E$,%$'$/%(),(5#5$',2)$%$,-/%$1#',)/E$,-%*& E5C$C,?',25#),0*%$,C/#/9,51(+?C51.,"51/1(5/+,51"*%0/& #5*13,,J)$,C$0*.%/-)5(,()/%/(#$%5'#5(',*",#)$,;*?#),51 '()**+',51,#)$'$,51#$1'5E$,%$'$/%(),(5#5$',/%$,%$0/%7/@+; '505+/%,#*,#)*'$,51,/++,#)$,cII,'()**+'3,,D1,-/%#5(?+/%9,AP -$%($1#,*",#)$,51#$1'5E$,%$'$/%(),'()**+'F,'#?C$1#,-*-?& +/#5*1,/%$,!"%5(/1,!0$%5(/19,UO,-$%($1#,2)5#$,/1C,NY -$%($1#,T/#51*3,,J)%$$&`?/%#$%',*",#)$,'#?C$1#,-*-?+/& #5*1,`?/+5"5$',"*%,"%$$&,*%,%$C?($C&-%5($C,+?1()3,,J/@+$ A3A,-%$'$1#',C/#/,"%*0,/--%*K50/#$+;,PQQ,"*%0'3,,a$ "*?1C,#)/#,#)$'$,$/%+;,$1%*++51.,()5+C%$1,/%$,'+5.)#+;,+$'' +57$+;,#)/1,#)$5%,%$'-$(#5E$,'#?C$1#,@*C5$',#*,(*0$,"%*0 +*2&51(*0$,"/05+5$'3,,a)5+$,#)%$$&`?/%#$%',*",#)$ '()**+,-*-?+/#5*1',`?/+5";,"*%,"%$$&,*%,%$C?($C&-%5($C +?1()9,*1+;,#2*&#)5%C',gWWlh,*",$1%*++$$',`?/+5";3,,I50& 5+/%+;9,#)$,-%*.%/0',2$%$,+$'',/@+$,#*,C%/2,51,()5+C%$1 "%*0,'51.+$&-/%$1#,)*0$'3,,a)5+$,]S,-$%($1#,*",#)$ '#?C$1#',51,#)$'$,'()**+',+5E$,25#),*1+;,*1$,-/%$1#9,UW -$%($1#,*",#)$,$1%*++$$',/%$,"%*0,'51.+$&-/%$1#,"/05+5$'3,, J)?'9,2)5+$,cII,'$%E$',#)*?'/1C',*",-**%,()5+C%$19,/# +$/'#,51,#)$'$,(5#5$'9,5#,0/;,@$,#)/#,-**%,"/05+5$',/%$ '+5.)#+;,+$'',+57$+;,#*,)/E$,'5.1$C,#)$5%,()5+C%$1,?-,51 #)$,"5%'#,;$/%,*",*-$%/#5*1,#)/1,2$%$,1*1-**%,"/05+5$' \-$%)/-',@$(/?'$,#)$;,C*,1*#,71*2,/@*?#,#)$,-%*& .%/0,*%,#)$;,2/1#,#*,'$$,#)$,`?/+5#;,*",#)$,-%*.%/0 "5%'#3,,B*2$E$%9,5#,')*?+C,@$,7$-#,51,051C,#)/#,#)$,-%*& .%/0',/%$,`?5#$,1$2,/1C,#)$,C/#/,"%*0,#)$,-/%$1#',%$-& %$'$1#,51"*%0/#5*1,*1,#)$,$/%+;@5%C'9,#)$,"5%'#,()5+C%$1 2)*,'5.1$C,?-,"*%,#)$,-%*.%/03,,D#,5',#;-5(/+,#)/#,#)$ "5%'#,-/%#5(5-/1#',51,/1;,E*+?1#/%;,-%*.%/0,/%$,#)$,0*'# 0*#5E/#$C,*%,0*'#,51E*+E$C3,, J)$,'$1'$,#)/#,#)$'$,$/%+;,$1%*++$%',2$%$,'#?C$1#',2)* 2$%$,-$%)/-',0*%$,/''$%#5E$,/1C,51E*+E$C,2/',')/%$C @;,0/1;,(**%C51/#*%'3,,J)$,-/%$1#',0*'#,51E*+E$C,25#) #)$5%,()5+C%$1,2$%$,#)$,*1$',2)*,%$'-*1C$C,#*,#)$, $1%*++0$1#,*--*%#?15#;3,,


28

Extended-Service Schools: Putting Programming in Place

Table 4.4 Selected Characteristics of Youth at the Time of ESS Enrollment Characteristic

a

ESS Initial Sample

,-".2*)6"%*2.;-'./**"%6.*-".41'#1/( &)11"%*3+./1".*-".$%A'3A"6.2*)6"%*2D..,-" &-/33"%#".-/2.!""%.$%A'3A$%#.+')*-.;-' /1".%'*.$%A'3A"6.$%./&*$A$*$"2D.?P*@.2""(2 *-/*.('2*.6'%J*.;/%*.*'.!".$%A'3A"6.$% /%+*-$%#.'1.*-"+./1"./31"/6+.A"1+.!)2+D. \I()**+,>**%C51/#*%

Gender (%) Female Male

56 44

Ethnicitya (%) Black or African American White Latino Other Missing

29 48 17 14 1

Youthâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Grade in School (%) Grade 3 or lower Grade 4 Grade 5 Grade 6 Grade 7 Grade 8 Grade 9 Grade 10 or higher

30 13 11 21 13 10 1 1

Number of Adults in the Household (%) 1 2 3 4 or more Missing

26 58 8 6 2

Number of Children in the Household, Including Enrolled Youth (%) 1 2 3 4 5 or more Missing

15 37 25 13 9 1

Receive Free/Reduced Price Lunch (%) Free lunch Reduced price lunch Neither Missing

56 10 32 2

Annual Household Income (%) Less than $11,000 $11,000 to $14,000 $14,001 to $20,000 $20,001 to $30,000 $30,001 to $40,000 Over $40,000 Missing

21 12 13 16 8 15 15

Sample Size

803

Distribution adds to more than 100 percent because as many choices as applied could be checked.

G/1;,(**%C51/#*%',$K-%$''$C,/,C$'5%$,#*,@$,C*51.,0*%$ 51,#$%0',*",*?#%$/(),#*,/#&%5'7,()5+C%$13,,R*%,$K/0-+$9 *1$,(**%C51/#*%,'#/#$Cd,jD,"$$+,+57$,2$F%$,-%*E5C51.,'$%& E5($',#*,0/1;,1$$C;,75C'9,@?#,D,2*?+C,+57$,#*,'$%E$ 0*%$,)5.)+;,/#&%5'7,'#?C$1#'3k,,J)$,(**%C51/#*%', C$'(%5@$C,#)$,0*'#,C5""5(?+#,#*,%$/(),-*-?+/#5*1,/',+*2 51(*0$9,1*1&c1.+5')&'-$/751.9,@$)51C,51,'()**+9,-**% 51,/##$1C/1($9,-%*1$,#*2/%C,C$#$1#5*1,/1C,+/(751.,51 '?--*%#,/#,)*0$3,,J)$'$,/%$,#)$,()5+C%$1,2)*,0*'# C5'+57$,'()**+9,*%,2)*'$,-/%$1#',/%$,#**,@?';,*%,C5'& #%/(#$C,#*,1*#5($,$E$1,/,'()**+&@/'$C,-%*.%/03 !',C5'(?''$C,@$+*29,(**%C51/#*%',/1C,-%51(5-/+',C$E5'$C 0*%$,-%*/(#5E$,'#%/#$.5$',#*,%$/(),#)5',-*-?+/#5*19,'?() /',C5%$(#+;,(*1#/(#51.,-/%$1#',*%,)*+C51.,%$.5'#%/#5*1,51 -/%#5(?+/%,/-/%#0$1#,@?5+C51.',*%,1$5.)@*%)**C'3

Recruitment Strategies and Challenges L$(%?5#0$1#,51E*+E$',1*#5";51.,/1C,(*1E51(51.,@*#) '#?C$1#',/1C,#)$5%,-/%$1#',/@*?#,#)$,@$1$"5#',*",#)$ -%*.%/03,,Programs have developed a variety of strategies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


Who Shows Up and How They Get There

T57$,#)5',-%*.%/09,0*'#,(*1'5C$%,%$(%?5#0$1#,#*,@$,/1 *1.*51.,#/'73,,I#/"",(*1'5'#$1#+;,%$-*%#$C,/,'#%*1.,%$+5& /1($,*1,51"*%0/+,.%/-$E51$'d L'16.'<.(')*-.$2.*-".!"2*.("*-'6D..U"'43" ;-'JA"."B4"1$"%&"6.*-".N"/&'%2.&/%.#'.'<< /%6.*"33.4"'43"./!')*.-';.#1"/*.$*.$2D... \V%*.%/0,I#/""

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`?$',*%,"$'#5E/+',#* C%/2,51,'#?C$1#'9,"/05+5$',/1C,(*00?15#;,0$0@$%'3,, V/%$1#',/%$,/+'*,51E5#$C,#*,#)$,'()**+,"*%,(*""$$,'*, #)$;,(/1,0$$#,25#),(**%C51/#*%',/1C,+$/%1,/@*?#,#)$ -%*.%/0'3 J$/()$%',/%$,51(+?C$C,/',7$;,+517',51,#)$,2*%C&*"& 0*?#),()/513,,cII,'#/"",-%$'$1#,/(#5E5#;,51"*%0/#5*1,#* #)$0,/#,"/(?+#;,0$$#51.',/1C,/'7,#)$0,#*,)/1C,*?#,*% -*'#,"+;$%'9,#$++,'#?C$1#',/@*?#,#)$,-%*.%/0',51,#)$5% )*0$%**0',*%,(+/''$'9,/1C,.5E$,#)$5%,-$%05''5*1,"*% cII,'#/"",#*,C*,-%$'$1#/#5*1',51,#)$5%,(+/''$'3,, :$(/?'$,'*,0?(),*",%$(%?5#0$1#,5','()**+&@/'$C9,#)$ `?/+5#;,*",%$+/#5*1')5-',25#),'()**+,'#/"",)/',/,0*%$ 500$C5/#$,50-/(#,*1,#)$,$/'$,*%,C5""5(?+#;,*",%$(%?5#& 0$1#3,,D1#$%/(#51.,25#),;*?#),51,#)$,+?1()%**0'9,-*'#& 51.,51"*%0/#5*1,*1,'()**+,@?++$#51,@*/%C'9,-%$'$1#51. 51"*%0/#5*1,#*,;*?#),51,(+/''%**0',/1C,0/751. /11*?1($0$1#',*E$%,'()**+,-?@+5(,/CC%$'',';'#$0',/++ %$`?5%$,/C0515'#%/#5E$,(*1'$1#3,,a)5+$,"$2,-%51(5-/+' /(#?/++;,-%*)5@5#,#)5',751C,*",51E*+E$0$1#9,'*0$,C* 0*%$,#)/1,*#)$%',#*,$1'?%$,#)/#,cII,'#/"",)/E$,$/'; /(($'',#*,"/(5+5#5$'3,,R?%#)$%0*%$9,-%*.%/0',#)/#,)/E$ @$##$%,%$+/#5*1')5-',25#),/1C,'?--*%#,"%*0,#$/()$%' )/E$,/1,$/'5$%,#50$,%$(%?5#51.3 I()**+&@/'$C,'#%/#$.5$',/%$,1*#,/+2/;',$""$(#5E$,"*%, -/%$1#'3,,G/1;,(**%C51/#*%'9,#)$%$"*%$9,#%;,#*,,(*1#/(# -/%$1#',@;,-)*1$,/1C,0/5+51.'3,,D1,0?+#5+51.?/+,-%*& .%/0'9,"+;$%',/1C,@%*()?%$',/%$,-?@+5')$C,51,0?+#5-+$ +/1.?/.$',#*,C%/2,51,1*1&c1.+5'),'-$/7$%'3,,V%*.%/0

29

'#/"",*"#$1,0$1#5*1$C,#)/#,'50-+;,'$1C51.,51"*%0/#5*1 )*0$,25#),;*?#),C*$',1*#,.?/%/1#$$,#)/#,5#,%$/()$' -/%$1#'Z,C5%$(#,(*1#/(#,-%*E$',#*,@$,50-*%#/1#3,,!,"$2 cII,'#/"",0/7$,#/%.$#$C,)*0$,E5'5#',/1C,*#)$%',C$+5E$% @%*()?%$',#*,-/%$1#'F,C**%'9,$'-$(5/++;,#*,/##%/(#,1$$C& 5$%,'#?C$1#'3,,J)$'$,(**%C51/#*%',"$+#,#)/#,5",-/%$1#' 71$2,/@*?#,#)$,/%%/;,*",/(#5E5#5$',cII,-%*E5C$',#)$; 2*?+C,$1(*?%/.$,#)$5%,()5+C%$1,#*,$1%*++3 c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`?5%$','-$(5/+,$""*%#3,, L$"$%%/+',"%*0,-%51(5-/+'9,#$/()$%',/1C,'#?C$1#,'?--*%# #$/0',/%$,#)$,0*'#,(*00*1,0$/1',#)%*?.),2)5(),-%*& .%/0',/##$0-#,#*,%$(%?5#,'?(),/#&%5'7,;*?#)3,,I$E$%/+ '()**+',)/E$,C$E$+*-$C,#/%.$#$C,%$(%?5#0$1#,'#%/#$.5$' C$'5.1$C,#*,@$,+$'','#5.0/#5651.,#)/1,%$"$%%/+'3,,R*%, $K/0-+$9,*1$,'()**+,)*+C',%$.5'#%/#5*1,51,-?@+5(,)*?'& 51.,*%,+*2&51(*0$,/-/%#0$1#,?15#'3,,D1,/1*#)$%9,#)$ 0/1/.$0$1#,#$/0,?1*""5(5/++;,(+*'$C,#)$,-%*.%/0,#* "/05+5$',2)*,2$%$,"51/1(5/++;,@$##$%,*""d L".*/1#"*"6.*-".41'#1/(.*'.')1.3';= $%&'(".5$62DDDP.*"33.*-".'*-"1.4/1"%*27. RY'.24/&"./A/$3/!3"DS..L".*/1#"*"6.')1. 1"&1)$*("%*.!+.#'$%#.*'.4/1*$&)3/1. /4/1*("%*.&'(43"B"2D..,-$2.;/+.;".3$($*"6. *-"./)6$"%&"./%6.1"&1)$*"6.*-"1"D \V%51(5-/+

!1*#)$%,2/;,-%*.%/0'9,-/%#5(?+/%+;,:$/(*1',-%*.%/0'9 $1(*?%/.$,#)$,-/%#5(5-/#5*1,*",-**%+;,-$%"*%051.,'#?& C$1#',5',#*,/''*(5/#$,#)$5%,-%*.%/0',25#),#)$5%,+$/C /.$1(5$',/1C,1*#,#)$,'()**+3,,:;,)/E51.,/,'#%*1.,:*;' <,=5%+',>+?@,*%,8a>!,5C$1#5#;9,#)$,+$/C,/.$1(;,)*-$' #)/#,'#?C$1#'9,$'-$(5/++;,#)*'$,2)*,0/;,@$,2/%;,*" '()**+,-%*.%/0'9,25++,@$,0*%$,/##%/(#$C,#*,#)$,-%*& .%/03,,D#,5',#**,$/%+;,#*,'/;,2)$#)$%,#)5',/''?0-#5*1,5'


30

Extended-Service Schools: Putting Programming in Place

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31

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32

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Extended-Service Schools: Putting Programming in Place


Addressing the Challenges in Schools

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33

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34

Extended-Service Schools: Putting Programming in Place

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Addressing the Challenges in Schools

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36

Extended-Service Schools: Putting Programming in Place

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Addressing the Challenges in Schools

37

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38

Extended-Service Schools: Putting Programming in Place

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Addressing the Challenges in Schools

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40

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Extended-Service Schools: Putting Programming in Place

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Extended-Service Schools: Putting Programming in Place

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Building Partnerships in the Planning Period

VI. Building Partnerships in the Planning Period

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46

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48

Extended-Service Schools: Putting Programming in Place

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Building Partnerships in the Planning Period

49

Table 6.1 Motivation for Getting Involved in the ESS Adaptation Planning Process Role

Invited

Access to Resources

ESS Extends Current Work

Other

School personnel

5

7

1

1

CBO or government agency personnel

5

2

9

3

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50

Extended-Service Schools: Putting Programming in Place

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Building Partnerships in the Planning Period

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51

Forging Partnerships in Denver Denver presents a good example of the challenges inherent in forging a collaborative effort where none had existed previously, or where those that had existed proved unsuccessful. It also presents a good example of how the challenges can be overcome. Denver had difficulties forging a partnership with the school system, as did the other Beacon sites. Denverâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s difficulties were compounded, however, because the foundations that took the lead, the Rose Community Foundation (the fiscal agent) and the Piton Foundation (the local intermediary), had confusing roles for the first year of the initiative. Technically, the Rose Community Foundation provided overall management, but the Piton Foundation had been key in bringing the initiative to Denver, and so sometimes appeared to take on management responsibilities. Staff at the Beacon Centers themselves were unsure what the two foundationsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; roles were and to whom they were ultimately accountable. Complicating matters were the relationships with the lead agencies, which were occasionally not sure what their responsibilities were vis-a-vis the collaboration. The tensions and hard feelings became obvious to the partners, and much time was spent in the second half of the first year addressing them. If the relationships within the city are seen as a web, there were three loci at which work needed to be done. First, the foundations, each of which had a very strong commitment to the initiative, hammered out their respective roles and responsibilities. The fiscal agent agreed to limit its work to management and fiscal oversight, and the intermediary became more focused on technical assistance. Second, the school district, having received a significant concession in being able to veto potential lead agencies, became more supportive. With the help of a key school district member, the foundations mediated the relationships between the schools and CBOs. Third, Beacon Center directors were concerned both about whether they could realistically meet the goals made for the initiative and what their relationships should be to the two founda-tions. Thus, they met with key oversight partners to discuss their concerns. In response, local initiative leaders agreed that the initial goals had been set too high, and more realistic goals were set. The founda-tions also clarified for the sites what sites could expect from them. The work done among the partners to improve their relationships and clarify their roles proved successful. By the end of the first year of implementation the collaborativeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s relationships were much improved.


52

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Extended-Service Schools: Putting Programming in Place

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53

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54

Extended-Service Schools: Putting Programming in Place

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The Tasks of Planning

VII. The Tasks of Planning

55

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56

Extended-Service Schools: Putting Programming in Place

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In two cities, the needs assessments were conducted by youth and/or community residents. The strategies used were unusual, and we summarize them below: Youth Mapping in Denver Staff from the Piton Foundation, a local organization that has taken a key leadership role in the Denver Beacons Initiative, coordinated a youth mapping effort. Training in youth mapping was provided by the Center for Youth Development and Policy Research of the Academy for Educational Development, and eight youth spent two weeks conducting surveys within the neighborhoods where Beacon Centers were to be located. The youth mapping created significant enthusiasm and receptiveness for youth leadership and involvement. In addition, specific program categories, such as technology, were added based on the findings. The Denver Beacon Centers have continued to emphasize youth involvement: youth assist in activity implementation and office management, and participate in structured leadership groups. Focus groups in Long Beach Staff from California State University, Long Beach, conducted focus groups with children and school staff separately as well as a series with parents, teachers and agencies together. They also trained community residents to facilitate focus groups with parents from the community. The process required both an initial training and a follow-up training to ensure that the facilitators did not impose their own opinions on the group. After transcribing all the focus groupsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; proceedings, planners identified eight key areas of action for the Stevenson-YMCA Community School: safety, sports, increasing interaction between teachers and families, family learning activities, child academic and career development, parent career development, fine arts and leisure, and a parent center. The planners then worked to design activities in each area.

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The Tasks of Planning

#)%*?.),#)$,"5%'#,;$/%,*",50-+$0$1#/#5*19,5#,5',1*#,-*'& '5@+$,#*,"?++;,/1'2$%,`?$'#5*1',/@*?#,#)$,%$+/#5*1')5@$#2$$1,'()**+,'$+$(#5*1,(%5#$%5/,/1C,*?#(*0$'3,,I*0$ *?#(*0$'\51(+?C51.,#)$,@?5+C51.,*",-*+5#5(/+,.**C25++ #*2/%C,(*1#51?$C,"?1C51.\/%$,1*#,/()5$E/@+$,25#)51 '?(),/,')*%#,#50$&"%/0$9,/1C,#)?',(/11*#,@$,'#?C5$C3,,D# 5',-*''5@+$9,)*2$E$%9,#*,5C$1#5";,#)$,(%5#$%5/,(5#5$',?'$C /1C,#)$5%,%$/'*1',"*%,C*51.,'*3 Schools in Low-Income Communities J)$,05''5*1,*",#)$,a/++/($&L$/C$%F',_5.$'#,R?1C',5',#* j"*'#$%,"?1C/0$1#/+,50-%*E$0$1#,51,#)$,`?/+5#;,*",$C?& (/#5*1/+,/1C,(/%$$%,C$E$+*-0$1#,*--*%#?15#5$',"*%,/++ '()**+&/.$,;*?#)9,/1C,#*,51(%$/'$,/(($'',#*,#)$'$,50& -%*E$C,'$%E5($',"*%,;*?1.,-$*-+$,51,+*2&51(*0$,(*0& 0?15#5$'3k,,!',/,%$'?+#9,/++,#)$,$+$0$1#/%;,/1C,05CC+$ '()**+','$+$(#$C,51,#)$,cII,(*00?15#5$','$%E$,)5.) -%*-*%#5*1',*",+*2&51(*0$,;*?#)3NA,,J2$1#;&"5E$,-$%& ($1#,*",#)$,'()**+',%$-*%#$C,#)/#,@$#2$$1,AU,/1C,SQ -$%($1#,*",#)$5%,'#?C$1#',/%$,$+5.5@+$,"*%,#)$,"$C$%/+,"%$$ /1C,%$C?($C,'()**+,+?1(),-%*.%/03,,D1,#)$,*#)$%,SY -$%($1#,*",#)$,'()**+'9,0*%$,#)/1,SQ,-$%($1#,*",/++,'#?& C$1#',/%$,$+5.5@+$3,, Principal Support D1,/,E$%;,'0/++,1?0@$%,*",'()**+',/0*1.,#)$,0*C$+'9 -%51(5-/+',2$%$,7$;,51,/CE*(/#51.,"*%,#)$,'()**+'F, 51(+?'5*1,51,#)$,$K#$1C$C&'$%E5($,'()**+,$""*%#3,,D1,@*#) #)$,>*00?15#;,I()**+,(5#5$'9,#)$,515#5/#5E$,@?5+#,*1,/ -%$E5*?',?15E$%'5#;^'()**+,(/'$&0/1/.$0$1#,(*++/@*%/& #5*13,,D1,#)$,$/%+;,NOOQ'9,#)$,a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cII 515#5/#5E$3,

57

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58

V%51(5-/+,#?%1*E$%,51,?%@/1,'()**+',5',(*00*13,H%@/1 '()**+',#)/#,'$%E$,+*2&51(*0$,'#?C$1#'\#)*'$,#/%.$#$C @;,#)$,cII,D15#5/#5E$\*"#$1,)/E$,)5.),-%*-*%#5*1',*" +*2&/()5$E51.,'#?C$1#'3,,I()**+,#$/()$%',/1C,/C0515'& #%/#*%',/%$,51(%$/'51.+;,)$+C,/((*?1#/@+$,"*%,'#?C$1# -$%"*%0/1($9,'*,*1$,0$#)*C,@;,2)5(),'()**+,C5'#%5(#' /##$0-#,#*,%/5'$,'#?C$1#,/(/C$05(,-$%"*%0/1($,5',#* ()/1.$,'()**+,+$/C$%')5-3,,, :$(/?'$,#?%1*E$%,/0*1.,-%51(5-/+',5','*,)5.)9,?'51. -%51(5-/+'F,'?--*%#,/',/,(%5#$%5/,51,'()**+,'$+$(#5*1,0/; $/'$,$/%+;,50-+$0$1#/#5*19,@?#,-%*@/@+;,25++,1*#,C$#$%& 051$,#)$,*E$%/++,(*?%'$,*",/1,/"#$%&'()**+,-%*.%/03, M$2,-%51(5-/+',0/;,@$,0*%$,*%,+$'','?--*%#5E$,#)/1 *?#.*51.,-%51(5-/+'3,,M$2,-%51(5-/+',25++,/+0*'#,($%& #/51+;,%$`?5%$,*%5$1#/#5*1,#*,#)$,'(*-$,/1C,.*/+',*",#)$ /"#$%&'()**+,-%*.%/0'3,,V%*.%/0,'#/"",25++,/+'*,1$$C,#* 0$$#,25#),-%51(5-/+',#*,C5'(?'',2/;',51,2)5(),#)$;,(/1 2*%7,#*.$#)$%3,,D1,/CC5#5*19,-%51(5-/+'F,/##$1#5*1,5',?'?& /++;,C5E$%#$C,"*%,/,;$/%,*%,'*,/',#)$;,.$#,#*,71*2,#)$ '()**+F',"/(?+#;,/1C,'#?C$1#'9,/1C,$'#/@+5'),#)$5%,+$/C$%& ')5-3 School Level G/1;,(5#5$',C$(5C$C,#)/#,5#,2/',50-*%#/1#,#*,51(+?C$ 05CC+$,'()**+',51,#)$5%,515#5/#5E$3,,J)$,05CC+$,'()**+ ;$/%',)/E$,@$$1,+*1.,@$$1,5C$1#5"5$C,/',/,(%5#5(/+,-$%5*C "*%,;*?#)3,,V/%$1#/+,'?-$%E5'5*1,?'?/++;,C50515')$'3, 8*?#),@$(*0$,51(%$/'51.+;,/?#*1*0*?',51,()**'51. /(#5E5#5$'3,,L5'7,@$)/E5*%',%5'$,C%/0/#5(/++;9,51,-/%#, @$(/?'$,#)$%$,5','*,+5##+$,/C?+#,'?-$%E5'5*19,$'-$(5/++;,51 #)$,)*?%',500$C5/#$+;,/"#$%,'()**+,g>/%1$.5$,>*?1(5+ *1,!C*+$'($1#,_$E$+*-0$1#9,NOOUh3,,!#,#)$,'/0$,#50$9 #)$,0$1?,*",/"#$%&'()**+,/(#5E5#5$',(*00*1,51,)5.) '()**+'\0?'5(9,#)$,/%#'9,+$/C$%')5-,.%*?-'9,-/5C,[*@' /1C,E*+?1#$$%,/(#5E5#5$'\)/E$,+/%.$+;,@$(*0$, ?1/E/5+/@+$,#*,05CC+$,'()**+,;*?#)3,, G*%$,-%/.0/#5(/++;9,*1$,-+/1151.,#$/0,0$0@$%,1*#$C #)/#,05CC+$,'()**+',/%$,/,.**C,()*5($,5",#)$,515#5/#5E$ )*-$',#*,/##%/(#,;*?#),"%*0,05CC+$9,)5.),/%6,$+$0$1& #/%;,'()**+'d,j$+$0$1#/%;,75C',+57$,05CC+$,'()**+,/1C 5#F',1*#,#**,"/%,@/(7,"*%,)5.),'()**+,;*?#)3k,, R*%,/++,#)$'$,%$/'*1'9,*",#)$,AY,'()**+',51E*+E$C,51,#)$ cII,D15#5/#5E$,"*%,2)5(),2$,)/E$,51"*%0/#5*19,YQ,-$%& ($1#,/%$,05CC+$,'()**+'9,51(+?C51.,*1$,#)/#,'$%E$', p&P#),.%/C$3,,!1,/CC5#5*1/+,AQ,-$%($1#,*",#)$,'$+$(#$C '()**+',/%$,$+$0$1#/%;,'()**+'3,,D1,G5''*?+/9,2)$%$ #)%$$,$+$0$1#/%;,'()**+',#)/#,"$$C,>3I3,V*%#$%,G5CC+$,

Extended-Service Schools: Putting Programming in Place

I()**+\/,'()**+,25#),/,-%*[$(#,*1,2)5(),#)$,+*(/+ :%5C.$',#*,I?(($'',515#5/#5E$,2/',0*C$+$C\2$%$,()*& '$19,/,-+/1151.,#$/0,0$0@$%,'/5C,#)$;,2$%$,'$+$(#$C,'* j2$,(*?+C,.$#,75C',$/%+5$%,/1C,.$#,#)$0,?'$C,#*,#)$'$ #;-$',g$3.39,;*?#),C$E$+*-0$1#h,*",/(#5E5#5$'3k,,J)$, %$0/5151.,NQ,-$%($1#,/%$,)5.),'()**+'3 School Location R*?%,*",#)$,'5K,(5#5$',25#),0?+#5-+$,'()**+',51,#)$5%,515& #5/#5E$',()*'$,/,'#%/#$.;,.*E$%151.,($1#$%,+*(/#5*13, J2*,*",#)$,(5#5$'\_$1E$%,/1C,G511$/-*+5'\C$(5C$C #*,+*(/#$,'$%E5($',51,/%$/',*",#)$,(5#;,#)/#,)/C,)5.),1$$C /',C$"51$C,@;,/(/C$05(,/()5$E$0$1#,/1C,#)$,-*E$%#; %/#$',*",#)$,'#?C$1#'F,"/05+5$'3,,J)$,*#)$%,#2*,(5#5$' \f/(7'*1E5++$,/1C,I/E/11/)\C$(5C$C,#*,'-%$/C,#)$5% $""*%#',/(%*'',#)$5%,(5#5$'3 !++,f/(7'*1E5++$F','()**+,C5'#%5(#',2$%$,51E5#$C,#*,/--+; "*%,:%5C.$',#*,I?(($'',"?1C51.3,,:;,'-%$/C51.,($1#$%' /(%*'',#)$,(5#;9,#)$,(5#;,)*-$C,#*,.$1$%/#$,@%*/C,-*+5#5& (/+,.**C25++,#*,$1(*?%/.$,"?#?%$,"?1C51.3,,J)$,-+/1& 151.,#$/0,51,I/E/11/)9,2)5(),2/',+$C,@;,#)$,8*?#) R?#?%$',!?#)*%5#;,g8R!h9,0/C$,/,'505+/%,C$(5'5*1,#* '-%$/C,#)$,:$/(*1,>$1#$%',/(%*'',#)$,(5#;3,,8R!9,/,(5#;& 25C$,(*++/@*%/#5*1,#*,50-%*E$,;*?#),'$%E5($'9,)/C,+*1. "*(?'$C,5#',/##$1#5*1,*1,!%$/,>9,/,)5.)&-*E$%#;,1$5.)& @*%)**C,1$/%,C*21#*219,/1C,)/C,-5(7$C,?-,'*0$, %$'$1#0$1#,25#)51,#)$,(5#;,#)/#,'*,0/1;,%$'*?%($',2$%$ @$51.,C$E*#$C,#*,#)/#,/%$/3,,J*,/++/;,#)$,%$'$1#0$1# /1C,/1;,-*''5@+$,$""$(#',5#,05.)#,)/E$,*1,8R!F',/@5+5#; #*,@$,/,'#%*1.,+$/C$%,51,;*?#),-%*.%/0',/1C,(*++/@*%/& #5*1'9,#)$,cII,-+/1151.,#$/0,()*'$,/%$/',51,$/'#9,2$'# /1C,($1#%/+,I/E/11/)3,, D#,5',#**,$/%+;,#*,71*2,2)$#)$%,'?(),'#%/#$.5(,-+/($& 0$1#,*",$K#$1C$C&'$%E5($,'()**+',51,/,(*00?15#;,25++ 51(%$/'$,#)$,515#5/#5E$'F,-*+5#5(/+,(/-5#/+3,,J)5',5',/,`?$'& #5*1,#)/#,25++,@$,"*++*2$C,/',2$,+**7,/#,)*2,#)$,(5#5$' -+/1,"?#?%$,"?1C51.3,,

Financing the Programs !(`?5%51.,#)$,1$($''/%;,%$'*?%($'\"51/1(5/+,/1C 1*1"51/1(5/+\#*,50-+$0$1#,/1,cII,-%*.%/0,5',/,()/+& +$1.51.,/''5.10$1#,$E$1,25#),#)$,(?%%$1#,$0-)/'5',/# #)$,"$C$%/+9,'#/#$,/1C,+*(/+,+$E$+',*1,/"#$%&'()**+,-%*& .%/0051.,"*%,;*?#)3,,J)$%$"*%$9,*1$,*",#)$,0/[*% -+/1151.,#/'7',2/',C$#$%05151.,#)$,%$'*?%($',1$$C$C,#* .$#,#)$,-%*.%/0,*"",#)$,.%*?1C,/1C,-?##51.,#)$'$,%$& '*?%($',#*.$#)$%3,,V*#$1#5/++;9,0/1;,'#%$/0',*","?1C51. (/1,'?--*%#,#)$,-%*.%/0'd,$K5'#51.,%$'*?%($',(/1,@$


The Tasks of Planning

%$C5%$(#$C9,'?(),/',%$/''5.151.,'()**+,-$%'*11$+,/1C^*% >:4,-$%'*11$+,#*,'#/"",#)$,-%*.%/0,*%,-/%#5(?+/%,/(#5E& 5#5$'Z,"$C$%/+9,'#/#$,/1C,+*(/+,"?1C',(/1,@$,?'$C,*%,%$C5& %$(#$CZ,@?'51$'',/1C,-)5+/1#)%*-5$',(/1,-%*E5C$,0*1$;Z /1C,E*+?1#$$%',(/1,)$+-,'?--*%#,#)$,-%*.%/03,,B*2& $E$%9,0/1;,*",#)$'$,'#%/#$.5$',#/7$,#50$,#*,C$E$+*-3, L$+/#5*1')5-',25#),@?'51$'',/1C,-*+5#5(/+,+$/C$%',1$$C #*,@$,"*'#$%$C3,,V?@+5(,'?--*%#,1$$C',#*,@$,./%1$%$C3, V%*-*'/+',1$$C,#*,@$,2%5##$13,,D1,#)5','$(#5*1,2$,C5'(?'' #)$,-%*.%/0'F,@?C.$#'9,/1C,)*2,#)$;,/''$0@+$C,#)$ %$'*?%($',#)$;,1$$C$C,#*,.$#,'#/%#$C3,,J)$,a/++/($& L$/C$%F',_5.$'#,R?1C',.%/1#,2/',/,-/%#,*",#)$,'#%/#$.;9 @?#,*1+;,/,-/%#3 D#,5',50-*%#/1#,#*,71*2,#*#/+,-%*.%/0,(*'#,@$(/?'$, 5#,%$-%$'$1#',#)$,"?++,E/+?$,*",#)$,%$'*?%($',#)/#,0?'#,@$ /''$0@+$C3,,!++,cII,@?C.$#'9,)*2$E$%9,?1C$%'#/#$,#)$ "?++,(*'#,*",#)$,-%*.%/0,@$(/?'$,#)$;,C*,1*#,%$"+$(#, #)$,"?++,%/1.$,*",(*00?15#;,%$'*?%($',#)/#,'?--*%#, #)$,$""*%#3,,J)$,0*'#,(*00*1,/1C,+/%.$'#,51&751C %$'*?%($',-%*E5C$C9,@?#,0*'#+;,*05##$C,"%*0,#)$,@?C& .$#'9,/%$,#)$,*""5($,/1C,-%*.%/0,'-/($,C*1/#$C,@;,#)$ '()**+'3,,D1,#)$,1$K#,%$-*%#9,2$,25++,';'#$0/#5(/++;, 51E$'#5./#$,#)$,"?++,'$#,*",%$'*?%($',?'$C,51,#)$,-%*& .%/0'9,E/+?$,#)$0,/1C,(/+(?+/#$,#)$,#*#/+,/11?/+,(*'# -$%,$1%*++$C,;*?#)3,,J*,.5E$,-%/(#5#5*1$%',/1C,"?1C$%',/ '$1'$,*",2)/#,5',$1#/5+$C,51,'?--*%#51.,$/%+;,50-+$0$1& #/#5*19,)*2$E$%9,#)5',%$-*%#,$K/051$',2)/#,#)$,-%*& .%/0',$K-$(#$C,#)$5%,*?#&*"&-*(7$#,(*'#',#*,@$,@;, %$E5$251.,$/%+;,@?C.$#',/1C,)*2,#)$;,+$E$%/.$C, *#)$%,%$'*?%($'3 Budgets !#,/,05150?09,/++,-%*.%/0',)/C,#*,"51C,*%,"51/1($,/ '#/1C/%C,+5'#,*",%$'*?%($',#*,0/7$,#)$,/"#$%&'()**+,-%*& .%/0,*-$%/#5*1/+d,'/+/%5$',"*%,'#/"",51(+?C51.,/,-%*[$(# C5%$(#*%,/1C,'()**+,(**%C51/#*%Z,/(#5E5#;,(*'#',g2)5() 0/;,51(+?C$,/(#5E5#;,+$/C$%'F,#50$9,$`?5-0$1#9,/1C,(?'& #*C5/+,'$%E5($',/1C,'?--+5$'hZ,'*0$,*""5($,$K-$1'$','?() /','-/($,/1C,$`?5-0$1#Z,/1C,*#)$%,(*'#'3,,R*%,'*0$ -%*.%/0'9,#%/1'-*%#/#5*1,5',/,1$($''5#;9,"*%,*#)$%',5#,5' *-#5*1/+3,,I*0$,-%*E5C$,'1/(7',"*%,#)$,-/%#5(5-/1#'3,, 4#)$%,$K-$1C5#?%$',51(+?C$,(*1'?+#/1#,#50$,"*%,$K$(?& #5E$,/C0515'#%/#5E$,/''5'#/1($9,%$(%?5#0$1#,*",1$2,'#/""9 -?@+5(,%$+/#5*1',/1C,C$E$+*-0$1#,2*%73,,:$"*%$,#)$ -%*.%/0',@$./19,#)$,-+/1151.,#$/0,C$"51$C,#)$,+$E$+, *",%$'*?%($',#)$;,1$$C$C,/1C,)*2,#)$;,2*?+C,(*E$% #)$5%,@?C.$#'9,@*#),@;,1$2,0*15$',/1C,%$C5%$(#$C,*% C*1/#$C,"?1C'3,,J)$;,'?@05##$C,#*,#)$,R?1C,#)%$$&;$/% @?C.$#',/#,#)$,$1C,*",#)$,-+/1151.,-$%5*C3

59

c'#50/#$C,/11?/+,-$%&-%*.%/0,'#/%#&?-,@?C.$#',E/%5$C /(%*'',/1C,25#)51,0*C$+'3,,J)$'$,$'#50/#$',/%$,%'* @?C.$#',"*%,*-$%/#51.,/,0/#?%$,-%*.%/0,@$(/?'$,#)$; 51(+?C$,$K-$1'$',/''*(5/#$C,25#),'#/%#&?-9,'?(),/',$K#%/ )5%51.,(*'#'9,$K$(?#5E$,*E$%'5.)#,#50$,/1C,#$()15(/+, /''5'#/1($3,,J)$;,/%$9,)*2$E$%9,%*?.),$'#50/#$',*",2)/# #)$,(5#5$',@$+5$E$C,#)$;,2*?+C,'-$1C,.$##51.,#)$,-%*& .%/0',*1,#)$,.%*?1C3,,41,/E$%/.$9,:$/(*1,-%*.%/0' @?C.$#$C,@$#2$$1,XUYQ9QQQ,/1C,X]QQ9QQQ,-$%,'()**+ -$%,;$/%3,,:?C.$#',"*%,>*00?15#;,I()**+,-%*.%/0' %/1.$C,"%*0,XNYQ9QQQ,#*,X]QQ9QQQ,-$%,'()**+,/11?& /++;3,,:%5C.$',#*,I?(($'',-%*.%/0',@?C.$#$C,/1,/E$%/.$ *",XPQ9QQQ,#*,XOQ9QQQ,-$%,'()**+,/11?/++;3,,a5#)51& 0*C$+,-$%&'()**+,@?C.$#',/(%*'',(5#5$'9,)*2$E$%9,2$%$ /+'*,'5.15"5(/1#,/1C,E/%5$C,/',0?(),/',NQQ,-$%($1#3,, J)$,0/.15#?C$,*",#)$,@?C.$#',%$"+$(#',@*#),C5""$%$1($' 51,#)$,51#$1C$C,51#$1'5#;,/1C,'56$,*",#)$,-%*.%/0'3, R%*0,>)/-#$%,Di9,2$,71*2,#)/#,#)$,'56$,*",#)$,-%*& .%/0',C5""$%$C,/#,#)$,$1C,*",#)$,"5%'#,;$/%3,,J)$,-%*& .%/0'F,%$+/#5E$,'56$',(/1,)$+-,-?#,#)$,@?C.$#',51#*,-$%& '-$(#5E$3,,41$,')*?+C,1*#9,)*2$E$%9,(/+(?+/#$,/,-$%&'#?& C$1#,/11?/+,(*'#,"%*0,#)$'$,1?0@$%',@$(/?'$,#)$,@?C& .$#',51(+?C$,'#/%#&?-,(*'#',/1C,1*#,/++,#)$,'#?C$1#',-/%& #5(5-/#$C,"*%,#)$,"?++,;$/%3,,a5#),#)$'$,(/E$/#',51,051C9 2$,"*?1C,#)/#,:$/(*1',)/C,$1%*++$C,0/1;,0*%$,'#?& C$1#',/#,#)$,$1C,*",#)$,"5%'#,;$/%,#)/1,C5C,#)$,*#)$% 0*C$+'\/1,/E$%/.$,*",/--%*K50/#$+;,USY,'#?C$1#',-$% '()**+3,,J)$,:%5C.$',-%*.%/0',)/C,#)$,1$K#,+/%.$'#, /E$%/.$,/11?/+,$1%*++0$1#',*",/--%*K50/#$+;,N]Y,'#?& C$1#'9,"*++*2$C,@;,>*00?15#;,I()**+',/#,NUQ,'#?& C$1#'3,,J)$,acVD>,-%*.%/0',/%$,1*#,;$#,"?++;,50-+$& 0$1#$C9,#)?',2$,C*,1*#,71*2,)*2,0/1;,'#?C$1#',#)$; 25++,'$%E$3,a)5+$,2$,25++,51E$'#5./#$,#)$,-$%&'#?C$1# (*'#,*",#)$,E/%5*?',-%*.%/0',"*%,*?%,1$K#,%$-*%#9,5#,5' +57$+;,#)/#,#)$,>*00?15#;,I()**+',0*C$+,@?C.$#',#)$ 0*'#,-$%,'#?C$1#3,,J)$,%$+/#5E$,-*'5#5*1,*",#)$,*#)$% 0*C$+',5',+$'',(+$/%3,, Assembling Resources J)$,'*?%($',"%*0,2)5(),#)$,(5#5$',/''$0@+$C,#)$ 1$$C$C,%$'*?%($',C5""$%$C,25C$+;9,'?..$'#51.,#)/# ,1*,*1$,'56$,"5#',/++3,,c/(),'#%/#$.;,2/',%$+/#$C,#*,#)$, (5#;F','-$(5"5(,(*1#$K#,/1C,-/'#,$K-$%5$1($'3,,D",#)$, cII,-%*.%/0,.%$2,*?#,*",/,-%$E5*?'+;,$K5'#51.,/"#$%& '()**+,-%*.%/09,#)$,*+C,"?1C$%',.$1$%/++;,(*1#51?$C #)$5%,'?--*%#3,,D",#)$,'()**+,)/C,/,"/05+;,*%,-/%$1#, ($1#$%9,'*0$,*",#)$'$,%$'*?%($',2$%$,*"#$1,#/--$C3,,


60

D",#)$%$,2$%$,*%./156/#5*1',#)/#,(*1C?(#$C,'/#$++5#$ ;*?#),-%*.%/0'9,'?(),/',+5@%/%5$',*%,0?'$?0'9,#)$'$ %$'*?%($',(*?+C,*"#$1,@$,@%*?.)#,51,#*,#)$,cII, -%*.%/0'3, c'#/@+5')$C,*%./156/#5*1',(*?+C,/+'*,/--+;,"*%,.%/1#' "*%,1$2,-%*.%/0',#*,@$,50-+$0$1#$C,@;,#)$,cII,-%*& .%/0'3 V%*.%/0',*",/,'505+/%,'56$,25#),'505+/%,%$'*?%($',(/1 E/%;,.%$/#+;,51,)*2,#)$5%,"?1C51.,-/(7/.$,5',/''$0@+$C3, D1,.$1$%/+9,-%*.%/0',/''$0@+$,#)$,1$$C$C,%$'*?%($' #)%*?.),/,(*0@51/#5*1,*",(*005#0$1#',"%*0,(*00?& 15#;,*%./156/#5*1'9,51&751C,C*1/#5*1',@;,(5#56$1',/1C @?'51$''$'9,#)$,?'$,*",#)$,'()**+,@?5+C51.,/',#)$,'5#$,*" -%*.%/0,/(#5E5#5$',/1C,.%/1#',"%*0,-%5E/#$,g/1C,51,/ "$2,51'#/1($'9,(*%-*%/#$h,"*?1C/#5*1'3,,I?@'5C56$C,*% C*1/#$C,#50$,"%*0,(*00?15#;,+$/C$%'9,'()**+,C5'#%5(# -$%'*11$+,/1C,'()**+,-%51(5-/+',5',/+'*,$''$1#5/+,"*%,#)$ -+/1151.,/1C,50-+$0$1#/#5*1,*",-%*.%/0',/',2$++,/' #)$5%,(*1#51?$C,$K5'#$1($3,, >*'#',(*E$%$C,25#),%$C5%$(#$C,"?1C',*%,51&751C,C*1/& #5*1',$K($$C,#)$,$K-$1'$',-/5C,"*%,@;,(/'),(*1#%5@?& #5*1',@;,*1$,*%,#2*,)?1C%$C,-$%($1#3,,B*2$E$%9,#)$ (/'),"?1C',%/5'$C,"%*0,"*?1C/#5*1'9,.*E$%10$1#,/.$1& (5$'9,#)$,H15#$C,a/;,/1C,;*?#)&"?1C51.,.%*?-',/%$ *"#$1,#)$,(/#/+;'#,"*%,+$E$%/.51.,#)$'$,*#)$%,%$'*?%($'3, J)$,a/++/($&L$/C$%F',_5.$'#,R?1C',.%/1#,2/',#)$,%$/+ '-/%7,"*%,0*'#,*",#)$,cII,(5#5$',g#)*?.),`?5#$,/,"$2 )/C,$5#)$%,@$$1,#)51751.,/@*?#,C*51.,'*0$#)51.,+57$ cII,*%,)/C,/1,/"#$%&'()**+,-%*.%/0,/+%$/C;,51,-+/($h3, V%*.%/0',?'$C,#)$5%,R?1C',.%/1#',#*,'5.15"5(/1#+;,+$E$%& /.$,*#)$%,'?--*%#3,, !',C5'(?''$C,$/%+5$%,51,#)5',()/-#$%9,#)$,-%*.%/0',"5%'# @?5+#,/,-/%#1$%')5-,*","?1C$%',#)/#,05%%*%$C,#)$,50-+$& 0$1#/#5*1,-/%#1$%')5-'9,@?#,#)$1,%$/()$C,*?#,#*,*#)$% "?1C$%'3,,R*%,#)$,:%5C.$',#*,I?(($'',-%*.%/0'9,#)$ H15#$C,a/;9,#)$,'-*1'*%,*",#)/#,-%*.%/0,0*C$+9,5',/ '?@'#/1#5/+,"?1C$%,#)%*?.),C5%$(#,.%/1#'9,@?#,#)$,'()**+ C5'#%5(#,/+'*,-%*E5C$',%$C5%$(#$C,"?1C'3,,J)$,acVD> -%*.%/0',%$($5E$,0/[*%,'?--*%#9,0/51+;,-$%'*11$+,1*# /((*?1#$C,"*%,51,#)$,@?C.$#'9,"%*0,#)$,?15E$%'5#;,#)/# '-*1'*%',#)$03,,J)5'9,(*?-+$C,25#),%$C5%$(#$C,"?1C51. "%*0,#)$,'()**+,C5'#%5(#9,/%$,#)$,0/51,'*?%($',*",'?-& -*%#,"*%,acVD>,-%*.%/0'3,,J)$,>*00?15#;,I()**+' )/E$,#2*,0/[*%,"?1C$%'9,#)$,R?1C',/1C,#)$,'()**+,C5'& #%5(#3,,:$/(*1',-%*.%/0',)/E$,@$$1,#)$,0*'#,'?(($''"?+ 51,$K-/1C51.,#)$5%,0/[*%,"?1C51.,@/'$,#*,51(+?C$,+*(/+

Extended-Service Schools: Putting Programming in Place

/.$1(5$'9,#)$,"$C$%/+,.*E$%10$1#9,+*(/+,.*E$%10$1#,/1C *#)$%,"*?1C/#5*1'3 :$(/?'$,+$E$%/.51.,1*1(/'),%$'*?%($',5','*,50-*%#/1#9 2$,-%$'$1#,/1,$K/0-+$,*",)*2,(/'),"?1C',+$E$%/.$C 0/1;,0*%$,%$'*?%($'3, How Much Cash Is Needed to Get Started in a School? !',C5'(?''$C,/@*E$9,*1+;,'*0$,*",#)$,%$'*?%($',1$$C$C #*,%?1,/1,cII,-%*.%/0,/%$,(*E$%$C,@;,(/'),-/;0$1#'3, B*2$E$%9,51,-%/(#5($9,'*0$,?1%$'#%5(#$C,"?1C',/%$,1$(& $''/%;,#*,'#/%#,/,-%*.%/03,,jB*2,0?()bk,/'7,0/1; -$*-+$,51#$%$'#$C,51,'#/%#51.,#)$'$,#;-$',*",-%*.%/03, R*%,#)$,0*'#,-/%#9,#)$,0*%$,0*1$#/%;,%$'*?%($',*1$ )/',#)$,%5()$%,*%,@5..$%,#)$,-%*.%/0,(/1,@$9,@?#,2)/# 5',#)$,,%$/'*1/@+$,+*2$%&@*?1C,$'#50/#$b,,=$1$%/++;9 -%*.%/0',?'$C,#)$5%,0*1$#/%;,%$'*?%($',#*,"?1C,(*%$ '#/""F',#50$9,#*,'?@'5C56$,*%,"?++;,-/;,"*%,'*0$,;*?#) /(#5E5#5$'9,/1C,#*,(*E$%,'*0$,/C0515'#%/#5E$,(*'#'3 !,%$E5$2,*",#)$,$K-$1C5#?%$',*",/,'/0-+$,*",NN,cII (5#5$',')*2',#)/#,/,'()**+F',-%*.%/0,(/1,@$,'#/%#$C,*1 +$'',#)/1,X]Q9QQQ,(/'),/11?/++;9,-%*E5C$C,5#,(/1,+$E$%& /.$,*#)$%,%$'*?%($',/1C,#)$,?'$,*",/,'()**+,@?5+C51.3, R*%,$K/0-+$9,*1$,cII,(5#;,*-$%/#$C,51,#)%$$,'()**+' 25#),#)$,(/'),@?C.$#,')*21,51,J/@+$,S3N3,,J)$,-%*& .%/0,C5%$(#*%,0/1/.$C,#)$,-%*.%/0,/#,*1$,*",#)$,#)%$$ '()**+',/1C,#)$,'()**+,(**%C51/#*%,(*E$%$C,#)$,#2* *#)$%,'()**+'3,,J)?'9,#)5',(5#;,/E$%/.$C,X]Q9QQQ,-$% '()**+3,,B*2$E$%9,/',2$,C5'(?''$C,51,>)/-#$%,i9,#)$ `?/+5#;,*",#)$,-%*.%/0,g*%,#)$,0$1#/+,)$/+#),*",#)$, (**%C51/#*%h,5',(*0-%*05'$C,25#),/,)/+"&#50$,'()**+ (**%C51/#*%3,,!++,#)$,-%*.%/0',25#),)/+"&#50$,'()**+ (**%C51/#*%',/%$,#%;51.,#*,"51C,"?1C',#*,51(%$/'$,#)$ '()**+,(**%C51/#*%'F,#50$3,

Table 7.1 A Minimal Cash Budget in ESS City with Three Schools Salary and Fringe Benefits: Program Director (20 hrs/wk) One School Coordinator (40 hrs/wk)

$20,000 $30,000

Resources for youth activities

$25,000

Office

$15,000

Cash Total

$90,000 for 3 schools


The Tasks of Planning

L$(*.15651.,#)/#,#)$;,1$$C$C,0*%$,'#/""9,515#5/#5E$ +$/C$%',51,#)$,(5#;,?'$C,#)$,515#5/+,(/'),.%/1#',#*,+$E$%& /.$,%$C5%$(#$C,"?1C'3,,J)$;,#%5-+$C,#)$,@?C.$#,/1C, $K-/1C$C,-%*.%/0,(/-/(5#;9,2)5(),51(+?C$C,/CC5#5*1/+ (**%C51/#5*1,'#/"","*%,$/(),'()**+3,,J/@+$,S3U,')*2',#)$ 0*%$,(*0-+$#$,@?C.$#3,,J)$,%$C5%$(#$C,"?1C',g51,@*+Ch -%*E5C$C,/CC5#5*1/+,'#/"",'?--*%#9,*""5($,$`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gRL>h9,'#/"",0$0@$%',g"?1C$C,@;,/1*#)$%,+*(/+ >:4h,C*1/#$C,'*0$,#50$,#*,)$+-,*%./156$,-/%$1#,/1C ;*?#),/(#5E5#5$'3,,

61

G?(),*",#)$,;*?#),/(#5E5#;,2/',-/5C,"*%,#)%*?.),/ (*0@51/#5*1,*",(/'),/1C,%$C5%$(#$C,"?1C'3,,D#,5',#;-5(/+ 51,#)5',(5#;,"*%,/,;*?#)&'$%E51.,*%./156/#5*1,#*,C*1/#$ #)$,/(#5E5#;,+$/C$%F',#50$,g%$C5%$(#$C,"?1C'h,#*,#)$,-%*& .%/09,2)5+$,#)$,cII,-%*.%/0,'?--+5$',#)$,1$($''/%; $`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j*""&@?C.$#k,5#$0,/1C,C*$',1*# /--$/%,51,#)$,"?++,(/'),/1C,%$C5%$(#$C,"?1C',"51/1(5/+ '#/#$0$1#9,5++?'#%/#51.,)*2,$E$1,#)$,#*#/+,@?C.$#, ?1C$%$'#50/#$',#)$,#*#/+,%$'*?%($,(*'#,*",#)$,-%*.%/03,,

Table 7.2 Expanded Budget with Redirected Funds Salaries and Fringes: Program director One school coordinator Additional school staff Subtotal

$ 20,000 30,000 68,000 $118,000

Subtotal

$ 25,000 19,000 50,000 25,000 15,000 $134,000

Subtotal

$ 13,000 15,000 0 5,000 $ 30,000

Cash, plus redirected total

$285,000

Youth Activities: Monetary resources for youth activities Service-learning training for sites (from a university) Museum-sponsored activities (staff and equipment) CBO-sponsored activities Teacher-led activities Administrative Expenses: Administrative time of sponsoring agency and community partners Cash expenses Agency-donated office space for project director Use of office equipment and supplies


62

G/1;,/C0515'#%/#5E$,(*'#',2$%$,/@'*%@$C,@;,#)$,'-*1& '*%51.,/.$1(;3,,D#,-%*E5C$C,*""5($,'-/($,"*%,#)$,-%*& .%/0,C5%$(#*%,g1*,E/+?$,-+/($C,*1,#)5',(*1#%5@?#5*1h9 ')/%$C,5#',(*-;,0/()51$,/1C,*#)$%,$`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

Summary of Planning Experience J)5',()/-#$%,)/',C$'(%5@$C,)*2,#)$,(5#;,(*++/@*%/#5*1' -+/11$C,#)$5%,+*(/+,515#5/#5E$'3,,J)$,'#%/#$.5$',#/7$1,#* (*1C?(#,1$$C',/''$''0$1#'9,'$+$(#,'()**+',/1C,-+/1, "51/1(51.,2$%$,C5E$%'$9,%$"+$(#51.,#)$,C5""$%$1#,-*+5#5(/+ /1C,'*(5/+,'$%E5($,$1E5%*10$1#',51,2)5(),#)$,c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

Extended-Service Schools: Putting Programming in Place

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Management and Governance

VIII. Management and Governance

63

J)$,#%/1'5#5*1,"%*0,-+/1151.,#*,50-+$0$1#/#5*1,2/', /,(%?(5/+,-$%5*C,"*%,#)$,+*(/+,515#5/#5E$'3,,_$(5'5*1& 0/751.,/?#)*%5#;,*E$%,C/;&#*&C/;,0/1/.$0$1#,/1C %$'-*1'5@5+5#5$',"*%,'?'#/5151.,#)$,515#5/#5E$,)/C,#*,@$ #%/1'"$%%$C,"%*0,#)$,-+/1151.,(*005##$$,#*,*#)$% .%*?-'d,-%*.%/0,C5%$(#*%',/1C,'()**+,(**%C51/#*%' 2)*,2*?+C,@$,(**%C51/#51.,/1C,C5%$(#51.,#)$,-%*& .%/0'Z,(5#;&25C$,*E$%'5.)#,(*005##$$'Z,/1C,'()**+& +$E$+,.*E$%1/1($,(*?1(5+'3,,D1,/+0*'#,/++,(5#5$'9,'-$(5"5( C$(5'5*1',1$$C$C,#*,@$,0/C$,/@*?#,2)*,2*?+C,(**%C5& 1/#$,#)$,+*(/+,-%*.%/0',/1C,2)/#,-%*.%/0',2*?+C,@$ 50-+$0$1#$C3,,,, J)5',()/-#$%,C$'(%5@$',#)$,C$(5'5*1&0/751.,'#%?(#?%$' #)/#,2$%$,'$#&?-,/1C,$E*+E$C,/#,#)$,'()**+,/1C,(5#;,+$E& $+',/1C,#)$5%,%$'-$(#5E$,%$'-*1'5@5+5#5$'3,,a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a$,@$.51,*?%,C5'(?''5*1,25#) /,C$'(%5-#5*1,*","%*1#&+51$,0/1/.$0$1#\#)$,'()**+, (**%C51/#*%'3,,J)$1,2$,C5'(?'',#)$,@%*/C$%,.*E$%1/1($ '#%?(#?%$',51,2)5(),#)$;,2$%$,$0@$CC$C3,,D1,-/%#5(?+/%9 #)$,()/-#$%,/CC%$''$',#)$,"*++*251., `?$'#5*1'd ,,,,,e ,,,,,e

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64

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Extended-Service Schools: Putting Programming in Place

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School-level Management: the School Coordinator =$##51.,/1,/"#$%&'()**+,-%*.%/0,*"",#)$,.%*?1C,51,/ '()**+,5',/,C/?1#51.,/1C,(*0-+$K,/''5.10$1#3,,J)$,%$& '-*1'5@5+5#;,"*%,0/751.,5#,)/--$1,/#,/,-/%#5(?+/%,'()**+ "$++,0*'#,)$/E5+;,*1,#)$,'()**+,(**%C51/#*%3,,G/1;,*" #)$,'()**+,(**%C51/#*%',2$,#/+7$C,#*,+57$1,#)$,[*@,#* @$51.,/,%51.0/'#$%3,,J)$,%$'-*1'$,#*,ja)/#,C*,;*? C*bk,2/',*"#$1,ja)/#,C*1F#,D,C*qk,, G+.1'3".$2.*'.(/5".&'%%"&*$'%2DDD.(/5$%# $*.-/44"%>#"**$%#.!)$36$%#.4"1($*27 <$%6$%#.<1"".1''(2.<'1./&*$A$*$"27.6"A"3'4= $%#./3*"1%/*$A".43/%2.$<.*-"+./1"%J* <1""DDD*1/&5$%#.4/1*$&$=4/*$'%DDD41"4/1$%# 1'2*"12.<'1.*-".2*/<<DDD#/*-"1$%#.6/*/DDDP -/A".6'%".41'#1/(2.*''>&-"22.&3)!D..P 5%';.*-/*J2.%'*.2)44'2"6.*'.!".(+.1'3"7 !)*.P.&')36%J*.<$%6./%+'%".*'.6'.$*D..P.6$6 2"1A$&".&3)!./%6DDDP.*)*'1.$%.*-".*)*'1$%# &3)!D..,-".3'#$2*$&2.*/5".('2*.'<.(+.*$("D \I()**+,>**%C51/#*%

!#,/,05150?09,(**%C51/#*%',)/C,#*,-%*E5C$,/(#5E5#5$' \$5#)$%,#)$0'$+E$',*%,@;,5C$1#5";51.,/1C,$1./.51., /(#5E5#;,-%*E5C$%'Z,1$.*#5/#$,25#),#)$,-%51(5-/+'9,#$/()& $%',/1C,(?'#*C5/1',#*,*@#/51,/(($'',#*,'-/($,"*%,#)$, /(#5E5#5$'Z,%$(%?5#,()5+C%$1Z,/1C,0*15#*%,/(#5E5#5$'3, a)5+$,#)$'$,@/'5(,#/'7',/%$,#)$,1$($''/%;,(*0-*1$1#', *",/1,/"#$%&'()**+,-%*.%/09,#)$;,/%$,1*#,'?""5(5$1#,#* $1'?%$,#)/#,#)$,-%*.%/0,5',2$++&%?13,,>**%C51/#*%' 0?'#,/+'*,(*00?15(/#$,25#),#)$,-%51(5-/+9,(*00?15& (/#$,25#),#)$,#$/()$%',/1C,(?'#*C5/1'9,/1C,(*00?15& (/#$,25#),-/%$1#'3, cII,'()**+,(**%C51/#*%'9,)*2$E$%9,2$%$,1$E$%,$1E5& '5*1$C,/',+*1$,*-$%/#*%'3,,J)$;9,51'#$/C9,2$%$,'$$1,/'

#)$,"%*1#&+51$,2*%7$%',51,/,(*++/@*%/#5*1,/0*1.,'$E$%/+ 51'#5#?#5*1'3,,!#,#)$,(5#;,+$E$+9,0/1;,51'#5#?#5*1',2$%$ $K-$(#$C,#*,@$,51E*+E$C3,,:?#,$E$1,/#,#)$,'()**+,+$E$+9 #)$,'()**+9,/,+$/C,/.$1(;9,*#)$%,'$%E5($,-%*E5C$%'9,#)$ (*00?15#;,/1C,'*0$#50$',/,?15E$%'5#;,2$%$,$K-$(#$C #*,@$,51E*+E$C3,,a)5+$,#)$,51E*+E$0$1#,/1C,%$'*?%($' *",#)$'$,0?+#5-+$,/.$1(5$',(/1,@$,/CE/1#/.$*?',#*,#)$ -%*.%/09,5#,/+'*,0/7$',#)$,[*@,*",'()**+,(**%C51/#*% 0*%$,C5""5(?+#,/',)$^')$,)/',#*,C$/+,25#),0?+#5-+$,0/'& #$%'\#)$,-%51(5-/+9,#)$,+$/C,/.$1(;,/1C,#)$,(*00?& 15#;3,,J)5','$(#5*1,C$'(%5@$',2)*,#)$,(**%C51/#*%',2$%$ /1C,)*2,#)$;,2$%$,'$+$(#$C3 The Coordinatorsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; Backgrounds =5E$1,#)$,(*0-+$K5#;,*",#)$,'()**+,(**%C51/#*%F',[*@9 C*$',5#,0/##$%,2)/#,$K-$%#5'$,#)$,(**%C51/#*%,)/'b, _*$',5#,0/##$%,5",#)$,(**%C51/#*%,)/',/1,$C?(/#5*1 @/(7.%*?1Cb,,!,;*?#),'$%E5($,@/(7.%*?1Cb,,cK-$%5$1($ 25#),#)$,(*00?15#;b,,cK-$%5$1($,25#),#)$,'()**+F',+$/C /.$1(;b,,cK-$%5$1($,25#),#)$,'()**+\#)$,-%51(5-/+9 #$/()$%',/1C,-/%$1#'b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

The School Coordinatorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Responsibilities The responsibilities held by the school coordinators differed somewhat by city and school depending on whether funds existed for an assistant, but coordinators were generally responsible for: Recruiting Participants Recruiting and/or subcontracting with providers Supervising program staff Coordinating activity schedules Managing school/program relationships Obtaining space for activities Convening site councils Monitoring programs, including attendance Reporting to lead agencies Administering the program budget In some schools they also provided activities themselves, either on an ongoing basis or as a substitute when a provider did not show up.


Management and Governance

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65

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66

Extended-Service Schools: Putting Programming in Place

Table 8.1 Planned Governance Structures at the Schools Lead agency governance

Small-team governance

Shared governance between school-level councils and lead agency

Minneapolis

Atlanta

Central Falls

Missoula

Aurora

Denver

Boston

Jacksonville

Long Beach

Savannah

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67

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68

Extended-Service Schools: Putting Programming in Place

Table 8.2 Proposed Roles of the School-Level Councils Central Falls

Denver

Jacksonville

Savannah

Generate program goals

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Approve program plans

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Choose lead agencies

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Participate in staff decisions

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69

4E$%,#)$,(*?%'$,*",#)$,"5%'#,;$/%,*",50-+$0$1#/#5*19,#)$ /?#)*%5#;,*",#)$,'()**+&+$E$+,(*?1(5+',2/',(/++$C,51#* `?$'#5*13,,a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`?$'#5*1',/@*?#,)*2,*"#$1 #)$,(*?1(5+',0$#3,,!(%*'',#)$,(5#5$'9,-%*.%/0,C$(5'5*1' %$+/#51.,#*,/(#5E5#;,()*5($'9,'()$C?+51.,/1C,'#/"",2$%$ @$51.,0/C$,-%50/%5+;,@;,(**%C51/#*%'3,,!#,#)$,$1C,*" #)$,"5%'#,"?++,;$/%,*",50-+$0$1#/#5*19,2)$1,/'7$C,51,#)$ *%./156/#5*1/+,'?%E$;,2)*,2*?+C,)*+C,#)$,?+#50/#$, /?#)*%5#;,5",/1,j?1%$'*+E/@+$,5''?$,(*1($%151.,cII 2$%$,#*,/%5'$9k,*1+;,"*?%,'()**+,(**%C51/#*%',51(+?C$C #)$,'()**+&+$E$+,(*?1(5+',51,#)$5%,%$'-*1'$'3,,J;-5(/++;9 (**%C51/#*%',%$-*%#$C,#)/#,#)$,*%./156/#5*1,(*1#%*++51. #)$,"?1C',*%,#)$,*E$%'5.)#,(*005##$$',)/C,?+#50/#$ /?#)*%5#;3,,>*?1(5+,0$0@$%',%$-*%#$C,#)/#,0/1;,0$0& @$%',2$%$,1*,+*1.$%,(*051.,#*,0$$#51.',/1C,#)/#,0$$#& 51.',2$%$,)$+C,51"%$`?$1#+;3,,J)$%$,2/',+5##+$,`?$'#5*1 #)/#,cII,'#/"",/1C,#)$5%,+$/C,/.$1(5$',2$%$,0/751., C$(5'5*1',/@*?#,-%*.%/0051.3,, , Why it is so difficult to convene school-level councils for ESS.,,!(%*'',#)$,(5#5$'9,-+/1151.,#$/0,0$0@$%'9

(**%C51/#*%',/1C,(*?1(5+,0$0@$%',)/E$,/,1?0@$%,*" $K-+/1/#5*1',"*%,2);,5#,2/','*,C5""5(?+#,#*,(*1E$1$,/1C '?--*%#,$""$(#5E$,'()**+&+$E$+,(*?1(5+'3,,D1,/,(5#;,2)$%$ #)$,'()**+&+$E$+,(*?1(5+',/+'*,*E$%'/2,'()**+&C/;,C$(5& '5*1'9,#)$,(*?1(5+'F,/.$1C/',2$%$,"?++,/1C,#)$;,+/(7$C #)$,#50$,#*,*E$%'$$,/"#$%&'()**+,/(#5E5#5$'3,,D1,/CC5#5*19 #)$;,C5C,1*#,0$$#,C?%51.,#)$,'?00$%9,/,-%50$,#50$,#* -+/1,"/++,/(#5E5#5$'3,,D1,*1$,(5#;9,'#/7$)*+C$%','?..$'#$C,/ %/1.$,*",$K-+/1/#5*1'd,#)$,+$/C,/.$1(5$',+/(7$C,$K-$%5& $1($,2*%751.,25#),(*00?15#;,(*?1(5+',/1C^*%,05.)# 1*#,2/1#,#*,(*1E$1$,(*?1(5+',51,(*00?15#5$',51,2)5() #)$;,)/E$,-**%,%$+/#5*1'Z,#)$,+*(/+,51#$%0$C5/%;,+/(7$C /C$`?/#$,#50$,#*,#%/51,#)$,(*?1(5+',/1C,(+/%5";,#)$5% %*+$'Z,-*+5#5(/+,51"5.)#51.,2/',-/%,"*%,#)$,(*?%'$,51,#)$ +*(/+,(*00?15#;Z,*%,#)$,(*00?15#;,)/C,/,)5'#*%;,*" 1*151E*+E$0$1#3


70

Extended-Service Schools: Putting Programming in Place

Jacksonville: A Case of Successful Shared Decision-Making Although the city did not avoid the tensions and conflicts we have described, Jacksonville was the only city that continued to actively use school-level councils. In Jacksonville, it is important to note, the councils were largely made up of community-based organization staff who were involved in the full-service schools. Thus, they had been managing activities at schools with a similarly complex collaborative structure. Although the councils had struggled with the tensions that those in other cities had, two factors appear to have allowed Jacksonville to overcome some of its difficulties. First, all services that come into the schools must be approved by the councils. The councils also have the authority to reallocate funding from one program to another. Their authority, therefore, arises from their role, and is not derived from the authority of the planning teams. Second, an overall culture of collaboration exists within the social service community in Jacksonville, which pre-disposed many stakeholders to work out their difficulties.

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Table 8.3 School-level Governance Structure at the End of the First Year of Implementation Key partners oversee activities at schools

Lead agency staff share oversight with school-level councils

CBO/United Way provide oversight

Atlanta

Jacksonville

Minneapolis

Aurora

Missoula

Boston

Denver

Central Falls

Savannah

Long Beach


Management and Governance

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71

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72

Denver: Plans for Sustainability In Denver, the oversight committee identified several key challenges to continuing Beacons funding. First, as in so many cities, the school district’s mission is raising educational standards, and there is no funding available for the kinds of enrichment activity that the Beacons provide. Second, the city of Denver has a relatively young and small philanthropic base, and oversight committee members do not think there are sufficient private monies to fund the initiative long-term. Third, state funds for youth development activities are limited (as they are in so many states). Fourth, the Beacons in Denver need an institution that can act as the fiscal agent over the long term. The foundation that is currently filling the role is doing so temporarily. The oversight committee has thus been considering creating a Board of Cooperative Educational Services [BOCES], which is often a partnership among a number of school districts that pool resources. In Denver, the BOCES would be a partnership between a university and Denver Public Schools (DPS) to govern all Denver’s community/school projects—Beacons, 21st Century Learning Centers and neighborhood centers. Its advantages would be a primary concern with afterschool activities and eligibility for funds that may not be available to another entity. For example, federal 21st CCLC funds must go to educational entities, but other funds may be limited to other kinds of agencies. A BOCES would allow the Denver Beacons to apply to multiple funding streams and funnel the funds of each to single entities.

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Extended-Service Schools: Putting Programming in Place

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Management and Governance

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74

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Extended-Service Schools: Putting Programming in Place

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Summary and Conclusions

IX. Summary and Conclusions

75

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The Adaptation Process J)$,cII,515#5/#5E$,51E*+E$',"*?%,C5'#51(#,-%*.%/0, 0*C$+'9,$/(),25#),5#',*21,-%*.%/0,-)5+*'*-);,/1C ?1C$%+;51.,@$+5$"',/@*?#,)*2,;*?#),@$'#,C$E$+*-3,,!++ "*?%,0*C$+',%$"+$(#,#)$,-?@+5(F',C$$-,(*1($%1,/@*?#, /(/C$05(,/()5$E$0$1#3,,J)$,$E/+?/#5*1,)/',/++*2$C,?' #*,*@'$%E$,)*2,(5#5$',0*C5";,#)$,@/'5(,0*C$+,-%*.%/0' #*,"5#,#)$5%,-/%#5(?+/%,'*(5/+9,(?+#?%/+,/1C,-*+5#5(/+,(*1& #$K#'3,,a$,$K-$(#$C,#)$'$,/C/-#/#5*1',#*,#/7$,/,1?0@$% *","*%0'3,,J)$;,(*?+C9,"*%,$K/0-+$9,+$/C,#*,0*C5"5(/& #5*1',51,.*E$%1/1($,'#%?(#?%$',*%,51,#)$,%*+$',*",'()**+


76

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Extended-Service Schools: Putting Programming in Place

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

Using Schools as the Venue for After-school Programs T*(/#5*1,51,#)$,'()**+,@?5+C51.,-%*E5C$',/,-%*.%/0 25#),'$E$%/+,50-*%#/1#,/CE/1#/.$'3,,R5%'#9,#)$,"/(5+5#5$' /%$,/--%*-%5/#$,"*%,/,25C$,%/1.$,*",/(#5E5#5$'3,,=;0'9 +5@%/%5$'9,/?C5#*%5?0',/1C,(*0-?#$%,+/@',/++,-%*E5C$ ?15`?$,$`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a$,*@'$%E$C,#)/#,/#,+$/'# '*0$,-/%#',*",#)$,'()**+',/%$,*"#$1,)$/E5+;,?'$C,/"#$% )*?%'d,#$/()$%',-%$-/%$,"*%,#)$5%,1$K#,C/;F',(+/''$',/1C -%*E5C$,$K#%/,)$+-,#*,'$+$(#$C,'#?C$1#'Z,'#?C$1#',?'$,#)$ +5@%/%5$',/1C,(*0-?#$%,+/@',#*,(*0-+$#$,#)$5%,/''5.1& 0$1#'Z,'-*%#,#$/0',-%/(#5($Z,*?#'5C$,*%./156/#5*1'\ '?(),/',I(*?#',*%,-%5E/#$,C/;&(/%$,-%*E5C$%'\?'$,#)$ "/(5+5#5$'3,,cE$1,51,#)$,'?00$%'9,#)$,@?5+C51.',/%$,?'$C9 -%50/%5+;,"*%,'?00$%,'()**+,-%*.%/0',#)/#,)/E$,


Summary and Conclusions

77

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78

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Extended-Service Schools: Putting Programming in Place

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Summary and Conclusions

Conclusions,

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79

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80

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Extended-Service Schools: Putting Programming in Place


Extended Service Schools: Putting Programming in Place

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Extended-Service Schools: Putting Programming in Place


Extended-Service Schools: Putting Programming in Place

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References 4.6'&7$&!4),'($0!)'!9%)0&+(&'-!;&#&0)53&'NOOU E.G/**"1.'<.,$("].h$25./%6.\44'1*)%$*+.$% *-".Y'%=I&-''3.M')123,,M$2,8*%7d,>/%1$.5$ >*%-*%/#5*1,*",M$2,8*%73

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