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Enhancement of CD Clock Radio Alarm Design for the better LCA & User behavior

DM5533 SUSTAINABLE DESIGN MSC INTEGRATED PRODUCT DESIGN 1229542 JEONGEUN HEO


CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION 1-1. Aim 1-2. Product description 2. IDENTIFICATION OF THE LIFE CYCLE 2-1. Components 2-2. Cambridge Eco Audit analysis 2-3. Simapro analysis 2-4. Comparing between CES and Simpro 3. HUMAN NEEDS 3-1. Environmental and users’ behavior change 3-2. Identification of existing problems 3-3. Suggestions and Critical analysis 4. FINAL PRODUCT 4-1. Sketch 4-2. Analysis the improved product

References Appendix 1-4


1. INTRODUCTION 1. AIM This report is for the improvement of a CD clock radio alarm(CCRA) which will be critically and analytically highlighted by streamlined life cycle analysis. The Eco audit tool and Eco design web are going to be used in order to find the problems, and recommendation and suggestions will be followed for the improvement with Eco audit tool. 2. PRODUCT INTRODUCTION The advancement of technology Simultaneous with various changes occurring in the world is the enhancement in human life. In particular, there are a lot of new types of objects emerging and evolving, while some of the objects are obsolete with new technology. CD clock radio alarm is the one that has been diminishing, but will not able to completely disappear with constant needs. In this connection, there is a need to analysis the existing design to find the direction of the future for better usage in a sustainable way. Product description The chosen CCRA is manufactured from BUSH, a British consumer electronics brand sold exclusively at Argos. The most of materials are made from plastic simply mass-produced from molds. With only black colored model, they tend to design it for a low price. Interestingly, it performs perfectly somehow for simple function with just 18 pounds selling almost everywhere in Argos. Although there are so many substituted products of it, such as a smart phone has every function of music, radio, and alarm clock, people are still willing to buy it with some reasons, perhaps simpler and familiar usage. From the reason that analyzing this product would be of the importance, because the one of roles of product designers is making right direction of the object which is especially in the short obsolesce of technology these days.

Industry : Consumer electronics Founded : 1932, as Bush Radio Headquarters : The Waterfront, UK Owner : Home Retail Group No website : Available everything at www.argos.co.uk

Fig. 1 Bush


2. IDENTIFICATION OF THE LIFE CYCLE 1. COMPONENTS There are more than ten different components in the chosen CCAR (Fig2. Components). In other words, the way to produce it is complicated as over 33 screws are needed to assemble the product. For the assessment of LCA, I have separated the components by 15.

Fig. 2 Components

There are four main parts in the product. The main body is the unit of CD player which has a number of essential components – Buttons, cover of CD, and PCB. This part is assemble with the clock part which is covering display of clock by two components with different materials. Thirdly, the left and right side have speakers in each. Lastly, electric line is fixed on the bottom part assembled lastly with about 10 screws. From the reason those components are all important having reached 95% weight. However, I did not contain the battery section on the bottom part since the AAA battery unit does not reached 5 % of the whole weight. More importantly, the battery is just for back-up time, not to get electronic power for music or clock.


2. CAMBRIDGE ECO AUDIT ANALYSIS According to the energy summary chart ( Fig. 3 and 3-1), the highest figure is in the use, allocated about 55% both the category of energy and CO2. Meanwhile, the second noticeable result are in the material, having reached about 40% in each. Since it has relatively long product life, EoL potential is 274MJ. As a consequence, 193MJ of energy is consumed per year.

Fig. 4 Eco Audit Report - original product

Energy (MJ)

Energy (%)

CO2 (kg)

CO2 (%)

Material

421

43.8

23.7

41.2

Manufacture

10.6

1.1

0.798

1.4

Transport

1.58

0.2

0.112

0.2

Use

529

54.9

33

57.2

Disposal

0.26

0.0

0.0182

0.0

Total (for first life)

963

100

57.6

100

End of life potential

-349

Phase

-19.5 Energy (MJ)/year

Equivalent annual environmental burden (averaged over 5 year product life):

193

Fig. 4-1 Eco Audit Report - original product

Manufacture, Transport, and Disposal (strengths) There are positive results in these three phases – manufacture, transport, and disposal. Firstly, the biggest part, main body for CD player and bottom part allocate approximately 23% each , but just 10.6MJ is consumed for the manufacture, while emitting around 0.8kg of CO2. Secondly, the transport is proven its efficient way accounting just 1.58MJ. Lastly, just small energy is need to disposal components with low amount of CO2 footprint.


Use & Material (weakness) CD Clock Radio Alarm is electrically powered daily product. Users would use it everyday in the specific time. In the morning, it is estimated to be used 30minites to an hour; at night, before sleep, similar time period would be spent with it. Since this is just used in indoor, about one hour extra usage would be during day time. 12W is used to get electricity. The average user uses the machine 2-3 times per day for around 3hours. The life span of the machine is 5 years.

The users of this product may use this product 3 hours per a day over a life of 5 years. Despite of just 3hours, the proportion of energy consumption is prevalent than others. The electric power accounts for 529MJ(Mega Joules), while 33kg of CO2 emits from it. “ polycarbonate and molding are good choices because their energies and CO2 lie in the mid range of those for commodity materials.” (2011 Granta Design) Although the company had a good choice for materials, there is still high energy consumption. This is because of the high amount of the total mass and a number of components. Polycarbonate is energy efficient material (Gallina USA). However, its chemical substances has a negative impact contributing 23.7kg of CO2 emission in total (figure.2), (Wouter, 2005). Moreover, weight is one of the important factors to increase energy consumption, and the electrical components lead to rise the whole figure. Especially, the materials of inductor allow to spend more energy consumption, 62.8%, and to emit 62% of CO2 footprint.

From the analysis of LCA, the improvement of ‘materials’ and ‘use’ would be required for the better eco impact of product. However, manufacture, transport, and disposal tend to be the strengths of it. Hence, the focus would be the former phases since that has a weakness in energy consumption hardly. Especially, the electronic usage needs to be more focused since that is the highest impact on environment. The CES EduPack Eco Audit Tool(2011) – a white paper suggest two ways to improve this weakness. The one is easily improved by changing it to eco-material components, while the others would have great strategy efficiently. In this connection, finding another materials which fit with this objects would be first step to find a way to reduce energy consumption. Next would be about creating solution by creative thinking with research.


3. SIMAPRO ANALYSIS

Compare the components ( Eco-indicator 99 )

Fig. 5 Compare the components by Simapro

Shown in the information are how much the components of the product has negative impacts in environment with 11 kinds of categories from carcinogens to fossil fuel. It is notable from the graph that the figures for electric wire has the biggest negative impact. To explain in detail, having account for about 460mPt, electric wire is firstly ranked with three notable figure in which 60% of that consists of carcinogens, which is followed by minerals, and resp. inorganics. The other ten categories have a propensity to be divided similarly by carcinogens, resp. inorganics, fossil fuel, and climate change. With the high proportion of inorganics, screws are proven its negative impact in environment ranked secondly, especially with the resp. inorganics. To conclude, there is a need to focus on electric wire and carcinogens.

electric wire

carcinogens


Life cycle analysis of CD Clock Radio Alarm

Fig. 6 Single score - per impact category

Fig. 6-1 Network-top

The CCRA is affecting to environment in 8 ways while the processes of product is proceed such as operation, transport, electricity, and landfill. With regard to CCRA total components, accounting for around 1.2Pt as a whole figure, there are three prevalent negative impacts – carcinogens, resp. inorganics, and fossil fuel which are approximately allocated by 25% equally in each. On the other hand, the figure of electricity is about three times than the former one. Around one Pt of fossil fuel is spending, the most negative impact. This is followed by resp. inorganics, carcinogens, and climate change in order biggest to smaller. When it comes to landfill, there are only carcinogens from the process. Lastly, Operation and transport seem to have positive result. Hence, the need of improvement of electricity for better eco system has revealed again with 70% of negative impact to environment. Interestingly, electricity require the greatest consumption of fossil fuels(fig.6).


4. COMPARING BETWEEN CES AND SIMAPRO

Fig. 7 Eco Audit Reprot with clock system boundary - 12W

Fig. 7-1 Eco Audit Reprot with clock system boundary - 5W

Fig. 7-3 Single score with clock system boundary - 12W

Fig. 7-4 Single score with clock system boundary - 5W

The CD clock radio alarm(CCRA) has complicated function which means more sophisticated ways to measure LCA are needed. CES and Simapro, however, does not provide manual to measure energy consumption by each functions. For instance, the CCRA has two main functions – listening music, and watching time-at which each function has different energy consumption. To illustrate this point, the function of clock allows to connect to electricity always, but users may listen music just for 3 hours per a day. Although I have made a datum point in music, the another function also needs to contribute to the completed LCA result in doubt. From the reason that I have simulated LCA one more time with clock’s system boundary in each tool. From this process, similar results have investigated in both programs(fig.7, 7-1, 7-2, 7-3). Indeed, this shows how CES has easy interface than Simapro. To exemplify what I mean, in CES, I have just changed the figure of 12w to 5w, and the time from 3hours to 24hours. Meanwhile, Simapro requires a complicated way to multiply and divide with numbers. Personally, simapro took three times more time than CES. In short, CES has easy interface than Simapro, but the main important trend of figure are consistent in both tools. However, there are also prevalent features in Simapro, so it offsets the complicated interface. Alex (2012) pointed out that simapro is the most popular one, so users can share its finding and report in the easier way. Furthermore, it has very various and detailed analytical capabilities For the most, CES is easy to use, but good enough in general, while Simapro is in professional level, but users need time to be used to the interface.


3. HUMAN NEEDS 1. ENVIRNOMENTAL AND USER’S BEHAVIOR CHANGE “ Effective waste minimization is not just a question of reducing unwanted outputs from the manufacturing process. It also involves producing longer lasting products.” (Tim, 1994) The life cycle of product is accelerated as technology advancement. However, it could not make an ideal answer to throw away culture due to some reasons. Hierarchy of waste management options (fig.8) shows sustainability is not just about recycle, but having identified waste minimization, like durability. It is even more complicated matter associated with social, economic issues aside from environmental issue. From the reason that appropriate strategy is needed to reached the top of the hierarchy. The good point to start with is technological change. Especially, new technology of electricity is emerging everyday, every time, so tomorrow, some of product will be obsoleted by more extensive functions, or higher quality. Record player, CD player, or mp3 are the good example. Regarding this matter, designers should not miss the great value from existing products, not just substituting everything into new products, such as increasing energy efficiency. Pursuing this further, with the enhancement in the quality of life, people’s desire of emotional stages is constantly rising. In other words, they are now smart users who would reflect their personality to object improving their life pattern easier, happier. According to Tim Cooper (1994), a researcher for the new economics foundation, says “latest model is an important influence on purchasing behavior”, as ‘conspicuous consumption’. However, emotional durability would be more of importance nowadays and in the future, in order to encourage consumers to use product longer. By design thinking, designers can find the value to evoke consumers’ emotion.

Fig. 8 Hierarchy of waste management options


In the economic point of view, the product which is relatively expensive is less frequently replaced while experiencing economic recessions(2012, Tim). Moreover, the poorest countries tend to sell them longer time. To take a personal example, when I went to Philippines, I was surprised with the market of products which have less opportunity. Usually, the latest models are almost not affordable to them because of big gap from the affluent countries. In this situation, we need to look at the way to utilize cheap technology but fair enough to satisfy their needs. 2. IDENTIFICATION OF EXISTING PROBLEM Material and components In the manufacture process of Clock CD Alarm Radio, generally a great number of different materials and components are required. Hence, reducing the number of those need to be targeted to decrease energy consumption. Furthermore, applying eco friendly material would be great solution, which also has a benefit lasting longer in some cases. Use Electric power is the most important issue in this product since it brings a hug amount of harmful elements and negative impact to environment. One of the great effort from redesign would be increasing energy efficiency. Transportation Less weight and capacity of product and package can make less energy consumption for transportation, so reducing components will bring better consequence on environment. 3. SUGGESTIONS AND CRITICAL ANLYSIS Using oak In order to make better sound, oak performs very well with thinner surface finishing. Oak is beautiful, so it can also have the value of aesthetic aspects. Using Aluminum for some small part According to the book design + environment (2001), Aluminum is a benefit in weight, while recycling aluminum is more affordable than still. However, it requires to use minimum amount of material, so I would apply for just buttons or some points. Pursuing to use polycarbonate Polycarbonate is easy to recycle if it does not have finishing, so it can be applied to some parts of product. Changing digital clock to analog clock The reason the CCRA has too much energy consumption is that it has digital clock. This means that it requires consuming electricity 24 hours. If it can be changed by analog clock, it would have great impact in the energy consumption. Reducing components There has been some CD player without CD cover, but it does not affect the lifecycle. Furthermore, it can make a great design language to designer. Furthermore, the number of buttons can be reduced, when the buttons have two way to push – long push, and short push.


4. FINAL PRODUCT 1. SKETCH Ideation


2. 2D Rendering Function Movement inside Streo speakers

AA Batteries for clock Hour Snooze Long Push : OFF Short Push : Next Track

Minute

Setting Alarm time

Volume

Radio

Clock Circle

CD

Timer

Music

Alarm Clock


2. 3D Rendering

DJ Clock


3. Re-assess “DJ Clock” by CAMBRIDGE ECO AUDIT ANALYSIS Before

After

Fig. 7 Eco Audit Reprot with clock system boundary - 12W

Fig. 7-1 Eco Audit Reprot with clock system boundary - 5W

Before Energy (MJ)

Energy (%)

CO2 (kg)

CO2 (%)

Material Manufacture

421 10.6

43.8 1.1

23.7 0.798

41.2 1.4

Transport Use

1.58 529

0.2 54.9

0.112 33

0.2 57.2

Disposal

0.26

0.0

0.0182

0.0

Total (for first life)

963

100

57.6

100

End of life potential

-349

Phase

-19.5

After Energy (MJ)

Energy (%)

CO2 (kg)

CO2 (%)

Material Manufacture

286 1.63

56.2 0.3

16.1 0.123

53.6 0.4

Transport

0.978

0.2

0.0695

0.2

220

43.2

13.7

45.8

0.195

0.0

0.0136

0.0

510

100

30

100

Phase

Use Disposal Total (for first life) End of life potential

-61.1

-3.47

Reference http://www.avforums.com/forums/streamers-network-musicplayers/1124369-no-demand-cd-players.html http://www.consumersearch.com/cd-players/review http://gallinausa.com/what-is-polycarbonate/ http://alexandria.tue.nl/extra2/200512911.pdf http://www.linkcycle.com/comparison-of-best-life-cycle-assessment-software/


Enhancement of CD Clock Radio Alarm Design for the better LCA & User behavior