Page 1

Rotterdam Den Haag An Emerging Urban Region Network

URBANISM EUROPEAN POSTGRADUATE MASTERS IN

STRATEGIES AND DESIGN FOR CITIES AND TERRITORIES


Colophon European Postgraduate Masters in Urbanism strategies and design for cities and territories STUDENT WORK DESIGN STUDIO EMU fall semester 2012/13 TUDelft Urban Regional Networks European Higher Education Consortium in Urbanism Faculty of Architecture, Department of Urbanism Delft University of Technology Julianalaan 134 01WEST800 The Netherlands Tel. +31 15 27 81298 STUDIO PARTICIPANTS Evgeniya BOBKOVA Luiz Marcos DE CARVALHO Anastasia CHRANIOTI Germana PINHEIRO CAMARA Reshu RAMNIWAS GUPTA Antonio SANNA Mrudhula SOE KOSHY Kathrine SUNDERMANN Aditya SURESH DESHMUKH Andrea ĂœBERBACHER Si XIAO Miao ZHANG

STUDIO INSTRUCTORS Daan ZANDBELT Roberto ROCCO EXTERNAL JURY MEMBERS FINAL REVIEW Isabelle PUTSEYS, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven Arjan HARBERS, Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving Kersten NABIELEK, Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving Paul GERRETSEN, Deltametropool Merten NEFS, Deltametropool

This studio is part of the European Postgraduate Master EMU TU Delft. The design studio is complemented by compulsory courses in methodology, technology and theory concerned with urban networks and their societal and economic implications. www.emuurbanism.eu

II

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft


Foreword The EMU studio of the fall semester focused on the metropolitan area of Rotterdam and The Hague, two Dutch cities. These cities and the many smaller cities around them are growing into an intensely urbanised region, roughly corresponding to the southern section of the Randstad Holland. The current infrastructures and landscapes are the product of several levels of governance and administration. Although the area performs quite well economically, socially and environmentally, there is an unfulfilled promise that the integration of the two urban areas will bring extra benefits to its inhabitants. In this semester we explored the challenges and opportunities presented by this scenario and encouraged students to create favourable connections and circumstances to trigger desired developments. Students were asked to develop inspiring visions that could guide future development in the region. As a first step, students made a general analysis of trends in the region. This was important because most of them were utterly unfamiliar with the area, as they come from many different places around the globe. Following this, students organised themselves in three smaller groups and developed each a spatial strategy, that was underpinned with crucial interventions. Students worked out specific spatial interventions individually, but bearing in mind the greater spatial strategies proposed. The spatial strategies devised by students were underpinned by compelling evidence and convincing arguments, which were built through careful research and analysis, site visits and experimental design. The strategies presented, supported by crucial spatial interventions, were conceived to illustrate possible and desirable futures for the region. Visualisation and imagination were used to seduce possible stakeholders and guide their actions towards desired futures. The first group chose to redefine the relation between city and countryside, overcoming the traditional divide between urban and rural areas. Neutelings’ model of the patchwork metropolis served as a theoretical base for this strategy. By developing mutual and multiple relations between spatial patches, these patches become Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft

less vulnerable and enjoy mutual benefits. This strategy was composed around the theme of food production and consumption. But, as the group points out, this could have been done with other themes such as energy production or water management. The second group chose resilience as their main guiding principle and entitled their strategy ‘Resilient Patterns’. They rooted their strategy on the theoretical concept of ‘evolutionary resilience’. This concept is based on the idea that each economic or environmental backlash could lead to recovery at a higher level, propelling society forward. This theory was tested by the group of students in a few patterns that are under pressure by different forces, such as urbanization, economic decline and spatial fragmentation. The third group is called ‘Third Place Paradigms’. They observed that the Rotterdam-The Hague region underperforms as a network economy. It lacks attractive public metropolitan spaces and intense urban places. Therefore, they suggest ways to improve this scenario through a place-making strategy that stimulates the knowledge economy and facilitates interaction in a diverse set of (interconnected) environments: a corporate R&D cluster, a university campus, an international gateway and a deprived residential area. We believe the results of the three groups form an interesting composition of topics in the South Wing of the Randstad-Holland. The three independent strategies represent successful teamwork, with solid theoretically based interventions and hands-on fieldwork. Although the three concepts were developed separately, it is striking how complementary they are. Daan Zandbelt and Roberto Rocco Studio tutors

Daan Zandbelt

Roberto Rocco

III


European Postgraduate Master in Urbanism strategies and design for cities and territories

Student work design studio EMU fall semester 2012/13 TUDelft An emerging Urban Region Network European Higher Education Consortium in Urbanism Faculty of Architecture, Department of Urbanism Delft University of Technology Julianalaan 134 01WEST800 The Netherlands tel. +31 15 27 81298

This studio is part of the European Postgraduate Master EMU TUDelft. The design studio is complemented by compulsory courses in methodology, technology and theory concerned with urban networks and their societal and economic implications. www.emuurbanism.eu

IV

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft


Germana Pinheiro Camara Fortaleza, Brazil

Luiz Marcos de Carvalho Recife, Brazil

Reshu Ramniwas Gupta

Pune , India

Aditya Suresh Deshmukh Pune , India

Antonio Sanna

Mrudhula Soe Koshy

Cagliari, Italy

Trivandrum , India

Andrea Ăœberbacher

Si Xiao

Vienna, Austria

Hengyang , China

Anastasia Chranioti

Miao Zhang

Athens, Greece

Beijing, China

Evgeniya Bobkova

Katherine Sundermann

Moscow, Russia

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft

Melbourne, Australia

V


VI

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft


Contents

INTRODUCTION 2 PROJECTS Productive Landscapes Katherine Sundermann Germana Pinheiro Câmara Anastasia Chranioti Reshu Ramniwas Gupta

11 35 46 56 68

Resilient Patterns 83 Miao Zhang 102 Antonio Sanna 112 Luiz Carvalho Filho 120 Andrea Überbacher 130 ‘Third Place’ Paradigms 145 Si Xiao 172 Aditya Deshmukh 182 Mrudhula Koshy 192 Evgeniya Bobkova 202

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft

VII


Introduction

Cycling field trip. Source: Roberto Rocco.

2

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft


The Urban Region Networks studio was completed in the fall semester of 2012 as part of the European Postgraduate Masters in Urbanism (EMU) program. This studio dealt with the networks of the Rotterdam – Den Haag region, with participants creating strategic visions for the transformation of this complex urban area. The challenges presented in the studio gave an opportunity to gain insights into various approaches and key concepts of regional planning and design.

The theme of urban region networks was to be tested out in the South Wing Randstad, an urban sub-region in the Netherlands where mobility and infrastructure play a major role. This region, with special emphasis on the Rotterdam - Den Haag region, was spatially analysed on different scales. This enabled us to understand the role of connectivity, mobility and density in the constitution of complex urban regions (global) and mobility environments (local).

The diverse cultural and experiential backgrounds of the 12 participating students propelled us to view the task assigned from wholly different perspectives. Our academic backgrounds in architecture and urban planning combined with the application of spatial concepts on a foreign context motivated and challenged us to arrive at novel solutions. We quickly familiarised ourselves with our new context in order to be able to theorise and act in the Rotterdam- Den Haag region.

In contrast to monocentric metropolitan cities, the Randstad operates as a polycentric metropolitan region. This brought up some interesting dichotomies which determined the course of action as we decided on an appropriate spatial vision for the next thirty years.

The process of conclusively arriving at solutions was delineated by strategy and design through research. The strategy for the urban area has been outlined by three main development procedures: A conceptual vision for the region A regional strategy Key interventions that involve the application of the strategy to specific areas, simultaneously strengthening the overall strategy for the region.

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft

The study was carried out over a period of four months where we worked in larger teams to generate an urban analysis of the area, before forming smaller teams to create three contrasting but complementary strategies. The initial findings were strengthened with field trips and input from our studio tutors. Theoretical research was used to augment the direction of each overall strategy. In order to test each strategy we worked individually on specific areas which would holistically contribute to enhance the regional strategy. The specific role of stake holders, governance and policy making is also explored in the process. This book is a compilation of the work completed over the semester.

3


Randstad

The Westernmost part of the Netherlands is intensely urbanised. Home of almost half of the Dutch population, it is an economic powerhouse that produces more than 50% of the country’s output. This region is known as the Randstad. It includes the cities of Amsterdam, Rotterdam, Utrecht and The Hague and a myriad of middle and smallsized cities and communities. The whole area is intensely networked, connected by all kinds of infrastructures and flows. Commuting patterns in the area suggest that this has become an urban region network. The areas around Rotterdam and The Hague are growing together and forming a conurbation. This tight urbanised region is known in The Netherlands as The South Wing of the Randstad. The current spatial structures in the South Wing are the product of two separate systems of governance (or even more). There is an unfulfilled promise that the integration of the two urban areas will bring extra benefits for its citizens and companies, who will be able to benefit from a truly metropolitan life, with access to culture, entertainment and jobs, not to mention a dynamic housing market with great choice of lifestyles. In this EMU semester we explored this emerging networked region, understanding why it has come about, its systems of governance and what can be done to fulfil the promises of a sustainable, fair and prosperous metropolitan life in such a region.

4

We did so by working on three distinct topics and scales: 1. Territory & networks: vision on the development of the metropolitan area and its networks 2. Lines: improving the network(s) by intervening in a few lines or linear elements 3. Places: development of distinctive environments that add value to the attractiveness and competitiveness of the metropolitan area as a whole. We also studied a few theoretical notions that helped us understand the South Wing, its motors of development, and how this region might develop in the future. These theoretical notions help us understand regional urbanisation as a general phenomenon and enable us to transfer our knowledge to other regions with similar challenges and opportunities. These notions and fields of knowledge are: 1. The networked city-region as an emerging planning and design unit. 2. Governance. 3. Spatial Planning Theory, and most especially, Strategic Regional Planning and Design. 4. Interaction environments.

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft


Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft

5


Networks

6

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft


The Randstad is the economic core for the Netherlands with well networked urban areas served by both private car and public transport networks. Emerging as a metropolitan region competitive with other European regions, there is a well-established infrastructure of railways, motorways, trams, waterways and subways. Public transport is strong from city centre to city centre, but many commuters choose private modes of transport if they live and work outside of the centre of the city. Many of the international corridors such as the A1, A2, A4, A7, A12, A15, A16 and A20 begin in the Randstad. These freeways are heavily used, leading to peak hour congestion. These freeways have many exits and there is a limited regional road network which leads to the road network hierarchy not being maintained. There are several projects currently under development to improve the public transport networks. The Randstad-Rail is an emerging project to better connect Rotterdam with Den Haag. Netherlands is connected to Belgium with a 125 km long high speed line. There are plans to extend this line with a high speed railway from Schiphol Airport to Antwerp. Waterways have historically been a very important means of transport in the Randstand and there are some calls to make better use of them. In the policy vision for recreational waterways, they call for the creation of diverse recreational activities to make them attractive while connecting historical harbours. Slow networks like pedestrian and bike commute are encouraged for health and environmental benefits.

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft

7


Analysis of existing trends

A SWOT analysis of the urban fabric of the South Wing Randstad was deemed as the first step to attempt to understand the existing conditions and trends in the region. This helped us formulate a desirable direction for the conceptual vision. 1. Strengths Being a diverse interconnected urban environment set in a green landscape, it is a region with a multi-functional character. The strong presence of universities and internationally competitive sectors such as Law, Food, Engineering, Science and R & D imbibe the region with potentialities for further development. Another advantage the region possesses is the presence of diverse transport networks. Relatively low rent when compared to successful metropolitan cities such as London and Paris can propel it to a desired destination for immigrants. Although there is space for improvement, the South Wing Randstad counts with a flexible market and labour participation, as well as the employment rates remains in good levels in spite of the crisis in Europe. The region can rely on attractive fields of production and innovation.

8

2.Weakness In spite of having a diverse transport network, insufficient inter- modality poses to be a setback for the South Wing Randstad in the global arena. Some areas of the region are not well integrated to the transport network and can also be in disadvantaged in the regional context. When compared to Amsterdam, some regions do not have the presence of clusters of advanced producer services. This results in less transnational migration of highly skilled people as they would prefer destinations which possess diverse urban environments. An inflexible labour market and lack of urban vitality are other setbacks, both of which are crucial deciding factors for the liveability of a region. This in turn influences international companies which prefer appealing conditions to set up base. The existing green spaces offer little in quantity and quality in terms of appeal for recreational purposes. The region accounts with a lack of coordination among the economics sectors and the linkages between companies and knowledge institutes, a better link between those would allow its growth and improvement.

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft


3.Opportunities

4.Threats

In spite of setbacks, the presence of metropolitan elements makes spatial interventions easier to implement. There are numerous vacant industries and office spaces which can be functionally transformed into vibrant spaces. The presence of knowledge intensive places can be used to advantage to create dynamic clusters to propel development. The existing networks and diverse urban environment will be suitable supplements to any intended spatial transformation. The airport at Rotterdam though underutilised now maybe a suitable propellant to a more competitive urban region. The same observation concerns the water networks and producer services. The position of the region in the food production sector, especially due to the Westland area can be seen as a great opportunity to enhance and stimulate this economic sector, in terms of research and development and international competition. There is a large amount of green areas present in the region, however those areas remain underutilised. Therefore the chance of creating spaces with better quality of use to the society is imminent and suitable.

The Economic crisis and reduction of budget allocation by government may act as severe impediments to any intended strategy. Spatially segregated and poor neighbourhoods also pose a problem so their reinstatement to the system has to be considered when undertaking any development. Since realization of big projects take more time, it would be more feasible to implement projects on a smaller scale and focus on smaller areas rather than the entire region. Together with the crisis, the region must be prepared to address several issues, such as urban population growth, declining liability, climate change, food security and so on, in other to keep a competitive position in the international level and provide good life conditions in all matters. It is also important to consider the development of the region in a sustainable and efficient way.

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft

This comprehensive analysis enabled us to arrive at initial conclusions. A coarse grained analysis gave an over view of the region’s defining characteristics. The fine grained analysis highlighted the variations in performance of the primary spatial structure.

9


Productive Landscapes


Westland’s productive landscape. Source: Katherine Sundermann


The mutation of the city into a new urban landscape is a reoccurring subject in contemporary urban design theory and research. The dichotomy of city and countryside is no longer evident and we need new ways to conceptualize the current urban condition. The Rotterdam-Den Haag region is one such area that needs a review and redefinition of this relationship. No longer separate cities, Den Haag and Rotterdam are interconnected by multiple networks in a network society. They act as one metropolis with residents moving between different urban areas for work, shopping and recreation. But what about the areas in between? This strategy focuses on the sometimes forgotten ‘productive landscapes’ that lie between these urban areas and how they can be better integrated into the region. We speak of Westland, the largest continuous area of glasshouse production in the world and the protected polder landscape that lies between Delft and Rotterdam. We aim to create a better functioning region by connecting these areas to each other, providing mutual benefits for urban and productive areas. We chose to use food systems as our strategic tool to analyse and intervene in the region. We believe that food networks can shape and define the organization of space and can be used as a tool to build more resilient city regions.

Anasatasia Chranioti Germana Pinheiro Câmara Reshu Ramniwas Gupta Katherine Sundermann


Theoretical framework

Patchwork Metropolis. Willem Jan Neutelings.

14

Andrea Branzi’s “Agronica”: the “weak urbanization” model.

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft


When, in 1989, Willem Jan Neutelings carried out a study for an urban expansion in the peripheral wastelands of the Rotterdam-Den Haag area, he came up with the idea of an “extensive patchwork carpet, a continuous field of spatial and functional elements covering the area from the sea to the river Rhine”. (Neutelings, 1990, p. 40) His project was created in opposition of the paradigm that sees the city as a red spot on a green territory. Neutelings suggested that in order to acquire a view of the possible development of a complex area like this the existing situation must be interpreted. In his study, he proposed a new unity by bringing together heterogeneous elements and including them in an overall framework. Therefore, these elements build new and unexpected relationships with each other. “The city is a collage of fragments, a vast urban landscape, the Patchwork Metropolis.” (Neutelings, 1990, p. 40) From a similar perspective, De Geyter and De Boeck define “after-sprawl”, a term deliberately used to overcome the “outdated contradistinction between centre and periphery”. In their book they assess the “hereafter of the city”, through an atlas of landscapes of European Cities inside the distinctive territory of the blue-banana(a corridor of urbanisation stretching from North West England to Milan). They question the urban condition and the idea of urbanity as an essential basis for “digging up” a theory for the city. “Must we

start with a definition of an idea in order to attempt to understand reality?” (Xaveer De Geyter, 2002, p. 11) Andrea Branzi’s “Agronica”: the “weak urbanization” model, carried out in 1994 through the Domus Academy for Philips Electronics, experimented with the idea of an architecture based on freely available mobile construction components, laid out in a semi-urbanised agricultural park. The Strijp Philips masterplan in Eindhoven, devised five years later, further developed the ideas of Agronica. The characteristic discontinuous pattern of the industrial Philips site – to be abandoned and reprogrammed with sites for new enterprises of the post industrial economy (the European equivalent to Silicon Valley) – was re-envisioned as an “agricultural park”, an experimental territory. The infrastructure was likewise designed in a manner that allows for the maximum number of potential spatial configurations, “a sort of great patchwork quilt of weak and crossed penetrations, laid out on the open space of the park,” Branzi noted, “which constitutes a homogenous network of light distribution and make the area totally traversable again.” Branzi’s “weak urbanization” interprets agriculture as a highly evolved industrial system, capable of adapting to production cycles that change over time and utilize reversible modes of organization.

How could Neutelings’ study influence towards a common vision for the two cities of Rotterdam and The Hague? What is the new urban condition that could be applied in the fragmented landscape of the South Wing?

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft

15


The food debate

production

consumption 2

Interior of glasshouse. Source: Ministry of Agriculture NL

16

Food is mass produced in places like the fields of Brazil and consumed in cities like Rotterdam. Sources: Mato Grosso, EUSA

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft


Food is essential for life. By 2050 twice the amount of people are going to be living in cities so in order to deal with this increase we will need to produce, transport, sell, buy, cook, eat and waste twice more food. (Steel 2009) And yet, how much do we know about where our food comes from? An understanding food supply systems becomes crucial to understanding the city regions of today and our near future. The way that food relates to the cities has changed over the years. Where once we went to the centre of town to buy food, now we go to grocery stores and supermarkets scattered through the urban fabric. Places were food is traded have changed in scale, shapes and in their location in the city. Although movements like ’slow food’ and growing your own vegetables have recently surged in popularity, there is still a very big gap between where our food comes from and where it is eaten; between origin and plate, between city and countryside. As cities grow, we lose valuable farmland to build houses, industry and infrastructure. Food production is pushed into distant rural areas, sometimes overseas. Food supply is tied into complex systems of packing, refrigeration, transportation and distribution. The journey from the fields to our plates is long, complex and global (Rooden 2012).

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft

These distances between production and consumption can be (environmentally) costly and put food security at risk. Author and architect Carolyn Steel (2009) advocates considering all aspects of food supply and its effect on the shape of space when intervening in urban areas. This would lead cities with strong links to the local hinterland through a food network, with active markets, local shops, and a strong sense of food identity. We recognise however that the world cannot be fed with community gardens alone. We cannot deny the role of the intensive production areas such as the agriculture fields, crops, farms and especially the greenhouses, and how effective they are providing food supply for the cities. Our position towards food and cities is multifaceted. On one hand we want to strengthen the existing largescale food production systems, recognising their role as economic engines but bettering their environmental performance and their connection to urban areas. On the other hand we want to introduce more diversity in food production, recognising the role of smaller scale networks that are more deeply embedded in the city region, providing a richer and more varied engagement with food.

17


Local context

2004

Green middlands polder landscape and the need to protect it from flooding.

2012

2004 2004

Horticultural production contributes 10% of the Netherland’s GPD

2004

2012 2004

2012 2004

2012

2012

2012

2004

2004

50% farmlands 20% built up 20% water 10% reserves Diagram showing landuse in the Netherlands 2004

2012

2004

18

Aerial photos of Westland showing dramatic changes to the built form in less than a decade.

2012 2004

2012

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft


Stills from “Too little space for greenhouses in the Westland” video. Source: Nos.nl

In analysing the Rotterdam – Den Haag city region our focus has been on the productive landscapes that lie between these cities. Our local context is Westland, the glasshouse district south of Den Haag and the green midlands between Rotterdam and Den Haag. The Netherlands is the world’s second largest exporter of agricultural products after the United States and agricultural contributes 10% of the national GPD. The municipality of Westland plays an important role in this prosperity, hosting the world’s largest continuous area of greenhouse food production. This fertile delta region has been used for horticultural production since the 16th century. Its temperate coastal climate and close proximity to growing cities strengthened its position as a horticultural centre. By the 19th century Westland was a major horticultural producer, exporting grapes to the UK. The region quickly adopted glasshouse technology, leading to the nickname glazen stad or glass city. Westland’s spatial form continues to be heavily influenced by the latest horticultural technology with businesses needing to update their facilities to stay competitive. Small glasshouses are replaced by the latest most technically advanced glasshouses that are up to one square kilometre in size. Bounded by urban areas and protected landscapes, Westland has no opportunity to expand and some of horticultural businesses are now moving to other areas such as Noord Holland.

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft

But this does not necessarily mean the death of Westland. According to Robbert de Jong of Looije Tomaten, while businesses have to look elsewhere to build the latest large glasshouses, Westland remains a knowledge cluster in regards to horticultural production. Businesses may grow some of their products elsewhere but will keep their headquarters in Westland. We want to engage with this transformation in our strategy. The green midlands on the other hand is underutilised. Farmers have been abandoning the area because farming at this smaller scale is no longer profitable. However it is important to keep farmers in this area in order to retain traditional land custodianship knowledge. In maintaining the polders of this landscape, farmers protect the region from flooding. As a consequence the government has been trying to provide incentives to keep farmers in this area. It is important to consider what activities other than just production could occur to keep farmers in this region. Governance of this area also affects how it is used. Previously looked after by the national government, the local municipalities are now responsible for the green midlands. This could be a positive thing for the region as it is no longer seen as one entity, but several smaller entitles that can be more easily utilised and activated.

19


Policies and planning trends

Warmond

Oegstgeest Valkenburg

Leiderdorp Leiden

Wassenaar

Alphen a/d Rijn Voorschoten ZoeterwoudeDorp

LANDGOEDERENZONE HAAGLANDEN L A N D

V A N

W I J K

E N

W O U D E N Hazerswoude-Dorp

Stompwijk

Leidschendam

L E I D S C H E N D A M Benthuizen

Den Haag

Voorburg

Boskoop

BENTWOUD

Zoetermeer

Waddinxveen

Moerkapelle Rijswijk

Nootdorp

DE BALIJ Poeldijk

BIESLANDSE BOS

Wateringen

Pijnacker

GROENZONE

Gouda

Zevenhuizen

Delft

Bleiswijk

Honselersdijk Berkel en Naaldwijk

Rodenrijs

BLEISWIJKSE ZOOM Moordrecht Bergschenhoek

OUDE LEEDE

De Lier Schipluiden

M

I

D

D

E

N

-

D

E

L

F

L

A

N

Nieuwerkerk a/d IJssel

D Capelle a/d IJssel

Maasland

Maassluis

Rotterdam Schiedam

Krimpen a/d IJssel

Vlaardingen

Rozenburg

Krimpen a/d Lek

Slikkerveer

Alblasserdam

Legenda Hoogvliet Natuur- en recreatiegebieden Poortugaal

Ridderkerk Barendrecht

Spijkenisse Vinex-locaties

Hendrik-IdoAmbacht Heerjansdam

Werkgebied Groenblauwe Slinger

Papendrecht Zuidland

Gewenste verbinding Glastuinbouw Nieuw-Beijerland

Oud-Beijerland

Zwijndrecht

schaal 0

2,5

5

7,5

10 kilometer

Puttershoek Maasdam

Dordrecht

NOTA RUIMTE RANDSTAD 2040 GREENPORTS NEDERLAND ECOLOGISCHE HOOFDSTRUCTUUR

National

RANDSTAD 2040 AGENDA LANDBOUW ZUID HOLLAND GROENBLAUWE SLINGER

Provincial

VISIE GREENPORT WESTLAND 2020 GEBIEDSVISIE MIDDEN DELFLAND 2025 ROTTERDAM CLIMATE PROOF

Municipal

2005

2010

2015

2020

2020

2030

Policies that affect the Rotterdam - Den Haag region

20

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft


Several strategies, policies and regulations where considered in order to gain a better understanding of the current situation of the region. In the national sphere policies and visions such as Nota Ruimte and Randstad 2040, aim to guide national spatial planning in building a strong economy, a safe and liveable society and developing a distinctive identity internationally. However the national government has made a conscious effort to take a step back from managing long term planning, looking for support from other government levels and private partnerships. At a regional level, several organisations have formed that try to promote a more cohesive region. Delta Metropool looks at the Randstad as a whole while Metropoolregio Rotterdam Den Haag looks at two cities as one integrated region. Policies that affect the Rotterdam - Den Haag region

There already exists a lot of material to support the horticulture in this region. Greenport Holland is a network of businesses related to horticulture who are attempting to create a coordinated market approach for knowledge and technology for food and biomass production sites worldwide. In the case of Westland, the municipality has an agenda (Visie Greenport Westland 2020) to develop the food production cluster with the expansion of the businesses areas, extensive restructuring of old horticultural areas, maintenance of durable glass areas, offering more space to horticulture related activity and strengthening the level of knowledge and innovation. Regarding the Midden Delfland several regulations exist for the nature reserves, such as the ecological network (Ecologische Hoofdstructuur) and the configuration of the Green Blue Garland (Groenblauwe Slinger) as a new opportunity for nature and recreation. In the vision for 2025, Gebiedsvisie Midden Delfland 2025, the main objective is the development of the area through the strengthening of urban-rural relationship and reinforcement of the image and identity of Midden Delfland.

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft

21


Methodology

Design methods & tools timeline for strategy design development Randstad.

Team brainstorming

22

Site visits and interviews

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft


This book is a collection of the work produced for the fall semester 2012 of the Urban Region Networks studio. We would like to outline the methodology of how we worked during the semester and how it helped us develop a regional strategy for the future of the Rotterdam-Den Haag region. Links between pre-existing trends and issues for the region were identified following an excursion to parts of Randstad. The class collectively presented to the studio mentors an overview of the region in governance, territory, housing, production/ consumption and networks layers. Information was gathered for this step from websites, previous students’ works, academic literature and research papers, government documents, Randstad vision 2040 and TU Delft maps website and repository resources. The class then divided into three different groups with each group attempting to develop their own strategy for the region. In search for a vision our team visited the production unit in Westland, Flora Holland and also one of the producers ‘Looije Tomaten’ who gave us insights into the local scale of production. Our interview with Robbert de Jong from the company shed light on the stages of food from production to distribution to consumption to waste. Horticulture’s contribution to national economy and questions of food security further encouraged our team to develop a strategy for Rotterdam-Den Haag with ‘food networks’ as central idea. Further research, a literature review, brainstorming in group meetings and meetings with studio mentors

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft

guided the formation of our strategy. From various theoretical concepts such as ‘City as an Organism, Urban Metabolism’, ‘The Patchwork Metropolis’, ‘Landscape Urbanism’, ‘Ecological Urbanism’and ‘Food & The City’ the first conceptual vision and conceptual strategy were developed. This was presented to the class of EMU and the studio mentors under the tittle ‘Productive Landscapes’. In parallel to the development of the strategy other subjects of theory (Theories of urbanization, regionalization & networks), methodology (Regional strategies & territorial governance), and technology (Design & planning support system) supported our studio. Each team member used one or more of these course literature/theoretical concepts and technologies to relate to the design studio work and developed academic papers under broader topics, ‘Food Metropolis: The Food Supply in the Urban Context’ , ‘Patchwork Metropolis: Positioning in Context’, and ‘Ecological Urbanism – Urban Agriculture’. Reference projects like ‘Park de la Villette’, ‘The Chicago Plant’ and ‘World Food Center’, helped develop the typologies to fulfil the objectives of the final design strategy at regional and local scale. The strategy and the interventions that developed we supported by reference to current policies, urban settings, existing development trends, demands, consideration of stakeholders and the development of an action plan. As a final product, a presentation was conducted in front of external jury.

23


Analysis

Urban areas well connected to each other but not their immediate surroundings.

Westland well connected internationally. A machine for food production.

? ?

?

?

Underutilised green areas.

24

?

? ?

?

Westland poorly connected to ints immediate surroundings.

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft


Aerial photograph of Midden Delfland. Source: Mooi Midden Delfland.

In evaluating the South Wing, we attempted to look beyond the urban areas and elaborate on the overall region as a territory of different urban and rural qualities. Through this lens the Rotterdam-Den Haag region can be viewed as segregated, divided in green and grey “patches” that do not relate one to the other. The urban centres, although well connected at regional scale with rail and traffic networks, seem to lack any conceptual or physical link to the green lands that are surrounding them. As a result, the latter are now functioning only as a buffer zone, underutilized and isolated. Citizens are experiencing the nature that lies between the cities only as a fast- forward image that is projected to them during their everyday commuting, but rarely engage or visit it.

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft

Aerial photograph of Westland. Source: Rob Hoofd.

Westland, as the major food production unit in the South Wing, seems to function as an effective machine, connected to the cities through vast highways run by tracks that carry supplies for supermarkets and flower shops. In a regional or even global scale it already acts as a food knowledge cluster providing innovative expertise on greenhouse technology and agricultural production. On the other hand, in the local scale it is poorly connected. Public transport consists only of some rare bus routes, turning the area into a segregated agricultural patch with low quality of urban life. This way, citizens of Den Haag and Rotterdam do not acknowledge the production processes going on in Westland and do not identify with one of the region’s major economic activities.

25


Vision

26

mobility

food knowledge

diversity of experiences

food security

green access

local quality Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft


Our vision for South Holland has three main goals. We want to create an integrated region, a resilient economy and increase the quality of local spaces. These goals will be achieved through several aims that area often linked to each other. Our first aim of regional integration will be achieved by strengthening mobility in the region and creating opportunities for increased food knowledge. We wish to better link the urban and productive areas with each other. Secondly we wish to create a resilient local economy. This will be achieved by diversifying the types of food production occurring in the region and strengthening and consolidating the existing horticultural knowledge cluster of Westland. By focusing on diversity of food production we aim to strengthen food security for South Holland. Our third aim is to enhance the quality of local spaces. We want areas of the Westland to be better places to be. We hope to achieve this by providing better access to green recreation areas and by increasing the quality of local public spaces.

Regional integration. Mutual benefits for the urban areas and the spaces in between.

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft

27


Strategy connecting existing diverse environments

creating new diverse environments

28

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft


01_regional connections

02_green connections

In order to achieve regional integration, a more resilient economy and enhanced local quality for Randstad’s South Wing region, a strategy was developed. The main concept of the strategy consists on strengthening what already exists in the region by connecting the existing diverse environments and creating a variety of new environments. The strategy is structured in four main steps to address the issues found on the analysis. The first one regards regional connection and consists in the introduction of three connecting lines: two light rail lines and one waterbus route on an existing canal. Secondly we define green connections that are composed of green corridors, green routes and transitional zones. The green corridors function in a regional scale, linking the Blue Line to the Westland area and the green fields together with bicycle and horse hiding routes and recreational areas. The green routes would work in a local scale to connect the urban centres, mainly the villages in the Westland, in order to improve the urban environment. The transitional zones are meant to make the transition between the different fabrics, such as the urban villages and the greenhouses or the green fields. Those transitional areas would work mainly as open space that would allow recreational activities.

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft

03_key interventions

04_local interventions

The third step is composed by three key interventions with a larger impact on the development of the strategy. The Food Knowledge Centre located in the city of Naaldwijk in Westland, the Rijswijk Metropolitan Park and the Food Polder located in Schiedam. The last step of the strategy consists in the implementation of local interventions to bind the whole region together through the food networks. Those local scale interventions would be local markets, vertical gardens, info points and community gardens. The info points would be located at crucial points such as the intersection of the different lines in the strategy. Their objective is to make people aware of the food networks that exist in the region. Using the overall strategy as a starting point, we selected five strategic interventions to develop further. Considering the potential impact of each vision and its relevance to illustrate the vision, we selected two of the connecting lines and all three key interventions proposed.

29


Regional Strategy DEN HAAG CENTRAAL

i

DEN HAAG HS

i

Rijswijk Metropolitan

WestlandRail

i

Westland Food Knowledge Centre

i

i HOEK VAN HOLLAND

i MAASSLUIS

30

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft


i

local markets local markets local markets vertical gardens vertical gardens vertical gardens info points local markets info points info points community gardens community vertical gardens gardens community gardens

i

i

i

info points community gardens

Key Projects Key Projects Key Projects Westland Rail Westland Rail Key Projects Westland Rail

n Park

Blue Line Blue Westland Line Rail Blue Line Coastal Line Coastal BlueLine Line Coastal Line

Coastal Line

i

Green Corridors Green Corridors Green Corridors

!

SCHIEDAM CENTRUM

!

Green Routes Green Routes Green Corridors Green Routes

Food Polder

i! !

Transitional Zones Transitional Zones Green Routes Transitional Zones

i

ROTTERDAM CENTRAAL

Transitional Zones 0 0,5 Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft

2 0 0,5 0 0,5

3 2

4 3 Miles 4 Kilometres 2 3 4 31 Miles

Miles


Key interventions DEN HAAG CENTRAAL

i Rijswijk Metropolitan Park

Westland Food Knowledge Centre

WestlandRail

Food Polder

SCHIEDAM MAASSLUIS

32

CENTRUM

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft


Westland Rail

Westland Food Knowledge Centre

The Blue Line

Rijswijk Metropolitan Park

Food Polder

2013

2015

2017

The Westland Rail is a new light rail infrastructure added to the existing railway and tram networks to provide improved mobility within the Westland municipality, as well as to better connect it to the region. The Westland Food Knowledge Centre is a facility developed to enhance the Westland food cluster, integrate it with the region as a food knowledge hub and connect it to the regional food network. The Blue Line takes the backbone of the waterline that connects Rotterdam to Den Haag, and proposes a new programme of a water transport along the line. It also incorporates new uses regarding food knowledge and production and provides new recreational facilities through the line. The Rijswijk Metropolitan Park aims to promote a new character to the wastelands between Rijswijk and Delft by reusing the existing fragments of diverse uses, such as greenhouses, industries and recreational facilities, and binding them together in an overall context.

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft

2019

2021

2023

The Food Polder is a new kind of environment to bring food production into the urban fabric via innovative methods of food production and reuse of empty and obsolete spaces, such as the former industrial areas of the Spaanse Polder. Those projects would be developed in different phases keeping in mind both the strategic plan and the investments required for their realization. The first interventions to be implemented would be the ones that require less initial expenditure. The Blue Line could be implemented with a small budget, as the water infrastructure already exists. Since it is built around the reuse of post-industrial buildings, work on the Food Polder could also begin quickly and continue incrementally. Although they require large investment, coordination and support, the Westland Rail and Westland Food Knowledge Centre, could have an equally large impact on the region, strengthening Westland as an economic engine and binding the region together through food networks.

33


Westland Rail Katherine Sundermann

To Den Haag

To Rotterdam Aerial photo showing proposed line and stops. Buffers around each stop indicate the area reached within walking distance of each stop.

34

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft


WestlandRail provides a public transport alternative for the car-dominated Westland. One of two new light rail lines, it forms an important part of our strategy to connect Westland to Rotterdam and Den Haag. This line serves people who live and work in Westland, as well as visitors from Den Haag and Rotterdam who come to the Westland for recreational and educational purposes.

i

i

i i i i

i i

i

Location map showing proposed light rail

Stakeholders involved: Gemeente Westland, Provincie Zuid Holland, GroenLinks, NS, HTM, Veolia, FloraHolland, MKB Westland, local businesses, residents of Poeldijk, Naaldwijk, De Lier and Maassluis. Aimed effect: Connecting Westland to the region and urban areas to food production. Allowing for the experience of diverse environments.

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft

WestlandRail makes an important contribution to mobility in the region, not only serving the residents of Westland but also bringing this productive landscape to the attention of residents in nearby urban areas. We hope to reestablish this relationship between urban areas and the regions that feed them. Importantly, this line connects Rotterdam and Den Haag to the proposed Westland Food Knowledge Centre, a key project as part of our overall strategy that celebrates this relationship.

facts and figures Team: Katherine Sundermann Program: infrastructure 28km landscape 100 000m² jobs created 8000 cost 300 million euro time frame five years

35


Urban area Train line Train station RandstadRail line 3 Urban area

Den Haag Centraal

RandstadRail line 6

Former WSM line Train line Proposed GroenLinks WestlandRail

Train station RandstadRail line 3

Den Haag Centraal

RandstadRail line 6 Former WSM line Proposed GroenLinks WestlandRail

Hoek van Holland

Maassluis Map showing former WSM and proposed GroenLinks light rail lines for Westland.

Urban area Train line Train station

Urban area

RandstadRail line 3

Den Haag Centraal

RandstadRail line 6

Train line

Knowledge line Coastal line

Train station

Park, reserve Arable land

RandstadRail line 3

Dunes

Den Haag Centraal

Green route connecting light rail

RandstadRail line 6

Green route nature gateway Beach route

Knowledge line Coastal line Park, reserve Arable land

Westland Food Knowledge Centre

Dunes

Green route connecting light rail

Hoek van Holland

Green route nature gateway Beach route

Maassluis

Maassluis Map showing two new light rail lines that form part of our strategy to better connect Westland to the region.

36

Westland Food Knowledge Centre

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft


The diverse environments of Westland. Clockwise from top left: villas in front of glasshouses; trucks and trade parks; the regional shopping centre of Naaldwijk; RandstadRail at it’s current terminal stop at de Uithof. Source: Author.

Despite having a population of 100 000 residents, Westland is poorly served by public transport. Served only by unreliable bus services, it is an area dominated by cars and freight trucks. We propose to introduce two new light rail lines to connect Westland to the well developed public transport systems of the rest of the region. The existance of former and proposed light rail lines for Westland influenced the location of this light rail proposal. Established in the late 19th century and running until 1928, the complany WSM ran a steam train through the Westland, primarily for goods but also for passengers. In 2008 the political party GroenLinks produced a report detailing their proposal for two new light rail lines in Westland.

The location of the stops has been influenced by the location of cities and other destinations in the Westland regaion. The first an most important line to be introduced is the ‘knowledge line’, a continuation of RandstadRail line 3. This line connects the towns of Poeldijk, Naaldwijk, De Lier, Maasland and Maassluis and Maassluis West railway stations. I have chosen to investigate this line further. The second line is the ‘coastal line’ connecting Den Haag to the beach. It is a continuation of the existing RandstadRail line 6 and provides access to the towns of Monster and ‘s-Gravenzande before terminating at Hoek van Holland.

The two new lines in our proposal draw on both the former WSM lines and the GroenLinks proposal.

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft

37


Den Haag Centraal

Westland Food Knowledge Centre

HOEK VAN HOLLA ND

SLUIS

MAAS

WEST


A key part is this intervention is the diverse experiences along the line and the possiblity to link to different slow and fast routes. Each stop has its own character and will affect the type of activities that occur in its vicinity. DEN

HAAG

Most of Westland’s cities and villages are along this line, connecting their residents to Den Haag and Rotterdam by public transport. Given the spread out nature of the horticultural businesses in the area it is not possible to link them all to public transport. However some of the area’s biggest employers are along this line such as the flower auction house FloraHolland. The proposed Westland Food Knowledge Centre is an important stop on this line. As a centre to stregthen and promote Westland nationally and internationaly as a horticultural knowledge cluster, we think it is important that it is well connected by public transport. Finally this line also connects passengers with green routes in this region. It is free to take a bicycle on board, making it easier to access green recreational areas.

ROTTERD

AM

SLUIS

MAAS

View showing the extent of WestlandRail and its connections to the regional tram and train systems and to green routes.


Den Haag Centraal

1000 residents

1000 jobs

De Uithof

Poeldijk

Honselersdijk

FloraHolland Westland Food Knowledge Centre Kruisweg

Naaldwijk

De Hoge Bomen

Veiling

De Lier

Maaslandsedam

Maasland

Vermeerlaan

Maassluis

Maassluis West

Kwartelaan Table showing the amount of residents and jobs within walking distance (800m) of each stop. Source: Top10NL.

40

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft


In order to get a better understanding of the catchment area of each stop I used Top10NL data and GIS software to caluate the amount of residents and jobs within walking distance or 800m of each stop. Each head icon equates to 1000 residents which each suitcase refers to 1000 jobs. This analysis helped decide the location of each stop. It is interesting to consider the impact each new stop could bring to its vicinity. The introduction of reliable public transport could make these locations more attractive than they were previously, bringing more residents and businesses. I have indicated this potential with yellow icons.

support from all levels of government, transport companies, local businesses and interest groups including the potential users of the service. A website will be lauched to provide information about the line, to let members of the public voice their opionion about the line and to garner support for the project. Given that it is a large infrastructural project it is expected that the provincial government will be instramental in gaining funding. However it is not possible to only rely on the governement, there needs to be demonstrated support for the project from all involved parties and consideration given to other modes of funding.

The introduction of a new light rail line is a big product with a large budget that will take many years to complete. As a consquence it needs broad base

Interest groups

Local community, MKB Westland

Local businesses

FloraHolland, Westland Food Knowledge Centre NS, HTM, Veolia

Transport companies

‘coastal line’ opens WestlandRail complete

construction of the ‘coastal line’ commences

assessment

‘knowledge line’ opens

construction of the ‘knowledge line’ commences

Provincie Zuid Holland Haaglanden, Stadsregio Rijmond Gemeenten Westland, Maassluis, Den Haag & Rotterdam

project website launched consultation feasibility study

Government

Westland Rail

2013

2015

2017

2019

2021

2023

Action plan for Westland Rail and the stakeholders involved.

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft

41


FloraHolland

Naaldwijk Westland Food Knowledge Centre

Wollebrand

Aerial photo showing the location of the Westland Food Centre stop.

Typical road profile showing tram.

Profile showing tram stop and surrounding public space.

42

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft


View of proposed stop

To further explore the potential impact of this intervention, I have shown the Westland Food Knowledge Centre stop in more detail. Situated between the busy shopping town of Naaldwijk, the flower auction house FloraHolland and the new Westland Food Knowledge Centre, it is one of the most important stops on WestlandRail. There are many challenges with this site as it is a very busy intersection, connecting to the A4 and A12 freeways. It currently has well established bike lanes but no pedestrian crossings. There is currently no direct pedestrian route from this intersection to the city centre of Naaldwijk.

its program was brought on to the site, namely a hotel and meeting room facility. This building will be linked directly to the Food Knowledge Centre by a skybridge but also by a pedestrian crossing on the ground level. This stop is a key opportunity to test out some of the aims of our strategy. We wanted to create better quality of local spaces, bringing a human scale and better pedestrian access to the Westland. This is achieved through four new pedestrian crossings, and new “green routes� that cut through the residential areas to provide direct access to Naaldwijk. It is an example of the changes WestlandRail will bring to the Westland.

As this stop primarily serves the new Westland Food Knowledge Centre, it was important that there is a strong link to this project. As a consequence, part of

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft

43


Real time information disply on stop. ARUP


A2 Hotel by Benthem Crouwel

Helsinki Central Library by Kubota & Bachmann Architects

Siemens Averno

Plan of Westland Food Knowldge Centre stop.


Westland Food Knowledge Centre Germana Pinheiro C창mara

46

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft


Westland Food Knowledge Centre is a facility developed to enhance the Westland food cluster, integrate it with the region as a food knowledge hub and connect it to the country food network. From food growing technologies to marketing and trade, the centre would gather high skills professionals from universities to develop research and education on food matters. The centre would also function as a place to connect the civil society to food production, through education and cultural activities.

i

i

i i i i

i i

i

The site chosen for this facility is a large plot that belongs to Flora Holland action house and it is close to the auction house, the city centre and an existing park. The programme consists in three main aspects: knowledge transfer, business trade and social quality. The centre provides a large area of open green spaces and recreational facilities in order to offer social integration and local quality to people benefit. Westland Food Knowledge Centre is a place for people to gather around the food knowledge in different levels.

facts and figures Net transformation : 256.633 m2 Plot area: 256.633 m2 Landscape: 180.000 m2 Centre area: 110.400 m2 Bridge to Light Rail Terminal: 820 m2 Business (Connected to FloraHolland) : 168.600 m2 Jobs: 10.000 *(Costruction costs: 200.000.000 euros, considering 1.800 euro per M2 useful floor space Maintenance costs: 5 000 000- euro / year) Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft

47


Existing Situation The Westland municipality has a great performance in the production of horticultural goods. The village of Naaldwijk plays an important role in this sector with the presence of a important auction house there, FloraHolland. Due to its big proportions, FloraHolland has a impact on the municipality not only in the economic sector, but also has a great influence on shaping the space. The area of Naaldwijk and its surroundings are defined mainly by a very horizontal, low-rise, however of big proportions, typologies. Small traditional villages centres surrounded by greenhouses and large business buildings, such as FloraHolland and Westland Trade Parc, compose the physical space of Westland. This scale can be very big considering the local level, with such big scale business and a car oriented network, the space configuration became quite hostile to the

human scale. In other words, the area lacks of local quality. That can be very much translated in the lack of public spaces and recreational facilities. Apart from the villages centres the rest of the municipality is not a desirable environment for pedestrian or cyclists. The big boxes of greenhouse and business are closed to the streets working as big walls bordering the streets.

Area of intervention Surroundings

48

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft


Naaldwijk City Centre

Naaldwijk City Centre

Greenhouses

Wollebrand Park. Source: http://www.kabelskibaan.nl/

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft

Wollebrand Park. Source: http://www.kabelskibaan.nl/

49


Project for the area

According to the Municipality of Westland, there is a demand for industrial space for the floriculture industry in the area, as well as the desire to strengthen the economic position of the Westland.

Property of FloraHolland Naaldwijk

In that vision, a project of expansion to the Trade Parc Westland was designed. It consists on 24 acres of area to be used for this business. The municipality has the land acquisitions in the area completed in 2011 and has the largest portion of the site sold to developer FloraHolland.

50

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft


Programme

The main concept of the Food Knowledge Centre is to enhance the horticultural industry and connect people to it through knowledge transfer. Therefore the program defined for this facility is divided in four main sectors: Knowledge Transfer: It would involve the academic and technical field related to horticulture, from production to consumption. This area of the complex will have the necessary facilities for the development of research and training, such as lecture rooms, labs, auditoriums, meeting rooms and general services. Business: Considering the existing project to expand Westland Trade Parc, a part of the plot was left to be occupied by this program, mainly connected to FloraHolland, it would also be included in the complex as an opportunity to bind together the market to the knowledge and research sector. Counting with facilities to promote the exchange of information between these two departments.

Services: In other to provide an option for social integration as well as attract people to the knowledge of food production through its consumption, this sector would consist of restaurants, cafeterias, cooking teaching kitchens, food products shops and general services to cater the complex. Leisure: Binding the whole complex is a park that works as a recreational area and open space to the region. Due to its big scale, this park would provide several facilities for leisure, such as an open-air theatre, sports courts and skating parks, bicycle and pedestrian paths and green areas for contemplation. Apart from housing the Food Knowledge Centre, the concept of this park is also of connecting the centre of Naaldwijk to the Wollebrand Park, which is already a place for recreational and water sports activities.

Knowledge Business Services Leisure

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft

51


Proposal

52

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft


The concept of the design proposal is to make juxtaposition to the horizontal at the same time very dense and not integrated architecture of the surroundings. The main goal of this design suggestion is to provide a pedestrian friendly environment that attracts people to experience the food knowledge but also a quality space for leisure. The shape of this proposal intends to relate to a more organic and circular form to make a contrast to the squared big boxes of the greenhouses and industrial buildings. The buildings form would also draw a route from the city centre to the Wollebrand Park going through them, forming a active social space and lively environment. Another important point of the concept is the pedestrian bridge connecting it to the Westland Rail terminal, the objective is to make a direct connection between the passengers to the Centre, as they would arrive already inside the complex, therefore would be inclined to arrive in the place and stop in that point of the route.

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft

This complex and its buildings are intended to be a new landmark for the whole municipality as well as a place that people could identify, both for the social and the economic functions. Enhancing the identity of the area to the food business, however in all levels, especially to the residents of the region and not only for the industry itself. The Westland is already very much visually connected to the food production due to it large amount of greenhouses, therefore this project aim to enhance that by improving the accessibility to it by all people of the region and others interested on it.

Spatial Integration Analysis

53


Stakeholders

As there was already a project of expansion for the area from a joint of the municipality and FloraHolland, the main actors to develop this intervention would be both the municipality of Westland but mainly private business and FloraHolland. Due to the character of enhancing the whole food industry the main winner would be the horticulture producers and trade companies. The social factor added to the program would allow the engagement of he civil society to the field, bringing the community closer to the economic business and participative from the development of the Westland Food Knowledge Centre to the actual use of it afterwards. Democracy building is a very important aspect and it is a goal of this whole intervention.

Westland Food Knowledge Centre

Westland Municipality, South Holland Province Ministry of Agriculture Wageningen University Food Nutrition Delta Rabobank FloraHolland Private developers Civil Society Academic comunity Students Workers Turists/Visitors

2013

54

2015

2017

2019

2021

2023

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft


References Several projescts were use as a reference to ilustrate the concept and the kind of enviroment we intend to create with this proposal.

Environmental Agency by Sauerbruch Hutton

Helsinki Central Library by Kubota & Bachmann Architects

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft

Sony Center by Helmut Jahn

55


The Blue Line & Rijswijk Metropolitan Park Anasatasia Chranioti

Diverse landscapes in the periphery of Den Haag and Rotterdam Sources: http://www.middevndelflandvereniging.nl and Anastasia Chranioti

56

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft


i

In the frame of the “Productive Landscapes” strategy for the South Wing, The Blue Line and Rijswijk Metropolitan Park are meant to complement our vision for the region through a sub-strategy and a keyproject. In the Rotterdam- Den Haag axis we propose a linear structure that binds together diverse urban and rural environments. Furthermore, new living scenarios are introduced along its axis regarding recreation, food local production and consumption, knowledge and art. We use the linear backbone of the existing water canal and we upgrade it into a water-bus route that performs both as a slow network but also as an alternative commuting transit between the two cities of Rotterdam and Den Haag. The aim of the proposal is to offer the chance of a “slow experience”. Residents of the urban areas are encouraged to stop in the green fields among the cities and get involved with an environment that they currently observe only as a “fast-forward” image during their every day commuting. Through this enhanced experience of rural qualities, regional identity is meant to be promoted as well as people’s engagement with nature and traditional food production method. Finally, since mutual benefits for the city and the periphery is the main axis of our regional concept, we should also stress the strategy’s crucial role for the protection of green fields from flooding and damage. Local farmers are given initiatives for new enterprises that now involve agrotourism and education purposes. In this frame, high quality local production and food knowledge are combined towards a sustainable scenario for the area.

facts and figures

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft

Net transformation : 3 550 000. M2 Residential : 140 000 M2 Commercial : 100 000 M2 Infrastructure: 10 000 M2 Landscape: 9 000 000 M2 Water: 250 000 M2 Houses: 70 high quality residences + 30 social housing appartments Jobs: 2000

57


NETWORK INTEGRATION

58

RECREATION NODES

URBAN NODES

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft


The nodes of the Blue Line network are being intentionally positioned in accordance to other bike, horse riding or walking routes, but also in close proximity to other public transport nodes. Car access is provided in most of the cases. The integration of the new network to the existing grid of transport and traffic routes is expected to achieve its highest performance. Moreover, water transport is scheduled accordingly to the citizens’ varying habits during the week. Fast track everyday commuting is appropriately programmed at the weekdays. Periodical functioning of the stations oriented to recreation and leisure should contribute to a more efficient transport network at peak hours. Furthermore, towards the Blue Line’s high competitiveness in relation to the rest of the transport modes, waterbus is deliberately designed for allowing bike transfers, promoting this way its multimodal efficiency. As mentioned above, in tight relation to the water-bus nodes, new functions and scenarios of knowledge, recreation and local production and consumption of food are introduced. A metropolitan park in the Rijswijk wastelands, camping and recreation areas in Delft outskirts, local farming units and knowledge centers in Middle Delfland green fields, as well as an innovative “Food Polder” in Rotterdam Spaansepolder site. The linear infrastructure of the water canal is enhanced by a broad program of events occurring in the rural periphery landscape.

TOOLS

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft

PROGRAM

59


60

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft


Rijswijk wastelands are located between the borders of the greater area of Den Haag and in close relation to Delft municipality. They currently form a fragmented landscape; an extensive patchwork of industrial sites, business centers, greenhouses, recreation areas and productive fields. In high resemblance to Rijswijk’s ambiguous character, they lack of identity or common reference and they seem to be in process of constant transformation. Moreover, the interplay of actors contesting for the area’s economic development is quite intense. Three municipalities are in close vicinity: Delft, Rijswijk and Midden Delfland. Furthermore, plans for the redevelopment of parts of the area into business and housing districts are already published by various stakeholders.

Urban fragments

In the “Productive Landscapes” strategy we aim to attribute to this vague landscape a binding character of a metropolitan public space. Towards the prevention of the area to be gradually privatized, we propose its reconstitution into a landmark of regional reference but local identity: the “Rijswijk Metropolitan Park”.

Main Actors affecting the governance of the area

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft

61


62

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft


Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft

63


64

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft


The area’s nodal position in South Wing Region is regarded crucial for its performance as a metropolitan element. Indeed the park’s global integration in the highway network connecting the major urban centers seems quite profound. However, its local connections to the neighboring urban areas need to be revised and reinforced. Towards this direction, the Blue Line network is expected to contribute to a great extent to the area’s connection with Rijswijk and Delft municipalities. Furthermore, new gates are introduced to the park and local roads are being integrated in the overall structure.

Local Integration of the area

Main regional axis surrounding the park.

Integration to the regional networks

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft

65


Unifying Grid Public Space Main Buildings

Rijswijk Food Market Netherlands Expats Centre

Productive Fields Structuring Elements Three Main Sectors

Vital Open Public Square High Quality Residense and Leisure Economic and productive sector

Re-introduced Fragments

Connections to the cities

66

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft


Rijswijk Metropolitan Park performs as a new urban element that attempts to transform a former wasteland into a high quality public space. Through an extensive program of waste processing and local production units, recreation areas, food markets, business centers and high quality residence, we aim to attribute new features to the existing context but also to bind everything together through an integrating public space and a vital urban environment. The park’s main “estates” are ‘The Rijswijk Food Market’ and the ‘Netherlands Expats Centre’. In response to the potential offered by the neighbouring offices of Shell and the European Patent Office, we aim to invite Internationals being employed in the region to embrace our park and participate in festivals and events arranged by a formal constitution. Furthermore, the ‘Rijswijk Food Market’ is expected to act as a place of shopping, gathering and eating local food produced in the nereby area.

All-line analysis of the expected vitality of the main public square

Finally, through a variety of high quality public spaces we suggest a diverse experience for the visitors and a new identity for Rijswijk municipality.

Promoting new diversity environments in existing context

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft

67


Food Polder Reshu Ramniwas Gupta

Introduction ‘Productive Landscape’ regional strategy envision to create a resilient economy. Central to this idea a declining industrial estate, Spaanse Polder on the blue line was undertaken as the local intervention site. It covers an area of 190 ha and is located on the edge of the city of Rotterdam. A small portion of it falls under the municipality of Schiedam. The photo below shows an aerial view of the Spaanse Polder and it’s immediate surroundings. The location map shows Spaanse Polder on the regional strategy map.

Aerial view Spaanse Polder Source - maps.google.com

68

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft


Facts and figures Spaanse Polder total surface area 124 ha, net premises On Rotterdam territory - 113 ha On Schiedam territory - 11 acres Work place for 10,000 people Companies - approx. 900 Mixed Business - Large food, trade, transport industry Companies to environmental pollution category 4 Room for heavier, catergory 5

Location of Spaanse Polder on blue line Source - Productive Landscape Team

Vision The ‘Food Polder’ is a vision to revitalize the only work environment of declining industrial estate, to create a business lifestyle with mixed development for a truly resilient economy and a pedestrian friendly place. Connecting outputs of one business to the inputs of another a closed-loop food production cycle is promoted to harness value from waste materials. Green boulevard and food alley make the place dynamic

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft

Source - http://www.rotterdam.nl/ spaansepolder

Food Polder Vision Source - Authors

attracting small and large businesses. The waterfront development confines the region as an estate while also visually pleasing the residential neighborhood around. Here, the ‘Food Expo Center’ proposed is a place for people from across the globe to explore and celebrate the articulated food culture on the polder and take home healthy living lifestyles.

69


petrol pump in the center of street

typical street scene

food sector

transport - automobiles sector

poor architecture

water-front scene

design sector

ineffciently used water-front

Spaanse Polder site photos (2013) Source - Authors

Context Analysis An analysis of the local intervention area highlights the prevailing issues in the area and opportunities for future development which resulted in identification of key design recommendations. Site periphery is bordered with inefficiently used water front of Delfshavensche Schie and Schiedamse Schie. The existing green is sparse. Most of the streets are functional only for logistics movement. Most private mode of transit users commute via S114. This motorway and Vlaardingweg route ties the large estate of Spaanse Polder together. Therefore, these are developed in the design proposal as green boulevard and food alley to create pleasing encounters for the car users.

70

These large estates generate large infrastructure, many vacant plots, streets and public spaces in between industries feel much unsecured and show deprived spatial quality. However diversity of activities from only works to leisure with agricultural or design interventions could revitalize the area. With the practice of institutional gardens or business parks introduced on the vacant plots, roofs and balconies of the industrial shades and few alleys the employees and the residents of the polder and around benefit with an opportunity for them to try hands on in the green farms to see and appreciate the production of their own food and this consequentially would cater to the challenge of spatial local quality. Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft


A13

De

Schie

eS ch ns ve ha lfs

S114

Schiedamse

ie ch A20 Schiedam Centrum

Spaanse & water Source - Authors

Spaanse & green

Spaanse & road network / infrastructure

A13 axis 1

Legend Rotterdam - Schiedam border Automobile / transport cluster Food cluster Design cluster

S114 eg gw

in rd

2-

Knooppunt Kleinpolderplein residential neigborhood

De

mse Sch

ie

is ax

a Vla

ie

ch

eS

sch

Schieda

n ve ha

lfs

A13

eg gw

in rd

2-

A20

sch

n ve ha

lfs

Schied

De

amse

Schie

is ax

a Vla

ch eS ie am tterd to Ro

is ax

A20

1m rda tte Ro to

14

S1

Schiedam Centrum

um

Centr

ha ur

rbo

Spaanse Polder site context & analysis Source - Authors

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft

71


Design Proposal

clusters

mixed development

axis

periphery

Food polder design concept Source - Authors

Clustering Industrial estates which hold large companies are capable of driving the regional and national economy and could have (in most cases) substantial influence on the region. To exclude the cities from the environmental nuisances of the large scale estates; to retain the large estate on the Spaanse Polder is one of the main objectives. Spaanse Polder presently house large scale companies particularly in the sectors of wholesale-food and automobiles. Therefore the industrial estate of Spaanse Polder needs to be developed in three main clusters of food, design and transport and one cluster of mixed small scale food and industrial activities. As clustering companies involved in same branch of industry, could strengthen their position and improve their profits by working in close proximity.

food

mixed-business

transport design

Spaanse Polder in four clusters on the basis of existing industry structure. Source - Authors

72

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft


Development Vision

The Plant Laboratory

Design Proposal Phasing

With the Food cluster formed, the further objective is to create a closed loop food production cycle.

01 - The plant laboratory & food alley 02 - The food expo center and meuseum 03 - Green boulevard 04 - Water-front development

The plant laboratory design

Daily, food waste is generated during handling, sorting, packing, reassembling in large wholesale market and existing food cluster of Spaanse Polder. This waste could be collected and processed in an anaerobic digester. Additionally, when combined with heat and power system this arrangement could operate completely off the grid. Such a setting is proposed in one of the warehouse as a design intervention ‘The Plant Laboratory’ which is placed purposefully in close proximity of the wholesale food mart. One third of The Plant will hold aquaponic growing system and two third will incubate sustainable food businesses like brewing beer, shared kitchens, commercial food outlets, speciality restaurants etc.

First sketch of food alley Source - Authors

The case study reference - http://www.plantchicago. com

Legend Proposed ‘The Plant Laboratory’ site Anaerobic Digestor Location Water-front development Existing food businesses Probable location for commercial kitchens Food alley

Map for the plant laboratory Source - Authors

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft

73


Heritage - Van Nelle Factory The site holds a historical national monument which dates back from 1929, the ‘Van Nelle Factory’, which presently is a convention center, Business Park and a platform for design and media creative companies. This ‘heritage’ element that signifies the history of ‘modern architecture’ on the site stands as a landmark and is an opportunity to be seen for global economy. From here the recreational routes commence. Food art galleries and botanical parks in close proximity of the Van Nelle Factory help design cluster grow with a variety of nature art. Further linking to farms and specialty kitchens along the water front of Delfshavensche Schie could revitalize the area alongside providing enhanced view for the residential development across the Delfshavensche Schie, also adding environmental benefits. Recreational areas are linked with pedestrian and cycling routes for healthy experience of nature.

Van Nelle Factory from Kleinpolderplein Photo Source - Authors

From the Delfshavensewegoever. (Photo FVR) Source - http://www.faasvanrietschoten.nl

n ve ha

lfs

De ie

ch

eS

sch

Legend 1. existing Van Nelle Fabriek 2. roof greens 3. slow route 4. small industries in design cluster probably location 5. botanical garden 6. water-front development 7. existing residential neighborhood

7

2 6

4

5

3

1

Map for the food expo center and museum Source - Authors

74

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft


Water-front development vision

scenes inside the food expo center and museum

design platform for food art

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft

75


Green boulevard

1

2

1 3

2 4 3

5

4

5

6

6

76

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft


Food alley vision Source - Authors

Stake-holder’s The success or failure of the project depends on the players listed below,

Organisational structure of the collaboration between Rotterdam & Schiedam for Spaanse Polder

- the council & individual councillors - the director of development corporation - memebers of urban planning team - the provincial authority & national government - municipal services (planning services & city works authorities) - small and large business people, potential clients - food whosale market memebers - Tollens fabriek, Alphacomm owner’s (land owners where ‘The Plant Laboratory’ is proposed) - developers, estate agents - the Rijnmond Environment Service - Food licensing authorities - Van Nelle Fabriek - local civil community - designers & graduates from neaby universities interested to start as enterpreneurs

source - www.stipo.nl Fig - Authors

Conclusion To encapsulate, the food museums and alleys, food art galleries and knowledge parks, green boulevards, slow movement paths for bikes and pedestrian walkways, and others in the local intervention of ‘Food Polder’ strategy with a mixed but balanced environment could achieve absolute wholesome and prosperous development for all, local, regional and national scale for Spaanse Polder.

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft

The complete proposal is a long term vision and would take more than fifteen years to realise. However flexibility in the design proposal would absorb the externality effects. With the final completion of the proposal the place would be truely an environment to celebrate nature and food while a business lifestyle evovles.

77


Stakeholders and participation interest groups

companies / association

private developers

universities

transport companies

local government

strategic plan

78

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft


The “Productive Landscapes� strategy is based on the involvement and engagement of diverse actors and potential stakeholders. These range from local farmers and NGOs to public authorities as the municipalities, the Ministry of Agriculture or the province of South Holland. Restricted by the fact that this is academic project not existing in reality we attempted to assess the main elements of governance and participation that help make our strategy realistic and pragmatic for the area. We concluded that one should involve the main stakeholders and investors (e.g. the company of Flora Holland and the light rail provider) to participate in the decision making from the very beginning of the strategy. In providing the necessary evidence in reference to benefits for both individuals and the common future of the area, we aim to convince those involved to finance our proposals. This way, our role as planners shall not be restricted to providing a vision for the area but should also take into consideration conflicting interests; NGOs and local farmers that would oppose the celebration of the greenhouses culture shall be seduced to a common goal. High quality of life and economic resilience constitute the main elements of our argumentation. However, in many cases, compensation mechanisms would have to be invented towards the best performance of our scenario.

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft

79


References Cortes, C. E. P. (2009) Mapping Urban Form-Morphology studies in the contemporary urban landscape. Delft: TU Delft, Delft University of Technology. Facts and Figures (2010), The Minitry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality. FAO (2010) ‘Growing Greener Cities’, Horticulture, Programme for Urban and Peri-urban. Heynen, H. (1990) Fragmentatie in de peripherie : De ‘Tapijmetropool’ Van Willem-Jan Nuetelings. Archis, March, Issue 3, pp. 16-21. Koolhaas, R. & Bruce, M. (1995) “What Ever Happened to Urbanism?”. In: OMA, ed. S,M,L,XL. New York: The Monicelli Press, pp. 959-971. Mougeot, L.J.A. (1994) ‘Urban Food Production: Evolution, Official Support and Significance’, in Cities Feeding People Series Report 8, Edmonton: International Development Research Centre. Neutelings, W. J. (1990) Willem Jan Neutelings Architect. Rotterdam: 010. Pisano, C. (2011) Coloring the Patchwork Metropolis. Delft: TU Delft, Delft University of Technology. Rooden, P.d. (2012) ‘Foodprint: Artistic Reflections on Practical Issues’, in Food for the City: A Future for the Metropolis, Den Haag: NAi Publishers / Stroom Den Haag. Shannon, K. (2006) From Theory to Resistance: Landscape Urbanism in Europe. In: C. Waldheim, ed. The Landscpae Urbanism Reader. New York: Princeton University Press, pp. 141-161. Steel, C. (2009) Hungry City: How Food Shapes Our Lives, London: Vintage Books. Waldheim, C. (2006) Landscape as Urbanism. In: W. Charles, ed. Landscape Urbanism Reader. New York: Princeton Univ. Press, pp. 37-51. Waldheim, C. (2010) Notes Towards a History of Agrarian Urbanism. In: M. P. Mason White, ed. On Farming: Bracket 1. New York: Actar Publishers, pp. 18-24. Xaveer De Geyter, A. (2002) After-sprawl, Research On The Contemporary City. RotterdamAntwerpen: Nai Uitgevers-deSingel.

80

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft


Reflections

This strategy began by questioning the relationship between city and countryside, between urban areas and the productive landscapes in between. We chose to look at this relationship through the lens of food systems. The networks of the production and consumption of food became the way we analysed and intervened in the Rotterdam - Den Haag region.

Water Energy Food Transport

However there are many other systems one could use as a tool to analyse and act in urban regions. Others include water, waste, energy and transportation. In fact, operating with only one such system may be an overly simplistic way of dealing with the region. Our food strategy could have been combined with a strategy about energy production for example. We also found something unique in the Rotterdam Den Haag region. While the traditional mono-centric city consists of a built up area with green surrounds, this poly-centric region consists of urban areas with productive landscapes in between. There is a long tradition in this area of food production tightly linked with urban areas, so we were aiming to re-establish this. In summing up our strategy, we aimed to take aspects of what already exists and enhanced them to create a better functioning urban region.

Waste

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft

81


Resilient Patterns


84

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft


Facing the future challenges of south-wing Randstad South-wing Randstad needs to face the future challenges as a resilient region. Environmental, social, and economical changes must be addressed. Planning must deal with two time scales, with a long term vision as well as specific tools to deal with unexpected disasters and hazards. By fostering flexibility and adaptability in existing urban and rural structures our strategy takes into account the demands of the present generation without compromising the possible demands of generations to come and their welfare state. Sustainability through working with existing structures Guided by the current European economical circumstances and in opposition to the past practice of huge projects as reaction on demands, the strategy provides effective and small scale interventions with the adaptability to adjust and stay flexible over time. Resilient patterns deals with the most crucial structures of the region and show a strategic planning approach by working in an acupunctural way on existing patterns.

Luiz Carvalho Filho Antonio Sanna Andrea Ăœberbacher Miao Zhang Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft

85


Introduction

The south-wing Randstad needs to face future challenges concerning environmental, economical and social changes as well as increasing quantities of hazards and disasters. Our goal is to provide current and future potential to meet needs and aspirations in order to become a resilient region

86

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft


Theoretical framework What is Resilience?

In our understanding the third definition of resilience, the socio-ecological understanding of resilience, fits most to the current needs and future challenges of the region of study. A system needs to be both sustainable and resilient and therefore must be able to react on multiple scale and different time frames.

Resilience is a new concept in the field of spatial planning and has been adapted from engineering and ecological sciences. Following what was stated by Simin Davoudis in the paper Resilience: A Bridging Concept or a Dead End? (Davoudis, 2012) we would like to present the three different main definitions of resilience present on the ongoing debate, in order to clarify our planning strategies goals on the following pages.

Panarchy model In 1973 the scientist Holling invented the Panarchy Model of Adaptive Cycle (see figure below). This model shows the transformation according to the third definition of resilience and our understanding of the concept. In this so-called Panarchy model there a four different phases of change, before the cycle transform into a new system. The first phase is growth; the second phase is conservation, followed by a phase of decline and release and finally the phase of reorganization and change to an adapted system. The new endless loop persists again out of these four stages of transformation, which will be passed. Related to spatial planning and territory the model shows the adaption of areas and sites over time and the need to be flexible and transformable in order to be resilient.

1) Engineering Resilience The resistance to disturbance and the speed by which the system returns to equilibrium is the measure of resilience. The faster the system bounces back, the more resilient it is (Holling, 1996, p.31). 2) Ecological Resilience The magnitude of the disturbance that can be absorbed before the system changes its structure (Holling, 1996, p.33). Ecological resilience focuses on ‘the ability to persist and the ability to adapt’ (Adger, 2003, p.1). 3) Evolutionary Resilience (or socio-ecological resilience) The evolutionary perspective broadens the two other descriptions of resilience to incorporate the persistence, adaptability, transformability across multiple scales and time frames (Holling, Gunderson, 2002; Walker et al, 2004; Folke et al., 2010). The broader scope of this definition of Resilience leaded to the use of the term Resilience in other disciplines such as social science. 2nd Phase - a Reorganization, time of innovation and uncertainty. Resilience high

1st Phase - r Growth, rapid accumulation of resources, rising level of diversity. Resilience high but decreasing Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft

a

r

3rd Phase - K Conservation, growth slows down and accumulated resources are used to maintain the system. Low Resilience

K

º

4th Phase - º Creative Destruction, chaotic collapse and release of accumulated capital. Resilience low but increasing

87


Current Debate Resilience is one of the most common topics in the international debate of spatial planning. It seems to be that the concept of a resilient region or city overruled the concept of sustainability. In all scales – whether international, national or local –resilience is one of main planning approaches. This is a reaction on the experiences of the last years and the increasing tendency of disasters, hazards and the fact that every spatial unit needs to be prepared for threats such as flood, heavy rainfall, drought, earthquakes, thunderstorms, overheating cities etc. In opposition to the concept of sustainability – which focused on to the long-term aspects of environmental, social and economical prosperity – resilience is a new concept invented in order to add the aspect of disaster resistance to the values of sustainability. It can be said, that resilience deals with both: long term aspects of change, and reaction on unexpected or suddenly happened events of change. However, almost all papers of the international debate of resilience deal with aspects of disaster management, so the idea of “bounce back” as quick as possible to the former origin. In the research phase of our work we consulted different papers on different levels of implementation, here we highlight some of them, in order to give a better understanding of the international, regional and local debate of the diverse aspects of resilience. In respect to the current debate we would like to clarify for our working method and for the strategy presented on the following pages that to achieve a resilient South Wing, we considered both aspects: the long term aspect of sustainability and the aspect of achieving a region which can easily react to suddenly happening disasters. According to the third definition of Resilience, our understanding includes the concept of sustainability in the resilience approach. Resilient Cities According to the United Nations what makes a city resilient to natural and humaninduced hazards can be seen as a combination of resilience accumulated through the process of urbanisation and planning, on one-hand, and the result of specific actions to reduce disaster risk on the other (United Nations, 2012, p. 13, add emphasis). Although no city can ever be entirely safe from natural hazards, they can be more resilient to the destructive forces that claim lives and assets. ‘A resilient city is characterized by its capacity to withstand or absorb the impact of a hazard through resistance or adaptation, which enable it to maintain certain basic functions and structures during a crisis, and bounce back or recover from an event’ (Twigg, 2007; UNISDR)

88

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft


Resilient Cities - Rotterdam In 2009 Rotterdam came up with the climate proof adoptive programme in order to prepare for a resilient future of the city. Five main topics where defined in order to keep and enhance welfare living conditions in the city. Flood management, accessibility, adaptive buildings (areas of interest to adapt, increase density, re-use), urban water systems and city climate. Rotterdam´s goal is it to achieve a climate proof city till 2025. Apart from the serious ambitions to be protected and prepared for future challenges such as floods, the city wants also to act as a test pad and create a knowledge base for climate proof issues in order to strengthen their position in the international competitiveness of cities. ‘Rotterdam climate proof is the city´s vehicle to generate and pool knowledge, devise new solutions in Rotterdam, and share them with cities around the world’ (Rotterdam Climate Initiative, 2009, p.10).

Resilient Region A resilient region offers a network system and patterns, which are efficient, reversible, incremental, and diverse. Furthermore this elements support and works on different scales. These structures have an openend life span and are able to adapt and transform. According to our definition of resilient a region cannot be resilient without being sustainable in terms of social, environmental and economical issues. ‘Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs’ (p. 8). ‘Its central value can be boiled down to a balance among the three “E”s: environment, economy, and equity’ (Berke, 2002, p. 30). Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft

89


Context - Research Questions

Red - Cityscape What are the cities limits? In the context of a city – region, what is the role of the each city?

Green Where is the green heart? What is relation between the green parts? What is the role of the green inside the cities?

Blue Why the waterways have been deprived of the major role they used to play in the past? What are measures in course to deal with water stress situations, flood and drought?

Land use What are the trends and what is the effect of function change in the cities and green spaces? What areas are more susceptible to obsolescence?

Networks Is the system flexible enough to work even if some parts are inoperative? Bicycle – the infrastructure is present but where is the regional structure? Tram – What is the relation between the networks of the cities in the region? Car – Is there a clear hierarchy in the system and is it used accordingly? Train – Is the system used accordingly to what was planned?

90

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft


Context - Evaluation Cityscape The attempts to create a buffer zone around cities and prevent urban sprawl have created in most cases a hard border, preventing a better use of the green areas. A better integration of the cities in the region is desirable however that cannot put local identity at risk. Land use Several industrial areas inside the city fabric are in a process of emptying, partially because of current economic scenario but also because big companies related to port activities are moving towards west.   Green The reminiscent rural spaces are fragmented by network infrastructure. Rural areas closer to cities expansions are in standby, facing obsolescence. Urban green is disconnected and often one dimensional in terms of program.   Blue The projects in course to deal with water stress are mostly focused on providing area for water storage. Main waterways infrastructure is still operative, especially in the Schie canal.   Networks There is a lack of integration of the local systems of the cities in a regional scale; bike paths for example are well structured inside the cities but not well connected as a regional system. The system in general terms is susceptible to problems induced by the lack of alternatives in case of problems in parts of the system. There is a mismatch between the way infrastructure has been planned and the way it is utilized; highways for instance are used to cover short distances as well local roads sometimes can be used to go from Rotterdam to The Hague

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft

91


Strategy The south-wing Randstad needs to face future challenges concerning environmental, economical and social changes as well as increasing quantities of hazards and disasters.

Objectives

Our goal is to provide current and future potential to meet needs and aspirations in order to become a resilient region.

We hope to increase the functionality and accessibility of green areas both for the green in the city and the fragmented green in between.

The role of the planner in our strategy is the one of an “idea provider� who paints a picture of a resilient South Wing with spatial quality for future demands. In order to create a successful strategy all stakeholders needs to have an advantage. Therefore it is necessary to find a common agreement with all stakeholders.

We hope to update existing structures, patterns and networks to increase the region’s adaptability, practicality and social interaction.

The role of the planner is to show ways, find a way to come up with agreements, and help to build up a consensus to provide a beneficial situation for every involved stakeholder. A successful strategy is one where everybody wins.

We hope to improve the climate adaptability in cities. (Including flooding, urban heating, extreme weathers)

A resilient region offers a network system and patterns, which are efficient, reversible, incremental, and diverse. These structures have an open-end life span and are able to adapt and transform.

In order to collect wide support for a development strategy, a clear vision is needed to make it sustainable. All relevant stakeholders like politicians, their voters, employers, investors and future user and residents need to be triggered to give their long term commitment to the development (Zandberg&vandenberg, 2005, p. 23).

92

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft


Performance criteria Climate Adaptability. The strategy tries to cope with climate change and its effects on territory. Social Interaction. Creating a framework for spatial implementations with the encouraging of public collaborations and enhancing the social interaction of neighborhoods and communities in order to achieve social sustainability. Energy Producing. The strategy tries to reduce energy demand, reuse surplus energy and local production of sustainable energy. Recycling Existing Structures. Working with existing network, patterns, elements and transform them instead of adding new structures to face future challenges. Feasible. The plan has an open-end life span and ability to adapt and transform and furthermore stay flexible with opportunity to adjust over time. Effective. A resilient region offers a network system and patterns, which are efficient, reversible, incremental, and diverse. Small starts. The strategy starts with small interventions instead of over-dimensional interventions. In respect to the financial and economical circumstances of Western Europe the method of implementation is acupunctural. Fast-slow networks. The strategy improves the local benefits by the connections and transformation of slow and fast networks. In addition, the strategy adds new spatial values to networks in order to enhance their functionality and shows ways to use the different scales of networks in a scale - adequate way. Multiple use (functions). The elements within the strategy are multi-functional meaning they can display the proper functions to accommodate diverse situations.

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft

93


Strategy - Vision

Waterway Schie Restore the importance of waterways as infrastructure and cultural identity. Urban Green Enhance the connection between existing green parts, at the same incorporating new values such as energy production and water storage. Porous Borders Reestablish the link between city and green, the line that prevent urban sprawl is no longer a wall, it is now a bridge. Meeting Points Create a focal point of interest at the spots where networks of different speeds collide, a point of transition and connection replaces a point of conflict. Slow Lines Improve the connections between the cities through the green, a better connection to the bike, pedestrian and horse paths. Green in Between Introduce a new dynamic in the green farmland, a set of typologies to allow a more intense use of the region at the same time reuse the built stock and reinforce the qualities of the landscape Re-use Areas Restructuring and modification of areas under economic decay create new urban values in social and economical sense. In addition this restructured areas can lead to a resilient future

94

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft


Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft

95


Strategy - Waterway Schie ‘Waterways formed a the supporting structure of the cities as well the most important connections between then’ (Hooimeije, et al., 2005) Bearing in mind the past role of the waterways in the region we proposed a system that connects Den Haag in the North with Rotterdam in the South. In the north the line starts at Voorburg whereas in the South the last part is divided in two end destinations: Schiedam Central in the Southeast and Coolhaven in the Southwest. On half way of the new network, in Midden Delftland, a perpendicular system connects the north-south oriented line with the municipalities Rodenrijs and Berkel in the East. Even if the figures of passengers transported cannot be compared to those of trains and trams, the expected impacts of the water bus are considerable. Reinforced by the fact that the costs for the implementation of the necessary infrastructure are relatively low, once the waterways are constantly dreddged and automated bridges and sluices are already operating at almost all the way. The main work needed would be building a new sluice at Rodenrijs, close to the pumping station. Another important aspect of the proposed system is the role it can play as a trigger to foster development and reuse of decay, non-functional areas both inside the city and at the countryside, the system can help to make visible that important parts of the region are not been used at its total potential. The starting point to reuse the Schie waterway could be an international race – competition organized by TU Delft to design a sustainable boat. An expected effect could be raising attention from the public to the potential of the waterway and as a consequence attract public and private companies to invest in the transport system.

Diagram of the system and the modal integration

96

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft


In the first Phase of the waterbus line we propose 12 stops; each of the chosen locations interacts with other transport modals and offers other direction choices. There are at least two different ways on how to arrange the network system. Firstly to arrange it with two waterbuses lines or secondly arrange it in three different waterbuses lines.

The Hague

In the future it is also possible to connect the end destinations Coolhaven and Schiedam Centrum via the Nieuwe Maas. According to the development plans for the harbour area Stadthaven (implementation 2004 2030) the waterbus system will enhance the accessibility in the Northern part of the area. Two sluices are already operative at the Schiedamer Schie and at the Rotterdamse Schie, thus additional infrastructure to provide this service is not necessary.

Berkel

Schiedam

R´dam Diagram possible lines

Schie cannal

Facts and Figures: Total extension: 28 km Who starts: TU Delft competition - race Who will follow: Public - Private transport companies Target users (500m from the stations) Station Voorburg S’ Gravenmade TU Delft Delft Centre Delft Zuid Schie Zweth Berkel Westpolder Rotterdam Airport Spaanse Polder Schiedam Centraal Coolhaven Total

workers inhabitants 888 5.110 4.295 4.360 1.524 12.610 3.142 8.930 2.813 3.290 1.741 320 26 960 5 3.560 3.231 7.210 1.847 7.450 4.720 19.550 12.830 12.870 37.062

86.220

climate adaptability social interaction energy production recycling existe structures feasible effective small starts fast-slow networks multiple use - functions Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft

Zweth - Nobelsingel

total cost

97


Strategy - Social Framework

98

01

Green Necklaces Miao Zhang

02

The Resilient Line Antonio Sanna Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft


03

04

Midden Delfland Luiz Carvalho Filho

Resilient Spaanse Polder Andrea Ăœberbacher

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft

99


Strategy - Test Cases

01

100

Green Necklaces Miao Zhang

02

The Resilient Line Antonio Sanna Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft


03

Midden Delfland Luiz Carvalho Filho

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft

04

Resilient Spaanse Polder Andrea Ăœberbacher

101


Green Necklace in Hague Miao Zhang

102

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft


This is a strategy to achieve resilience by integrating the green spaces in the urban context and its borders. Green spaces in the city and its border are isolated and with low accessibility, meanwhile this places have energy resources but without sufficiently use. The current situation leads to the spatial outcomes: URBAN SCALEUsing boulevards to connect all the green spaces together and definite different functions for different parts of the new boulevards system, including open boulevard, eco-boulevard and energy boulevard. LOCAL SCALETaking the buffer area near the A4 as a show case to make an energy boulevard which try to produce energy there and as an energy park to study energy. STAKEHOLDERS INVOLVED Den hague, Ypenburg,Rijswijk; Municipality of Hague; Landowners(industry,farms), Residents, Neighborhood communities, New users; Energy companies, Research institutions; Green public space; AIMED EFFECT Energy and environmental resilience.

FACTS AND FIGURES Total extension: Who starts: in the buffer zone Who will follow: Target users: buffer zone

18 km Farmers who are operating farmhouses Public - Private energy companies Industries and residential areas near the

PROGRAM

Function: green spaces both in the urban fabric and in the border green space in the buffer 78 ha. intervention new boulevard 18 km. estimated time span strategy 20 years. Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft

103


The current situation for the Green system

THE LOCATION OF THE PROJECT The project locates in the border of the Den Haag, the current function of this area includes a part of living and a part of light industry.

PROBLEM STATEMENT

1. Focus on the small buffers between cities because they are fragmented, they are not in the green system of cities and they are not in the system of green heart. 2. Those buffers are lack of functions and the accessibility is low for those parts. For instance, the buffers are full of bio-mass resources and heating resources, but they are not used sufficiently now.

104

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft


The Green Boulevard system

OBJECTIVES

STRATEGY

1. I hope people who are living there can enjoy more green and at the same time those green can form an entire system.

1. Using boulevards (existing and new) to connect all the green lands (in the urban fabric and in the border) to be an entired system which called “green necklace�.

2. I hope the strategy can use the existing resources and structures. Reducing energy demand-reusing surplus energy-producing sustainable energy.

2. I definite boulevards to different functions in different districts. According to some current resources and situation I add new functions to the boulevards. (as energy producing, energy study and water management...)

3. I hope the strategy can help to solve some problems related to climate changes. (Flooding, urban heating and water storage) 4. I hope the strategy can encourage slow networks.

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft

3. Based on this eco-boulevard I create a slow traffic ring in Hague which help to improve the living experience for citizens who are living there.

105


The typology of the Green system

BOULEVARD TYPOLOGY

According to the basic situation and current resources especially combing all the existing water network, green network, influent and effluent water management and tram network, I gave three typologies of these boulevard system which including open boulevard, eco -boulevard and energy boulevard. TYPOLOGY A

The open boulevards are located besides the city center and the coast zone which provide open spaces, plazas and communication plats to citizens and tourists. TYPOLOGY B

The eco-boulevards are located besides the residential areas and some industrial areas which combine the influent and effluent water management system. The eco-boulevards can help to enhance the environment

106

for the poor quality communities, at the same time they help to purify waste water, store storm water that can directly provide to people who are living nearby. TYPOLOGY C

The energy boulevards are located besides the A4 highway and some districts near the coast zone which produce energy for the communities nearby and build to be the form of energy parks that people who want to study energy there. Those boulevards are multi-fuctioned, flexible and transformable in my case which means they can be different forms in differnt conditions, they are social and environmental resilience.

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft


Sketch of the open boulevard

Section of the eco - boulevard water management

solar resources Section of the open boulevard

Collage of the open boulevard

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft

Collage of the eco - boulevard

107


The general plan of the energy boulevard The different systems for the energy boulevard The Network System-

Adding more local roads and bicycle paths to enhance the accessibility of this area, and at the same time construct two bicycle bridges to go across the A4 highway to connect the two energy stations I add which help to form an entire walkable environment to this place. The Green System-

Combing with the network system and reorganizing the existing farmlands to new functions. The Water System-

Using the spaces along the A4 highway to make some water pools to store storm water and meanwhile this can also be a landscape for the highway. The Energy System-

Adding two energy stations to this area, one is for bio-mass, the other is for heating resources.

108

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft


Network System Collage_Energy Station

Green System

Collage_Water Storage

Water System

Collage_A4 Highway Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft

Energy System

109


The adaptive cycle for the key project

The Scenario of the boulevard system in Hague

110

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft


The stakeholders analysis

TIMELINE

This “green necklace� boulevard project for Den Haag has strict phases that the three typologies I mentioned before can be the started points for this multi-functioned system. Typology A is the open boulevard locates near the city center which is easy to start because it has already been an existing green street for the current situation. Typology B is the eco-boulevard locates near the industrial area and living communities which is easy to start because it can be a test pad for the system of water management. Typology C is the energy boulevard locates besides the A4 highway which is easy to start because it owns a lot of energy resources without sufficiently used and the area is an urgent project needs to be transformed. STAKEHOLDERS

The stakeholders can be divided into three groups, one is the group who can get directly benefits from the intervention; the other is the group who promotes the coorperation of project; another group is the government and municipalities which can provide finance for the interventions. In my case the energy companies is the key point who is the start up for my key intervention. Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft

climate adaptability social interaction energy production recycling existe structures feasible effective small starts fast-slow networks multiple use - functions total cost

111


Resilient Line Student Name: Antonio Sanna

112

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft


The marginal areas and in general those places in between the edge of the cities and the land suffer of common isolation problems, the south area of Delft as well as the surroundings of De Lier have infinite potentials that sometimes are not used at all. The resilient strategy is mainly applied to the existing environment and it deals with the existing transport network which in this area suffer of flexibility and it miss the chance to operate as real opportunity of development for the area I am interested in. Especially in this area of the South Holland there is a variety of different environment and activities that nowadays are

>>> FACTS & FIGURES Team: Resilient Patterns Antonio Sanna Program: net transformation commercial infrastructure

20ha. 600 m2 km. 2.3

Stakeholders involved: Municipalities, inhabitants, local private activities, farmers, housing co. Aimed effect: Redevelopment of the marginal areas - diversifying the existing functions - participation and collaboration

climate adaptability social interaction energy production recycling existe structures feasible effective small starts fast-slow networks multiple use - functions total cost Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft

113


De Lier

Schipluiden T

Golf

TUDelft

T

Glasshouses

IceRing

A13

A4

Delft

Delft and Delft Middland, current situation on map and diagram.

BOS

camping

Sketch of the main network corridors.

114

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft


Sketch of the current situation trend with the pression of expansion on the green land.

productive but they can suffer of an uncertain future of crisis and changes which will probably affect this productive area. The idea of resilient is here translated in the opportunity to add different functions to the existing ones, variety and flexibility both of activities and network can promise a resilient future for this changeable environment. The productive area of the Westland is focused on the food production via glasshouses which occupy a huge portion of green land and also make a barrier between a green, enjoyable environment and the interested villages. In the same way the south expansion of Delft sketch a quite defined and sharp border between the city and the green which can be used to develop the marginal area and give to it the opposite meaning of central area of interest for this kind of environment. Moreover the existing network in this area is formed of several “fast” corridor which are both the highways A13 and A4(now under construction), the railway and the DelftseSchie (waterway used for commercial purposes between Rotterdam, Den Haag and Amsterdam). All those “fast lines” just go through the landscape without interact with it. Thus the project is the strategy to develop a system of network which interact with the existing one but it will differs from the point it can discuss with the surrounding context giving the opportunity to the small activities as well to the big ones to cooperate

The image shows the quality of the typical local network system.

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft

115


The map shows the amount of green land, it mostly covers all the area but often it doesn’t deal with the urban area defining a sharp edge that could become an high-quality environment.

116

First sketch of the strategy.

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft


TuDelft

Delft

b

South Delft expansion

Golf Clu

Farme r Farm Farme er r

Farme r

Ring

enIce

Schipluid

each other. The trigger for this project, the starting point will be a hub, a commuting point between the A4 and “the line”. It will be provided with a gas station at the level of the highway (it will be below the ground) which will brings to the upper level provided with parking lots, restoration and info point in order to “diverge” and bring users from the main corridors to the local system of interaction.

Diagram of the interests

T

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft

TUDelft

De Lier

Glasshouses

Schipluiden T IceRing

Golf

A13

A4

Delft

Diagram of the overall strategy

BOS

camping

117


118

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft


New A4 construction Hub construction

Slow development of the surrounding activities

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft

On the other page: map of the project focused on the A4 intervention On this page : collage of the spatial quality, sketch of a section regarding the intervention on the A4, diagram that shows the main phasing of the project.

119


Midden Delfland - Green In Between Luiz Carvalho Filho

120

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft


There is a long ongoing debate about the Randstad, about the green heart and the role of the cities in the region. Is it a metropolitan region headed by Amsterdam? Is it a city-region where each city plays a specific role? However in most of the discussions, the debate about the relationship of city and green is almost always presented as one of contrast, the latter as a mere frame to the first. In this part of the strategy deals with the green areas between Rotterdam and The Hague, trying to come up with a set of tools that allow an intense use of the green areas in a closer connection with the cities but at the same time enhances the spatial qualities of the landscape. The main motto here is that the region can no longer be seen and handled as a mere buffer between urban agglomerations. We must look beyond the idyllic image of cattle grazing in the meadows framed by Rotterdam´s skyline, we must perceive these two parts, green and urban as a united system. Having that in mind this part of the strategy provides a framework and four typologies to address some of the issues identified in the area.

Program: net transformation 25 km² landscape 20 km² water 3 km² Stakeholders involved: Farmers, Water boards, housing companies, municipalities, public transport, inhabitants of the region Aimed effect: Define a set of typologies to be used in the green areas, allowing the implementation of new functions without harming the landscape. Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft

121


Green In Between ...radical architects as well as the municipality might do well to rethink the rural as they try to hold on to the city as city. The rural is not trees and fields any more. It is on the way to data. In the strictest sense, the “rural” is the inter-diction of the local and the global-in-urban-space... The megacity initiative, in all its forms, tries to lift the interdiction, give the urban a “proper” access to globality via the electronic, and transform the “rural” into a metaconstitutive outside for the “urban.” What Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak (Spivak, 2000) says about the relation urban-rural in the case of Bangalore in India can be almost directly applied to the Netherlands, especially in the specific area described

122

here, the region of Rotterdam and The Hague. The argument that guides that part of the strategy is that the complementarity of city and green was present since the formation of the region and was later divorced, mainly by infrastructure planning, and that must be addressed. Aligned with the goals of the main strategy, resilience here can be achievied usign design strategies to bring a new dynamic of functions, a climate responsive landscape and the re-use and improvement of the existing structures.

Green Structure

Infrastructure - fragmented space

Buildings

Land Use - pushing the limits

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft


Green areas in this particular region have experienced major shifts in the recent past, and some specific trends can be identified in distinct sectors of the region.

So it is in this last described part of the green that the main strategy will be tested, an area that is in a haul, no longer intensive productive land, not yet city.

Surrounded by the largest cities in the region, Rotterdam and The Hague, the region is currently not used as it potentially could be. Despite the fact that there are many residents living at its borders there is a lack of interaction and most of the settlements are expansions of the cities and are more related with the city centre then to the green.

Following the performance criteria established in the main strategy, the interventions here must start with small scale actions that with time can ignite the process of change; in most of the cases the process can begin with little interference from the public sector, innovative arrangements can take place involving farmers, small contractors, knowledge sector and civil society.

Another aspect of the region is the spatial fragmentation induced by the traffic and transit networks. The resultant portions suffer from connectivity with each other and there are few points where it is possible to cross the highways, train tracks or even the waterways. Regarding production and land use, in Westland the rapid replacement of farmland for large scale industrial production of vegetables created an impact on the landscape that is as impressive as the figures of production in the area. In contrast farmland located between A13 highway and the tracks of Randstad Rail experience a down grade in terms of production, in some areas production has ceased and farmers are relying on the construction market to gain profit through new developments. Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft

In the future more elaborate forms of partnership can also happen, farmers can profit from selling construction rights, public – private partnerships can explore the waterways, metropolitan equipments can be implemented in a close collaboration of Rotterdam and The Hague for example. It can start with an art – music festival in the fields in the polders but eventually can end in a new place where dance or music companies from cities along the region can perform. To cope with this ‘open future’ project the strategy was organized as a set of rules to play a game. First a framework was established pointing out places where a new dynamic can be introduced without harming the landscape. Then four typologies were defined, each one dealing with particular aspects of the performance criteria.

123


Strategy - Framework

Metropolitan Equipment Resilent Line Schie Waterway

01 Wetland

02 Farm

03 Waterfront

04 Boulevard

124

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft


Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft

125


Strategy - Typologies 01 Wetland

02 Farm

Adaptative Landscapes

Up cycling Structures

Transform large areas into spaces that can store excessive rainfall, working as a sponge, saving water to be used during droughts to keep dikes and polder humid. These vast spaces have also a double function as leisure and natural parks.

Make use of existing rural constructions, glass houses, barns and silos, to house new functions, opportunity to live in a green setting without expanding the limits of the cities. Responds to a growing demand for new types of houses, with more space and better relation to nature.

Program: Leisure, small services to support users.

Program: Housing, services and small scale food production.

Who starts: Water boards, environmental agencies, funds for nature conservation.

Who starts: Farmers and small contractors

Who will follow: Private companies to explore activities.

Who will follow: Housing companies

climate adaptability

climate adaptability

social interaction

social interaction

energy production

energy production

recycling existe structures

recycling existe structures

feasible

feasible

effective

effective

small starts

small starts

fast-slow networks

fast-slow networks

multiple use - functions

multiple use - functions

total cost

total cost

126

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft


03 Waterfront

04 Boulevard

Work and leisure at the beach

A13 Boulevard

Improve the use of space along the waterways, taking advantage of the integration of water ways to Randstad Rail and A13 to implement in the future equipments of metropolitan scale. However the initial step can be simply stimulate the use for leisure of the areas following the water network.

Proposal to densify certain parts along the A13, taking advantage of the possible new role of this highway after the completion of the A4 road. Shifiting the local character, from passing to resting places. Improve the connection of local roads to this new boulevard.

Program: Entertainment, housing, leisure and services.

Program: Service and commerce.

Who starts: Farmers, organized civil society, water boards.

Who starts: Regional Government

Who will follow: Private companies, local and regional government, art and culture companies.

Who will follow: Private investors

climate adaptability

climate adaptability

social interaction

social interaction

energy production

energy production

recycling existe structures

recycling existe structures

feasible

feasible

effective

effective

small starts

small starts

fast-slow networks

fast-slow networks

multiple use - functions

multiple use - functions

total cost

total cost

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft

127


Strategy - Typologies

Waterfront

Farm

128

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft


Waterfront

Farm

Wetlands

Waterfront

Farm

Boulevard

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft

129


Resilient Spaanse Polder Andrea Ăœberbacher

Before - Industrieweg

130

After - Industrieweg

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft


Introduction The case study Resilient Spaanse Polder is a strategy for an adaptive industrial area in Rotterdam in order to achieve economic, social and environmental resilience. Over the years the area suffered from an economic decrease. This had several spatial impacts: vacant industrial buildings, underused docklands, mono-functional public space and weak transport connections. The strategy provides for a perspective how the area can be transformed to create beneficial urban values for Rotterdam, its citizens and businesses. But why is it necessary for Spaanse Polder to be resilient? The resilience strategy enables the area to contribute to Rotterdam’s approach to face climate change issues, enhance social interaction in surrounding neighbourhoods and add an increase to the economic prosperity of the site. Therefore, capacities in the urban agglomerations need to be transformed. In addition, the area can function as a test pad for areas in which this approach could be applied as well. Resilient Spaanse Polder may show measures how to increase urban values for a resilient future of an urban agglomeration, for instance with respect to the industrial area along Canal Schie (Rotterdamse Weg and Schieweg) in Delft. Thinking about the tendency to move all port related activities more and more to the sea (e.g. Maasvlakte 2) more areas like Stadhaven need to be transformed in future.

facts and figures Function business area Companies approx. 700 Urban area in total 190 ha Waterfront (length) 5,36 km Accessible waterfront (length) 0,30 km New accessible waterfront (length) 2,53 km Transformed public space 29 ha Estimated time span 15 years Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft

131


Delft

Midden Delftland

Schiedam

Rotterdam

Source: http://www.spaansepolder2015.nl/spaanse-polder-in-vogelvlucht

Location Spaanse Polder is located in the very North of Rotterdam. The western part of the area belongs to the municipality of Schiedam. In the Northeast in distance of approximately 1 km Rotterdam The Hague Airport is located, while the train Station Schiedam Central is in close distance to the area and the destination to the train station Rotterdam Central is approximately

1.5 km. In the South, highway A20 crosses the area and in the East, the area is connected to highway A13. The canal Schie connects Spaanse Polder with the The Hague, Delft, Midden Delftland and, to the South, with the port of Rotterdam.

Analysis

Vacant business and industrial buildings

Mono-functional, oversized, unstructured public space without urban vitality (especially for cyclists and pedestrians)

Accessibility of the docklandwaterfront merely blocked by underused company sites

132

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft


Context Spaanse polder was implemented in 1935 in the North of Rotterdam. At the beginning the economic activities in the terrain were mainly port-related. In the following years, the economic sectors wholesale, food trade and production and car sale enriched the economic portfolio of the area. In 2010, Spaanse Polder counted 700 companies settled in the area. In the last years, the economic importance of the waterway Schie as transport canal decreased. Since years the terrain suffers from the economic decline. Especially in waterway- and car-related companies the economic prosperity is regressive. According to the Panarchy Model, which we stated at the beginning of our regional vision, the area

is currently in a phase of reorganisation. This circumstance offers the opportunity to work with a strategy to achieve a more effective, diverse and resilient future.

Analysis

Shops in ground level zones along the main axis of the area are empty

Spaanse Polder does not work as a linking urban area between the green of Midden Delftland and the agglomeration of Schiedam/Rotterdam

The area is, beside of one bus line, disconnected from Rotterdams public transport network

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft

133


Strategy The two main columns of the strategy are on the one hand the grassroots approach to start up transformation and on the other hand an acupunctural implementation method with small interventions in four phases. Instead of oversized expensive projects, this strategy keeps the opportunity to adjust and adapt over time. As the goal of the strategy is to draw a new resilient future for the adaptive industrial area in the North of Rotterdam, the economic situation in the area needs to be shifted to a mixture between small local production and consumption and already existing large production. Thus, the economic sectors of production and the functions of the area need to become more diverse. These objectives can be reached by: - Offering space for start-up companies which fits their demands - Enhancing urban quality of the area to attract

new stakeholders, actors and visitors - Contribute to climate change objectives of Rotterdam to create urban values regarding environmental resilience Grassroots as a starting point of implementation In the starting phase it is hard to attract large investors and anchor programs. The risk is simply too high. Grassroots strategies can help development get started. Small developments are sowed by allowing and stimulating small initiatives in the area. Some might become successful, most will fail. The costs are low and as a bonus, a successful grassroot not only becomes an anchor for development, it also gives the area an identity (Zandbelt&vandenBerg, 2005, p. 39). In addition, a grassroots strategy can only be successful if there is a clear programme and vision what to achieve. Success depends on whether a beneficial situation for all involved stakeholders can be reached or not.

Planning objectives Diversity of businesses in the area, providing infrastructure and services to attract small start-up businesses Enhancing commercial activity

Adaption of the slow and fast network and interaction with surroundings

1

2

Enhancing quality and vitality of public space by structuring space in public, semi-public and private (business) space

134

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft


property owners

finance, partnership

partnership, agreement

Basic requirement for the success of this strategy is to obtain commitment of and knowledge from all stakeholders on different levels. The consensus and support of public, private and civic sector are indispensable.

Van Nelle Factory

policies, finance

TU Delft interest, young people offer, programme

cooperation

BENEFIT

partnership

start ups

BENEFIT

Schiedam

BENEFIT water boards

new user/visitors

cooperation finance

policies, cooperation

BENEFIT creatives

Rotterdam

BENEFIT

Midden Delftland

finance, policies opportunities, elaboration

Planning Objectives In order to start with the right marketing strategy Spaanse Polder should use already existing, successful instruments, institutions and supportive organizations which already received public money: For instance, the Van Nelle Factory which is located in the South of Spaanse Polder; Hakagebouw and other professional organizations such as Urban Breezz in Rotterdam

Neighboorhood community

public & privat transport (RET), bus, cyclists

are already successful in supporting creatives and start-ups and locate them in former industrial buildings. A grassroots strategy needs know-how to implement demands of young start-ups and creatives. Furthermore, anchors of interest should be considered in order to promote the area and make it well-known and visited.

Preparing area for future climate change influences

Source: Pรถtz H., Bleuze P., 2012. Groenblauwe netwerken voor duurzame en dynamische steden. Delft: coop for life, pp. 290 (plan Gemeende Rotterdam 2008).

Providing green access for citizens and creating urban green areas

Enhancing social interaction

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft

135


Strategy Arguments for the Resilient Spaanse Polder Strategy The main advantages of the four phases strategy are 1) Flexibility over time. This strategy is rather small scaled and runs over a foreseeable time period. Compared to implementation by way of a master plan and zoning plans, the strategy keeps the opportunity to adjust to changing conditions. This is important in times of crisis and unexpected economic changes. 2) Working with existing structures. This may increase the chance to be successful. Small interventions, partnerships, events and rent out systems are cost-saving and therefore attractive for municipality, politics and stakeholders and landowners. Land- and estate owner can share costs for maintenance with new businesses.

Furthermore, working with and improving transformation of existing urban structures and buildings is more sustainable and effective than building new structures which can be out-dated over the years again. 3) Acupunctural interventions instead of large projects. The acupunctural approach increase flexibility where to invest for the public sector. In case of the dockland, expectantly parts may need to be bought to create public space without pressure of consumption (in contrast to private owned or leased semi-public space, e.g. for restaurants and other activities).

Phase 01 In phase one of the approach, a grassroots start-up should help to engage new users and stakeholders in the area. Before - current situation

After - Phase 01 - grassroots docklands

136

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft


Phase 01 0,5 km

Industrieweg 135

The planning objectives in this phase are (see map phase above): -Temporary events along the accessible dockland parts, Industrieweg and northern brownfields of Spaanse Polder. -The building at Industrieweg 135 can act as a temporary landmark of new urban leisure activities and attract new peer groups. For a later development,

this site should be especially paid attention to. -Start renting out of obsolete office and industrial buildings in cooperation with Van Nelle Factory together with existing land- and estate holders. -Change of waterfront policy and adaption of technical infrastructure in order to create a new waterfront (e.g. boat mooring places, light infrastructure to support events, e.g. street lights, electricity).

New stakeholders Besides the demands of stakeholders of all levels, it is the new stakeholders which are undependable in order to create economic and thus, urban vitality of the area: What does these young start-ups and creatives need? They need cheap space, the opportunity to adapt space, possibilities to share facilities and costs, the opportunity to grow over time and extend and, finally, space for new ideas, creativeness and innovation. Source: By kind permission of the pictured persons.

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft

137


Phase 02 DELFT, THE HAGUE

0,5 km water bus cycling path existing bus line

5 km

AIRPORT

SLOW

CONNECT

SLOW FAST

FAST SLOW FREQUENCY BRIDGE VAN NELLE

SCHIEDAM CS ROTTERDAM CS

0 SCHIEDAM

ROTTERDAM

0 .

Besides the A13 motorway access and the closeness to the rail station Schiedam Centrum, the area is rather underutilized with respect to public transport. Only one bus line serves the area. On weekends no public transport connects the area to other parts of Rotterdam, Schiedam or the region. Although there is a nightline bus service in Rotterdam in general, this service is not provided in Spaanse Polder. Phase two of the strategy mainly deals with the network accessibility in the area. Therefore, both the slow (cycling, water network Schie) and fast (public transport) network needs to be improved. The planning objectives in this phase are (see map above): -Enhancing cycling paths to Midden Delftland and to Rotterdam -Slightly change the connection of the existing bus routes

138

-Speed up waterway Schie by implementing a water bus service, first only for events, later if successful, as an additional public transport in order to enhance accessibility of the green areas and the other cities along Schie. - Van Nelle Factory suggest in their strategy on the plot to enhance accessibility by a cyclist bridge close to the building Phase two requires agreement and support of the local transport supplier RET. The increasing bus frequency and the combination of the two existing bus lines is more affordable than installing a new bus line. Furthermore, phase two needs a consensus with shareholders of certain sites along the improved cycling path along the Schie canal in direction to Schiedam.

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft


Phase 03

Before - industrial halls to rent public space in front

0,5 km

In phase three the structure of public space should be improved. In particular, this phase pays attention to the enhancement of urban quality of the docklands and the main axis of Spaanse Polder, Industrieweg. The planning objectives in this phase are (see map phase above):

After - industrial halls rented out semi public space in front

building phase of public and private landowners (public space Industrieweg and docklands), new stakeholders (their goals and demands) and the interest of Rotterdam to adapt policies concerning use of public space and the willing of investing in light infrastructure such as street lightning and green implementation in order to enhance the attractiveness of public space.

-Transformation of public space of the docklands (water accessibility). -Attractiveness of the main axis Industrieweg by inventing urban green and structuring the space in public and semi-public space. This stage of the strategy needs a strong consensus

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft

139


Phase 04 Before - bridge - current situation

waterfront

After - bridge - water storage and skatepark

water storage Van Nelle factory

parking stadium 0,5 km

urban green, pocket parks green roofs

Phase four deals with the support of the area concerning climate change issues. After improving the attractiveness for new start-up businesses and enhancing quality and usability of public space, the approach is to consider how to contribute to the current strategy of Rotterdam’s Climate Proof Adaptation Programme. The planning objectives in this phase are (see map above): -Implementation of green roofs on the industrial buildings, where possible, to be realised by combining every reconstruction as well as new buildings with a green roof and providing for a substitution mechanism of implementation (according to the book Groenblauwe netwerken voor duurzame en dynamische steden Spaanse Polder has a high potential for green roofs, see also potential map) -Water storages and pocket parks (in combination with green roofs) need to be invented, in cooperation with shareholders of industrial land

140

- According to Van Nelle Factoring strategy, after the parking house has been built (together with the football stadium), the then former parking space under the A20 bridge will not be used anymore for parking during football matches, but water storages with secondary functions (e.g. skate parks) could be located here. - In the heart of Spaanse Polder industrial buildings can create a new waterfront in combination with new and existing urban green. Therefore, the buildings along Thurledeweg need to be in the focus when implementing new urban functions - Existing water storage can be connected with docklands and create a new green-leisure axis in Spaanse Polder and at the same time react on climate change expectations such us heavy rainfall or flooding and heat stress

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft


Vision

Conclusion test pad Resilient Spaanse Polder With this strategy, the shift towards a diverse area which enriches the social society demands can be reached without exhausting public investments. The Resilient Spaanse Polder does not need to become landscapepark Duisburg Nord, or KNSM island, but should be able to stay flexible also in future and “grow� with the new start-ups and their current and future demands. A transformation of the area such us Borneo Island, Amsterdam seems to be too cost-intensive for the time being. The new function as an additional new Before - Current. Large companies, monofunctional public space, no water accessibility.

Source: Bing maps.

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft

urban hub of creativeness, knowledge and production provides demands of the new generation of the South Wing, the city governmental interests and the social interaction of citizens. Rotterdam can advertise one more test pad concerning the competiveness of creating a sustainable and resilient city and create further knowledge out of this test pad. Other cities in the South Wing and abroad can prove in the future that such small scale and acupunctural strategy can also be applied to them, in order to adapt post- industrial sites or brownfields to resilient patterns of a region.

After - Vision in 15 years. Mix between large companies and new functions/businesses (white colour). Enhanced water accessibility (green colour).

Source: Basemap: Bing maps.

141


Conclusion

Relevance of the strategy Like all regions over the world, south wing needs to face challenges about climate change, energy providing, urban expansion and post-industrial transformation in the future. This project presents tools to tackle these problems in a flexible way through the implementation of small interventions and following strictly phases. To illustrate that, this strategy was tested in four different locations, with focus on environmental, economic, social and engineering resilience. We hope that our strategy can contribute to make the south wing more adaptable and transformable, both in physical and social aspects. What are the threats? The threats for the Randstad include climate change, energy shortage, urban expansion and post-industrial areas abandoned in the future. To be more specific, the estuary of the river Rhine and the coast of the North Sea make the South Wing of Randstad especially vulnerable to climate change and even slight changes in tidal regimes, causing frequency of floods. The situation can get even worse, in the absence of an evacuation plan.

142

Furthermore, urban heat is increasingly severely within the Randstad, possibly leading to shortage of energy during warm months. Besides that too little water can also be a problem; with many old dikes built of clay and peat, long periods of drought can cause a dike to dry out and loose stability. It is also worth to mention that continuous draining and outlet of incoming water leads to an under pressure in the soil, which can turn groundwater into brackish or salt. This salinization is currently a particular problem in the lower polders but can become established when the groundwater level rises in the future. Salinization causes damage to vegetation and wildlife and extensive problems with sweet drinking water. At the same time, the European countries are facing economic crisis which means the governments do not have enough money to make new investments especially for those big projects.

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft


References Adger, W.N., 2003. Building resilience to promote sustainability, IHDP Update, 2, pp. 1–3. Hoog, M. d., 2012. De Hollandse Metropool, Ontwerpen aan de kwaliteit van interactiemilieus. 1 ed. Bussum: THOTH. Hooimeijer, F., Arjan, N. & Meyer, H., 2005. Atlas of Dutch water cities. 2º ed. Amsterdam: Sun Publishers. Holling, C.S, 1996. Engineering resilience versus ecological resilience, in: P.C. Schulze (Ed.) Engineering Within Ecological Constraints. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, pp. 31–44. Holling, C.S. & Gunderson, L.H.,2002. Resilience and adaptive cycles, in: L.H. Gunderson & C.S. Holling (Eds) Panarchy: Understanding Transformations in Human and Natural Systems, Washington: DC, Island Press, pp. 25–62. Palmboom, F., 1990. Landschap en Verstedelijking Tussen Den Haag en Rotterdam: Ruimtelijke analyse en ontwerpvoorstellen. Rotterdam: s.n. Rotterdam Climate Initiative, 2009. Rotterdam Climate Proof Adaption Programme, the Rotterdam challenge on water and climate adaption, NL, online available at http://www.rotterdamclimateinitiative.nl/documents/Documenten/RCP_adaptatie_eng.pdf (accessed 13 January 2013) Spivak, G. C., 2000. Megacity. Grey room, 1(The MIT Press), pp. 8-25. Stead, D. & Nadin, V., 2008. Spatial Planning:a Key Instrument for Development and Effective Governance, with Special Reference to Countries in Transition. Geneva: UNECE. United Nations,2012. Making Cities Resilient Report 2012, My city is getting ready! A global snapshot of how local governments reduce disaster risk, online available at: www.unisdr.org/campaign (accessed: 13 January 2013) Waternet & Leenaers, H., 2012. Wonen in een polder. [Online] Available at: https://www.waternet.nl/media/406355/wn_wonen_in_een_polder_2012_lr.pdf [Accessed november 2012].

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft

143


‘Third PLACE’ Paradigms


146

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft


Contents Why Knowledge? Theoretical Framework Problem Statement Research Questions Methodology Conceptual Vision Objectives and Goals Policy making – National and Local General Spatial Strategy Spatial Interventions and Place making Critical Evaluation Conclusion References

Evgeniya Bobkova Aditya Deshmukh Mrudhula Koshy Si Xiao Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft

147


Why KNOWLEDGE? Based on our general analysis, our interpretations were a directive for some crucial questions. For instance, which regional, geographic and administrative scale would be most relevant for regional competitiveness since it is clear that the ‘Randstad’ scale does not suit the relevant function in every case. A smaller scale would ensure a greater probability of success of key interventions. From the analysis, it was evident to us that the Randstad possessed a spate of activities concerning different types of knowledge which could be effectively combined to create dynamic clusters of different specialities. Since most of the elements that enable the success of a city that develops its knowledge and creativity are in place in the ‘Randstad’, fragmented

148

as it may be, we decided to base our vision on the creative and knowledge city thesis. This concept has caught the attention of urban policy-makers worldwide after it was given a boost because of the work done by Jane Jacobs, Manuel Castells and Richard Florida among others.

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft


Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft

Urban areas are focal points of the knowledge economy in many respects. It is mainly in cities that knowledge is produced, processed, exchanged and marketed. This is because cities are best endowed with knowledge infrastructure (universities, other educational institutes, etc.); they tend to have higher than average shares of well-educated people; they are best endowed with electronic infrastructure, they are well connected to the global economy through airports; they have a function as a place where knowledge is exchanged, and as breeding nest for talent and new combinations. The urban and semi-urban areas surrounding core cities are important economic growth areas; they also provide attractive residential environments and contain critical infrastructures including airports, highways and high-speed rail connections.

149


“FOUR GENERATORS OF DIVERSITY” MIXED USES VACCANT BUILDINGS SHORT BLOCKS DENSITY

Jane Jacobs

150

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft


Theoretical framework

In this section, we introduce key elements or success factors of the creative city as emphasised in academic literature, including an assessment as to how these can be applied in local policies. Jane Jacobs (1961) gave an impulse into cultural considerations in economic thought when she advocated diversity as a driven force for urban prosperity in “Death and Life of Great American Cities”. Regional economics have undergone a significant ontological shift since the rise of notions linked to the new ‘cultural economic’ paradigm, whose main concepts are human capital (Glaeser and Saiz, 2003) and creativity (Florida, 2002). What cities should do is to attract and retain creative individuals by nurturing creativity, culture, and a distinctive history. ‘Third places’ (neither home nor office) to meet, such as cafés, pubs, terraces, cultural events, etc., and other similar spaces acquire a new dimension in the knowledge economy. A city’s success is then linked to the cross‐fertilization of ideas and tacit knowledge arising from the effects of face‐to‐ face contacts between creative workers (Storper and Venables, 2004). An emphasis on ‘quality of place’ and high‐quality amenities becomes necessary for urban competitiveness (Glaeser et al., 2001). The two main ways to approach the ‘creative city’ ideal are promoting innovation through creative industries or the nurturing of the creative class in general. These perspectives are complementary and at the same time not mutually exclusive: people working in creative industries constitute the ‘creative core’ of the creative class according to Florida (2002). But the policies implemented to promote one or the other have evidently a different character, the former being basically a business‐oriented policy and the latter a people‐oriented one, or in words of Romein and Trip (2011), policies promoting a production milieu or a consumption milieu, respectively. In practice, however, creative city policies in the Netherlands tend to combine both approaches (Kooijman and Romein, 2007)

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft

The creative city thesis has its icon cities, such as San Francisco, Glasgow and Barcelona. The processes that influence the creative city thesis as an urban development strategy are economic (globalisation, service economy) as well as geo-political (vanishing national borders and rise of regions as engines of growth), technological (ICT and transport), and sociocultural (consumption) in nature.

151


Key foundations Knowledge base: This includes tacit knowledge, codified knowledge and knowledge infrastructure. The quality, quantity and diversity of the universities, other education institutes and R&D activities determine for a large extent the starting position of a city in the knowledge economy. Economic base: This determines that cities with a diversified economy can become incubation places for new developments and economic innovation. Quality of life: This comprises an attractively built environment, high-quality houses, attractive city parks, attractive natural surroundings, and a rich variety of cultural institutions. The presence of high quality hospitals, international schools and traffic systems which do not generate too much air- and noise pollution also generate a good urban quality of life. Accessibility: The knowledge economy is a networked economy. A good international, regional and multimodal accessibility is therefore crucial for successful knowledge cities. Urban diversity: Urban diversity promotes creativity. Several empirical studies found that diversity fosters growth in cities (Glaeser et al., 1992) or at least in their most innovative sectors. Urban scale: Larger metropolitan areas are much more likely to attract creative workers as they prefer inspiring cities with a thriving cultural life than remoter, smaller places. However, smaller sized cities located in or close by to relatively large metropolitan areas can benefit from the mentioned scale advantages and can thus also play a role in the knowledge economy. Social equity: In order to aim for sustainable urban growth it is important to reduce poverty and inequality. The rapid developments in knowledge and information demand that a single person or company cannot master all disciplines, or monitor all the latest developments. Hence, it is increasingly crucial for companies to engage in strategic networks, in order to ‘tap’ into complementary knowledge resources in a flexible way. Networks enable to respond more quickly to rapidly changing markets and technologies, and they are conducive to creativity to produce new combinations. A very relevant issue concerning the spatial dimension of clusters is how local networks relate to global networks. In the local-global interplay, transnational companies (TNCs) play a special role.

152

Knowledge Base

Economic Base

Quality of Life

Accessibility

Urban Diversity

Urban Scale

Social Equity

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft


These basic principles helped us define the concept and scheme that we intended for the strategy. But how best can a scattered metropolis like the Randstad provide the ideal setting for strong economics of urbanization and consequently for innovation and creativity?

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft

153


Research questions Once we had decided our course of action, more research questions supplemented by theoretical backing guided our objectives and goals. For instance, what are the activities and capabilities of the Randstad that can be effectively developed to realise this vision? What are key elements and conditions that determine whether a city is successful or not as a creative city? To what extent, and how, can these key elements be effectively influenced and applied in local policies? What could be the more permanent, long-term potentials of the creative city for local policy-makers, from the perspective of urban economic development? Also, if cities truly want to strengthen thweir position in the knowledge economy, a more holistic approach is needed. This includes issues such as how to attract knowledge workers, how to improve the quality of life in a city and how to strengthen social equity.

154

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft


Methodology We mapped out the existing clusters of different types of knowledge. This enabled us to find probable flows of knowledge that existed in the South Wing. From this we derived potential corridors which could serve as test sites for the various typologies of knowledge clusters. The corridor which indicated the most extensive presence of knowledge clusters was selected to illustrate the typologies. The typologies are a sample of how the vision can be applied spatially at different scales and to benefit different target groups.

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft

155


What do we want to achieve? From what we know and from what exists in the Randstad, we envisage the city as a place to meet and create. How to make people discover their own city? More importantly, how to facilitate urban vitality? What will propel this? The interaction and synergies between knowledge users and producers are crucial factors for innovation to happen. The reasons for this may be agglomeration and connectivity. We envisage knowledge corridors as link - ups between the education, research, production, industry and economic clusters giving rise to a dynamic combination of speciality nodes and clusters.

156

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft


The VISION We propose to create conditions for a vibrant knowledge economy which positions the South Wing Randstad as an attractive investment location for creativity and producer services in the EU and thereby facilitate urban vitality. This can be done by means of providing diverse living environments, clustering and merging of cohesive functions, multiple networks and multi-modality. This consequently enables creativity, innovation and knowledge production for long term economic development.

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft

157


Objectives and Goals

To look at hidden potentials within the city. Improve International market and ‘open’ness to the outer world. Intensify connection between the Knowledge, Business and Industrial sectors and enable cohesive networking of advanced producer services. Compact, distinctive and authentic neighbourhoods with a finely meshed street pattern, ‘Third places’ Pedestrian-friendly public space Urban Networks to be the ‘Gateways’ to the Knowledge economy. Create conditions for diverse target groups, users and beneficiaries.

PEOPLE.....

158

ATTRACT P

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft


Enable a lively blend of historical town scape and city’s cultural traditions. Integrate planning, infrastructure, culture and economic development into coherent and coordinated framework. Stations are not only transportation hubs but also attractive urban meeting places. Facilitate the triple helix (Governance, Research and Business). Highlight the specialisation and distinct character of each node. A vibrant and diverse street life

PEOPLE.....

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft

ATTRACT PEOPLE.....

159


Policy making This section reflects on the long-term value of the creative city thesis for the economic competitiveness of cities from a local policy perspective. The close intertwining of working, living and leisure by workers in the creative economy in both place and time is a key pre requisite for the creative city. Hence, local creative city policy should not focus exclusively on either the people-oriented or the business-oriented policy perspective, but should combine both perspectives. Creative city policy entails a mixture of supportive measures and instruments to stimulate entrepreneurship, to establish commercial and social networks of entrepreneurs, and to fill in lacunas in the value chain of education such as design, production, marketing and distribution. The interrelations between local, regional, national and EU actions promote the knowledge economy on the urban level.

Policies that have an impact Science and education policy This type of policy is typically non-spatial. However, it strongly affects cities. Cities with good universities benefit a lot more from these policies than nonuniversity cities. University policy can also be a means to promote regional economic growth.

Innovation policy In most European countries, industrial policy (supporting declining or promising industries) has been replaced by innovation policy. The idea behind it is that investments in research and development and innovations have an upward impact on productivity. Increasingly, governments recognise that co-operation between business and universities can yield significant economic benefits. Universities and companies too often are two worlds apart: they have different drivers (academic prestige vs. profit making), they have different time horizons, different work attitudes, and in practise, find it difficult to co-operate.

160

However, there are many potential synergies and interdependencies: some knowledge developed at universities is commercially very valuable, or may become so in the longer run; university students and researchers are potential entrepreneurs; universities are the source of new staff for companies; university labs may be used by start-ups; universities may benefit from applied research assignment from the industry, and vice versa. Transportation policy and spatial policy Evidently, transportation policies have an impact on the accessibility of cities. Cities that are not being connected to the system (either directly or via a fast link to a nearby HST station) will lose relative accessibility, with possibly negative consequences for the local economy. Social policy Social policies (affecting welfare systems and access to public amenities and education), evidently, have an impact on levels of social exclusion in cities.

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft


On the basis of our research into current practises and planned actions in a number of cities and nations, it is possible to make a distinction between four types of options: • Bottom-up approaches (initiated on the local/ regional level) • Top-down approaches (initiated by national/ regional/EU governments) • Joined-up approaches (a combination of local and national initiative) • A decentralisation of responsibilities. Joined-up approaches of national and local/regional governments are the current existing approach in The Netherlands. In a joined-up approach, local authorities co-operate with national government and other actors to create and implement knowledge economy strategies that are better tailored to local needs. In The Netherlands, national government also increasingly recognises the role of urban regions

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft

as engines of the knowledge economy, and tries to develop a more tailor-made approach. As a result, national ministries increasingly co-operate with local and regional governments to develop knowledge economy-related activities. Local actors know best where the opportunities and threats are. Therefore, to capitalise on this, national governments should make use of their knowledge, energy and networks. They could encourage local actors to develop regional strategies in public private partnerships, and support these strategies in different ways. Instruments are financial incentives, or allowing regions to experiment with legislation and regulation.

161


Place making through transit oriented development Since we intended to physically implement the strategy by place-making with the aid of transit oriented development, we started by mapping the existing transport networks. This enabled us to find the advantages of the presence of various networks. Limitations posed by lack of multi-modality were also explored in the process. Every ‘node’ (which can be a company, a person, but also a city) in the knowledge network has to develop its own specialization (Castells, 2000). The knowledge economy is a network economy, where connectivity increasingly matters. From the clusters that we mapped, we derived the probable existing flows of knowledge. It is fruitful to think in networks consisting of nodes and linkages. Rather than defining space in terms of individual cities or city regions, we should conceive regions in terms of access to specialised knowledge resources. So we defined four potential corridors to base the regional strategy.

162

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft


“KNOWLEDGE ECONOMY IS A NETWORK ECONOMY”

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft

163


164

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft


“Every ‘node’ (which can be a company, a person, but also a city) in the knowledge network has to develop its own specialization” - Manuel Castells

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft

165


Knowledge flows

The mapping of the clusters evidently led to a conceptual understanding of the networking of the various types of knowledge present in the South Wing Randstad. This suggested to us that the entire region may ‘operate’ cohesively as a networked knowledge region. We started by envisaging which areas may work together better more than others based on their geographical positioning, spatial morphology and existing clusters. This is illustrated by means of a ‘Knowledge Flows’ diagram, a preliminary to deriving the potential knowledge corridors

166

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft


Potiential corridors

It is fruitful to think in networks consisting of nodes and linkages. Rather than defining space in terms of individual cities or city regions, we should conceive regions in terms of access to specialised knowledge resources. So we defined four potential corridors to base the regional strategy.

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft

167


The Hague-Leiden corridor

Leiden University plus the city centre forms the cluster and the station is the gateway to the cluster. This also goes with the Hague centre and university along with commercial centres. This will help improve the poor neighbourhoods by knowledge implantation. Low density or individual posh housing adjacent to the Wassenaar area will be interspersed with nature for diverse housing options.

168

Rotterdam- Gouda corridor

To improve poor neighbourhoods, public spaces with better housing in proximity to existing business clusters. Creative cluster of non-traditional producer services. Good quality housing around the lake, in proximity to R and D of Unilever would be the first step in integrating the Westlands to the rest of the South Wing. Emphasise the beach at Westland, promote the public transport.

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft


Westland-Rotterdam upper corridor

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft

Leiden University plus the city centre forms the cluster and the station is the gateway to the cluster. This also goes with the Hague centre and university along with commercial centres. This will help improve the poor neighbourhoods by knowledge implantation. Low density or individual posh housing adjacent to the Wassenaar area will be interspersed with nature for diverse housing options.

169


The Hague-Rotterdam corridor

R&D ‘Stad’, Rijswik

Delft Rendezvous, Delftw

Edge City park, Rotterdam

Zuid Avenue, Rotterdam south

170

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft


Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft

171


R&Dstad Plaspoelpolder Si Xiao

Handelska

De Put park

Urbanisator Plaspoelpolder

VerrynStuartlaan

de Bru

Station area

Station Rijswijk Volmerlaan

Municipality

In de Bogaard

Railway Tram line 17 Other traffic lines Pedestrain street

Key interventions

172

Rijswik

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft


The Plaspoelpolder R&D Park is the oldest and largest business park which developed and operated by the Industries ‘The Plaspoelpolder’. The Plaspoelpolder R&D Park was largely developed in the 60s. Now it is the leading jobsite in the region. Initially, the industry has the upper hand, nowadays there are more offices. The business services sector is strongly represented. In the area are relatively large internationally oriented companies established. This is partly due to the attractive R&D climate: well trained staff from the region, excellent transport connections and good public transport (train, bus and tram). The Plaspoelpolder R&D Park accommodates organizations such as the European Patent Office, ANP, CBR, Rijkswaterstaat, Shell, Alcatel and Mn Services. etc.

ade

A4

uyn Kopsstraat

Because the Plaspoelpolder R&D Park has already in use over 40 years, parts of it need transition. Under the direction of the Industries parts of R&D Park revitalized, the municipality of Rijswijk plays as an important role in the transition. The revitalization has room for both offices and businesses, particularly SMEs.

In de Bogaard

Station Rijswijk

Volmerlaan

Verryn Stuartlaan

de Bruyn Handelskade Kopsstraat

Mall Recreation

Transport

R&D museum Training

Retail communication

Recreation Creative working Waterfront Transport

Scale 1:10,000

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft

Facts and Figures urban area ha. 63 ha residential ha. 5ha commercial ha. 10ha port ha. 5ha infrastructure km. 15.5km landscape ha. 10km water ha. 5ha houses hundred 1 jobs hundred 160

173


Plaspoelpolder aerial view (existing)

Aerial view from European Patent Office

Den haag region global integretion

174

Rijswijk city region global integretion Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft


knowledge economy

Plaspoelpolder EPO

Alstom

Leica Alcatel ANP

EPO CBR

TUI

Shell

EPO

Rijkswaterstaat Railway Tram line 17 Main car routes Leading companies Inside zone East dockland

Exsiting knowledge condition

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft

Scale 1:10,000

175


Collage of Rijswijk and Plaspoelpolder

Principles Lively interaction space Network intervention Multi-functions space Reuse of vacant buildings

Development mechanism

176

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft


Demand for transport mobility Planners Participation; Tecnical suppurts.

Knowledge

Transport Advice

Participation

International companies Growth; Competetiveness; Transport mobility; Well trained staff;

Small enterprises Job choices; Attractive working place; Group coolaboration.

HTM Personenvervoer Potential tram line; Existing route optimization.

Rijswijk Municipality Coordination

Negotiation

Coordination

Other landowners Diverse intrest; Benifit from strategy.

Development of R&D; Jobs and tax; Urban vitality; City Identity.

Coordination

Waterbus Direction

Influence

Plaspoelpolder Voice desk; Coordination among enterprises; Knowledge exchange platform; Reuse of vacant buildings. Collaboration between municipality and enterprises.

Negotiation

Negotiation

New transport choice between Den Haag and Rotterdam on the canal Schie;

Coordination

Den Haag light rail Potential light rial line; Transport mobility optimization in Conurbation of Den Haag.

Supervise

Local people Jobs; Enviornment; Transport mobility; Diverse urban space.

Demand for R&D development

Stakeholder relationship map

Initiative for Action Initiators in Plaspoelpolder join hands to everyone from the area to get started. In urbaniser Plaspoelpolder bundle owners, entrepreneurs and municipal forces to work on the improvement and development of the Plaspoelpolder. This means that the former leading role of the municipality changed to a central role for owners and users to their property and the area development. The Plaspoelpolder owns easily accessible working environment in the Hague region. Moreover, in recent years improvements have been made in infrastructure and public space. Yet there are many vacant properties. It’s time for action! Field Marketing, a field agent, facilities, renovation and transformation of vacant properties, development of areas are possible activities that can strengthen Plaspoelpolder. But what should be done and who will do it? That can only happen if successful owners, entrepreneurs and community together to work. From the field itself must be determined what the Plaspoelpolder be done and the cooperation it takes. Because if everyone involved is the Plaspoelpolder full of energy on the map. Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft

177


Railway Main car routes Proposed Tram line 17 Tram line 23 Rijswijk – Kijkduin Proposed road Waterf bus line Metro Den Haag-Wateringen

Transport intervention

Scale 1:10,000

Boulevards Bicycle path Pedestrain streets

Boulevard and bicycle path system

178

Scale 1:10,000

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft


impression of boulevard

Plaspoelpolder aerial view (after)

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft

179


180

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft


Impression of boulevard section view

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft

181


Delft Rendezvous Aditya Deshmukh

182

Delft

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft


Delft known for its cultural heritage is also recognised as a knowledge city due to the existence of TU Delft University. The city is divided into five major areas namely the city centre to the north, university to the east, TNO to the south, Voorhof (highly dense residential area) to the west and the industrial area in between the university and Voorhof. This clear division of areas is mainly because of the infrastructure lines of the railway, Schie canal (running north to south) and a highway, with two major transport nodes, Delft central station positioned to the north near the city centre and Delft Zuid to the south near the Voorhof and industrial area.

Residential area

Industrial area

City centre

University TNO

Though the city being the knowledge hub, it up to some extent is unsuccessful to retain fresh graduates who are willing to start of their own firms and studios as it has limited resources for incubators and start ups or students looking for live-n-work facilities. Hence the goal of the project is to create urban vitality by integrating the University, Voorhof and the city centre by creating mixed used space like public spaces, avenues, cafeterias united mainly with the facilities like incubators, start-ups and live-n-work options. Facts andFigures Program: Net transformation Urban area Residential Commercial Infrastructure Landscape Water

300ha. 70ha. 8ha. 4.54km. 40ha. 6.5ha.

Stakeholders involved: Gemeente Delft, TU Delft , Students, YES Delft, Planners and Architects, Local residents, small retails, Veolia transport, HTM

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft

Aimed effect: Urban vitality and integrate TU Delft, Voorhof and the city centre by planning dynamic deveopments.

183


Residential node University Road connection

In order to achieve the goal, the first planning objective is to connect the main central node of the residential area to the central part of the university, as most of the student housing is located near the residential node which is poorly connected to the university. This connection will not only connect two areas, but also will get the central industrial area into importance. As most of the industries in that area will be moving out of the city, the existing infrastructure could be very well used for the envisioned project.

184

To reinforce the importance of this area and also to strengthen the accessibility, a north-south avenue is proposed along the Schie canal as part of the riverfront development. To the north of the avenue in the area known as Vermeer port(where the famous painter Johannes Vermeer first painted the city of Delft), will be allocated for exhibition spaces and art galleries, which will act as an gateway to the central area.

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft


Museum Avenue

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft

View overlooking Vermeer port

185


3 1

2

4

1 5

186

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft


Residential node University Road connection Avenue 1

Industrail shed transformed into working spaces

2

Special housing proposed in between the sheds

3

Hotel

4

Student housing extension

5

Industrial landscaped park

Heritage structures retained

The industrial sheds will be transformed into working spaces for incubators and start-ups and in between areas will designed for special type of housing suitable and interconnected to the industrial sheds.

Area to the east on the canal front is proposed with a small hotel (for visiting professors and VIP’s visiting the university) adjacent to an extension of the student housing in the university with an industrial landscaped park to the south of the canal front.

section through the industrial sheds

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft

187


Area of intervention University

Canal front avenue Museum

188

Residential node Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft


View overlooking the industrial sheds and the canal front avenue

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft

189


190

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft


Though the project initiator is the local government, TU Delft University and YES Delft (entrepreneurs centre) would be the main stakeholders along with the local residents. The strategies for the project will strengthen the image of the city of Delft as a knowledge city along with creating ‘Urban Vitality’ and integrating all the isolated areas within the city.

Section through the industrial landscaped park

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft

191


Edge City park Mrudhula Koshy

192

Rotterdam north

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft


The area adjacent to the Rotterdam – Hague Airport is well surrounded by a highway ring, railway and light rail. This in addition to the two regional gateways, the airport and Rotterdam train station makes this area a well-connected but highly under-utilised area adjacent to the highway fringe. The adjacent residential areas, the green areas and the newly proposed ’Park 16 Hoven’, an upmarket residential township offer supporting roles. These advantages offer the airport precinct good potential to transform into a producer centric business cluster. It offers an alternative hub to the adjacent residential areas in place of the Rotterdam train station. As a complementary to the other projects on the corridor, this project aims a larger scale and the international businesses that may prefer to set up base adjacent to an International gateway, the airport. In this way, it attempts to target networks of different scales. The water networks also present an opportunity to integrate the region.

Facts and Figures Program: Net transformation Urban area 60ha. Mixed use 6.4ha. Infrastructure 35km. landscape 3ha. Stakeholders involved: Airport authority, Public workers, Creative workers, Internatioanal companies.-

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft

Aimed effect: Urban Anchor for fringe area

193


Highway Ring road Green spaces ‘Park 16 Hoven’ Residential areas Water networks Water taxi zone Railway Railway

The area adjacent to the Rotterdam – Hague Airport is well surrounded by a highway ring, railway and light rail. This in addition to the two regional gateways, the airport and Rotterdam train station makes this area a well-connected but highly under-utilised area adjacent to the highway fringe. The adjacent residential areas, the green areas and the newly proposed ’Park 16 Hoven’, an upmarket residential township offer supporting roles. These advantages offer the airport precinct good potential to transform into a producer centric business cluster. It offers an alternative hub to the adjacent residential areas in place of the Rotterdam train station.

194

As a complementary to the other projects on the corridor, this project aims a larger scale and the international businesses that may prefer to set up base adjacent to an International gateway, the airport. In this way, it attempts to target networks of different scales. The water networks also present an opportunity to integrate the region.

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft


Highway Ring road Existing buildings Existing airport into convention centre Proposed airport terminal Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft

Existing parking space into public plaza Proposed parking for airport

Railway Proposed tram connection

Water networks Existing roads

195


196

Existing buildings

Proposed green spaces

Existing airport into convention centre

Proposed open spaces

Proposed mixed use

Water networks

Water taxi zone

Proposed road connection Existing highway ring

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft


Before

After

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft

197


Before

After Before

198

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft


The tram line will ensure a better connection to the Rotterdam airport and an upgradation in terms of its use. Densification of the highway fringe reinforces the strategy of third places. After

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft

199


Before

After

This project is positioned as an initiative from the local government. Private investors may be invited to set up base within a given framework to benefit the entire area. These strategies enable the area to transform from an isolated fringe area near the highway to an ‘Urban Anchor’ which will propel the region as an enhanced knowledge hub.

200

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft


Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft

201


Zuid Avenue Evgeniya Bobkova

Rotterdam South - Zuidplein

202

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft


The Rotterdam South area is traditionally a problematic part of the city with mainly monofunctional residential districts. Most part of the population is a working class, and level of education of the resident labour force is very low comparing to other Dutch cities. So, there is a problem that international companies tend to leave Rotterdam because of insufficient level of low-skilled labour. The goal of the project is to improve knowledge within local residents and to improve the quality of urban environment so people would not try leave the area as soon as they are able to afford it. This would be made through providing area with educational institutes and community centres for tacit knowledge, reorganization of public spaces, and reconstructing connections between important nodes of the district and knowledge clusters in the Rotterdam North.

Facts and Figures net transformation urban area 404 ha. residential 2,15 ha. Educational 4,34 ha commercial and mixed use 0,84ha. infrastructure 15.9km. landscape 5,15 ha.

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft

203


Strategic analysis

The most part of the Rotterdam South consists of residential neighbourhoods and post-industrial areas. The central square of the district is Zuidplein, and also there is a lot of squares in each neighbourhood which are supposed to operate as local centres. But as far as district is monofunctional, public spaces are not organised and lack functional program, so they form holes in urban fabric instead of points of intensity. Industrial quarters cover areas which face the river, and, because there is a tendency that port industries shift more to the west, these areas have potential need to be transformed for new developments. Concerning transport networks, the district has several thoroughfares which connect it with the northern part of the city but also operate as transit regional roads to the southern part of the country. Local connectivity

204

and public transport networks, on the contrary, are insufficient. There is one metro line to connect Rotterdam South with the North. Tram network is relatively good, but does not cover the central area of the district.

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft


Vision

1.The first step of the strategy is redevelopment of Zuidplein area which is the focus point of the district. It is a place where several regional roads meet, and as far as functionally it consists of ‘big boxes’ of national and city scale it does not operate as a local centre. Reorganization and downscaling the area along with its densification with mainly educational functions would turn it into local knowledge cluster and vital urban centre. This intervention would strongly influence the rest of the area, because of the proximity of the new urban centre to the neighbourhoods and to the satellite towns in the South of Rotterdam: there would be no more need to cross the river to get to the city centre. 2.The second step is to redevelop smaller public spaces in the area. Program would consist of MBOs and

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft

vocational institutes, small retail and businesses, local markets and other functions according to the exact context of each place. Continuity between the nodes to be reconstructed by means of a tram connection and by a reorienting car-based road network to a pedestrian-based. 3.The last step would be full transformation of postindustrial areas under mix-use developments, which would include residential, social and student housing, small businesses, and educational institutes. Also extension of metro line is proposed, which would connect university and MBO clusters in the northwestern part of Rotterdam, new developments of postindustrial sites, Zuidplein and university and business clusters in the north-eastern part of the city.

205


Strategic analysis

206

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft


Concept vision

Zuidplein is the biggest square of the Rotterdam South and car-oriented area with strict modernist separation of functions. It is also a meeting point of five smaller neighbourhoods which are physically segregated from each other by thoroughfares of regional scale. Functional part of the square is presented by commercial, recreational, business and residential large scale constructions what leads to a failure of street life in the surrounding areas.

shopping street, and pedestrian connection between Zuid Avenue and metro station through the shopping centre to be facilitated. As far as the location of pedestrian public spaces is too be shifted to boulevard, shopping street and to Ahoy Congress centre, existing empty areas would be densified with semi-public areas with community centre and residential blocks.

Thoroughfares are to be downscaled to a boulevard, which would become a connective tissue between neighbourhoods. Areas around big boxes are to be densified with middle and small-scale constructions of educational and other diverse functions, which would shape the squares and a shopping street of human scale. Ground floors of the shopping centre to be reoriented as a retail areas open to the pedestrian

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft

207


208

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft


The final project includes pedestrian boulevard, while there is still access for cars, because Ahoy centre and WInkelcentrum need car accessibility as they are the objects of city and national scale. It is not proposed to create a tunnel under the square, because in the context of crisis this intervention would be too strong. It would also keep fast transit connection to the suburbs, what would not serve the overall goal of downscaling the neighbourhood. Square near Ahoy is to be shaped by new-built MBO School and small scale pavilions. Parking lots to be relocated in multi-storey parking garage, what would leave space for Zuiden park extension and its integration into green system of new boulevard. Shopping street is to be created through the reorientation of ground floors of the shopping centre. Community centre and library are to shape secondary public space, and residential block is to be built on empty areas which are not strongly integrated in the new system of public spaces. Extension of tram line with three stops near residential block, shopping centre and Ahoy square would improve the local connectivity between Zuid Avenue, the rest of the neighbourhood and transformed industrial areas, and also would improve intermodality between different modes of transport, as far as metro station and small bus hub are located in the area.

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft

This project is positioned as an initiative from the local government and international companies based in Rotterdam. Private investors and small retail and recreational companies along with Ahoy Congress centre and shopping centre authorities are also to be invited to participate the project. These strategies enable the area to transform from an isolated monofunctional area cut from other part of the city by the river to a vital urban area with its own knowledge clusters which would propel connections between working class and businesses and would facilitate development of the whole the HagueRotterdam knowledge corridor

209


Shopping street and boulevard

210

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft


Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft

211


Ahoy Congress centre and MBO institute

212

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft


Community centre and Library

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft

213


Critical evaluation The creative city thesis states that creativity – a creative milieu is an important precondition for innovation to flourish. Yet the creative city is often considered a hype, something momentary. This implies that however seductive the creative city thesis may be, creative city policies run a significant risk of failure because no elaborated methodology exists to effectively transfer concepts like this thesis from first mover cities to other cities. Also, the knowledge economy has a tendency to produce a dual economy, with an increasing polarization between a class of well-paid knowledge workers and an underclass of people who lack the skills and resources to participate. The polarization is felt most strongly in cities with a legacy of declining industries, and sometimes takes the form of clear spatial segregation. This concept is also particularly criticized for their relative disregard of social consequences. It is often little more than a rhetorical device which can placate the hearts and minds of local councillors and politicians that they are actually doing something whilst doing hardly anything at all. But controversial as it is, the prospect of innovation and economic development based on creativity, represented by either the creative class or creative industries, appears attractive. There is an on-going debate about Europe’s position in the knowledge economy.

The factors that would be responsible for Europe’s poor performance: Europe has too rigid labour markets; the entrepreneurial spirit is insufficient compared to some other parts of the world; taxation and generous welfare states are too much of a burden; administrative procedures, bureaucracy and rigid legislation prevent dynamism. All kinds of legal barriers must be removed, the internal market should be further developed, national policies should be better aligned, national governments and companies should invest more in R&D, and incentives should be created to improve the co-operation between business and universities. Local actors know best what the opportunities and threats are. Therefore, national governments should make use of the cities’ knowledge, energy and networks; national governments and the EU could encourage local actors to develop regional strategies in public-private partnerships, and support these strategies in different ways. This can be done by providing financial incentives and by giving regions more freedom to experiment with legislation. The same differentiated local approach is needed to tackle issues of social exclusion that are associated with the emerging knowledge economy. The causes of exclusion differ in the various local contexts, and every city needs to develop its own approaches.

Conclusions

We have argued that urban areas, different as they are, are focal points of the knowledge economy, in many respects. To capitalise on local strengths, it is needed to improve the link between research infrastructure and business, to improve the match between education and the needs of the local economy and encourage entrepreneurship. We are convinced that the creative city thesis is not a hype in the sense that all of its message will be soon forgotten. The competitiveness of western urban economies in the current global playing field simply requires (more) creativity to uphold the innovative capacity that is essential for their competitiveness. But to be viable in the longer term, local policy must find a balance between supporting new creative entrepreneurship; general preconditions such as an open social climate, safety, amenities, and accommodation; and a clear focus on specific strengths as attributed by different user groups. A creative city is far from an easy city.

214

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft


References

Amin, A., and Thrift, N. (2007), Cultural‐economy and cities. Progress in Human Geography, 31(2), 143‐161. Berg, L. van den, P. Pol, W. van Winden and P. Woets (2004), European cities in the Knowledge Economy: The cases of Amsterdam, Dortmund, Eindhoven, Helsinki, Manchester, Munich, Münster, Rotterdam and Zaragoza, Euricur, Erasmus University Rotterdam Berg, L. van den and A.P. Russo (2003), The Student City: Strategic Planning for Students’ Communities in EU Cities, Euricur, Rotterdam Berg, L. van den and Willem, W, (2004) Cities in the knowledge economy: new governance challenges, European Institute for Comparative Urban Research, Rotterdam, The Netherlands Castells, M., (2000), ‘The Information City, the New Economy, and the Network Society’ in People, cities and the new information economy, Materials from an International Conference in Helsinki, 14-15 December 2000. Florida, R. (2002), The rise of the creative class; and how it’s transforming work, leisure, community and everyday life. Basic Books, New York Glaeser, E.L. (2000), ‘The new economics of urban and regional growth’ in The Oxford Handbook of Economic Geography. Eds: G. Clark, M. Gertler and M. Feldman, 83-98. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Glaeser, E.L., J.A. Sheinkman and A. Sheifer (1995), ‘Economic growth in a cross-section of cities’, Journal of Monetary Economics 36: 117-143. Glaeser, E., J. Kolko and A. Saiz (2001), Consumer City. Journal of Economic Geography, 1, 27-50. Jacobs, J. (1961), The death and life of great American cities. Random House, New York Peck, J. (2005). Struggling with the creative class, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 29 (4), 740‐770 Kooijman, D. and Romein, A. (2007), The limited potential of the creative city concept: policy practices in four Dutch cities. Region in focus. Lisabon. Maldonado, A.M. (2011), Spatial interventions as planning tools for knowledge‐based development in the Netherlands, Paper presented at the 2011 EURA Conference “Cities without Limits” Copenhagen 23 ‐ 25 June 2011 Romein, A. and J.J. Trip (2008), Theory and practice of the creative city thesis: the cases of Amsterdam and Rotterdam. Paper presented at the ACSP-Aesop 4th Joint Congress ‘Bridging the divide: celebrating the city’, 6-11 July 2008, Chicago Storper, M. and A.J. Venables (2002), Buzz: the economic force of the city. Paper presented at the DRUID Summer Conference on ‘Industrial dynamics of the new and old Economy – who is embracing whom?’, 6-8 June 2002, Copenhagen/Elsinore.

Design Studio Fall 2012/13 EMU TUDelft

215


STUDENT BOOKLET FALL 2012-13 more info www.emu.tudelft.nl - www.emurbanism.eu

EMU DESIGN STUDIO Fall 2012/13 Final Booklet

Daan Zandbelt Roberto Rocco

Rotterdam Den Haag - An Emerging Urban Region Network - EMU TU Delft Fall 2012  

Studio booklet contains three group strategies on the metropolitan area of Rotterdam and The Hague, two Dutch cities. The cities and the man...

Read more
Read more
Similar to
Popular now
Just for you