NORTH CAROLINA URBAN HORTICULTURE CENTER
CREATED BY JENNY WILLIAMS
INTENT An idea is the starting point in any design. It begins as a thought, is then further developed into a concept, and ends as a physically built object. In that sense, an idea is a very powerful thing. But the idea does not appear magically by itself; it originates from another source. The source varies; a picture, an event, a memory, or even a word may act as sources to a designer’s idea. Although the original idea is key, if it is not developed well enough then the design will be weak. The process is not instant and will take much time and effort to work out every possible angle an idea may take. Research is necessary to begin this next step in the design process.
This book is dedicated to the beginnings of a design for an Urban Horticulture Center in Raleigh, NC. In the ﬁrst few pages a quote is introduced; the quote is the idea in this design and is used in the starting phase of the design process. The quote’s content was carefully analyzed in order to continue with the idea development. Research was then conducted for the building’s future site and surroundings, and for the building program. By producing this book, all the initial research and studies have been documented in one place, providing an important reference during the design phase. The original concept will remain pure in this book and will help to refocus if the idea begins to stray later on in the process.
TABLE OF CONTENTS URBAN HORTICULTURE CENTER
QUOTE QUOTE COMMENTARY QUOTE PRECEDENTS HEARST TOWER NEUES MUSEUM GLASGOW SCHOOL OF ART
SITE STATEMENT AERIAL PHOTOS ZONING [CURRENT + FUTURE] GRAIN CONTEXT VICINITY CIRCULATION SITE BOUNDARIES NATURAL SYSTEMS SITE PHOTOS SITE ANALYSIS
PROGRAM GOALS + ASPIRATIONS REQUIREMENTS SPATIAL RELATIONSHIPS MASSING STUDIES PROGRAM PRECEDENTS ACROS FUKUOKA HIGH LINE PARK BOTANICAL GARDEN PAVILION CODE HEIGHT FIRE RESISTANCE RATING EXIT TRAVEL DISTANCE OCCUPANT LOAD + NUMBER OF EXITS PLUMBING
QUOTE “We have the opportunity of forming our new city world into an imageable landscape: visible, coherent, and clear. It will require a new attitude on the part of the city dweller, and a physical reshaping of his domain into forms which entrance the eye, which organize themselves from level to level in time and space, which can stand as symbols for urban life. Most objects which we are accustomed to call beautiful, such as a painting or a tree, are single-purpose things, in which, through long development of the impress of one will, there is an intimate, visible linkage from ﬁne detail to total structure. A city is a multi-purpose, shifting organization, a tent for many functions, raised by many hands and with relative speed. Complete specialization, ﬁnal meshing, is improbable and undesireable. The form must be somewhat noncommittal, plastic to the purposes and perceptions of its citizens. Yet there are fundamental functions of which the city forms may be expressive: circulation, major land-uses, key focal points. The common hopes and pressures, the sense of community may be made ﬂesh. Above all, if the environment is visibly organized and sharply identiﬁed, then the citizen can inform it with his own meanings and connections. Then it will become a true place, remarkable and unmistakable... As an artiﬁcial world, the city should be so in the best sense: made by art, shaped for human purposes. It is our ancient habit to adjust to our environment, to discriminate and organize perceptually whatever is present to our senses. Survival and dominance based themselves on this sensuous adaptability, yet now we may go on to a new phase of interaction. On home grounds, we may begin to adapt the environment itself to the perceptual pattern and symbolic process of the human being... To heighten the imageability of the urban environment is to facilitate its visual identiﬁcation and structuring. The elements isolated above - the paths, edges, landmarks, nodes and regions - are the building blocks in the process of making ﬁrm, differentiated structures at the urban scale...”
QUOTE COMMENTARY Kevin Lynch’s quote discusses the city as a whole; about how it is created and what is responsible for its form and function. A city is composed of buildings, roads, open areas, and most importantly, people. The citizens are responsible for the overall environment and characteristics of the city. The city must have a “noncommittal” form; it must be able to be molded by the purposes and perceptions of the dwellers within. Lynch says, “A city is a multi-purpose, shifting organization, a tent for many functions, raised by many hands”. Not only do the citizens determine the use of the city, but they also have the choice to change the use at a later date. Without organization a city would not exist. A network of roads create a grid, organic or orthogonal, which in turn determines the placement of the buildings, and this makes up the unique city fabric. The “major land-uses” and “key focal points” give the citizen opportunity to interpret their own meanings of how to circulate through their city. In other words, landmarks are vital to how citizens travel; they are recognizable and give a feeling of familiarity. The city fabric can easily be interpreted as a whole, but actually it is made up of details that inform the whole. Lynch gives the example of a painting where he states, “there is an intimate, visible linkage from ﬁne detail to total structure”. Something as miniscule as using a tan colored brick for a building can inform the neighborhood that the color is required; this creates a region within the city of buildings with a speciﬁc material. Though Lynch speaks of a city, this quote may be interpreted toward individual buildings. Every building design is created for a client (the citizen) for their intended purpose, but some buildings are designed with the idea that the building will become something else in the future. Renovations make a habit of using structures from the past and transforming them into a building with a different function. And like a city, a building cannot function without a clear circulation path for its citizens; halls, stairwells, and elevators serve as the roads, and individual rooms may be interpreted as regions of the larger city. Within every building there are multiple materials, joints, ﬁxtures etc. Most designers will conﬁrm that the details are what make or break a design. The “big idea” can be as strong as a concept, but if the details cannot be integrated successfully, then the building will not be accepted as good design.
Lynch, Kevin. The Image of the City. Cambridge, Mass.: Technology, 1960. 91-95. Print.
FOSTER + PARTNERS
DAVID CHIPPERFIELD ARCHITECTS
GLASGOW SCHOOL OF ART
CHARLES RENNIE MACKINTOSH
HEARST TOWER NEW YORK, NY 2006 FOSTER + PARTNERS “The form must be somewhat noncommittal, plastic to the purposes and perceptions of its citizens... made by art, shaped for human purposes.”
The Hearst Tower “revives a dream from the 1920s”. William Randolph Hearst had invisioned his building would serve as the base of a future landmark in New York City, but no design was advanced until Foster and Partners seventy years later. The 42-story tower is composed of glass, giving the impression of the tower ﬂoating above the 6-story base as well as composing a “dialogue between old and new”.
The building itself contains almost one million square feet of available space. Several publication and communication companies are housed within the tower, including Cosmopolitan, Esquire, Marie Claire, Harper’s Bazaar, Good Housekeeping, and Seventeen magazines. The Hearst Tower is designed to accomodate ofﬁces and allows the individual companies to shape their own space instead of designating the area speciﬁcally for them. Once the individual companies are not in need of the space, a new company will take its place; this demonstrates the Hearst Tower’s ﬂexiblity in terms of its use.
NEUES MUSEUM BERLIN, GERMANY 2009 DAVID CHIPPERFIELD ARCHITECTS “... there are fundamental functions of which the city forms may be expressive: circulation, major land-uses, key focal points... the environment is visibly organized and sharply identiﬁed”
The Neues Museum is one of many museums located on Berlin’s Museum Island. It was originally designed by Friedrich August Stueler and built in 1859, but left in ruins due to the bombing of Berlin during World War II. The international competition for the renovation was won in 1997 by David Chipperﬁeld with the collaboration of Julian Harrap.
The museum uses exhibits to visually organize its space and to allow people to circulate the building in a clear and efﬁcient manner. Exhibition spaces of larger sizes act as regions to accomodate more people and also house the more popular artifacts. The main vertical circulation is located in the center of the building and also used as a landmark or meeting point for groups to gather.
LANDMARK REGION 7
GLASGOW SCHOOL OF ART GLASGOW, SCOTLAND 1909 CHARLES RENNIE MACKINTOSH “Most objects which we are accustomed to call beautiful... are single purpose things... there is an intimate, visible linkage from ﬁne detail to total structure.”
The Glasgow School of Art commission began in 1897 and construction was complete in 1909.The school contains many departments including Fine Art Photography, Painting and Printmaking, Sculpture and Environmental Art, Product Design, Textiles, Silversmithing and Jewellery, Interior Design, Visual Communication, and Architecture.
The overall massing of the building ďŹ ts into the context of its environment (the city of Glasgow), but it is the details that makes it great architecture. Detailing, like the window cleaning guards and railings, display the thoughtful craft of the project while at the same time giving the appearance of belonging to the building. Each set of windows have been giving speciďŹ c detailing of their own to help identify the hierarchy of the interior spaces from the exterior elevations.
IMAGE: The International Highrish Award 2008. Chuck Choi. 2008. September 21, 2011 <http://www.international-highrise-award.com/en/presse081.html>.
IMAGE: Hearst Building. Best Pictures Of. September 21, 2011 <http://en.bestpicturesof.com/hearst%20building>.
SECTION: Hearst Tower - KTS N. Foster. My Opera. September 21, 2011 <http://my.opera.com/POM032002/albums/showpic.dml?album=200530&picture=3003754>.
IMAGE: Hearst Tower Won the 2008 International Highrise Award. Al Hilal. November 27, 2008. Architecture List. September 21, 2011 <http://www.architecturelist.com/2008/11/27/ hearst-tower-won-the-2008-international-highrise-award/>.
IMAGE: Neues Museum - New Museum in Berlin. Achim Kleuker. 2009. About.com. September 23, 2011 <http://gogermany.about.com/od/picturesofgermany/ig/Museum-Island-Berlin-Photos/ Neues-Museum-Berlin-.htm>.
IMAGE: Wikimedia. September 22, 2011 <http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/0c/Neues_Museum_Berlin_EP1.JPG>.
IMAGE: Seeman, E.A. The Neues Museum Berlin. Germany: 2009.
IMAGE: The Neues Museum. Asya. August 2009. Wayfaring Travel Guide. September 22, 2011 <http://www.wayfaring.info/2011/08/09/the-neues-museum/>.
IMAGE: Interview: Directors Matthias Wemhoff and Friederike Seyfried on the Historic Re-opening of Berlinâ€™s Neues Museum. MalcomJ. December 17, 2009. Heritage Key. September 22, 2011 <http://heritage-key.com/world/interview-directors-matthias-wemhoff-and-friederike-seyfriedhistoric-re-opening-berlin%E2%80%99s-neue>.
IMAGE by Author
IMAGE: Glasgow School of Art. jrah60. December 4, 2009. The Scottish War Memorials Project. September 21, 2011 <http://warmemscot.s4.bizhat.com/warmemscot-ftopic5932.html>.
IMAGE: Macaulay, James. Glasgow School of Art. London: Phaidon, 1993.
STATEMENT AERIAL PHOTOS ZONING [CURRENT + FUTURE] GRAIN CONTEXT VICINITY CIRCULATION SITE BOUNDARIES NATURAL SYSTEMS SITE PHOTOS SITE ANALYSIS
SITE - DORTHEA DIX GROUNDS RALEIGH, NC Dorthea Dix Hospital contains a section of land located on the edge of the city’s downtown area. This adjacency allows the Urban Horticulture Center to actually be “urban” without being in the chaos of vechicular and pedestrian trafﬁc of the city. The site is close to several neighborhoods, allowing easy access to the Center by foot, bike, or car. A tree barrier exists, which will help to reduce the noise pollution of the adjacent major road, Western Blvd, but is penetrable for pedestrians. Although the site is not in the downtown section there is a strong visible connection to the skyline, giving a feeling of an urban environment while occupying a suburban setting. By being located on the same grounds as Dorthea Dix Hosptial, the site contains history. The design of the Urban Horticulture Center cannot begin without looking towards the past and the importance of the Hospital in earlier years.
AERIAL RALEIGH, NC
Future Zoning is anticipated to be mostly unchanged from current zoning, with exception of the downtown district as well as the transitional zone to the southwest of the downtown district. The transitional zone [the Urban Horticulture Center site] changes to a public greenspace zone.
GRAIN RALEIGH, NC
The Grain [or Figure Ground] of Raleigh, NC shows a clear division of the denser downtown area and its surroundings, with Western Blvd - the major road - acting as the line between.
CONTEXT RALEIGH, NC
The site Context shows how the site is surrounded by several different regions of the city. The adjacency to the residential area allows easy access to the Urban Horticulture Center by the community and the proximity of the University enchances the learning aspect of the Center.
The Vicinity diagram locates the site for the Urban Horticulture Center between two major sections, Downtown and Education. The Downtown section gives access to many resources like museums, civic buildings, and local landmarks. The Education section includes North Carolina State University and local schools, which may take advantage of the Center by providing ﬁeld trips.
CIRCULATION RALEIGH, NC
MAJOR ROADS ROADS BIKE PATHS
The Circulation diagram illustrates an existing greenway path, which runs along the edge of the site for the Urban Horticulture Center. This, along with the abundance of parking and bus routes adjacent to the site, will encourage the community to visit the Center often and without the stress of transportation methods.
SITE BOUNDARIES RALEIGH, NC SETBACK: SETBACK:
HEIGHT LIMIT: HEIGHT LIMIT:
HEIGHT LIMIT: 40 feet at setback 1 foot increase for every 1 foot away from setback
SETBACK: 30 foot front yard 20 foot rear yard 5 foot side yard
NATURAL SYSTEMS - PSYCHOMETRIC CHART RALEIGH, NC
NATURAL SYSTEMS - SUN/SHADOW CHART RALEIGH, NC
WARM/HOT > 70 DEGREES [shade needed] 360 hours exposed 360 hours shaded
COOL/COLD < 68 DEGREES [sun needed] 1572 hours exposed 1570 hours shaded
COMFORT > 68 DEGREES [shade helps] 580 hours exposed 580 hours shaded
NATURAL SYSTEMS - WIND RALEIGH, NC
The Wind chart shows that the South-West experiences the most prevailing winds during the year with 21+ hours at 20 km/hr. The strongest wind comes from both the South-West and North-East at 30 km/hr.
SITE ANALYSIS DIAGRAM RALEIGH, NC
ACCESS TO MAJOR ROAD [WESTERN BLVD]
BOYLAN HEIGHTS + CITY OF RALEIGH [RESIDENTIAL NEIGHBORHOOD] [DOWNTOWN]
ACCESS TO UNIVERSITY [NC STATE CENTENNIAL CAMPUS]
DORTHEA DIX HOSPITAL [POTENTIAL PARKING]
SITE ANALYSIS RALEIGH, NC
The Dorthea Dix Hospital site is clearly deﬁned by the surrounding vegetation. A tree barrier blocks the noise from trafﬁc on Western Blvd and a second barrier provides privacy for the future Urban Horticulture Center. Although the trees do not allow access to the center of the site by car, pedestrians can easily penetrate the vegetation. This aspect is a great opportunity to introduce walking onto the site from surrounding neighborhoods, or paths within the site leading to special program elements.
A challenge to consider is the site’s topography. A steep slope occurs at the southern end leading towards the small stream and the tree barrier blocking Western Blvd. This could provide a water run-off issue with the building.
IMAGE: Google Earth.
DIAGRAM: Douglas Crawford. Maps. The Official City of Raleigh Portal. 2011. Web. 15 Oct. 2011.
DIAGRAM: Stephanie Bauman. Maps. The Official City of Raleigh Portal. 2011. Web. 15 Oct. 2011.
DIAGRAM: James Geiger and Ana Milliones.
DIAGRAM: Author and Maggie Kirsch.
DIAGRAM: Echo Dowling and Devanne Pena.
DIAGRAM: Eileen McDonough and Wendy.
DIAGRAM: David Card, Alison Cave and Raymond Ryland.
GRAPH: Jordan Eure, Zack Cullinan, Rebecca Morris, and Laura Reed
PHOTO: Erika Jolleys and Rocio Lluch
DIAGRAM by Author
GOALS + ASPIRATIONS REQUIREMENTS SPATIAL RELATIONSHIPS MASSING STUDIES
GOALS + ASPIRATIONS URBAN HORTICULTURE CENTER As the city grows, the skill of gardening lessens. An Urban Horticulture Center has the ability to educated the public on how to grow their own plants in an urban setting. The Urban Horticulture Center will be a place for the local community to socialize, relax, and learn about the ďŹ eld of horticulture as well as gardening in an urban environment. A learning environment is encouraged for all ages; ďŹ eld trips by local schools will be welcomed and accomodated, and the community is given oppotunities to practice what they learn with plots of land for rent and a kitchen to cook with what they grow. Different gardens will also be used as demonstration, learning tools, and to improve the asthetic quality of the site.
- smooth transition from urban to nature - community driven environment - strong focus on teaching and learning - take advantage of local resources [universities, museums, etc.]
URBAN HORTICULTURE CENTER - PROGRAM RALEIGH, NC LOBBY INFORMATION SEATING AREA GROUP GATHERING
1300 square feet 1500 square feet 1500 square feet
PERMANENT EXHIBIT TEMPORARY EXHIBIT - DEMONSTRATION OF NEW TECHNOLOGIES - GARDENING TIPS DEPENDING ON THE SEASON
1500 square feet 1800 square feet
CONFERENCE CLASSROOM (x4) RESEARCH LABS (x2) AUDITORIUM - 50 SEATS + SMALL STAGE - RECEPTION SPACE LIBRARY - READING AREA - COMPUTER LAB
1400 square feet 1400 square feet (each) 1800 square feet (each) 5000 square feet
HORTICULTURE SHOP - VISITORS MAY PURCHASE BOOKS, GARDENING TOOLS, PLANT SEEDS, ETC. RENTAL OFFICE - VISITORS MAY RENT GARDENING EQUIPMENT FOR NO CHARGE
1800 square feet
SEATING AREA KITCHEN (FOR CAFE) KITCHEN (FOR COMMUNITY) - VISITORS MAY PREPARE FOOD WITH VEGETABLES/ HERBS GROWN AT THE CENTER
1800 square feet 1800 square feet 1000 square feet
CENTER DIRECTOR CENTER STAFF (x2) CENTER OPEN OFFICE NATURE CONSERVANCY DIRECTOR NATURE CONSERVANCY STAFF (x6) NATURE CONSERVANCY OPEN OFFICES BREAK ROOM
1300 square feet 1200 square feet (each) 1500 square feet 1250 square feet 1125 square feet (each) 1500 square feet 1500 square feet
1600 square feet
1800 square feet
RESTROOMS LOCKER ROOMS + SHOWERS - FOR STAFF - FOR VISITORS STORAGE - FOR CHEMICALS - FOR SUPPLIES MECHANICAL CIRCULATION [40% of net total building] 8480 square feet
------------------------------29680 gross total square feet
LEARNING - SEVERAL GARDENING PLOTS DEDICATED TO TEACH THE COMMUNITY ABOUT NATIVE PLANTS AND SUSTAINABLE METHODS COMMUNITY PLOTS - VISITORS RENT PLOTS OF LAND TO GROW THEIR OWN PLANTS
WALKWAY THROUGH GARDENS - ILLUSTRATES THE TRANSITION FROM THE URBAN ENVIRONMENT TO NATURE
LIVING WALL VERTICAL GARDENING - ELEVATION TECHNIQUE USING STACKED HORIZONTAL PLANTERS TO SHADE THE BUILDING
GALLERY AUDITORIUM CLASSROOMS
RETAIL - SHOP COMMUNITY KITCHEN GARDENS LIVING WALL
MASSING STUDY 1 RALEIGH, NC
SOCIAL LEARN SUPPORT
Massing Study 1 separates the three distinctive spaces into different buildings and uses circulation bridges to connect them. This creates outdoor roof gardens and a unique circulation.
MASSING STUDY 2 RALEIGH, NC
SOCIAL LEARN SUPPORT GARDEN
Massing Study 2 creates a U-shaped scheme, providing smaller gardening plots for demonstration in the learning section of the program, while still allowing space for the community gardens.
MASSING STUDY 3 RALEIGH, NC
SOCIAL LEARN SUPPORT
Massing Study 3 uses the social spaces as a spine for the building, with the learning spaces branching off towards the south. By having the extrusions on the south side, green roofs and courtyard gardens will be successful.
EMILIO AMBASZ & ASSOCIATES INC.
HIGH LINE PARK
JAMES CORNER FIELD OPERATIONS DILLER SCOFIDIO + RENFRO
BOTANICAL GARDEN PAVILION
BUILDINGSTUDIO TULANE CITY CENTER
ACROS FUKUOKA PREFECTURAL INTERNATIONAL HALL FUKUOKA, JAPAN 1994 EMILIO AMBASZ & ASSOCIATES, INC.
Before the ACROS Fukuoka Prefectural International Hall was constructed, the site was considered the last remaining green space in the city’s center. In order to give Fukuoka, Japan their new goverment ofﬁce building and maintain their park, Emilio Ambasz & Associates designed a multi-use building underneath fourteen onestory terraces.
The terraces contain a variety of gardens for meditation and escape from the chaos of the city while providing grand views of the bay of Fukuoka and the surrounding mountains. A series of reflecting pools on the terraces are connected by upwardly spraying jets of water; this is an attempt to mask the noise of the city. The stepping terraces also allow diffused light to enter the building’s central atrium.
In an urban environment, open space for gardens are rare. The Urban Horticulture Center has the opportunity to demonstrate the correct way to develop a roof garden in an urban environment.
Using terraces allows for more space for planting and also divides possible green space for different gardens. Each terrace may represent different gardening spaces; one for teaching urban gardening methods, one for the community to rent their own plots of “land”, and one for relaxation or socialization.
HIGH LINE PARK NEW YORK, NEW YORK 2008-2011 JAMES CORNER FIELD OPERATIONS ; DILLER SCOFIDIO + RENFRO
3 The High Line’s original purpose in the 1930s was to lift dangerous freight trains off Manhattan’s streets. Today it is a mile-and-a-half-long elevated park owned by the City of New York. With the collaboration of landscape architects James Corner Field Operations and architects Diller Scoﬁdio + Refro, the landscape has been integrated by combining meandering concrete pathways with naturalistic plantings. The amount of concrete versus plant also creates different regions along the park; the more built the walkway, the more socialization is encouraged among the public and the more plant life, the more meditation and relaxation emotions are emphasised.
By using the High Line’s method of man-made materials interwoven with nature the Urban Horticulture Center can easily create a retreat from the urban environment. A transition from built to nature will be implemented with strategically placed native plants slowly consuming the constructed path.
BOTANICAL GARDEN PAVILION NEW ORLEANS, LOUISIANA 2008 BUILDINGSTUDIO ; TULANE CITY CENTER
The Botanical Garden Pavilion was commissioned by the City of New Orleans Botanical Garden as a demonstration to show how technologies, such as grey water use, rainwater harvesting and solar power, might work for the average homeowner. The project itself consists of a 12 foot cube, which harvests water from the roof and channels it through the structure’s interior. The water is then “cleansed” by native water plants in a sandy-medium trough and then collected in the artiﬁcial wetlands, which also acts as a holding pool for the vertical garden wall.
The living wall houses native plants and extends out from the pavilion’s cube. Vegetation is grown in horizontal planting trays, creating a unique textured wall, which could be used as a shading device for the east and west walls of the Urban Horticulture Center. The concept of an exhibit of sustainable technologies would greatly beneﬁt the center by teaching the community new green methods.
Stainless steel Soy-based wood sealant Perforated aluminum
Heart pine Perforated aluminum Water receptacle Borate treated lumber
Cleansing Fly ash Steel
On - site soil
PROGRAM PRECEDENT SOURCES
IMAGE: “ACROS Fukuoka Prefectural International Hall”. Architecture News Plus; Architecture & Design Resource. October 24, 2011 <http://www.architecturenewsplus.com/projects/706>.
IMAGE: “High Line Park Photos”. 2011. High Line. October 24, 2011 <http://www.thehighline.org/galleries/images/high-line-park-photos>.
IMAGE: “Wave Hill, the High Line and Wagner Park All in One Day in October”. Michael B. Gordon. October 28, 2010. The Gardener’s Eye. October 24, 2011 <http://thegardenerseye.blogspot.com/2010_10_01_archive.html>.
IMAGE: “Maps”. 2011. High Line. October 24, 2011 <http://www.thehighline.org/about/maps>.
IMAGE: “Botanical Garden Pavilion”. BuildingStudio. 2011. BuildingStudio; Architecture/Art/Craft/Thinking. October 24, 2011 <http://www.buildingstudio.net/>.
IMAGE: Tulane City Center. October 30, 2011 <http://www.tulanecitycenter.org/programs/projects/ﬁles/EcoPavilion%20(for%20web).pdf>.
HEIGHT FIRE RESISTANCE RATING EXIT ACCESS TRAVEL DISTANCE OCCUPANT LOAD + NUMBER OF EXITS PLUMBING
FIRE RESISTANCE RATING
EXIT ACCESS TRAVEL DISTANCE
OCCUPANT LOAD + NUMBER OF EXITS
CHART: North Carolina State Building Code. United States: 2009.
CHART: North Carolina State Plumbing Code. United States: 2009.