Sensory Hierarchies: An Investigation of Olfactory Architecture

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Sensory Hierarchies: An Investigation of Olfactory Architecture

Jenna Ritz


special thanks to Lawrence Marks, PhD Mandi Pretorius, SACAP Emily Abruzzo, AIA, LEED AP


INTRODUCTION Sensory Hierarchies A Sterile & Monotonous Olfactory Landscape Scentscapes: the Invisible Fragrant Landscape

SCENTSCAPES IN DESIGN Why Consider Scentscapes? Important Design Elements Visualizing & Spatializing Scentscapes Conclusion: Olfactory Architecture

APPENDIX Image References Bibliography



Smell is a potent wizard that transports us across thousands of miles and all of the years we have lived. -Helen Keller


Sensory Hierarchies The human-environment relationship has transformed over time to one that is divided between indoor and outdoor spaces. In order to understand these settings, people rely on their senses of sight, touch, sound, smell, and taste (Lackner & Dizio). These senses are complementary to one another and develop cross-modal associations, which enable people to process their surroundings (Newell). The cross-modal interplay of the senses is necessary to process multiple sensory stimuli in the environment simultaneously, thus creating multisensory dependence for people to perceive their surroundings. Despite this interdependence, the practice of architecture emphasizes visual-based designs (Blesser & Salter). This establishes a conventional hierarchy in Western architectural practice that regards sight as the primary sense in the built environment. This methodology results in sensory deprived environments, which can lead to detrimental effects on human health and wellness (Renner + Rosenzweig). One such example is the direct correlation between the quality of sensory environments and the level of cognitive development in the early stages of life. For example, impoverished sensory environments are shown to directly impact cognitive associations and learning abilities as infants and children develop (Johnson et al; Lickliter; Grubb + Thompson). These monotonous sensory environments are prevalent in the methodology of Western architectural practice, and systemically deprive the public of stimuli rich interior environments that engage all of the senses and the associated health and wellness benefits. This phenomenon also creates sensory inequity in the built environment, making the world a difficult place to navigate or completely


SMELL SIGHT TASTE

TOUCH

HEARING TOUCH

SMELL

SIGHT

HEARING

TASTE

Re-evaluating Sensory Hierarchies in Western Architectural Practice

Odor (noun): a quality of something that stimulates the olfactory system Odorant (noun): an odorous substance; the object or substances that emits an odor Odorous (adjective): having an odor Olfaction (noun): the sense of smell; the act or process of smelling

inaccessible to those with sensory impairments. Correcting this inequity would improve the independence of the population who suffer from visual-impairments, deafness, and a range of other conditions. This study challenges the conventional sensory hierarchy in architecture by analyzing smell, one of the underrepresented senses, within the context of spatial design. Incorporating the olfactory experience into architectural design reduces sensory monotony, triggers environmental awareness, and creates a diverse landscape that stimulates the senses.


A Sterile and Monotonous Olfactory Landscape Designing a landscape for the experience of scent is nonexistent in the practice of architecture. Designing a landscape for the presence and experience of scent is nonexistent in the practice of architecture. This invisible terrain, only perceptible by our olfactory system, has been completely eradicated by designers in our Western/modern built environment. This is a residual effect of the influence of the 19th century miasmatic theory that altered the urban landscape. Miasma is the belief that inhaling offensively odorous air would spread disease and cause death (Halliday). In 1858, London experienced an unprecedented stench emanating from the polluted Thames River. Dubbed by The Times as ‘The Great Stink,’ the offensive smell prompted the development of sanitary urban infrastructure which took form as a network of underground sewer systems. Thus, the odorant was securely rerouted in subterranean tunnels so as to eliminate noxious odors. New York City had a similar stance on the need to control odors, a position that resulted in assembling the Metropolitan Board of Health in 1866. The Board created a ‘Stench Map’ that identified the source of foul odors, typically industrial factories, and developed

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Above: Satirical Cartoon of the Thames River, 1858, Punch Magazine

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Left: London Sewer Infrastructure Construction led by J. Bazalgette, 1862


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Map Showing Location of Odor Producing Industries of New York and Brooklyn, circa 1870

policies to relocate the olfactory offenders. This resulted in many factories moving to Brooklyn, where the policies were more lenient, and therefore influenced the industrial landscape that is intrinsic to Brooklyn’s character and charm today. In these historic examples the presence of offensive odors manifested in policies to remove odorants and thereby systematically altered the urban landscape and infrastructure. Although the concept of miasma was disproved, policies and codes to this day limit odorants in the built environment. There are several regulatory entities that have policies in place that consider odor as an air quality or air pollution issue that needs to be mitigated or eradicated (the US Environmental Protection Agency, the US Department of Labor via OSHA, the NYC Environmental Agency). However, this approach creates sterile olfactory environments (Lipps) because it stifles all odor stimuli and the resulting odor sensations, both offensive and desirable. Time has trained us to develop a monotonous olfactory environment. What if designers considered how pleasant odorants could play a role in the design of space?


Scentscapes: the Invisible Fragrant Landscape Breathing is necessary for human life—without the intake of oxygen we cannot survive. Breathing is necessary for human life—without the intake of oxygen we cannot survive. Thus, breathing is an innate and unconscious act that is omnipresent in daily life. Beyond supplying oxygen to the body’s cells, the respiratory system plays an integral role in the way people process information about their immediate environment. The odorants that permeate the air, or the lack thereof, provide valuable information about the local surroundings. Our olfactory sensory nerves are triggered by odor stimuli as we inhale, and the saturated air passes over the sensory cells as it makes its way through the nasal cavity [see figure on page 14]. The experience of breathing is inextricably tied to the concurrent olfactory experience of smelling. Therefore breathing becomes a sensory act, making olfaction an intrinsic part of our daily lives. The relationship between breathing and smelling establishes olfactory processing as a constant in the human experience of their surroundings. Therefore, an invisible, yet highly perceptible, olfactory landscape influences the physical built and natural environments people occupy. The simultaneous combination of these two realms is defined in this study as a SCENTSCAPE.


Even though spatial experience is informed by respiratory olfaction, and acknowledging that people spend 90 percent of their time indoors (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency), the design and consideration of Scentscapes is still largely omitted from architecture. However, the decision to include odorants that enhance public health is completely under the control of designers, who therefore take on responsibility for altering the olfactory experience within their projects. If design techniques were developed to harness olfactory landscapes within the built environment, the designers could positively impact the physiological and psychological well-being of the public.

Breathing is a sensory act -Andrea Lipps



Smells coat us, swirl around us, enter our bodies, emanate from us. We live in a constant wash of them. -Diane Ackerman


Why Consider Scentscapes? Implementing Scentscapes in architecture has immense potential to improve occupant health.

LIMBIC SYSTEM OLFACTORY BULB SENSORY CELLS

When people’s sense of smell is engaged, their innate response is both physiological and psychological. Thus, the mere presence of an odor has the power to affect emotion, behavior, and physical comfort. These are elements which architects value in regards to occupant satisfaction, which in turn provides one measure of a project’s success.

MUCOUS MEMBRANE NASAL CAVITY

ODOR

A) The Human Olfactory System

Odors provide information about the surrounding environment:

Odors are associated with memory and emotion:

The olfactory system is responsible for “providing information on chemicals in the environment” (Yang + Pinto). The ability to perceive and process the chemical variations of different odorants has enabled people to react to their surroundings forever. In this regard, olfaction plays a central role in identifying sources of food and water, the presence of other people or animals, and environmental dangers. Some reactions to the odorant are conscious responses, such as the love or disdain for the smell of certain foods. Other reactions occur subconsciously, such as the correlation between pheromones and sexual arousal (Herz) that dictates interpersonal behavior (Yang + Pinto). In either case, conscious or subconscious, people rely on odors to provide information about their immediate surroundings.

The biological structure and process of the olfactory system differentiates olfaction from its counterparts in other sensory modalities, in which neural information passes through the thalamus and onward to the cerebral cortex (Sullivan et al). In olfactory processing, the “odor information is relayed directly to the limbic system, a brain region typically associated with memory and emotional processes. This neural organization provides olfaction with the unique and potent power to influence mood, acquisition of new information, and use of information in many different contexts including social interactions” (Sullivan et al). Therefore, there is the opportunity in spatial design to engage and develop neural odor-emotional memories created through olfactory neural processing.


BRAINWAVES AND THEIR ASSOCIATED FUNCTIONS

DELTA

Non-rapid eye movement sleep (dreamless sleep)

THETA

Drowsiness, day dreaming, creative thinking, short-term memory processing

ODORANT INHALATION

EEG ANALYSIS

PERCEPTIBLE BRAIN WAVE ALTERATIONS

ALPHA

Cognitive performance, mental coordination, calmness, alertness, learning

BETA

Alertness, problem solving & decision making, focused mental activity, engagement

GAMMA B) Brainwaves and their Functions Source: Sowndhararajan + Kim (2016)

Working-memory matching, expanded consciousness, hypnotic spiritual states

Odors trigger active or resting brain states: The practice of aromatherapy has a rich history of treating “various psychological and physical disorders such as headaches, pain, insomnia, stress-induced anxiety, depression and digestive problems” (Sowndhararajan + Kim). However, it wasn’t until more recently that new studies confirmed the neural implications of aromatherapy.

waves. These distinct brain waves, measured by neuronal electrical activity frequencies and their location in the brain, are measures of active and resting brain states. These brain wave frequencies are known as Delta, Theta, Alpha , Beta, and Gamma, and are correlated to various brain state functions [see figure above].

Recent studies substantiate that olfactory stimulation triggers psychophysiological responses through changes in brain activity (Sowndhararajan + Kim; Diego et al). The assessment of brain functionality through olfactory testing indicates that certain odors produce specific temporal patterns of neural activity in various spatially-distributed ensembles of neurons, and these spatial-temporal patterns of neural activity reveal themselves in different brain

Therefore, neural measures provide supporting evidence that odors have a direct effect on our mental alertness or drowsiness. Thus, by integrating scent in interior built environments, designers can positively influence the occupants’ mental work capacity, levels of stress, and memory recall abilities.


Designing Scentscapes: Elements to Consider

ODOR PRISM HANS HENNING 1915-1916

Creating sensory rich environments through olfaction design is unprecedented in architecture.

FLOWERY

FRUITY

PUTRID

Creating sensory rich environments through olfaction design is unprecedented in architecture. There are many elements to consider when implementing Scentscape design into the built environment. Understanding the odorant properties, human responses to the odorant qualities, and the spatial characteristics of the built environment will determine the success of the olfactory experience within the Scentscape.

SPICY

RESINOUS BURNT

C) Henning’s Odor Prism, 1915-16

Odor Classification & Types The objective classification of odors is notoriously difficult, as indicated by the numerous and contradictory systems proposed throughout history. There is no single, comprehensive standard to classify that is universally accepted. This deficiency in classification standards for olfaction is in contrast to its sensory counterparts, such as taste (salty, sweet, etc.) or sound (frequency, pitch, etc). To this day “there is a lack of means to compare and describe odors accurately or estimate their degree of similarity with precision” (Kaeppler + Mueller). The subjective nature of odor interpretation and the lack of a definitive odor classification system, has created a dependency in Western culture to describe odors by the name of the odorant (orange, musk, etc.) This,

in turn, creates a reliance on perception and visual proficiencies to describe the experience of olfaction. Although no one system has yet to accomplish a universal standard that removes the subjective experience, there are examples of odor classifications that industries use to describe odorants. Physiologists and psychologists have published various methods, such as Hendrick Zwaardemaker and his Zwaardemaker smell system that includes nine odor types, or Hans Henning and his Odor Prism, which visualizes the 3-dimensionality of smells into six distinct categories. The fragrance industry has its own classifications for scents, as embodied by the Drom Fragrance Wheel, 1911, and the Michael Edwards Fragrance Wheel, 1983.


D) Michael Edwards Fragrance Wheel, 1983 Source: The Senses: Design Beyond Vision

E) Drom Fragrance Wheel, 1911 Source: The Senses: Design Beyond Vision

Given that offensive odors played an important role in Western architectural history during the Industrial Revolution, it is no surprise that much attention has been paid to the labeling of unpleasant and foul odors. The attempt to classify odors in the built environments can be found in various codes for air quality or air pollution, where the legislation controls odors that are seen as hazardous to public health or comfort. Some of the current methodologies to describe and mitigate odor nuisances are the Odor Emissions Factors (US EPA 1995), FIDOL—Frequency, Intensity, Duration, Offensiveness, and Location (Watts, 1995), Offensiveness Parameters (UK Environmental Agency, 2011), and Hedonic Tone Values (Dravnieks, 1984). However, there is no policy standard for classifying the odors present within

the environment, whether offensive or pleasant. In NYC, a form of odor classification exists for civilians to file Odor Complaints with the city via NYC311. In April 2020, the most common odor complaints were Chemical, Vehicle Idling, Sewer, Restaurant, and Chlorine (NYC Open Data). An alternative classifying method was developed by Kate McLean, who created an Urban Smellscape Aroma Wheel as a basis for her urban sensory maps [see figure on next page]. Unfortunately, the numerous systems have areas that are contradictory to one another. If a universally accepted classification system for odors was able to be developed, greater clarity in communicating and understanding odor qualities would be available and aid in the development and analysis of Scentscapes in architectural practice.


F) Kate McLean, Urban Smellscape Aroma Wheel, 2017 Source: The Senses: Design Beyond Vision


G) Dravniek’s Hedonic Tone Values, 1984


Building Ventilation The role of natural or mechanical ventilation on occupant health has a long history in architectural discourse. Arguments have been made for both sides of the spectrum—ventilation being necessary to remove pollutants and improve indoor air quality, or ventilation as a risk of pulling in toxic air from exterior environments (Seppanen). To this end, air movement and ventilation for interior environments is a highly researched topic in building sciences, culminating in universally accepted mathematical equations and computational modeling tools (Allard + Ghiaus). In order to develop carefully considered building ventilation strategies, engineers analyze the physics of airflow patterns, eddies, wind pressure, buoyancy pressure, mean flow through openings, and more. The resultant strategies are often driven by local environmental factors and vast in number, ranging from stack-pressure-driven natural ventilation to multi-zone HVAC systems. What all the ventilation strategies have in common is a careful consideration of the resultant air quality within the built environment. However, the air quality factors examined in building ventilation focus on temperature and air pollutant control (pollen, CO, VOCs, mold, infectious diseases, etc.). The relationship between odorants and air movement in the built environment is far less considered, if at all, in building ventilation designs. This is counterintuitive, as odor plumes rely on air movement for spatial diffusion. Furthermore, the perceptibility of odors is highly experiential, arguably on par with thermal comfort, yet the relationship of odors and air movement is nonexistent in building ventilation strategies.

Stack-Pressure Natural Ventilation Diagram


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ESSENTIAL Burnt wood

VITAL Citrus

TRANSFORMATIVE Musk

Vital—A Space for Being (2019)

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A Space for Being (2019) Source: Google Design Studio + Reddymade Architecture

Essential—A Space for Being (2019)

Three Dimensional Scale The scale of an enclosed, built space has a direct impact on an occupant’s interaction and engagement with a single odorant or multiple odorants. The 3-dimensional space is volumetric, and the designed scale of that space determines the air volume contained within it. The odorant molecules are dispersed through the contained air through diffusion (Koehl), and these traveling molecules released by the odorant are referred to as odor plumes. The larger the volume of air through which the odor plumes flow, the lower the concentration of the odorant(s) become. Therefore, there is an inverse relationship between the volumetric scale of enclosed space and the odorant’s concentration and perceived intensity. The larger the space, the greater the diffusion rate of odor dispersal thereby lowering the

concentration levels and perceived intensity of the odors. Additionally, a larger scale space could reasonably accommodate several odorants simultaneously without overwhelming the occupant’s experience, depending on the odorants’ intensity and concentration levels. Alternatively, harnessing smaller scale spaces could create a highly influential and memorable olfactory experience for the occupant. Thus, designers have control over olfactory experience within the built environment by fine-tuning the scale of the space with the odorant concentration to dictate the perceived intensity and experience of said odorant.


Visualizing Scentscapes: Precedent Analysis Few architectural precedents exist that actively integrate scent into design. Therefore, the precedent study expands the boundaries of traditional architecture to include all constructed spatial precedents considered within the realm of the built environment. This list of thirty-three built precedents includes exhibitions, pavilions, landscape architecture, and pop-up museums in addition to the few architectural precedents discovered. The projects were then analyzed on a number of factors that address design, odor, and human experience. This thorough investigation reveals various design trends and methods of olfactory experience in spatial design.

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Scent Drop (2017)

Design: Building Typology

Design: Additive or Integrative

Project type and corresponding level of permanence is the initial design analysis to understand building trends in olfactory architecture. Building typology is analyzed on traditional architectural codifications (retail, museum, exhibition, etc.) and permanence is determined by the length the project remained constructed (temporary is less than 1 year, permanent is 1 year and beyond). The study reveals that olfactory exploration in the built environment is typically found in temporary structures, most commonly in the form of art exhibitions and installations. This brings to light the underlying perspective of the designer that olfactory experience is a fleeting one, to be enjoyed briefly in a unique encounter rather than a daily interaction.

The method of how the odorant was integrated into the design was analyzed in terms of an additive or integrative process. Additive odorants are defined as elements added to the spatial construct, such as the release of aerosols. Integrative odorants are defined as elements that are integral to the built structure, such as organic building materials that are simultaneously odorants (i.e. Pine Timber). The manner in which the odorant is incorporated into the spatial design has important implications on how people perceive and interact with the resulting odor. The study exposed that there is an overwhelming trend to design additive odorants into the space, as compared to integrative designs. However, there are instances in which the odorant is both additive and integrative, creating flexibility in design methodology for Scentscapes.


Odor Quantity: Number of Odorants

Odor Quality: Pleasant or Offensive

The number of odorants within the built space has a direct impact on the human olfactory experience. Interacting with a single odorant is a very different sensory experience when compared to exposure to multiple odorants. The number of odorants in each precedent is identified where possible, and this research reveals a commonality to include multiple sources of odors within a single built environment. The next step to this analysis is to research how the various odorants are experienced in these multi-odorant precedents. This would reveal architectural trends on how the co-existence of odorants is designed for a simultaneous or successive experience within the built environment.

The odor quality in this study is derived from Dravnieks’ Hedonic Tones of Odors, which rates odor profiles on a scale of pleasant to unpleasantness (i.e. offensive). It is important to note that hedonic tones is a predominantly Western perspective of odorant analysis. Different cultures have conflicting perceptions, thresholds, and responses to odorants. For this study, the quality of the odorant was determined by the information published on the odorant of the design, and then cross-referenced against Dravnieks’ Hedonic Tones to determine if it is pleasant or offensive. The majority of the precedents implement pleasant odors, although when offensive odors are used they are typically in tandem with pleasant ones.

Human Engagement: Active or Passive Human Response: Brain State The level of human engagement with the odorant is analyzed in terms of active or passive interaction. Active engagement is determined as a physical interaction with the odorant to experience the scent. Passive engagement is defined as not requiring additional physical exertion in order to experience the odor. Innate movements that are unobstructed by the design, such as standing, walking, or sitting, are not additional physical exertion and therefore considered passive engagement. Climbing into a space, placing one’s head inside of an opening, or lifting an object is considered active engagement in this study. This required action thereby makes active engagement simultaneously a tactile experience. The analysis shows that the precedents are evenly divided between active or passive human engagement.

The odorant characteristics in the precedent examples pose difficulties in determining the occupant’s brain state response as alert or relaxed. The analysis is challenged by odorants that have multiple scent notes, such as perfume, or the use of several odorants within a space. To determine the expected response to the odorant(s) in each project, a cross-referencing method is used. Odorants that were tested in EEG brain wave research, which studies specific odorant stimuli, are determined as alert or relaxed responses based on these scientific evidence (Sowndhararajan + Kim; Masago et al; Baumgardner). If the odorant has not been tested via EEG experiments, then research from aromatherapy healthcare practices about psychophysiological reactions to the odorant are implemented (Price + Price; Childers).


Invisible Footprints (2019)

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Project Name A Space for Being

Designer Reddymade & Google

Audiolfactory Creolization Belle Haleine: The Scent of Art Chocolate Room Colour As A Narrative Dessine moi un arc‐en‐ciel Find the Spot for Ohanami Fragrance Garden Fragrance Lab

Nez a Nez (2019)

Year Built 2019

Location Milan Design Week

Gwenn‐Ael Lynn Multiple Artists Edward Ruscha Antonio Cardillo ESMERALDA KOSMATOPOULOS Maki Ueda Alice Recknagel Ireys Campaign + The Future Laboratory

2013 2015 1970 (1995) 2015 2015 2018 1995 ‐ 2014

Garden of Fragrance Hanging Gardens How Wine Became Modern

Simbio Studios + Hortus Apertus Diller Scofidio Renfro

Invisible Footprints Jungle Station

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Project Type Exhibition

Permanent? No

Additive •

Chicago Museum Tinguely (Basel) Venice Biennale (MOCA LA) Illuminum Flagship Store, London Museum Louis Braille Japan House Sao Paulo Brooklyn Botanical Garden Selfridges Store, London

Exhibition Exhibition Exhibition Retail Store Exhibition Exhibition Landscape Arch. Retail Store

No No No No No No Yes No

1965 ‐ 2017 2010‐2011

San Francisco Botanical Garden Hanging Gardens / Olfactory Art Exhibition SFMOMA

Landscape Arch. Exhibition Exhibition

Yes No No

• •

Maki Ueda G8A Architecture & Urban Planning

2019 2018

Kiyosu Haruhi Museum of Art Phuong, Vietnam

Exhibition Co‐working Office

No Yes

• •

• •

Museum of Feelings N5 Olfactory Engine Room

Rockwell Group Chanel

2015 2015

NYC FiDi Chanel Mademoiselle Prive, London

Pop Up Museum Exhibition

No No

• •

Navedenga New Spring Nez à Nez

Ernesto Neto Studio Swine (for COS) Glithero

2010 2017 2019

MOMA NYC Milan Design Week & Miami MUDAC Lausanne

Exhibition Exhibition Exhibition

No No No

• • •

• •

Olfactorium Olfactory Labyrinth 2 & 2.2

SenseLab Maki Ueda

2018 2015 (2019)

Monza, Italy Musee de la Main, Switzerland

Exhibition Exhibition

No No

• •

Olfactory Path Olfactoscape Pollution Pods Scent Drop Scent of Sydney Scentisizer Smoke Cloud Sweet Shoppe Swiss Sound Pavilion The Art of Scent (Dubai) The Art of Scent (Madrid) The Art of Scent (NYC) The Garden of Wonders The Horticultural Spa The Senses: Design Beyond Vision The State of You

Gwenn‐Ael Lynn Maki Ueda Michael Pinsky Harvey & John Cat Jones RadLab Peter de Cupere Campaign + The Future Laboratory Peter Zumthor LOCI Multiple Designers; Cano Estudio Diller Scofidio Renfro Multiple Designers Loop.pH Studio Joseph Aisha Alsowaidi

2002 2019 2018 2017 2017 2009 2015‐2016 2011 2000 2018 2014 2012 2015 2015 2018 2019

Theater 347; Paris Kiyosu City Haruhi Art Museum Multiple Le Grand Musee du Parfum Paris Sydney Festival ? Museu de Arte Moderna Rio de Janeiro London Design Festival World Expo ‐ Hanover The Dubai Mall (Perfumery & Co.) Circulo de Bellas Artes Museum of Art & Design Milan Design Week The Thames River Path, London, England Cooper Hewitt Museum London Design Biennale

Exhibition Exhibition Exhibition Exhibition Exhibition Exhibition Exhibition Exhibition Exhibition Exhibition Exhibition Exhibition Exhibition Pavilion Exhibition Exhibition

No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No

• • • • • •

• • • • • • • • • • • • •

Integrated •

• •

• •

• •


Smoke Cloud (2015-16) Sight •

• • • • • • •

• •

Touch •

Sound •

Smell •

• • • • • • • •

• •

• •

• •

• •

• •

• • •

• •

• • •

• •

• •

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Active

Passive •

• •

• • •

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

• • • •

Alert

Relaxed • • •

• • •

• •

• •

• •

• • • • •

• •

• •

• • •

• •

• •

Taste

The Horticultural Spa (2015)

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• • • • • • • • • • •

• •

• •

• • •

# of Scents 3

Pleasant •

Offensive

Odors/Scents Burnt Wood, Citrus, Musk Fresh Cut Grass, Soil, Chinese Incense and Moth Balls, Chai, Rum, Tar, Leather. Multiple Chocolate Illuminum Fragrances scents unknown 81 vials of cherry blossom fragrance Various plants: Flowers, herbs, etc unknown

11 10+ 1 34 7 1 10+ ?

• • • • ○ • • •

10+ ? 24

• • •

7 10+

• •

5 1

• •

Various plants: Flowers, herbs, etc unknown 7 Wine Scents; 17 Samples of terroir of various regions Green‐Cis 3 Hexenol; Lt Blue‐Eucalyptus oil; Blue‐Rosemary Oil; Red‐Lavandin oil; Orange‐Orange oil; Yellow‐Limonen; Brown‐Pine Needle Oil Various Plants: ferns, etc 5 Glade Scents: Optimistic‐Radiant Berries; Joyful‐Balsam+Fir; Invigorated‐Blue Odyssey; Exhilarated‐Blooming Peony & Cherry; Calm‐Lavender+Vanilla Presumably the N5 fragrance

1 1 6+

• • •

Cloves Floral Each room has a different number of scents

? 4

○ •

14 8 5 25 ? 64 1 10+ 2 11 8 12 10+ 5+ 10+ 7

• • • ○ • • • • • • • • • ○ ○

• •

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• • ○ • •

○ ○

Cedar wood, Olibanum, Patchouli, and Labdanum Turpentine + Linseed Oi; Tobacco; Basil; Gray Water; Pastis; Dirty Laundry; Olive Oil; Sawdust; Laundry Detergent; Lemon; Curry; Human Body; Fish; Kum‐Kum Combined notes = Roses Various Air Pollution Odorants; 'fresh' air unknown ingredients see website for full list of the 64 scents Air Pollution Multiple Larch & Pine Timber perfumes perfumes perfumes Multiple Exhibits Timber building materials & added scents Multiple Exhibits scents unknown


THE ART OF SCENT, NYC DILLER SCOFIDIO + RENFRO 2012

The Art of Scent Museum of Art & Design, NYC Diller Scofidio + Renfro New York City, 2012

H) Diller Scofidio + Renfro

Project Type: Odor Qualities: Odorant(s): Odorant Quantity: Interaction Level: Brain State: Senses Engaged:

Exhibition, Temporary Pleasant, Additive Various perfumes 12 Active Unknown Sight, Smell


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Invisible Architecture - Domus

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he Art of Scent, installation view at the MAD, New York

his mention of a chemical giant such as IFF acts as another nudge, reminding visitors that, in

ddition to the sensory, aesthetic appreciate of scent that Mr. Burr is so keen to encourage, a


FIND THE SPOT FOR OHANAMI MAKI UEDA 2018

Find the Spot for Ohanami Japan House, Sao Paulo Maki Ueda Sao Paulo, 2018

I) Maki Ueda

Project Type: Odor Qualities: Odorant(s): Odorant Quantity: Interaction Level: Brain State: Senses Engaged:

Exhibition, Temporary Pleasant, Additive Vials of cherry blossom fragrance 81 Passive Unknown Sight, Smell


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CHOCOLATE ROOM EDWARD RUSCHA 1970 & 1995

Chocolate Room Venice Biennale & MOCA LA Edward Ruscha Venice, Italy; 1970 Los Angeles, CA; 1995

J) Edward Ruscha

Project Type: Odor Qualities: Odorant(s): Odorant Quantity: Interaction Level: Brain State: Senses Engaged:

Exhibition, Temporary Pleasant, Integrative Chocolate wallpaper 360 sheets; 24” x 36” each Passive Reduced Alertness Sight, Smell


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NEW SPRING STUDIO SWINE (FOR COS) 2017

New Spring Milan Salone del Mobile Studio Swine (for COS) Milan, Italy; 2017 Miami, FL; 2017

K) Studio Swine + COS

Project Type: Odor Qualities: Odorant(s): Odorant Quantity: Interaction Level: Brain State: Senses Engaged:

Exhibition, Temporary Pleasant, Additive & Integrative Floral fragrance 1 Active Unknown Sight, Smell, Touch


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Visualizing Scentscapes: Design Application Designing Scentscapes creates sensory equity spaces in architectural practice. This project questions how the free public library can accommodate the future needs of the diverse local community in Jamaica, New York. Public libraries are seeing a rapid expansion of their activity program—the library is no longer a quiet place for reading, but also a place for community gathering, performances, and more. Therefore, building performance is critical to provide equitable and comfortable spaces for all visitors to participate. The design proposal addresses these needs through a multi-component system that has both aural and olfactory properties. Thus, the sensory system that moves fluidly through the building creates a diverse sensory landscape within the library that can be enjoyed by people with a range of sensory abilities. The system components work in tandem to mitigate the acoustic needs of the range of activities, and develop a unique Scentscape for an olfactory experience to increase productivity, learning, and more based on spatial program.

Sensory Component System The sensory system that characterizes the library is flexible and can be implemented as a wall, ceiling, stairs, or built-in furniture. The components in the system work together to create a unique Scentscape with acoustic performance properties that address the visitors needs as determined by the spatial program. Materials are carefully selected for their acoustic and olfactory properties, and layered together to create a perceptible sensory landscape that appeals to multiple senses equally. The program determines which materials are implemented in the system at that location, and optimizes the occupant’s experience of that activity. The components of the system that can be tuned, individually or concurrently, to create different olfactory experiences are:

ORGANIC ACOUSTIC INSULATION the batting material incorporates natural odorants selected based on the room program and occupant needs to perform specific tasks WOOD BAFFLES the type of timber and its finishing treatment are natural odorants that diffuse scents into the space

For example, classrooms require higher levels of mental alertness to increase learning retention and cognitive development. Therefore, the architectural system components in these areas are characterized by lemon, rosemary, or lavender odorants infused in the acoustic insulation which


Reading Lounge & Atrium Circulation

Scentscape System Diagram—Acoustic and Olfactory Properties

stimulate brain functions to increase alertness (Sowndhararajan + Kim; Harrison + Ruddle; Akpinar). Other spaces that would benefit from odorants that stimulate relaxed brain states, such as the library stack spaces, are characterized by Hinoki Cypress wood baffles. The implementation of these different materials for their olfactory properties are specific to the type of odorant response that would improve the occupant experience within that space for the program activity. Some building materials are common in architectural practice, such as various timbers and their finishing oils, however they are not often implemented for their olfactory properties in Western cultures. New organic materials are emerging in the building industry, such as Organoid products, and provide flexibility in developing integrative Scentscapes in the built environment.


BUILDING PROGRAM

ODORANT(S) IMPLEMENTED

OCCUPANT HEALTH BENEFITS

LOBBY

ROSE

REDUCED STRESS & ANXIETY

COMMUNITY ROOM

NEROLI (ORANGE BLOSSOM)

REDUCED STRESS & ANXIETY

RESTAURANT

NO ADDITIONAL ODORANT

NO DISTRACTION FROM FOOD

CHILDREN’S DISCOVERY ZONE

LAVENDER

CALMS ANXIETY & STRESS

CHILDREN’S LIBRARY

HINOKI CYPRESS

INCREASED RELAXATION

TEEN LIBRARY

HINOKI CYPRESS

INCREASED RELAXATION

ADULT LIBRARY

HINOKI CYPRESS

INCREASED RELAXATION

READING ROOMS

PEPPERMINT

ENHANCED ATTENTION

MEETING ROOMS

GRAPEFRUIT

INCREASED ALERTNESS

CLASSROOMS

LEMON

IMPROVED MEMORY

FILM SCREENING ROOM

CEDARWOOD

CALMS NERVES

COMPUTER LAB

ROSEMARY

INCREASED ALERTNESS

MAKER SPACE

PINE TIMBER

IMPROVED CONCENTRATION

BUSINESS CENTER

LEMONGRASS

INCREASED ALERTNESS

LOUNGE SPACES

BERGAMOT

SOOTHES NERVES & ANXIETY

CIRCULATION SPACES

ROSE

REDUCED STRESS & ANXIETY

LIBRARIAN OFFICES

ORANGE

MENTAL CLARITY

BOOK SORTING FACILITIES

EUCALYPTUS

INCREASED CONCENTRATION

RESTROOMS

TEA TREE OIL

NATURALLY ANTISEPTIC


BERGAMOT

ORANGE ROSE

LAVENDER EUCALYPTUS

NEROLI HINOKI CYPRESS

EUCALYPTUS

FOOD AS PREPARED

First Floor Scentscape

LIBRARIAN OFFICES

LOUNGE LOBBY

COMMUNITY ROOM

CHILDREN’S DISCOVERY ZONE

LOADING DOCK & STAGING

CHILDREN’S LIBRARY BOOK SORTING

RESTAURANT

First Floor Plan with Program


PEPPERMINT ROSE

BERGAMOT TEA TREE

HINOKI CYPRESS

LEMON BERGAMOT

LEMON

ROSEMARY

ROSE ORANGE

HINOKI CYPRESS

PINE TIMBER LEMONGRASS

Second Floor Scentscape

READING ROOM CIRCULATION

LOUNGE STUDY MEETING RMS. LOUNGE

ADULT LIBRARY CLASSROOMS

TEEN LIBRARY

COMPUTER LAB

CIRCULATION OFFICE

BUSINESS CENTER

Second Floor Plan with Program

MAKER SPACE


TEA TREE

PEPPERMINT HINOKI CYPRESS

HINOKI CYPRESS

ROSE

LEMON

LEMON

ORANGE

ROSE LEMON

TEA TREE NEROLI

Third Floor Scentscape

MUSIC LIBRARY

READING ROOM

MUSIC LIBRARY

MEETING ROOM OFFICES

MEETING MUSIC ROOMS

Third Floor Plan with Program


TEA TREE

LAVENDER PEPPERMINT

ROSE

PEPPERMINT

LEMON

ORANGE

Fourth Floor Scentscape

READING LIBRARY STACKS ROOM

READING ROOM

MEETING ROOM OFFICES

Fourth Floor Plan with Program


Section through Atrium Showing the Rose Scentscape for Circulation Olfactory Wayfinding


Olfactory Wayfinding The interplay and distribution of various odorants with their unique olfactory characteristics creates a new world of wayfinding within the realm of architecture. Spaces become identifiable by their specific scents, creating alternative memory associations for visitors to remember their location within the building as well as programmatic functions. The odor diversity among the different spaces creates a rich olfactory environment that culminates in a diverse Scentscape to positively impact user experience and develop a deeper connection between person and place.

way-finding for people with visual-impairments, and designing Scentscapes for navigation improves the equitable accessibility of architecture (Koutsoklenis + Papadopoulos). Throughout the building, the circulation paths are identifiable by rose petal infused acoustic insulation in the sensory component system, the strength and concentration of which indicate the scale of the space. This olfactory information helps the visually impaired navigate through the library independently, and creates sensory equity in a public building.

Furthermore, the sensory component system is also a means to create sensory spatial cues for those occupants who are visually impaired. Olfactory cues are one of the most important methods of

PEPPERMINT

LAVENDER

TEA TREE ROSE TEA TREE

HINOKI CYPRESS

HINOKI CYPRESS BERGAMOT EUCALYPTUS

Longitudinal Building Section—the presence of the Sensory Component System is a wayfinding mechanism

ROSE

ROSE

TEA TREE TEA TREE TREE


Diagram of the Sensory Component System Overlapping in the Floor Plans

PEPPERMINT

ORANGE

HINOKI CYPRESS

ORANGE

CEDARWOOD

LEMON

ROSE

ROSEMARY

HINOKI CYPRESS LAVENDER

EUCALYPTUS EUCALYPTUS


In Conclusion: Olfactory Architecture Challenging the sensory hierarchy in traditional architecture results in sensory rich environments that improve occupant health and wellness. The World Health Organization defines ‘health’ as “a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease of infirmity” (WHO Constitution). To this end, sensory stimulation plays a vital role in the public experience of the built environment. Sensory rich environments have psychophysical responses in people that can improve their mental and physical states. Antithetical to this concept, traditional architectural practice is beholden to antiquated hierarchies which manifest into monotonous sensory environments that the public occupies. This perspective is highly visible in regards to designing for the sense of smell. Not only does architectural history condemn odor in the built environment, the legislation and policies that the architect is bound to strive to eliminate all odors regardless if they are pleasant or offensive. This perspective results in a sterile olfactory environment, and inhibits the opportunity for occupants to benefit from the numerous psychophysical responses of olfactory stimulation. By challenging the sensory hierarchy, architecture can align with the broader sense of health as a positive, enriching experience that improves the mental, physical, and social well-being of the public.


Nothing brings to life again a forgotten memory like a fragrance -Christopher Poindexter


Appendix Image References Page 8: 01) Herschan, Otto, New Sewers (January 01, 1862), Photograph, Getty Images, Hulton Archive. https://www.gettyimages.com/detail/ news-photo/new-sewers-news-photo/2666989?adppopup=true 02) “The Silent Highway Man (1858), Cartoon, Punch Magazine. https://www.theguardian.com/cities/2016/apr/04/story-cities-14london-great-stink-river-thames-joseph-bazalgette-sewage-system Page 9: 03) Map Showing Location of Odor Producing Industries in New York and Brooklyn (circa 1870), Map, Charles F. Chandler Papers, Columbia University Rare Books and Manuscript Library. Page 21: 04) Google Design Studio & Reddymade Architects, A Space for Being (2019), Drawing, Google ‘The Keyword’. https://www.blog. google/technology/design/a-space-for-being-salone-del-mobile-milan/ 05) Maremosso Studio, Photograph, Google ‘The Keyword’. https://www.blog.google/technology/design/a-space-for-being-salonedel-mobile-milan/ 06) Maremosso Studio, Photograph, Google ‘The Keyword’. https://www.blog.google/technology/design/a-space-for-being-salonedel-mobile-milan/ Page 22: 07) Harvey & John, Scent Drop (2017), Photograph, Harvey & John. https://harveyandjohn.com/work/scent-drop/ Page 24: 08) Ueda, Maki, Invisible Footprints (2019), Photograph, Maki Ueda, http://www.ueda.nl/index.php?option=com_ content&view=article&id=302&Itemid=874&lang=en 09) Glithero, Nez a Nez (2019), Photograph, Glithero, http://www.glithero.com/nez-%C3%A0-nez


Page 25: 10) de Cupere, Peter. Smoke Cloud (2015-2016), Photograph, Peter de Cupere, http://www.peterdecupere.net/index. php?option=com_content&view=article&id=174:smoke-cloud-in-the-importance-of-being&catid=1:exhibition-news&Itemid=98 11) Lee, Mickey. Horticultural Spa (2015), loop.PH, http://loop.ph/portfolio/horticultural-spa/ Page 27: 12-14) Farwell, Brad. The Art of Scent (2013), Photograph, Diller Scofidio + Renfro, https://dsrny.com/project/art-of-scent Page 29: 15-17) Ueda, Maki. Find the Spot for Ohanami (2018), Photograph, Maki Ueda, http://www.ueda.nl/index.php?option=com_ content&view=article&id=305&Itemid=877&lang=en Page 31: 18) Chocolate Room (1970-2004) by Ed Ruscha, Photograph, Generally A Bad Influence, https://genabi.tumblr.com/ post/12131712099/worldcat-ed-ruscha-chocolate-room-1970-for/amp 19) Horn, Brad. Chocolate Room (1970-2004) by Ed Ruscha, Photograph, Museum of Contemporary Art, LA. 20) JoAnne Northrup and Ed Ruscha with the Artist’s Chocolate Room, Photograph, Nevada Museum of Art, Reno, https://gagosian. com/quarterly/2017/12/04/ed-ruscha-and-joanne-northrup/ Page 33: 21-23) COS, New Spring (2017), Photograph, Studio Swine, https://www.studioswine.com/work/new-spring/


Appendix Diagram Resources Page 14: A) Lipps, Andrea. “Scentscapes.” The Senses: Design Beyond Vision. New York, Princeton Architectural Press, 2018. Page 15: B) Sowndhararajan, Kandhasamy. Kim, Songmun. “Influence of Fragrances on Human Psychophysiological Activity: With Special Reference to Human Electorencephalographic Response,” Sci Pharm, vol. 84(4), 2016, pp 724-752. Page 16: C) Henning, Hans, Der Geruch. Leipzig, Barth, 1916. Page 17: D) Edwards, Michael. Fragrance Wheel (1983). Source: Lupton, Ellen, Lipps, Andrea, The Senses: Design Beyond Vision. New York, Princeton Architectural Press, 2018. E) Drom. Fragrance Wheel (1911). Source: Lupton, Ellen, Lipps, Andrea, The Senses: Design Beyond Vision. New York, Princeton Architectural Press, 2018. Page 18: F) McLean, Kate. Urban Smellscape Aroma Wheel (2017). Source: Lupton, Ellen, Lipps, Andrea, The Senses: Design Beyond Vision. New York, Princeton Architectural Press, 2018. Page 19: G) Dravnieks, Andrew, Masurat, Thomas, Lamm, Richard A. “Hedonics of Odors and Odor Descriptors,” Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association, vol. 34 (7), 1984, pp 752-755. Page 26: H) Diller Scofidio + Renfro. The Art of Scent (2013), https://dsrny.com/project/art-of-scent Page 28: I) Ueda, Maki, Find the Spot for Ohanami (2018), Photograph, Maki Ueda, http://www.ueda.nl/index.php?option=com_ content&view=article&id=305&Itemid=877&lang=en


Page 30: J) JoAnne Northrup and Ed Ruscha with the Artist’s Chocolate Room, Photograph, Nevada Museum of Art, Reno, https://gagosian.com/ quarterly/2017/12/04/ed-ruscha-and-joanne-northrup/ Page 32: K) COS, New Spring (2017), Studio Swine, https://www.studioswine.com/work/new-spring/ Pages 35-43: Ritz, Jenna. Free Public Library Advanced Studio Project, 2020, Yale School of Architecure.


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