__MAIN_TEXT__

Page 1

JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT

Jekyll Island Carrying Capacity & Infrastructure Assessment Jekyll Island Authority October 2018

Guidance for how to balance people, vehicles, and development with protection of cultural and natural resources on Jekyll Island

1

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT FOREWARD

“The nation behaves well if it treats its natural resources as assets which it must turn over to the next generation increased, and not impaired, in value.” Theodore Roosevelt President of the United States

2

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT FOREWARD

FOREWORD / DISCLAIMER

This study was prepared by Sand County Studios in conjunction with Hayden Tanner, Heritage Strategies, Sherwood Engineers and Silver Mountain Solutions at the direction of the Jekyll Island-State Park Authority and the Jekyll Island Authority Board of Directors in response to RFP 336, December 18, 2017. Sand County Studios, nor its affiliates, neither warrants nor represents that the information contained in this report is accurate, complete, sufficient or appropriate for use by any person or entity other than the Jekyll Island Authority. The statements, findings, conclusions, and recommendations are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of Jekyll Island Authority.

PROJECT CONSULTANTS Sand County Studios, Conservation Planning & Project Management Sherwood Design Engineers, Civil Engineering Silver Mountain Solutions, Strategic Policy & Clean Energy Policy HaydenTanner, Finance & Sustainable Economics Heritage Strategies, Cultural/Resource Planning Site Solutions, Concept Development & Review

3

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

.

“A thing is right when it tends to preserve the integrity, stability and beauty of the biotic community. It is wrong when it tends otherwise.” Aldo Leopold Writer, Conservationist, and Environmentalist

4

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The findings of the study are based on the knowledge, expertise, and insights of staff members, leadership, elected and appointed officials from the state of Georgia, various stakeholder groups, volunteers, business owners/managers, as well as people who provided their input for this project. Their assistance and participation in the data gathering exercises made this study possible. Sand County Studios and its affiliates would like to thank all who provided input, especially the following:

JEKYLL ISLAND AUTHORITY BOARD Mr. Michael D. Hodges, Chairman Mr. Robert “Bob” W. Krueger, Vice Chairman Mr. William “Bill” Gross, Secretary/Treasurer Commissioner Mark Williams, Georgia Department of Natural Resources, Ex-Officio Ms. Joy Burch-Meeks Mr. A.W. “Bill” Jones III Mr. Hugh “Trip” Tollison Mr. Joseph “Joe” B. Wilkinson Dr. L.C. “Buster” Evans

JEKYLL ISLAND AUTHORITY SENIOR LEADERSHIP TEAM Jones Hooks Executive Director Linda de Medicis, Executive Assistant Jim Broadwell, Project Manager Ben Carswell, Director of Conservation Meggan Hood, Senior Director of Marketing Noel Jensen, Chief Operations Officer Jenna Johnson, Director of Human Resources Marjorie Johnson, Chief Accounting Officer Dr. Terry Norton, DVM Cliff Gawron, Director of Landscaping and Planning Bruce Piatek, Director of Historic Resources Daniel Strowe, General Counsel

5

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT TABLE OF CONTENTS

“Everybody needs beauty as well as bread, places to play in and pray in, where nature may heal and give strength to body and soul.” John Muir “Father of the National Parks”

6

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT TABLE OF CONTENTS

TABLE OF CONTENTS

FOREWORD

3

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

5

LIST OF ACRONYMS

9

CHAPTER 1

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

CHAPTER 2

INTRODUCTION

CHAPTER 3 CHAPTER 4 CHAPTER 5 CHAPTER 6 CHAPTER 7 CHAPTER 8

7

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS

19

Background PROJECT CONTEXT

21 23

Objectives and Tasks Study Development Public Involvement Land Use & Conservation CARRYING CAPACITY

11

25 26 27 28 31

Determining Carrying Capacity Population and Vehicle Counts Island Carrying Capacity Environmental Carrying Capacity Infrastructure Assessment Integrated Carrying Capacity

33 34 41 56 62 74

COASTAL HAZARDS AND RISK MANAGEMENT

87

Sea Level Rise

88

OPERATING PROCEDURES

101

Energy Efficiency & Sustainability Opportunities 102 ECONOMICS

107

Economic Recommendations 108 Detailed Economic Profile 111 CONCLUSION

125


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER 9

8

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS

APPENDICES

129

9.1 Bibliography 131 9.2 Glossary of Terms 135 9.3 Beach Capacity Map 137 9.4 GDOT Traffic Counts for Jekyll Island 138 9.5 GDOT Traffic Counts for St. Simons Island 139 9.6 Number of Rooms on Jekyll Island 140 9.7 Vehicles from Entry Gate 142 9.8 Occupant Loads for Village & JIA Facilities 143 9.9 Summer Waves Season Attendance 144 9.10 Florida Carrying Capacity Guidelines 145 9.11 Indicators of Potential Impacts 146 9.12 Overnight Guests 147 9.13 Indicators of Potential Impacts 148 9.14 Entry Gate Traffic Counts 150 9.15 Jekyll Island Guest Visitation 164 9.16 Demographics 166 9.17 Announcement for Public Meeting 167 9.18 JIA Board Meeting 1 Presentation 168 9.19 Public Meeting 1 Sign-in Sheet 176 9.20 Maps Shown at Public Meeting 1 184 9.21 Public Meeting 1 Comments 196 9.22 Public Meeting Presentation 2 231 9.23 Public Meeting 2 Comments 256 9.24 JIA Board Presentation 3 292 9.25 Final Board Presentation 309 9.26 Newspaper Article on Jekyll Carrying Capacity 321


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT ACRONYMS

LIST OF ACRONYMS

AADT

Annual Average Daily Traffic

ADA

Americans with Disabilities Act

ADR

Average Daily Rate

BAG

Bleakly Advisory Group

BATS

Brunswick Area Transportation Study

CBRE

Commercial Real Estate Services Hotels

CVB

Convention & Visitors Bureau

DNR

Department of Natural Resources

DOT

Department of Transportation

EAP

Environmental Assessment Procedure

FEMA

Federal Emergency Management Agency

FHWA

Federal Highway Administration

GADNR

Georgia Department of Natural Resources

GASE

Georgia Archaeological Site File

GIS

Geographic Information System

GMP

General Management Plan

GSTC

Georgia Sea Turtle Center

IBA

Important Birding Area

JIA

Jekyll Island Authority

LEED

Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design

LOS

Level of Service

LRP

Level of Resource Protection

LRTP

Long-Range Transportation Plan

MPO

Metropolitan Planning Organization

NGO

Non-governmental Organization

NHTS

National Household Travel Survey

NPR

National Park Service

PAR

Per Available Room

PEER

Public Employees for Environmental Responsibility

PTSF

Percent Time Spent Following

Rev. PAR

Revenue Per Available Room

RFP

Request for Proposal

RV Recreational Vehicle SPLOST

Special-Purpose Local-Option Sales Tax

STP/TIP

State Transportation Improvement Plan/

Transportation Improvement Plan

9

TADA

Traffic Analysis & Data Application

TTI

Texas A&M Transportation Institute

UGA

University of Georgia

ULI

Urban Land Institute

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 1 - EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

“Laws change; people die; the land remains.” Abraham Lincoln President of the United States

10

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 1 - EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

1

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

INTRODUCTION

PROJECT CONTEXT

In 2014, the Jekyll Island Authority (JIA) released the Jekyll Island Master Plan, which took over four years of stakeholder engagement and analysis to develop. This Master Plan recommended a carrying capacity and infrastructure assessment to help understand the dynamics of development and conservation on the island.

The Jekyll Island Master Plan 2014 asked two questions about carrying capacity of people as related to the historic district:

Carrying capacity is defined as the number of individuals who can be supported within a given area without degrading the natural, social, cultural, and economic environment for present and future generations. The Jekyll Island Carrying Capacity and Infrastructure Assessment seeks to determine the number of people, vehicles, and development that the island can accommodate while still maintaining its unique character. This assessment includes recommendations that are fact-based, and inclusive of a variety of perspectives and data sources. A collaborative process was undertaken with JIA, business owners, residents, visitors, Board members, employees, state and local officials, academics and scientists, and members of the conservation community to arrive at certain conclusions. This assessment could allow the JIA Board to make data-driven decisions regarding visitor experiences, parking and transportation, future land use, capital investment, marketing, development, and conservation. It should inform future updates to the Jekyll Island Master Plan and the Jekyll Island Conservation Plan as well as other studies that seek to maintain island character.

11

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS

•

What number of people is appropriate to ensure a positive experience in the historic district in terms of number of tours, building occupancy, available parking, and number of events?

•

What number of people can each of the historic sites and buildings handle (e.g. fire code, too many for a good experience, etc.)?

This assessment looks at what the entire island could accommodate. This assessment does NOT seek to identify the MAXIMUM number of people, vehicles, and development that can fit on the island. Instead, this assessment seeks to identify a PRACTICAL carrying capacity that identifies what Jekyll Island can accommodate without impacting the unique cultural and natural resources and character of the island. Jekyll Island is not alone in their quest to balance number of people with cultural and natural resources. People traveling globally have more than doubled in the past two decades. Many communities that were trying to attract tourism a decade ago are now trying to find ways to manage the influx of people, cars, and congestion that threaten to overwhelm attractions.

OBJECTIVES and TASKS The objectives of the Jekyll Island Carrying Capacity and Infrastructure project are to:


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 1 - EXECUTIVE SUMMARY •

Determine how many people and vehicles, and how much development Jekyll Island can accommodate without a negative impact on island character;

Review services performed by the JIA and those conducted by private sector contractors and make any appropriate recommendations;

Provide information and options to allow the JIA Board to make informed decisions about land use, density, development projects, and amenity enhancements;

Consider and recommend strategies to manage and adapt to projected impacts on infrastructure, amenities, and development posed by rising sea levels;

Position the JIA Board to make data-driven decisions regarding capital investment, maintenance, marketing, preservation, and conservation; and

Recommend strategies to manage future visitation and population growth to a level that the island’s resources and infrastructure can accommodate; and

Inform future updates made to the Jekyll Island Master Plan and other plans.

Recommend opportunities to increase renewable energy generation for island, commercial, and residential structures.

Tasks to achieve these objectives are as follows: •

Analyze existing infrastructure essential to supporting the economy and quality-of-life of Jekyll Island as outlined in the Jekyll Island Master Plan;

Establish the population and visitation parameters that can be supported within the limits of the resources addressed in the Master Plan;

Determine the practical number of people that can be supported with existing infrastructure;

Understand and consider the seasonality of Jekyll Island visitation;

Recommend the additional infrastructure investments and funding strategies for upgrades that may be necessary to support future increases in the cumulative population of residents and visitors;

Evaluate capacity considerations as related to population (resident and transient), water supply, wastewater handling and treatment, solid waste, energy resources, public safety, parking, and traffic;

Evaluate user fees for residents, businesses, developers, and guests in comparison to other similar entities and make appropriate recommendations;

12

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS

LAND USE & CONSERVATION Determining carrying capacity for Jekyll Island starts with understanding developed and undeveloped lands on the island. In the preparation of the Jekyll Island Master Plan 2014, a subcommittee addressed the issue of developed and undeveloped lands. According to the subcommittee and for the purpose of this study, developed and undeveloped lands are defined as follows: Developed Land is the land that is built upon or paved (includes roads and bike paths); land that has been disturbed and no longer maintains original, natural functions (golf course and some dirt roads); land or other areas that do not maintain ecological integrity (golf course ponds; borrow pits). Other specific examples cited by the Task Force include dirt roads, multi-use trails, and utility easements. Undeveloped Land refers to land that remains free of the built environment; land where the built environment does not impact ecological integrity (sand dunes and the associated walkways); undisturbed tree canopy; and golf course buffers with largely intact understory. The Master Plan established the allowable maximum acreage of developed land on Jekyll Island at 1675 acres, and this was approved by state legislation. At the time of this assessment,


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 1 - EXECUTIVE SUMMARY there were 1609 acres of land designated as developed, including land designated for future campground expansion, which has not yet taken place. Lands that had previously been designated as developed could be repurposed for new development outside the required legislative reviews governing undeveloped areas. The other 66 acres designed as developed land have not actually been developed at this time, but they may be upon approval of JIA.

This is in preparation for a continued increase in demand and usage by residents and day visitors, overall visitation projections and growth targets set for events and activities throughout the calendar year, but especially in the peak season. Currently, off season is seen as less of a concern. •

Demographics – The coastal region, the state of Georgia, and Glynn County are growing at a steady rate, and this is expected to have an impact on Jekyll Island.

The boundaries where the undeveloped and developed areas meet require careful management. The cumulative result of balanced decision-making help ensure that sustainable use of developed areas also allow for opportunities to advance conservation goals. For Jekyll Island, six management units are identified in the Jekyll Island Conservation Plan, which was prepared in 2011. These units are as follows:

Traffic Counts – These are the number of vehicles counted at the Jekyll Island Entry Gate, and at Georgia Department of Transportation traffic counters on the island and causeway leading to the island.

Beach and Interdunal Swale – Beach, primary dune, and early successional back dune/swale systems;

Dry Hammock – Naturally vegetated forested systems in the southern third of the Island;

Coastal Marsh – Salt marshes, coastal creeks, and small forested islands;

Upland Forest – Pine and oak forests of the northern third of the Island along with pockets of forested freshwater wetlands;

Golf Courses – The four golf courses, forested systems within the golf courses, and the adjacent forested, freshwater wetlands; and

Urban/Parks – Residential, commercial, Historic District, and park land uses along with altered natural systems.

CARRYING CAPACITY Capacity & Usage: Capacity of the island should be formally managed by setting visitation targets and a corresponding set of controls (e.g. dynamic pricing, increase of off-season visitation or parking enforcement, off-island parking options, emergency preparedness plans, etc.). 13

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS

Vehicle & Parking Capacity - The base for vehicle capacity is determined by the number of vehicles passing through the JIA entry gate. Both the JIA gate entry totals and the GDOT Traffic Monitoring Program totals show the number of vehicles that cross a specific point. The number of parking spaces is one of the most direct ways to address carrying capacity on Jekyll Island. There is a total of 5,769 parking spaces on the island, and a practical capacity for parking is 90% of this total, or 5,192 spaces. If the number of vehicles entering the island exceeds the number of existing parking spaces, the physical carrying capacity is exceeded. Data demonstrated that in 2017, physical carrying capacity was exceeded a total of 24 days. This is expected to increase. It should be noted there is currently no way to determine the number of residents and/or workers entering/leaving more than once a day, or exactly how much parking is available in existing residential areas. JIA should consider the following options to address parking capacity: •

Minimize adding parking to the island except in key locations that may reduce the impact of vehicles to the island;

Activate the parking area near the Jekyll Bridge, with shuttle services, rental electric vehicles, or other modes of transportation being available;


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 1 - EXECUTIVE SUMMARY •

Consider satellite shuttle service, that could bring people to Jekyll Island;

Consider requiring people coming for festivals or events to park off the island, or near the Jekyll Island bridge, and implement a shuttle system to move people to event locations. Consider reserved parking to minimize impact on island character;

Long-term, consider restricting vehicular access other than emergency vehicles, shuttles, and JIA and official vehicles; and

Continue and expand planning for high impact days where vehicles entering the island are expected to exceed parking on the island.

Visitation: To determine total number of visitors, the number of vehicles is multiplied by a standard number that indicates average number of persons per vehicle. In 2017, the Selig Center for Economic Growth used a multiplier of 3.0 in their work on the Economic Impact of Jekyll Island report. For the Capacity Study, total visitation was calculated two different ways: (1) a constant (multiplier) of 3.0 used in the Selig Center’s Economic Study was applied to the counts at the entry gate for vehicles entering the island, and (2) a multiplier of 2.5 was used for the off-season, 3.0 for the peak season, and 3.5 for high impact days with scheduled events. Using the 3.0 multiplier the estimated number of visitors was 3,491,487 in 2017. Using the three multipliers for off season, peak season, and high impact days, the number of visitors were 3,339,614 in 2017. The issue with capacity isn’t just the total number of people, it is where those people are on the island, what they do, how long they stay, and how they go to the island. Projecting an accurate and acceptable amount of visitations require collection of additional data. Capacity of Facilities & Sites: The occupancy level of a building or outdoor site is the maximum number of people the space can safely accommodate. Practical occupancy 14

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS

adjusts maximum occupancy, which is based on fire codes, to achieve a total based upon what is reasonable, feasible, and logical. It should be noted that approved hotels, even if not built at the time, have been included in these totals. The available capacity is determined by subtracting the Projected Number of people from the Existing Capacity. For this study, the Projected Number of People is the average of a standard 3.0 multiplier and varied multipliers. Using these numbers, Jekyll Island can currently accommodate an additional estimate of 651,900 to 1,056,756 visitors per year. At 7%, which is the average rate of increase of visitation for the last four years, capacity be reached between 2020 (4,091,171 people) and 2021 (4,576,627 people). Potential options for addressing this projected increase in people are as follows: •

Develop additional capacity on the island by adding buildings, parking, and attractions.

Manage number of visitors and limit access as needed to a number that is comparative to the carrying capacity of the island;

Implement alternative management approaches to better manage visitor numbers and visitor expectations; and

Accept that island character will change because of over-capacity and plan accordingly.

The following are recommendations related to carrying capacity for people: Explore Permit / Reservation System: Mandatory permits can be used to limit the number of people entering the island or a specific area. How permits are applied can vary greatly. One option is to limit the time a visitor can stay on the island for day use. Permits could be required per management zone, or use area, to control the number of people at that specific location. The use of quotas (number of permits allowed for an area) could help maintain the desired condition, eliminate large spikes in use, and spread use temporally and spatially.


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 1 - EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Continue to Explore Fee Structure: Fees during events and festivals, and for weekends during peak summer months could be raised to reflect the additional impact upon island resources. JIA is already doing this for Shrimp & Grits, Independence Day Celebration, and the Tree Lighting Festival. The fees are to cover additional security staff, transportation, and staff for cleanup. Enhance Site Protection and Restrictions: Regulations intended to protect natural and cultural resources should continue to be applied on a site by site basis. Site features such as boardwalks, raised viewing platforms, and barriers that prevent access to sensitive resources also help accommodate people, and should be adopted when appropriate. Currently there are no restrictions on the number of people at a specific site. Consider Access Management for Parking: At times, the number of cars entering the island exceeds the number of designated spaces. For events and festivals, JIA provides special accommodations for parking. Parking issues only increase as more people come to the island. Access management can be a tool to control use. JIA doesn’t currently restrict the number of cars driving on to the island and doesn’t monitor or enforce illegal and/or inappropriate parking. One option is to provide central parking areas and implement a small-bus transit system instead of allowing vehicles to drive on the island. Implement Monitoring and Adaptive Management: Monitoring determine whether alternatives are meeting expectations and can also alert JIA to unintended consequences.

SUSTAINABLE INFRASTRUCTURE Capacity should be consistent with the sustainable character of environmental systems on the island. A few key approaches that should be considered are as follows: Wastewater Re-use: Reducing irrigation and the overall water footprint, treating wastewater, and re-directing flow could help avoid depleting the Floridan Aquifer and limit potential contamination. 15

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS

Water Efficiency: JIA should encourage lowflow water fixtures for faucets and toilets and coordinate these incentives to improve water efficiency and promote sustainability.

OPERATING PROCEDURES Changes to some JIA operating procedures could help address carrying capacity, generate additional revenue, and continue to help protect existing character of the island. Some of these changes are as follows: Development: Existing resources and facilities need to continue to be maintained and improved to ensure Jekyll Island remains a destination of choice for tourists while also meeting its environmental obligations. The JIA should continue to carefully prioritize existing capital improvement projects and be cautious when considering any new development. Any new development should emphasize the unique character of the island while minimizing impacts on cultural and natural resources. Design principles and requirements could be expanded to ensure capacity concerns are addressed, and that ecological protections are enforced. Policies & Procedures: The JIA should continue to emphasize the unique character of the island and balance visitor experience with sustainable economic practices. Brand Identity: Continue to develop and promote communication about the island’s unique mandate and emphasis on the protection of ecological integrity. A clearly defined island identity fund could help generate limited funds for subsequent upgrades and enhancements to island resources, infrastructure improvements, and environmental protection measures. Conservation and Protected Areas: Expand protection of wildlife habitat areas to support other operational and economic priorities.

INFRASTRUCTURE The infrastructure carrying capacity for Jekyll Island has been determined by evaluating previous studies, reviewing as-built mapping,


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 1 - EXECUTIVE SUMMARY and conducting interviews with JIA facilities personnel to review key components of the island’s infrastructure systems. The key criteria evaluated were lifespan, age of current systems, material types, locations, sizes, and equipment efficiency. These criteria help understand where major constraints are related to island-wide water and sewer infrastructure. There is enough infrastructure capacity for water and sanitary sewer to accommodate existing and planned developed on the island. Just because there is additional capacity doesn’t mean it needs to be used for new development. ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS Environmental resources are critical for defining the character of Jekyll Island. Recommendations for addressing environmental concerns on the island include the following: •

16

Continue to support ecological venues and destinations on the island. This includes locations that emphasize the island’s natural habitat; Weave energy efficiency measures and opportunities for reduced energy use and waste generation into all island operations and facilities. Significant progress has been made in recent years, but there is an opportunity to continue to unify and streamline efforts; Continuation and expansion of current progress of beach management as part of the Conservation Plan. It is important for the JIA to continue to implement a cohesive restoration program. Continue to implement and promote projects and initiatives that reduce risk and help protect the island’s character and environmental resources. Small adjustments and a consistent focus on gradual behavior change could help mitigate risk and protect infrastructure; and Consider identifying an additional “ecotourism” venue or activity on the island to highlight environmental systems and resources, and to provide a low-impact SAND COUNTY STUDIOS

source of revenue. This oould further enhance visitor experience and contribute to off-season interest in exploring a diverse and robust natural park.

ECONOMICS Recommendations addressing economics are intended to enhance business opportunities, strengthen the island’s infrastructure and stewardship of natural resources, and grow Jekyll Island’s economy consistent with conservation and sustainability. There is no one “silver bullet” to enhance economic sustainability, but rather, several small modifications that raise revenues. Recommendations are as follows: Communication and Messaging •

Reframe the “parking fee” to promote island character.

Market the ecological significance and character of the island.

Communicate the unique resources in a user-friendly format via wayfinding. Marketing should emphasize the ecological significance and character of the island.

Educate the public about the costs and investments needed to maintain infrastructure, historic properties, and conservation habitat.

Communicate direct and indirect economic benefits of Jekyll Island.

User Fees and Park Generated Revenues •

Continue efforts to modernize the entrance gate system to collect additional data and more efficiently capture revenue.

Expand variable, differential, or seasonal pricing beyond special events to include high impact days.

Manage revenue loss from the golf courses by upgrading courses, reducing the footprint of golf, adjusting greens fees, and improving Clubhouse amenities.


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 1 - EXECUTIVE SUMMARY •

Boost Convention Center revenue by increasing number of clients who utilize the full array of center offerings.

Increase retail/concession sales opportunities that emphasize island character and stewardship.

Expand and promote enterprises that positively contribute revenue, especially those with a small footprint and large economic gain.

Establish pricing for amenities in line with nearby state and local parks.

Infrastructure upgrades: Address needed infrastructure upgrades critical to meet needs during peak seasons and in the event of an emergency or natural disaster, such as generators that have been secured for pump stations. A list of priority capital improvement projects has already been prepared by the JIA and support findings of this study. Recommendations include the following:

Expand campground to include additional sites, alternative options for accommodations (glamping, yurts, etc), and seasonal/variable-pricing strategy. Continue reinvestment in Summer Waves.

Dedicated Public Funds •

Review water and sewer rates and adjust as needed.

New development should directly cover any additional demands on system.

17

Encourage low-flow water fixtures in new developments and existing homes.

CONCLUSION This assessment concludes there are some capacity issues that should be addressed n the near feature. Tasks are categorized as Shortterm (within 3 years) and Medium-term (3 to 6 years). Short-term tasks include the following:

Address parking during peak season and on high impact days.

Continue supplemental data collection.

Expand selected facilities.

JIA should consider developing workforce housing on the island if local businesses and/or hotels provide the support needed to make this a viable option. This should be assessed in the Master Planning process.

Continue emphasizing natural character of the island.

Make small modifications to operations and funding.

Evaluate commercial lease structures to maximize tenant retention while also optimizing economic return.

Explore alternative management strategies that anticipate capacity issues.

Pursue federal funding and grants aimed at island and coastal regions.

PHILANTHROPY AND PARTNERSHIP ARRANGEMENTS •

Redirect golf course water flow for re-use to reduce need for well-water.

Address short-term capacity since the island may reach capacity on visitation by 2020 or 2021.

CONTRACTUAL AGREEMENTS WITH PRIVATE INDIVIDUALS AND FIRMS •

OTHER CREATIVE FUNDRAISING OPTIONS •

Revamp underutilized venues by exploring partnerships to finance capital improvement projects.

Leverage partners to provide functional staffing and financial support. SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 2 - INTRODUCTION

“Earth and sky, woods and fields, lakes and rivers, the mountain and the sea, are excellent schoolmasters, and teach some of us more than we can ever learn from books.” Sir John Lubbock Philanthropist and Scientist

18

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 2 -INTRODUCTION

2

INTRODUCTION

“J

ekyll Island is a unique state-owned barrier island that balances conserving and preserving natural, historic, and cultural resources with providing accessible, affordable recreation, vacation, and education opportunities for the peoples of Georgia and beyond.”1 In 2014, the Jekyll Island Authority (JIA) released the Jekyll Island Master Plan 2014. It announced short- and long-term (60+ months) actions, of which many have been implemented. The Master Plan also recommended the generation of a carrying capacity and infrastructure assessment to help understand the dynamics of development and conservation on the island. The idea of “carrying capacity” is defined as the number of individuals who can be supported within a given area without degrading the natural, social, cultural, and economic environment for present and future generations. At the direction of the Governor of Georgia, and in conjunction with its Board of Directors, the JIA has set out to do whatever is “necessary or proper to beautify, improve, and render self-supporting the island park, to make its facilities available to people of average income, and to advertise its beauties to the world.”2 The island’s designation as a state park, juxtaposed with the requirement that it also be financially self-sustaining, makes it challenging to both maintain and protect the natural environment and ecological integrity of the island while also ensuring its economic revitalization and profitability. The fact that

1

Jekyll Island Master Plan 2014

2

Jekyll Island Master Plan 2014

19

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS

the island is uniquely protected and is legally prohibited to develop more than 1,675 acres of available land mass, maintains its stature as a unique and rare destination for tourists. Jekyll Island and the JIA serve many stakeholders with seemingly competing interests. A common thread connecting these individuals and groups is a love and appreciation for the island itself and its unique combination of historical landmarks, natural wildlife, coastal beauty, cultural landmarks and family friendly activities spanning diverse interests and generations. Based on the information above, it is essential that the JIA carefully weigh existing carrying capacity against any subsequent decisions made related to growth, development, maintenance, operations and overall governance of the place. As a team of engineers, data scientists, GIS experts, economists and policy analysts, environmental architects, preservation professionals and ecologists, our assessment is deliberately interdisciplinary and interconnected in approach. This study – Jekyll Island Carrying Capacity and Infrastructure Assessment – includes recommendations that are balanced, fact-based, and inclusive of a variety of perspectives and data sources. A collaborative process was undertaken with the JIA, business owners, residents, visitors, employees, state and local officials, academics and scientists, and members of the conservation community. Public input, feedback and comments were accepted throughout the course of the study electronically, at JIA Board meetings,


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 2 - INTRODUCTION

Figure 1. Aerial view of the southern part of Jekyll Island . Image courtesy JIA.

via email, phone interviews, and during public input sessions.

biodiversity. However, the emphasis of this study is on quantifying human use and infrastructure.

This assessment is intended to allow the JIA Board to make data-driven decisions regarding visitor and vehicle numbers, visitor experiences, future land use, capital investment, marketing, development, and conservation. It is also intended to inform future updates to the Jekyll Island Master Plan and the Jekyll Island Conservation Plan. There is a clear need to evaluate the island’s systems to continue to support positive user experiences and

Specific recommendations related to Jekyll Island’s future, which also directly pertain to the decisions stemming from the capacity and infrastructure assessment, are outlined in this document. These recommendations take a detailed look at factors incorporated in the analysis and calculation of carrying capacity found throughout the main body of the assessment.

Figure 2. The unique environmental resources on Jekyll Island help define island character and impact expected visitor experience. Image courtesy Sand County Studios.

Figure 3. The historic district achieved Landmark District status, becoming known as the Jekyll Island Club National Historic Landmark District. Image courtesy JIA.

20

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 2 - INTRODUCTION resources of the island, the accommodation of people to experience this environment, and the quality of the visitor experience.3 User levels and the associated experiential quality vary dramatically by time of day, day of the week, and season of the year. Additionally, use levels and recreation behaviors may change over time in response to management action and increasing or decreasing popularity. The question of how much public use is appropriate for a place such as Jekyll Island is often framed in terms of carrying capacity.

BACKGROUND Jekyll Island was in economic decline up until the early 2010s. Hotels on Jekyll Island were in poor condition, development opportunities had dried up, the number of visitors to the island was in decline, and concerns over the economic and environmental sustainability were significant. JIA had to find ways to attract tourists and developers and create a strong economic foundation for the island. In the 2010s, new hotels were constructed on existing hotel footprints, existing hotels went through massive renovations, the water park was improved, a commercial village and convention center were built, and a new conservation and master plan were developed. This helped stabilize the economic viability of the island without major compromises to environmental resources. With the resurgence of Jekyll Island, the priority should shift to planning for preserving the existing character of the island while maintaining economic viability and environmental sustainability. Implicit in the mission of Jekyll Island is the conservation of the natural and cultural

21

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS

Figure 4. Golf is an integral part of the island’s heritage. Image courtesy JIA.

Figure 5. The Westin Jekyll Island is one of the hotels on the island that is part of the economic revitalization effort on the island. Image courtesy Sand County Studios.

3

Manning, Robert. Visitor Experience and Resource Protection: A Framework for Managing the Carrying Capacity of National Parks Journal of Park and Recreation Administration Volume 19, Number 31 Spring 2001 pp. 93-108


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 3 - PROJECT CONTEXT

“Once our natural splendor is destroyed, it can never be recaptured. And once man can no longer walk with beauty or wonder at nature, his spirit will wither, and his sustenance be wasted.” Lyndon B. Johnson President of the United States

22

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 3 - PROJECT CONTEXT

3

PROJECT CONTEXT

T

he increasing popularity of Jekyll Island presents both opportunity and challenge. The opportunity is that a larger number of visitors creates a strong economic base and supports island services. The challenge is the need to conserve island resources for the enjoyment of future generations while also dealing with ever-increasing visitation levels. According to the 2018 Jekyll Island Visitor Study, nearly all (95%) of those surveyed planned to visit Jekyll Island again, with their top reasons to return to the island being its relaxing quality and natural beauty.1

What number of people can each of the historic sites and buildings handle (e.g. fire code, too many for a good experience, etc.)?2

Other questions that needed to be addressed include the following: •

How many people can Jekyll Island accommodate without a negative impact on island resources?

What is the best way to accommodate the number of vehicles coming onto the island?

The Jekyll Island Master Plan 2014 asked two questions about carrying capacity of people:

What is the best approach to vehicular parking?

What number of people is appropriate to ensure a positive experience in the historic district in terms of number of tours, building occupancy, available parking, and number of events?

How many people on a bike path are too many?

How many beach lovers does it take before the beach feels “crowded?”

Figure 6. The Shrimp and Grits festival attracts large crowds to Jekyll Island. Image courtesy JIA.

1

Harvest Insights. Jekyll Island Visitor Study, April 2018.

23

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS

2

Jekyll Island Master Plan 2014


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 3 - PROJECT CONTEXT •

Does a larger number of people degrade the experience?

How are people for summer weekends, festivals, and special events accommodated?

Will the current infrastructure support the existing and planned level of development on the island?

Does the current level of development and visitation provide economic sustainability?

Jekyll Island is not alone in their quest to balance the number of visitors while preserving the cultural and natural resources that attract them in the first place. The number of people travelling globally has more than doubled in the past two decades. Many communities that were trying to attract tourism a decade ago are now trying to find ways to manage the influx of people, cars, and congestion that threaten to overwhelm the attractions people come to see. In 2016, Fodor’s Travel, a trusted resource offering expert travel advice, began publishing a “No Go” list reflecting concerns that tourism was destroying the world’s best places. In 2018, Fodor’s added a designation for “Places That Don’t Want You to Visit” because their governments are trying to combat overcrowding.3 New Zealand conservation minister, Eugenie Sage, says, “There is a limit. If you’re going to a concert and the venue is sold out, you can’t go.” In Dubrovnik, Croatia, where parts of the television series “Game of Thrones” was filmed, the influx of visitors overwhelmed the city. In 2017, the city restricted the number of tourists to 4,000 per day.4 Machu Picchu, one of Peru’s  most popular sites, limited visitors to 2,500 people a day in 2011, and in 2016, the

3

Pannett, Rachel. Anger over Tourist Hordes Sparks Global Outrage. Wall Street Journal. Wednesday, March 23, 2018, Vol. CCLXXI No. 20.

4

Bernard-Poulin, Béatrice. Tourists are ruining these destinations. Espresso Conenu, 4/19/2018. https://www.msn.com/en-us/travel/article/ tourists-are-ruining-these-destinations/ssAAw3zrT?li=BBnb7Kz#image=19

24

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS

number of visitors was restricted even more. New plans split the day into two halves to control the flow of people and prevent the bunching of crowds.5 In addition, tour groups were set to a maximum of 16 visitors. In the United States, national parks had nearly 331 million visitors in 2016. This was nearly a 7.7 percent increase over the previous year, setting a record for visitation as the Park Service celebrated its centennial year. The increase is part of a recent trend in growing park visitation; over the last two years, there has been a 13 percent visitor increase. This increased visitation is putting pressure on the already stressed natural resources in the parks.6 For example, on Memorial Day 2015, the Utah Highway Patrol closed the entrance to Arches National Park. The line of cars waiting to gain access was over a mile long, creating a traffic hazard as it backed out on to U.S. Highway 191. At the Devils Garden trailhead, 300 cars were wedged into 190 spaces, and on the road to Delicate Arch, the state of Utah’s unofficial symbol, parked cars lined both sides of the road for half a mile leading up to the parking area.7 Golden Gate National Recreation Area has a GMP, which also employs indicators and  standards to address user capacity. On Alcatraz Island, the Golden Gate GMP sets a limit  of 0-43 people per view on Michigan Ave. 90% of the time, and 0-74 people at one time on C-D St. 90% of the time. The GMP also sets limits on the encounter rate on trails to “no more than 40 encounters with other visitor groups traveling in the opposite direction, 90% of the time during park operating hours.” Channel Islands National Park  established limits on day use and overnight use for parts

5

https://www.telegraph.co.uk/travel/destinations/ south-america/peru/articles/machu-picchu-newrules-for-access/

6

Pannett, Rachel. Anger over Tourist Hordes Sparks Global Outrage. Wall Street Journal. Wednesday, March 23, 2018, Vol. CCLXXI No. 20.

7

Trenbeath, Eric. National parks scramble to keep up with the crowds July 13, 2015


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 3 - PROJECT CONTEXT of the park in 2015. Dry Tortugas National Park set limits of 330 people per day in Garden Key and 24-36 per day in Loggerhead Key. And a maximum campground capacity to 68 campers, regulated by a reservation system, was established for the island. Surprisingly, many national parks have not developed fact-based strategies for how to deal with increasing number of visitors. In a  2016 report, the watchdog organization Public Employees for Environmental Responsibility (PEER) reviewed the policies and plans of 108 major park service units and found that only seven had established any sort of carrying capacity.8

OBJECTIVES AND TASKS The primary objectives of the Jekyll Island Carrying Capacity and Infrastructure project are to: •

Determine how many people and vehicles, and how much development Jekyll Island can accommodate without a negative impact on island character;

Provide information and options to allow the JIA Board to make informed decisions about land use, density, development projects, and amenity enhancements;

Position the JIA Board to make data-driven decisions regarding capital investment, maintenance, marketing, preservation, and conservation; and

Inform future updates made to the Jekyll Island Master Plan.

Figure 7. This image, taken May 28, 2016, shows crowding at Zion National Park, Utah. Image courtesy National Park Service.

Establish the population and visitation parameters that can be supported within the limits of the resources addressed in the Master Plan;

Determine the maximum amount of resident, overnight and daytime populations that can be supported with existing infrastructure without degradation of the island’s cultural and natural resources or user experience;

Understand and consider the seasonality of Jekyll Island visitation regarding service and infrastructure;

Recommend the additional infrastructure investments and funding strategies for upgrades that may be necessary to support future increases in the cumulative population of residents and visitors;

Tasks undertaken to achieve these objectives are as follows: •

Analyze existing infrastructure essential to supporting the economy and quality-of-life of Jekyll Island as outlined in the Jekyll Island Master Plan;

8

Tobias, Jimmy. Burdened by Austerity, The National Park Service Breaks the Law, Oct. 16, 2017

25

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 3 - PROJECT CONTEXT •

Developed a list of key stakeholders for small group or individual meetings and/ or phone calls and conducted interviews to gather their input;

Worked collaboratively to conduct original research and analyze existing conditions to assess carrying capacity and infrastructure characteristics;

Review services performed by the JIA and those conducted by private sector contractors and make any appropriate recommendations;

Conducted meeting with the JIA board to review the project, present goals and objectives, and define approach and intent;

Consider and recommend strategies to manage and adapt to projected impacts on infrastructure, amenities, and development posed by rising sea levels;

Held a public meeting on Jekyll Island to share project goals and tasks, review existing conditions, and seek input from the public;

Worked collaboratively to analyze data and determine carrying capacity;

Recommend strategies to manage future visitation and population growth to a level that the island’s resources and infrastructure can accommodate; and

Developed and circulated draft recommendations with JIA;

Conducted resource meetings with JIA staff and resource groups;

Recommend opportunities to increase renewable energy generation for island, commercial, and residential structures.

Revised data and recommendations in anticipation of a second public meeting to share findings;

Conducted second public meeting;

Revised concepts based upon public input during the second meeting (August 2018);

Developed and presented final document with recommendations to JIA and the JIA Board;

Submitted final document with recommendations to JIA; and

Presented final plan to JIA Board (also considered the third public meeting).

Evaluate capacity considerations as related to population (resident and transient), water supply, wastewater handling and treatment, household and commercial solid waste, energy resources, public safety, parking, and traffic; Evaluate user fees for residents, businesses, developers, and guests in comparison to other similar entities and make appropriate recommendations;

STUDY DEVELOPMENT This study was developed through an inclusive, holistic process that centered on the question of how to preserve the natural and cultural resources that make Jekyll Island unique while still allowing an appropriate level of impacts. The process was iterative and involved open discussions that included the Sand County Studio team, the JIA staff and board members, key stakeholders, residents of the island, and the public. Activities identified in the scope of work for this project include the following: •

26

Met with JIA senior leadership to discuss project goals and objective, reviewed tasks, and collected existing data for the island; Prepared a robust set of up-to-date GIS data and revised maps related to all aspects of infrastructure for the project and subsequent JIA use; SAND COUNTY STUDIOS

PUBLIC INVOLVEMENT Public involvement is critical for any public realm project. For this project, we conducted public meetings, established a project website, conducted interviews and small group meetings, encouraged input via phone calls and emails,


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 3 - PROJECT CONTEXT and sought input on draft documents as they were being developed. A series of public meetings were held during the project. Meeting 1: Sand County Studios and the JIA hosted the first public meeting as an open house on Tuesday, April 17th, 2018 to introduce and explain the purpose of the Carrying Capacity and Infrastructure Assessment Study. It also provided an opportunity to solicit input from the community about the process. The Sand County Studios Team and JIA developed goals and objectives, established a clearly defined process and timeline, and mapped critical environmental, cultural, and infrastructure resources. There were numerous emails sent to Sand County Studios from individuals sharing their thoughts. This information was incorporated into the process. Meeting 2: The second public meeting was part of the JIA Board of Directors Meeting, on July 17, 2018.

Figure 8. Children riding bicycles on the island. Image courtesy JIA.

27

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS

Meeting 3: The third meeting was conducted at the Jekyll Island Convention Center on August 28, 2018. This meeting included a presentation by the Sand County Studios Team of the detailed analysis of all factors that impact carrying capacity on the island, “what-if� scenarios that look at different approaches to these same resources, and a review of policies and procedures that influence decisions on the island.

Figure 9. Release of the turtles from the Georgia Sea Turtle Center. Image courtesy JIA.


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 3 - PROJECT CONTEXT Meeting 4: The fourth public meeting was a presentation to the JIA Board on October 16, 2018. The final project provided data-driven recommendations that are intended to be integrated into future planning efforts to help create a holistic and sustainable Jekyll Island: one that is economically viable and protects the unique resources and character of the island. Web Site: A web site was also developed for the project, with information posted online at: https:// www.jekyllisland.com/jekyll-islandauthority/ public-input-sessions/ Resource Meetings: The first of two meetings was conducted July 16, 2018, with JIA Staff and appropriate resource agencies review preliminary inventory, analysis, and recommendations; and the second meeting October 15, 2018, with JIA staff directors and senior management to review final recommendations. The Sand County Studios Team also had small group meetings and one-on-one discussions with several stakeholders. Throughout the project, email addresses were shared with the public for their input, and hundreds of emails sharing thoughts and concerns were sent to the design team. These are listed in the appendix.

LAND USE & CONSERVATION The quality of the visitor experience and the protection of the natural areas are directly affected by land use plans. Important decisions during the site planning process are the types of activities to be provided, where these activities are to take place, and the amount of public use to be allowed.9 One potential issue for Jekyll Island is the designation of undeveloped and developed lands. The Jekyll Island Land Use Map 2013 uses land use definitions to measure the total area of the island, including marshes, as approximately 5,530 acres, with slightly more than 1,609 acres developed.10

9

Florida Department of Environmental Protection Division of Recreation and Parks Recreational Carrying Capacity Guidelines.

10

Jekyll Island Master Plan 2014

28

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS

In the preparation of the Master Plan, a subcommittee was formed to address the issue of developed/undeveloped lands. According to the subcommittee and for the purpose of this study, developed and undeveloped lands are defined as follows: Developed Land is the land that is built upon or paved (includes roads and bike paths); land that has been disturbed and no longer maintains original, natural functions (golf course and some dirt roads); land or other areas that do not maintain ecological integrity (golf course ponds; borrow pits). Other specific examples cited by the Task Force include dirt roads, multi-use trails, and utility easements. Undeveloped Land refers to land that remains free of the built environment; land where the built environment does not impact ecological integrity (sand dunes and the associated walkways); undisturbed tree canopy; and golf course buffers with understory that is largely intact.11 The allowable maximum acreage of developed land on Jekyll Island is 1,675, set by state legislation establishing the JIA. At present, there are 1,609 acres of land designated as developed, including land designated for future campground expansion, which has not yet taken place. The only acreage that can be developed in the future that is not already classified as developed would include:  46 acres which would be restricted for health, public safety, and public creation purposes – not commercial or residential uses and 20 acres that could be used for any purpose determined by the JIA and consistent with the Jekyll Island legislation. Lands that have previously been designated as developed could be repurposed for new development outside the required legislative reviews governing undeveloped areas. The boundaries where the undeveloped and developed areas meet require careful management. The cumulative result of balanced decision-making could help ensure that sustainable use of developed areas also allow for

11

Jekyll Island Master Plan 2014


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 3 - PROJECT CONTEXT

Figure 10. The beaches on Jekyll Island are a major part of the island’s character. Image courtesy JIA.

opportunities to advance conservation goals. For Jekyll Island, six management units are identified in the Conservation Plan for the island. These units are as follows: 1. Beach and Interdunal Swale: Beach, primary dune, and early successional back dune/swale systems; 2. Dry Hammock: Naturally vegetated forested systems in the southern third of the Island; 3. Coastal Marsh: Salt marshes, coastal creeks, and small forested islands; 4. Upland Forest: Pine and oak forests of the northern third of the Island along with pockets of forested freshwater wetlands; 5. Golf Courses: The four golf courses, forested systems within the golf courses, and the adjacent forested, freshwater wetlands; and 6. Urban/Parks: Residential, commercial, Historic District, and park land uses along with altered natural systems.12

12

Jekyll Island Conservation Plan. September, 2011

29

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 4 - CARRYING CAPACITY

“Do we allow unlimited visitation, or do we restrict numbers to protect a delicate ecosystem. Do we heavily advertise the park, enticing paying visitors, generating needed money … or do we sacrifice financial benefits to better preserve natural ones?” Mary E. Reed Author, Harriman: From Railroad Ranch to State Park

30

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 4 - CARRYING CAPACITY

4

CARRYING CAPACITY

T

he key question in approaching carrying capacity issues isn’t “how many people can Jekyll Island accommodate?” But rather, “how many people can Jekyll Island accommodate while still preserving the character of the island?” Carrying capacity is defined as the number of individuals who can be supported within a given area without degrading the natural, social, cultural, and economic environment for present and future generations. Determining carrying capacity is based on desired resource conditions and visitor experiences that could lead to the protection of Jekyll Island resources and values. The impact per visitor is conditional on several factors, including the method of visitation. Visitors driving vehicles, for example, have a larger impact than pedestrian traffic. Therefore, carrying capacity analysis needs to consider the impact of both vehicle and pedestrian traffic. Impacts on sand, grasslands, wetlands, dunes, and other environmental communities can be reduced if people don’t come into direct contact with the surface. Pedestrians walking on a boardwalk have negligible impact compared to people walking on a natural bare surface, but there is a cost to construct and maintain boardwalks.1

The carrying capacity concept is not intended to be used singularly, but should complement other management tools such as environmental impact assessments, land-use policies, master plans, and tourism strategies. Setting a capacity therefore, should never be the first visitor use management approach to consider. Impacts are

1

The Carrying Capacity of Fraser Island

31

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS

most effectively managed by mitigating factors that most influence the amount of impact. There is no universally consistent evaluation method that exists for assessing carrying capacity of a multi-use site such as Jekyll Island. This assessment uses a combination of four different methods: •

Limiting Factor Approach: This assumes that limiting factors such as facilities or other physical, social or biological measures can be calculated. The number of available opportunities (e.g. campsites, parking spaces, etc.) determines the visitor use capacity, or, the number of people that can use the area.

Limits Set at Current Use Levels and Conditions: This allows managers to establish a capacity or limit on increases in visitor use to avoid degradation of conditions with or without defining specific desired conditions. This approach assumes that use and impacts could continue to grow, and that theoretical capacities have been or soon could be reached.

Standards-based Method: This assumes visitor experience and acceptable biophysical conditions are related to a variety of factors including: the number of people, the types of activities in which people engage, where they participate in such activities, the effects of their use, and the level of management presence.

Level of Resource Protection (LRP): This seeks not to assign a maximum number


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 4 - CARRYING CAPACITY of people to an area but instead devise “scenarios” meant to quantify the impacts caused by a park’s array of users. The basic premise of LRP is that activities are not equal when it comes to their toll on the ecology, natural and cultural resources, and the visitor experience.2 These methodologies are integrated into an eight-step process used by the Sand County Studios team to develop a Carrying Capacity for Jekyll Island. They are as follows: 1. Conduct inventory of existing conditions; 2. Define desired conditions; 3. Define appropriate visitor activities, facilities, and services; 4. Select indicators and establish thresholds; 5. Compare differences between existing and desired conditions; 6. Identify carrying capacities; 7. Identify visitor management strategies and controls to achieve desired conditions; and 8. Develop a monitoring strategy. Descriptions of each step are as follows: STEP 1. CONDUCT INVENTORY OF EXISTING CONDITIONS: For Jekyll Island, this includes (1) existing and projected population and demographics for the island, the region, and the state, and (2) traffic counts that indicate the number of vehicles entering the island, and how these counts have changed over the years. STEP 2. DEFINE DESIRED CONDITIONS: Desired conditions describe what conditions, outcomes, and opportunities are to be achieved and maintained in the future, not necessarily what exists today.

2

Guidelines for Capacity Determination for Visitor Use in Wilderness https://www.wilderness.net/ toolboxes/documents/vum/visitor_use_capacityweb.doc

32

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS

STEP 3. DEFINE APPROPRIATE VISITOR ACTIVITIES, FACILITIES, AND SERVICES: Direction for the types of visitor activities, facilities, and visitor services that are consistent with and complement desired conditions. STEP 4. SELECT INDICATORS AND ESTABLISH THRESHOLDS: Indicators are measurable physical, ecological, or social variables used to track trends. Indicators translate the broad description of desired conditions into measurable attributes that can be tracked over time to evaluate change in conditions. Thresholds ensure that conditions remain acceptable for the selected indicators.3 Indicators are selected and a threshold for each indicator is established to determine an acceptable level of impact from visitor use. For example, an informal trail can be assigned as an indicator – how many people use the trail in a given length of time or at a given point where measurement is indicative of the overall experience. The maximum number people of per mile of trail would be a threshold in such an example. Thresholds should be explicit and quantitative, although it is possible to work with qualitative thresholds. Thresholds can be developed through a process of public and stakeholder involvement, but research has shown that a small interdisciplinary team is often more appropriate at making these decisions, and the consulting team took this approach with Jekyll Island. STEP 5. COMPARE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN EXISTING AND DESIRED CONDITIONS: All recreation activities cause some impact; the challenge is to determine what is needed to protect resources. Protecting resources is established by defining the point at which impacts of people and/or vehicles have are negative on desired conditions. Managers would determine if desired conditions are being achieved, and if existing conditions are within the established thresholds. If desired conditions are threatened, additional management strategies could be needed.

3

Interagency Visitor Use Management Council. Visitor Use Management Framework - A Guide to Providing Sustainable Outdoor Recreation, Edition One. July 2016.


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 4 - CARRYING CAPACITY STEP 6. IDENTIFY CARRYING CAPACITIES: Carrying capacities for Jekyll Island include (1) Visitor Capacities, (2) Vehicle Capacities, (3) Infrastructure Capacity, and (4) Environmental Capacity. These are synthesized into (5) an Integrated Capacity, or Suitability Map, that is a composite of capacities. Some capacities are generated via nominal numbers as well as sliding scales, while some have only sliding scales, which indicate a range from high to low. STEP 7. IDENTIFY VISITOR USE MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES AND ACTIONS TO ACHIEVE DESIRED CONDITIONS: Management strategies are general approaches for addressing visitor use management issues, while actions are specific ways of implementing management strategies. Visitor capacity is a component of visitor use management. The three fundamental categories of management actions include (1) site management/ engineering, (2) information and education, and (3) regulation/enforcement. The more common engineering actions include providing, removing, or relocating facilities and structures; strengthening and hardening sites; and using vegetation and other physical barriers to direct visitor use. Information and education are most commonly employed to modify visitor behavior, adjust visitor attitudes and expectations, and alter the spatial and temporal distribution of use. Regulations with enforcement can be used to implement management strategies. Examples include restricting or prohibiting access to specific locations, allowing access at specific times, or requiring certain types of behavior, activities, modes of travel, length of stay, and group size.4 STEP 8. DEVELOP A MONITORING STRATEGY: Effective monitoring is as important as the development of management strategies and actions. Monitoring is critical to determine whether actions taken to protect resources and provide high-quality opportunities are indeed effective. There are usually two types of

4

Interagency Visitor Use Management Council. Visitor Use Management Framework - A Guide to Providing Sustainable Outdoor Recreation, Edition One. July 2016.

33

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS

monitoring: (1) implementation monitoring, and (2) effectiveness monitoring. To help develop a monitoring strategy, answer the following questions: •

What is going to be monitored and why?

Where will monitoring occur?

Which techniques will be used for each indicator?

How often will an indicator be monitored?

How will data be collected, and who will collect the data?

What equipment is needed?

How will data be managed and used?

How will the findings be reported?

Additional monitoring programs could allow JIA to understand changing conditions and to adjust management strategies and actions as necessary. Monitoring data can help refine the understanding about which actions are necessary to maintain and/or achieve desired conditions and improve the understanding and use of indicators and thresholds.5

DETERMINING CARRYING CAPACITY For Jekyll Island, carrying capacity is determined by analyzing the current number of vehicles and people visiting the island, and making projections on future numbers by analyzing use trends, seasonality, population, trends in vehicle counts, available capacity on the island, demographics, growth projects for coastal regions, and the unique characteristics and demand of the coastal location. Some of the common terms used when discussing carrying capacity are as follows: •

5

Peak Season: These are the spring/summer months (March, April, May, June, July) where Jekyll Island typically receives a higher Interagency Visitor Use Management Council. Visitor Use Management Framework - A Guide to Providing Sustainable Outdoor Recreation, Edition One. July 2016.


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 4 - CARRYING CAPACITY Gate Entry Numbers (Vehicles)

2016

2017

2018

Jan

67,061

72,934

66,907

Feb

76,445

83,063

83,990

March

98,686

103,771

107,496

April

106,298

117,977

108,094

May

122,685

115,925

109,714

June

125,143

126,290

135,232

July

142,820

145,775

152,733

August

94,642

95,084

106,320

Sept

93,064

64,387

98,683

Oct

64,702

86,437

n/a

Nov

74,879

79,100

n/a

Dec

72,079

73,086

n/a

1,138,504

1,163,829

969,169

Table 1. Jekyll Island Entry Gate numbers for 2016 to 2018 - the blue rows indicate Peak Season. Data courtesy JIA.

34

POPULATION AND VEHICLE COUNTS Determining a carrying capacity for Jekyll Island is based on the number of people that come to the island, and how well these people can be accommodated without having a negative impact upon island resources. The number of people entering the island is determined by applying a standard multiplier to the number of vehicles that are counted at the entry gate. One assumption is that as the number of vehicles entering the island increases, the number of people visiting the island will also increase. Another assumption is that as population in the country, region, and state increases, so too could the number of people wanting to visit Jekyll Island (all other variables being the same).

DEMOGRAPHICS

number of people coming to the island to vacation and go the beach. In 2017 and early 2018, these months all had more than 100,000 vehicles enter the island. During these months, the number of cars coming on the island is higher, so the number of people increases. Beaches are busier during these months as well.

The state of Georgia is expected to grow from a population of 10,895,213 in 2020, to 14,709,321 by 2050. Between 1980 and 2012, the U.S. Census Bureau reported a population growth of 81.6 percent.6 Georgia contains 159 counties and 15 metropolitan planning organizations (MPOs). Figures 11 – 16 show maps of existing and projected populations per county.

Off Season: These are all other days of the year where visitation is less, and impact upon resources is less.

COASTAL GEORGIA REGION

High Impact Days: These include summer weekends and festival/event days where large crowds typically come to the island. These days often have the highest number of people. A total of 70 High Impact Days was defined and used; this includes weekends during the four months of the Peak Season (approximately 22 weekends with 2 days per weekend, for 44 days) and 26 event/festival days scheduled throughout the year. The number of event/festival days is an estimate based on activities of previous years. These days typically have a higher number of people per car to experience the various activities.

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS

The coastal counties in the Coastal Georgia Region are also experiencing significant growth. The Coastal Georgia Regional Commission and its Council contracted with the Georgia Institute of Technology’s Center for Quality Growth and Regional Development to develop population projections for the coastal region. The report, entitled “Georgia Coast 2030: Population Projections for the 10-county Coastal Region,” was the result of this effort. This study found that in-migration is likely to be the driving factor for growth in the area, with a projected increase in population of 51 percent from its 2000 population of just over 558,000 to slightly more than 844,000 persons by

6

http://www.dot.ga.gov/InvestSmart/Documents/ Travel%20Demand%20Model/Statewide%20Travel %20Model%20Peer%20Review%20Report%20 -%20Sept%202012.pdf


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 4 - CARRYING CAPACITY

Figure 11 - 16. These maps show the projected population growth of Georgia from 2020 to 2050. Images courtesy Sand County Studios.

increases for 2024 and 2030 are 15% and 10%, respectively. GLYNN COUNTY

Figure 17. Project growth patterns for southern and eastern states. The states shown indicate respondents to the Jekyll Island User Survey. Image courtesy JIA.

2030.7 The Georgia Office of Planning and Budget projected a total population of almost 963,000 for the same timeframe. Both projections represent a significant growth in the region. There was a 9% increase in population from 2010 to 2015, and a 7% growth is expected to 2020. Projected

7

http://www.crc.ga.gov/departments/economic/ aboutcg.html

35

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS

Glynn County is one of ten counties that comprises the Coastal Georgia Region. Glynn County is expected to grow in population by approximately 25 percent between 2010 and 2040, from 79,617 in 2010 to 99,167 by 2040. Over the next 25 years, county services and infrastructure could likely have to expand to serve a growing population. The tourism industry is already a major component of the economy and is anticipated to continue as an important economic driver.8 In Glynn County, not counting Brunswick, the major concentrations of population are on St.

8

Glynn County. Population 84,289 in 2016, and 90,161 in 2017. Glynn County Demographic Report 4Q 2016. Source: Applied Geographic Solutions, Thousand Oaks, CA.


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 4 - CARRYING CAPACITY Simons Island, Sea Island, and Jekyll Island. The western areas of Glynn County are sparsely populated and predominantly rural in character. Glynn County’s current annual growth rate is approximately 1.4%. Glynn County’s population is forecast to grow at 1.5% annually for the next 25 years.9 For this capacity assessment, a range of 1.3% to 1.5% is used to calculate population growth for the county and coastal region. There is a small permanent population on Jekyll Island, and the number of residents on the island has been decreasing. There were 1,400 people living on the island in 1980, with less than 1,000 currently on the island. There are indications that the median age of the population of Jekyll Island map drop if younger families are moving to the island. This is also likely to result in an increase in population as the size of families increase with more children. The JIA continues with its efforts to upgrade the island’s facilities. There are several new hotels planned as part of a second phase of improvements to increase the total capacity of lodging units on the island. New homes have been built on the island in two neighborhoods: The Cottages at Jekyll Island, and Ocean Oaks at Jekyll Island. Roughly 70% of the homes in The Cottages are owned by second homeowners.

TRAFFIC COUNTS

2. GDOT MONITORING SITES: The other source of data is the GA DOT traffic monitoring system. This provides estimates of traffic volume on most roads across the state, both major highways and local roads, such as the Causeway onto Jekyll Island. (See Appendix 8.4 for location of monitoring sites an the island and causeway.)

ENTRY GATE Vehicle entry onto Jekyll Island requires a valid parking pass which is purchased at the entry gate upon arrival on the island. The parking fee is charged per vehicle per day, and each vehicle is counted once it enters the island. The gate count doesn’t distinguish between different types of vehicles. Bicycles and pedestrians can enter at no charge, and they are not counted in any totals. Jekyll Island has experienced a 28.6% increase in number of vehicles visiting the island in the last five years. In 2017, the total number of vehicles coming through the gate was 1,163,829, a 2.2% increase from the previous year.10 For the first months of 2018, the projected number of vehicles was less in 2017. This was an anomaly due primarily to bad weather. The total for the year is expected to increase at a rate like previous years. The increase in the population of Georgia, the Coastal Islands, and Glynn County is expected to result in more people visiting the

Jekyll Island Gate Traffic Counts

The number of vehicles coming to Jekyll Island are counted in two different ways: (1) the entry gate to Jekyll Island, and (2) Georgia Department of Transportation Monitoring Sites. 1. ENTRY GATE: One source is traffic monitoring by the JIA, which occurs at the entrance to the state park. Every vehicle that comes through the entrance pays a parking fee, and this information is tabulated and stored. This is the primary source of information on visitor capacity and are much more accurate and precise then the GDOT Monitoring Sites.

9

Georgia DCA Dataviews, 2006

36

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS

2013

904,877

2014

972,544

7.0%

2015

1,071,576

9.2%

2016

1,138,504

5.9%

2017

1,163,829

2.2%

Total % change

28.6%

Table 2. Summary of gate traffic counts from 2013 to 2017. Data courtesy JIA.

10

JIA, 2018


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 4 - CARRYING CAPACITY

Figure 18. The Jekyll Island Visitor Center and Entry Gate. Image courtesy JIA.

Island. A conservative projection is an increase in number of vehicles to the island by 2% to 3% per year assuming all other factors are equal.

GDOT MONITORING SITES The Georgia Department of Transportation collects traffic data at a regular collection point on the Downing Musgrove Causeway, located west of the Guest Information Center and the parking fee collection station. GDOT presents this data as Annual Average Daily Traffic (AADT), which is the total vehicle traffic for the year divided by 365. It is a two-way figure, counting vehicles coming and going from the island. The counters are not always in place, so this number is not as accurate as JIA’s entry gate, which operates daily. GDOT’s AADT numbers for the causeway from 2003 to 2013 were consistently within a range from 3,400 to 4,200 vehicles. For the five-year period from 2008 through 2012, the annual total is projected to be 1,288,450 both ways or 644,225 vehicles coming on to the island. For 2014 through 2016, the AADT showed an increase in vehicles on the causeway of 3.2% and a 2.9%, respectfully. Traffic Analysis & Data Application (TADA): TADA provides data  collected from the Georgia Traffic Monitoring Program located on public roads. The application uses a dynamic mapping interface to access data, and in a  variety of report, graph, and data export formats.11

11

http://www.dot.ga.gov/informationcenter/ statistics/stars/Pages/TrafficCounterDetails.asp x?county=127&tc=0136

37

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS

GDOT Traffic Counts on Jekyll Island Causeway

2014

2015

2016

AADT

4,020

4,150

4,270

% Increase

3.1%

2.8%

GDOT Traffic Counts on Jekyll Island Roundabout

2014

2015

2016

AADT

2,650

2,790

2,900

% Increase

3.8%

5.0%

GDOT Traffic Counts on Jekyll Island in front of Great Dunes Park

2014

2015

2016

AADT

3,180

3,330

3,500

% Increase

4.9%

5.0%

Tables 3, 4, 5. GDOT Traffic Counts on Jekyll Island. Data courtesy GDOT.

Comparison to St. Simons Island: St. Simons Island is just north of Jekyll Island, and is often used as a point of comparison. Using data from the GDOT monitoring station entering St. Simons Island, St. Simons has an AADT of 31,500 while Jekyll Island is 4,270. St. Simons is approximately twice the size of Jekyll Island, so the difference in AADT has to do with the larger number of residents (12,743 on St. Simons compared to


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 4 - CARRYING CAPACITY GDOT Traffic Counts at Entrance to St. Simons Island

2014

2015

2016

AADT

29,900

30,900

31,500

% Increase

3.2%

1.9%

Table 6. Key GDOT Traffic Counts on St. Simons Island. Data courtesy GDOT.

less than 1,000 for Jekyll Island), the dense urban character of St. Simons, and the larger number of people.

PARKING CAPACITY Comparing available parking on Jekyll Island to the number of vehicles entering the island is one of the best ways to evaluate existing carrying capacity. The number of parking spaces on the island was determined by counting the actual spaces in each parking lot on the island and verifying these totals by site visits and reviews via aerial imagery. For unpaved parking areas, a standard parking bay and aisle dimension

Parking - Jekyll Island Type of Land Use

Parking Spaces

Village Residential Hotel Historical Facility Beach

315 1,404 910 415 1,865 860 5,769

Total

Practical Capacity (90% of Total)

5192

Table 7. The number of parking spaces on Jekyll Island (based on existing spaces per August, 2017).

was used to estimate the number of spaces. In some paved areas, striping was incomplete, so a standard striping layout was used to determine parking spaces. As a result, there are approximately 5,769 parking spaces on the island. This number does not include parking associated with residences, planned hotels, and other planned facilities not constructed. Parking capacity provides a static number of vehicles that can park on the Island at a time. Parking studies use the parking lot occupancy versus the supply. A target occupancy of 90% is used to define the “practical” capacity of a parking supply on a typical high impact day. Therefore, any parking lot with occupancies over 90% are considered “over-capacity” for those respective time periods.

Figure 19 - 20. Parking areas on Jekyll Island. Image courtesy Sand County Studios.

38

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS

The entry gate counts how many motor vehicles drive onto the island per day. If the number of vehicles entering the island is more than the number of existing parking spaces, the carrying capacity for vehicles has been exceeded. Vehicle numbers from the gate were tabulated for each day from March 2017 through April 2018. Using these numbers, there were 24 days where he number of vehicles entering the island was greater than the number of available parking


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 4 - CARRYING CAPACITY

Figure 21. The island airport has been closed for Shrimp and Grits in previous years and used for overflow parking. Image courtesy JIA.

spaces. The number of days where this occurs is likely to increase if the number of vehicles continues to increase at current rates. During 2017, most days where Jekyll Island exceeded vehicle carrying capacity occurred on high impact days such as summer weekends and programmed events and festivals. For example, an estimated 3,000 to 4,000 people attended the 2017 Annual Easter Egg Stroll in the Historic District, and gate traffic increased by 60% for that day compared to the previous year. In 2018, Caffeine and Octane at the Beach had an estimated attendance of 6,000 people. In 2016, a total of 16,366 vehicles passed through the entry gates for the three-day festival.

Figure 22. Buses were used to transport people from the airport to the Shrimp and Grits festival. Image courtesy JIA.

Consider providing parking off island and offer a shuttle service that would bring people to Jekyll Island.

Since the FAA restrictions use of the airport for event parking, JIA should consider other options, such as requiring people coming for festivals or events to park off island, or near the Jekyll Island bridge, and implement a shuttle system to move people to event locations. Another option would be to consider reservations and assigned parking to minimize the impact of these high impact days on island character.

Long-term, consider limiting vehicular access to Jekyll Island other than emergency vehicles, shuttles, and JIA, state, and county vehicles. Require all people to either use a shuttle system, a rented electric vehicle, or other alternative mode of transportation on the island (such as bikes, mopeds, etc.).

RECOMMENDATIONS JIA should consider the following options to address parking capacity: •

39

Minimize adding parking on the island except in key locations that may reduce the impact of vehicles on the island. Providing additional parking in most areas would increase the number of vehicles and people coming to the island and could exacerbate the problem. Consider activating parking area near the entrance to the island, with a shuttle service, rental electric vehicles, or other modes of transportation being available. SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 4 - CARRYING CAPACITY •

Plan for high impact days where vehicles entering the island are expected to exceed parking on the island. JIA is already doing this for events such as Shrimp & Grits and Independence Day.

Most of the roads on Jekyll Island had a LOS A most of the time, with the Jekyll Island Causeway, North Beachview Drive, and the Causeway between Riverview and Beachview being closer to LOS B most of the time.

Mobility choices could be piloted then expanded to manage vehicular access and parking. JIA should continue to explore options for shuttle services. There is currently not the demand, nor the critical mass of users to justify such services, but this is likely to change as the number of people to the island increases and as parking becomes more of an issue.

All the roads on Jekyll Island, including the causeway leading to the island, currently function at a LOS C or better, and this is not projected to change in the next decade or so. There are no significant changes planned to the causeway, island roads, or island roundabout. There are also no plans for a traffic light in the foreseeable future.

VEHICULAR CAPACITY & LEVEL OF SERVICE (LOS)

The causeway was designed to accommodate 18,000 to 21,000 vehicles daily,14 and the AADT in 2016 was 4,270, so the causeway is functioning at approximately 25% capacity, with a LOS of B. There are improvements planned for the bridge (Project 562120), but this is a long-range project and the existing 2 lanes would not be expanded.15

Vehicular capacity addresses the condition and use of roadways and is referred to as Level of Service (LOS). The capacity threshold is the number of vehicles the island can accommodate before roadway congestion occurs and the user experience degrades. For all projects in the state of Georgia, including Jekyll Island, LOS C is considered the roadway capacity threshold. At LOS C, there is little traffic congestion. In comparison, LOS D performance is characterized on an urban arterial road when motorists experience average operating speeds in the range of 17 to 7 miles per hour.12 The following shows the number of vehicles per day for two-lane roads to meet LOS requirements: Level of Service Capacity (Vehicles Per day) LOS A

< 2,500

LOS B

2,500 – 4,500

LOS C

4,500 – 8,000

LOS D

8,000 – 14,000

LOS E

14,000 – 27,500

LOS F

> 27,500

13

12

Long Range Transportation Plan 2005-2030

13

Florida DOT planning guidelines, rural uninterrupted flow highways, 2008

40

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS

When the roundabout was constructed, GDOT determined that a single-lane roundabout would be adequate for at least 10 years. Using current calculations, GDOT indicates that a singlelane round-about meets all expectations for functionality if the AADT is < 25,000.16 In 2016, the AADT at the roundabout was 2,900, so the roundabout is functioning at approximately 12% of its capacity. This means a major redesign of the roundabout is not likely anytime soon.17 One concern is the timing of evacuating people from the island during a hurricane, significant flooding, or other natural disaster. Plans for evacuation will have to be based on the existing road infrastructure, and providing advanced warnings are critical.

14 15 16

Bleakley, 2008

17

http://www.dot.ga.gov/PartnerSmart/ DesignManuals/DesignPolicy/GDOT-DPM.pdf

Long Range Transportation Plan 2005-2030 http://www.dot.ga.gov/PartnerSmart/ DesignManuals/DesignPolicy/GDOT-DPM.pdf


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 4 - CARRYING CAPACITY

ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY Both the JIA gate entry totals, and the GDOT Traffic Monitoring Program totals show the number of vehicles that cross a specific point. To determine number of people, the total number of vehicles is multiplied by a standard number that indicates average number of persons. A 1977 study by FHWA indicated a vehicle occupancy rate of 1.68 persons per vehicle, and 2.44 for social and recreation travel. According to the U.S. Department of Transportation, the average number of persons occupying a car is 1.59 and has not changed much since 1995. The largest increases from 1995 to 2009 have been in the occupancy rates for vans – from 2.07 to 2.35 – and sport-utility vehicles – from 1.70 to 1.92 persons per vehicle.18 The National Household Travel Survey (NHTS), conducted by FHWA, is considered by many to be the authoritative source on travel behavior of the American public. It includes daily non-commercial travel by all modes, including characteristics of people traveling, their household, and their vehicles. For 2017, the NHTS survey determined that cars had an average 1.54 individuals per trip, while the average of all vehicles (cars, trucks, SUVs, motorcycles, RVs, etc.) had an average of 1.67 individuals. Researchers at Texas A&M Transportation Institute (TTI) estimate that trips involving social activities, visiting friends, and vacations predominantly hold significantly higher vehicle occupancy rates, with varying constants of 2.20, 2.08, and 2.70 being used to convey number of individuals per vehicle.19 The Georgia Tourism Region - Coast Region Visitor Demographics (2015) study used a constant of 2.0 to estimate the average party size visiting the coastal regional.20

18

U.S. Department of Transportation, 2001 and 2009 National Household Travel Survey.

19

Average Vehicle Occupancy (Persons) by Trip Purpose. National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) Tabulation created on the NHTS website. Federal Highway Administration, 2019. http://nhts. ornl.gov. Accessed July 2017.

20

D.K. Shifflet and Associates, Ltd, 2015

41

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS

Figure 23. The average number of people in the vehicle times vehicle count equals total visitation. Image courtesy videoblocks.com

In 2017, the Selig Center used a multiplier of 3.0 for the Economic Impact of Jekyll Island report. The 3.0 multiplier is an average of survey responses in the combined short stay/day trip visitor category (1,229 responses). Also, seasonality was not considered because the goal was to estimate the economic impact of the calendar year (a 12-month period).

VISITATION For the Jekyll Island Capacity Study, total visitation was calculated two different ways: 1. A constant (multiplier) of 3.0 used in the Selig Center’s Economic Study was applied to the vehicle counts at the entry gate. This is the how JIA currently calculates total number of people. For example, most JIA documents refer to 3.6 million people for 2017 based on a traffic count of approximately 1,163,829 multiplied by 3.0. 2. A multiplier of 2.5 was used for off-season, 3.0 for peak season, and 3.5 for high impact days with festival events. These adjustments incorporate seasonality and level of use as reflected by the number of vehicles counted at the entry gate and the observed size of crowds on the island. Carrying capacity not only considers the number of people, but also where those people are on the island, what they do, and how long they stay. If people are distributed across the island, with the greatest number of people being in the most tolerant areas, and fewer people in the most sensitive areas, then the island can accommodate


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 4 - CARRYING CAPACITY Visitation Numbers 2016

Vehicles

Multiplier

People

Off Season

546,916

3

1,640,748

Peak Season

591,588

3

1,774,764

Totals

1,138,504

Totals

3,415,512

2017

Off Season

562,778

3

1,688,334

Peak Season

601,051

3

1,803,153

Totals

1,163,829

Totals

3,491,487

Table 8. Visitation using 3.0 Multiplier. Data courtesy Sand County Studios.

more people. Projecting an acceptable number of people will require specific data collected over the next couple of years. JIA will need to monitor and/or control the number of people coming through the gate at some time in the future, and there is currently no easy way for this to occur. RECOMMENDATIONS The following are recommendations related to visitor carrying capacity: Explore Permit/Reservation System: Mandatory permits can be used to limit the number of people entering the island or a specific area. How permits are applied can vary greatly. One option is to limit the time a visitor can stay on the island for day use, but this may be difficult to monitor. Permits could be required per management zone, or use area, to control

number of people at that specific location. The use of quotas (number of permits allowed for an area) could help maintain the desired condition, eliminate large spikes in use, and spread use temporally and spatially. Explore Fee Structure: Fees during events and festivals, and for weekends during peak summer months could be raised to reflect the additional impact upon island resources. This includes additional security staff, transportation alternatives, and staff for clean-up. The fee level, permit delivery details, etc. could be decided in a subsequent process. Enhance Site Protection and Restrictions: Regulations intended to protect natural and cultural resources should continue to be applied on a site by site basis. Site features such as boardwalks, raised viewing platforms,

Visitation Numbers 2016

Off Season

546,916

2.5

1,367,290

Peak Season

591,588

3

1,774,764

High Impact Days

24 days

3.5

Totals

2017

Off Season

562,778

2.5

1,406,945

Peak Season

601,051

3

1,803,153

High Impact Days

24 days

3.5

Totals

Table 9. Visitation using Revised Multipliers. Data courtesy Sand County Studios.

42

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS

104,888 3,246,942

129,516 3,339,614


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 4 - CARRYING CAPACITY and barriers that prevent access to sensitive resources also help accommodate people, and should be adopted when appropriate. Currently there are no restrictions on the number of people at a specific site.

172,364 per year by FY 2012 for a decline of 42%. The decline has stabilized and has stayed consistently under 180,000. The peak number came in FY 1989 when Jekyll Island experienced almost 346,000 hotel room nights for the year.

Consider Access Management for Parking: Jekyll Island has approximately 24 days over the past year where the number of cars entering the island exceeded the number of available parking spaces. This parking concern could only increase as more people come to the island. Access management can be a tool to control use. JIA doesn’t currently restrict the number of cars driving on to the island and doesn’t monitor or enforce illegal and/or inappropriate parking.

The occupancy rate for hotels on the island over the entire year is just over 61%. Summer weekends have a much higher occupancy rate, and many hotels don’t have rooms available during these months, especially on weekends. Conversely, the percent of units being used during non-peak times is much lower.

Implement Monitoring and Adaptive Management: Monitoring could determine whether an alternative is meeting management standards and can also alert JIA to unexpected effects of management. Each action alternative describes a starting point for implementation of a visitor use management strategy that could be adjusted over time to respond to increases in use, changes in visitation patterns, or an ineffective strategy.21

OVERNIGHT STAYS The number of hotel rooms in use per night is a good indicator of the number of people staying on the Island and whether visitation has increased or decreased over time. In 2018, DestiMetrics conducted a study for the Golden Isles Convention and Visitors Bureau (CVB) to analyze the number and type of rental units and pillows (maximum occupancy per room) available for short-term rental in the Golden Isles. This study documented availability of 6,786 units and up to 29,030 “pillows,” which refers to number of guests per room based on the types of beds (single, double, etc.).22

Figure 24. Overnight stays include rooms and occupancy at the Jekyll Island Beach Resort and other hotels, residences, and camping on the island. Image courtesy Sand County Studios.

There are several considerations in terms of overnight stays, including the following: •

There are an adequate number of parking spaces for overnight stays, and the number of vehicles and people associated with these overnight stays meet parking requirements.

People staying at hotels often drive out of the hotel parking lots and drive to other parking lots on the island, exacerbating the potential problem of finding available parking.

The highest number of overnight stays occur during summer weekends, and during island events and festivals.

In FY 2002, the number of hotel room nights on Jekyll island was 297,457 and had fallen to

21

https://www.fs.usda.gov/nfs/11558/www/ nepa/105465_FSPLT3_4290447.pdf

22

Golden Isles’ Transient Inventory Study January 31, 2018. DestiMetrics

43

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 4 - CARRYING CAPACITY Golden Isles Convention and Visitors Bureau Study – Jekyll Island UNITS

Condo

B&B

Private Home

Campground

Total

Jekyll Island

58

0

Hotel/Motel 1,287

171

158

1,674

Pillows

Jekyll Island

302

0

4,616

1,370

948

7,236

Golden Isles Convention and Visitors Bureau – Jekyll Island

Total Units

Units Occupied

Annual Occupancy Rate

2017

385,054

235,480

61.20%

2016

381,377

233,801

61.30%

2015

350,411

213,923

61.00%

2014

254,888

162,509

63.80%

2013

297,501

174,978

58.80%

2012

314,596

174,151

55.40%

Golden Isles Convention and Visitors Bureau Study – Total Rooms for Jekyll Island Hotel Rooms

1,551

Permanent Homes

763

Cottages and Ocean Oaks

163

Jekyll Island Campground

158

Camp Jekyll

256

Total

2,891

Golden Isles Convention and Visitors Bureau Study – Maximum Occupancy for Jekyll Island People in Hotel Rooms

5,721

People in Permanent Homes

3,052

People in Cottages and Ocean Oaks

815

People in Jekyll Island Campground

948

People in Camp Jekyll

256

Total

10,792

Tables 10,11,12, 13. Occupancy for Jekyll Island from he Golden Isles Convention and Visitors Bureau Study, Data courtesy Golden Islles Convention and Visitors Bureau Study.

44

The hotels are busiest during peak season and high impact days. Bringing more people to the island during these times will increase the likelihood of overcrowding.

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS

FACILITIES Existing facilities on Jekyll Island include the Historic District, the Sea Turtle Center, the Jekyll Island Club Resort, Convention Center, and shops in the Beach Village. Each building open


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 4 - CARRYING CAPACITY

Overnight Stays on Jekyll Island Rooms

People

Jekyll Island Club Hotel

157

433

Jekyll Ocean Club

41

122 552

Days Inn

124

Hampton Inn

138

528

Villas by the Sea

134

426

Real Estate Rental Units (estimate)

175

524

The Westin

200

694

Quality Inn

72

402

Holiday Inn

157

628

Beachview Club Hotel

38

152

Residence Inn

90

360

Courtyard by Marriott

118

472

Home2 Suites

107

428

5721

Total  

Permanent Homes

763

3052

Cottages at Jekyll Island

123

615

40

200

Jekyll Ocean Oaks Total

815

RV Camping

158

948

Camp Jekyll

256

256

Total People per Night

Capacity - All Seasons

10792

Table 14. Overnight Stays on Jekyll Island. Data courtesy JIA.

to the public has a maximum occupancy based upon fire marshal criteria. The occupancy level of a building or space can be thought of as the number of people that can be safely accommodated based on sq. ft. per person. The acceptable number of people can vary significantly depending on type of building. Factors to consider include the fire marshal code, number and location of exits, type of sprinkler system, building use, and presence of hazardous materials.23

23

https://www.hunker.com/12389505/how-do-idetermine-a-building-occupancy-fire-code

45

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS

To estimate occupancy, the size of an area is divided by the sq. ft. required per person. For outdoor areas, factors such as type of surface, presence of walkways or boardwalks, and sensitivity of the surrounding landscape are a major part of the evaluation. For both buildings and sites, a Maximum Occupancy total is given, as is a Practical Occupancy total. Maximum occupancy is based upon the total number of people allowed or accommodated assuming 100% capacity and is often determined by fire code. Practical occupancy adjusts total occupancy based upon what is reasonable, feasible, and logical.


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 4 - CARRYING CAPACITY Some facilities are more vulnerable to overcrowding than others, and the impact of people may vary seasonally. For Jekyll Island summer months, and particularly summer weekends, are the busiest. Capacity metrics were generated for each building and site to ensure achievement of desired conditions. Some examples of capacity metrics include the number of people, number of people by activity, and number of vehicles.

BUILDINGS The carrying capacity for buildings on the island is as follows:

Figure 25. Entrance to the Jekyll Island Convention Center facing the Beach Village. Image courtesy Sand County Studios.

Jekyll Island Convention Center: The Convention Center is a 128,000 square foot building with 11 meeting rooms and a 45,000 sq. ft. ballroom. Large pre-function areas and more than 30,000 sq. ft. of patio and lawn area make the center flexible in terms of use. Since it opened in 2012, the Convention Center has been steadily attracting larger conferences and events. In the first few years, the lack of new and updated hotels hindered use, but the last two years has seen a marked increase in the number of attendees. A total of 922 contracted events over 1809 event days have occurred at the Convention Center since it opened.24 The maximum capacity for the center is based in part on how the ballroom/exhibition hall is organized. This assessment specifically looked at (1) capacity for classrooms, and (2) capacity for other center activities. Over the past five years, the center has averaged a little more than 30,000 attendees per year for meetings and workshops that primarily used the classrooms. In 2017, the number of attendees was 43,476, and that number is expected to continue to increase. Carrying capacity for the Convention Center classrooms involves looking at both the number of events, and the physical capacity of the classrooms being used for these events. Collectively these classrooms could hold

24

JIA

46

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS

Figure 26. Interior of the Convention Center. Image courtesy JIA.

approximately 1,100 people per day. A practical carrying capacity of 50,000 people per year is considered appropriate for the meeting rooms. The Convention Center is also used for a variety of uses that include workshops and meetings, wedding receptions, exhibitions that use the ballroom and other larger spaces, family reunions, and school events, just to name a few. The number of people that can be in the Convention Center varies depending upon the physical layout of the ballroom. A carrying capacity of 150,000 people per year is considered appropriate for these events. So the combined capacity of convention center classrooms (approximately 50,000 people) and additional center activities (150,000 people) equals 200,000 people. JIA FACILITIES: The carrying capacity for JIA facilities is based on a percentage of the maximum capacity for each building. For most


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 4 - CARRYING CAPACITY

Figure 27. Layout of the existing Jekyll Island Convention Center. Image courtesy JIA.

Table 15. Existing maximum capacity of the Convention Center based on different layout options. Data courtesy JIA.

buildings, the number of people is doubled (per industry standards) to account for visitation in mornings and afternoons. This does not include the Administration Building, which is generally not available for tours.. For all JIA facilities, 50% of the maximum capacity is used to determine practical capacity for the off season, and 75% for peak season. Number of visitors is determined more by programming than from available parking or JIA tour vehicles.

47

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS

HISTORIC DISTRICT: The Jekyll Island National Historic Landmark District is a one of the largest ongoing restoration projects in the southeastern United States. The former Club grounds comprise a 240-acre site with 34 historic structures. Some of the facilities here include Villa Ospa, Bicentennial & Plantation Oaks, Indian Mound/Sans Souci lawn, DuBignon Cottage, Skeet House, Moss Cottage, Mistletoe, Hollybourne, Villa Marianna & Marianna Gardens, Dove Cote, Faith Chapel,


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 4 - CARRYING CAPACITY Conference Center Meetings Year

Attendees

Events

Function

2018 to date and projected to end of calendar year*

41,045

Attendees

86

Conferences or small groups. *

2017

43,376

Attendees

91

Conferences or small groups

2016

32,062

Attendees

84

Conferences or small groups

2015

25,402

Attendees

67

Conferences or small groups

2014

27,690

Attendees

50

Conferences or small groups

2013

23,438

Attendees

48

Conferences or small groups

Table 16. Convention Center attendees using meeting rooms from 2013 to 2017. This does not count any business JIA will book for meeting rooms between July 1st and end of year. Data courtesy JIA.

and Chicota Ruins. Most of the structures are open to the public, and several are part of the tours available to visitors. Total visitation for the tours over the last 5 years has averaged 36,967 per year. Three days last year JIA handled over 900 people on group tours, regular tours, Indian Mound, and Faith Chapel walk-ins. The limiting factor for tours is available parking and staff. Informal tours of the Historic District are very popular. Many of the original roads have been transformed into pedestrian walkways that can accommodate many people. For example, the Shrimp and Grits Festival is held within the Historic District. It is logical to assume this interest in the Historic District is going to continue, and demand for informal and formal tours could increase. Based on visitation numbers over the last couple years, the number of people that has been accommodated is from 100 to 130 people per day on average. JEKYLL ISLAND BEACH VILLAGE: The Beach Village is located adjacent to the convention center and is the centerpiece of a project that also includes an oceanfront promenade, village green, restaurants, and retail shopping. The maximum capacity based on fire codes is 718 per day at one time, with the assumption that turnover would double this number during peak

48

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS

Figure 28. Buildings in the Historic District are publicly available via a variety of tours. Image courtesy Sand County Studios.

season. Practical capacity is 50% of this total during the off season, and 75% for peak season.

BUILDING OCCUPANCY The practical occupancy to all of the public buildings on the island are combined and a sliding scale indicates a range of the total number of people the buildings can accommodate.

SITE FEATURES GOLF: For the golf courses on the island – Great Dunes, Pine Lakes, Oleander, and Indian Mound – the time it takes to complete a round fluctuates


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 4 - CARRYING CAPACITY with how busy the courses are. The goal is to complete a round in less than 4.5 hours on all courses. The golf courses can accommodate up to 828 rounds per day on a tee time basis without factoring in carts, and 720 based on existing number of carts.25 Assuming four golfers playing each round, this equates to 2880 to 3312 people per day.

From 2014-2016, the total rounds played at Jekyll Island Golf Course was 66,978, and that number has been declining. This is an average of 184 rounds per day, and assuming each has four golfers, 734 people per day. The busiest month during these years was March, with 11,094 rounds, followed by 8,647 in April.26 Given the amount of golf currently being played and the overall declining trend of golf, it is difficult to see the number of golfers on Jekyll Island increasing significantly. The carrying capacity for golf reflects the current trends on the island.

Jekyll Island Golf Capacity Range of Golfers

Figure 29. The Beach Village is one of the new developments on the island that provide amenities for visitors and residents. Image courtesy Sand County Studios.

Practical Occupancy for Buildings

Sliding Scale

Maximum Occupancy

2,880

3,312

Adjusted Occupancy (based on rounds)

800

1,600

Practical Capacity - Off Season (213 days @ 75%)

72,600

145,200

Practical Capacity - Peak Season (152 days at 50%)

92,800

185,600

Practical Capacity - Total per Year

165,400

330,800

*Peak Season for golf is February to May

Hotels, Homes, Camping

2,379,636

2,379,636

Convention Center Workshops

55,000

66,000

Convention Center Activities

150,000

150,000

JIA Facilities

161,930

161,930

Buildings via Tour

32,700

42,510

Retail Village

234,786

234,786

Total

3,014,052

3,034,862

Table 17. Practical Occupancy for Buildings. Data courtesy Sand County Studios.

25

NGF Consulting. Jekyll Island Golf Club Assessment and Recommendations for Jekyll Island Authority Golf Program. January 2017.

49

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS

Table 18. Capacity for number of golfers on the island. Data

courtesy Sand County Studios.

SUMMER WAVES: The popular water park provides several types of water play features. Metrics used to determine capacity are based on standards developed by the Georgia Department of Public Safety. The capacity shown is based upon the current facilities at the water park. Additional facilities will increase capacity. Summer Waves is only open during the peak season. The practical occupancy is based on the capacity of water features, not support features such as picnic use. Metrics from the Georgia Department of Public Health for swimming pools,

26

NGF Consulting. Jekyll Island Golf Club Assessment and Recommendations for Jekyll Island Authority Golf Program. January 2017.


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 4 - CARRYING CAPACITY

Summer Waves Facilities

size in sf.

Wave Pool Play area Slide 1 Splash pad Slide 2 Lazy River

23000 10000 7500 4800 5000 20000

Range - sq. ft per person 50 90 150 50 150 40

Range - number of people

40 70 130 40 130 30 Maximum Occupancy

Practical Capacity (rounded) - Peak Season (152 days @ 75%)

460 111 50 96 33 500 1250

575 142 58 120 38 667 1600

142,500

182,400

Table 19. Practical capacity for Summer Waves. Data courtesy Sand County Studios.

spas, and water parks define square footage per person for each type of water use.27 PLAYGROUND: There are two public playgrounds near the Mini Golf. In general, a playground should be 2,500 square feet minimum; with 10 activities, and 75 sq. ft. per child playground.28

Playgrounds Maximum Occupancy (for both playgrounds by Mini Golf)

40

60

kids per day

Practical Capacity Off Season (213 days @ 50%

4260

6390

kids per year

Practical Capacity - Peak Season (152 days at 750%)

4560

6840

kids per year

Practical Capacity Total per Year

8820

13230

kids per year

Table 20. Capacity for people using playgrounds on the island.

Data courtesy Sand County Studios.

Figure 30. Playground by the Great Dunes 50. Image courtesy Sand County Studios.

TENNIS: There are 13 Har-tru clay tennis courts on Jekyll Island. The number of potential players is based upon current usage trends, the number of courts, and the average time it takes to play a match. If 4 players play for 1.5 to 2 hours Figure 31. Jekyll Island Tennis Courts. Image courtesy Sand County Studios.

27

Metrics from the Georgia Department of Public Health. Rules of Department of Public Health, Chapter 511-3-5 Swimming Pools, Spas, and Recreational Water Parks.

28

https://www.lifeway.com/lwc/files/lwcf_pdf_ church_architecture_rules_of_thumb.pdf

50

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS

(conservatively), from 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. (excluding 1 hour at midday used to water the courts), that would be 160 to 312 players per day (2 to 4 players x 13 courts x 6 matches per court per day). This type of play primarily occurs during the


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 4 - CARRYING CAPACITY Jekyll Island Tennis Capacity

Jekyll Island Trails Capacity

Range of Players

Practical Occupancy

160

312

Practical Capacity - Off Season (251 days @ 30%)

12,048

23,494

Practical Capacity - Peak Season (114 days at 75%)

13,680

26,676

Total

25,728

50,170

Practical Capacity - Total per Year

75,898

Range of People Multi-use Trails (unpaved)

8

Range of People

12

groups/ mile, with 4/groups per day for 8 miles

256

384

672

960

Multi-use Trails (paved)

14

20

groups/ mile, with 4/groups per day for 12 miles

Table 21. Capacity for number of tennis players on the island. Data courtesy Sand County Studios.

Practical Capacity Off Season (213 days @ 50%)

98,832

143,136

off-season on Jekyll Island, because it is too hot and humid for most players during the summer months. Capacity considers a range of 160 to 312 players per day, depending upon the number of players per court.

Practical Capacity - Peak Season (152 days at 75%)

105,792

153,216

Practical Capacity Total per Year

204,624

296,352

TRAILS: Carrying capacity for trails is based upon the type of trail and the intended experience the trail provides. Indicators of quality, such as the number of hikers encountered along trails or the number of people sharing a viewing platform, help define user experience. Trail capacity for Jekyll Island assumes 20 miles of trails on the island, with 8 being unpaved and 12 being paved. An average of 4 groups per day are calculated for each type of trail, with the size of the groups varying for each type of trail. FISHING: The carrying capacity for people fishing on Jekyll Island include those along the shore and at the pier. This capacity is based on a range of people fishing per length of shore. PICNICKING: This includes picnic areas throughout the island. The range shown is based upon estimates of number of tables per acre, number of people per table or shelter, and number of groups per day. Capacity can be increased by ensuring existing facilities are in good shape, adding more facilities, and/or requiring reservations.

51

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS

Table 22. Capacity for number of people using trails on the island. Data courtesy Sand County Studios.

BEACHES: Beaches are highly valuable tourist resources, and factors such as beach topography, location of access points, parking availability, and perception by users can be more important than the total sand area utilized for recreational purposes. Carrying capacity is estimated based on the sq. ft. of beach available per person. There are 295 acres of total beach on the island, with the useable beach extending from the edge of the dunes to the mean high-water line. Jekyll Island is known for its uncrowded beaches, and each beach on the island has a different carrying capacity based upon the type of use and user expectations. •

GREAT DUNES BEACH PARK: Great Dunes is the closest beach to the Village and Convention Center and is one of the busiest and most popular beaches for families and


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 4 - CARRYING CAPACITY

groups. Large parking areas adjacent to the beach provide easy access, and the beach is also within walking distance of several major hotels.

Jekyll Island Picnic Capacity Range of People Tables

8 to 15 tables/ acre, 4 per table, 2 groups per day

64

120

6 pavilions at Great Dunes (10 and 20)

60

120

Clam Creek Picnic Tables

20

30

St. Andrews Picnic Area

20

30

South Dune Picnic Area

3 shelters (10 to 20 / pav.)

30

60

tables

20

30 390

Maximum Occupancy Per Day

214

Practical Capacity - Off Season (213 days @ 50%)

22,791

41,535

Practical Capacity - Peak Season (152 days @ 75%)

24,396

44,460

Practical Capacity - Total per Year

47,187 85,995

Table 23. Capacity for people picnicking on the island. Data courtesy Sand County Studios.

Jekyll Island Fishing Capacity Range of People

Shoreline

1/4 mile of shoreline for 1 fisherman, 2 groups per day (7 miles)

Jekyll Island Pier

10-30 fisherman, 2 groups per day

20

60

Maximum Occupancy

280

440

Practical Occupancy (75%) – Total per Year

76,650

120,450

120

160

Table 24. Capacity for number of fisherman on the island. Data courtesy Sand County Studios.

52

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS

DRIFTWOOD BEACH: Driftwood lines the waterfront of the beach, which is popular for long walks, walking dogs, weddings, and photography.

GLORY BEACH PARK: This beach is very wide and is noted for its graceful sea oats and pristine sand dunes. It is a sanctuary for resting and nesting birds.

SOUTH DUNES BEACH PARK: This beach has an elevated boardwalk that crosses 20-foot sand dunes and provides access to the beach. It is a sanctuary for resting and nesting birds and does not allow pets.

• ST. ANDREWS BEACH PARK: This beach is near Jekyll Point, the southern-most tip of the Island. It’s a popular spot for watching migratory birds as well as groups of dolphins, and for enjoying the quiet setting. The beach is ADA accessible.29 The physical beach  space  is approximately 100  sq.  ft per person, meaning that the 295 acres of beaches on Jekyll Island can physically accommodate a tremendous number of people, but the visitor experience would be compromised. As a point of comparison, this metric equates to Miami Beach on a busy summer weekend. To determine practical carrying capacity for island beaches, industry standard photo simulations of beach densities are used (these were prepared for Praia de Faro, Portugal). The design team, along with JIA staff, selected the photos that were most appropriate for desired beach conditions on Jekyll Island. The six photographs show densities of 0, 50, 100, 200, 300, and 600 users per beach. This means that the square footage needed for each beach user varies based on density. The beaches on Jekyll Island were categorized based on desired character, and they include Low

29

www.jekyllisland.com


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 4 - CARRYING CAPACITY Standard Beach Densities Based on Photos Beach

Total Acreage

acres to sf

SF

SF / person

Photo B

295

43560

12850200

17906

718

718

Photo C

295

43560

12850200

8953

1435

1435

Photo D

295

43560

12850200

4476

2871

2871

Capacity

Capacity

Table 25. Capacity for people on beaches based on photographs. Data courtesy Sand County Studios.

A

B

C

D

E

F

Figure 33. Jekyll Island Beach. Image courtesy Sand County Studios.

Figure 32. Industry standard images used to define beach capacity. Image courtesy Daniel A. Zacarias.

Jekyll Island Beach Capacity Based on Categories Total Acreage

SF / person

Capacity

Total Off Season (213 days) per year at 50%

Total Peak Season (152 days) per year at 75%

Low Capacity (Photo B)

89

17,906

215

22,929

24,544

Medium Capacity (Photo C)

148

8,953

718

76,429

81,812

High Capacity (Photo D)

59

4476

574

61,150

65,457

295

160,509

171,812

Practical Capacity - Total per year

332,321

Table 26. Capacity for number of people using the beaches on the island. Data courtesy Sand County Studios.

Capacity (which has a density of 17,906 sq. per person), Medium Capacity (8,953 sq. per person), and High Capacity (4,476 sq. ft per person). Using these numbers, the practical capacity for Jekyll Island beaches is 718 during the off season and 1,435 people per day during peak season using the beaches.

53

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS

ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES: The Island includes several archaeological and cultural resource sites. 53 archaeological sites were known to occur in 2011 on property managed by the JIA. 50 of these archaeological sites are currently listed with the Georgia Archaeological Site File (GASF), including 21 prehistoric sites, 14 historic sites, 8 sites with both historic and prehistoric components, and 7 sites of unknown cultural


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 4 - CARRYING CAPACITY

Jekyll Island Sites Range of people per year 142,500 182,400 8,820 13,230 165,400 330,800 75,898 75,898 204,624 296,352 47,187 85,995 76,650 120,450 332,321 332,321 1,053,400 1,437,446

Summer Waves Playgrounds Golf Tennis Trails Picnicking Fishing Beach TOTAL

Table 27. Existing capacity based on number of people that can be accommodated on Jekyll Island sites. Data courtesy Sand County Studios.

JEKYLL ISLAND TOTAL

Range of People per Year

Buildings

3,014,052

3,034,862

Sites

1,053,400

1,437,446

4,067,451

4,472,307

Table 28. Existing capacity based on number of people that can be accommodated on Jekyll Island. Data courtesy Sand County Studios.

JEKYLL ISLAND TOTAL Existing Capacity (Buildings & Sites)

4,067,451

4,472,307

Projected Number of people

3,415,551

3,415,551

Available capacity

651,900

1,056,756

Table 29. Available capacity for additional people on Jekyll Island. Data courtesy Sand County Studios.

Years Before Capacity is Reached for Jekyll Island Visitation (based on 2017 numbers)

Increase in People

Visitation after Year 1 (Projected)

Increase in People

Visitation after Year 2 (Projected)

Increase in People

Visitation after Year 3 (Projected)

Increase in People

Visitation after Year 4 (Projected)

3,491,487

244,404

3,735,891

261,512

3,997,403

279,818

4,277,222

299,406

4,576,627

3,339,614

233,773

3,573,387

250,137

3,823,524

267,647

4,091,171

286,382

4,377,553

Table 30. Years before capacity of people is reached for Jekyll Island. Data courtesy Sand County Studios.

affiliation.30 Most of these sites are not accessible to the public.

30

Jekyll Island Conservation Plan. Sept. 2011

54

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS

COMBINED CAPACITY Using these numbers, Jekyll Island can currently accommodate an additional estimate of 651,900 to 1,056,756 visitors per year. This means that at 7%, which is the average rate of increase of


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 4 - CARRYING CAPACITY

Figure 34. Independence Day parade on Jekyll Island. Image courtesy JIA.

Figure 35. Music event at the Beach Village. Image courtesy JIA.

visitation for the last four years, capacity will be reached between 2020 (4,091,171 people) and 2021 (4,576,627 people).

EVENTS & FESTIVALS The Village Green and Historic District are two of the most common sites on Jekyll Island to hold events, festivals, and other activities. Both spaces are flexible in terms of use. A problem with events and festivals is that there is a different approach to parking needed for the large crowds since existing parking lots are inadequate.

55

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS

Figure 36. Shrimp and Grits is one of the more popular events on Jekyll Island. Image courtesy JIA.


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 4 - CARRYING CAPACITY For public events and activities, a standard metric of 2.5 to 4 square meter, or 27 to 44 sq. ft. is allocated per person.31 Both the Village Green and the Historic District can accommodate events with large crowds since these events can be expanded to adjacent areas as well. Carry capacity for festivals and events are related more to parking and environmental impacts than to the physical capacity of the spaces. Efforts in recent years to enhance JIA sponsored events has paid off as evidenced by revenue data, the 2018 Visitor survey, and stakeholder feedback. RECOMMENDATIONS Recommendations that pertain to events and festivals include: •

Introduce additional events that promote and highlight the history and environmental uniqueness of the island.

ENVIRONMENTAL CARRYING CAPACITY Environmental Carrying Capacity looks at the impact of recreational activities upon the natural resources of the island. Jekyll Island is known for its tidal marshes, beaches and sand shoals, wetlands, dunes, hammocks, forested wetlands, pine forests, and the natural, undeveloped character of the island. Jekyll Island is more engaged in conservation and has more undeveloped land than many other easily-accessible barrier islands in the Southeastern U.S. This is one of the primary reasons conservation is a major part of JIA’s mission, which involves protecting the landscape and habitat while creating an environmentally sustainable and economically viable state park. Emphasis is on enhancing the visitor experience and providing visitor services without reducing the island’s protected undeveloped land. In 2011, the JIA established a Conservation Program with the mandate to preserve and

Figure 37. Dunes and beach. Image courtesy JIA.

31

https://www.poynter.org/news/online-tool-makeschecking-crowd-sizes-easier

56

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS

enhance the island’s natural resources, while providing nature-based educational and recreational opportunities. The JIA established a Conservation Planning Committee, which identified four areas of focus. These were:


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 4 - CARRYING CAPACITY 1. Preservation of biological communities and species diversity; 2. Restoration, maintenance, and management of the Island’s ecological processes; 3. Nature-based tourism and recreation; and 4. Environmental education. The Environmental Carrying Capacity uses the ten vegetation communities and land uses as a framework for the assessment. These vegetation communities were defined through an extensive mapping of land cover and field checking of vegetation communities as part of previous management planning efforts for the Island, and work conducted by the Georgia Department of Natural Resources (GADNR). The GADNR mapping efforts characterized vegetation types using U.S. National Vegetation Classification designations and associations documented by NatureServe. A total of 29 vegetation communities and land covers were identified as part of the 2011 update for these mapping efforts. The Conservation Plan provides a brief overview of the predominant vegetation communities and land uses found on the Island. Vegetation communities with similar structure and/or ecological characteristics, such as forested wetlands and herbaceous wetlands, have been grouped within these overviews. Several vegetation communities with smaller areal extent or plant species used to colonize disturbed ground were not included in this overview.1 Plant communities that are unstable or fragile, or which are rare or endangered will not accommodate the impacts of people well and should be avoided.

Figure 38. The environmental systems on the island support many wildlife species, including deer. Image courtesy JIA.

Saltmarsh Islands Ecotones

Dunes

Freshwater Herbaceous Wetlands

Tidal Marshes

Beach

Urban/Developed

Assessing environmental capacity based on these vegetation communities provides a commonality between this study, the Jekyll Island Conservation Plan, and the Master Plan 2014 for Jekyll Island.

ENVIRONMENTAL VARIABLES These environmental communities are evaluated based upon the following categories: •

Description: Key characteristics of the environmental community.

Level of Vulnerability: A sliding scale ranging from Very High to Very Low is used to determine this factor. It addresses how susceptible to damage from impacts each area may be. Environmental communities on Jekyll Island vary from unstable types that cannot withstand trampling, such as sand dunes, to stable types, such as pine flatwoods. Developed areas are less vulnerable to impacts.

Level of Resource Protection (LRP): A sliding scale ranging from Very High to Very Low is used to determine this factor.

Ten Vegetation Communities on Jekyll Island •

Maritime Hammocks

Pine Forests

Forested Wetlands

Backdune/Dune Swale Vegetation

1

Jekyll Island Conservation Plan. Sept. 2011

57

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 4 - CARRYING CAPACITY

Figure 39. The environmental communities vary in terms of their ability to accommodate impacts of people and/or development. Image courtesy Sand County Studios.

This refers to how much effort is needed to protect a vegetative community. This looks at finding trade-offs and evaluating scenarios rather than using a hard and fast number. •

Visitor Capacity: A sliding scale is used to determine Visitor Capacity from Very High to Very Low. A single measure cannot give any indication of the efficiency of utilization or show the difference between potential capacity and that achieved.

Appropriate Visitor Activities, Facilities, and Services: These are based on the Level of Vulnerability for each community. The Pine Flatwoods and Mixed Hardwood/ Pine forests are the most resistant to impacts and can accommodate a wider range of activities. These plant communities are followed by Xeric Hammock, Coastal Hammock, Mesic Hammock, and Tropical Hammock, all of which are also somewhat resistant to impacts. Sand Pine Scrub and Sandhill, and Low Flatwoods and Hydric Hammock communities are less resistant. Dunes and wetlands are the most affected.2

2

Florida Department of Environmental Protection Division of Recreation and Parks Recreational Carrying Capacity Guidelines.

58

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS

The variables are evaluated on a 1 to 5 sliding scale ranging from Very High to Very Low, with 1 being the highest ranking and 5 being the lowest. Areas that are the most vulnerable should be protected from human impacts, the level of resource protection indicates the level of effort needed to protect resources, and this information can be used to set priorities and determine management strategies. Areas with the lowest visitor capacity should not include activities that encourage more people, while areas with the highest visitor capacity should be considering for addressing increased visitation and/or development. MARITIME HAMMOCKS: Maritime Live Oak Hammock, Southern Florida Maritime Hammock. Mature upland forests of mixed, old-age canopy dominated by live oak, sand live oak, and other oak species, minimal (Live Oak Hammock) to moderately dense (Florida Maritime Hammock) midstory, and diverse understories ranging from dense saw palmetto to open shrub layers with minimal herbaceous plants. •

Level of Vulnerability: Medium. The Maritime Hammocks are sensitive to fire, invasive species, habit fragmentation, and impact of development. The coastal hammocks which were once found in a continuous band along the barrier islands of the Atlantic coast, have been reduced


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 4 - CARRYING CAPACITY

ENVIRONMENTAL COMMUNITIES Level of Vulnerability

Level of Resource Protection

Visitor Capacity

Medium

Low to Medium

Low

Medium

Medium

Low to Medium

MARITIME HAMMOCKS PINE FORESTS FORESTED WETLANDS

Very High

Very Low

Very Low

BACKDUNE/DUNE SWALE VEGETATION

Medium to High

Low

Low

SALTMARSH ISLANDS ECOTONES

Medium to High

Low to Medium

Low

DUNES

Very High

Very Low

Very Low

FRESHWATER HERBACEOUS WETLANDS

Very High

Very Low

Very Low

TIDAL MARSHES

Very High

Very Low

Very Low

Medium

Low

Very Low, Low, Medium

Low

High

High

BEACH URBAN/DEVELOPED

Table 31. Environmental Communities on Jekyll Island. Data courtesy Sand County Studios.

to remnants, due to extensive coastal development.

of pine-dominated, typically old-age, canopy with minimal midstory and diverse understories.

Level of Resource Protection (LRP): Low to Medium. The Maritime Hammocks are one of the prominent landscape communities on the island, and one of the more durable in terms of level of vulnerability and level of resource protection.

Visitor Capacity: Low. This landscape community is considered imperiled, so visitation should be kept low.

Appropriate Visitor Activities, Facilities, and Services: These are appropriate landscapes for hikers, casual walkers, bird watchers, environmental education students, researchers, and other users who would be mindful of not disturbing the flora and fauna.

PINE FORESTS: Maritime Slash Pine Upland Flatwoods, Mid- to Late-Successional Loblolly Pine – Sweetgum Forest. Mature upland forests

59

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS

Level of Vulnerability: Medium. These landscapes are vulnerable to invasive species, fire, habit fragmentation, and the impact of development. They are tolerant of pedestrians.

 Level of Resource Protection (LRP): Medium. These are durable landscapes that tolerate light to moderate impacts associated with pedestrians. •

Visitor Capacity: Low to Medium.

 Appropriate Visitor Activities, Facilities, and Services: These are appropriate landscape for hikers, casual walkers, bird watchers, environmental education students, researchers, and other users who would be mindful of not disturbing the flora and fauna. FORESTED WETLANDS: Outer Coastal Plain Sweetbay Swamp Forest, Loblolly-Bay Forest,


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 4 - CARRYING CAPACITY Red Maple Tupelo Maritime Swamp Forest. Freshwater forested wetland systems with dense canopies, open shrub and herbaceous layers. •

Level of Vulnerability: Very High.

 Level of Resource Protection (LRP): Very Low. •

Visitor Capacity: Very Low.

 Appropriate Visitor Activities, Facilities, and Services: Visitor access should be limited to raised boardwalks and walkways. BACKDUNE/DUNE SWALE VEGETATION: Atlantic Coast Interdune Swale; Live Oak – Yaupon Holly – (Wax-Myrtle) Shrubland Alliance. Mosaic of dune successional vegetation stages from backdune swales to shrub thickets. •

Level of Vulnerability: Medium to High. Early successional areas may be sensitive to recreation uses. Some of this landscape community is defined as a wetland.

 Level of Resource Protection (LRP): Low. Disturbance to the landscape should be minimal to allow natural successional processes  Visitor Capacity: Low. Dependent upon the number of trails.  Appropriate Visitor Activities, Facilities, and Services: Informal hiking, birding, and other similar uses. SALTMARSH ISLANDS ECOTONES: Red-Cedar – Live Oak – Cabbage Palmetto Marsh Hammock; South Atlantic Coastal Shell Midden Woodland; Coastal Salt Shrub Thicket. Isolated patches of live oak and cedar forest and/or shrubland with scattered palms and pines with dense, salttolerant understory vegetation on small islands or peninsulas surrounded by tidal marsh, some underlain by high-calcium soils enriched with oyster shell material. •

60

Level of Vulnerability: Medium to High. Parts of this landscape are wetlands.

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS

Figure 40. Environment on the northern part of the island. Image courtesy Sand County Studios.

Level of Resource Protection (LRP): Low to Medium. The ecotone is transitioning from marsh to a closed canopy mixed pine and oak forest.

Visitor Capacity: Low. These landscapes are not suitable for most visitor usage.

 Appropriate Visitor Activities, Facilities, and Services: Not suitable for visitor usage other than birdwatching, environmental education, and similar uses. DUNES: Sea Oats Temperate Herbaceous Alliance. Primary dune dominated by sea-oats. •

Level of Vulnerability: Very High. The Dunes are unstable and endangered and cannot withstand trampling.

 Level of Resource Protection (LRP): Very Low. •

Visitor Capacity: Very low.


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 4 - CARRYING CAPACITY •

Level of Vulnerability: Very High.

 Level of Resource Protection (LRP): Very Low. •

Figure 41. Dunes on the island. Image courtesy Sand County Studios.

 Appropriate Visitor Activities, Facilities, and Services: There should be no visitor activities in the dunes. The only facilities should be those that provide pedestrian access across the dunes. FRESHWATER HERBACEOUS WETLANDS: Southern Atlantic Coastal Plain Carolina Willow Dune Swale; Sand Cordgrass – Seashore Mallow Herbaceous Vegetation; Southern Hairgrass – Saltmeadow Cordgrass – Dune Fingergrass Herbaceous Vegetation; South Atlantic Coastal Pond; Sawgrass Head. Freshwater herbaceous/ shrub wetlands dominated by cordgrass or sawgrass in herbaceous wetlands and Carolina willow and large-flowered hibiscus in the shrub wetlands. •

Level of Vulnerability: Very High.

Visitor Capacity: Very Low. No pedestrians are allowed. Kayak tours should have a limited number of boats, with 10-12 being a preferred maximum. Tours through the marshes should ensure there is enough water for kayaking.

 Appropriate Visitor Activities, Facilities, and Services: These areas could be used for canoeing or kayaking but should not include other visitor activities. BEACH: South Atlantic Upper Ocean Beach. Open sand beaches including the upper beach and subtidal and intertidal sand shoals. •

Level of Vulnerability: Medium. Beaches can tolerate a high number of pedestrians, but they are susceptible to erosion, sea level rise, wave impacts, and other natural conditions. Beach erosion and sand starvation affect both the beach ecosystem and dunes and interdunal swales that provide habitat for shorebirds and sea turtles.

 Level of Resource Protection (LRP): Low. •

Visitor Capacity: Very Low, Low, Medium. Visitor capacity is dependent upon the

 Level of Resource Protection (LRP): Very Low. •

Visitor Capacity: Very Low.

 Appropriate Visitor Activities, Facilities, and Services: Not suitable for visitor usage other than birding, environmental education, and similar uses. TIDAL MARSHES: Southern Atlantic Coastal Plain Salt and Brackish Tidal Marsh. Herbaceousdominated tidal marshes interspersed with creeks and saltpans. Figure 42. St. Andrews Beach. Image courtesy Sand County Studios.

61

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 4 - CARRYING CAPACITY by avoiding new development in “green fields.”

Figure 43. Historic District. Image courtesy Sand County Studios.

specific beach. The busier beaches can accommodate more people, whereas the more secluded public beaches can tolerate fewer users.  Appropriate Visitor Activities, Facilities, and Services: Appropriate activities includes sunbathing, walking, building sandcastles, and informal activities such as volleyball, frisbee, and throwing a ball. Portable facilities include beach umbrellas, chairs, beach bikes, and beach gear rentals. URBAN/DEVELOPED: Includes Developed, Golf Course, Parks and Recreation, Quarry/ Stripmine, Transportation, and Open Field Designations. Residential, commercial, golf course, excavated ponds, and infrastructure portions of the Island; includes open space for lawns, parks, and forested areas. •

Level of Vulnerability: Low. Developed areas have already impacted the environmental resources, but efforts should be taken to reduce this impact and implement sustainable strategies such as reduced energy requirements, carbon neutrality, and low impact development,

Level of Resource Protection (LRP): High. Most of the land in this category has already been impacted by previous development. Impacts are minimized by building upon sites that have already been impacted, and

62

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS

Visitor Capacity: High. The total number of people should be consistent with physical carrying capacities. Urban/developed areas should be used to accommodate festivals and events with larger crowds.

Appropriate Visitor Activities, Facilities, and Services: Appropriate uses are defined in the land use plan. Design Guidelines for the island define heights, materials, and architectural character to ensure that any new or renovated facilities are in keeping with the “look and feel” of the island.

INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT The infrastructure carrying capacity for Jekyll Island has been determined by evaluating previous studies and as-built mapping and conducting interviews with facilities personnel to review key infrastructure components. The key criteria evaluated were lifespan, age of current systems, material types, locations, sizes, and equipment efficiency. These criteria were used to understand major constraints related to islandwide water and sewer infrastructure. The review and analysis portion involved compiling all pertinent information related to the key infrastructure systems on the island. In this case water and sewer stood out as the most significant systems that could be potentially limiting factors. As-built drawings from Coastal Engineering Consultants, Inc. were provided by Noel Jensen (Chief Operations Officer) in hard copy format. This information was then translated into CAD and GIS format for mapping and evaluation purposes that can be tracked by JIA for future use. POTABLE WATER The potable water source for Jekyll Island is provided by wells that extract water from the Upper Floridan Aquifer. This is one of the nation’s


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 4 - CARRYING CAPACITY largest aquifers and provides potable water for Florida, South Georgia and south Alabama. The collection, storage, and water distribution system on the island consists of five wells, five water towers and over 85,000 feet of water main distribution. The water system works by extracting groundwater from the five (5) wells (each approximately 850 feet deep) located throughout the island. After extraction, the groundwater is aerated and chlorinated prior to being pumped into the five water towers for distribution. Water towers #1 and #2, both more centrally located, do not have active wells but are filled by water from other wells and are setup to function when fire suppression is needed, and increased water demands are required.

This system is permitted through the Georgia Department of Natural Resources for a total usage of 2,150,000 gallons per day per month. The water usage information provided from JIA clarifies that the island uses far less water than the available permitted water rate allows. Data for the last five years shows that Jekyll Island has approximately 1.3 million gallons of available water supply in the summer and a 1.6-milliongallon supply in the winter. Jekyll Island currently supports approximately 3.4 million people per year, so based on water capacity the island could provide potable water supply for an additional 6 million people. To do so infrastructure updates would be necessary to accommodate increased

WATER USE OVER TIME 2,500,000

Gallons

2,000,000 1,500,000 1,000,000 500,000 1996 1996 1997 1997 1998 1998 1999 1999 2000 2000 2005 2005 2006 2010 2010 2011 2011 2012 2012 2013 2013 2014 2014 2015 2015 2016 2016 2017 2017

0

Table 32. Water use over time. Data courtesy JIA.

Actual Usage

Year Permitted Usage

SUMMER WATER USAGE 2,500,000

Gallons

2,000,000 1,500,000 1,000,000 500,000 Available Water Usage

2017

2016

2015

2014

2013

2012

1,364,532

1,365,859

1,410,797

1,450,281

1,421,799

1,410,826

785,468

784,141

739,203

699,719

728,201

739,174

Table 33. Summer water use. Data courtesy JIA. Chart: Potable Water Usage during the Summer months of the last 5 years

63

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 4 - CARRYING CAPACITY

WINTER WATER USAGE 2,500,000

Gallons

2,000,000 1,500,000 1,000,000 500,000 Available Water Usage

2017

2016

2015

2014

2013

2012

1,599,492

1,628,342

1,711,529

1,697,649

1,562,377

1,627,439

550,508

521,658

438,471

452,351

587,623

522,561

Table 34. Winter water usage. Data courtesy JIA.the last 5 years Chart: Potable Water Usage during the Winter months of

density, but the permitted ability is unlikely to be exceeded. Layout of the water main loops limit pressure losses and water quality issues due to stagnation. The water main loops wrap the island and are built of ductile iron pipe that provides for a long life span. The majority of these pipes are much newer and are likely to be functional for many years to come. A negative of this system is that the island consists of several dead-end streets with smaller water main connections and several residential taps. In these locations, the water distribution piping material is not ductile iron and is more susceptible to water stagnation/ water quality issues due to less water turnover. For this reason, water quality decreases as development density and operation time decreases. To improve water quality in these specific areas it would be worth considering either a) additional piping to loop the system, which would increase circulation of the water or b) water quality monitoring in specific locations to evaluate if chlorination needs to be increased in certain areas. The larger components associated with potable water infrastructure system, such as the water towers, were evaluated based on lifespan, with all having over 35 years of lifespan remaining. The pumping and treatment associated with 64

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS

each water tower are less promising and should be closely monitored because of their age and frequency of use. The JIA should prioritize yearly evaluations of water treatment, chlorination, and well pump equipment to prepare for future improvements. One of the most problematic elements to the water infrastructure system is older pipes that are made of transite (asbestos-cement) material and are highly susceptible to failure due to the material. Through conversations with JIA staff, it is clear these pipes have proven to be most problematic in the past and are more prone to have issues in the future. For this reason, it is our recommendation that the JIA prioritize its replacement / lining with a more durable material alternative, such as ductile iron or lining using trenchless technology. To understand the best alternative, the existing pipe should first be evaluated in order to identify the condition and potential replacement or lining alternatives that would be most appropriate. FIRE WATER For fire suppression, the island has an integrated domestic and fire water system that feed the fire hydrants located throughout the island that provide 60 psi of pressure for fire emergency situations. Based on the information provided,


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 4 - CARRYING CAPACITY the fire suppression system is adequate to meet the demands of the island and the future projections. As with any fire suppression system, regular monitoring of fire hydrant operations and associated pressures should be done to ensure the system is prepared for future operation.

conveyance, and treatment system that consists of eighteen (18) major sanitary lift stations and over 100,000 linear feet of forcemain and gravity sanitary collection piping. There are also several smaller lift/grinder stations such as at St. Andrews and the campground.

WASTEWATER

This system works by moving wastewater from its discharge point to the activated sludge wastewater treatment plant prior to discharging clean effluent into Jekyll River. The wastewater

Wastewater collection and treatment on Jekyll Island is provided through a lift station,

SANITARY DISCHARGE OVER TIME 1,200,000

Gallons

1,000,000 800,000 600,000 400,000 200,000 1996 1996 1997 1997 1998 1998 1999 1999 2000 2000 2005 2005 2006 2010 2010 2011 2011 2012 2012 2013 2013 2014 2014 2015 2015 2016 2016 2017 2017

0 Year Actual Discharge

Permitted Discharge

Table 35. Sanitary discharge over time. Data courtesy JIA.

SUMMER SEWER DISCHARGE 900,000 800,000 700,000

Gallons

600,000 500,000 400,000 300,000 200,000 100,000 -

2017

2016

2015

2014

2013

2012

Available

451,744

442,028

422,178

432,322

415,667

420,022

Sewer Discharge

348,256

357,972

377,822

367,678

384,333

379,978

36. Summer Data courtesy JIA. Chart:Table Sanitary Dischargesewer duringdischarge. the Summer months of the last 5 years

65

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 4 - CARRYING CAPACITY

WINTER SEWER DISCHARGE 900,000 800,000 700,000

Gallons

600,000 500,000 400,000 300,000 200,000 100,000 -

2017

2016

2015

2014

2013

2012

Available

494,100

460,217

456,194

516,300

518,694

540,044

Sewer Discharge

305,900

339,783

343,806

283,700

281,306

259,956

Table 37. Winter sewer discharge. Chart: Sanitary Discharge during the Winter months of the last 5 years

treatment plant is located just south and west of the Jekyll Island Causeway, making it central to the island, thus helping to reduce pump and pipe sizes. The wastewater treatment plant consists of a trickling filter, activated sludge, and biodigesters, which was constructed in the 1960â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s, and was last upgraded in 2003. The design capacity and permitted capacity for the wastewater treatment plant is 1,000,000 gallons per day per month. From review of discharges that have occurred over the 20 years, it is apparent that the capacity of the plant is not an issue and can handle current development. Reviewing the last five years data indicates the plant is operating under capacity and has approximately 300,000 gallons of additional capacity. Age of the system, operations and maintenance were evaluated. It is typical for systems of this type to have a lifespan in the 50-year range with most upgrades/maintenance associated with the equipment. Much of the equipment associated with the plant exceeds its lifespan and is a top priority for the wastewater treatment system. The NPDES permit for the plant required a generator switch gear at the main plant, and this has been noted by the Georgia Environmental Protection Division (EPD) during past inspections. 66

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS

The necessary updates would prevent future inspection problems and would increase the resiliency of the islandâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s wastewater system in the case of power loss due to future storm events. The implementation process for this is in place and could be completed by the end of the year. Due to the limited topographic changes throughout the island, lift stations are necessary to direct wastewater from the building discharge point to the wastewater treatment plant. This requires regular maintenance at each of the lift stations and their associated pumps and controls throughout the island. This system, because of its many operational points, is more vulnerable than others and will require regular funding to support current and future maintenance needs. From SCADA data provided for each pump station, pumps were evaluated and carrying capacity was discovered to be near full due to excessive use. When a pump operates several times an hour it is an indication that the pump station is either undersized, in poor condition, or needs maintenance. The data revealed that of the eighteen sanitary lift stations, seven have a more immediate need of maintenance than others, based on operational data alone. The lift stations that should be prioritized for inspection


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 4 - CARRYING CAPACITY and maintenance are Lift Station #1, #3, #5, #11, #12, #15 and #18. To reduce maintenance, improve pump efficiency, and reduce energy use, all the pump stations should be retrofitted with Variable Frequency Drives (VFDâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s). VFDâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s work with existing pumps to control power frequency and rotational speed, which results in improved pump lifespan and reductions in energy consumption. The island also contains nineteen (19) septic systems located throughout the island. It is likely these systems have not had regular maintenance and could be in failure depending upon age. Given the sensitive environment and susceptibility to future clogging and potential groundwater contamination, all wastewater discharges should be connected into the piped network for more reliable treatment. This process could be phased over time and be prioritized by age of system and location to existing sanitary mains. ELECTRICAL POWER Jekyll Island is supplied with electric power from the Georgia Power Company. The main transmission lines that feed the island extend from the mainland along the north side of the Jekyll Island Causeway and onto the island. Most transmission lines on the island are overhead lines. It is aspirational to aim towards completely burying the existing electrical system, but a more realistic effort should be to stabilize existing transmission lines and supports that supply power to critical infrastructure systems. These critical support locations include: power substation, wastewater treatment plant, all lift stations and all potable wells and equipment. In alignment with recent built developments JIA should accept and approve only direct burial electrical connections for new developments. This could help to increase the islands resilience to high wind induced power outages and help maintain the visual character of the island. SUSTAINABLE INFRASTRUCTURE RECOMMENDATIONS Aside from the evaluation of standard capacity, the capacity for the island should also be

67

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS

consistent with the sustainable character of environmental systems on the island. A few key approaches stand out as opportunities that the island may want to consider in the future: Wastewater Re-use: Average demand for irrigation is approximately 1.8 million gallons per month, which is primarily associated with the golf courses. This demand is met through the combination of Miocene and Floridan aquifer wells (40% from Miocene and 60% from the Floridan aquifer). Reducing irrigation and the overall water footprint, as proposed by JIA, is an important consideration and would help avoid depleting the Floridan Aquifer and limit the chance of contamination. Treated wastewater from the wastewater treatment plant should be used for a non-potable irrigation supply for the golf courses. Treatment levels from the plant would be adequate for non-potable irrigation re-use and could supply in the range of 400,000 to 550,000 gallons per day, or 12 to 16.5 million gallons per month, under current operating conditions. By re-directing flow for re-use, the golf course could reduce its need for well-water from the Floridan Aquifer and reduce the open water discharge into Jekyll River. Water Efficiency: As an island with a focus on sustainability and conservation it seems even more obvious that the JIA should encourage lowflow water fixtures for faucets and toilets for both new development as well as existing homes and businesses. This could help improve the Jekyll Island brand, reduce the strain on the Floridan Aquifer and lower the water footprint for the island. Coordinating incentives to improve water efficiency with water rate adjustments could help to promote the sustainability approach as well as the economic drivers behind the upgrades. INFRASTRUCTURE MAPS Maps on the following pages show an inventory and analysis of the infrastructure on Jekyll Island. These include Utility Infrastructure, Lifespan for Existing Domestic Water System, and Sanitary Sewer Infrastructure and its lifespan.


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 4 - CARRYING CAPACITY

Figure 44. Utility Infrastructure for Jekyll Island. Map courtesy Sherwood Design Engineers.

68

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 4 - CARRYING CAPACITY

Figure 45. Lifespan of Existing Domestic Water System for Jekyll Island. Map courtesy Sherwood Design Engineers.

69

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 4 - CARRYING CAPACITY

Figure 46. Sanitary Sewer Infrastructure for Jekyll Island. Map courtesy Sherwood Design Engineers.

70

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 4 - CARRYING CAPACITY

Figure 47. Lifespan of Existing Sanitary System for Jekyll Island. Map courtesy Sherwood Design Engineers.

71

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 4 - CARRYING CAPACITY

Figure 48. Lifespan of Existing Sanitary System for Jekyll Island. Map courtesy Sherwood Design Engineers.

72

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 4 - CARRYING CAPACITY

Figure 49. Lifespan of Existing Sanitary System for Jekyll Island. Map courtesy Sherwood Design Engineers.

73

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 4 - CARRYING CAPACITY

INTEGRATED CARRYING CAPACITY An integrated carrying capacity analysis looks at the number of people and vehicles that are coming on the island, and how best to accommodate both. Suitability analysis involves taking multiple layers of information and overlaying them to create new data and information that represents a combined analysis of data. The data that was mapped includes the following: â&#x20AC;˘

Flood Zones (FLD): The FEMA flood zones were used to delineate areas of vulnerability. The areas that are most likely to flood were ranked the most vulnerable.

â&#x20AC;˘

Environmental Areas (ENV): The vegetation species layer created in the 2011 Conservation Plan was used to map environmental areas. JIA staff ranked each system based on environmental vulnerability. Areas classified as beaches, dunes, and tidal marshes were not included on the map since these areas will remain as is.

Figure 51. Environmental resources on the north side of the Island. Image courtesy Sand County Studios.

Figure 50. Environmental areas are not mapped as part of the Integrated Carrying Capacity maps because they will remain as is. Image courtesy Sand County Studios.

74

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 4 - CARRYING CAPACITY

Figure 52. View of marshes with the Sidney Lanier Bridge in the background. Image courtesy Sand County Studios.

Sanitary Pipes (SAN): Existing sanitary pipes were buffered by 50, 100, 200, 300 and 500 feet. Areas farther away from existing pipes are ranked lower than areas within proximity to the pipes.

Water Pipes (WAT): Existing water pipes were buffered by 50, 100, 200, 300 and 500 feet. Areas farther away from existing pipes are ranked lower than areas within proximity to the pipes.

Parking (PRK): Walk times were measured from existing parking areas. The walk times were (1) less than a minute, (2) 1-2 minutes, (3) 2-5 minutes, (4) 5-10 minutes, and (5) more than 10 minutes.

Sea Level Rise (SLR): Sea level rise data is based on 1, 2, and 3-foot rise in mean high water sea level.

Proximity to Historical Area (HIS): Buffers were created around historical sites on the island. Areas closest to historical sites are ranked as more vulnerable.

75

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS

Proximity to Environmentally Sensitive Area (EVP): Buffers were created around the areas deemed environmentally sensitive as determined by JIA. Areas closest to the existing sensitive areas are ranked as the most vulnerable.

MAPS These values for each system are mapped using a defined weight based on selected values. These weights can be adjusted based upon which resources or characteristics are deemed to be most important.


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 4 - CARRYING CAPACITY

Carrying Capacity and Infrastructure Assessment Environmental Sensitivity

$

Legend Environmental Risk Low 4 3 2 High

Miles 0

0.5

1

2

Figure 53. Environmental Sensitivity of Jekyll Island. Map courtesy Sand County Studios.

76

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS

3

4


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 4 - CARRYING CAPACITY

Carrying Capacity and Infrastructure Assessment Proximity to Environmentally Sensitive Area

$

Legend Proximity Far 4 3 2 On

Miles 0

0.5

1

2

3

Figure 54. Proximity to Environmentally Sensitive Areas on Jekyll Island. Map courtesy Sand County Studios.

77

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS

4


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 4 - CARRYING CAPACITY

Carrying Capacity and Infrastructure Assessment Flood Risk Based on FEMA DFIRM

$

Legend Flood Hazard Medium 4 High

Miles 0

0.5

1

Figure 55. Flood Risk on Jekyll Island. Map courtesy Sand County Studios.

78

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS

2

3

4


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 4 - CARRYING CAPACITY

Carrying Capacity and Infrastructure Assessment Proximity to Historical Area

$

Legend Proximity Far 4 3 2 On

Miles 0

0.5

1

2

Figure 56. Proximity to Historical Areas on Jekyll Island. Map courtesy Sand County Studios.

79

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS

3

4


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 4 - CARRYING CAPACITY

Carrying Capacity and Infrastructure Assessment Proximity To Parking

$

Legend Proximity to Parking Close 2 3 4 Far

Miles 0

0.5

1

Figure 57. Proximity to Parking on Jekyll Island. Map courtesy Sand County Studios.

80

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS

2

3

4


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 4 - CARRYING CAPACITY

Carrying Capacity and Infrastructure Assessment Proximity To Sanitary Pipes

$

Legend Proximity Close 4 3 2 Far

Miles 0

0.5

1

2

Figure 58. Proximity to Sanitary Pipes on Jekyll Island. Map courtesy Sand County Studios.

81

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS

3

4


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 4 - CARRYING CAPACITY

Carrying Capacity and Infrastructure Assessment Proximity to Trail

$

Legend Proximity to Trails On 2 3 4 Far

Miles 0

0.5

1

Figure 59. Proximity to Trails on Jekyll Island. Map courtesy Sand County Studios.

82

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS

2

3

4


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 4 - CARRYING CAPACITY

Carrying Capacity and Infrastructure Assessment Proximity To Water Pipes

$

Legend Proximity Close 4 3 2 Far

Miles 0

0.5

1

2

Figure 60. Proximity to Water Pipes on Jekyll Island. Map courtesy Sand County Studios.

83

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS

3

4


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 4 - CARRYING CAPACITY

Carrying Capacity and Infrastructure Assessment Risk From Sea Level Rise

$

Legend Sea Level Rise 4 Medium 2 High

Miles 0

0.5

1

Figure 61. Risk of Sea Level Rise to Jekyll Island. Map courtesy Sand County Studios.

84

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS

2

3

4


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 4 - CARRYING CAPACITY

60

Carrying Capacity and Infrastructure Assessment

160

Estimated Parking Spaces

20 55

35

95

130

100

110

204

165

20 300

85 75 25

190 70

80 Neighborhood parking based on 2 cars for every house. Housing areas are grouped by proximity.

85 190 125 65

240

50

30

110

105 210

30 20

170

75

300 175 60 250 120 60 80 145 70

120

145

320 30

$

110 30

Legend

30

Parking Areas !

20 - 65

!

66 - 130

!

131 - 210

!

211 - 320

105 40

95

Miles 0

0.5

1

Figure 62. Estimate Parking Spaces on Jekyll Island. Map courtesy Sand County Studios.

85

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS

2

3

4


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 5 - COASTAL HAZARDS AND RISK MANAGEMENT

“Conservation is a state of harmony between men and land.” Aldo Leopold Writer, Conservationist, and Environmentalist

86

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 5 - COASTAL HAZARDS AND RISK MANAGEMENT

5

COASTAL HAZARDS AND RISK ASSESSMENT

E

very community is vulnerable in some way, whether to natural or man-made hazards. These hazards, or extreme events, as Jekyll Island has directly experienced, can include floods or storms, major infrastructure failures, severe environmental impacts, and economic disruptions. The combination of increasing frequency and intensity of weather events alongside new construction and density results in greater exposure. On Jekyll Island, many homes and business are at risk. And even when communities don’t take a direct hit from a tropical storm or hurricane, the deluge of rain increases flooding and puts a strain on the water and sewer collection system. Given its unique ecosystem and cultural heritage, Jekyll Island is a desirable place to live and recreate, resulting in increased pressure to expand tourism and redevelop certain areas. At the same time, severe weather events have become more frequent. Across the coastal regions, increased population growth, housing needs, and development in coastal areas are resulting in extensive storm-related weather losses. According to reinsurer Munich RE, property losses in coastal areas have risen exponentially over the past several years. Even without a large population base, Jekyll Island is not immune to these losses, risk or exposure. While this does not appear to have affected Jekyll Island properties to date, real estate owners in the southeast coastal regions are beginning to factor natural hazard risk into their decisions. Homeowners and investors are taking a closer look at risk and their ability to insure their properties. In a 2016 report, Standard & Poor’s

87

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS

noted “while the overall impact of climate change on the insurance industry is difficult to quantify, the multilayered effects of regulation, reputation and litigation will be ‘considerable’ over the long term.” And in a November 2017 report to its clients, Moody’s Investor Services noted that in response to a growing call from investors, they are incorporating climate change exposure into their municipal and state bond ratings. This could affect bond ratings and consequently borrowing costs for communities at risk. The Union of Concerned Scientists put forth a study in June 2018 noting the consequences of rising seas could strain many coastal regions. Not only are buildings impacted, but critical infrastructure such as roads, bridges, and water treatment facilities. The direct costs of replacing, repairing, strengthening, or relocating this infrastructure is monumental. When indirect costs of flooded infrastructure, including disruptions to commerce and daily life, the cost of chronic flooding could have staggering economic impacts. The need for resilience planning has risen in conjunction with these factors. How can Jekyll Island leverage its existing resources—those things both natural and structural, unique to the community—to create place, to be as efficient as possible, to minimize the impact of growth on the existing infrastructure, leveraging community assets in ways that redefine place quality of life, and economic prosperity? Resilient communities rely on interdependent principles of sustainability, mobility, and livability. Land use decisions can help create relationships


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 5 - COASTAL HAZARDS AND RISK MANAGEMENT that are either inherently resilient over the long term or exacerbate risk. Use of green infrastructure creates the dual benefit of flood control and conservation. Water and energy conservation programs mean reduced cost and dependence on limited natural resources. A mix of affordable housing creates community cohesion.

SEA LEVEL RISE The potential effects of climate change on the natural resources of Jekyll Island include rising sea levels, transforming habitats, shifts in timing of biological events, rising temperatures, species range shifts, and spreading pests (plant and animal) and diseases. The National Fish Wildlife and Plants Climate Adaptation Strategy lays out seven goals with associated strategies and actions that could guide adaptation to climate change with respect to Jekyll Island’s natural resources. These goals, stated below, are consistent with the Jekyll Island Conservation Plan and should ensure consistency with state and national efforts. •

Conserve habitat to support healthy fish, wildlife and plant populations, and ecosystem functions in a changing climate;

Manage species and habitats to protect ecosystem functions and provide sustainable cultural, subsistence, recreational, and commercial use in a changing climate;

Enhance capacity for effective management in a changing climate;

Support adaptive management in a changing climate through integrated observation and monitoring and improved decision support tools;

Increase knowledge and information on impacts and responses of fish, wildlife, and plants to a changing climate;

Increase awareness and motivate action to safeguard fish, wildlife, and plants in a changing climate; and

88

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS

Figure 63. The Jekyll Island Authority assessment team found damage on Jekyl Island from Hurricane Matthew, which hit the island on October 8, 2016. Image courtesy JIA.

Reduce non-climate stressors to help fish, wildlife, plants, and ecosystems adapt to a changing climate.

Sea Level Rise maps show inland extent and relative depth of inundation from 0 to 3 feet above mean higher high water (MHHW). Inundation maps are created by subtracting the NOAA VDATUM MHHW surface from the digital elevation model. Inundation is shown as it would appear during MHHW of each tidal day observed over the National Tidal Datum Epoch {~19 years} (excludes wind driven tides).

Figure 64. Impact of Hurricane Matthew on the island’s residential areas. Image courtesy JIA.


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 5 - COASTAL HAZARDS AND RISK MANAGEMENT

Figure 65. Heavy rains and from Hurricane Matthew impacted the island. The initial assessment reported that all businesses were intact and the vast majority of homes on Jekyll did not sustain significant damage. Image courtesy JIA.

The data in the maps do not consider natural processes such as erosion, subsidence, or future construction. The Sea Level Rise maps also do not incorporate future changes in coastal geomorphology and assume present conditions will persist. Geomorphologic changes associated with natural processes and human actions could have significant impacts in controlling future Sea Level Rise inundation extents. The water surface was superimposed on existing photographs based on site elevations taken from digital elevation models. As the scientific community continues to increase its understanding of and skill in predicting these critical processes, the Sea Level Rise maps can be updated. The maps on the following pages show potential impacts of Sea Level Rise on the islandâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s environmental resources and infrastructure.

89

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS

Figure 66-67. St. Andrews Beach (top) and Driftwood Beach (bottom) with the rising tide. Images courtesy Sand County Studios.


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 5 - COASTAL HAZARDS AND RISK MANAGEMENT

Figure 68. This image is of Driftwood Beach at high tide. Sea level rise could impact many of the beaches on the island. Image courtesy Sand County Studios.

Currently, state legislation specifies the 1,675 acres defined in the 2014 Master Plan as the total developed land. However, It is not clear what happens to the amount of land allocated to developed land and to undeveloped land if the size of the island significantly changes due to such events as natural erosion or changes in water level.

90

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 5 - COASTAL HAZARDS AND RISK MANAGEMENT

Carrying Capacity and Infrastructure Assessment Sea Level Rise

$

Legend Sea Level Rise 1ft. SLR 2ft. SLR 3ft. SLR

0

0.5

Miles Source: Esri, DigitalGlobe, GeoEye, Earthstar Geographics, CNES/Airbus DS, USDA, USGS, AEX, Getmapping, Aerogrid, IGN, IGP, swisstopo, and the GIS 1 2 3 4 User Community

Figure 69. Impact of Sea Level Rise on Jekyll Island. Map courtesy Sand County Studios.

91

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 5 - COASTAL HAZARDS AND RISK MANAGEMENT

Carrying Capacity and Infrastructure Assessment Sea Level Rise & Environmental Sensitivity

Legend Env Sens

$

Low Medium High

Sea Level Rise 2 Feet

0

0.5

Miles Source: Esri, DigitalGlobe, GeoEye, Earthstar Geographics, CNES/Airbus DS, USDA, USGS, AEX, Getmapping, Aerogrid, IGN, IGP, swisstopo, and the GIS 1 2 3 4 User Community

Figure 70. Impact of Sea Level Rise on Jekyll Island environmental systems. Map courtesy Sand County Studios.

92

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 5 - COASTAL HAZARDS AND RISK MANAGEMENT

Carrying Capacity andand and Carrying Capacity Carrying Capacity Infrastructure Assessment Infrastructure Assessment Infrastructure Assessment Sea Level Rise SLR Impact SLR Impact _ ^

_ ^

+ $ + $ ! !

+ $

+ $ _ ^

_ ^

+ $

+ $

+ $

+ $

&

&

+ $

+ $ + $

+ $

+ $ + $

+ $

The impact The impact of SLRof SLR on critical infrastructure on critical infrastructure facilities. facilities.

+ $ + $

"$ ) +

"$ ) +

_ ^

+ $ + $ + $

+ $

! ! +$ $ + $ + $ + ! ! ! ! _ ^ _ ^ . ! . ! ! ! ( !

( !

Legend Legend Impacted Impacted UtilityUtility

! !

+ $

+ $

UtilityUtility ( Electric ! Electric StationStation

) "

) Course " Golf Course Golf Tower Tower

# *

# * Landfill Landfill

+ $

_ ^

+ Sanitary $ Lift Station Sanitary Lift Station

Legend - Array & Solar Array - Solar & + $

+ $

_ ^

# * # * ! !

_ Tower ^ Water Tower Water Sea^_Level Rise . !

+ $

. Treatment ! Water Treatment Water FacilityFacility

+ $

1ft. SLR

Sea Level Sea Level Rise Rise

2ft. 1ft. SLR 1ft. SLR SLR 3ft. SLR 3ft. SLR SLR 3ft.

0

0

0 0.5 0.5

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS

$$

Miles Miles Esri, DigitalGlobe, Earthstar Geographics, CNES/Airbus DS, Source: Source: Esri, DigitalGlobe, GeoEye,GeoEye, Earthstar Geographics, CNES/Airbus DS, Miles Source: Esri,USGS, DigitalGlobe, GeoEye, Earthstar Geographics, CNES/Airbus DS, USDA, USGS, AEX, Getmapping, Aerogrid, IGN, IGP, swisstopo, and AEX, Getmapping, Aerogrid, IGN, IGP, swisstopo, and the GIS the GIS 4 0.5 USDA, 1 2 3 1 2 3 4 USDA, USGS, AEX, Getmapping, Aerogrid, IGN, IGP, swisstopo, and the GIS User Community 1 User Community 2 3 4 User Community

Figure 71. Impact of Sea Level Rise on Jekyll Island utilities. Map courtesy Sand County Studios.

93

_ ^

+ $

+ $

( !

+ $


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 5 - COASTAL HAZARDS AND RISK MANAGEMENT

Carrying Capacity Carrying Capacity andand and Carrying Capacity Infrastructure Assessment Infrastructure Assessment Infrastructure Assessment SLR Impact Sea Level Rise SLR Impact _ ^

+ $ !

+ $ _ ^ + $ + $

& + $ + $ + $ + $

The impact of SLR The impact of SLR criticalroads. infrastructure on on existing facilities.

"$ ) +

_ ^

+ $ + $ + $ + $ ( ! ! + $ + $ ! ! _ ^ . ! !

Legend Impacted Utility

!

+ $

Utility ( !

Electric Station

) "

Golf Course Tower

# *

Landfill

Legend + $

Legend&-

+ $

_ ^

Sanitary Lift Station

# * !

Solar Array

Impacted Roads

_ Water Tower ^ Sea Level Rise No . !

+ $

Water Treatment Facility

YesSLR 1ft.

Sea Level Rise Sea Level Rise

2ft. SLR 1ft. SLR 1ft. SLR

3ft. SLR 3ft. 3ft. SLR SLR

0

0

0 0.5 0.5

Miles Source: Esri, DigitalGlobe, GeoEye, Earthstar Geographics, CNES/Airbus DS, Miles Miles Source: Esri,USDA, DigitalGlobe, GeoEye, Earthstar Geographics, DS, Source: Esri, DigitalGlobe, GeoEye, Earthstar Geographics, USGS, AEX, Getmapping, Aerogrid, IGN, CNES/Airbus IGP, CNES/Airbus swisstopo, andDS, the GIS 0.5 USDA, 1 3and the GIS GIS 4 USDA, USGS, AEX, Getmapping, Aerogrid, IGN, IGP, USGS, AEX, Getmapping, 2 Aerogrid, IGN, swisstopo, User Community 1 Community 2 3IGP,3swisstopo, and the 4 1 Community 2 4 User User

Figure 72. Impact of Sea Level Rise on Jekyll Island roads. Map courtesy Sand County Studios.

94

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS

$$$


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 5 - COASTAL HAZARDS AND RISK MANAGEMENT

Carrying Capacity Carrying Capacity and and and Carrying Capacity Infrastructure Assessment Infrastructure Assessment Infrastructure Assessment SLR Rise Impact Sea Level SLR Impact

07 _ ^

+ $ " ) !

" ) " )

16

08

_ ^

+ $

" )

&

+ $

09

+ $

01

" )11 $+ " ) $+ 06

+ $

" ) Theimpact impactonly of SLR SLR will on critical infrastructure 3 Lift Stations facilities.

" )

20 " )

" )

" )

!

# *

Landfill

+ $

Sanitary Lift Station

&

Solar Array

Legend Legend

+ $ + $

15

+ $

19

+ $

" )

03$ +

_ ^ # * !

Lift Station Impacted

Sea Level Rise

^ Water Tower _ " ) No . Water Treatment Facility ! " ) 1ft.YesSLR

" )

18$ +

Sea Level Rise Sea Level Rise

2ft. SLR 1ft. SLR 1ft. SLR

3ft. SLR 3ft. 3ft.SLR SLR

0

0

0 0.5

0.5

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS

$ $$

Miles Source: Esri, DigitalGlobe, GeoEye, Earthstar Geographics, CNES/Airbus DS, Miles Miles Source: Esri,USDA, DigitalGlobe, GeoEye, Earthstar Geographics, DS, Source: Esri, USGS, DigitalGlobe, GeoEye, Earthstar Geographics, CNES/Airbus AEX, Getmapping, Aerogrid, IGN, CNES/Airbus IGP, swisstopo, and DS, the GIS 0.5 USDA, 1 2Aerogrid, 4 USDA, USGS, AEX, Getmapping, Aerogrid, IGN, IGP, swisstopo,3and the GIS USGS, AEX, Getmapping, IGN, User Community 1 2 3 IGP,3swisstopo, and the4GIS 4 1 2 User Community User Community

Figure 73. Impact of Sea Level Rise on Jekyll Island lift stations. Map courtesy Sand County Studios.

95

_ ^

02

" )

Utility Golf Course Tower

+ $

01

Impacted Utility

Electric Station

+ $

( ! ! 21 05 + $ + $ ! _ ^ " ) ! " ) . ! !

Legend

) "

12

+ $

" )

( !

14 ) "

" )


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 5 - COASTAL HAZARDS AND RISK MANAGEMENT

Carrying Capacity Carrying Capacity andand and Carrying Capacity Infrastructure Assessment Infrastructure Assessment Infrastructure Assessment SLR Impact Sea Level Rise SLR Impact

07 _ ^

+ $ " ) !

" ) " )

16

08

_ ^ + $

" )

&

+ $

09

+ $

01

" )11 $+ " ) $+ " ) impact of SLR SLR willThe impact some on critical infrastructure existing sanitary pipes. facilities.

" )

06

20 " )

" )

+ $

01 + $ 02

" )

Impacted Utility

!

" )

Utility Electric Station Golf Course Tower

# *

Landfill

+ $ _ ^

+ $

15

+ $

! 21 05 + $ + $ ! _ ^ " ) ! " ) . ! !

Legend

) "

+ $

12

+ $

" ) ( !

( ! Legend

14" )

" )

19

" )

+ $

03

+ $

Lift Station Impacted

" ) No + $ " ) Yes Legend &

_ ^

Sanitary Lift Station

# * !

Solar Array

Sanitary Pipes

_ Water Tower ^ Sea Level Rise No

" )

! Water Treatment Facility . YesSLR 1ft.

18 $ +

Sea Level Rise Sea Level Rise

2ft. SLR 1ft. SLR 1ft. SLR

3ft. SLR 3ft. 3ft. SLR SLR

0

0

0 0.5 0.5

Miles Source: Esri, DigitalGlobe, GeoEye, Earthstar Geographics, CNES/Airbus DS, Miles Miles Source: Esri,USDA, DigitalGlobe, GeoEye, Earthstar Geographics, DS, Source: Esri, DigitalGlobe, GeoEye, Earthstar Geographics, USGS, AEX, Getmapping, Aerogrid, IGN, CNES/Airbus IGP, CNES/Airbus swisstopo, andDS, the GIS 0.5 USDA, 1 3and the GIS GIS 4 USDA, USGS, AEX, Getmapping, Aerogrid, IGN, IGP, USGS, AEX, Getmapping, 2 Aerogrid, IGN, swisstopo, User Community 1 Community 2 3IGP,3swisstopo, and the 4 1 Community 2 4 User User

Figure 74. Impact of Sea Level Rise on Jekyll Island infrastructure. Map courtesy Sand County Studios.

96

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS

$$$


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 5 - COASTAL HAZARDS AND RISK MANAGEMENT

Carrying Capacity Carrying Capacity and and and Carrying Capacity Infrastructure Assessment Infrastructure Assessment Infrastructure Assessment SLR Rise Impact Sea Level SLR Impact _ ^

+ $ !

+ $ _ ^ + $ + $

& + $ + $ + $ + $

The impact of SLR SLR will impact some on critical infrastructure existing sanitary pipes. facilities.

"$ ) +

_ ^

+ $ + $ + $ + $ ( ! ! + $ + $ ! ! _ ^ . ! !

Legend Impacted Utility

!

+ $

Utility ( !

Electric Station

) "

Golf Course Tower

# *

Landfill

+ $

Sanitary Lift Station

&

Solar Array

Legend Legend

+ $

_ ^ # * !

Sanitary Pipes

Sea Level Rise

^ Water Tower _ No . Water Treatment Facility ! Yes 1ft. SLR

+ $

Sea Level Rise Sea Level Rise

2ft. SLR 1ft. SLR 1ft. SLR

3ft. SLR 3ft. 3ft.SLR SLR

0

0

0 0.5

0.5

Miles Source: Esri, DigitalGlobe, GeoEye, Earthstar Geographics, CNES/Airbus DS, Miles Miles Source: Esri,USDA, DigitalGlobe, GeoEye, Earthstar Geographics, DS, Source: Esri, USGS, DigitalGlobe, GeoEye, Earthstar Geographics, CNES/Airbus AEX, Getmapping, Aerogrid, IGN, CNES/Airbus IGP, swisstopo, and DS, the GIS 0.5 USDA, 1 2Aerogrid, 4 USDA, USGS, AEX, Getmapping, Aerogrid, IGN, IGP, swisstopo,3and the GIS USGS, AEX, Getmapping, IGN, User Community 1 2 3 IGP,3swisstopo, and the4GIS 4 1 2 User Community User Community

Figure 75. Impact of Sea Level Rise on Jekyll Island sanitary pipes. Map courtesy Sand County Studios.

97

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS

$ $$


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 5 - COASTAL HAZARDS AND RISK MANAGEMENT

Carrying Capacity Carrying Capacity andand and Carrying Capacity Infrastructure Assessment Infrastructure Assessment Infrastructure Assessment SLR Impact Sea Level Rise SLR Impact

! (

_ ^

+ $ !

+ $

! (

+ $

_ ^ + $

& + $ + $ + $ + $

impact of SLR SLR willThe impact some on critical existing water infrastructure pipes. facilities.

"$ ) +

! (

_ ^

+ $ + $ + $ + $ ( ! ! + $ + $ ! ! ( ^_ . ! ! !

Legend Impacted Utility

!

+ $

Utility ( !

Electric Station

) "

Golf Course Tower

# * Legend

+ $

Landfill

! (

$ Sanitary Lift Station + WaterTower - Solar Array &

! ( Legend

# * !

Water Pipe Impact

_ Water Tower ^ Sea Level Rise No . !

_ ^

+ $

Water Treatment Facility

YesSLR 1ft.

Sea Level Rise Sea Level Rise

2ft. SLR 1ft. SLR 1ft. SLR

3ft. SLR 3ft. 3ft. SLR SLR

0

0

0 0.5 0.5

Miles Source: Esri, DigitalGlobe, GeoEye, Earthstar Geographics, CNES/Airbus DS, Miles Miles Source: Esri,USDA, DigitalGlobe, GeoEye, Earthstar Geographics, DS, Source: Esri, DigitalGlobe, GeoEye, Earthstar Geographics, USGS, AEX, Getmapping, Aerogrid, IGN, CNES/Airbus IGP, CNES/Airbus swisstopo, andDS, the GIS 0.5 USDA, 1 3and the GIS GIS 4 USDA, USGS, AEX, Getmapping, Aerogrid, IGN, IGP, USGS, AEX, Getmapping, 2 Aerogrid, IGN, swisstopo, User Community 1 Community 2 3IGP,3swisstopo, and the 4 1 Community 2 4 User User

Figure 76. Impact of Sea Level Rise on Jekyll Island water utilities. Map courtesy Sand County Studios.

98

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS

$$$


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 5 - COASTAL HAZARDS AND RISK MANAGEMENT

Carrying Capacity Carrying Capacity and and and Carrying Capacity Infrastructure Assessment Infrastructure Assessment Infrastructure Assessment SLR Rise Impact Sea Level SLR Impact

! (

_ ^

+ $ !

+ $

! (

+ $

_ ^ + $

& + $ + $ + $ + $

impact of SLR There will The be little to no SLR on the critical infrastructure impact on Water Towers. facilities.

"$ ) +

! (

_ ^

+ $ + $ + $ + $ ( ! ! + $ + $ ! ! ! ( ^_ . ! !

Legend Impacted Utility

!

+ $

Utility ( !

Electric Station

) "

Golf Course Tower

# *

Landfill

+ $

Sanitary Lift Station

Legend&-

+ $

! ( # * !

Solar Array

SeaLegend Level Rise _ ^

Water Tower

. !

Water Treatment Facility

_ ^

+ $

! ( 1ft.WaterTower SLR

Sea Level Rise Sea Level Rise

2ft. SLR 1ft. SLR 1ft. SLR

3ft. SLR 3ft. 3ft.SLR SLR

0

0

0 0.5

0.5

Miles Source: Esri, DigitalGlobe, GeoEye, Earthstar Geographics, CNES/Airbus DS, Miles Miles Source: Esri,USDA, DigitalGlobe, GeoEye, Earthstar Geographics, DS, Source: Esri, USGS, DigitalGlobe, GeoEye, Earthstar Geographics, CNES/Airbus AEX, Getmapping, Aerogrid, IGN, CNES/Airbus IGP, swisstopo, and DS, the GIS 0.5 USDA, 1 2Aerogrid, 4 USDA, USGS, AEX, Getmapping, Aerogrid, IGN, IGP, swisstopo,3and the GIS USGS, AEX, Getmapping, IGN, User Community 1 2 3 IGP,3swisstopo, and the4GIS 4 1 2 User Community User Community

Figure 77. Impact of Sea Level Rise on Jekyll Island water towers. Map courtesy Sand County Studios.

99

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS

$ $$


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 6 - OPERATING PROCEDURES

“Come forth into the light of things, let nature be your teacher.” William Wordsworth Poet

100

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 6 - OPERATING PROCEDURES

6

OPERATING PROCEDURES

A

review of the main policies and procedures (Code of the Jekyll Island State Park Authority and adopted ordinances) coupled with discussions with JIA staff and Board members indicate that the existing system seems to be working well and contributes to forward moving progress. In cases where the JIA has run into obstacles, i.e. adopting and implementing a comprehensive beach management plan, the challenges were bureaucratic in nature and not due to flaws with the Code or governance structure of the JIA itself.

Introduce a new ordinance expanding protection of areas on the island that are deemed high risk or vulnerable to damages. Examples might include limiting access, size of groups, or types of activities. See “Environmental Communities” section of this report for additional details.

Policies of the JIA Board can be amended and/ or adopted by the Board, and some potential changes JIA may want to consider include the following: •

Revise Jekyll Island Ordinance §3-201 so current parking guidelines can be monitored and enforced. Note: The details of this ordinance change, and overall recommendation are contingent on decisions related to the new gate system and fee structure. See Economics Section of this report.

Figure 78. Vulnerable environmental areas should be protected from uses that may impact island character. Image courtesy Sand County Studios.

Expand the scope of Sec. 18-13. that prohibits “dumping into creeks, rivers, etc.” (Ord. of 1-24-1994) to incorporate conditions and requirements outlined in the Jekyll Island Conservation Plan. For example, a revision to this section could include required recycling program and banning of certain materials (i.e. Styrofoam and plastic bags).1

1

Styrofoam contains benzene and styrene, two known carcinogens for all species, and is particularly damaging for marine ecosystems and

101

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS

A modification to Code Section 12-3-2312, which grants the JIA the ability to “plan, survey, subdivide, improve, administer, construct, erect, acquire, own, repair, remodel, maintain, add to, extend, improve, equip, operate, and manage projects located on property owned or leased by the JIA,” might be revisited to coastal regions. Ample alternatives are available and have become more cost effective for business owners. See https://www.zmescience.com/ecology/ banning-styrofoam-will-improve-environment/ and the Clean Water Action Report: http://www. cleanwater.org/files/publications/ca/cwa_fact_ sheet_polystyrene_litter_2011_03.pdf

2

GA. Code 12-3-235, Powers of authority, 2017.


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 6 - OPERATING PROCEDURES

Figure 79. Summer camps are a great way for kids to gain a better understanding of environmental systems on barrier islands such as Jekyll Island. Image courtesy JIA.

Trust for Historic Preservation: These types of standards are consistent with other nationally recognized, similarly envisioned programs (i.e. LEED) but is more appropriate for the conservation and preservation needs of Jekyll Island. Further, continued emphasis on the Historic District make it a vital area to incorporate the principles of energy efficiency and sustainability needed to protect and preserve the environment, especially in the context of an island ecosystem.

implement certain changes to user fees. See the “Environmental Communities” and “Economics” section of this report for more details. •

The 2015 EIFS Ordinance related to the use of exterior insulation and finishing systems in construction projects3 should be continued.

ENERGY EFFICIENCY & SUSTAINABILITY OPPORTUNITIES: Specific options and recommendations related

to energy efficiency & sustainability include:

Adopt sustainability standards, such as the Earthcraft Sustainable Preservation (ECSP) standards developed by Georgia

3

https://www.jekyllisland.com/jekyllislandwp/ wp-content/uploads/2016/03/2015-02-23-EIFS-

Ordinance.pdf

102

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS

4

Expand enforcement and education of the Lighting Ordinance: The JIA, led by the Conservation committee, should continue its efforts to educate visitors and residents about the importance of reducing light use during the evening hours4, particularly during turtle nesting season. The existing https://library.municode.com/ga/ jekyll_island_authority/codes/code_of_ ordinances?nodeId=COOR_CH10EN_ARTIVBELI


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 6 - OPERATING PROCEDURES

monitoring yielded changes but could be expanded to include signage and educational collateral elsewhere on the island and might also be done with greater regularity. Messaging should also be added to each of the hotels’ websites, perhaps as a precursor to the Wi-Fi connection point, given that hotel guests seem to biggest perpetrators. This should continue to be emphasized in the revised 2018-2019 version of the Conservation plan with opportunities identified to generate funding for this program. •

103

Make implementation of the Conservation Plan a top priority: Place a greater emphasis and enhanced visibility to the public of the Conservation plan, specifically the Environmental Assessment Procedure (EAP) which states that “each proposed project must demonstrate that it does not compromise the ability to preserve, maintain, manage, and restore Jekyll Island’s natural communities and species diversity.”

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS

Consider alternative uses for some portions of the golf course, with an emphasis on conservation and protection of at-risk environmental communities: See the 2017 National Golf Foundation study for Jekyll Island that explores different options.

Continue to expand the ranger program and education opportunities that focus on the natural resources of the island: Consider a new initiative with the College of Coastal Georgia and other universities, as appropriate, for cooperative efforts that focus on natural resources.

Explore potential for other ecological attractions. A new “attraction” could provide an alternative to beach activities and could be another way to differentiate the island for families with young children, and for environmental enthusiasts.

Expand the island’s waste management and recycling program: The new Conservation Plan, expected in FY 2019,


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 6 - OPERATING PROCEDURES

Table 38. Source: Energy Information Administration, State Energy Data System.

will address this program in greater detail. Trash compactors installed in FY 2018 by JIA at new sites have been very successful, and similar compactors should replace dumpsters in all locations on the island.

RENEWABLE ENERGY

paths to energy independence. WIND Wind is not a viable option for Jekyll Island. •

First, importance of the bird population to the island might make widespread support of a wind program challenging.

Second, construction of towers may disrupt character of the island and erode the island’s reputation as a largely “untouched” destination.

SOLAR The soon-to-be pollinator-friendly, 1-megawatt solar farm at the old landfill site will produce renewable electrons that, through the existing power grid, will satisfy a substantial proportion of the island’s total demand. With this facility, the JIA is launching its foray into renewable energy with one of the largest facilities on the coast and one of the largest on State owned land. The JIA should continue to work with partners in the renewable energy sector to expand the solar program, including consideration of rooftop solar and other opportunities that capitalize on already developed lands. This could include piloting technologies such as microgrids in the future. Microgrids have proven to be a successful model for renewable energy on islands worldwide and have been highlighted as one of the most viable and readily accessible

104

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS

Wind energy is growing rapidly across the U.S. and there are some parties within the state of Georgia who could continue to push for widespread adoption in the state and coastal regions. GEOTHERMAL Geothermal provides a unique solution to its renewable energy counterparts. As compared with wind (~8 hours) and solar (~6 hours), geothermal provides a base load power source 24 hours a day. Proponents point to its efficient transmission, smaller visual footprint and minimal impact to wildlife as being key reasons for its adoption. It does have longer development


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 6 - OPERATING PROCEDURES timelines and can be expensive and high risk during the exploratory and assessment phase. CONCLUSIONS While there are a wide range of projects and initiatives related to sustainability and carbon neutrality that could be introduced on Jekyll Island, it is vital that the JIA successfully continue to execute the Conservation Plan and protection measures already identified and prioritized. If expansion and/or more progressive reforms are desired they could be adopted as part of the upcoming Master plan.5 Other options for reduction of energy use and the carbon footprint on the island corresponds with infrastructure recommendations previously mentioned. Specifically: •

Reducing water use: Install low flow fixtures, encourage reduced water usage by residents, and discuss options for responsible water use. This could continue to be incorporated into conservation messaging.

Reducing overall emissions: Continue to encourage alternative modes of transportation on the island, including biking, electric vehicles, and other approaches.

5

See also “Coastal Hazards and Risk Management” and “Operating Procedures” sections of this report.

105

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 7 - ECONOMICS

“Geography has made us neighbors. History has made us friends. Economics has made us partners, and necessity has made us allies.” John F. Kennedy President of the United States

106

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 7 - ECONOMICS

7

ECONOMICS

R

ecommendations addressing economics are intended to enhance business opportunities, broaden the public’s experience with the island’s activities, strengthen the island’s infrastructure and stewardship of natural resources, and grow Jekyll Island’s economy consistent with the strong culture of conservation and sustainability of the island. There is no one “silver bullet” to enhance economic sustainability, but rather, several small modifications that in combination raise revenues. These recommendations can be grouped into the following categories: •

Communication and messaging;

User fees and park-generated revenues;

Dedicated public funds;

Contractual arrangements with private individuals and firms; and

Philanthropy and partnership arrangements with non-profits and foundations.

Public input was collected through a collaborative process with the JIA, interviews with more than 30 business owners, residents, visitors and the conservation community. Recommendations based on this input are achievable and impactful, given enough public and private commitment and resources. Key principles that have guided recommendations include the following: •

107

these

Stewardship and Inclusiveness: JIA should continue to be inclusive of all forms of activities and experiences.

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS

Figure 80. Concepts of stewardship will help protect natural resources. Image courtesy Sand County Studios.

Balance: All components of JIA’s goals should be considered, including stewardship, access, sustainability and economic growth. Recommendations in this assessment seek to balance economic growth with JIA’s limited resources, balance potentially increased visitation with stewardship and sustainable infrastructure, and balance the varied needs of stakeholders and user groups.


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 7 - ECONOMICS •

Conservation & Interconnectedness: There is interconnectedness between conservation and the cultural history on the island, with residents and visitors engaging and appreciating a variety of pursuits in parallel. User groups are not necessarily mutually exclusive, i.e. bikers may also be bird watchers; golfers may enjoy beach combing; campers may also be history buffs.

revenue capture could add approximately $180,000 in revenue. •

Expand variable, differential, or seasonal pricing beyond special events to include high impact days. Jekyll Island has up to 24 high impact days where visitation is expected to be the highest, including summer weekends and festival days. For many of these days, the number of vehicles entering the island exceeds available parking, and this number is expected to increase if visitation continues to increase at or near current rates. With an assumed average of 5,500 – 6,500 vehicles per day on 24 high impact days, an additional $4.00/ vehicle equates to $440,000 - $520,000 of additional annual revenue. An increased fee is already used for events such as Shrimp and Grits to help cover additional maintenance and operation costs. Adjust as needed per information derived from additional data collection at the entry gate.

Manage revenue loss from the golf courses by upgrading courses, reducing footprint, raising greens fees on the modernized course and improving Clubhouse amenities. See the 2017 National Golf Association study for Jekyll Island for additional details. A modest increase per round of golf would equate to additional $100,000 in revenue.

Boost Convention Center revenue by increasing number of clients who utilize the full array of Convention Center offerings. These organizations are characterized by higher spend levels and a greater need for banquet space, general session space, and break out space.

Expand and promote enterprises that positively contribute revenue, especially those with a small footprint and large economic gain. The annual revenue gains may be harder to track at first, but over time could be measured with greater precision.

Establish pricing for amenities that are in line with nearby state and local parks. For example, mini-golf and bicycle rental

ECONOMIC RECOMMENDATIONS Communication and Messaging •

Reframe the “parking fee” as an “island character fee” with most of the funds used to pay for restoration of the historic district and for other capital projects related to conservation and preservation efforts.

Market the ecological significance and character of the island, for example: “At Jekyll Island, we believe in preservation, conservation, and the celebration of the natural character of the Georgia coast.”

Communicate the unique resources in a user-friendly format via wayfinding including historic/cultural venues, retail & commercial destinations, outdoor activities, and ecological systems that make Jekyll unique. Marketing should emphasize the ecological significance and character of the island. Educate the public about the costs and investments needed to maintain infrastructure, preserve historic properties, and rigorously maintain the conservation habitat (e.g. flora, fauna and barrier island ecosystem). Communicate the direct and indirect economic benefits Jekyll Island provides to the local community.

User Fees and Park Generated Revenues •

108

Continue efforts to modernize the entrance gate system to collect additional data and more efficiently capture revenue. A 5% increase in

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 7 - ECONOMICS experience but prefer not to stay in the RV park or cannot afford the hotel rates. Estimated Annual Revenue Impact: $63,750/year.

Figure 81. There are opportunities to expand services provided at the Jekyll Island Convention Center, resulting in increased revenue. Image courtesy JIA.

could absorb modest increases. Estimated revenue gain: $27,400. •

Expand and improve retail capability of the campground: •

Incorporate seasonal/variable-pricing strategy as warranted in campground. Estimated Revenue impact (24 high impact days): $7,000. Expand Campgrounds as appropriate. Estimated Annual Revenue impact based on sites planned for in the original master plan: $555,000. Add alternative options for accommodations (glamping, yurts, etc.) at the campground. This allows Jekyll Island to promote its ecological commitment, particularly to those who interested in an elevated camping

Continue reinvestment in Summer Waves (e.g. Pirates Passage replacement). Maintain current pricing level until the new ride is complete.

Increase retail/concession sales opportunities that emphasize island character and stewardship.

Dedicated Public Funds •

Review water and sewer rates and adjust as needed to offset deferred maintenance, sustain high quality management, service, and systems, and maintain appropriate reserve level. For illustrative purposes, in comparison to 2018 budget revenues of just over $1 million for water and sewer fees, a range of increases as follows would produce the following: •

10% increase would raise rates by $4.66 to $ $51.27 and produce approximately $100,000/annual revenue;

13.6% increase would raise rates by $6.33 to $52.94 and produce an additional $136,000 in revenue; and

31% increase would raise rates by $14.44 to $61.05 and produce an additional $310,000. Increases of this magnitude would be best spread over a series of years, and those at lower

Figure 82. The Jekyll Island Campground is one of the greatest revenue generators on the island. Expanding the campground and adding alternative types of camping will provide affordable overnight stays while also increasing revenue. Image courtesy JIA.

109

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 7 - ECONOMICS incomes should be provided a means to offset the increases to maintain affordability. a. New development should directly cover any additional demands on system. A thorough analysis of the impacts should be conducted in order to determine what level of financial approach would suffice to offset the pressure on existing facilities and need for new ones. b. Increased revenue should be spent on infrastructure, improved technologies and personnel retention. OTHER CREATIVE FUNDRAISING OPTIONS •

Federal funding and grants: JIA should continue to pursue federal funding for conservation and preservation related activities. For example, the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation and NOAA recently issued a grant opportunity for resiliency and preservation efforts for coastal communities to prevent against flooding and severe weather incidents. This type of partnership would not only provide a needed infusion of money to fund capital improvement projects, it could also be applied to the over arching education and marketing efforts.1

Figure 83. Additional funding should be raised to support and protect the islands environmental systems. Image courtesy Sand County Studios.

Expand the wayfinding line item in the JIA’s current capital improvements objectives. It would ensure signage is updated and expanded where appropriate throughout the island and potentially fund creation of basic online materials and information.

Through the Jekyll Island foundation, leverage partners (e.g., nonprofit organizations, foundations and corporations) to provide financial support. The JIA could approach well-established corporate entities with ties to Jekyll to help sustain the legacy.

Revamp underutilized venues by exploring partnerships to finance capital improvement projects that enhance island experience, boosts revenues, and protect resources.

Continue to work with the Jekyll Island Foundation for the GSTC along with additional educational opportunities and amenities that focus on natural resources and island characters.

PHILANTHROPY AND PARTNERSHIP ARRANGEMENTS •

1

For more about this opportunity, see http://www. noaa.gov/media-release/national-fish-and-wildlifefoundation-and-noaa-announce-new-coastalresilience-funding.

110

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS

EXAMPLES OF PUBLIC/PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS Create programs that allow brands to reach active-lifestyle and environmentally-focused consumers at “the point of play” on the island. Programs could include product/gear sampling (e.g. bicycles, geo-caching, kayaks, paddleboards, golf clubs, binoculars/ photography equipment); signage (e.g. wayfinding), print (e.g. maps), and events (e.g. concerts, paddlefest, etc.).


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 7 - ECONOMICS Potential Annual Revenue Impact

Recommendations •

Modernized Gate, minimize leakage, segmented pricing. Est. 5% increase in gate revenue

Oversized vehicle rate increase

Dynamic/Variable

Market comparable adjustments to select amenities

$180,000

$13,500

Range: $440,000 $520,000

o Mini-Golf Rate

$20,250

o Bike rentals

$27,400

o Addition of alternative camping options

$63,750

o Campground expansion

$555,000

o Camping – add variable pricing

$ 7,000

Campground

Golf course reduction and reconfiguration

$100,000

Water & wastewater fee increase to ensure financial stability (between 10-31%)

Range: $100,000$310,000

Table 39. Economic recommendations as detailed in the text. Data courtesy HaydenTanner. More detailed information can be found in the appendix in section 9.13.

Continue to leverage corporate sponsorships for some capital projects or for specific events.

by a state government entity. However, most of the other state-owned facilities also rely on local governments for many of their services.”2

Estimates with these incremental adjustments would potentially increase annual revenue up to $1.5 million or 5%. Reducing expenses are likely to also have a positive impact.

Jekyll Island’s goal is to be accessible to all Georgians while also being economically selfsustaining. This contradiction of terms requires finesse and clarity related to conservation objectives to maintain the necessary balance between conservation and development, activities that are available to the public for free and activities that can produce revenue. With significant investment in tourism related activities and redevelopment including the Beach Village, Convention Center, the Westin and planned hotels, Jekyll Island has seen renewal and resurgence as an island “resort.” Only a degree of modification is required so that Jekyll Island can fulfill its potential, remain a destination for residents and guests, and meet its environmental obligations. This could require

DETAILED ECONOMIC PROFILE AND RECOMMENDATIONS THE ECONOMICS OF JEKYLL ISLAND AS A STATE PARK As noted in a 2000 Coastal Tourism report to the Georgia State Legislature, “[a]lthough the State operates a number of facilities throughout Georgia, none of those facilities provide a completely comparable situation to Jekyll Island. Jekyll Island is unique in that it constitutes a small city with full-time residents who own their homes, various private businesses in owned and leased space, and public facilities owned and operated 111

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS

2

http://www.senate.ga.gov/sro/Documents/StudyCo mmRpts/00CoastalTourismRpt.pdf


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 7 - ECONOMICS a prioritization of existing capital improvement projects and a disciplined focus on integrating a sustainable ethos into all redevelopment, operations and activities in an intentional way. For many Americans, state parks like Jekyll Island provide the easiest and least expensive way to connect with nature. Parks also serve as vital economic drivers for surrounding areas, where people stop for gas, food and other necessities. The quandary Jekyll Island and other state parks face is that access to nature is more popular than ever but the ability to economically, efficiently and effectively provide and maintain access to the same resources given increased demand is challenging. The need for new sources of revenue comes at a time when state parks are increasing in popularity. State parks across the country were visited roughly 791 million times in 2016,3 far outpacing the 331 million visits to national parks. This is a significant increase from a decade ago, when there were 708 million visits to state parks.4 REGIONAL AND LOCAL ECONOMIC VALUE Parks support a variety of economic activity and other benefits to local property owners and the surrounding region. According to a 2017 report by the Selig Center for Economic Growth at the University of Georgia, Jekyll Island had an annual economic impact of about $700 million on the local economy - about 11 percent of the economic output in all of Glynn County.5 The Selig Center report notes Jekyll Island supports 7,170 full and part-time jobs. The majority of the county-wide economic impacts, about 84%, comes from short-term visitors to the island, those staying a week or less. On average, the study found short-stay visitors spend about five days on Jekyll Island, and spend about $110 per day. Based on the report, every

3

https://www.stateparks.org/about-us/state-parkfacts/ and https://www.nps.gov/orgs/1207/02-282018-visitation-certified.htm

4 5

ibid

112

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS

http://www.terry.uga.edu/about/centers-institutes/ selig/Jekyll%20Island%20Economic%20Impact.pdf

dollar of initial spending generates an additional 40 cents for Glynn County’s economy. The Island’s annual Shrimp & Grits Festival generates about $9 million in economic revenue and brings in about 45,000 people who stay on the island and in surrounding communities. The island reflects a juxtaposition between conservation and economic sustainability. The question raised is how can Jekyll Island continue to support increasing numbers of people without being “loved to death?” USER FEES AND PARK GENERATED REVENUES JIA’s 2018 estimated gross revenue of $28.9 million reflects a two percent increase over the prior year, net revenue of $26.9 million after operating expenses of $25.3 million (day-today operations, plus vehicle and equipment replacements, historic building repairs) reflects net operating income of $1.68 million before fund contributions (bed tax allocation for the tourism fund and capital projects), leaving about $363K for cash reserves. Significant drivers on the revenue side include gate fees and enterprise revenues. As a selfsustaining entity, Jekyll Island covers its operating expenses through revenue from operations. These include: •

Gate fees (parking fees);

Business leases (hospitality/retail);

Hotel/hospitality tax (hotel/motel tax, vacation rental);

Admission fees to historic district buildings, Georgia Sea Turtle Center, and tour revenue;

Campground fees and concessions;

Summer Waves entrance fee and concessions;

Activities fees: e.g. Greens fees/tennis fees/ mini-golf, skating, bike rentals, turtle walks, nature walks, summer camps;

Concessions: food, alcohol/beverage, propane, guide books, etc.;


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 7 - ECONOMICS •

Convention Center fees;

Residential lot leases;

License fees like Bicycle License and Alcohol Licenses;

Franchise Fees;

Events and festivals like Turtle Crawl, Tree Lighting, 4th of July, & Shrimp & Grits;

Cell Tower rentals on top of water towers or stand alone;

Energy leases;

Fire Fees (paid in conjunction with lease ownership) and/or permits; and

Water & sewer rates (paid in conjunction with lease ownership).

Certain enterprises provide an outsized revenue benefit as compared to their operating expenses to the bottom line. These include Summer Waves, the campground, the Village retail rent, the GSTC, the Convention Center and the minigolf and bike rentals. Others, such as the Golf courses, have consistently operated at a deficit, and while they have historic value and a fervent following, reduce overall financial sustainability. JIA receives funding for capital budget items through SPLOST from Glynn County, State bond funds (and sometimes other State funds), monies from FAA and Georgia DOT for maintenance and capital improvements at the airport, and occasional grants for bike paths or other capital projects. The Jekyll Island Water/ Wastewater Department directly bills customers on the island for water and sewer. Funding from the Jekyll Island Foundation provides monies for projects like the new museum. Operating surpluses are set aside each year to be used for special projects and capital items, including EMS equipment, infrastructure needs, etc.

challenges. According to data from the National Association of State Park Directors,6 state parks generate an average of 45 percent of funding for their operating expenses. About a third from user fees, 10 percent from other state receipts dedicated to the parks, 10 percent from bonds, 1 percent from federal grants, and 4 percent from “other” (including local grants and donations). About 40 percent comes from state general funds, which is down from a typical level of about two-thirds a few years ago. New Hampshire7 and Vermont are the only states where, with the exception of capital expenditures, their state parks are entirely self-funded. Reduced support at the state level has prompted a number of state park officials to look for new sources of funding. Their efforts may be illustrative for Jekyll Island. For example, according to a 2016 report from the Pew Foundation, “Arizona has turned over the management of some state parks to local communities. South Carolina is experimenting with adjusting price based on demand, and Utah is looking for revenue in activities like zip lining.”8 Some state parks are looking at alternative sports to broaden both the types of users and usage patterns, e.g. disc golf in empty fields and hosting archery sessions after school to bring in people at times they may not usually visit.9 Jekyll Island’s retail/concession sales account for 14% of revenues. The total revenue could increase with more visitors coming to the island. If additional space is added, as is contemplated by the capital improvements plan, then an increase in retail sales could also result.

6

http://www.governing.com/topics/transportationinfrastructure/gov-state-parks-funding.html

7

http://nhpr.org/post/nhs-state-parks-checking-theirfunding-model-upkeep#stream/0

SELF- SUSTAINING FUNDING

8

Increased attendance exacerbates wear and tear on island facilities, increasing the need to address aging infrastructure. Jekyll Island is not alone as many state parks face similar

http://www.pewtrusts.org/en/research-and-analysis/ blogs/stateline/2016/04/14/state-parks-find-newways-to-save-make-money

9

http://www.pewtrusts.org/en/research-and-analysis/ blogs/stateline/2016/04/14/state-parks-find-newways-to-save-make-money

113

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 7 - ECONOMICS Some of the revenue generated on the island, such as property tax for homes, goes directly to Glynn County. This type of approach puts an unwanted burden on the JIA, which has to cover associated costs without benefitting from revenue. Discussions with Glynn County should occur in an effort to find a more equitable balance of costs versus revenue. GATE REVENUE + TOLL COLLECTION SYSTEMS JIA is missing out on an undetermined amount of visitor revenue. JIA’s present effort to evaluate and modernize the physical gate entry process could help address this issue. According to JIA staff, options are currently being evaluated that are more intuitive to use, flexible and more efficient. Other factors important to JIA staff include mechanisms that could enhance visitor and resident experience, increase security and efficiency, reduce traffic congestion, and limit revenue leakage from gate entries. Some questions raised by the consulting team include: •

Upon entry, how do you know how long a vehicle will be on the island, and when it leaves? (e.g. Is there a means to track cars coming in and going out?)

How can you capture revenue from those that pay for a one-day ticket, but stay longer?

How can you reduce queue time, especially in the busy summertime?

How can you move traffic more efficiently?

How can you capture, aggregate, and use visitor entry data for future planning, marketing and analysis?

How can the system grow as visitation increases and technology improves?

The existing toll gate system requires people to make a choice between a single day pass or a weekly pass, with annual passes available in the Guest Visitor Center. For people who intend to

114

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS

stay longer than one day, but less than a week, there is no quick, easy way to purchase more than a one-day pass. As busy times are determined with greater precision, and a new equipment provider is selected and tested, JIA can better prepare for peak times to manage capacity. Further, it could enable JIA to compare fees paid with time spent on the island. It is difficult to assess exactly how many people may be staying longer than one day and not paying the appropriate rate. However, estimates suggest that the ability to increase collections by 5% on gate revenues of $3.1 million would result in an annual revenue impact of approximately $180,000. Oversized Vehicles: A review of comparable state and national parks in the region indicate JIA is undercharging for Oversized Vehicles ($10 vs. $30). It is important to note the definition of “oversized” on JI is slightly different from the other parks. Jekyll Island defines “oversized” as any vehicle over 8 feet in height. This definition captures RVs as well as commercial vehicles. In conjunction with the redesign of the gate collection process and new technology, we recommend JIA refine and segment the “oversize” vehicles to break out commercial vehicals. We anticipate this could add a modest amount to revenues. On one day in July 2018, 15 commercial vehicles without annual passes came through the gate. If this were true on 180 days of the year, an increase of the rate from $10 to $20 could add an additional $27,000 of annual revenue. Gate Revenue + Dynamic/Variable Pricing Expansion of differential or variable pricing should be expanded. In 2017, for example, there were 24 high impact days, which is an additional 20 days then is currently being charged a higher fee. JIA could be well served using dynamic pricing beyond seasonal festivals and special events. This creates a dynamic response to overcrowding, spreads the visitation curve, and


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 7 - ECONOMICS

Figure 84. The entry gate to Jekyll Island can be used to collect data on the number of vehicles accessing the island. Island character fees from these vehicles can be used to provide economic sustainability for the island, and to fund projects that help protect the environmental character of the island. Image courtesy JIA.

provides increased revenues to offset the need for additional monitoring, management and infrastructure and utility strain. JIA could expand the dynamic pricing pilot beyond gate fees (historic building rental, campsites and other recreational facilities) based on market demand within a stringent and still affordable band. The objective being twofold: first, to fill some of the lower activity times of the year through pricing and secondly, to spread the visitation curve to more of a rolling attendance rather than high peak and low peak. This is an effective means for utilizing existing capacity, minimizing overuse of resources, and supporting self-sustainability. An assumed average of 5,500 – 6,500 vehicles per day on 24 high impact days (20 new days) equates to $440,000 - $520,000 of additional annual revenue. Benefits: •

Increased revenue as a result of the higher number of vehicles, encouraging more people to visit during the slower days with fewer during the high impact days;

Reduce the number of peak days, and reduce traffic congestion and overuse of the more popular areas on the island;

Spreading attendance more evenly throughout the year, helping hotels and retailers more efficiently plan staffing levels and operations, allowing for dispersed yearround revenue; and

115

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS

Smaller crowds more evenly spread across the year should allow for higher quality “customer service” and improve people’s experience on the island.

Challenge: •

Maintaining affordability for all Georgians.

CAMPGROUND •

The campground should be expanded per recommendations in the master plan. It is an affordable alternative with solid revenue generation and potential for success based on historical usage and trends.

The addition of alternative camping options (raised platforms, yurts, etc.) are of interest to those wanting to have an enhanced, but affordable, outdoor experience. According to discussions with the Georgia Department of Natural Resources, the alternative options have proven to be highly successful in several other state parks both for revenue generation and increased visibility of the island itself.

Evaluate commercial lease structures to maximize tenant retention while also optimizing economic return. Regularly evaluate market comparables at lease renewal or re-tenanting. SUMMER WAVES Reinvesting in the Summer Waves water park could help the facility continue to be


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 7 - ECONOMICS competitive. Based on the successful renovation of Summer Waves’ kiddie pool, reinvestment in a replacement for Pirates Passage seems appropriate. A renovation of this ride could allow for reduced waiting time per ride and higher thru put of passengers. Pricing for Summer Waves could remain at its current level until the new ride can be completed. At that point, consideration of a modest rate increase would be appropriate. HOUSING PROFILE AND VACATION RENTAL POOL DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE According to the most recent demographics data available from the Census Bureau released in December of 2017, “The population change from 2010 to 2016 on Jekyll Island indicates a decline of 128 (16%). The median age is approximately 64, the highest in the surrounding region. Jekyll Island has the largest proportion of people 60 to 69-years old at 43.3% of the total and 33.5%, 70 years of age or older.10” According to 2017 data, approximately 38% percent of Jekyll Island’s households have incomes greater than $100,000, about 30% higher than the Brunswick Metropolitan Statistical Area and 20% higher than of all Georgia households. While the data shows a statistical range that is extraordinarily wide and should be viewed with some caution,11 it is consistent with changing demographics, a population that is of retirement age and housing prices which reflect greater affluence. The Selig Center’s 2017 economic report12 supports an even higher income level. The Center estimates the average income of resident households at $130,450. Poverty is estimated at an exceptionally low 3.3%

10

https://www.towncharts.com/Georgia/ Demographics/Jekyll-Island-CCD-GADemographics-data.html

11

Per the census, singular income data for Jekyll Island property owners is not available, however; the demographic information has been extrapolated based on the zip code (31527) that includes the entirety of Jekyll Island.

12

http://www.terry.uga.edu/about/centers-institutes/ selig/Jekyll%20Island%20Economic%20Impact.pdf

116

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS

Figure 85. The campground includes RV camping and tent camping. Image courtesy JIA.

Jekyll Island’s average household size is 1.8 persons;

The 2016 data shows no minors under the age of 19, however, through our interviews we know there are a handful living on the island;

97% of the population characterizes themselves as white, 3% as Hispanic;

Housing demographics on the island have changed over the last decade or so as the national economy has rebounded, and redevelopment of the island has occurred. According to our interviews, long time island residents note where previously one -third of the housing was full-time homeowners, one-third full time renters who worked on the island and one-third vacation rentals, now housing is dominated in large part by vacation rentals and second homes;

728 housing units;

88% of residences are single family and only 12% multi-family;

Data obtained from the JIA show that permanent residents occupy 268 homes on Jekyll Island.13 This suggests approximately 38% are year-round residents;

Data from the JIA show that there are 575 homeowners who do not live on Jekyll Island, including 260 owners of second

13

ibid


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 7 - ECONOMICS

Figure 86. Expansion of Summer Waves would generate additional revenue without having a major impact on the island. Image courtesy JIA.

Data collected from public records15 show that in the recently built Cottages, the average sale price of a home sold between March 2016 and March 2018 was $504,899 and the median was $472,325; and

Of the 107 Cottages sales, approximately 30% (32 units) are primary residences, and 70% (71 units) are either second homes, or investment property. 31 of those 71 have been put in the rental pool, primarily for short term rentals. The balance, 44 units (41% of the sold inventory) sit vacant for most of the year as second homes and are not being used.16

Additional housing should be carefully evaluated to determine if the benefits outweigh potential impacts since economic benefits that are limited. Workforce housing should be considered if such projects are led and financially supported by business owners, such as hotels.

Figure 87. Recent improvements to Summer Waves has led to an increase in visitors. Image courtesy JIA.

homes and 315 owners of rentals.14 Many of these second homeowners are “snowbirds” who actively support the community through the winter months;

14

ibid

117

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS

15

Glynn County Tax Assessor’s office, compiled by CBRE Southeast Region

16

ibid


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 7 - ECONOMICS CONTRACTUAL AGREEMENTS WITH PRIVATE INDIVIDUALS AND FIRMS All decisions regarding new development are negotiated by the JIA Executive Director and key JIA personnel and must be approved by the board. Both residential and commercial leaseholders pay an annual lease per lot and Fire Fee based on the value of the land determined by the Glynn County Tax Assessors office. New commercial properties are leased with a per acre valuation of $350,000 per acre and is subject to percentage rent as negotiated between the leasehold owner and the JIA. Residential leases, as described in more detail below, were renegotiated in 2009.

Figure 88. There are 728 housing units on Jekyll Island. Image courtesy Sand County Studios.

There is diversity in the hotel lease structures. Some, like the new Ocean Suites property are based on percentage rent, and others a combination percentage rent and base rent. Base rent plus a percentage is a common revenue model and provides JIA a minimum return, plus the benefit of additional revenue through percentage rent if a business does exceptionally well.

comparables must be extrapolated from nearby regions as little space is available for lease on the island. Local real estate brokers looked at market comparables and estimated rates for the ground floor retail space at the Beach Village could be approximately $20-23/sq. ft., or more. The rates for the second-floor space, would be significantly lower due to the reduced visibility and ease of access.

The Beach Village is structured strictly as base rent, with no overages. Percentage rent is especially susceptible to variations due to economic changes, convention activity and weather events such as excessive rain or hurricanes, or on the plus side, better than average temperatures.

Residential Leases and Housing Development

While there are no standard annual increases, all leases have escalation clauses. The Beach Village rentals increase annually using a CPI calculation. Some other leases increase every 5 or 10 years. A few older leases increase based on periodic value assessment. COMMERCIAL LEASES JIA has been pleased with the progress made by the retail shops, especially in the Beach Village and want to ensure their long-term viability. Beach Village rent has escalated annually from $12.50 to $13.75 to $15.00 per sq. ft. Most tenants are currently at $15.15 per sq. ft. now, after the most recent annual CPI increase. There are few tenants whose leases are up for renewal in the near term. Consequently, market 118

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS

In 2009, the JIA renegotiated the underlying residential leases, increasing payments to fourtenths of 1% (0.4%) of land value. Leases that were not renegotiated generally expire in 2049. Those that were renegotiated expire in 2088. The renegotiation and extension of the leases was done to ensure stable property values, to enable the transfer of ownership, and to allow homeowners the assurance of getting financing. These residential leases account for a very small portion of revenue, contributing only a modest amount to the Jekyll Island budget. 2018 estimated revenues from these leases are expected to be $618,000, equivalent to about 2% of total gross revenues. Development - Housing Revenue for housing on Jekyll Island may be derived through a fee on residential rental units, transfer fees on sale and one time â&#x20AC;&#x153;participation


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 7 - ECONOMICS

Figure 89. The Beach Village provides retail opportunities for visitors and residents. Image courtesy Sand County Studios.

fees.â&#x20AC;? Coldwell Banker identifies a median sales price of $429,000 for homes on the island.17 Average sale prices of the recently-built Cottages were over $500,000. Review of sales crossreferenced with the vacation rental pool and tax assessorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s data, suggests more than 70% of these were purchased as second homes and are not currently in the rental pool. While JIA negotiates some compensation in the form of development fees on the front end. With median prices at this level most of these are unlikely to go into the rental pool and do not contribute long-term revenue generation.

17

https://www.coldwellbanker.com/for-sale-homes/ Jekyll-Island-GA-55096c/view_local-market-trends, accessed 7.28.18

119

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS

Hospitality and Vacation Rentals JIA collects a lodging tax of five percent (5%) of the rent for occupancy of a guest room in a hotel, tourist camp, tourist cabin, campground, or any other place, including residences (including VRBO, Airbnb), in which rooms, lodgings, or other accommodations are available.18 This amount is consistent with the charge imposed across unincorporated Glynn County. If paid by the 15th of the month following collection, there is a 3% discount, reducing the amount to 4.85%.

18

Comparably speaking, this amount is low in comparison to other regions in the U.S. who charge upwards of 10-15% and may suggest a potential opportunity to increase revenue. https://www. airbnb.com/help/article/653/in-what-areas-isoccupancy-tax-collection-and-remittance-by-airbnbavailable; https://blog.evolvevacationrental.com/ top-5-questions-vacation-rental-owners-ask-abouttaxes/


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 7 - ECONOMICS

Figure 90. The Jekyll Island Convention Center has had a significant impact on the economic revitalization of the island. Image courtesy JIA.

Figure 91. Weddings and other social activities are supported by convention center staff. Image courtesy JIA.

These monies are paid directly to JIA who retains the entire amount.

It is still too early to determine if the Ocean Oaks property will be primarily owners living in the homes, or vacation rentals. If used as rentals, they will generate hotel/motel taxes and will be subject to a rental permit issued by JIA. However, if The Cottages is any indicator, these will be in the minority. Any increase in number of second homes not in the rental pool could reduce revenues from this source.

Because of the 2016 State Transportation Bill hotels also collect a $5.00 per night state levy, which is paid directly to the state. The campground is exempt from this fee. Residents who rent out their property directly, for long or short-term rentals must get a permit through the JIA and pay a 3% gross revenue fee to JIA. As development on the island has been renovated, housing prices have increased. Data from JIA, research from the Selig Center, and information from the Glynn County Assessor’s office indicates that many of these homes are purchased as second homes, but not placed into short or long-term rental pools. Not only has this reduced inventory for long-term renters, the reduction in short-term rentals also reduces the revenue generated by people to the island. Development such as The Cottages and Ocean Oaks generates additional revenue through initial participation fees, subsequent transfer fees and a percentage of rental revenue generated. Participation fees are non-recurring fees assessed when the property initially sells and are based on the actual sale price of the property. The 2018 fiscal budget includes a $240,000 participation fee from The Cottages. Subsequent sales will also generate a transfer fee, as do any property sales.

120

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS

DEVELOPMENT FEES The JIA does not have the power to impose direct impact fees as contemplated under Georgia law in the Development Impact Fee Act (which applies to counties or municipalities). However, JIA can negotiate upfront costs for each project based on things like size and location each individual project. This can be done through the terms of each project’s development agreement/lease agreement. Recently, the RFP for the limited service hotel project required a set development fee as part of each proposal. So, while JIA does not have set impact fees, costs can be addressed through project negotiations. State courts have generally landed on a definition of impact that reflects a “rational nexus” between the fee and the needs created by development and the benefits incurred by the development. Development is not recommended on current undeveloped land. Regardless of what is built, any redevelopment or new development could put increased pressure on existing infrastructure - water, sewer facilities, traffic and roads – and


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 7 - ECONOMICS

Year

Millage Rate (County Maintenance& Operations only) *

2018

8.691 (proposed)

2017

6.691

$993,606

2016

4.981

$668,482

2015

4.981

$623,897

2014

4.981

$599,584

2013

4.981

$583,206

Amount Collected by Glynn County*

* Georgia Department of Revenue – Tax Digest reports https://apps.dor. ga.gov/digestconsolidation/default.aspx Table 40. Economics and millage rates.

environment, and should cover the relative impact. Development/impact fees pay for reasonable expansion of services and may also be beneficial in directing both location and type of development or redevelopment in accordance with key objectives. Code Section 123-231 grants the JIA the ability to “plan, survey, subdivide, improve, administer, construct, erect, acquire, own, repair, remodel, maintain, add to, extend, improve, equip, operate, and manage projects located on property owned or leased by the authority.” User fees should be reviewed to determine if parcel redevelopment adequately covers increased pressure on infrastructure. Evaluate commercial lease structures to maximize tenant retention while also optimizing economic return. TRADITIONAL TOOLS JIA has no taxing authority, hence is limited in its ability to use traditional “fee” or impact mechanisms available to most governing bodies. JIA can’t avail itself of Tax Increment Financings (TIFs) or resort sales tax. The JIA along with property owners, could institute a Business or Community Benefit Districts (BIDs/CIDs) for maintenance or other community desired amenities. JIA can issue revenue bonds and may wish to consider that model in the future. JIA may also consider participating in The Partnership for Public Facilities and Infrastructure program, found in OCGA 50-5C-1 et al. that allows private entities to submit a proposed project to a state

121

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS

entity, including authorities, for consideration. This mechanism was passed by the state to facilitate Public-Private-Partnerships (PPP) for large scale transportation projects. It is useful to understand and weigh the benefits/ constraints of all available tools and options. UTILITIES – WATER AND WASTE WATER Water and Sewer rates appear to be under market as compared to other utilities and inadequately cover operating expenses, deferred maintenance and needed infrastructure improvements. When evaluating rates, it is important to consider both the financial needs and condition of the utility and affordability of rates. In evaluating JIA Water & Sewer Department rates in comparison to utilities in the surrounding 50mile region plus other communities with similar economic profiles, Jekyll Island’s combined water and sewer rate is 28% lower than Brunswick and Glynn County, and between 4-22% lower than utilities comparable economic demographics (median household income). JIA Water & Sewer Department rates average 13.6% lower than this comparative group. When accounting for affordability (calculated by taking the annual water rate and dividing into the median household income) JIA Water & Sewer Department rates are 31% lower than comparables. When comparing cost recovery, JIA Water & Sewer Department at an inferred 112%, is lower


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 7 - ECONOMICS than most other utilities, which average 130%. This suggests JIA Water & Sewer Department is only slightly covering operating expenses and has a limited amount going towards deferred maintenance and reserves. This analysis indicates a possible need to increase water and sewer rates to ensure financial stability and cover needed capital investments. Based on median income and poverty rates, JIA Water & Sewer Department rate payers appear to the financial ability to absorb an increase. JIA Water & Sewer Department should consider adjusting water and sewer rates to offset deferred maintenance, sustaining high quality management, service and systems, and maintaining appropriate reserve level to upgrade as needed. For illustrative purposes, in comparison to 2018 budget revenues of just over $1 million for water and sewer fees, a range of increases as follows would produce the following: •

10% increase would raise rates by $4.66 to $ $51.27 and produce approximately $100,000/annual revenue;

13.6% increase would raise rates by $6.33 to $52.94 and produce an additional $136,000 in revenue; and

31% increase would raise rates by $14.44 to $61.05 and produce an additional $310,000.

Increases of this magnitude would be best spread over a series of years, and those at lower incomes should be provided a means to offset the increases to maintain affordability. PROPERTY TAX ASSESSMENTS Glynn County is divided into six tax districts: District 1 is the city of Brunswick. District 2 covers the outlying portions of the county. District 3 is the Ballard area and Blythe Island. District 4 is St. Simons Island. District 5 Sea Island and District 6 is Jekyll Island. The county has proposed a millage increase, slated to be approved in July 2018. Districts 3, 4 and 5 pay a comparatively small millage rate for the fire fund, which means

122

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS

Figure 92. Water towers are part of the island’s infrastructure. Image courtesy Sand County Studios.

each will see both the 2 millage increase covering all districts plus an extra .5 millage increase dedicated for the fire fund. The millage increase will be limited to two miles in the Jekyll Island District (6) as well as in districts 1 and 2. The proposed millage increase will not directly impact JIA’s budget, however, it does have the potential to impact it indirectly through a closer review of property values. JIA staff have been working with the county to review property values for consistency. Much of JIA’s revenue is based on the actual property values the Tax Assessor’s office places on the land, so any incremental changes could impact lot lease fees, fire fees and transfer fees which are all tied to the land values. Each mil equals $1 per $1,000 of taxable valuation.


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 7 - ECONOMICS SERVICES PROVIDED BY OUTSIDE AGENCIES Georgia State Patrol - services provided to the island. •

Post 35 has nine (9) troopers exclusively assigned to Jekyll Island for community policing.

911 emergency response includes area checks, house watches, accident response, street patrols and, on occasion, and retrieving keys from locked vehicles.

• Glynn County supplies schools, mosquito control service, permitting/inspection services, criminal justice, library services, and election process/procedures

123

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 8 - CONCLUSION

We owe it to ourselves and to the next generation to conserve the environment so that we can bequeath our children a sustainable world that benefits all. Wangari Matthai Author, 2004 Noble Peace Prize Laureate

124

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 8 -CONCLUSION

8

CONCLUSION

This Jekyll Island Carrying Capacity and Infrastructure Assessment concludes that there are some issues involving people, vehicles, activities, potential changes, and that the resultant impacts will need to be addressed to necessitate adaptations that help protect and preserve the unique character of the island. Tasks to address these issues are categorized as Short-term (within 3 years) and Medium-term (3 to 6 years). Long-term tasks include all other tasks identified in this assessment. These are on-going tasks that are important, but may not need to be implemented in the next couple of years. Many Long-term tasks may become more urgent as conditions change on Jekyll Island, or as other tasks or completed. OVER-RIDING CONCERN One concern is the potential impact on island character that a continued increase in the number of people and vehicles coming to the island may have in the future. The increase is estimated to be approximately 7% per year over the last four years, and that trend is likely to continue. This could be an ongoing issue, but it could need to be addressed immediately so different scenarios can be proactive rather than reactive. SHORT-TERM TASKS Parking. During peak season, which are the spring and summer months, and on high impact days, which include festival and days and weekend days during peak season, parking can

125

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS

be challenging and is likely to become a bigger issue. During the revitalization of Jekyll Island, JIA concentrated on getting people to return to the island, in part because people were needed for the island to become economically sustainable. As more people come to Jekyll Island, there is a need to manage the increase in visitation in an effective manner while still protecting island character. JIA currently addresses these concerns by closing the airport and/or the Great Dunes Golf Course and potentially other areas for overflow parking. These are effective for festivals and events, but overuse of these areas may impact environmental resources and infrastructure. Parking should be limited to designated areas with additional parking limited to specifically designated locations. JIA does not currently have a means to enforce parking restrictions, so implementing a voluntary process to limit parking in designated areas may be appropriate. If voluntary efforts are not effective, JIA may need to explore and execute alternative parking and capacity in some manner to protect Jekyll Islandâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s natural areas. Data Collection. The collection of supplemental data from an updated gate system should enable JIA to further refine information on how many people are entering the island, how long they are staying, and what types of activities they are participating in. JIA collects data from the entry gate and from selected facilities and events, and augmentation of this data could further enhance


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT

decisions about capacity, programming, conservation, potential development, marketing, and other improvements to be made on the island.

accommodate existing and planned development on the island. Implement enhanced maintenance and infrastructure improvements based on priority areas identified in this assessment.

Expand Selected Facilities. Expansion of the campground to include additional sites, alternative options for accommodations (i.e. “glamping”, yurts), and seasonal/variable-pricing strategy are important in the immediate term, with the details of this expansion needing to be addressed during the Master Plan process.

Additional development on the island should be limited and responsive to impacts on environmental resources and island character. Any additional development should pay for needed improvements to infrastructure as well as supporting amenities such as bike trails, wayfinding, and other features.

Emphasis on Natural Character of the Island. JIA should continue to develop and promote projects, activities, events, and initiatives about the island’s unique character and environmental resources.

Alternative Transportation. If the number of vehicles and people entering the island continues to increase, JIA must explore alternatives for how to accommodate this increase. The revised Master and Conservation Plans should explore these alternatives in greater detail. There may be a need to limit the number of cars on the Island in the future to minimize environmental impacts and changes to island character.

Operations and Funding. There are several small modifications that in combination could increase revenues and enhance operations. For example, existing efforts to modernize the entrance gate system could allow JIA to collect additional data and capture potentially lost revenue. JIA may be able to capture additional revenues as a result of reprogramming gate equipment to include various lengths of stay and more flexibility regarding dynamic pricing for known times of extra crowding on the island. Management Strategies. JIA should continue to carefully consider how to address capacity issues, develop strategies for new regulations, voluntary and/or mandated enforcement, parking opportunities and possible restrictions, shuttles, and alternative modes of transportation. JIA should anticipate that there could be a wide array of opinions and positions on these topics and discussions may be challenging. It should be noted that although Management Strategies are listed as Short-term because of a need to start these discussions soon, such strategies also are on-going. MEDIUM-TERM TASKS Infrastructure Maintenance & Improvements. Maintain all existing infrastructure to

126

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS

Off-season Activities. Emphasis should continue to be on implementing, programming, supporting, and marketing activities that occur during the off-season to minimize additional impact upon island resources. Increase Revenue and Decreasing Impact. Expand and promote enterprises that positively contribute to revenue growth, especially those with a small footprint and large economic gain. National and regional studies, as early as 1974, began asserting the value of trails in terms of public satisfaction, and the number of studies has increased significantly in the last twenty years. The Business Of Trails: A Compilation Of Economic Benefits1 presents many examples of the economic benefits of trails and their users. The National Park Service has conducted dozens of studies that indicate trails are the best us of public funds in terms of use and public satisfaction.2

1

https://www.americantrails.org/resources/thebusiness-of-trails-a-compilation-of-economicbenefits

2

Visitor Spending Effects - Economic Contributions of National Park Visitor Spending, https://www.nps.


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT

Sustainable Infrastructure. As JIA begins to repair and improve infrastructure (roads, utilities, energy sources) there should be a shift to sustainable practices such as re-using and treating wastewater, reducing the overall water footprint, and improving water efficiency. Waste management and overall impact to the environment must remain a priority. All dumpsters on the island should be replaced with trash compactors. Implement Additional Monitoring. JIA should define and implement monitoring strategies to determine whether the current management strategies in place to accommodate people, vehicles, and activities on the island while also protecting cultural and natural resources are functioning as intended. Where variances or gaps exist, management strategies should be adjusted. Additional monitoring could help determine user patterns on the island and provide information and capacities of specific facilities, such as beaches, trails, fishing pier, and other areas. Data from monitoring can help verify carrying capacity projections, or indicate where assumptions need to be reconsidered. Re-Evaluate Capacity. As JIA continues to implement effective strategies to manage people, vehicles, and development and collects data and monitors activities, there could be a need to regularly assess and re-evaluate carrying capacity. This reevaluation process could enable JIA to make proactive decisions.

gov/subjects/socialscience/vse.htm

127

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

“Awareness is becoming acquainted with environment, no matter where one happens to be.” Sigurd Olson Author, President of The Wilderness Society

128

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

9 APPENDICES

129

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

“I would rather sit on a pumpkin and have it all to myself, than be crowded on a velvet cushion.” Henry David Thoreau Essayist, Poet, Philosopher, Naturalist

130

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

9.1 BIBLIOGRAPHY AECOM, Jekyll Island Conservation Plan. Sept. 2011 Applied Geographic Solutions. Glynn County Demographic Report 4Q 2016. Associated Press. “Jekyll Island took devastating blow from Irma, officials say.” Chicago Tribune. September 30, 2017. http://www.chicagotribune.com/news/sns-bc-ga--jekyll-island-storm-damage20170930-story.html Associated Press. Beach from Leonardo DiCaprio film to temporarily close due to tourist damage. March 2018. https://www.theguardian.com/film/2018/mar/28/thailand-beach-leonardo-dicaprioclosing?CMP=share_btn_tw Average Vehicle Occupancy (Persons) by Trip Purpose. National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) Tabulation created on the NHTS website. Federal Highway Administration, 2019. http://nhts.ornl. gov. Accessed July 2017. Bernard-Poulin, Béatrice. Tourists are ruining these destinations. Espresso Conenu, 4/19/2018. https://www.msn.com/en-us/travel/article/tourists-are-ruining-these-destinations/ssAAw3zrT?li=BBnb7Kz#image=19 Briones, A. R. (2009). Beach Carrying Capacity Assessment of Coastal Ecotourism in Calatagan, Batangas, Philippines. Journal of Environmental Science and Management. Brunswick Area Transportation Study (BATS) 2040 MTP. https://www.glynncounty.org/845/2040Metropolitan-Transportation-Plan Brunswick Area Transportation Study (BATS) 2040 MTP. https://www.glynncounty.org/845/2040Metropolitan-Transportation-Plan Buan, Jaime Jayra, Maria Elaine Subia and Enrico C. Garcia. Carrying Capacity, Standard Total Daily Visit and Tourist Experiences and Observations in Hulugan Falls: Basis for Local Environmental Protect Policy. Lyceum of the Philippines University – Laguna. Bureau of Economic Analysis, U.S. Department of Commerce. September 26, 2017. Clarke, A. L. (2002). Assessing the Carrying Capacity of the Florida Keys. Kluwer Academic PublishersPlenum Publishers. Consolidated Budget Comparison, Jekyll Island Authority. Cordell, H. Ken, Ph.D, and Gary T. Green, Ed. An Evaluation of Traffic Counts Used for Estimating Recreation Visitation: A Case Study of Jekyll Island State Park, Georgia A RECREATION Research Report in the IRIS Series1. March 2008. DestiMetrics. Golden Isles’ Transient Inventory Study January 31, 2018. Dimitrios Trakolis. Carrying Capacity - An Old Concept: Significance for the Management of Urban Forest Resources. 131

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES Dong Wei, L. X.-Y.-R. (2004). A case study on Ecotourism Carrying Capacity and Ecotourism Functional Districts in Jinhua City. Tsinghua Tongfang Knowledge Network Technology Co., Ltd. Espresso Conenu, 4/19/2018. https://www.msn.com/en-us/travel/article/tourists-are-ruining-thesedestinations/ss-AAw3zrT?li=BBnb7Kz#image=19 FAO. (n.d.). Framework guidelines for assessing carrying capacity. FAO Corporate Document Repository: http://www.fao.org/docrep/x5626e/x5626e0e.htm Faraci, Alexis, Aaron Fowler, Nancy Galewski, Blair Garvey and Wesley Lee Carrying Capacity in the Metro Atlanta Region CP 6016 – Growth Management Law Reuter & Juergensmeyer Spring 2008 Group 5. April 21, 2008. Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Division of Recreation and Parks. (n.d.). Visitor Carrying Capacity Guidelines. Georgia DCA Dataviews, 2006) Georgia Department of Labor; U.S. Census Bureau. http://www.towncharts.com/Georgia/ Demographics/Jekyll-Island-CCD-GA-Demographics-data.html http://www.dot.ga.gov/informationcenter/statistics/stars/GASTARSHelp/files/tc_glossar y.html http://www.dot.ga.gov/informationcenter/statistics/stars/Pages/TrafficCounterDetails.asp x?county=127&tc=0136) http://www.dstegoa.gov.in/Beach%20Carrying%20Capacity%20Report.pdf https://news.gtp.gr/2016/02/29/santorini-limit-cruise-traffic-visitor-numbers/ https://www.movoto.com/demographics/ga/31527/ https://www.nps.gov/policy/mp/policies.html https://www.telegraph.co.uk/travel/destinations/south-america/peru/articles/machu-picchu-newrules-for-access/ https://www.theguardian.com/film/2018/mar/28/thailand-beach-leonardo-dicaprioclosing?CMP=share_btn_tw Interagency Visitor Use Management Council. Visitor Use Management Framework - A Guide to Providing Sustainable Outdoor Recreation, Edition One. July 2016. Jekyll Island Authority Code of Ordinances Jekyll Island Authority Comprehensive Disability Accessibility and Assessment Plan, prepared by the Georgia State Financing and Investment Commission, State ADA Coordinator’s Office. Jekyll Island Authority Hotel Occupancy Statistics Jekyll Island Golf Club - Assessment and Recommendations for Jekyll Island Authority Golf Program, January 2017. Jekyll Island Island-wide Transportation System Feasibility Report (October 2016). Jekyll Island Master Plan 2014. University of Georgia: Carl Vinson Institute of Government. 132

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES Jekyll Island State Park Authority Visitor Analysis and Business Plan. Bleakly Advisory Group. February 2009. Lasley, Phil Change in Vehicle Occupancy Used in Mobility Monitoring Efforts, Mobility Analysis Program Texas A&M Transportation Institute August 2017. https://static.tti.tamu.edu/tti.tamu.edu/ documents/TTI-2017-9.pdf Lawson, Steve, Peter Newman, Janet Choi, Dave Pettebone, and Bret Meldrum Integrated Transportation and User Capacity Research in Yosemite National Park the Numbers Game. Lawson, Steven R, R. E. (2002). Proactive monitoring and adaptive management of social carrying capacity in Arches National Park: an application of computer simulation modeling. Elsevier Science Ltd. Leadbeater, Chris. Will new limits on visiting Machu Picchu save Peru’s most famous Inca citadel? The Telegraph, 21 JUNE 2017. https://www.telegraph.co.uk/travel/destinations/south-america/peru/ articles/machu-picchu-new-rules-for-access/ Manning, Robert E. How Much is Too Much? Carrying Capacity of National Parks and Protected Areas. Manning, Robert W. V. (2010). Estimating day use social Carrying Capacity in Yosemite national park. Manning, Robert. Visitor Experience and Resource Protection: A Framework for Managing the Carrying Capacity of National Parks Journal of Park and Recreation Administration Volume 19, Numbe9r 31 Spring 2001 pp. 93-108 Market Analysis of Bird-Based Tourism: A Focus on the U.S. Market to Latin America and the Caribbean Including Fact Sheets on The Bahamas, Belize, Guatemala, Paraguay Needham, Mark D., Ph.D., Joanne F. Tynon, Ph.D., Robyn L. Ceurvorst, Rhonda L. Collins, William M. Connor, Molly Jean W. Culnane. Recreation Carrying Capacity and Management at Kailua Beach Park on Oahu, Hawaii Final Report, Hawaii Coral Reef Initiative – Research Program, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2008. Pereira da Silva, Carlos. Beach Carrying Capacity Assessment: How important is it? Journal of Coastal Research SI 36 190-197 (ICS 2002 Proceedings) Northern Ireland ISSN 0749-0208. Quatrefoil Consulting. Glynn County Historic Resources Survey Report. The Glynn County Board of Commissioners. July 2009. Reigner, Nathan, Brett Kiser, Steve Lawson and Robert Manning. Using Transportation to Manage Recreation Carrying Capacity. Repanshek, Kurt. Updated. Peer: National Park Service Ignoring Requirement To Establish Visitor Carrying Capacities, July 14th, 2016. Revisions to the Jekyll Island Design Guidelines. June 14, 2014 and August 21, 2017. Santorini to Limit Cruise Traffic, Visitor Numbers, GTP Headlines, 29 Feb 2016. Selig Center for Economic Growth. An Economic Impact Study of Georgia’s Jekyll Island, Terry College of Business, University of Georgia, December 2017.

133

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES Sialia Environmental. Coastal Hazard Assessment for Jekyll Island, Georgia. Prepared for The Georgia Conservancy. Harvest Insights. Jekyll Island Visitor Study. April 2018 Silva, C.P. (2007). The Management of Beach Carrying Capacity: The case of northern Portugal. Journal of Coastal Research. Ungerboeck Software. Decoding Convention Center Occupancy. July 2016. https://ungerboeck.com/ blog/decoding-convention-center-occupancy Smith, N. J. (2010). Anthrosols and Human Carrying Capacity in Amazonia. Informa UK Limited, an Informa Group Company. Tejada, Gohm. M. (2009). Indicators for the Assessment of Physical Carrying Capacity in Coastal Tourist Destinations. Coastal Education & Research Foundation, Inc. The Carrying Capacity of Fraser Island The Center for Connective Architecture at Cooper Carry. Design Guidelines. 2014 Tobias, Jimmy. Burdened by Austerity, The National Park Service Breaks the Law, Oct. 16, 2017 Trenbeath, Eric. National parks scramble to keep up with the crowds July 13, 2015) U.S. Department of Transportation, 2001 and 2009 National Household Travel Survey. Yoel Mansfeld, A. J. (2006). Evaluating the socio-cultural carrying capacity of rural tourism communities: a ‘value stretch’ approach. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Zacarias, Daniel A. (2011). Recreation carrying capacity estimations to support beach management at Praia de Faro, Portugal. Elsevier Ltd.

134

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

9.2 GLOSSARY OF TERMS

aesthetic guidelines. A series of tenets to help direct the focus of aesthetic decisions and allow for a more cohesive decision-making process. arterials. Major through roads that also accommodate large volumes of traffic. bicycle lane. A portion of the roadway designated by striping, signing, and/or pavement markings for preferential or exclusive use by bicycles and/or other non-motorized vehicles. capital improvement costs. Costs of landscape and aesthetic treatments included in the budget when a highway is first constructed or expanded. clear zone. The total roadside border area, starting at the edge of the traveled way, available for safe use by errant vehicles. collectors. Roads that collect traffic from local roads and distribute it to arterials. freeways. Limited access roadways such as interstates, motorways, and toll roads that are among the most heavily traveled roadways. local roads. Local roads that include Main Street, interior roads within communities, and subdivision streets. maintenance costs. Costs of long-term activities to protect the publicâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s investment in landscape and aesthetic treatments, such as pruning, replacing plants, painting, and irrigating. multi-use path. Facility that is physically separated from the roadway and intended for use by bicyclists, pedestrians, and others. order. Arrangement of components so that they work together as a unity without visual confusion. proportion. Relationship of two or more elements in a design and how they compare with one another. repetition. The repeated use of line, forms, patterns, textures, colors, or other visual characteristics. rhythm. The regular recurrence of similar design elements. rural areas. Areas characterized by natural areas, agricultural uses, and limited development, except in towns, villages, or crossroads scale. The size of features in relationship to one another, to a specific structure, and to its surroundings. shape. A two-dimensional surface defined by a series of lines that enclose an area. shoulder. A paved portion of the roadway to the right of the travel way designed to serve bicyclists, pedestrians, and others. sidewalks. Walkways constructed of concrete, pavers, or other hard surface and are the primary mode of pedestrian travel along most roadways substructure components. The portion of the bridge that supports the superstructure and distributes all bridge loads to below-ground bridge footings. suburban areas. Areas along the edges of urbanized areas. superstructure. The portion of the bridge that supports the deck and connects one substructure element to another. texture. The surface quality of an object than can be seen or felt. transition. The gradual change from one design element or arrangement to another.

135

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES unity. Design element that gives a viewer a sense of completeness as the structure and corridor appropriately apply all the previous aesthetic qualities. urban areas. Represent a heavy mix of commercial, residential, and civic activity for a region. visual design elements. Includes line, shape, form, texture, and color.

136

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

9.3 BEACH CAPACITY MAP Clam Creek Beach Driftwood Beach Carrying Capacity and Infrastructure Assessment Beaches

Unknown 01

Unknown 02

Ocean View Beach

Great Dunes Beach

Corsair Beach

$

South Dunes Beach

Legend Jekyll Island Beaches

St. Andrews Beach

CAPACITY

Glory Beach

Very Low Low Medium

137

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS

Miles 0

0.5

1

2

3

4


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

9.4 GDOT TRAFFIC COUNTS FOR JEKYLL ISLAND

5/12/2018

Traffic Counts in Georgia

4270

550

2490

940

On

CCS Active

On

CCS Inactive

On

CCS Retired

On

WIM Active

On

WIM Inactive

On

WIM Retired

On

WIM Portable

On

Short Term Active

On

Short Term Retired

https://gdottrafficdata.drakewell.com/publicmultinodemap.asp

138

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS

3500 2280 2900 930 460

1000 m 5000 Data ft Maps © Thunderforest (https://www.thunderforest.com), © OpenStreetMap contributors (https://www.openstreetmap.org/copyright)

1/1


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

9.5 GDOT TRAFFIC COUNTS FOR ST. SIMONS ISLAND 5/12/2018

Traffic Counts in Georgia

On

CCS Active

On

CCS Inactive

On

CCS Retired

On

WIM Active

On

WIM Inactive

On

WIM Retired

On

WIM Portable

On

Short Term Active

On

Short Term Retired

https://gdottrafficdata.drakewell.com/publicmultinodemap.asp

139

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS

2 km mi Maps © Thunderforest (https://www.thunderforest.com),1 Data © OpenStreetMap contributors (https://www.openstreetmap.org/copyright)

1/1


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

9.6 NUMBER OF ROOMS ON JEKYLL ISLAND Jekyll Island Club Hotel 157 Jekyll Ocean Club Days Inn Hampton Inn 138 Villas by the Sea 134 Villas – rental units 29 Westin 200 Quality Inn 71 Beachview Club Hotel 38 Holiday Inn Resort 157

rooms (per JIA fire marshal & J.B.) 41 rooms (per web site; J.B.) 124 rooms (per J.B.) rooms (per J.B.) rooms (per JIA fire marshal) rooms (per JIA fire marshal) rooms (per JIA fire marshal) rooms (per hotel web site; J.B. – 73)) rooms rooms (per J.B)

1089

Rooms

Home2 Suites Courtyard by Marriott Residence Inn

107 118 90

rooms (per J.B. - UC) (per J.B. - future) (per J.B. - future)

315

Total Rooms (Existing)

Total Rooms (Proposed)

New Homes Cottages at Jekyll Island 123 Jekyll Ocean Oaks 40 163 Homes/units MAXIMUM NIGHTLY OCCUPANCY FOR JEKYLL ISLAND HOTELS JEKYLL ISLAND CLUB HOTEL - has a total of 157 guest rooms; 39 rooms with one queen bed, capacity of 78 guests, 59 rooms with one king bed w/capacity of 119 guests, 17 rooms with two double beds w/capacity of 68 guests, 25 rooms with double queen beds w/capacity of 100 guests and 17 king bedded suites w/one king bed and a fold out w/capacity of 68 guests. Max guests 433. JEKYLL OCEAN CLUB - Jekyll Ocean Club has 41 rooms total; 21 king bedded w/capacity of 42 guests and 20 double queen’s w/capacity of 80 guests. Max guests = 122. DAYS INN - Total occupancy is 552. THE HAMPTON INN- Total Occupancy is 528. VILLAS BY THE SEA - Here is an average breakdown of villa occupancy: Villas by the Sea Rental Units: One Bedrooms = 58 x 2 avg. = 116, Two Bedrooms = 54 x 3.5 avg. = 189, Three Bedrooms = 22 x 5.5 avg. = 121. Real Estate Rental Units (estimated as we do not have guest occ. stats): One bedrooms = 12 x 2 avg. = 24, Two Bedrooms = 10 x 3.5 avg. = 36, Three Bedrooms = 7 x 5.5 avg. = 38. Total transient guest occupancy average = 524 per night at 100% THE WESTIN - 102 King rooms @ 3 guests = 306 guests, 98 rooms with 2 Queen Beds@ 4 guests + 392 guests. 694 TOTAL OCCUPANTS

140

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

QUALITY INN - 59 king beds, 20 queens, 72 doubles, 59 sleeper sofas. TOTAL W/SOFAS = 402 Maximum Number of Overnight Guests JEKYLL ISLAND CLUB HOTEL

433

JEKYLL OCEAN CLUB 122 DAYS INN

552

THE HAMPTON INN 528 VILLAS BY THE SEA

426

Real Estate Rental Units (estimate) 524 The Westin 694 Quality Inn 402 Holiday Inn Resort 628 (157*4 est.) Beachview Club Hotel 152 (38*4 est.) * under construction Total for Hotels 4461 Home2 Suites 428 (107*4 est.) Courtyard by Marriott 472 (118*4 est.) Residence Inn 360 (90*4 est.) Proposed Hotels 1260 Permanent Homes – 763 (https://www.movoto.com/demographics/ga/31527/) – assume 3 residents per home) (763*3=2289) Total 2289 New Homes Cottages at Jekyll Island 123 Jekyll Ocean Oaks 40 (163*5= 815) Total 815 Jekyll Island Campground - 158 total campsites. (145 Full hook-up sites with both back-in and pull-thru options, 12 primitive tent sites, one Group Site.) 6 people max per site. Total Occupants = 948 Camp Jekyll – 256 beds. Total Occupants = 256

141

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

9.7 VEHICLES FROM ENTRY GATE The totals from the entry gate does include re-entries. Re-entries are people who buy a daily/weekly pass and leave the island to go shop, eat, and other activities. Each daily pass allows for 24-hour re-entry onto the island, and weekly passes can come and go throughout the week. Re-entries are included in the total number of vehicles. Traffic Counts from Gate

Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep^ Oct * Nov Dec TOTAL

2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2018 Projected 52,915 63,037 67,061 72,934 57,628 63,981 76,445 83,063 76,239 87,768 98,686 103,771 79,866 94,458 106,298 117,977 99,836 120,267 122,685 115,925 104,542 121,966 125,143 126,290 119,013 120,122 142,820 145,775 97,738 91,361 94,642 95,084 92,783 89,028 93,064 64,387 75,916 83,466 64,702 86,437 57,014 69,542 74,879 79,100 59,054 66,580 72,079 73,086 972,544 1,071,576 1,138,504 1,163,829

66,907 83,990 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 150,897

Source: JIA

Vehicles at Entry Gate Daily/weekly Annual Total % change 2013 437,736 467,141 904,877 2014 474,576 497,968 972,544 7.0% 2015 542,388 529,188 1,071,576 9.2% 2016 577,040 561,464 1,138,504 5.9% 2017 570,599 593,230 1,163,829 2.20% 2018 (Projected) 1,124,780 -3.36% Five-year total 22.3%

142

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS

66,907 83,990 100,378 114,120 112,135 122,161 141,009 91,975 62,282 83,611 76,514 70,697 1,125,780


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

9.8 OCCUPANT LOADS FOR VILLAGE & JIA FACILITIES JEKYLL ISLAND RETAIL VILLAGE - OCCUPANT LOADS Ameris Bank 30 Brittany’s Closet 15 Caroline’s Gifts 15 Cottages of Jekyll Design Ctr 10 Fuse Yogurt 25 Jekyll Realty - (#107) 17 (#204) 8 Jekyll Island Beverage Center 30 Jekyll Island Market 73 Jekyll Island Seafood Company 195 Judy Kay’s Salon 8 Life Is Good 25 Kennedy Outfitters 20 Maxwells 35 Parker Kaufman - (#103) 18 (203) 9 Seaside Sunglasses 15 Splash Resort Wear 15 The Collection 16 Tonya’s 25 The Wee Pub 99 Whittles 15 JIA OCCUPANT LOADS McCormick’s – Dining Room 136 Upstairs 160 Golf Shop 32 Campground Community Room 164 Camp Jekyll- Auditorium 471 Standing 253 Seating Breakout Rooms - (4) ROOMS W/ 87 Standing 40 Seating Each Room Classrooms - (4) Rooms W/ 35 Per Room Ecolabs - (2) Rooms W/ 35 Per Room Dining Room 290 Total Staff Dining Area 20 Total Staff Housing 36 Cabin # 8 64 Beds Cabin # 12 64 Beds

143

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

9.9 SUMMER WAVES SEASON ATTENDANCE

144

Year

Total

1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018

88,238 97,362 127,248 118,540 120,673 119,943 126,912 138,801 129,941 130,545 135,052 131,343 128,487 131,425 129,522 120,351 107,736 111,189 91,034 94,056 107,770 97,050 110,413 125,214 128,411 137,244 150,239 148,123 145,843 156,114 143,509

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

9.10 FLORIDA CARRYING CAPACITY GUIDELINES FLORIDA - OPTIMUM CARRYING CAPACITY FOR OUTDOOR RECREATION ACTIVITIES LAND-BASED ACTIVITIES Area People/Unit Turnover Recreation Activity Required Land Base Requirements of Facility Rate Camping Standard Facility 1-3 acres/site 3-10 sites/acre 8/site 1/day Groups 20-50 acres/area 5-20 acres/area 10-30/site 1/day Cabins 1-3 acres/cabin 2-6/acre 4-12/cabin 1/day Amphitheater/Campfire 1-2 acres/facility 1/4-1/2 acre/facility 1/2 camping 1/day capacity Museum/Visitor Center 1-5 acres/structure 1/4-1/2 acre/structure 1/20 sq. ft. 4/day Picnicking 1/4-4 acres/site 8-15 tables/acre 4/table 2/day of exhibit area Trails General Hiking min. of 25 acres/mile of 5-20 groups/mile 2/group 4/day (Nature Trails) trail, max. length 1 mile Primitive Hiking min. of 100 acres/mile of 1-5 groups/mile 2/group 2/day trail, min. length 1 mile Bicycle min. of 25 acres/mile of 10-20 bikes/lane/mile 1/bike 4/day trail Equestrian min. 75 acres/mile of 2-8 groups/mile 4/group 1 to 2/day trail min. length 5 miles ATTACHMENT B OPTIMUM CARRYING CAPACITY FOR OUTDOOR RECREATION ACTIVITIES WATER-BASED ACTIVITIES Area People/Unit Turnover Recreation Activity Required Water/Land Base Requirements of Facility Rate Swimming min. 1/8 acre of land/ 50-200 sq. ft. of 2/day swimmer water and 200-500 sq. ft. of beach/swimmer Surfing min. 1/2 mile of beach for a 40-100 linear ft. 2/day surfing area, and 1/8 acre of beach/surfer of land/surfer Fishing Shoreline min. 1/4 mile of shoreline for 1 fisherman/20-100 2/day a fishing area, and 1/8 acre linear feet of land/fisherman Jetty Pier min. 1/8 acre of land/ 1 fisherman/10-40 2/day fisherman linear feet Boating No Power, Still Water min. 50 acres of water and 1 boat/5-10 acres 2/boat 2/day 1/4 acre of land/boat of water No Power, Moving Water

145

min. 1 mile of stream 2-10 boats/mile 2/boat 2/day

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

9.11 INDICATORS OF POTENTIAL IMPACTS Physical: • soil bulk density • soil drainage • soil compaction • soil chemistry • soil productivity • amount and depth of litter • area of barren core • visible erosion/area of bare ground Biological: • soil fauna and microflora • ground cover density • percent loss of ground cover • plant species composition and diversity • proportion of exotic plant species • plant height • plant species vigor • extent of diseased vegetation • extent of scarred or mutilated trees • number of tree seedlings • exposed tree roots • abundance of wildlife species • presence/absence of species • frequency of wildlife sightings • wildlife species diversity • wildlife reproduction success Social: • number of visitors: in area per day by mode of transportation • number of groups: in area per day by mode of transportation • no. of encounters: with other groups per day with other individuals per day by activity type by mode of transportation by location of encounter by size of group • visitor perception: of impact on environment of crowding • visitor satisfaction • reports of undesirable visitor behavior • amount of litter in areas • number of visitor complaints

146

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

9.12 OVERNIGHT GUESTS Maximum Number of Overnight Guests Maximum Number of Overnight Guests JEKYLL ISLAND CLUB HOTEL JEKYLL OCEAN CLUB DAYS INN THE HAMPTON INN VILLAS BY THE SEA Real Estate Rental Units (estimate) The Westin Quality Inn Beachview Club Hotel Residence Inn Courtyard by Marriott Home2 Suites

433 122 552 528 426

118 107

Permanent Homes

763

4

3052

ESTIMATE

Cottages at Jekyll Island Jekyll Ocean Oaks

123 40

5 5

615 200 815

ESTIMATE ESTIMATE

RV Camping

158

6

948

Camp Jekyll

256 beds

4

38

90

Total

4

Total

Total

4 4

524 694 402 152 360 472 428 5093

ESTIMATE ESTIMATE ESTIMATE ESTIMATE

256 10164

3,640,740

per night potential night stays per year CJ only in summers

147

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

9.13 INDICATORS OF POTENTIAL IMPACTS (ECONOMICS) MINIATURE Jekyll Island GOLF Mini Golf Rates

Neptune Park Fun Zone, Brunswick, GA

Island Falls Adventure Golf Fernandina Beach

Heron’s Cove Miniature Golf Amelia Island

Putt Putt Golf Course Fernandina Beach

$8 per round

Adults 13+ $10.00

Adult – $12

Ages 4 -12 6.50

Child – $8.50

Age 13 & Older 18 holes – $7.00

Seniors 65+ 7.00

Family Pack (10 Rounds) – $75 Children Under 3 (With Paying Adult) – Complimentary

Adults: $6.50 \\ Ages 6-10 $5.00

10 Round Pass: $60.00

5 and under: FREE

Toddlers 3 and under 2.00

Ages 6 to 12 $5.00 Age 5 & Under $2.00 (free with paying adult)

Table 42. Economic comparison of miniature golf. Data courtesy HaydenTanner.

WATER PARK COMPARISON MATRIX

Summer Waves

Splash in the Boro Statesboro

Daily Price

Adult: $22.00

Over 48″ ($19.00

Junior

Under 48″ $14.00

under 48“

Adventure Island Shipwreck Island Jacksonville

Surf Lagoon Pooler, Pooler, GA

Valdosta Amusement & Water Park

42″ & Above $32.99

Over 48” $19.95

$39.41

Below 42” $24.99

Lake Winnie Soakya Water Park. Lake Winnepesaukah $34.00 (includes amusement park)

Weeki Wachi Springs, Florida $13.00

Under 48 inches

CLOSED for 2018 Season

2017 Rates Adult: $11.00

$15.95

$19,00

The Beach Jonesboro Municipal Park

Child 3–12 $9.00 Senior 55+ $9.00

Two-Day $29.00 (2 day) Season Pass

$80.00

$49.50 (use 2nd/ within 5 days) $70.00

$99.00

$50.00

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

$110.00/pp

$60.00/pp

N/A

Family: $160-$340

Note: as part of a major ($350 million investment) Epic Adventures in Kingsland is under construction – and is slated to include a water park, bowling alley, convention center, entertainment complex, and a sports complex. Down the road, this may be some additional competition to Summer Waves.

Table 43. Economic comparison of water parks. Data courtesy HaydenTanner.

148

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

AMENITY FEES Gate, Camping, Bicycle rental, Segway,

Jekyll Island State Park

Skidaway Island State Park

Crooked River State Park

Cumberland Island National Park

Stone MTN

Fort Clinch Florida

Comparison to Nearby State & National Parks Entrance Fee (daily) *oversized

$6.00

$5.00

$5.00

*$10.00 vehicle s 8 ft or taller)

*$30.00

*$30.00

(Large vans with capacity of 13 to 30)

(Large vans with capacity of 13 to 30)

$10.00 + Ferry ($18$28)

Holiday/

$15.00 non-peak

$6.00/ vehicle + $2.50/person Fort access

$20.00

Peak Parking Weekly entrance fee

$28.00

N/A

N/A

Annual Parking Pass

$58.00 Renewal$45.00

$50 (GA State)

$50.00

Camping (tent)

$28.00

Camping (RV)

$43.00

N/A

$32.00

$343/week

$224/week

N/A

$40.00

$12-$22 (primitive) $42/$49

N/A

$26-$31

$26.00

$39-$65 (most comparable $45-52) Holiday rates higher

Cottage: $160/night

Bike Rental

$16/day

$5/hour

$20/overnight

Electric bike rentals $18/hour $13 <four or $69/day hours $17/day

$13/day $7/hour $12/4 hours $17/8 hours Surry/other

$19-$25/day

Table 44. Economic comparison of amenity fees. Data courtesy HaydenTanner.

149

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS

Segway Tours $49/person


0

20,000

40,000

60,000

80,000

100,000

120,000

140,000

160,000

Year to Date Comparison

Jan

Feb

Mar

56,224

2013

467,141

437,736

Totals

2013

Annual Passes 39,244 37,244 44,105 40,096 44,254 41,247 42,597 37,890 37,767 37,553 32,283 32,861

Daily/Weekly 16,980 17,138 32,263 34,063 50,586 54,932 74,988 46,634 41,269 29,299 20,672 18,912

January February March April May June July August September October November December 474,576

Daily/Weekly 16,937 20,290 33,228 40,134 56,718 63,203 76,467 47,550 38,426 35,214 22,907 23,502

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

52,915

2014 YTD

497,968

2014

Annual Passes 35,978 37,338 43,011 39,732 43,118 41,339 42,546 50,188 54,357 40,702 34,107 35,552

Gate Traffic Counts by Month

904,877

Total 56,224 54,382 76,368 74,159 94,840 96,179 117,585 84,524 79,036 66,852 52,955 51,773

Aug

972,544

Total 52,915 57,628 76,239 79,866 99,836 104,542 119,013 97,738 92,783 75,916 57,014 59,054

Oct *

542,388

Daily/Weekly 24,403 23,944 39,989 49,237 71,430 75,121 71,405 48,062 46,013 38,480 29,820 24,484

Nov

63,037

2017

2016

2015

2014

2013

2015 YTD

529,188

2015

Annual Passes 38,634 40,037 47,779 45,221 48,837 46,845 48,717 43,299 43,015 44,986 39,722 42,096

* Oct 2016 - Hurricane Matthew

Sep

January 2017

Dec

1,071,576

Total 63,037 63,981 87,768 94,458 120,267 121,966 120,122 91,361 89,028 83,466 69,542 66,580

0

500,000

1,000,000

1,500,000

2,000,000

2,500,000

3,000,000

3,500,000

0

200,000

400,000

600,000

800,000

1,000,000

1,200,000

1,400,000

2013

2,705,086

2013

67,061

2016 YTD

561,464

577,040

2016

Annual Passes 42,084 45,113 52,582 49,140 52,704 50,525 52,276 47,693 45,509 38,461 43,245 42,132

Daily/Weekly 24,977 31,332 46,104 57,158 69,981 74,618 90,544 46,949 47,555 26,241 31,634 29,947

# Vehicles

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS Dollars

150

Traffic Counts

2014

2,782,951

2014

26,372

Daily/Weekly 26,372 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

2015

3,192,565

2016

2016

3,474,214

Annual Revenue

2015

Annual Traffic Count

1,138,504

Total 67,061 76,445 98,686 106,298 122,685 125,143 142,820 94,642 93,064 64,702 74,879 72,079

2017

187,668

2017

72,934

2017 Projected

3,562,023

Daily/Weekly

5/13/2018

2017 Projected

72,934

Total 72,934 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Annual Passes

2017 YTD

46,562

2017

Annual Passes 46,562 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

9.14 ENTRY GATE TRAFFIC COUNTS


SAND COUNTY STUDIOS

0

20,000

40,000

60,000

80,000

100,000

120,000

140,000

160,000

Jan

Feb

Totals

Mar

110,606

2013

467,141

437,736

January February March April May June July August September October November December

Year to Date Comparison

Annual Passes 39,244 37,244 44,105 40,096 44,254 41,247 42,597 37,890 37,767 37,553 32,283 32,861

Daily/Weekly 16,980 17,138 32,263 34,063 50,586 54,932 74,988 46,634 41,269 29,299 20,672 18,912

2013

474,576

Daily/Weekly 16,937 20,290 33,228 40,134 56,718 63,203 76,467 47,550 38,426 35,214 22,907 23,502

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

110,543

2014 YTD

497,968

Annual Passes 35,978 37,338 43,011 39,732 43,118 41,339 42,546 50,188 54,357 40,702 34,107 35,552

Gate Traffic Counts by Month

904,877

Total 56,224 54,382 76,368 74,159 94,840 96,179 117,585 84,524 79,036 66,852 52,955 51,773

2014

Aug

972,544

Total 52,915 57,628 76,239 79,866 99,836 104,542 119,013 97,738 92,783 75,916 57,014 59,054

Oct *

Nov

127,018

2017

2016

2015

2014

2013

2015 YTD

529,188

2015

Annual Passes 38,634 40,037 47,779 45,221 48,837 46,845 48,717 43,299 43,015 44,986 39,722 42,096

* Oct 2016 - Hurricane Matthew

Sep

542,388

Daily/Weekly 24,403 23,944 39,989 49,237 71,430 75,121 71,405 48,062 46,013 38,480 29,820 24,484

Total 63,037 63,981 87,768 94,458 120,267 121,966 120,122 91,361 89,028 83,466 69,542 66,580 1,071,576

Dec

Traffic Counts

0

500,000

1,000,000

1,500,000

2,000,000

2,500,000

3,000,000

3,500,000

0

200,000

400,000

600,000

800,000

1,000,000

1,200,000

1,400,000

2013

2,705,086

2013

143,506

2016 YTD

561,464

577,040

2016

Annual Passes 42,084 45,113 52,582 49,140 52,704 50,525 52,276 47,693 45,509 38,461 43,245 42,132

Daily/Weekly 24,977 31,332 46,104 57,158 69,981 74,618 90,544 46,949 47,555 26,241 31,634 29,947

# Vehicles

151 Dollars

February 2017

2014

2,782,951

2014

62,354

Daily/Weekly 26,372 35,982 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

2015

3,192,565

2016

2016

3,474,214

Annual Revenue

2015

Annual Traffic Count

1,138,504

Total 67,061 76,445 98,686 106,298 122,685 125,143 142,820 94,642 93,064 64,702 74,879 72,079

2017

421,115

2017

155,997

Total 72,934 83,063 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

2017 Projected

3,600,747

Daily/Weekly

5/13/2018

2017 Projected

155,997

Annual Passes

2017 YTD

93,643

2017

Annual Passes 46,562 47,081 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES


SAND COUNTY STUDIOS

0

20,000

40,000

60,000

80,000

100,000

120,000

140,000

160,000

Jan

Feb

Totals

Mar

186,974

2013

467,141

437,736

January February March April May June July August September October November December

Year to Date Comparison

Annual Passes 39,244 37,244 44,105 40,096 44,254 41,247 42,597 37,890 37,767 37,553 32,283 32,861

Daily/Weekly 16,980 17,138 32,263 34,063 50,586 54,932 74,988 46,634 41,269 29,299 20,672 18,912

2013

474,576

Daily/Weekly 16,937 20,290 33,228 40,134 56,718 63,203 76,467 47,550 38,426 35,214 22,907 23,502

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

186,782

2014 YTD

497,968

Annual Passes 35,978 37,338 43,011 39,732 43,118 41,339 42,546 50,188 54,357 40,702 34,107 35,552

Gate Traffic Counts by Month

904,877

Total 56,224 54,382 76,368 74,159 94,840 96,179 117,585 84,524 79,036 66,852 52,955 51,773

2014

Aug

972,544

Total 52,915 57,628 76,239 79,866 99,836 104,542 119,013 97,738 92,783 75,916 57,014 59,054

Oct *

Nov

214,786

2017

2016

2015

2014

2013

2015 YTD

529,188

2015

Annual Passes 38,634 40,037 47,779 45,221 48,837 46,845 48,717 43,299 43,015 44,986 39,722 42,096

* Oct 2016 - Hurricane Matthew

Sep

542,388

Daily/Weekly 24,403 23,944 39,989 49,237 71,430 75,121 71,405 48,062 46,013 38,480 29,820 24,484

Total 63,037 63,981 87,768 94,458 120,267 121,966 120,122 91,361 89,028 83,466 69,542 66,580 1,071,576

Dec

Traffic Counts

0

500,000

1,000,000

1,500,000

2,000,000

2,500,000

3,000,000

3,500,000

0

200,000

400,000

600,000

800,000

1,000,000

1,200,000

1,400,000

2013

2,705,086

2013

242,192

2016 YTD

561,464

577,040

2016

Annual Passes 42,084 45,113 52,582 49,140 52,704 50,525 52,276 47,693 45,509 38,461 43,245 42,132

Daily/Weekly 24,977 31,332 46,104 57,158 69,981 74,618 90,544 46,949 47,555 26,241 31,634 29,947

# Vehicles

152 Dollars

March 2017

2014

2,782,951

2014

111,959

Daily/Weekly 26,372 35,982 49,605 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

2015

3,192,565

2016

2016

3,474,214

Annual Revenue

2015

Annual Traffic Count

1,138,504

Total 67,061 76,445 98,686 106,298 122,685 125,143 142,820 94,642 93,064 64,702 74,879 72,079

2017

732,498

2017

259,768

2017 Projected

3,596,862

Daily/Weekly

5/13/2018

2017 Projected

259,768

Total 72,934 83,063 103,771 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Annual Passes

2017 YTD

147,809

2017

Annual Passes 46,562 47,081 54,166 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES


SAND COUNTY STUDIOS

0

20,000

40,000

60,000

80,000

100,000

120,000

140,000

160,000

Year to Date Comparison

Jan

Feb

Mar

261,133

2013

467,141

437,736

Totals

2013

Annual Passes 39,244 37,244 44,105 40,096 44,254 41,247 42,597 37,890 37,767 37,553 32,283 32,861

Daily/Weekly 16,980 17,138 32,263 34,063 50,586 54,932 74,988 46,634 41,269 29,299 20,672 18,912

January February March April May June July August September October November December 474,576

Daily/Weekly 16,937 20,290 33,228 40,134 56,718 63,203 76,467 47,550 38,426 35,214 22,907 23,502

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

266,648

2014 YTD

497,968

2014

Annual Passes 35,978 37,338 43,011 39,732 43,118 41,339 42,546 50,188 54,357 40,702 34,107 35,552

Gate Traffic Counts by Month

904,877

Total 56,224 54,382 76,368 74,159 94,840 96,179 117,585 84,524 79,036 66,852 52,955 51,773

Aug

972,544

Total 52,915 57,628 76,239 79,866 99,836 104,542 119,013 97,738 92,783 75,916 57,014 59,054

April 2017

Oct *

Nov

309,244

2017

2016

2015

2014

2013

2015 YTD

529,188

2015

Annual Passes 38,634 40,037 47,779 45,221 48,837 46,845 48,717 43,299 43,015 44,986 39,722 42,096

* Oct 2016 - Hurricane Matthew

Sep

542,388

Daily/Weekly 24,403 23,944 39,989 49,237 71,430 75,121 71,405 48,062 46,013 38,480 29,820 24,484

Dec

1,071,576

Total 63,037 63,981 87,768 94,458 120,267 121,966 120,122 91,361 89,028 83,466 69,542 66,580

0

500,000

1,000,000

1,500,000

2,000,000

2,500,000

3,000,000

3,500,000

0

200,000

400,000

600,000

800,000

1,000,000

1,200,000

1,400,000

2013

2,705,086

2013

348,490

2016 YTD

561,464

577,040

2016

Annual Passes 42,084 45,113 52,582 49,140 52,704 50,525 52,276 47,693 45,509 38,461 43,245 42,132

Daily/Weekly 24,977 31,332 46,104 57,158 69,981 74,618 90,544 46,949 47,555 26,241 31,634 29,947

# Vehicles

153 Dollars

Traffic Counts

2014

2,782,951

2014

178,218

Daily/Weekly 26,372 35,982 49,605 66,259 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

2015

3,192,565

2016

2016

3,474,214

Annual Revenue

2015

Annual Traffic Count

1,138,504

Total 67,061 76,445 98,686 106,298 122,685 125,143 142,820 94,642 93,064 64,702 74,879 72,079

2017

1,105,896

2017

377,745

2017 Projected

3,636,867

Daily/Weekly

5/13/2018

2017 Projected

377,745

Total 72,934 83,063 103,771 117,977 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Annual Passes

2017 YTD

199,527

2017

Annual Passes 46,562 47,081 54,166 51,718 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES


SAND COUNTY STUDIOS

0

20,000

40,000

60,000

80,000

100,000

120,000

140,000

160,000

Jan

Feb

Totals

Mar

355,973

2013

467,141

437,736

January February March April May June July August September October November December

Year to Date Comparison

Annual Passes 39,244 37,244 44,105 40,096 44,254 41,247 42,597 37,890 37,767 37,553 32,283 32,861

Daily/Weekly 16,980 17,138 32,263 34,063 50,586 54,932 74,988 46,634 41,269 29,299 20,672 18,912

2013

474,576

Daily/Weekly 16,937 20,290 33,228 40,134 56,718 63,203 76,467 47,550 38,426 35,214 22,907 23,502

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

366,484

2014 YTD

497,968

Annual Passes 35,978 37,338 43,011 39,732 43,118 41,339 42,546 50,188 54,357 40,702 34,107 35,552

Gate Traffic Counts by Month

904,877

Total 56,224 54,382 76,368 74,159 94,840 96,179 117,585 84,524 79,036 66,852 52,955 51,773

2014

Aug

972,544

Total 52,915 57,628 76,239 79,866 99,836 104,542 119,013 97,738 92,783 75,916 57,014 59,054

Oct *

Nov

429,511

2017

2016

2015

2014

2013

2015 YTD

529,188

2015

Annual Passes 38,634 40,037 47,779 45,221 48,837 46,845 48,717 43,299 43,015 44,986 39,722 42,096

* Oct 2016 - Hurricane Matthew

Sep

542,388

Daily/Weekly 24,403 23,944 39,989 49,237 71,430 75,121 71,405 48,062 46,013 38,480 29,820 24,484

Total 63,037 63,981 87,768 94,458 120,267 121,966 120,122 91,361 89,028 83,466 69,542 66,580 1,071,576

Dec

Traffic Counts

0

500,000

1,000,000

1,500,000

2,000,000

2,500,000

3,000,000

3,500,000

0

200,000

400,000

600,000

800,000

1,000,000

1,200,000

1,400,000

2013

2,705,086

2013

471,175

2016 YTD

561,464

577,040

2016

Annual Passes 42,084 45,113 52,582 49,140 52,704 50,525 52,276 47,693 45,509 38,461 43,245 42,132

Daily/Weekly 24,977 31,332 46,104 57,158 69,981 74,618 90,544 46,949 47,555 26,241 31,634 29,947

# Vehicles

154 Dollars

May 2017

2014

2,782,951

2014

c

Daily/Weekly 26,372 35,982 49,605 66,259 62,367 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

2015

3,192,565

2016

2016

3,474,214

Annual Revenue

2015

Annual Traffic Count

1,138,504

Total 67,061 76,445 98,686 106,298 122,685 125,143 142,820 94,642 93,064 64,702 74,879 72,079

2017

1,484,212

2017

493,670

493,670

Total 72,934 83,063 103,771 117,977 115,925 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

2017 Projected

3,612,821

Daily/Weekly

5/13/2018

2017 Projected

Annual Passes

2017 YTD

253,085

2017

Annual Passes 46,562 47,081 54,166 51,718 53,558 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES


SAND COUNTY STUDIOS

0

20,000

40,000

60,000

80,000

100,000

120,000

140,000

160,000

Jan

Feb

Totals

Mar

452,152

2013

467,141

437,736

January February March April May June July August September October November December

Year to Date Comparison

Annual Passes 39,244 37,244 44,105 40,096 44,254 41,247 42,597 37,890 37,767 37,553 32,283 32,861

Daily/Weekly 16,980 17,138 32,263 34,063 50,586 54,932 74,988 46,634 41,269 29,299 20,672 18,912

2013

474,576

Daily/Weekly 16,937 20,290 33,228 40,134 56,718 63,203 76,467 47,550 38,426 35,214 22,907 23,502

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

471,026

2014 YTD

497,968

Annual Passes 35,978 37,338 43,011 39,732 43,118 41,339 42,546 50,188 54,357 40,702 34,107 35,552

Gate Traffic Counts by Month

904,877

Total 56,224 54,382 76,368 74,159 94,840 96,179 117,585 84,524 79,036 66,852 52,955 51,773

2014

Aug

972,544

Total 52,915 57,628 76,239 79,866 99,836 104,542 119,013 97,738 92,783 75,916 57,014 59,054

Oct *

Nov

551,477

2017

2016

2015

2014

2013

2015 YTD

529,188

2015

Annual Passes 38,634 40,037 47,779 45,221 48,837 46,845 48,717 43,299 43,015 44,986 39,722 42,096

* Oct 2016 - Hurricane Matthew

Sep

542,388

Daily/Weekly 24,403 23,944 39,989 49,237 71,430 75,121 71,405 48,062 46,013 38,480 29,820 24,484

Total 63,037 63,981 87,768 94,458 120,267 121,966 120,122 91,361 89,028 83,466 69,542 66,580 1,071,576

Dec

Traffic Counts

0

500,000

1,000,000

1,500,000

2,000,000

2,500,000

3,000,000

3,500,000

0

200,000

400,000

600,000

800,000

1,000,000

1,200,000

1,400,000

2013

2,705,086

2013

596,318

2016 YTD

561,464

577,040

2016

Annual Passes 42,084 45,113 52,582 49,140 52,704 50,525 52,276 47,693 45,509 38,461 43,245 42,132

Daily/Weekly 24,977 31,332 46,104 57,158 69,981 74,618 90,544 46,949 47,555 26,241 31,634 29,947

# Vehicles

155 Dollars

June 2017

2014

2,782,951

2014

312,819

Daily/Weekly 26,372 35,982 49,605 66,259 62,367 72,234 0 0 0 0 0 0

2015

3,192,565

2016

2016

3,474,214

Annual Revenue

2015

Annual Traffic Count

1,138,504

Total 67,061 76,445 98,686 106,298 122,685 125,143 142,820 94,642 93,064 64,702 74,879 72,079

2017

1,922,241

2017

619,960

619,960

Total 72,934 83,063 103,771 117,977 115,925 126,290 0 0 0 0 0 0

2017 Projected

3,649,400

Daily/Weekly

5/13/2018

2017 Projected

Annual Passes

2017 YTD

307,141

2017

Annual Passes 46,562 47,081 54,166 51,718 53,558 54,056 0 0 0 0 0 0

JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES


SAND COUNTY STUDIOS

0

20,000

40,000

60,000

80,000

100,000

120,000

140,000

160,000

Jan

Feb

Mar

569,737

2013

467,141

437,736

Totals

Year to Date Comparison

Annual Passes 39,244 37,244 44,105 40,096 44,254 41,247 42,597 37,890 37,767 37,553 32,283 32,861

Daily/Weekly 16,980 17,138 32,263 34,063 50,586 54,932 74,988 46,634 41,269 29,299 20,672 18,912

January February March April May June July August September October November December

2013

474,576

Daily/Weekly 16,937 20,290 33,228 40,134 56,718 63,203 76,467 47,550 38,426 35,214 22,907 23,502

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

590,039

2014 YTD

497,968

Annual Passes 35,978 37,338 43,011 39,732 43,118 41,339 42,546 50,188 54,357 40,702 34,107 35,552

Gate Traffic Counts by Month

904,877

Total 56,224 54,382 76,368 74,159 94,840 96,179 117,585 84,524 79,036 66,852 52,955 51,773

2014

Aug

972,544

Total 52,915 57,628 76,239 79,866 99,836 104,542 119,013 97,738 92,783 75,916 57,014 59,054

Oct *

Nov

671,599

2017

2016

2015

2014

2013

2015 YTD

529,188

2015

Annual Passes 38,634 40,037 47,779 45,221 48,837 46,845 48,717 43,299 43,015 44,986 39,722 42,096

* Oct 2016 - Hurricane Matthew

Sep

542,388

Daily/Weekly 24,403 23,944 39,989 49,237 71,430 75,121 71,405 48,062 46,013 38,480 29,820 24,484

Total 63,037 63,981 87,768 94,458 120,267 121,966 120,122 91,361 89,028 83,466 69,542 66,580 1,071,576

Dec

Traffic Counts

0

500,000

1,000,000

1,500,000

2,000,000

2,500,000

3,000,000

3,500,000

0

200,000

400,000

600,000

800,000

1,000,000

1,200,000

1,400,000

2013

2,705,086

2013

739,138

2016 YTD

561,464

577,040

2016

Annual Passes 42,084 45,113 52,582 49,140 52,704 50,525 52,276 47,693 45,509 38,461 43,245 42,132

Daily/Weekly 24,977 31,332 46,104 57,158 69,981 74,618 90,544 46,949 47,555 26,241 31,634 29,947

# Vehicles

156 Dollars

July 2017

2014

2,782,951

2014

403,584

Daily/Weekly 26,372 35,982 49,605 66,259 62,367 72,234 90,765 0 0 0 0 0

2015

3,192,565

2016

2016

3,474,214

Annual Revenue

2015

Annual Traffic Count

1,138,504

Total 67,061 76,445 98,686 106,298 122,685 125,143 142,820 94,642 93,064 64,702 74,879 72,079

2017

2,414,964

2017

765,735

765,735

Total 72,934 83,063 103,771 117,977 115,925 126,290 145,775 0 0 0 0 0

2017 Projected

3,631,614

Daily/Weekly

5/13/2018

2017 Projected

Annual Passes

2017 YTD

362,151

2017

Annual Passes 46,562 47,081 54,166 51,718 53,558 54,056 55,010 0 0 0 0 0

JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES


SAND COUNTY STUDIOS

0

20,000

40,000

60,000

80,000

100,000

120,000

140,000

160,000

Jan

Feb

Totals

Mar

654,261

2013

467,141

437,736

January February March April May June July August September October November December

Year to Date Comparison

Annual Passes 39,244 37,244 44,105 40,096 44,254 41,247 42,597 37,890 37,767 37,553 32,283 32,861

Daily/Weekly 16,980 17,138 32,263 34,063 50,586 54,932 74,988 46,634 41,269 29,299 20,672 18,912

2013

474,576

Daily/Weekly 16,937 20,290 33,228 40,134 56,718 63,203 76,467 47,550 38,426 35,214 22,907 23,502

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

687,777

2014 YTD

497,968

Annual Passes 35,978 37,338 43,011 39,732 43,118 41,339 42,546 50,188 54,357 40,702 34,107 35,552

Gate Traffic Counts by Month

904,877

Total 56,224 54,382 76,368 74,159 94,840 96,179 117,585 84,524 79,036 66,852 52,955 51,773

2014

Aug

972,544

Total 52,915 57,628 76,239 79,866 99,836 104,542 119,013 97,738 92,783 75,916 57,014 59,054

Oct *

Nov

762,960

2017

2016

2015

2014

2013

2015 YTD

529,188

2015

Annual Passes 38,634 40,037 47,779 45,221 48,837 46,845 48,717 43,299 43,015 44,986 39,722 42,096

* Oct 2016 - Hurricane Matthew

Sep

542,388

Daily/Weekly 24,403 23,944 39,989 49,237 71,430 75,121 71,405 48,062 46,013 38,480 29,820 24,484

Total 63,037 63,981 87,768 94,458 120,267 121,966 120,122 91,361 89,028 83,466 69,542 66,580 1,071,576

Dec

Traffic Counts

0

500,000

1,000,000

1,500,000

2,000,000

2,500,000

3,000,000

3,500,000

0

200,000

400,000

600,000

800,000

1,000,000

1,200,000

1,400,000

2013

2,705,086

2013

833,780

2016 YTD

561,464

577,040

2016

Annual Passes 42,084 45,113 52,582 49,140 52,704 50,525 52,276 47,693 45,509 38,461 43,245 42,132

Daily/Weekly 24,977 31,332 46,104 57,158 69,981 74,618 90,544 46,949 47,555 26,241 31,634 29,947

# Vehicles

157 Dollars

August 2017

2014

2,782,951

2014

447,936

Daily/Weekly 26,372 35,982 49,605 66,259 62,367 72,234 90,765 44,352 0 0 0 0

2015

3,192,565

2016

2016

3,474,214

Annual Revenue

2015

Annual Traffic Count

1,138,504

Total 67,061 76,445 98,686 106,298 122,685 125,143 142,820 94,642 93,064 64,702 74,879 72,079

2017

2,697,266

2017

860,819

860,819

Total 72,934 83,063 103,771 117,977 115,925 126,290 145,775 95,084 0 0 0 0

2017 Projected

3,613,722

Daily/Weekly

5/13/2018

2017 Projected

Annual Passes

2017 YTD

412,883

2017

Annual Passes 46,562 47,081 54,166 51,718 53,558 54,056 55,010 50,732 0 0 0 0

JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES


SAND COUNTY STUDIOS

0

20,000

40,000

60,000

80,000

100,000

120,000

140,000

160,000

Jan

Feb

Mar

733,297

2013

467,141

437,736

Totals

Year to Date Comparison

Annual Passes 39,244 37,244 44,105 40,096 44,254 41,247 42,597 37,890 37,767 37,553 32,283 32,861

Daily/Weekly 16,980 17,138 32,263 34,063 50,586 54,932 74,988 46,634 41,269 29,299 20,672 18,912

January February March April May June July August September October November December

2013

474,576

Daily/Weekly 16,937 20,290 33,228 40,134 56,718 63,203 76,467 47,550 38,426 35,214 22,907 23,502

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

780,560

2014 YTD

497,968

Annual Passes 35,978 37,338 43,011 39,732 43,118 41,339 42,546 50,188 54,357 40,702 34,107 35,552

Gate Traffic Counts by Month

904,877

Total 56,224 54,382 76,368 74,159 94,840 96,179 117,585 84,524 79,036 66,852 52,955 51,773

2014

Aug

972,544

Total 52,915 57,628 76,239 79,866 99,836 104,542 119,013 97,738 92,783 75,916 57,014 59,054

Oct *

^Sep 2017 - Hurricane Irma

Nov

851,988

2017

2016

2015

2014

2013

2015 YTD

529,188

2015

Annual Passes 38,634 40,037 47,779 45,221 48,837 46,845 48,717 43,299 43,015 44,986 39,722 42,096

* Oct 2016 - Hurricane Matthew

Sep^

542,388

Daily/Weekly 24,403 23,944 39,989 49,237 71,430 75,121 71,405 48,062 46,013 38,480 29,820 24,484

Total 63,037 63,981 87,768 94,458 120,267 121,966 120,122 91,361 89,028 83,466 69,542 66,580 1,071,576

Dec

Traffic Counts

0

500,000

1,000,000

1,500,000

2,000,000

2,500,000

3,000,000

3,500,000

0

200,000

400,000

600,000

800,000

1,000,000

1,200,000

2013

2,705,086

2013

926,844

2016 YTD

561,464

577,040

2016

Annual Passes 42,084 45,113 52,582 49,140 52,704 50,525 52,276 47,693 45,509 38,461 43,245 42,132

Daily/Weekly 24,977 31,332 46,104 57,158 69,981 74,618 90,544 46,949 47,555 26,241 31,634 29,947

# Vehicles

158 Dollars

September 2017

2014

2,782,951

2014

474,514

Daily/Weekly 26,372 35,982 49,605 66,259 62,367 72,234 90,765 44,352 26,578 0 0 0

2015

3,192,565

2016

2016

3,474,214

Annual Revenue

2015

Annual Traffic Count

1,138,504

Total 67,061 76,445 98,686 106,298 122,685 125,143 142,820 94,642 93,064 64,702 74,879 72,079

2017

2,872,410

2017

925,206

925,206

Total 72,934 83,063 103,771 117,977 115,925 126,290 145,775 95,084 64,387 0 0 0

2017 Projected

3,447,715

Daily/Weekly

5/13/2018

2017 Projected

Annual Passes

2017 YTD

450,692

2017

Annual Passes 46,562 47,081 54,166 51,718 53,558 54,056 55,010 50,732 37,809 0 0 0

JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES


SAND COUNTY STUDIOS

0

20,000

40,000

60,000

80,000

100,000

120,000

140,000

160,000

Jan

Feb

Mar

800,149

2013

467,141

437,736

Totals

Year to Date Comparison

Annual Passes 39,244 37,244 44,105 40,096 44,254 41,247 42,597 37,890 37,767 37,553 32,283 32,861

Daily/Weekly 16,980 17,138 32,263 34,063 50,586 54,932 74,988 46,634 41,269 29,299 20,672 18,912

January February March April May June July August September October November December

2013

474,576

Daily/Weekly 16,937 20,290 33,228 40,134 56,718 63,203 76,467 47,550 38,426 35,214 22,907 23,502

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

856,476

2014 YTD

497,968

Annual Passes 35,978 37,338 43,011 39,732 43,118 41,339 42,546 50,188 54,357 40,702 34,107 35,552

Gate Traffic Counts by Month

904,877

Total 56,224 54,382 76,368 74,159 94,840 96,179 117,585 84,524 79,036 66,852 52,955 51,773

2014

Aug

972,544

Total 52,915 57,628 76,239 79,866 99,836 104,542 119,013 97,738 92,783 75,916 57,014 59,054

Oct *

^Sep 2017 - Hurricane Irma

Nov

935,454

2017

2016

2015

2014

2013

2015 YTD

529,188

2015

Annual Passes 38,634 40,037 47,779 45,221 48,837 46,845 48,717 43,299 43,015 44,986 39,722 42,096

* Oct 2016 - Hurricane Matthew

Sep^

542,388

Daily/Weekly 24,403 23,944 39,989 49,237 71,430 75,121 71,405 48,062 46,013 38,480 29,820 24,484

Total 63,037 63,981 87,768 94,458 120,267 121,966 120,122 91,361 89,028 83,466 69,542 66,580 1,071,576

Dec

Traffic Counts

0

500,000

1,000,000

1,500,000

2,000,000

2,500,000

3,000,000

3,500,000

0

200,000

400,000

600,000

800,000

1,000,000

1,200,000

1,400,000

2013

2,705,086

2013

991,546

2016 YTD

561,464

577,040

2016

Annual Passes 42,084 45,113 52,582 49,140 52,704 50,525 52,276 47,693 45,509 38,461 43,245 42,132

Daily/Weekly 24,977 31,332 46,104 57,158 69,981 74,618 90,544 46,949 47,555 26,241 31,634 29,947

# Vehicles

159 Dollars

October 2017

2014

2,782,951

2014

510,385

Daily/Weekly 26,372 35,982 49,605 66,259 62,367 72,234 90,765 44,352 26,578 35,871 0 0

2015

3,192,565

2016

2016

3,474,214

Annual Revenue

2015

Annual Traffic Count

1,138,504

Total 67,061 76,445 98,686 106,298 122,685 125,143 142,820 94,642 93,064 64,702 74,879 72,079

2017

3,122,542

2017

1,011,643

Total 72,934 83,063 103,771 117,977 115,925 126,290 145,775 95,084 64,387 86,437 0 0

2017 Projected

3,519,652

Daily/Weekly

5/13/2018

2017 Projected

1,011,643

Annual Passes

2017 YTD

501,258

2017

Annual Passes 46,562 47,081 54,166 51,718 53,558 54,056 55,010 50,732 37,809 50,566 0 0

JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES


SAND COUNTY STUDIOS

0

20,000

40,000

60,000

80,000

100,000

120,000

140,000

160,000

Jan

Feb

Mar

853,104

2013

467,141

437,736

Totals

Year to Date Comparison

Annual Passes 39,244 37,244 44,105 40,096 44,254 41,247 42,597 37,890 37,767 37,553 32,283 32,861

Daily/Weekly 16,980 17,138 32,263 34,063 50,586 54,932 74,988 46,634 41,269 29,299 20,672 18,912

January February March April May June July August September October November December

2013

474,576

Daily/Weekly 16,937 20,290 33,228 40,134 56,718 63,203 76,467 47,550 38,426 35,214 22,907 23,502

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

913,490

2014 YTD

497,968

Annual Passes 35,978 37,338 43,011 39,732 43,118 41,339 42,546 50,188 54,357 40,702 34,107 35,552

Gate Traffic Counts by Month

904,877

Total 56,224 54,382 76,368 74,159 94,840 96,179 117,585 84,524 79,036 66,852 52,955 51,773

2014

Aug

972,544

Total 52,915 57,628 76,239 79,866 99,836 104,542 119,013 97,738 92,783 75,916 57,014 59,054

Oct *

^Sep 2017 - Hurricane Irma

Nov

1,004,996

2017

2016

2015

2014

2013

2015 YTD

529,188

2015

Annual Passes 38,634 40,037 47,779 45,221 48,837 46,845 48,717 43,299 43,015 44,986 39,722 42,096

* Oct 2016 - Hurricane Matthew

Sep^

542,388

Daily/Weekly 24,403 23,944 39,989 49,237 71,430 75,121 71,405 48,062 46,013 38,480 29,820 24,484

Total 63,037 63,981 87,768 94,458 120,267 121,966 120,122 91,361 89,028 83,466 69,542 66,580 1,071,576

Dec

Traffic Counts

0

500,000

1,000,000

1,500,000

2,000,000

2,500,000

3,000,000

3,500,000

0

200,000

400,000

600,000

800,000

1,000,000

1,200,000

1,400,000

2013

2,705,086

2013

1,066,425

2016 YTD

561,464

577,040

2016

Annual Passes 42,084 45,113 52,582 49,140 52,704 50,525 52,276 47,693 45,509 38,461 43,245 42,132

Daily/Weekly 24,977 31,332 46,104 57,158 69,981 74,618 90,544 46,949 47,555 26,241 31,634 29,947

# Vehicles

160 Dollars

November 2017

2014

2,782,951

2014

542,708

Daily/Weekly 26,372 35,982 49,605 66,259 62,367 72,234 90,765 44,352 26,578 35,871 32,323 0

2015

3,192,565

2016

2016

3,474,214

Annual Revenue

2015

Annual Traffic Count

1,138,504

Total 67,061 76,445 98,686 106,298 122,685 125,143 142,820 94,642 93,064 64,702 74,879 72,079

2017

3,351,720

2017

1,090,743

Total 72,934 83,063 103,771 117,977 115,925 126,290 145,775 95,084 64,387 86,437 79,100 0

2017 Projected

3,543,232

Daily/Weekly

5/13/2018

2017 Projected

1,090,743

Annual Passes

2017 YTD

548,035

2017

Annual Passes 46,562 47,081 54,166 51,718 53,558 54,056 55,010 50,732 37,809 50,566 46,777 0

JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES


SAND COUNTY STUDIOS

0

20,000

40,000

60,000

80,000

100,000

120,000

140,000

160,000

Jan

Feb

Mar

904,877

2013

467,141

437,736

Totals

Year to Date Comparison

Annual Passes 39,244 37,244 44,105 40,096 44,254 41,247 42,597 37,890 37,767 37,553 32,283 32,861

Daily/Weekly 16,980 17,138 32,263 34,063 50,586 54,932 74,988 46,634 41,269 29,299 20,672 18,912

January February March April May June July August September October November December

2013

474,576

Daily/Weekly 16,937 20,290 33,228 40,134 56,718 63,203 76,467 47,550 38,426 35,214 22,907 23,502

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

972,544

2014 YTD

497,968

Annual Passes 35,978 37,338 43,011 39,732 43,118 41,339 42,546 50,188 54,357 40,702 34,107 35,552

Gate Traffic Counts by Month

904,877

Total 56,224 54,382 76,368 74,159 94,840 96,179 117,585 84,524 79,036 66,852 52,955 51,773

2014

Aug

972,544

Total 52,915 57,628 76,239 79,866 99,836 104,542 119,013 97,738 92,783 75,916 57,014 59,054

Oct *

^Sep 2017 - Hurricane Irma

Nov

1,071,576

2017

2016

2015

2014

2013

2015 YTD

529,188

2015

Annual Passes 38,634 40,037 47,779 45,221 48,837 46,845 48,717 43,299 43,015 44,986 39,722 42,096

* Oct 2016 - Hurricane Matthew

Sep^

542,388

Daily/Weekly 24,403 23,944 39,989 49,237 71,430 75,121 71,405 48,062 46,013 38,480 29,820 24,484

Total 63,037 63,981 87,768 94,458 120,267 121,966 120,122 91,361 89,028 83,466 69,542 66,580 1,071,576

Dec

Traffic Counts

0

500,000

1,000,000

1,500,000

2,000,000

2,500,000

3,000,000

3,500,000

0

200,000

400,000

600,000

800,000

1,000,000

1,200,000

1,400,000

2013

2,705,086

2013

1,138,504

2016 YTD

561,464

577,040

2016

Annual Passes 42,084 45,113 52,582 49,140 52,704 50,525 52,276 47,693 45,509 38,461 43,245 42,132

Daily/Weekly 24,977 31,332 46,104 57,158 69,981 74,618 90,544 46,949 47,555 26,241 31,634 29,947

# Vehicles

161 Dollars

December 2017

570,599

Daily/Weekly 26,372 35,982 49,605 66,259 62,367 72,234 90,765 44,352 26,578 35,871 32,323 27,891

2015

2014

2,782,951

2015

3,192,565

Annual Revenue

2014

Annual Traffic Count

1,138,504

Total 67,061 76,445 98,686 106,298 122,685 125,143 142,820 94,642 93,064 64,702 74,879 72,079

2016

3,474,214

2016

1,163,829

Total 72,934 83,063 103,771 117,977 115,925 126,290 145,775 95,084 64,387 86,437 79,100 73,086

2017

2017

3,545,070

Daily/Weekly

5/13/2018

1,163,829

Annual Passes

2017 YTD

593,230

2017

Annual Passes 46,562 47,081 54,166 51,718 53,558 54,056 55,010 50,732 37,809 50,566 46,777 45,195

JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES


SAND COUNTY STUDIOS

0

20,000

40,000

60,000

80,000

100,000

120,000

140,000

160,000

Jan

Feb

52,915

Mar

2014 YTD

497,968

474,576

Totals

Year to Date Comparison

Annual Passes 35,978 37,338 43,011 39,732 43,118 41,339 42,546 50,188 54,357 40,702 34,107 35,552

Daily/Weekly 16,937 20,290 33,228 40,134 56,718 63,203 76,467 47,550 38,426 35,214 22,907 23,502

January February March April May June July August September October November December

2014

542,388

Daily/Weekly 24,403 23,944 39,989 49,237 71,430 75,121 71,405 48,062 46,013 38,480 29,820 24,484

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

63,037

2015 YTD

529,188

Annual Passes 38,634 40,037 47,779 45,221 48,837 46,845 48,717 43,299 43,015 44,986 39,722 42,096

Gate Traffic Counts by Month

972,544

Total 52,915 57,628 76,239 79,866 99,836 104,542 119,013 97,738 92,783 75,916 57,014 59,054

2015

Aug

1,071,576

Total 63,037 63,981 87,768 94,458 120,267 121,966 120,122 91,361 89,028 83,466 69,542 66,580

Oct *

^Sep 2017 - Hurricane Irma

Nov

67,061

2018

2017

2016

2015

2014

2016 YTD

561,464

2016

Annual Passes 42,084 45,113 52,582 49,140 52,704 50,525 52,276 47,693 45,509 38,461 43,245 42,132

* Oct 2016 - Hurricane Matthew

Sep^

577,040

Daily/Weekly 24,977 31,332 46,104 57,158 69,981 74,618 90,544 46,949 47,555 26,241 31,634 29,947

Total 67,061 76,445 98,686 106,298 122,685 125,143 142,820 94,642 93,064 64,702 74,879 72,079 1,138,504

Dec

Traffic Counts

0

500,000

1,000,000

1,500,000

2,000,000

2,500,000

3,000,000

3,500,000

0

200,000

400,000

600,000

800,000

1,000,000

1,200,000

1,400,000

2014

2,782,951

2014

72,934

2017 YTD

593,230

570,599

2017

Annual Passes 46,562 47,081 54,166 51,718 53,558 54,056 55,010 50,732 37,809 50,566 46,777 45,195

Daily/Weekly 26,372 35,982 49,605 66,259 62,367 72,234 90,765 44,352 26,578 35,871 32,323 27,891

# Vehicles

162 Dollars

January 2018

2016

2016

3,474,214

Annual Revenue

2015

3,192,565

2015

21,065

Daily/Weekly 21,065 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

2017

3,545,070

Annual Traffic Count

1,163,829

Total 72,934 83,063 103,771 117,977 115,925 126,290 145,775 95,084 64,387 86,437 79,100 73,086

2018

173,190

2017

66,907

2018

5/13/2018

66,907

Total 66,907 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

2018 Projected

3,260,707

Daily/Weekly

Annual Passes

2018 YTD

45,842

2018

Annual Passes 45,842 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES


SAND COUNTY STUDIOS

0

20,000

40,000

60,000

80,000

100,000

120,000

140,000

160,000

Jan

Totals

Feb

Mar

110,543

2014 YTD

497,968

474,576

January February March April May June July August September October November December

Year to Date Comparison

Annual Passes 35,978 37,338 43,011 39,732 43,118 41,339 42,546 50,188 54,357 40,702 34,107 35,552

Daily/Weekly 16,937 20,290 33,228 40,134 56,718 63,203 76,467 47,550 38,426 35,214 22,907 23,502

2014

542,388

Daily/Weekly 24,403 23,944 39,989 49,237 71,430 75,121 71,405 48,062 46,013 38,480 29,820 24,484

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

127,018

2015 YTD

529,188

Annual Passes 38,634 40,037 47,779 45,221 48,837 46,845 48,717 43,299 43,015 44,986 39,722 42,096

Gate Traffic Counts by Month

972,544

Total 52,915 57,628 76,239 79,866 99,836 104,542 119,013 97,738 92,783 75,916 57,014 59,054

2015

Aug

1,071,576

Total 63,037 63,981 87,768 94,458 120,267 121,966 120,122 91,361 89,028 83,466 69,542 66,580

Oct *

^Sep 2017 - Hurricane Irma

Nov

143,506

2018

2017

2016

2015

2014

2016 YTD

561,464

2016

Annual Passes 42,084 45,113 52,582 49,140 52,704 50,525 52,276 47,693 45,509 38,461 43,245 42,132

* Oct 2016 - Hurricane Matthew

Sep^

577,040

Daily/Weekly 24,977 31,332 46,104 57,158 69,981 74,618 90,544 46,949 47,555 26,241 31,634 29,947

Total 67,061 76,445 98,686 106,298 122,685 125,143 142,820 94,642 93,064 64,702 74,879 72,079 1,138,504

Dec

Traffic Counts

0

500,000

1,000,000

1,500,000

2,000,000

2,500,000

3,000,000

3,500,000

0

200,000

400,000

600,000

800,000

1,000,000

1,200,000

1,400,000

2014

2,782,951

2014

155,997

2017 YTD

593,230

570,599

2017

Annual Passes 46,562 47,081 54,166 51,718 53,558 54,056 55,010 50,732 37,809 50,566 46,777 45,195

Daily/Weekly 26,372 35,982 49,605 66,259 62,367 72,234 90,765 44,352 26,578 35,871 32,323 27,891

# Vehicles

163 Dollars

February 2018

2015

3,192,565

2015

55,391

Daily/Weekly 21,065 34,326 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

2016

3,474,214

Annual Revenue

2016

2017

3,545,070

2017

Annual Traffic Count

1,163,829

Total 72,934 83,063 103,771 117,977 115,925 126,290 145,775 95,084 64,387 86,437 79,100 73,086

2018

396,195

2018

150,897

150,897

Total 66,907 83,990 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

2018 Projected

3,327,230

Daily/Weekly

5/13/2018

2018 Projected

Annual Passes

2018 YTD

95,506

2018

Annual Passes 45,842 49,664 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES


164

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS

FY06

144,481

1,228,878

Regular Guests

Transient Guests

-

200,000

400,000

600,000

800,000

1,000,000

1,200,000

1,400,000

1,600,000

FY07 145,608 1,194,719

1,373,359

144,481

Regular Guests

TOTAL GUEST VISITATION

4,543

1,228,878

463,728

FY06

Annual Passes

Transient Guests

Transient Cars (No. Cars w/o Decals

Greeting Station

1,299,251

164,574

5,175

1,134,677

428,180

FY08

1,298,401

213,757

6,722

1,084,644

409,300

FY09

1,157,790

FY08 1,134,677

164,574

FY09 1,084,644

213,757

FY10 920,850

236,940

236,940

7,451

920,850

347,490

FY10

JEKYLL ISLAND TOTAL GUEST VISITATION

1,340,327

145,608

4,579

1,194,719

450,837

FY07

FY11 953,229

300,779

1,254,007

300,779

9,458

953,229

359,709

FY11

FY12 923,700

326,479

1,250,180

326,479

10,267

923,700

348,566

FY12

716,840

254,321

FY13 YTD thru March

971,161

254,321

7,998

716,840

270,506

FY13 YTD thru March

JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

9.15 JEKYLL ISLAND GUEST VISITATION


165

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS

FY06

144,481

1,228,878

Regular Guests

Transient Guests

-

200,000

400,000

600,000

800,000

1,000,000

1,200,000

1,400,000

1,600,000

FY07 145,608 1,194,719

1,373,359

144,481

Regular Guests

TOTAL GUEST VISITATION

4,543

1,228,878

463,728

FY06

Annual Passes

Transient Guests

Transient Cars (No. Cars w/o Decals

Greeting Station

1,299,251

164,574

5,175

1,134,677

428,180

FY08

1,298,401

213,757

6,722

1,084,644

409,300

FY09

1,157,790

FY08 1,134,677

164,574

FY09 1,084,644

213,757

FY10 920,850

236,940

236,940

7,451

920,850

347,490

FY10

JEKYLL ISLAND TOTAL GUEST VISITATION

1,340,327

145,608

4,579

1,194,719

450,837

FY07

FY11 953,229

300,779

1,254,007

300,779

9,458

953,229

359,709

FY11

FY12 923,700

326,479

1,250,180

326,479

10,267

923,700

348,566

FY12

716,840

254,321

FY13 YTD thru March

971,161

254,321

7,998

716,840

270,506

FY13 YTD thru March

JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

9.16 DEMOGRAPHICS COASTAL COUNTIES - POPULATION GROWTH 1980 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 2030 County 1980 1990 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 Bryan 10,175 15,438 23,417 28,549 30,233 33,510 40,097 52,466 59,534 Bulloch 35,785 43,125 55,983 61,454 70,217 78,019 86,985 98,387 109,034 Camden 13,371 30,167 43,664 45,759 50,513 56,836 52,935 83,431 96,743 Chatham 202,226 216,935 232,048 238,410 265,128 285,022 306,088 307,506 324,098 Effingham 18,327 25,687 37,535 46,924 52,250 58,232 64,553 96,094 112,062 Glynn 54,981 62,496 67,568 71,874 79,626 84,632 89,307 101,441 109,771 Liberty 37,583 52,745 61,610 57,544 65,327 70,032 75,540 86,448 93,821 Long 4,254 6,202 10,304 11,083 14464 16,861 19,498 15,744 17,171 McIntosh 8,046 8,634 10,847 11,068 14,333 15,525 16,644 18,375 20,686 Screven 14,043 13,842 15,374 15,430 14,593 14,773 14,809 19,036 20,036 Region 398,791 475,271 558,350 588,095 656,684 713,442 766,456 878,928 962,956 Region 19% 17% 5% 12% 9% 7% 15% 10%

166

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

9.17 PUBLIC ANNOUNCEMENT FOR PUBLIC MEETING 1

Public Notice: Jekyll Island Carrying Capacity and Infrastructure Study Update Issued April 23, 2018 The following is an update from Sand County Studios regarding the Carrying Capacity and Infrastructure Study it is conducting for the Jekyll Island Authority. Questions or comments regarding the study should be sent to: info@sandcountystudios.com Sand County Studios and the Jekyll Island Authority hosted a public open house on Tuesday, April 17th, 2018 to introduce and explain the purpose of the Carrying Capacity and Infrastructure Assessment Study and to solicit input from the community about the process. The intent of this research is to provide the Jekyll Island Authority Board and Management with the tools to evaluate decisions for the future of the island. This project specifically looks at the idea of “carrying capacity,” which is the number of individuals who can be supported within a given area without degrading the natural, social, cultural, and economic environment for present and future generations. The increasing popularity of Jekyll Island presents both an opportunity and a challenge. How do we ensure the enjoyment of visitors while still maintaining the natural environment and pleasant experience? A sustainable carrying capacity seeks to balance human needs and environmental systems. The project is still in its infancy. Thus far, the Sand County Studios team and JIA developed goals and objectives, established a clearly-defined process and timeline, and mapped critical environmental, cultural, and infrastructure resources. The next steps will include a detailed analysis of all factors that impact carrying capacity on the island, “what-if” scenarios that look at different approaches to these same resources, and a review of policies and procedures that influence decisions on the island. The final project will provide data-driven recommendations that can be integrated into future planning efforts to help create a holistic and sustainable Jekyll Island - one that is economically viable and protects the unique resources and character of the island. More information about this project is posted online at: https://www.jekyllisland.com/jekyll-islandauthority/public-input-sessions/

167

Beachview

Drive

Sand County Studios is a landscape architecture and environmental planning firm located in Atlanta, Georgia. In addition to Sand County Studios, the team also includes Sherwood Design Engineers (civil engineering), Silver Mountain Solutions (strategic policy & project planning/renewable energy), HaydenTanner (finance & sustainable economics), and Heritage Strategies (cultural/resource planning).

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

9.18 JIA BOARD MEETING #1 PRESENTATION

168

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

169

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

170

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

171

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

172

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

173

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

174

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

175

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

9.19 PUBLIC MEETING #1 SIGN-IN SHEET

176

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

177

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

178

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

179

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

180

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

181

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

182

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

183

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

9.20 MAPS SHOWN AT PUBLIC MEETING # 1

184

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

185

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

186

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

187

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

188

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

189

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

190

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

191

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

192

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

193

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

194

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

195

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

9.21 PUBLIC MEETING #1 COMMENTS

196

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

197

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

198

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

199

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

200

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

201

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

202

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

203

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

204

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

205

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

206

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

207

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

208

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

209

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

210

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

211

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

212

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

213

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

214

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

215

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

216

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

217

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

218

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

219

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

220

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

221

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

222

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

223

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

224

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

225

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

226

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

227

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

228

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

229

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

230

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

9.22 PUBLIC MEETING PRESENTATION #2

231

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

232

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

233

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

234

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

235

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

236

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

237

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

238

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

239

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

240

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

241

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

242

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

243

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

244

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

245

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

246

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

247

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

248

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

249

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

250

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

251

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

252

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

253

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

254

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

255

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

9.23 PUBLIC MEETING #2 COMMENTS

Phyllis Patterson <patterson.phyllis@yahoo.com> Fri 8/31/2018, 11:11 AM You Me and my family love this island it is so beautiful and is not taken over by commercial businesses. We enjoy the beautiful beaches, fishing, trails and historical areas. Keep the island as much as possible in its natural state. Don't ruin it by adding more building and eventually ruining the landscape that is so beautiful. Don't ruin it like Tyner where you cannot see the ocean because of all the commercialism! Phyllis J. Patterson Sent from Yahoo Mail on Android Michael Caudill <caudillma@hotmail.com> Fri 8/31/2018, 11:07 AM You Greetings Mr. Sipes, Julia and I have been coming to Jekyll Island every Spring for 15 years now. I am a university instructor and Julia works as a staff person at another university. We come for the natural beauty, serenity, and affordability. Walking or riding our bikes on the trails is our favorite way to enjoy the natural assets of the island. The quiet is so needed after teaching a hectic semester - we return renewed. I am an instructor, not a tenured faculty member with a PhD. The fact that we can afford to stay on the island is another major factor in our returning year after year. We know Jekyll must grow and support itself economically. Managing that growth for those of us who value the nature and affordability of Jekyll Island will be a challenge, but one well worth engaging. Best regards, Julia and Michael Caudill Seneca, SC Robert <rvjacoby@bellsouth.net> Fri 8/31/2018, 10:22 AM You We live in a suburb of Atlanta and have been visiting Jekyll for about 30 years. Our concern is that there has already been too much commercial development on the island. This has ruined the traditional atmosphere of the island and has made it difficult financially for many to visit Jekyll. Thank you, Bob & Joan Jacoby 1104 Creekdale Dr., Clarkston Ga. 30021

256

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES Anne Hunt <pelicanspit@gmail.com> Fri 8/31/2018, 9:09 AM You; degan1@bellsouth.net; jhooks@jekyllisland.com Mr. Sipes, I was born in Glynn County, Georgia. After my parents were ailing I moved to Jekyll Island, Georgia in the 'LightHouse' condo on the corner of North Beachview Drive and Captain Wylie. The reason for my purchase was the mesmerizing views of the Atlantic Ocean from every room in my home. The only stretch of beach that you are able to view from the highway is between the Great Dunes Park and the Holiday Inn on the North Beachview Drive. This small drive is what tourist as well as residents look forward to every sunrise and sunset. It makes their day and/or stay memorable. If we are speaking of the ability of many to enjoy this small piece of paradise, I believe that the accommodations that are currently in place are more than sufficient as they are not all at maximum capacity at any given time. To put in more hotels would just be that 'more' and; less of the natural island/beach that people are wanting to see and experience. There are many over developed islands. Prime example is St. Simons Island, Georgia. This was a beautiful, secluded and serene retreat that has unfortunately morphed into a crowded, stressful, overpopulated city with many of the inherent problems like: crime, noise, traffic, water/sewer issues, higher taxes, decreased public beach access.... We are at a crossroads where it is imperative that we maintain the pristine, natural beauty of our island and forego some of the monetary benefits of so called 'growth' in order to hold on to one of the most beautiful spots on earth. It takes forethought and diligence to overcome the sway of big corporate companies that march in with gorgeously designed hotels/restaurants/condos with the promise of minimizing their 'footprint' on the island while increasing revenue. It only takes a short stop over at St. Simons Island to see the results of this type of development. Currently on Jekyll Island the crime rate is extremely low, we have no stop lights, people drive slowly for the most part, our light and sound pollution is minimal, we have natural vegetation and many species of animals that make their home here. The one thing that I feel would allow the island to be even more beautiful would be to utilize some of the parking fee monies to start at the Great Dunes Park and go all the way to Driftwood Park and place the utilities underground. I understand the cost and the inconvenience involved in this undertaking. However, the benefits to making the island more appealing to photographers, painters, visitors and residents would be profound. Please allow this island to remain as it was intended: to be a retreat for all to enjoy; a place to relax, recharge, experience what a true island has to offer without it turning into just one more over developed plot of land. Jekyll Island is the epitome of all the wonders of island life. My hope is that it will continue to be the quintessential island retreat. Sincerely, Anne Hunt Anne Hunt 698 N. Beachview Drive Jekyll Island, Georgia 31527 pelicanspit@gmail.com 912.243.4453 Dear Mr. Sipes. Following are my comments on the capacity of Jekyll Island for further development. I have owned a house on North Beachview Drive for 12 years, initially as a vacation home and for the past 5 years as a resident. 1. I value most the unspoiled beaches and preservation of natural wildlife areas. This must be preserved at all cost. Limit the height of hotels and condos. Do not increase built up areas beyond presently authorized.

257

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES 2. I am pleased to see the revetment project in progress but would also like to see some recovery of the beach at the north end. Our access is limited to half tide or less now, making it necessary to travel to the increasingly crowded areas near the hotels. 3. As a dog owner there is nothing better than long dog walks, however, it should be possible to have a dog area on the beach and inland or a time of day every day when they can be off leash. Another problem is that the bike path on north Beachview is often so crowded with bikes now that it is difficult to walk down the sidewalk, especially with two dogs, without constantly stepping aside for bikes. The bike path does not have capacity to be used as a sidewalk and a bike path. 4. The new hotels and restaurants are a welcome addition. No longer necessary to leave the island to get good food and entertainment. Prices are high though and seating is often impossible at weekends. Would be good to see a 15% residents discount as standard. 5. Golf course needs to be profitable. Not my expertise to say how, e.g. more advertising or lower costs, but cannot run at a loss. 6. Parking at events is a problem too. But rather than take more natural space from the beach side, add parking at the golf course and run a shuttle. 7. Traffic at north Beachview has increased in volume and speed. Construction trucks are the worst offenders, but there are more cars too. We need a traffic cop to enforce speed limits. Thank you. Elaine Pullen 916 N Beachview Drive 860 796 4167 judy wilburn <wilburn6@gmail.com> Fri 8/31/2018, 12:12 AM You Hi James, My family has been visiting the Island for 20 years or so, now we have extended family vacationing there also. It's our hope that it doesn't become any more commercialized. It's beauty and appeal is the uncrowded beaches and seclusion. We love it as it is and hope it can always stay the way it is. It's so good to just get away and have a quiet week or two at a time. It really is our favorite place to be. Thank You. Judy Barbara Edwards <bedwards2@nycap.rr.com> Thu 8/30/2018, 11:31 PM You Sir: My husband and I live in upstate New York and for the past eleven years have spent part of the winters on Jekyll Island, Georgia. Time we looked forward to each year. Alas, due to increased rents and lack of affordable rentals we won't be spending time on Jekyll island his winter. We and many like us are being priced out. Jekyll Island has been a unique and lovely respite. However, it is quickly threatening to become littered with overpriced hotels and restaurants. What made Jekyll special is in danger of disappearing. More cars every year. More and more

258

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES people. The beautiful view of the ocean, when first on the island, has been replaced with a view of the Weston Hotel and the Beach Village. What was once unspoiled is slowly being spoiled. Allan & Nell Ricketts <raricketts@mchsi.com> Thu 8/30/2018, 8:42 PM You We live in Valdosta and have been coming to Jekyll Island all our lives and most recently the past 20 years having retired back to Valdosta after serving in the military for 29 years. We loved seeing the beauty of many places around the world but in our opinion, nothing compares to Jekyll Islands natural beauty and the birds, wildlife and natural setting she has to offer us humans. We need natural undeveloped spaces like this for our grandchildren to discover and enjoy like we have been able to do for 60 plus years. Allan and Nell Ricketts Tom Painter <tompainter2007@yahoo.com> Thu 8/30/2018, 7:08 PM You; Thomas Painter; Carla Roncoli Dear Mr. Sipes, I just learned about the findings of the Jekyll Island capacity study, and I am writing to express my (our) concern about the likelihood of further commercial development of the island. And I do not doubt for a moment that there are strong pressures to increase development there and on other Georgia barrier islands (we have seen, for example, what has happened to Sapelo). We place an extremely high value on the relative simplicity (exceptions are the larger hotels) and somewhat limited nature of development on the island and the opportunity the island and the island community offer to mainlanders like us to enjoy the ocean and the natural plant and animal communities that contribute to the island's charm. Some of that simplicity has been lost in recent years, but the replacement facilities (stores, restaurants, etc.) are pleasant enough. We believe the island has quite enough hotels, and it is very important that some of these continue to offer room rates that are affordable to a range of visitors. The island certainly has enough high-end hotels. Having facilities that are attractive and offer basic services (meals, groceries, dry goods, pharmaceuticals, beach and tourist supplies, etc.) is important. My wife and I have been visiting and enjoying Jekyll since the mid-1990s, and we would not like to see commercial development and all that goes with it (traffic, parking lots, etc.) spoil such a terrific place. Thank you for your consideration. Tom Painter 339 Candler St. NE Atlanta, GA 30307 Home: 404-524-8833 Office: 404-639-6113 Cell: 678-860-9648

259

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

cg225 <cg225@aol.com> Thu 8/30/2018, 6:26 PM You I've been coming to Jekyll since 1966. My wife and had our honeymoon there in 1971 and have vacationed there over 40 times. We don't feel any more development is needed. Maybe a restaurant or 2. The island was for middle class to enjoy. Some hotels are far too expensive for middle class working people. How can you afford 200 plus a night and feed your family? Please leave Jekyll alone. We enjoy the quiet peaceful serenity of Jekyll. And we are from pa. Thank you Cam simpson Kathy Maher <seadancer24@hotmail.com> Thu 8/30/2018, 5:52 PM You Jekyll Island has been our 2-3-month winter home (renting a house) for the past 14 years. Obviously, we love it, but have grown concerned in the past few years that the wonderful character and ambiance is diminishing. New hotels catering to the well-to-do or corporate conventions, crowded weekends, and the low priority for maintenance of bike trails are of concern. The storm loss of the trail through the marsh to the fishing pier was a real blow. Hopefully serious effort will be made to restore that most favorite of all trails on the island promoted for its bike riding. All our friends love Jekyll Island as it is and don't want it to become another Hilton Head (or St. Simons!!!!). Sincerely, Kathleen Maher Karrie <karrie27284@yahoo.com> Thu 8/30/2018, 5:46 PM You Hi James! First thing, I want to thank you for your receptivity on the discussion concerning the development/sustainability of Jekyll Island state park. My mother has been vacationing here since the 60’s and plans on moving there soon. My family and I have experienced a multitude of fond memories, including riding along the immense canopied bike trails, and listening to the cicadas sing while we watched the peaceful tides rise and fall over the snow-white dunes. My brother and I hope to move my mom there soon, as this peacefulness Jekyll island breathes is a gift to humanity! Understanding that we are in a time of development and population growth, there is a sentiment that what’s old needs to be made fresh/new to keep money coming in and maintain interest. I am certainly not opposed to this mindset, but I feel that when you are talking about a state park such as Jekyll, there are different considerations that need to be made. First, Jekyll is a beautiful stretch of land given to the people by Mother Nature and should be just that - a land for the people. To increase further commercial development would be going against what makes a state park unique from a downtown, the suburbs, or a members-only resort. Given how constantly bombarded we are with strip malls, condos, and chain restaurants, it’s nice to take a break from these things. It’s nice to get back to where we were; who we were. Jekyll Island is that place for us. It’s that place for many. Thank you for taking the time to read this! Sincerely, Karrie sheehan

260

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES Sally Davis <sarahlaud19@yahoo.com> Thu 8/30/2018, 4:23 PM You Hello! As a 50-year resident of GA and a longtime visitor to Jekyll over the years, I have always appreciated the natural appeal of the island. I love the wild, wide beaches, birding the marshes and South Beach (long time Atlanta Audubon member), and enjoying the affordable nature of the island. So many of the islands along the FL, SC, and GA coasts have been ruined by extensive condo and commercial development; donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t let Jekyll go that way. Visitors to Jekyll so appreciate its history, natural beauty, and abundant wildlife; it is truly a place for everyone...not just the rich! Sincerely, Sarah L Davis Angie Riley <angelikapia@friendlycity.net> Thu 8/30/2018, 4:23 PM You Dear Mr. James Sipes, Just as a short not I wanted to tell you that my husband and I are coming several times a year since our 22 years living in Tifton, GA, to the Jekyll Island. We are enjoying its natural beauty, quiet morning beaches for walking, birding, deer watching, fishing, Dolphin tours, sea turtles, bicycle ways etc. Therefore we do not like any more developments on this Island. This Island needs to be preserved as is, since GA has not a whole lot of natural beaches. Jekyll Island needs to be preserved for Nature Lovers!!! That is a good motto for the Island. Who has to have entertainment of the other kind can go to Florida. Preserve the Sea Turtles breeding ground, preserve the still existing natural quality and we will keep coming. Especially, when retired. Please do not let this Island with its natural quality slip away by money hungry developers. Keep this Island secret, not much is today anymore... Older hotels or Restaurants need to be up-dated, but do not build more. We also come often for conferences on this Island since we are affiliated with UGA. Sincerely, Angela Riley Michelle Zupan <zupan1169@gmail.com> Thu 8/30/2018, 4:07 PM You Dear Mr. Sipes, I am emailing today to comment on the CCIA that you will be providing on Jekyll Island. Fifteen years ago, I moved here from Colorado because I wanted to live and work closer to the ocean and did not want to be in California. My first beach trip took me from Augusta to Tybee Island. I was sorely disappointed because Tybee was crowded, FULL of trash, and not at all the relaxing getaway that I was seeking. My second trip was to St. Simons, upon recommendation from a friend. I found the island crowded, the beach small, but at least it was clean. My third beach trip was not to Jekyll, but one of my historic site seeing trip WAS to Jekyll. I went for the history...I stayed for the island. I have traveled all over the US and the world and see many many islands and many many beaches. Jekyll Island is, without question, one of my favorite places on earth. It is my favorite beach period. The island is unique because it has not been overdeveloped. Whether one walks, rides, a bike, or just sits there is a feeling that you are in 'nature." That there is unspoiled beauty and wildness all around you. The beaches are lovely and wide and not wall to wall people. The walking/riding paths are not over run with people and their trash. The historic resources are lovely and well maintained. Jekyll is idyllic and restful without being primitive. Developing Jekyll island beyond what has been done would be a grievous error for many reasons. First, the character of the island would be forever lost. We do not need another Tybee, a Hilton Head, or (heaven forfend, a Myrtle Beach). 261

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES Second, hurricanes have been growing more powerful and larger. As we saw over the last 2 years, Georgia cannot escape major destruction for much longer. A direct hit would decimate development on the sea islands leading to increased costs for county and state governments as well as insurance costs. Third, the ecosystems of the sea islands are rare and precarious. We know that sea turtles depend upon the pristine beaches for their survival. The salt marshes are, quite literally, the birthplace of all ocean life. Why endanger that with massive developments and hordes of people? And finally, with sea levels rising island development at this point would be foolish. A global 2" rise in sea level will inundate much of Savannah, so the sea islands will be gone. If Jekyll becomes just another Hilton Head/Tybee/Daytona then I will take my time and money and vacation at Hunting Island, SC -- the only other unspoiled beach in the southeast. Sincerely, -Michelle Zupan Augusta, GA Ronnie Martin <ladyofthelake807@yahoo.com> Thu 8/30/2018, 4:02 PM You Please continue to limit the amount of development allowed on Jekyll Island and make every effort to preserve its natural state. We have been visiting this island for over 30 years and would hate to see its beauty diminished by further development. Ronnie and Peter Martin Heather Hayman <haymanh@yahoo.com> Thu 8/30/2018, 3:57 PM You Good afternoon, As a long-time visitor of beautiful Jekyll Island and the Golden Isles in general, I would like to give my input on further development of the island. I am currently planning a visit for October 2018. This will be my 45th birthday and my unenumerated trip to Jekyll Island. I have been coming to Jekyll on a regular basis since I was 16 years old. Jekyll is a treasure to many people across the country and across the world. But Jekyll is a treasure to me personally because it is and has always been the one place I feel at peace. My first visit to Jekyll at 16 years old was with my grandparents over Thanksgiving vacation. At this time in anyone’s adolescence, life can be challenging. In my life, it was tumultuous. My parents had divorced, and I was basically parenting myself and my younger sister (who now lives in St. Marys, GA). Coming to Jekyll lets the world melt away. It’s always been a magical place since the first time we drove through the gate. I visited regularly with my grandparents until I was in my 20’s and had a family of my own. I took my husband there for the first time in 2011 and he has been in love ever since. There’s a bench below the Club House with my grandparents’ names on it. It faces the bridge and the sun sets on it every night. A brick at the Turtle Center also bares family names. I have seen Jekyll grow in many ways, but it still holds its secret charms. I worry that too much development will bury it in too much modern-day insanity. The hustle and bustle of the outside world seems to not penetrate this little piece of heaven. It’s my go to in my mind in times of stress or worry or even sadness. I left a piece of my heart there from day 1 and will carry the island in my heart till the end. I hope this gives a little insight into the precious jewel Jekyll truly is to at least one family. Thank you for your time, Heather Hayman Somerset, PA

262

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

Jones Hooks <jhooks@jekyllisland.com> Wed 8/29/2018, 9:23 AM jamessipes@sandcountystudios.com Jim, In response to last night…. Jones From: Carone, Aaron @ Jacksonville <Aaron.Carone@cbre.com> Sent: Wednesday, August 29, 2018 8:39 AM To: Jones Hooks <jhooks@jekyllisland.com> Subject: Capacity Study CAUTION: This email originated from outside of the organization. Do not click links or open attachments unless you recognize the sender and know the content is safe. Jones, It was good to see you this morning. Again, the Capacity Study results thus far are great. Here are a few takeaways/ recommendations: • It would be extremely helpful to all stakeholders of Jekyll Island if the Capacity Study included recommendations for future development maximum number of hotel units and residential units before the experience is ruined (past what is on the books for redevelopment). This would at least provide us a framework for maximum development capacity. Speculation is that when a golf course is taken out of commission, or other already developed areas, that it will fall victim to overdevelopment. Conversely, developers would love this opportunity. A change in state administration in Atlanta poses uncertainty for us on the coast. This addition to the Capacity Study would give us something to point to in the future. • If my prior point were to be included in the Capacity Study, there are a few things we could do with those figures. We could look at the current development guidelines to make sure the guidelines are in line with the Capacity Study in regard to allowable density. I would also recommend transferable development rights (TRDs). I’ve done a lot of work down in the Florida Keys (Monroe County) and they have used TRDs to constrain development, while allowing flexibility to not downzone or disallow development/redevelopment. There is simply a cap in Monroe County and if you want to get extra capacity you have to buy the rights from someone else to develop/redevelop. I’m sure we could set a cap for Jekyll and use a similar dynamic system. It would function differently on Jekyll due to the land which cannot be developed but could provide a framework for development/redevelopment on the land we already consider developed plus the 40-acres slated for future development. I brought this up when we were recently rewriting the Glynn County Comprehensive Plan as a solution to constrain growth on St. Simons Island and half the people in the room looked at me like I had three heads. They didn’t get it, but it works efficiently. It is an idea worth exploring. • I noticed from the presentation Kevin gave at the board meeting that corporate business at the convention center is only 5%, while association business is some 75%. With excess capacity to grow, small corporate group business is lucrative, not restrained by per diem spending. We will never compete with large corporate groups going to Orlando, Atlanta, Chicago or Miami. It could be a great new source for you. However, you have to figure out airlift … we struggle with this. You will figure out a solution to overcrowding on high season days and hotel fill nights with dynamic pricing. If you would just hire me as your understudy I could continue your legacy. Ha Ha! Have a good week, Aaron Carone, MAI, MRICS | Consultant Southeast Region 263

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES CBRE Hotels Advisory | Capital Markets 225 Water Street, Suite 110 | Jacksonville, FL 32202 D +1 904 633 2608 | F +1 904 791 8953 | M +1 912 266 1195 aaron.carone@cbre.com | www.cbrehotels.com margaret king <oldbeechnut@yahoo.com> Fri 8/31/2018, 11:37 AM You Dear Mr. Sipes, My name is Margaret King and I live in Michigan. I have been coming to Jekyll Island with my family since 1976. My parents wintered on Jekyll for many years and my sister and I continue to visit Jekyll annually. My brother and niece and families have also made Jekyll one of their favorite places. We are an "average income" family and it has become harder and harder to find affordable accommodations and dining options on the island. Next year's rate for our rental is increasing about 30%. The things we love about Jekyll are the beaches, the slow, relaxing pace of things, and the natural environment at the ponds and in the woods. We love to come and walk and read and relax. That is what Jekyll has always been for us. We feel strongly that the recent changes, while some updates were definitely in order, have really disrupted the character of Jekyll as a natural space. I would love to see it promoted for its' natural wonders and wildlife, for eco-tourism as opposed to conventions like "cars and caffeine" that spoiled our friends stay as they listened to noisy cars race up and down Beachview from their porch. This island is a precious commodity that needs to be protected from becoming the same as every other island resort along the coast. There are plenty of fancy places to stay, high-end shopping, and night life in other areas for people who seek that kind of entertainment. Can those of us on limited budgets who just want a place to relax and enjoy unspoiled beaches and bird watching have this one small space? Doesn't seem like too much to ask. As a state park, it seems the obligation is to preserve and protect and make it accessible and affordable for regular folks. Please help minimize the overuse and intrusive nature of the "convention destination" mindset and concentrate on "conservation destination" goals instead. Thank you, Margaret King Almont, MI tj330i@comcast.net Wed 8/29/2018, 4:12 PM info@sandcountystudios.com Was at your meeting last night . Been a home owner here for 30 years and have lived here for 20. Live on riverview . Our big concern is when it get real busy around the beach, convention center and hotel people trying to get around congestion start to travel down riverview and old plantation. We have a lot of slow-moving bikers walkers red bugs and golf carts and then add a lot of fast-moving cars and we have a recipe for disaster. Along with all the commercial traffic employee’s residence JIA trucks UPS all using Riverview instead of being involved with that mess around the convention center and round about leads to a very congested 25 mile an hour speed limit zone. That leads to loud car, loud music litter is a real safety factor with all the pedestrians in the area Sent from XFINITY Connect App Kathy Dudley <luvmicoke@aol.com> Fri 8/31/2018, 12:46 PM You  Our family (mostly from the northeast, but I transplanted to Colorado in 1969) has and continues to visit Jekyll Island on an almost yearly basis since the mid 60’s. We have come to Jekyll Island for the same many reasons everyone else has. 264

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES Over the last 55 years, we have seen things only improve, for the most part. Our main complaint is that too many people have discovered this beautiful little island! As planners and all involved, you have remained true to environment first, development second. My concern there is that could change if any more housing development is allowed. Anyway, please continue your arduous and good work. Kathy Dudley Sent from my iPhone From: Sally Davis <sarahlaud19@yahoo.com> Sent: Thursday, August 30, 2018 4:23 PM To: jamessipes@hotmail.com Subject: Jekyll Island Hello! As a 50 year resident of GA and a longtime visitor to Jekyll over the years, I have always appreciated the natural appeal of the island. I love the wild, wide beaches, birding the marshes and South Beach (long time Atlanta Audubon member), and enjoying the affordable nature of the island.So many of the islands along the FL, SC, and GA coasts have been ruined by extensive condo and commercial development; donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t let Jekyll go that way. Visitors to Jekyll so appreciate its history, natural beauty, and abundant wildlife; it is truly a place for everyone...not just the rich! Sincerely, Sarah L Davis From: Angie Riley <angelikapia@friendlycity.net> Sent: Thursday, August 30, 2018 4:22 PM To: jamessipes@hotmail.com Subject: Keep Jekyll Island's natural quality! Dear Mr. James Sipes, Just as a short not I wanted to tell you that my husband and I are coming several times a year since our 22 years living in Tifton, GA, to the Jekyll Island. We are enjoying its natural beauty, quiet morning beaches for walking, birding, deer watching, fishing, Dolphin tours, sea turtles, bicycle ways etc.- Therefore we do not like any more developments on this Island. This Island needs to be preserved as is, since GA has not a whole lot of natural beaches. Jekyll Island needs to be preserved for Nature Lovers!!! That is a good motto for the Island. Who has to have entertainment of the other kind can go to Florida. Preserve the Sea Turtles breeding ground, preserve the still existing natural quality and we will keep coming. Especially, when retired. Please do not let this Island with its natural quality slip away by money hungry developers. Keep this Island secret, not much is today anymore... Older hotels or Restaurants need to be up-dated, but do not build more. We also come often for conferences on this Island since we are affiliated with UGA. Sincerely, Angela Riley From: Michelle Zupan <zupan1169@gmail.com> Sent: Thursday, August 30, 2018 4:07 PM To: jamessipes@hotmail.com Subject: Jekyll Island Carrying Capacity and Infrastructure Assessment (CCIA) Dear Mr. Sipes, I am emailing today to comment on the CCIA that you will be providing on Jekyll Island. Fifteen years ago, I moved here from Colorado because I wanted to live and work closer to the ocean and did not want to be in California. My first 265

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES beach trip took me from Augusta to Tybee Island. I was sorely disappointed because Tybee was crowded, FULL of trash, and not at all the relaxing getaway that I was seeking. My second trip was to St. Simons, upon recommendation from a friend. I found the island crowded, the beach small, but at least it was clean. My third beach trip was not to Jekyll, but one of my historic site seeing trip WAS to Jekyll. I went for the history...I stayed for the island. I have traveled all over the US and the world and see many many islands and many many beaches. Jekyll Island is, without question, one of my favorite places on earth. It is my favorite beach period. The island is unique because it has not been overdeveloped. Whether one walks, rides, a bike, or just sits there is a feeling that you are in 'nature." That there is unspoiled beauty and wildness all around you. The beaches are lovely and wide and not wall to wall people. The walking/riding paths are not over run with people and their trash. The historic resources are lovely and well maintained. Jekyll is idyllic and restful without being primitive. Developing Jekyll island beyond what has been done would be a grievous error for many reasons. First, the character of the island would be forever lost. We do not need another Tybee, a Hilton Head, or (heaven forfend, a Myrtle Beach). Second, hurricanes have been growing more powerful and larger. As we saw over the last 2 years, Georgia cannot escape major destruction for much longer. A direct hit would decimate development on the sea islands leading to increased costs for county and state governments as well as insurance costs. Third, the ecosystems of the sea islands are rare and precarious. We know that sea turtles depend upon the pristine beaches for their survival. The salt marshes are, quite literally, the birthplace of all ocean life. Why endanger that with massive developments and hordes of people? And finally, with sea levels rising island development at this point would be foolish. A global 2" rise in sea level will inundate much of Savannah, so the sea islands will be gone. If Jekyll becomes just another Hilton Head/Tybee/Daytona then I will take my time and money and vacation at Hunting Island, SC -- the only other unspoiled beach in the southeast. Sincerely, -Michelle Zupan Augusta, GA From: Ronnie Martin <ladyofthelake807@yahoo.com> Sent: Thursday, August 30, 2018 4:02 PM To: jamessipes@hotmail.com Subject: Jekyll Island Development Please continue to limit the amount of development allowed on Jekyll Island and make every effort to preserve its natural state. We have been visiting this island for over 30 years and would hate to see its beauty diminished by further development. Ronnie and Peter Martin rom: Heather Hayman <haymanh@yahoo.com> Sent: Thursday, August 30, 2018 3:57 PM To: jamessipes@hotmail.com Subject: Jekyll Island Good afternoon, As a long-time visitor of beautiful Jekyll Island and the Golden Isles in general, I would like to give my input on further development of the island. I am currently planning a visit for October 2018. This will be my 45th birthday and my unenumerated trip to Jekyll Island. I have been coming to Jekyll on a regular basis since I was 16 years old. Jekyll is a treasure to many people across the country and across the world. But Jekyll is a treasure to me personally because it is and has always been the one place I feel at peace. My first visit to Jekyll at 16 years old was with my grandparents over 266

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES Thanksgiving vacation. At this time in anyone’s adolescence, life can be challenging. In my life, it was tumultuous. My parents had divorced, and I was basically parenting myself and my younger sister (who now lives in St. Marys, GA). Coming to Jekyll lets the world melt away. It’s always been a magical place since the first time we drove through the gate. I visited regularly with my grandparents until I was in my 20’s and had a family of my own. I took my husband there for the first time in 2011 and he has been in love ever since. There’s a bench below the Club House with my grandparents names on it. It faces the bridge and the sun sets on it every night. A brick at the Turtle Center also bares family names. I have seen Jekyll grow in many ways, but it still holds its secret charms. I worry that too much development will bury it in too much modern-day insanity. The hustle and bustle of the outside world seems to not penetrate this little piece of heaven. It’s my go to in my mind in times of stress or worry or even sadness. I left a piece of my heart there from day 1 and will carry the island in my heart till the end. I hope this gives a little insight into the precious jewel Jekyll truly is to at least one family. Thank you for your time, Heather Hayman Somerset, PA Marta Hawkins <marhawk09@comcast.net> Fri 8/31/2018, 3:52 PM You No more development! No more development! NO MORE DEVELOPMENT!!! Carole Carson <carson.carole@gmail.com> Fri 8/31/2018, 4:46 PM You I have been going to Jekyll for over 40 years. When my kids were little we vacationed there every year and mostly stayed at the Old Seafarer which is now the Quality Inn. Back then it was the most affordable and we liked that we had a kitchen and almost a small apartment for the week at a super reasonable price. As the years went on we stayed at Villas by the Sea and later began to rent some of the houses for family reunions each year! We still go to Jekyll at least twice a year and my son is thinking of having his wedding there next year. We have noticed over the past 3- or 4-years Jekyll is becoming more and more crowded. It used to be mostly local people around the state with families but now it's more and more people from up North and surrounding states. The new hotels like the Westin and Jekyll Island Club seem to attract more people with money. However, I don't like spending $300-400 a night for a room... There are plenty of other places you can spend that and more. What we like about Jekyll is the simple life and family atmosphere. Spending time with family like riding bikes, fishing, crabbing, just relaxing at the beach! The things that make memories not fancy hotels and spas. I agree that some of the older homes and hotels need some updating but they also need to stay affordable! I don't think we need to add any more hotels or homes and ruin the pristine beaches and keep visitors out ... It's a state park and it belongs to the people of this state! Let's keep the natural beauty and habitat for everyone to enjoy without damaging the landscape! We love Jekyll just the way it is! We love the deer and turtles and birds! The fact that you can't go anywhere on Jekyll without experiencing the wildlife makes it that much more enticing! Save Jekyll! Sincerely, Carole Carson

267

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES Roger <jekyllroger@gmail.com> Fri 8/31/2018, 5:53 PM You The affordability of Jekyll, as a state park, is to the point of being unaffordable for Georgia’s residents. The pricing of new and existing hotel pricing now eliminates the average citizen from an extended visit to their own park. New condo pricing has totally eliminated ownership for most of Georgia’s citizens. Jekyll’s attraction is its promise to remain natural and not hotel/condo populated. Jekyll should never be another Hilton Head or St Simon with its traffic, commercial density, and disregard for it’s natural beauty and openness. Roger Harris 1 LanierRd Owner since 2004

Thomas Leonard <dranoelt@hotmail.com> Mon 9/3/2018, 7:58 AM You Mr. Sipes, My wife and I have visited Jekyll Island at least twice every year for the past ten years. We have brought our grandchildren there many times. We have stayed at a variety of hotels including the historic inn, Days Inn, and the Hampton Inn. We come to Jekyll as a means to escape the hectic Atlanta area where we reside and work. We are not in favor of future development and would stop coming if Jekyll turns into another Saint Simons. We enjoy the affordability, the nature trails, kayaking, biking and relative solitude. Keep Jekyll as a bridge between the over-developed Saint Simons with it’s traffic and congestion and Cumberland Island with its access difficulties and unaffordable overnight offerings. Thomas & Debra Leonard 1843 Skylark Crossing Powder Springs, GA 30127

From: jbofmor@aol.com <jbofmor@aol.com> Sent: Sunday, September 2, 2018 6:10 PM To: jamessipes@hotmail.com Subject: response to Jekyll Isaland study Dear Mr. Sipes, Thank you for your informative presentation on Jekyll Island. It speaks volumes for future proposed growth on the island. With existing commercial developments, infrastructure, residential developments, peak seasonal periods, conventions and special events, I respectfully submit my request or thoughts that future developments must be denied. My opinion is based on the following: Currently, the island is barely affordable for the average Georgia citizen. The majority of affordable areas or rooms no longer face the beach and/or ocean. Most are to the back side of commercial developments. Roadways, parking lots, and general pavement for developments daily projects increased summer heat; and, vehicles cause problems with the waterways because of grit, oil, etc. and many times trash from the guests. Overcrowding of beaches are most "everywhere!" The average GA citizen and/or family wants to enjoy their time on Jekyll Island without feeling like they are in Daytona or Panama or Disney World. 268

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES As you already know, Jekyll Island is a Georgia treasure. The original owner did not intend for others to overbuild on it. He meant for all Georgia residents to enjoy it. Basically, some look at Jekyll Island as a cash cow. I could mention many other reasons to deny additional developments, but I will close by saying once property is developed it cannot be un-developed. Please consider all aspects of the originally deeded property to all citizens of Georgia and the impact on wildlife and the natural areas. Thank you again for your in-depth study. Sincerely, Joyce A Bean, longtime visitor and admirer of Jekyll Island 6286 Harbin Woods Drive Morrow, GA 30260 770-961-7705 landline jbofmor@aol.com

From: Jon Stevenson <jstevenson121@yahoo.com> Sent: Sunday, September 2, 2018 5:35 PM To: jamessipes@hotmail.com Cc: Mindy Egan Subject: Re Capacity Study Mr. Sipes, The Capacity Study for Jekyll Island was very informative. In response I am submitting the following comments: First, if the island is already at 85% of capacity and growth is at a point where we will exceed current capacity very soon any further development must be done carefully and with much care if done at all. Once the capacity is exceeded it will be difficult to return to what our visitors and residents have come to love. Second perhaps further marketing and related resources need to be scaled back as evidently, they are not needed to increase visitation and use of the island. Third, I saw several references in the study about how to increase revenues to support the island but other than the golf study I did not see anything with regard to how the JIA should economize. Simple business economics tells us that reducing expenses brings a quicker profit than a revenue increase. if your profit margin is 35% you receive $.35 for every dollar increase in revenue but a dollar saved in expenses goes wholly to the bottom line. I would be very interested in how Jekyll expenses with regard to number of employees, wages and salaries, as well as other expenses compare to other state and national parks to which you said you have worked. Are the number of employees in line with revenues for similar operations. i also did not see anything which referenced the possibility of privatizing some operations. These areas need to be included in your study. Sincerely, Jon Stevenson Long time visitor and current resident

From: Robert Brackett <Robert.Brackett@fpfd.net> Sent: Sunday, September 2, 2018 4:46 PM To: jamessipes@hotmail.com Subject: Jekyll Island

269

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES Mr. Sipes, My name is Robert Brackett. I am a lifelong resident of Georgia. My wife and I have been coming to Jekyll Island for forty years, sometimes several times in a year. Our children have grown up coming to Jekyll and our daughter even did her college internship at the Jekyll Island Club Hotel in 2007. I realize that change is inevitable and necessary to improve facilities and amenities but not at the expense of changing the entire island face. We have always loved Jekyll for it's desire to remain a limited development island. We loved staying at the small motels and now we use the wonderful camping facilities. We look forward to continuing to come to Jekyll Island as we plan to retire in a couple of years. Please do not overdevelop the island that we love. Thank you. Robert Brackett 180 Oak Cir. Pine Mountain, GA 31822 From: Karen McGinty <kmpelican@aol.com> Sent: Sunday, September 2, 2018 3:44 PM To: jamessipes@hotmail.com Subject: Jekyll Island development My husband and I have concern about the development of Jekyll Island. We have been on the island recently and are concerned about the present and future development. The beauty of Jekyll has been its preservation of the natural environment, preservation of the historical sights and quiet atmosphere of the island. As a visitor it is a treat to get away from the busy life and enjoy refreshing days on the bike trails and beach. If developers have their way the beach will be lined with hotels and shops. This would destroy the Jekyll Island that so many love. Please limit the development of this beautiful treasure for those who enjoy Jekyll's natural beauty. We do not need another overbuilt beach community. Karen and Mike McGinty From: Robert Bay <robertbay6253@charter.net> Sent: Sunday, September 2, 2018 3:39 PM To: jamessipes@hotmail.com Subject: Opinion Hi James, My husband and I used to vacation at JI years ago but decided to boycott when the flavor of the island started to change. Yes, it’s nice to have better shopping and restaurants but when those structures plus the new convention center were constructed, the “quaintness” of the island completely changed. It seemed the folks in charge decided they wanted to make money over preserving the character and beauty of the island. We have been back over the past 2 years and were astounded at how much JI had changed. I suppose the biggest shock were the very expensive and obtrusive townhomes that have been built near the beach area. We were especially saddened to see how the island is losing its beaches through natural erosion and the continual dredging that happens near Brunswick for tanker delivery purposes. The more people that live on the island the more the natural resources will be depleted, and over-crowding will occur which naturally leads to more litter problems, air pollution and parking issues. Thank you for taking the time to read my comments, hope they assist you in some way to share with the powers that be that they have cut their noses off despite their faces! We as a society have to decide what is most important, preserving or purging. Thank goodness the historic area has been spared and will hopefully educate and enlighten visitors for many years to come. Anita Bay Cookeville, TN

270

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES From: earljhess@aol.com <earljhess@aol.com> Sent: Sunday, September 2, 2018 3:39 PM To: jamessipes@hotmail.com Subject: NO development on Jekyll, please Please DO NOT recommend any more development on Jekyll Island. The undeveloped parts of the island are what make it appealing. Thanks for inviting feedback.

Howard Sculthorpe <howscul@hotmail.com> Sun 9/2/2018, 2:04 PM You; Mindy & Dave Egan A minor issue, but suggests a less than thorough editing: Gate Traffic Count slide, you added 7.0, 9.2, 5.9 and 2.2 and got 22.3. The sum should have been 24.3. More importantly, they should have multiplied 1.07 x 1.092 etc. or more simply divided 1,163,829 by 904,877 which equals 1.286, or 28.6 %. Howard Scultorpe Jekyll Island From: ROBERT <saxon42@comcast.net> Sent: Saturday, September 1, 2018 10:13 PM To: jamessipes@hotmail.com Subject: Jekyll Island sustainability Thank you & the JIA for the opportunity to comment on this important subject. Irene & I own a home on Forrest Avenue & have been visitors to the Island for most or all of January through March since 2007. We also visit at other times. Our family and friends are frequent visitors, as well. No small trek as we are residents of Morgantown WV. We will be down for the Shrimp & Grits Festival in a few weeks. While we recognize the importance of the economic viability of the Island, our concern is that itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s unique character and serenity not be destroyed. Without question over the last 10 years, there has been substantial negative impact to both. The increase in development, particularly with hotels, residences and restaurants, is a major concern as are the costs connected to each. It is laughable to believe that the average Georgian or average resident of other states can afford many or most of the above. Traffic is also of concern. Clearly there are many more vehicles as compared to 10 years ago. Getting around the Island or crossing Beachview on foot can be difficult at times. Morgantown WV is a town dominated by West Virginia University. With the University in session, traffic is intolerable. There has been virtually unregulated development over the last 42 years that we have lived here. Jekyll Island is almost a polar opposite of Morgantown. We would like to do what we can to help the Island remain a place of pleasure, relaxation & peace. Thank you, again, for listening. Bob Marinelli

271

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES From: empsol@nycap.rr.com <empsol@nycap.rr.com> Sent: Saturday, September 1, 2018 6:36 PM To: jamessipes@hotmail.com Subject: Jekyll Island Thank you for allowing our input regarding Jekyll Island. In a nutshell, please encourage the JIA to put the brakes on development. We moved from NY to Jekyll Island after researching the coastlines of Florida, Virginia, and North and South Carolina. In 20 years of investigation, Jekyll Island truly shined as "Georgia's Jewel." In fact, Jekyll has been a Southeast Jewel for it's quiet and serene environment. There's no need to tell you how over development of beautiful places have ruined special locales because of greed. We read about this every day!! We love to golf. We love to walk and play golf. We love to golf, walk and play golf in nature!! The fact that walking was allowed on Jekyll (versus numerous places that mandate golfers rent golf carts) was the deciding factor for us in choosing Jekyll as our forever home. Many activities such as the Turtle Center, Historic District, Arts Community, and Summer Waves (all of which we love) are marketed by the JIA. Why is our fabulous golf facility not marketed aggressively like others in the Southeast? We are blessed with a talented golf staff and course management employees that are underfunded. The facilities at McCormick's are dismal. All of the restaurant, golf and course maintenance employees do the best they can on a shoestring. The JIA has increased hotel capacity. Why not adequately fund the golf facility that will fill up those rooms by attracting people to spend time on our golf courses, and, in turn, spend more money on Jekyll Island? Thanks for allowing our input. Bob and Ceil Sowinski From: Kathleen Kalchthaler Oehler <kalchthaler@hotmail.com> Sent: Saturday, September 1, 2018 11:08 AM To: James Sipes Subject: Input for Jekyll Island Capacity Study I've read the capacity study draft report and presentation (8/28/18). Am largely in agreement with where it's going. Jekyll's magic is in its natural resources, laid-back feel, and amenities (beach, biking, golf, tennis). It is NOT crowded or commercialized or expensive or fancy. This in itself for an island resort is unique and wonderful. It is so important to my family that these things be preserved. Three generations of my family having been coming to Jekyll Island (over 60 years)! We come from Massachusetts and Virginia and are ages 77 to 13. We are big golfers, tennis players, bikers, and beach walkers. We love the Sea Turtle Center and the historic hotel. We have enjoyed the relatively-recent addition of restaurants and shopping amenities on the island, but that is not the draw for us. And we don't see the need for more shopping centers. Filling out that existing area is fine. Understanding that Jekyll needs to increase its revenue, I would suggest marketing the tennis and golf amenities much more. My family vacations all over the world... and we do many weekend jaunts (tennis, golf) with friends. Jekyll's tennis and golf facilities are underutilized and a very well-kept secret. Men and women in their 40s and 50s spend oodles of money on golf and tennis getaways. Develop packages which include rounds of golf and/or tennis (clinics and court time) and lodging for a 3- or 4-day weekend... and then market those packages online, in golf/tennis magazines, through USTA and USGA. The lodging component of my suggestion above is challenging. Many of the older hotels would not appeal to this golf/ tennis weekender crowd because they are subpar quality (thin walls, old decor, etc.) -- I know this from experience. 272

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES But with the Westin and the other new hotel coming, that will help. Consider leveling and rebuilding on existing hotel properties. I have heard rumor that green space or golf courses would be sold and developed for residential or commercial use. Not prudent. Too rash. "Panic mode". That would jeopardize the magic of Jekyll described above. There are other places to tackle, in my opinion. The addition of the Cottages (a modern beautiful community) has been a boost and draw for Jekyll. Many residents of Jekyll are aging and struggling with what to do with their older homes. If redeveloping existing neighborhood(s) is financially viable, that's the way to go. Agree with increasing the gate fees on Jekyll, as well. Compared to other island/beachfront getaways on the east coast, Jekyll is a steal. Please keep preserving the "magic of Jekyll" -- natural resources, amenities, not overcrowded, expensive or fancy -forefront in everyone's mind when the future of Jekyll is considered. Please let me know if I can provide any further input. Thank you, Kathleen Oehler (703) 967-6410 From: Diane Shearer <djshearer6@gmail.com> Sent: Saturday, September 1, 2018 8:46 AM To: jamessipes@hotmail.com Subject: Preliminary CC study, Jekyll Mr. Sipes, As a lifelong Jekyll visitor who has returned there at least once a year for over thirty-five years, I have seen the character of the island slowly deteriorate. I believe the carrying capacity of Jekyll is at a max right now. I don’t have charts and graphs, but I know I now pay more for a less satisfying experience. The building of the sterile-feeling Beach Village and the too tall Westin started the shift of Jekyll from being our quiet, affordable state park vacation spot toward its identity as just another Southern beach. Yes, money must be made, and I think your analysis of the economics and most suggestions are good. I heartedly endorse your statement that Jekyll “Continue emphasis and prioritization on the ecological and cultural character.” Yes, to expanding the campground; yes, to yurts. Yes, to maintaining the excellent bike trails and giving people even more reasons to get out in nature. The gate fee is a necessity, I suppose, and I have no problem with charging more for special events, but this report makes me feel the regular gate fee will be going up, and that is tough for people who do not have much money and only come on Jekyll occasionally. If the price rises even more, ways should be found to prioritize walking, biking, and shuttling around. Too many cars are a big destroyer of the Jekyll experience. Sincerely, Diane Shearer From: padabholkar@aol.com <padabholkar@aol.com> Sent: Saturday, September 1, 2018 8:43 AM To: jamessipes@hotmail.com Subject: Feedback on Jekyll Island's carrying capacity

273

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES I strongly urge that no more commercial or residential development be allowed on Jekyll Island. The character of the island is already changing and more development and greater crowds will ruin what visitors love about the island. Thanks for listening! From: Robert <rvjacoby@bellsouth.net> Sent: Friday, August 31, 2018 10:22 AM To: jamessipes@hotmail.com Subject: Jekyll Island's future We live in a suburb of Atlanta and have been visiting Jekyll for about 30 years. Our concern is that there has already been too much commercial development on the island. This has ruined the traditional atmosphere of the island and has made it difficult financially for many to visit Jekyll. Thank you, Bob & Joan Jacoby 1104 Creekdale Dr., Clarkston Ga. 30021

From: myra sheehan <myra27284@yahoo.com> Sent: Monday, September 3, 2018 10:23 AM To: jamessipes@hotmail.com Subject: Jekyll Island To Mr. James Sipes Director of Sand County Studios I have been coming to Jekyll Island since 1956. What I value most about Jekyll it is a peaceful and lovely Island. I feel that if Jekyll has too much development what I have always loved about Jekyll will be lost. Jekyll Island hotels should have in place affordable rates for average income families that want to vacation on Jekyll Island. Jekyll Island was established for the average people from the beginning. Thank you for your time Myra Sheehan Winston Salem, NC Sent from my iPhone From: Don & Holly <d263moore@gmail.com> Sent: Monday, September 3, 2018 2:08 PM To: jamessipes@hotmail.com Subject: Input on Jekyll Island development Our family of four has come to Jekyll Island for one week each June for the last 18 years. On occasion, we have also visited for extended weekends in February and March. Additionally, I visited Jekyll as a child with relatives who lived in Brunswick and at one time, an aunt and uncle of mine owned a home on Jekyll. What we most look forward to is the beauty of the natural landscape, the peacefulness, the light traffic, the uncrowded beaches (and the affordability.) It has always been a place where our children could roam, we've always felt safe and we look forward to our trip every year. While we have been pleased with the upgrades in the village and the new and renovated hotels, we do not want to see growth beyond the current boundaries and definitely do not want any high-rise buildings. In fact, as pretty as the Westin is, I would have preferred that it have one less floor. 274

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES This summer, I was saddened to see the hurricane damage to the seawall on the north end and am hopeful that it will be successfully rebuilt prior to any more storms or erosion. The loss of vegetation there makes those areas very vulnerable. I was shocked last summer (2017) to discover that the builder of the new cottages just south of the Villas had removed the natural shorefront vegetation during the building process. I am very surprised that they were allowed to remove the vegetation and it appeared to me this summer that some of the oceanfront homes were in imminent peril particularly if another storm were to hit Jekyll. We must protect the island as best we can and removing erosion-resistant vegetation and building up to the tideline is counter-productive. If there are builders who violate standards, they should be held accountable. I am well aware that the maintenance on an oceanfront island is costly and is a continuous need and process. Adequate revenue is essential. From your presentation, I would agree that increasing parking fees by a modest amount in order to increase revenue would be acceptable. Again, I stress that part of Jekyll's charm for me is the lack of crowds so I don't wish to see hordes of folks coming on to the island and beach each day; a reasonable usage fee might curtail that. However, I also would not want a parking fee or hotel room rate to become cost-prohibitive for the average Georgia visitor. I am not in favor of any expansion of development on the island. I'm very pleased with the present percentage of 35% developed, 65% left undeveloped and natural. As to further building within the presently developed areas, I would want to know details on the size, scale, and type of developments being proposed. I would be very sad to see the addition of high density building(s) within those areas. (We live in Gwinnett County and the new "fad" is to create live-workplay communities. Ideal on paper and architecturely-pleasing, the increase in population and traffic is already creating crowding and stresses on existing infrastructure.) I don't want to experience St. Simon's-like crowded streets and neighborhoods on Jekyll. Thank you for giving me the opportunity to express my deep affection and concerns for this beautiful gem of an island. I hope to continue to visit her for many years. Holly Moore Suwanee, GA d263moore@gmail.com 770-363-8390 From: Nancy Fazio <fazgirl@rochester.rr.com> Sent: Monday, September 3, 2018 1:17 PM To: jamessipes@hotmail.com Subject: Jekyll Island CCIA I appreciate the opportunity to address the study and add to the input re. further development on Jekyll Island. We as a family have chosen Jekyll Island as our vacation retreat for over 30 years. The attraction of the island has always been its quiet, quaint atmosphere. We love the beach walks, the nature on the island, the bike trails, the golf and the history of the island. Our kids have grown up and enjoyed bringing first friends, then wives and now their children to experience what they have always treasured. Four years ago we bought a house on the island. (918 N. Beachview Dr.) We are retired and enjoy our winters away from our western NY snow and cold. We also list our home on VRBO so guests can also enjoy the experiences we have always enjoyed. We have noticed a decrease in our rentals which may be reflective of the competition of new builds i.e the Cottages etc. We are worried about how much additional residential/commercial development the island can sustain without diminishing the islands character and charm. We have always understood the building has been “controlled”. We have watched structures demolished and new development built in its “footprint” and we were always happy to see the character & charm survive. (We have watched as the Convention Center was relocated, the plaza moved to its current location, various hotels upgraded etc.)We are not opposed to controlled change. Our concern now are the number of upscale homes on the south end of the island, the new “cottages”, the hotels that have been built (some that have exceeded the height restrictions) and are left wondering 275

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES how the island’s infrastructure can handle all of this and what the tipping point may be. We have also been through 2 evacuations of the island already due to hurricanes. We have been amazed at how things have been restored but also know that with more development this may also be compromised. We have also been saddened by the beach erosion behind the Vilas and Cottages and wonder about the sustainability of these units in the event of future storms. Another concern is that we have noticed restaurants and businesses have had difficulty maintaining a service force. Restaurants have been short staffed and wonder where this work force will come from. I have not mentioned the impact on the wild life on the island but this is also a concern. We are hopeful this study will take into account the original intent of the State’s plan for the island and desire to maintain this island as a recreational site for all the people of Georgia and maintain the historic and natural wealth of the island. It is our hope the Jekyll Island Authority and the state of Georgia resists the temptation of development in favor of maintaining the islands beauty and allure. Thanks for considering input from island residents. Nancy & Vince Fazio From: Howard Fisher <fisherhc@gmail.com> Sent: Tuesday, September 4, 2018 9:09 AM To: jamessipes@hotmail.com Cc: degan1@bellsouth.net Subject: Protect Jekyll Island Views of longtime resident/visitor. Have visited JI for 55 years. Home owner for 35 years. I have watched the development of JI over all these years and have watched the deterioration and recently the recovery of the developed areas of the Island. I have watched the gradual encroachment of the ocean over the same time, with full time beaches morphing into low tide beaches only. We won't have much success with the oceans inevitable rise, but we certainly can manage the use or overuse of the developed areas. Over the sweep of my time on the Island the developed areas have gotten steadily better - especially the last 10 years or so. This of course has led to the increased number of visitors and people loving JI. How many beautiful places have we seen that have now become over loved. Many places in Florida and now our next-door neighbor St. Simons. We can't let that happen on Jekyll. Where there is a will, intelligent stewards will find a way to improve and yet protect the treasure we already have. Howard Fisher From: Theresa Matt <theresa.matt@gmail.com> Sent: Monday, September 3, 2018 6:49 PM To: jamessipes@hotmail.com Subject: Comments about Jekyll Island Capacity and Amenities Dear Mr. Sipes, I welcome this chance to express some of my beliefs about the future of Jekyll Island. I am a native Georgian, and I have vacationed on Jekyll Island every year since 1975, with only two exceptions. Various members of the family take this yearly trip, members of four generations, typically a group of about nine or ten people. I looked at the slides, and I confess that many of them are difficult to understand. I think I will express only my feelings about the priorities that should govern whatever happens to our beloved island in the future. #1. Vacations on the island should continue to be affordable for the average Georgian. I’m certain you know that affordability for middle class Georgians was the entire reason for the state’s purchase of Jekyll. This, to me, is the most important factor to consider in any planning for lodging, restaurants, recreational facilities, etc. This means not only that lodging should be affordable, but that the recreational facilities should be inexpensive. Things

276

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES like the mini-golf course, Summer Waves and places that are already patronized by families of modest means should not be made more expensive. The campground must be kept at an affordable level, as it is an essential vacation spot for many of modest means. Golf should be as affordable as possible, and all four courses should be preserved. #2 Lack of crowds. No more condos and expensive hotels should be built. They are already infringing on the views of the beach and putting more people onto the island. #3. The natural environment must be preserved and protected! The current limits on area to be developed should remain. There should be no infringement on the maritime forest or the marshes. No further encroachment on the beach should take place. This means that there should be no more building east of Beachview Drive. Any attempt to redefine land by counting the marsh as part of the 65% will be seen as ludicrous and should not even be discussed. Any increased costs --- for example, increased fees for facilities ---- should rest on the shoulders of those who come only for conventions or only once in a great while, especially from out of state. It’s not clear to me why permanent residents of the island have to pay the “parking fee,” incidentally. Thank you for taking the time to consider the public's input about Jekyll Island, truly a jewel. Sincerely, Theresa Matt 1061 Thornwell Drive Athens, GA 30606 From: Brenda Crandell <BCrandell@msn.com> Sent: Monday, September 3, 2018 6:34 PM To: jamessipes@hotmail.com Subject: Jekyll Island I have been visiting JI since my grandparents built a house there in the 1960's (Beachview Drive North). I purchased the house from my grandmother in 2005 to keep it in the family. I do not rent it out; I retain it for personal use only. I have also expended considerable funds in renovating the home. I am a business attorney in NYC and have an advanced degree in tax law. Therefore, I have advised many clients over my 30 years of private practice in business development. In my opinion, JI certainly needed a shot in the arm to address redevelopment needs. However, the development, and the tax breaks given to developers in connection therewith, should take a break to give the development-to-date a chance to be properly evaluated. Too much, too quickly has unintended consequences. Since the 1060's I have heard that JI shouldn’t become another St Simons Island, so this has been a concern for a very long time. I am not a nature fanatic, but I enjoy the rawness if the island. I don't like all of the traffic and litter that comes with it when I retreat to JI for a break from the hustle and bustle of NYC. JI needs to retain its distinctiveness of nature and people coming together or else it will become just another over-crowded barrier island on the Eastern seaboard. Therefore, I would like to see a little slowing of the development process and halting of the eagerness to increase visitors by large margins. Let's sit back and see what we have before us now as a result of the efforts to date. Thank you, Brenda Crandell 916 Beachview Drive North

277

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES gwg <gwg@roadrunner.com> Tue 9/4/2018, 7:52 AM You Deeply care about Jekyll..current residents of NC and have enjoyed immensely the natural beauty of the island since the 1980s.

From a postcard completed at the public meeting on August 28th, 2018. Contrary to the view expressed, we do NOT have a parking problem. As a 16-year resident I have never failed to find a spot â&#x20AC;Ś might have had to walk a few steps!

From: Kimberly Thompson <kthompson.gahperd@att.net> Sent: Tuesday, September 4, 2018 2:21 PM To: jamessipes@hotmail.com Subject: Please save Jekyll! I have been traveling to Jekyll Island since 1978. It is a spot near and dear to my heart, obviously to return year after year for my entire adult life. It is like no other place on earth! I have been bothered by the recent commercialism that is slowly creeping onto the island. It may seem subtle to many but not to me! I feel that it was tastefully done when the convention center was destroyed and rebuilt but I think the "old one" was just fine! The quaintness of Jekyll is what is at stake here. "New" is not always better! There are many other beach towns and coastlines that have already been destroyed in my eyes through the lens of " improvement." Don't even get me started about the turtles!!! This island belongs to the wildlife and to the people of Georgia...it doesn't need to change. Let the folks who don't like it the way it is, GO SOMEWHERE ELSE! Please STOP the growth and "improvement" before Jekyll is "no longer Jekyll." It is always referred to as a "gem." Gems are precious. They are rare! They don't look like, nor do they need to look like, everywhere else! Kim Kimberly Thompson GAHPERD Executive Director 9360 Highway 166 Winston, GA 30187 Office: 770-852-1543 Fax: 770-949-3092

From: ambaier@bluewin.ch <ambaier@bluewin.ch> Sent: Tuesday, September 4, 2018 11:19 AM To: jamessipes@hotmail.com Subject: Jekyll Island Dear Mr Sipe, Discovered about 20 years ago by happy accident, we have since managed to visit Jekyll Island about 8 times, most frequently in the last few years. Since we make the long journey from Switzerland with no direct flight, you will guess we really love the Island. We were last there in April this year for 3 weeks and health permitting (my husband reached 80 years this year) we hope to return soon. There have been some changes over the years of course, we think the new little beach village is a success for example and admire the people who carried out the plan of having a book festival. 278

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES During our USA visits we have been able to travel the coast from Charleston to Key West on several occasions throughout the years and seem to have alighted upon Jekyll for our less-willing- to-drive days. If I ask myself why, the answer is not particularly spectacular, a short answer would be Peace and Harmony. One resident told me she can feel herself relaxing when she comes home, and I can well believe it. The natural surroundings, the huge trees, woodland paths and beaches are delightful. The people one meets are relaxed and friendly; in the woods other visitors are often knowledgeable about the local plants and animals. I particularly appreciate the fact that animals which do not arouse much human affection, such as alligators, are left in peace. All this requires Space. A rare commodity these days and I am glad to say, still available on Jekyll Island. We do hope that the powers that be are not intent on creating another St Simons Island, which, with all its charm has lost the connection to its origins almost entirely Jekyll Island does not need many more facilities, there is a popular camping area which seems to be well run The newer hotels, being in the village area are easy to accept though their putting on of airs is rather out of place. The restaurant landscape could do with a little diversification, in ownership as well as menu maybe. But the overwhelming attraction of Jekyll Island is the fact that it is still so much itself. Thank you for reading, Angela Baier gwg <gwg@roadrunner.com> Tue 9/4/2018, 7:52 AM You Deeply care about Jekyll. Current residents of NC and have enjoyed immensely the natural beauty of the island since the 1980s. From: Pat Overholt <jpover@bellsouth.net> Sent: Wednesday, September 5, 2018 3:47 PM To: jamessipes@hotmail.com Subject: Jekyll Island Dear Mr. Sipes, We are an older couple who have owned our home on Jekyll for 41 years and lived here 31 of those years. We have both been involved in many programs and groups over the years. During those years there have been quite a few changes, mostly good. At this point with the new building and what has been planned, we are getting very close to enough. Donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t spoil our great island by overbuilding like what has happened at many other island resorts. Sincerely, Pat and Jack verholt rom: Susan DeHoff <outlook_7B77928F94CEB60F@outlook.com> Sent: Wednesday, September 5, 2018 12:14 PM To: jamessipes@hotmail.com Subject: Jekyll Island Capacity Study Dear James, My first visit to Jekyll Island was in 1991, and it was love at first sight! I was a teacher at the time, and the affordability of motel accommodations meant that I could return at least annually for vacation. That established a tradition that has continued even after I moved to MA in 1999. Now I return annually, renting one of the cottages for 2 to 3 weeks. I come for the natural beauty of the island. I also come for the peace and quiet it affords. I have yet to go to a beach in New England that is not so overcrowded that the noise and congestion spoils the day. Jekyllâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s beach is one of my favorite places to spend time, and I was again awestruck by the devastation caused by yet another hurricane. The missing dunes is just tragic, and it is going to take a long time for the island to heal.

279

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES I also enjoy the historic village, the club hotel dining room, and the little café where I enjoy those fabulous desserts. Walking through the village is relaxing and gives yet another injection of beauty that makes the vacation restorative. I have missed the opportunity to enter Faith Chapel for a few min. on my walks, though; I also miss the enjoyable conversations with the volunteers who used to be in the chapel during visiting hours. I do much of my Christmas shopping in the Shops of Jekyll in the historic village. Jekyll Island is a place where I can entertain family and friends who still live in the south. Time spent in the natural beauty and peaceful surroundings of Jekyll is guaranteed pleasure, and well worth the 1300 or so miles I drive each year to get down there. Were it to fill up with hotels, theme parks, and whatever else folks think would bring more monetary wealth to GA, I would not make the trek! I can get overcrowding and “touristy junk food” much closer to home! Mother Nature has not been especially kind to Jekyll the last couple years, with the result that the island seemed a bit fragile to me when I was there last month. As I left on Aug. 27, I said a prayer that it would be protected and given what it needs to heal. In my view, the capacity study needs to be about that more than anything else. Sincerely, Rev. Susan L. DeHoff, Ph.D. Sent from Mail for Windows 10 From: Stella Wissner <stellamwissner@gmail.com> Sent: Wednesday, September 5, 2018 9:17 PM To: jamessipes@hotmail.com Cc: Jack Wissner Subject: Development on Jekyll Island My husband and I live in Atlanta and have been visiting Jekyll Island for more than 20 years and we love it just as it is. We believe any further development would spoil its peaceful laid-back atmosphere. Why mess with perfection? PLEASE SAY NO TO any further development - leave that for St Simons and Hilton Head which are already so commercial. Thanks for the opportunity to preserve our lovely peaceful hideaway. Sincerely Stella and Jack Wissner.

From: Margery Rubin <margery_r@yahoo.com> Sent: Monday, September 10, 2018 1:58 AM To: jamessipes@hotmail.com Subject: Jekyll Island Capacity Study Dear Mr. Sipes, As you will see from my comments, I feel that what is built on Jekyll Island is as important as how much is built. Although that aspect of development is not directly addressed by Sand County Studios, I hope you will consider my comments on the Capacity/Infrastructure Assessment you are preparing for the Jekyll Island Authority despite the fact that I am past the 7 September deadline. I have traveled all over the world. In the many conversations I have had with people, I have met during my trips there is universal agreement that the places that are most attractive are the ones that are authentic. That is not to say that changes and improvements haven’t occurred in those places but that they reflect the atmosphere of their landscape, culture and history. New buildings or renovations blend with the old. I have visited Jekyll Island often and hold it dear. However, I am saddened that the JIA did not understand the importance of keeping the character of the island intact when planning needed improvements. The two residential 280

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES developments are of the ilk that are found anywhere and everywhere and cheapen the overall character of the island. As does, I am sorry to say, the architecture and design of the “Beach Village.” It seems that in the JIA’s rush to “revitalize,” they missed the critical need to require new buildings to look and feel Jekylllike. The old hotels that have been renovated - the Holiday Inn, Beachview Club and Quality Inn - give visitors lovely new rooms while keeping the charm of Jekyll. I know, because I have seen it in my travels, that it would have been possible to do much the same with the new residential and commercial developments on Jekyll Island. I brought a friend to Jekyll two years ago. I told her nothing about my opinion of the new development. As we toured the island, her reaction to the Beach Village and the Cottages was, “Oh my God, who let something like that get built here?” As the JIA moves forward, any new development or redevelopment should reflect Jekyll’s character and charm in order to keep the island feeling authentic. Thank you, Margery Rubin Atlanta, GA From: Greg Lowery <jglowery@progressivetel.com> Sent: Friday, September 7, 2018 10:22 PM To: jamessipes@hotmail.com Subject: Jekyll Island Capacity Dear Mr. Sipes, Thank you for allowing the public to share thoughts concerning the recent Jekyll Island capacity Study. I first visited the island at age five. My wife and I honeymooned there in 1980, and have returned every year without exception. Our children and grandchildren love the island. Jekyll is a very special place to us, a place of calmness and serenity, an escape from the stresses of everyday life; our "happy place". Kay and I lived in Florida in the early 1980s and would often spend weekends traveling around the state and enjoying the beaches. We now live in central Georgia. We decided to drive to the Keys ten years ago, and remembering our experiences from our Florida years, I decided that we would travel south at a leisurely pace on A1A. We looked forward to enjoying the quaint shops and restaurants that dotted the highway as we experienced a beautiful oceanside drive. I was not prepared for what we encountered. After driving on A1A for about eighty miles, we only saw the ocean twice! The seaside highway was crowded with condos and shopping centers. The scenic ocean drives that we remembered were forever gone. But at least we still had Jekyll. That sentiment is becoming harder to express as we see concentrated development on the island that we love for its quiet, natural beauty. Jekyll is a unique place, but how will the average family in Georgia be able to "get away from it all" if the island is overbuilt and overpriced, much like the city they left behind? I understand that there are concerns about generating revenue to operate this state park, but I believe it's time to seek new solutions. When Governor M.E.Thompson purchased the island on behalf of the citizens of Georgia in 1947, he made much of the fact that it would be a place for the "plain people of Georgia". The current philosophy of upscaling the island is a radical departure from that original vision. Overdevelopment is causing Jekyll to lose the qualities that have endeared it to so many Georgians for generations. I hope it's not too late to save a very special place. Rev. Greg Lowery PO Box 251 Rentz, GA 31009 (478) 290-4269

281

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES From: David Kyler <susdev@gate.net> Sent: Friday, September 7, 2018 1:34 PM To: 'James Sipes' Subject: COMMENTS RE JEKYLL CAPACITY STUDY Jim – Please consider the following questions and comments related to the Jekyll Island Capacity Study. Your response will be appreciated. • In regard to your good advice that “Just because you have capacity doesn’t mean you should fill it” – I suggest refining the following as noted: “Most municipalities look at capacity… are reactive and are susceptible to being in a crisis mode. Jekyll Island has to take a more responsible, anticipatory, and adaptive approach.” (Strike prior language as needed to substitute the underlined wording.) • Regarding the “more responsible approach” I suggest that you set forth a very specific protocol or set of procedures for the JIA to implement in monitoring and assessing critical factors that determine both capacity and visitor experience. Observing and – as possible – quantifying factors such as peak traffic loads, shorefront erosion and storm-surge damage, reported rise in sea-level, and stability and diversity of wildlife populations should be included in such recommendations. Detailed reporting to the public about the results of this monitoring and assessment should be mandatory, and specific measures to be reported in these reports should be provided. Likewise, provisions for modifying JIA plans, policies, and activities according to these reports should be outlined. For instance, unexpected monitoring indicators may suggest reducing the number of residential units and/or hotel rooms planned for the future. • Your summary says, “Island needs to increase revenue to be economically sustainable in a balanced manner that protects island character.” This a well-considered objective, but difficult to achieve – especially in regard to validating “sustainable” and “balanced.” As with the above comments about pursuit of a more responsible approach, the devil is in the details. To assist the JIA in avoiding revenue-enhancing options that contradict balance and sustainability, it is imperative to provide detailed criteria for evaluating existing and future alternatives for producing revenue. • Your report asserts, “Environmental change and sea level rise will likely impact character of the island but not impact capacity.” Yet, if character is affected, might that not impair or affect capacity? More explanation is needed. Moreover, it would be extremely helpful to develop indicators that could be used by the JIA and others to determine if and when capacity is – in fact – compromised by environmental changes, including both rising sea level and directly correlated storm-surge. The latter are known to be accelerating – i.e., increasing at an increasing rate. • There appears to be no specific time horizon for your assessments and forecasts. Is the capacity study intended to be applied for a certain period, such as 10 or 20 years? If so, please clearly state it. If not, I strongly urge you to adopt a consistent timeframe over which the report recommendations should be applied. And, as suggested above, within that timeframe it is important to recommend specific monitoring and assessment actions at specified times that should be taken to track reality with goals and objectives to provide effective "adaptive management.” Such intermittent assessment reports should be made public and provide the basis for JIA revising applicable implementation, conservation, and management plans accordingly – under an open process that incorporates public comment and sufficient time for review. Please respond with any questions or comments. Thanks for considering my remarks. I hope they are helpful and reflected in the final study. David C. Kyler Center for a Sustainable Coast 221 Mallory Street, Suite B Saint Simons Island, Georgia 31522 Voice: 912.506.5088 Advocating responsible decisions that sustain Coastal Georgia’s environment and quality of life. 282

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES From: Mindy Egan/Initiative to Protect Jekyll Island <degan1@bellsouth.net> Sent: Friday, September 7, 2018 11:42 AM To: James Sipes Subject: IPJI comments on draft Capacity/Infrastructure Assessment Hello Jim, Attached are IPJI’s comments on the Capacity/Infrastructure Study based on the 28 August presentation as well as short file of comments on affordability from Jekyll visitors. Thank you for your work on this important study. Mindy Egan Dear Jim, We want to thank you for the thoroughness of Sand County Studios’ August 28th public presentation of the draft of the Carrying Capacity and Infrastructure Assessment as well as for the time and patience you and Jim took in responding to questions from the folks in attendance. You certainly made the attendees feel that their input was being heard and considered. Below are additional comments from David and me as Co-Directors of the Initiative to Protect Jekyll Island. In addition, we have attached a few of the thousands of comments IPJI has received on the issue of affordability as it relates to Jekyll Island. Over the years, we have been impressed by how many of Jekyll’s visitors (regardless of where they are from) know that Jekyll Island State Park was, by law, designated to be an affordable vacation destination. The attached comments offer a glimpse of the extent to which the public appreciates Georgia’s commitment to providing folks of ordinary means with an opportunity to enjoy this unique barrier island state park. We look forward to your final recommendations to the JIA. Mindy and David Egan IPJI COMMENTS: The JIA should continue to aggressively seek state aid for capital improvement projects. While the state is not legally obligated to fund all capital improvements within Jekyll Island State Park, the JIA is, by law, only responsible for day-to-day operation and maintenance of the state park, not capital projects. The state park’s impressive impact on Georgia’s economy, as clearly demonstrated in a recent study by University of Georgia economists, should be featured among the reasons why the state should continue to invest in “Georgia’s Jewel.” The state clearly recognizes the importance of funding capital improvement projects, as demonstrated by its investment in the renovation of Pine Lakes golf course, a new Convention Center, infrastructure improvements to the island’s entryway, the Jekyll 4-H Center, the Beach Village retail center, and, most recently, rehabilitation of a section of the island’s rock revetment. More should be done to ensure that additional commercial or residential development of the island is consistent with the state mandate that Jekyll Island be affordable for people of average means. Concern for the dwindling affordability of Jekyll Island is paramount among many of the state park’s visitors, as can be seen in the vast majority of the comments submitted by the more than 13,000 people who have participated in an IPJI survey on the affordability issue. *Attached is a file containing a small selection of the comments dealing with Jekyll’s affordability that have been sent to IPJI. To reduce the pressure on the JIA to generate ever-more revenue, care of Jekyll Island’s Landmark Historic District should be the financial responsibility of the state. The island’s Historic District is by far the largest National Historic Landmark in Georgia and is one of Jekyll Island’s biggest visitor attractions. However, because of the age of the buildings and years they had been neglected, repair and maintenance of these structures is extremely expensive. To date, the state and private investors have shouldered much of the cost, but the Historic District remains a large item on the JIA’s list of future capital expenses. Due to the importance of Jekyll Island State Park and its Landmark Historic District, the JIA Board should pursue a legislative solution to funding the renovations and maintenance of the Historic District so that the JIA can concentrate on daily operational concerns, conservation needs and enhancing the state park’s amenities. The visitor experience could be enhanced by better signage directing visitors to the island’s leading attractions. Although the JIA is aware of the need to improve “wayfinding” on the island and has that as a future goal, inexpensive interim steps should be taken to help people in this regard. For example, there are no signs in the historic district to indicate how to get to the Georgia Sea Turtle Center. Signs at the intersection of Pier Road and Old Plantation Road, at the Commissary, the sign bank at the Morgan Center and the circle by the Club Resort bike barn are needed. Horton Pond and Driftwood Beach need signs. My husband and I have given directions to hundreds of frustrated visitors who would very much welcome some signs to direct them to Jekyll’s great attractions. 283

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

Given the importance of the JIA’s revenue needs, the Carrying Capacity study should include an estimate of how the Authority’s current income should be affected by the growth of revenue that will come from the projected 2% growth in visitation. There are a number of public safety problems that will be exacerbated as visitation to Jekyll Island continues to grow. These problems include landscaping obscuring visibility on the bike paths and Jekyll’s roundabout; bike path maintenance and repair; and warning flags for rip tides and dangerous surf conditions. *For a detailed list of safety concerns, see IPJI’s comments sent to SCS in May 2018, Marketing for golf and tennis as a means of enhancing revenue generated by those amenities should be increased. For example, at the 2016 public meeting for the Golf Course Study, participants encouraged the JIA to market golf more aggressively locally, with billboards, golf packages, social and print media, and on relevant websites, but, to date, little has been done in this regard. Jekyll Island should be promoted as a venue for bird-watching, nature photography and bicycling enthusiasts, which are three of the most popular outdoor activities in America. There should be formal procedures established for ongoing monitoring and evaluation of how the impact of the final recommendations made in the Carrying Capacity and Infrastructure Assessment ‘Jekyll experience.’ Included in this regard are a ‘top-down’ procedure followed by the JIA and a grassroots one regarding how the measures taken by the JIA to enhance revenue, through further development of the island or by other means are affecting the ‘Jekyll experience.’ With respect to grassroots input, the JIA should offer convenient ways for visitors to give feedback regarding their experience on the island, such as a display rack with comment cards at hotels, shops and JIA venues, a comments option on the Authority’s website and social media outlets, and online surveys of the state park’s visitors and residents. Questions that could be asked in this regard might be: “How do you feel about the changes experienced by Jekyll in recent years;” “Tell us how we are doing;” and “Do you have any suggestions for how we can serve you better?” We have been vacationing on Jekyll Island for 25 years or more. Our friends and I brought our children to Jekyll together every year for 22 years. The children had their traditions that involved counting deer, raccoons, and rabbits on each trip. The bike paths are enjoyed by all of us. When we first vacationed at Jekyll, we would stay at the Buccaneer. Now, the hotels are getting more and more expensive. Our last trip to the Hampton Inn was well over $2,000 for a week. It makes me sad to think that Jekyll's natural beauty and charm may be overrun by over development. Why is the original mandate for Jekyll to remain affordable being ignored? L.H. - Atlanta, GA I take my family to Jekyll in August when the Georgia schools are back in session, many of the families have left, and I feel like I have the beaches and island to myself. I like Jekyll because it's affordable and I can rent a bike for $8.00 for 4 hours. My sons usually play golf and rates seem very reasonable, you won't go in debt to play a round of golf. The changes to Jekyll should not be such that they exclude the average Georgian from visiting. I've been a single mom most of my life, and Jekyll was always my choice first, because I love the island, and second it was always affordable. Sounds like the Jekyll Island Authority wants to cater to a few instead of meeting the needs of many. Upgrade, yes. Destroy and out price, no. D.S. - Savannah, GA I am sick and tired of political and commercial attempts to make Jekyll Island just another flashy, carnival, bright lights location. Its naturalness is what brings people there. What does it take for those in authority and control over the island to get that message? Keep it affordable for everyone. C.E. - Athens, GA If I could just "vent' for a moment about what I would say to the JI Authority. ..... "You have made Jekyll Island unique! If it is carrying its own weight financially, it is almost criminal to try to introduce major changes in its environment. It is serving a wonderful purpose for so many people of average and less means. Brush it up, sure, but please don't change its nature. There are so many places that cater to the affluent in our world. Please do not spoil this blessed place for the rest". M.B. - Toronto, Canada Jekyll has changed and some of it is not good. Too expensive for average folks at the hotels. Too many "services" offered at the hotels that are really not needed. The local restaurants have held the prices to an acceptable level. Too many high-end new condos, townhomes coming in. M.R. - Atlanta, GA My family and I spent many of our vacations on Jekyll when we were growing up and now my sister and I both bring our own families. As a child of a middle class - hard working family - this was one of the only places that we could come and rent a place that was not over crowded but affordable. My father was a self -employed individual with moderate means but a huge desire to be able to provide his family with a quality and special vacation. What I hear coming out of this - instead of making what we have better and placing more into marketing what we have – let’s just add more for the instant financial outcome. Why not keep the quality of the island and improve the quality of the destinations if needed for affordable - moderate incomes-- a true family destination which highlights the quiet beaches? E.S. - Atlanta, GA Let me make myself very clear. Jekyll Island belongs to all Georgians. Not the wealthy. Not the top 10%, 20% or 70%. Jekyll Island belongs to ALL Georgians. 284

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES Any development which limits accessibility and affordability of Jekyll Island to average citizens (taxpayers) of Georgia is morally, ethically, and legally wrong. Just so you know, I am in the top 5% of taxpayers, I just try to keep things in perspective about how fortunate I am and how others deserve access to public amenities. The state park system cannot create economic exclusivity on Jekyll. If 50% of citizens earn less than $50,000. then 50% of the features offered on the island must be affordable to those $50,000 citizens. Logically, then 10% of features and amenities can carry a richer price tag for those earning in the top 10% wage brackets. It is my understanding the charter which created the JIA is very specific in regard to providing affordable features to "average" citizens. Since it is clear an exclusive high-end development cannot be the primary solution, what can help create the revenue streams needed to support and protect Jekyll Island for generations to come? Have you looked at eco-tourism as a foundation for economic growth? Have you looked at partnering with Bernie Marcus and Georgia Aquarium to create learning and education programs for youth and families? Have you really put forth the mental energy needed to develop creative solutions, or have you just relied on the special interest groups to guide you to the answer that will enrich them at taxpayers’ expense? Can you even tell me what the current break-even point is for Jekyll? How many more visitors and what revenue is needed to move Jekyll closer to a break-even point for maintaining the island's current state supported amenities? I am passionate about this topic because it is my island, my family's island, and belongs to my family's future generations as well. I will not stand by and allow special interest groups to take over my island and limit my accessibility based on economics. M.P. - Hiram, GA I am very concerned that Jekyll Island remains affordable to a wide range of persons who wish to enjoy all that the island offers. There is tremendous pressure in coastal areas to create private, expensive arrangements of access, and as a GA taxpayer and long-standing fan of Jekyll, I expect the state and the authority to ensure broad access to the island. T.P. – Atlanta, GA JI needs to be kept affordable and as a State Park. It does NOT need to be overdeveloped. It is one of our few existing State treasures -- let’s keep it that way. K. R. – Bogart, GA We just spent a week on Jekyll. This was our second trip to the island. We are very concerned that we will not be able to afford another trip there. The rate of our hotel room went up 33% in two years. If this trend continues, Jekyll will no longer be affordable for our family. We have to factor in meals (Jekyll is very limited in this). So “affordable” to our family is about $1,500 for a week’s stay. We did go over that this time and have started looking into rentals for next time If there is a next time because of rising costs. We would consider $175 and above for a two-bed, room rate per day on Jekyll Island to be “unaffordable” $150 pushed our budget this time when you consider a week-long trip --to travel that far (1,100 miles) for any less time is not affordable either. T.H. – Chicago, IL I have been coming to Jekyll Island several times a year for at least 10 years or more. I think the state park should remain affordable as well as keeping in mind the natural habitat for wild life, maritime forests, and birding. The beaches are beautiful! Let?s keep them accessible to everyone! M. G. - Nashville, TN I think the JIA's Board of Directors should consider what the average Georgian earns. They need to go to the web-site that gives an average income for Georgia counties. It really surprised me how low the average incomes were in a lot of the counties. I think this is what people who are in authority with this project should be in tune with. They must look around them and think outside of the box. Travel in their minds away from the coast and think of what Georgia is. It is mostly rural areas where homes like the ones on Jekyll Island would sell for under $200,000. I believe an average Georgian earns from $35,000 to $50,000 a year. The average Georgian could never afford to own a home on Jekyll Island, so for average income families to be able to visit Jekyll Island the rooms need to be affordable. I want Jekyll Island to be a place that parents and schools can bring the children of the state of Georgia. I want the children to learn about the history of our coastal region. I want children that have never seen an ocean or a beach to experience its beauty. I want them to learn about the sea turtles, wildlife, and other species of creators native to Jekyll Island. I want them to love Jekyll Island and feel like they have a little piece of paradise that belongs to them because our state cares enough to spend the average Georgian's hard-earned tax dollars on something that really matters. I want them to realize that a price cannot be placed on what Jekyll Island has to offer us in its natural state. I want them to want to protect Jekyll Island so that many generations to come can discover that there is still a place in this world that hasn't been destroyed for the sake of greed. S. E. – Ocilla, GA Sadly after coming to Jekyll for a month or six weeks every year since the late 70’s, we found the rates had gone so high last year and this that we are no longer able to come. :((C.B. - Rockport, ME Even though I am "local-ish", my family and I like to "staycation" on Jekyll occasionally, but with room rates rising, that happens much less often than we'd like. T.S. – Waynesville, GA I feel that affordability means that the average American family can afford to spend a vacation on the island. When you factor in the cost of attending local attractions, food, gas, and hotel accommodations, most people can only afford to spend 100-175 per night. I feel that anything above that is just too expensive. If there are people who want 285

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES more upscale accommodations, let them stay at the JI Club hotel. The JIA seems to have lost sight of the importance of preserving Jekyll for all, not just the wealthy. I am a single mother of two. My family spent every summer on Jekyll when I was growing up. I am happy to be able to provide that same experience for my children. Jekyll is unique among the barrier islands of Georgia and South Carolina. It is unspoiled. If that changes, it becomes just another tourist spot, like Tybee, or Hilton Head. K.P. - Statesboro, GA

James, We have been visiting Jekyll Island for several years. Over the years, it has been our refuge of splendid isolation, respecting and embracing the natural habitat and history the island so graciously affords us to enjoy. As time as gone on, the “progress” has created a disrespect for the island and its natural beauty and habitat. New construction of homes literally jam packed into spaces, restaurants and shops are now more than what the island can support. It is easy to see without being a study expert, that these shops/restaurants are vying for any business they can capture and are struggling for survival. Even at the high season, the island can not support all that is there. That is a proven fact. Just because you can rebuild somewhere, truly does not mean that you should. The Westin was a huge mistake and obviously muscled their way into that space, having the powers that be look the other way while they violate all that has been given. Now, a new building is going up. More homes are being built. More construction, more people, more trash, more damage and disrespect to our beaches, dunes and threats to our wild life. What is it about this scenario that people do not understand? I cannot wrap my head around all of this. Stop while you’re ahead and focus on what you have to make what you have already done and make it be successful and maintain itself. Stop making plans for continued exploitation of this island. Bottom line, those people do not care about the island and it’s sustainability, it’s natural wild life and rich history. They are only interested in the bank balance it will temporarily provide. Well, my friends, history will surely repeat itself on this one when those hotels can’t be filled, those vacation homes turn dormant and in disrepair, shops can’t pay their rent, and hotels run empty, we’ll be right back where we started. Respectfully, Ellen Turnage Designer, Allied Member ASID From: rcyrilj@aol.com <rcyrilj@aol.com> Sent: Friday, September 7, 2018 9:43 AM To: jamessipes@hotmail.com Subject: Jekyl Island My family have been visiting Jekyll Island for over 40 years and have loved it for the openness of the beaches and the lack of crowds like you find on St. Simons. I have been less than pleased with the recent development on the island which has resulted on the destruction of the old shopping center with its affordable IGA store (replaced by an overpriced and crowded "yuppie" store in the new development). The new dining facilities are also overpriced which has pretty much reduced us to having to eat at the Dairy Queen most of the time. The crowds starting to populate the beach are currently mostly around the new village development, but they are starting to spread out and destroy everything that has made Jekyll so special. We don't need another St. Simons - we need a place where ordinary people, with ordinary incomes can go to enjoy a natural beach without having to fight their way through

286

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES crowds and commercial activities on the beaches. If they stop development at current levels, we can probably get by but any additional development will make the entire island just another high priced retreat for the wealthy. Bob Johnson

Dear Mr. Sipes: I have been visiting Jekyll for 30 years. I reside at 281 Katydid Road, Morganton, GA 30560. I believe it is important for Jekyll Island to continue to honor the affordability pledge, so that Jekyll continues to be a resource for all Georgians. What I value most about Jekyll is its relatively unspoiled character. It is indeed a naturalist's paradise, and a laboratory for the study of important species. I believe that it is important to maintain this character, and that further commercial development is a definite threat to Jekyll's identity. While the desire within the business community for further development is understandable, I believe that the idea that Jekyll can - with further development - become as popular as St. Simons is an illusion. There are already many places on the Georgia coast with a party scene to attract the young people. I see no reason why Jekyll can - even with significant development - hope to divert this trade from its more established venues. In other words - while hope springs eternal in the developer's breast - IT WON'T WORK. And in the course of trying to make it work, what is unique and valuable about Jekyll with be destroyed. I think a campground on the beach would be a worthwhile project. I do not believe that further commercial development is desirable, or compatible with Jekyll Island's historic mandate and mission. Clyde Holler 706.633.3695 From: Joe West <joemwest@att.net> Sent: Friday, September 7, 2018 8:56 AM To: jamessipes@hotmail.com Subject: Jekyll Island Sustainability Angela and I have been coming to Jekyll Island annually for 18 years. What we have always enjoyed is the natural state, tranquility and peacefulness of the island. We have appreciated the enhancements and so far they have done an excellent job of keeping it from becoming "Any Beach U.S.A." through over development. It would be nice to keep in within its current state, so it maintains its uniqueness. People have choices where they vacation, and they choose Jekyll Island because it is different from the other beaches through its charm and character. It is the best place to allow your soul to exhale. Thanks, Joseph West 2672 Long Pointe Roswell, GA 30076

287

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES gator9295@aol.com Fri 9/7/2018, 7:45 AM You Hello Mr. Sipes, Our family has been coming to Jekyll Island for 34 years each summer and occasionally another time during the year. We were first attracted to Jekyll because of the natural feel of it. In the 80's, of course, it was a completely different place. We live in the Atlanta area and attended several public hearings to protest development during the period a few years ago when the state legislature was involved in the decision. We felt the compromise reached then was fair, and we are impressed with the beautiful development of the "town square" and the few residential development areas that have sprung up. But my family and I feel that any more development at all, would negatively impact the beauty and appeal of Jekyll in a dramatically negative way. I don't completely understand the issue's having arisen again because I thought the Georgia legislative decision of a few years ago was the final decision and a fair compromise for the folks like us who favored little development and those developers who desired unlimited residential development. Just a couple of weeks ago, we had our yearly visit which happened to be in off season. Because school had started, it was pleasantly occupied; but I fear that more development would make the in-season months too crowded and perhaps frustrating. My family's main objection, however, is the loss of natural environment and ecosystem issues. I appreciate your working with the JIA and very much hope that this newest development plan will be put to rest so that all of the present and future lovers of Jekyll, may enjoy its one-in-a-million landscapes for those who love the ocean in general and Jekyll in particular. Very truly yours, Janet Brown From: Noel Fehr <NoelFehr@planningdesignstudio.com> Sent: Thursday, September 6, 2018 11:45 AM To: info@sandcountystudios.com Cc: jhooks@jekyllisland.com; bcarswell@jekyllisland.com Subject: Jekyll Island Carrying Capacity & Infrastructure Assessment Study - Comments First, I want to state that I very much support and appreciate the concepts of the Carrying Capacity Assessment. My wife and I feel very fortunate to have the opportunity to live on Jekyll Island and not just as tourist – so that is the perspective of my comments. The following comments are offered to both support and improve the report – not real criticism. (I have noted that there are several math computations that should be addressed. If the Carrying Capacity study needs to be defended, you need to make sure the math is correct.) · Slide 2 – second bullet and Slide 6 – taking your low range of Existing Practical Capacity (4.067 mil) and the high range of 2017 visitation (3.416 mil), with a 2% increase per year (over year) it would take NINE (9) to FOURTEEN (14) years before visitation would exceed capacity. Not the 5 to 10 years listed on these slides. · Slide 10 – you have only listed FOUR (4) YEARS of increased gate counts – not 5 as shown in the slide. Also, the total increase in those four years is 28.6% - NOT the 22.6% shown. (I think you had taken to total difference and divided it by the 2017 count – not the base line of 2013) · Slide 20 – Regarding Recommendations Beaches: A significant part of the islands beaches have been impacted by sand erosion (roughly 6’ to 8’ vertical over the last 10+ years) resulting in a loss of beach use for 5-6 hours twice a day due to high tide covering the beach. I understand the loss of half the “beach use day” probably cannot be incorporated into your beach capacity numbers – but it should be noted in your recommendations that this should be addressed. The installation of more “Johnson Rocks” does not address the sand re-nourishment issue (some believe it may speed up the loss of sand beaches). A sand re-nourishment program is needed to continue having a beach as a recreation resource that significantly impacts tourism and visitation. · Slide 32 – I agree with prioritizing Jekyll’s “ecological and cultural character”, but suggest that recreational opportunity needs to be added to the Emphasis and Priority paragraph (second paragraph). 3rd paragraph - The possible revenue gains should be more aggressive. 288

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES · Slide 33 – Entry Gate Fees: I don’t disagree with what you have, BUT for some reason you have not addressed revenue from the annual passes that are currently $58/year. This is ridiculously LOW. (In nearby city’s you can pay $35 - $40 parking fee at a sporting event or concert.) I would suggest this be raised by $50 per year for the next five years getting to about $300 per year. I don’t know the total number of annual passes, but I would think you could raise an extra $500,000 to $1,000,000 per year without spending anything on infrastructure. (I understand this would not be popular with the residents, but we are getting to live in a state park on a barrier island with very minimal lot lease fees. Compare the cost to live on Jekyll with any nearby island and we’re getting a bargain.) · Slides 36 – 38: I generally agree the water/sewer infrastructure cost needs to be addressed via use fees but would add bonding to get these improvements completed soon and then paying for them over the 20 or so years. Should privatizing water and sewer be considered and at least reviewed. A regular roadway maintenance program budget should also be established – there are some roads in poor condition on the island. · Slide 32: I also wanted to offer a couple thoughts on conflicting visions of Jekyll Island that impact economics. When the island was first purchased by the state it was part of the State Park system, but because the island was viewed as having key a vacation resort type setting, it was re-established into a separate authority, JIA to be financially selfsustaining. Over the six decades since then, society and government has rightfully placed much more emphasis on the environment and conservation in all aspects of land management. A key tourist draw to Jekyll is the very special environmental opportunities, there is a major conflict in preserving the environment while promoting tourism to the point of keeping the island economically self-sufficient. The Authority has done a great job in implementing the master plan to maximize tourism revenues while maintaining the environment and cultural character. Maybe a mission type statement acknowledging the importance to balance the conflicts within Jekyll’s mission of conservation of environment/cultural VS. tourism/recreation opportunities should be included. That’s it. Good luck with the report. Best regards, Noel Fehr 841 Beachview Drive Jekyll Island, GA 31527 Cell: 314 853 4949

From: Melissa Tresidder <meljohnson1@me.com> Sent: Monday, September 10, 2018 5:24 PM To: jamessipes@hotmail.com Subject: Jekyll Island Capacity Study Dear Mr. Sipes, Thank you for providing the public with an opportunity to have a voice in the development of Jekyll Island. I am a life-long visitor to Jekyll. I live in Minnesota now but visit for at least 2 weeks every year, mostly 3. My family has made it our destination because of the beauty, the pace and state’s commitment to the ratio of development vs nondevelopment. It’s also one of the few places you can go on the east coast where you can see the ocean without obstruction. I’m concerned that current development levels are encroaching on the intent of the island as a state park, as a place for the common visitor. My hope is that capacity studies and developmental recommendations take into consideration the established ecosystem along with the careful footprint of structures that already exists.

289

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES I’ve seen more and more upscale development in not only hotels but housing. Judging by the damage that was done from recent storms, I’m not sure that development was carefully planned. It also seems to out-price the very people for which the state established the park. One other concern I have with the amount and price level of development is the water quality. It seems that in the past 2-3 years, the water has become… muddier. I’m not sure why that is (maybe you could shed light on this). Is it sustainable to build more and higher priced accommodations when the water is a concern? My family loves the island and we have created many memories. I’ve watched the next generation grow up there, riding bikes on trails, building drip castles, catching fish off the pier, all without being surrounded by cheesy shops and dwarfed by giant hotels and condos. I hope that they get to see the next generation grow up the same way. Thank you so much for your time. Melissa Tresidder

fenten <fenten@sympatico.ca> Tue 9/11/2018, 9:49 PM You We have been going to Jekyll Island for 20 years. We come from Thornhill Ontario. A city just north of Toronto. Canada. We used to go to Myrtle Beach but when we retired wanted somewhere warmer. Florida is to too busy, but Jekyll was perfect. We started going in February, but then loved it so much we increased our winter. We finally stayed from early January to late March. We were attracted to the slow pace, the wonderful beach, golf. We over the years have met Canadians and Americans from everywhere. Kansas to Vermont, Michigan to Wisconsin We have had wonderful times and met wonderful people. We were really impressed with the upkeep of the island The control of development was really great, and the island was affordable. It is a pity that in the last few years things have changed. It is more expensive. Larger hotels have been built. Families are left out. We mean middle class families. It used to be for long weekends, many families from the Carolinas and Georgia visited. Now it seems it is out of reach. It is becoming too commercial. That was another reason we left Myrtle Beach. Commercialism We prefer nature. The Island had everything, wildlife, beaches, golf, tennis, restaurants. It was moderately priced for families and Canadians. Now there are fewer of both categories. Please don’t make so many changes to this wonderful paradise. Don’t lose the attractiveness for Georgian families for their treasure. Don ‘t put it out of reach. 20 years ago, there were several moderate hotels. Comfort Inn, Days Inn, Ramada Inn, Quality Inn, All small and affordable. We miss the quiet solitude that set your Island apart. Don’t let commercialism be your priority. 290

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES We hope to return again this winter; however, our stays are shorter now. The dollar does not go as far as it used to, maybe only 4 weeks now. We shall wait and see how things go with the economy this Fall. But, Jekyll holds a special place with us. Take care of it. We even have a brick on the wall at the Turtle Centre. Sincerely, Tom and Florence Neville, 205 Kirk Dr. Thornhill, Ontario. CANADA L3T3L7

291

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

9.24 JIA BOARD PRESENTATION #3

292

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

293

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

294

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

295

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

296

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

297

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

298

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

299

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

300

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

301

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

302

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

303

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

304

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

305

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

306

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

307

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

308

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

9.25 JIA BOARD FINAL PRESENTATION

309

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT

310

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT

311

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT

312

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT

313

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT

314

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT

315

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT

316

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT

317

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT

318

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT

319

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT

320

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

9.26 NEWSPAPER ARTICLE ON JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY

321

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 9 - APPENDICES

322

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS


JEKYLL ISLAND CARRYING CAPACITY & INFRASTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT

In thanks to the Jekyll Island Authority October 2018

323

SAND COUNTY STUDIOS

Profile for Jekyll Island

Jekyll Island Carrying Capacity and Infrastructure Assessment – Final Report  

Jekyll Island Carrying Capacity and Infrastructure Assessment – Final Report