Page 1


06


07

00 Contents 07 Contents ..................................... 07

Schematic Design ............................. Site Plan ................................. Floor Plans ............................... Exterior & Massing ........................

01 Proposal ..................................... 09

02 Position ..................................... Context: .................................. Theory of Approach: ....................... Building Type: ............................ Bibliography: .............................

11 12 15 18 20

08

Precedent Analysis ........................... Building 802 .............................. Antioch Baptist Church .................... Salvaging Concrete ........................ Gunpowder Mill ............................ Modular House Factory ..................... &HQWHUEURRN2I多FHV ........................ The Scraphouse ............................ Jewish Reconstruction Congregation ........

23 24 26 28 31 34 36 39 42

09

Site Analysis ................................ Context ................................... Climate Data .............................. Topographic Data .......................... Historical Data ........................... Context Analysis .......................... Site Analysis Conclusion ..................

47 48 55 58 61 66 71

Appendix

03

04

05 Space Program ................................ 73

06 Conceptual Design ............................ 77

85 86 90 97

Design Development .......................... Floor Plans & Layouts .................... Form & Design ............................ Sustainability Studies ................... Material Studies .........................

101 103 112 119 122

Final Design ................................ Site Overview ............................ Floor Plans & Layout ..................... Fabrication Process Diagram .............. Exterior Concept, Massing, & Design ...... Sustainable Stratagies ................... /(('&HUWL多FDWLRQ ........................ Structural Studies ....................... Projects Renderings ......................

127 129 135 151 155 158 162 165 175

Business Plan ............................... Contents ................................ Summary .................................. Start-Up ................................. Market ................................... Sales Strategy ........................... Management ............................... Finances ................................. Detailed Tables ..........................

183 185 187 189 190 192 194 195 200

00 - CONTENTS

00


08


09 The proposed project will be a new type of manufacturing facility that merges the processes of deconstruction, design, and prefabrication under one roof. Deconstruction is “the systematic and manual disassembly of the affected sections of a structure, saving as many of the components as possible for reuse or recycling” (Hughes). The idea for the facility is driven by the ever-growing building vacancy statistics in the United States. Focusing on deconstructing vacant or foreclosed structures, instead of traditional demolition, reduces embodied energy usage, construction waste, material costs, green house gas emissions, and much more. The business model that will exist within the new facility will purchase foreclosed/ vacant properties, deconstruct the building, store the salvaged materials in house, design new structures, build the new structures inhouse using the salvaged materials, and ship structures to their respective locations. Essentially, the facility will recycle buildings. To set a prime example for the company’s business model the facility itself will be constructed completely with salvaged materials.

The proposed site location will be an old weave mill in Amsterdam, New York. The mill was once used by the Mohawk Carpet company and then by Esquire Novelty (which specialized in toy guns. The mill buildings have been abandoned since the year 2000 (Yasinsac). Using a mill that is two times the projected square footage of the facility will allow for lots of materials to build the facility as well as stocking the company’s inventory with salvaged materials. The mill was also the heart of Amsterdam and provided jobs for the entire town. The hope is that the new facility will reinvigorate the town and provide new opportunities for current citizens. The two major challenges that can be predicted with this project are the constraints placed on the facility by having to use D VSHFL¿F LQYHQWRU\ RU PDWHULDOV DQG WKH complexity of the program. Ultimately, the opportunities outweigh the challenges and the overall goal of reducing waste, helping the community, and creating affordable, yet beautiful, buildings is an exciting endeavor.

01 - PROPOSAL

01 Proposal


10


02 Position


12

Context:

Located about 40 miles west of Albany, the city of Amsterdam, New York has a rich economic and societal history. The city has gone through many changes since its conception by the Dutch in 1664 (City of Amsterdam New York). For many years the city remained relatively small in size and population. It was not until the early 1800s that rapid expansion began (Cudmore). The introduction of the Mohawk Turnpike, the Erie Canal, and the railroad brought Ă€RRGV RI \RXQJ LPPLJUDQWV IURP PRUH HDVWHUQ DUHDV of New England. In fact, the city of Amsterdam was considered an important stop when using the Erie canal to travel west. Katherine Strobeck, a historian and author, notes that: At the time that the West was being settled how could you get there except through the Mohawk Valley? You couldn’t go through Pennsylvania because of the mountains. You couldn’t go through the Carolinas because of the mountains. There were mountains all the way to Georgia. And that’s why the Erie Canal was built. (Cudmore). 7KLVUDSLGLQĂ€X[RILPPLJUDQWVOHGWRWKHFUHDWLRQ of thousands of mills along the Erie Canal and the Chuctanunda Creek. The Erie Canal and the Chuctanunda Creek allowed the mills to cheaply import raw materials and export goods while also powering the process (Snyder and Hasseln). Before ORQJPDQ\ODUJHPDQXIDFWXULQJFRPSDQLHVĂ€RXULVKHG in Amsterdam. The mills would manufacture all sorts of things such as “linseed oil, brooms, knit ware, buttons, iron goods, and above all, carpetsâ€? (City of Amsterdam New York). In fact, two prominent and well-known carpet brand names, Mohawk and SanfordBigelow, began in the mills of Amsterdam. The booming manufacturing of Amsterdam continued to bring in new immigrants and increase the population. Many Irish, Polish, and Eastern


Amsterdam continued to thrive after World War II until the tragic closing of the mills in the 1960s. The industries began searching for cheaper labor in Southern states and outside of the United States. One by one, the mills began to shut down. By 1968, not a single carpet was manufactured in Amsterdam (Cudmore). The promise of a future that Amsterdam had created for itself began to fade while children would go off to college and not return home. The closure of the carpet mills, the non-returning offspring, and the failed attempts at new industries changed the social dynamics of the city (City of Amsterdam New York). With the Irish, Polish, and Eastern European immigrants getting older and their children not returning home after college or moving away for better job opportunities, a new set of immigrants began to settle in Amsterdam. Groups of 3XHUWR 5LFDQ LPPLJUDQWV Ă€HG WR $PVWHUGDP in order to seek “tranquilidad — refuge from the crime, drugs and violenceâ€? in the

Unfortunately, Amsterdam’s attempt to bring more people and industry back did more harm than good. During the 1980s construction of major roadways and highways began running parallel to the Erie Canal (Route 5S North and South, Route 30). The four-lane highways destroyed the urban IDEULFPDNLQJLWGLI¿FXOWWRJHWGRZQWRZQ and Amsterdam became just another city bypassed during travels elsewhere (City of Amsterdam New York). In total, four hundred original buildings in the downtown area were demolished to allow for the major arterials. Today, Amsterdam, much like many former mill towns in the United States, is at a pivotal moment of development that will decide its future. Fortunately, the former generation of citizens and the new generation are taking steps forward and planning what will come next. In 2003, the city, with the help of Saratoga Associates, created a comprehensive plan that lays out its vision for the future. The comprehensive master plan seeks to capitalize on Amsterdam’s assets while responding to the constant change in the cities economy, society, and culture (Saratoga Associates). The community put in place a set of seven goals that represent their comprehensive vision

13 02 - POSITION

city (Cudmore). Bob Cudmore, an Amsterdam native and historian describes a clash between generations: “The generation that came here earlier, they’re much older now and they have a different outlook about what it is to be an American and what it is to be successful. This latest group has a very different reality� (Cudmore). Although the old European immigrants and the new Puerto Rican immigrants clash, ironically, they all want seek the same thing: a great place to live and economic security.

CONTEXT:

(XURSHDQ LPPLJUDQWV Ă€RFNHG WR $PVWHUGDP to take advantage of the new mill jobs available (Cudmore). Coincidently, creation of new homes, stores, other businesses, and schools begin to form a “downtown.â€? Geographically, the city began to spread north, away from the Erie Canal. By the end of the 19th century Amsterdam had become the seventh largest city in New York. Amsterdam’s rapid expansion was slightly halted by the Great Depression but World War II brought the mills back to life. The offspring of many immigrants were now adults and began roles as community leaders and institute excellent school policies producing a quality education and set a solid foundation for the community to progress (Cudmore).


14

for the future: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

,PSURYH$PVWHUGDP¡V,PDJHDQG,GHQWLW\LQWKH Region 5HEXLOG$PVWHUGDP¡V(FRQRPLF)RXQGDWLRQ 5HHVWDEOLVK'RZQWRZQDVWKH&RPPXQLW\&HQWHU 6WDELOL]HDQG6WUHQJWKHQ1HLJKERUKRRGV 5HGHYHORS2OG0LOO6LWHVDQG,PSURYH Connections to Neighborhoods (QKDQFH,PSRUWDQW*DWHZD\VWRWKH&RPPXQLW\ &UHDWHDFLW\JUHHQZD\V\VWHP (Saratoga Associates)

In addition to setting forth goals, the comprehensive PDVWHUSODQODLGRXWVSHFLÂżFDUHDVRIUHGHYHORSPHQW that includes whatever is left of the old manufacturing mills. The Mohasco mill complex (the former Mohawk Carpet Company “Upper Millâ€?), the proposed site for this thesis, is located north of downtown Amsterdam along the Chuctanunga Creek. The comprehensive plan maps out the sites future as such: $JUDQWDSSOLFDWLRQIRUEURZQÂżHOGUHPHGLDWLRQ funding has been submitted by the City to New York State. Once funding is secured, complete EURZQÂżHOG UHPHGLDWLRQ DQG FUHDWH JUHHQVSDFH amenity focused on the Chuctanunda Creek (part of City Greenway System described below). If possible, based upon the level of clean-up DFKLHYHG GXULQJ WKH EURZQÂżHOG UHPHGLDWLRQ select areas for multi-family residential development (taking advantage of the greenspace amenity) and complimentary neighborhood commercial uses (Saratoga Associates). The comprehensive plan views the site as abandoned, deteriorated, and dangerous. Additionally, the community feels that the Mohasco Mill, as it exists today, severely decreases the appeal and value of its surrounding neighborhood. Ultimately, the city does not see the value in deconstructing and reusing the enormous complex...yet.


It is estimated that the total built space in this country will need to grow from 296 billion square feet in 2000, to 427 billion square feet in 2030. Of this growth, 82 billion square feet of building will be from replacement of existing building space and 131 billion will be from new construction totaling 213 billion square feet of new built spaceâ€? (Ciarimboli and Guy). Therefore, by the year 2030 almost 30% of the buildings that have been built in the year 2000 will be replaced (through the process of renovation or demolition). With ODQGÂżOOV UXQQLQJ RXW RI VSDFH DQG SULFHV of nonrenewable resources skyrocketing, the construction industry must search out different methods of renovating and demolishing buildings. In fact, Bradley Guy, Associate Director of the Deconstruction Institute, states that “in order to sustain human society into the QH[WFHQWXU\UHVRXUFHHIÂżFLHQF\ZLOOKDYH

Prefabrication is “a manufacturing process, generally taking place at a specialized facility where various materials are joined to form a component part of WKH ÂżQDO LQVWDOODWLRQÂľ 7DWXP 9DQHJDV and Williams). A study performed by L. Jaillon et al (2008) stated that the most waste-producing building work components (in tradition onsite construction) were IRUPZRUN SDFNDJLQJ DQG SURWHFWLRQ ÂżQLVK work, masonry work, scaffolding, concrete work, material handling, and hoarding. Additionally, L. Jallion et al (2008) concluded that by using prefabrication the average waste reduction compared to tradition construction was about 52% in the private sector and 57% in the public sector. To successfully implement the waste reduction strategies of deconstruction and prefabrication, the design and construction

15 02 - POSITION

The United States Environmental Protection Agency estimates that the United States alone creates 136 million tons of building construction and demolition waster every year (Guy and Rinker). Additionally, 92% of that waste is from demolition and renovation (Guy and Rinker). A.C. Nelson states that:

Deconstruction, sometimes referred to as “soft demolition,â€? is a “process of building disassembly in order to recover the maximum amount of materials for their highest and best re-useâ€? (Guy and Rinker). Simply put, deconstruction is the exact opposite of construction. Taking the building apart piece by piece with the goal of salvaging and reusing its materials. 6RPH RI WKH EHQHÂżWV WR GHFRQVWUXFWLRQ include the reduction in cost of building demolition, provide cheaper materials to a community, keep construction waste RXW RI ODQGÂżOOV UHGXFH WKH QHFHVVLW\ RI producing new resources for materials, and promote job creation as well as economic development.

THEORY OF APPROACH:

Theory of Approach:

to increase by a factor of 10� (Guy and Rinker). A proven way to increase resource HI¿FLHQF\LVZLWKEXLOGLQJGHFRQVWUXFWLRQ material reuse, and prefabrication.


16

process must be analyzed. The traditional design DQG FRQVWUXFWLRQ ZRUNÀRZ LV OLQHDU DV VKRZQ LQ Figure 1. The introduction of deconstruction and SUHIDEULFDWLRQZLOODOWHUWKHZRUNÀRZDQGFUHDWHD cycle as illustrated in Figure 2. How will the altering of the tradition design and construction process affect the designer? First, the designer will have to utilize salvage materials that will be restricting yet force creative solutions. Designing under constraints is nothing new to an architect. For centuries architects have been constrained by budgets, regulations, and programs. Rather than hinder the design process, being forced WR XVH VSHFL¿F PDWHULDOV PD\ LJQLWH FRQFHSWV DQG ideas throughout the design process. Second, the designer will have to be sensitive to the idea that his or her building will be deconstructed in the future. Essentially, the buildings should be designed for deconstruction. The concept of designing for deconstruction is not a new one. Nicholas Ciarimboli and Bradley Guy discuss how the concept of designing for disassembly has been around for centuries: Many vernacular and “primitive” structures were designed and built in symbiotic relationship with their surroundings where repair, mobility and change were needed. For example, DfD [Design for Disassembly] was integral to the Native American tipi or tepee, which the plains tribes assembled and disassembled to accommodate their migratory patterns. (Ciarimboli and Guy). The Native Americans are just one example of nomadic tribes throughout history that have constructed shelters with the intent to deconstruct and reuse them again. Additionally, many Japanese timber framed buildings were constructed with wood joinery and were easily deconstructed. In comparison, both the Native American teepee and the Japanese timberframe buildings have one thing in common: exposed structure. Therefore, a building that is designed for deconstruction will be tectonic in nature.


Here, Frampton is stressing the arbitrariness of ornament and that the true beauty of the architectural form is in the structure. A building designed with these principles will expose the structure for the purpose of aesthetic, yet allow for easy access during deconstruction. In this regard, the Modernist buildings of architects like Mies van der Rohe could be considered easily deconstructed. For example, Mies van der Rohe’s S.R. Crown Hall at Illinois Institute of Technology inverted the structure to the exterior of the building. By simply looking at a picture of the building, a deduction about how it was assembled (and how it can be disassembled) can be made. In conclusion, introducing the concept of deconstruction into the WUDGLWLRQDOGHVLJQDQGFRQVWUXFWLRQZRUNÀRZ

17 02 - POSITION

Rather than join in a recapitulation of avant-gardist tropes or enter into the historicist pastiche of WKH VXSHUÀXRXV SUROLIHUDWLRQ RI sculptural gestures - all of which have an arbitrary dimension to the degree that they are based in neither structure nor in construction- we may return instead to the structural unit as the irreducible essence of architectural form. (Frampton).

creates a continuous building life cycle. The continuous life cycle will reduce much of the waste created by the construction industry. The remainder of the waste will be produced during construction with temporary formwork, scaffolding, and so on. This construction-based waste can be eliminated with the use of prefabrication. Additionally, the adaptation of a new design and construction process will force the designer to think about the new life-cycle approach to the building. The designer will be obliged to think of the building as it serves to be a beginning and end to the life-cycle. Essentially, a designed-fordeconstruction building will never die.

CONTEXT:

The style of a building designed for deconstruction will focus on exposing and emphasizing the components that are normally hidden behind gypsum board and cladding. The design of an easily disassembled building will not rely on ornament to drive its concept. The ideas that Kenneth Frampton put forth in “Rappel a L’ordre: The Case for the Tectonic” come to mind:


18

Building Type: The thesis project proposed will combine three separate building types into one new type. The WKUHHEXLOGLQJW\SHVDUHDQDUFKLWHFWXUHRIÂżFHDQG prefabrication factory, and a material salvage yard. The three building types will integrate in such a way that promotes the aforementioned continuous life-cycle construction process (Figure 2). In an effort to understand how this new building type will function, it will be helpful to look at the three generalized types of people using the spaces: the architect, the builder, and the salesperson.

The Architect The architect is a professional who wears many hats. The tasks of an architect can vary on a daily, even hourly, basis. As the overseer of the project the architect relates a client’s ideas to the entire project team and makes sure design intent is upheld. Because the new building type will include much of the construction process on the same SUHPLVHVWKHDUFKLWHFWXUHRI¿FHVKRXOGKDYHDGLUHFW connection with both the prefabrication factory and the salvage yard. This collaborative approach and hands-on process will allow the architect to react immediately to design or construction changes. The space in which an architect works varies in detail, but some generalizations can be made. 7KHRI¿FHZLOOW\SLFDOO\KDYHDQRSHQÀRRUSODQZLWK ÀDWWDEOHZRUNVWDWLRQVVFDWWHUHGDERXW,QEHWZHHQ the workstations will be layout tables and spaces used for collaboration. Showing respect for the tectonics of the space, many architects will expose WKHVWUXFWXUHDQGHYHQDUWL¿FLDOO\OLJKWLW%HLQJ WKDWLWLVDQRI¿FHWKHW\SLFDOFRS\URRPSULYDWH large and small conference rooms, and library spaces


The Builder The builder can be involved in many ways throughout the prefabrication factory component of the facility. There will have to be general contractors to oversee the prefabrication process. These general contractors will most likely work handand-hand with the architect and delegate WRWKHPRUHVSHFLÂżFEXLOGHUV FDUSHQWHUV electricians, plumbers, etc...). The prefabrication process is very similar to any manufacturing assembly line. Therefore, a large open space will be required to construct much of the components, but individual specialized spaces will be required for each trade. Within the combined architecture studio, prefabrication factory, and salvage yard facility the employees will be encouraged to share common spaces. In the typical construction process the sub-contractors (tradesmen such as electricians, plumbers, and carpenters) will clash with the architects and general contractors. This might be due to the fact that the traditional model of construction sets up a hierarchy of roles with the trade contractors at the bottom. The new facility has the ability to utilize common

19

The Salesperson The salvage yard employee will have many responsibilities. The salvage yard will have an area for intake of materials, sorting of materials, prepping materials for reuse, storing materials, and distributing materials. The salvage yard employee will work closely with the architect and general contractor in order to produce the best possible salvage materials for the project. This may require going out and searching for recycled materials not held in inventory. The intake area for the salvage yard will need to be separated between public and private. The public section will allow the community to donate materials and goods. The private section will bring in company trucks from job sites of salvaged materials and components. Sorting and prepping the materials may take some skilled labor. For example, if a truckload full of wood studs arrives it will have to be stripped of any nails or screws before placed in the facilities inventory. Storing the materials will require lots of space but FDQEHODLGRXWHIÂżFLHQWO\WRUHGXFHVTXDUH footage. Finally, the distribution of the materials will also have a private and public aspect. The possibility of letting the community purchase salvaged materials will exist for contractors and homeowners. Additionally, there will be a need to keep an accurate record of every piece of salvaged material in inventory because the architects and contractors inhouse will be picking and choosing from those materials. There should be two separate departments for inhouse distribution and

02 - POSITION

Lastly, the space must promote creativity for designers. A connection with the outdoors will be just as important as a connection to the salvaged material yard and the prefabrication factory. The new building type combing these three spaces will surround the architect with lots of inspiration.

VSDFHVDQGZRUNĂ€RZDVDFRQGXLWFRQQHFWLQJ the many roles of a project.

CONTEXT:

ZLOOEHQHHGHG0DQ\DUFKLWHFWXUHRIÂżFHV place these spaces on the interior of the EXLOGLQJDQGDOORZWKHQDWXUDOOLJKWWRĂ€RZ WKURXJKRXWWKHRSHQRIÂżFHVSDFH


20

public distribution but they should coordinate and interact with one another.

Bibliography: “Amsterdam, New York.” 2003-2012. City-Data.com. 31 October 2012 <http://www.city-data.com/city/ Amsterdam-New-York.html>. This resource has proven invaluable for researching any type of gathered data on the City of Amsterdam, New York. From demographics, weather analysis, and even criminal statistics, City-Data.com has it all. The data is illustrated in easy to use graphs and charts. Blaschik, John J. The Empty Threat of Abandoned Mills. Middletown, CT: Learning Resource Center, 2007. An article that discussed some of the dangers of old abandoned mills in Middletown, Connecticut. Although this article did not take place in Amsterdam, New York, it gave an interesting perspective on the negative aspects of vacant buildings in a city. Ciarimboli, Nicholas and Bradley Guy. Design for Disassembly in the Built Environment. Seattle, WA: Pennsylvania State University, 2005. An eye-opening guide prepared by the city of Seattle, Washington. The 70-page guide introduces the idea of designing building for later deconstruction. The guide lays out the current problems in a traditionally designed for disposal building. The JXLGHDOVRLQWURGXFHGWKHEHQH¿WVRIGHVLJQLQJZLWK deconstruction in mind with some basic case studies. City of Amsterdam New York. 1 January 2011. 31 October 2012 <http://www.amsterdamny.gov/>. 7KH FLW\·V RI¿FLDO ZHEVLWH KDV ORWV RI XVHIXO


21 Bob Cudmore is a well known author who writes in books and articles primarily about the Mohawk Valley. Amsterdam, New York is located in the Mohawk Valley and this book had lots of detailed accounts RIWKH0RKDZN0LOOVKLVWRULFDOÂżJXUHVRI Amsterdam, and the importance of the Eerie Canal. Department of Energy & Environmental Protection. Deconstruction. 2002. 31 October 2012 <http://www.ct.gov/dep/cwp/ view.asp?a=2714&q=469620>. The DEEPâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s white paper about deconstruction. Frampton, Kenneth and Nesbitt, Kate. Theorizing a New Agenda for Architecture: An Anthology of Architectural Theory 1965-1995. New York, New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 1996. 516-528. One of Kenneth Framptonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s most well known pieces, Theorizing a New Agenda for Architecture sets the foundation for his work. Framptonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s emphasize on the structure and tectonics as ornament is what applied most directly to this paper. Guy, Bradley and M.E. Rinker. A to Deconstruction. Sarasota, Deconstruction Institute, 2003.

Guide FL:

This is a more practical guide to facilitating deconstruction. The guide is broken down into safety, surveying, environmental issues, contracts, permits,

Jacoby, Ryan Michael. Deconstruction: A Tool for Reform as the Construction and Demolition Industry Moves Toward Sustainability. Masters Thesis. Raleigh, NC: Antioch University Seattle, 2001. Jaillon, L. and C.S. Poon. â&#x20AC;&#x153;Quantifying the waste reduction potential of using prefabrication in building construction in Hong Kong.â&#x20AC;? Waste Management, February 2008. This study was very useful when researching WKHEHQHÂżWVRISUHIDEULFDWLRQ7KHUHSRUW H[SORUHGWKHEHQHÂżWVRISUHIDEULFDWLRQIURP a waste management and waste production stand point. The report also had some useful statistics and case studies.

02 - POSITION

Cudmore, Bob. Stories from the Mohawk Valley: The Painted Rocks, the Good Benedict Arnold & More. Charleston, SC: The History Press, 2011.

planning, and deconstructing.

McLendon, Sean and Bradley Guy. Building Deconstruction: Reuse and Recycling of Building Materials. Gainsville, FL: University of Florida, 2003. This book took a more â&#x20AC;&#x153;hands-onâ&#x20AC;? approach to deconstruction. It was geared towards the handyman who is thinking about using recycled materials (or recycling materials of their own). Patel, Nina. â&#x20AC;&#x153;The Economics of Deconstruction.â&#x20AC;? 1 October 2008. Remodeling. 2012 October 2012 <http://www.remodeling. hw.net/green-remodeling/deconstruction_1. aspx>. An article on the web site â&#x20AC;&#x153;Remodelingâ&#x20AC;?. The DUWLFOH EULHĂ&#x20AC;\ H[SORUHV WKH SRVVLELOLWLHV and realities of re-selling materials after deconstruction. The article was useful EHFDXVH LW VWUHVVHG WKH IDFW DQG ÂżJXUHV using monetary values.

CONTEXT:

information such as history, demographics, job opportunities, and city committees.


22

5REHUWV-HQQLIHU´$GGLQJ8SWKH&OLPDWH%HQHÂżWVRI C&D Recycling.â&#x20AC;? C&D World August 2009: 26-30. Saratoga Associates. City of Amsterdam Comprehensive Master Plan. Master Plan. Amsterdam, NY: Amsterdam Common Council, 2003. This master plan is the most recent for the City of Amsterdam. The comprehensive plan sets forth the image citizenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s of Amsterdam believe their city can obtain. Interestingly, the master plan looks back on historical Amsterdam as a precedent and even points out where things went wrong (highways, etc..). The master plan also laid out a proposal for the site used in this thesis project. Snyder, Gerald R. and Robert von Hasseln. Amsterdam: Postcard History Series. Chicago, IL: Aracadia Publishing, 2010. StopWaste.org. â&#x20AC;&#x153;Waste Generation for Residential and Commercial Construction Projects.â&#x20AC;? Estimating Project. 2006. Tam, Vivian W.Y. â&#x20AC;&#x153;Towards Adoption of Prefabrication in Construction.â&#x20AC;? Building and Environment October 2007: 3642-3654. This report explored how the adoption of prefabrication KDVÂżQDQFLDOEHQHÂżWVDVZHOODVHQYLURQHPWDOEHQHÂżWV  Additionally, the report focuses on a single case study to support the thesis. Tatum, C.B., J.A. Vanegas and J.M. Williams. Constructability Improvement Using Prefabrication, Pre-Assembly and Modularisation. Technical Report. Stanford, USA: Construction Industry Institute , 1986. This report dissected the use of prefabrication, preassembly, and modularization for building projects. The report covered every aspect of the prefabrication industry while focusing primarily on LWV EHQHÂżWV IRU QRWH RQO\ WKH EXLOGHUV EXW WKH architects, developers, and owners.


03 Precedent Analysis


24

Building 802 Oakland, California Building 802 was an old temporary World War 2 era warehouse in Oakland, California. The warehouse was intended to store shipments made between rail, truck, and boats. Building 802, and the other similar warehouses on the site, is not needed anymore and the Port of Oakland had to make a decision for disposal. Instead of simply demolishing the warehouse and dispose of itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s waste, the Port of Oakland decided to deconstruct Building 802 and sell the materials to local salvage yards. In total, 74% of the building was salvaged and sold to multiple buyers. Just the heavy timber alone was resold for over $500,000.00. After paying the deconstruction contractor WKH3RUWRI2DNODQGVWLOOPDGHDSURÂżWIURP reselling the materials. This is a prime example of how deconstruction, rather than demoltiion, can not only reduce ZDVWHEXWHFRQRPLFDOO\EHQHÂżWRZQHUVWRZQV and cities. The rest of the warehouses on the property are set to be deconstructed over the next few years.


BUILDING 802

03 - PRECEDENT ANALYSIS

25


26

Antioch Baptist Church Perry County, Alabama


ANTIOCH BAPTIST CHURCH

03 - PRECEDENT ANALYSIS

27


28

Salvaging Concrete


SALVAGING CONCRETE

03 - PRECEDENT ANALYSIS

29


30


GUNPOWDER MILL

03 - PRECEDENT ANALYSIS

Gunpowder Mill Waltham Abbey, UK 31


32


33 03 - PRECEDENT ANALYSIS GUNPOWDER MILL

The Gunpowder Mill reprogrammed an 18th Century PLOOLQWRDQRI多FHEXLOGLQJ for Hill Partnerships. A modern structure was adhered to the existing structure whose original character can be seen through the trusses, brick facade, and exposed roof.


34

Modular House Factory The modular house factory is a building that creates buildings. The process shown to the right is a typical assembly line used when creating a prefabricated building. Step 1 DQGLOOXVWUDWHWKHFUHDWLRQRIWKHÀRRU and addition of piping and ductwork in the ÀRRURIDPRGXODUEXLOGLQJSRG6WHSDQG LOOXVWUDWHWKHDGGLWLRQRIURRIVDQGDURR¿QJ membrane. Finally, step 5 and 6 illustrate the modular building pod being placed on site. This is an important precedent because the building proposed in this thesis will not only be used as a design studio, but it will also contain an inventory of salvaged materials that will be used to prefabricate buildings on site.


MODULAR HOUSE FACTORY

03 - PRECEDENT ANALYSIS

35


36

&HQWHUEURRN2I多FHV Centerbrook, Connecticut


CENTERBROOK OFFICES

03 - PRECEDENT ANALYSIS

37


38

The existing mill served many purposes throughout history from agricultural produce, to manufacturing companies, and now architecture. The original buildings were preserved well and only PHWDIHZPDMRUÀRRGV in their history. Even DIWHUVLJQL¿FDQWÀRRG damage Centerbrook opted to reuse and rebuild instead of demolishing and starting fresh. This precedent is an example of reuse that cleverly placed a modern service providing company into a colonial manufacturing building.


THE SCRAPHOUSE

03 - PRECEDENT ANALYSIS

The Scraphouse San Francisco, California 39


-

40


THE SCRAPHOUSE

03 - PRECEDENT ANALYSIS

41


42

Jewish Reconstruction Congregation Evanston, Illinois


43 A

http://www.r-barc.com/places/?name=Jewish+Reconstructionist+Congregation

JEWISH RECONSTRUCTION CONGREGATION

03 - PRECEDENT ANALYSIS

Architects: Ross Barney Architects, Inc. Location: Evanston, Illinois Project Year: 2008 Project Cost: $6 Million


44 B

http://www.r-barc.com/places/?name=Jewish+Reconstructionist+Congregation

C

http://www.r-barc.com/places/?name=Jewish+Reconstructionist+Congregation


45

Figure A: The large entrance door was created using existing donated trees that had to be removed for constuction. Figure C: 7KHĂ&#x20AC;\DVKFRQFUHWHFDQEHVHHQRYHU the door. Salvaged limestone and brick make up the site and retaining walls.

03 - PRECEDENT ANALYSIS

The Jewish Reconstructionist Congregation building LQ(YDQVWRQ,OOLQRLVLVRQHRIWKHÂżUVW/((' Platinum rated religious facilities in the United States. The building illustrates itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s sustainabiity through its reclaimed materials. 7KHV\QDJRJXHXVHVĂ&#x20AC;\DVKFRQFUHWHUHFODLPHG wood, salvaged limestone and brick, and sits on existing foundation walls.

D

http://www.r-barc.com/places/?name=Jewish+Reconstructionist+Congregation

E

http://www.r-barc.com/places/?name=Jewish+Reconstructionist+Congregation

JEWISH RECONSTRUCTION CONGREGATION

Figure D: The main ceremonial staircase exists in a void between the exterior glazing and ceremonial space. This void, on the south side of the building, creates a thermal buffer to moderate the interior temperatures.


46


04 Site Analysis


48

Context


CONTEXT

04 - SITE ANALYSIS

49


50


CONTEXT

04 - SITE ANALYSIS

51


52


CONTEXT

04 - SITE ANALYSIS

53


54


CLIMATE DATA

04 - SITE ANALYSIS

Climate Data 55


56


CLIMATE DATA

04 - SITE ANALYSIS

57


58

Topographic Data


TOPOGRAPHIC DATA

04 - SITE ANALYSIS

59


60


61

The growth of Amsterdam, New York (as mentioned in the â&#x20AC;&#x153;Thesis Positionâ&#x20AC;?) spread north from the Mohawk River. The following images illustrate the growth of the city of Amsterdam as well as the development of 345 Forest Avenue. It is important to note the number of buildings that once existed on the site and the number of buildings that exist now.

HISTORICAL DATA

04 - SITE ANALYSIS

Historical Data


62


HISTORICAL DATA

04 - SITE ANALYSIS

63


64


HISTORICAL DATA

04 - SITE ANALYSIS

65


66

Context Analysis

The existing structures that remain on the site are an important asset to this project. Many of the existing Mohawk Carpet Mill buildings have been demolished. Fortunately, the project site contains the last four remaining Mohawk buildings. These buildings will be deconstructed and used to create the new facility.


CONTEXT ANALYSIS

04 - SITE ANALYSIS

67


68


CONTEXT ANALYSIS

04 - SITE ANALYSIS

69


70


71

The climate of Amsterdam is typical of many cities within the Northeast with a slightly higher average snowfall than others. The growth of the city took place over a century while its decline took mere decades. The aforementioned maps and images of what 345 Forest Avenue was compared to what it is illustrate this notion. Contextually, the site has many promising assets. The site is close to many residences yet not too far from downtown. The Chuctanunda Canal runs directly through the site and connects to the Mohawk River while the existing buildings radiate with character of what once was and create the setting for what will be.

04 - SITE ANALYSIS

345 Forest Avenue in Amsterdam, New York is not only the perfect candidate for a deconstruction project, it is also a site ZLWKDVLJQL多FDQWKLVWRU\DQGLPSRUWDQFHWR the city of Amsterdam. Demographically, the racial and age makeup of the city is shifting from its ancestries to a new wave of immigrants. Geographically, the industrial infrastructure such as the canals, railroads, and rivers still remains but will serve new purposes moving forward. The site slightly slopes towards the adjacent canal allowing rainwater to be harvested in it.

SITE ANALYSIS CONCLUSION

Site Analysis Conclusion


05 Space Program


74


SITE ANALYSIS CONCLUSION

05 - SPACE PROGRAM

75


06 Conceptual Design


78


SITE ANALYSIS CONCLUSION

06 - CONCEPTUAL DESIGN

79


80


SITE ANALYSIS CONCLUSION

06 - CONCEPTUAL DESIGN

81


82


83

Prefabrication

The immediate conception of a parti that sought out the division of programmed spaces that revolved around the existing waterfall. The salvage warehouse and prefabrication building are encroaching adjacencies ZKLOHWKHDUFKLWHFWXUDORI多FHLV deliberately placed on the opposite side of the waterfall. This separation of programmatic spaces holds true throughout the entire design process.

06 - CONCEPTUAL DESIGN

Salvage

SITE ANALYSIS CONCLUSION

Architecture


07 Schematic Design


86

Site Plan

The concept of radiating the buildings around the waterfall, which acts as an axis, was explored during the schematic design phase. The radiating buildings symbolize the building life cycle of a deconstructed building. This phase of the design also sought the important node and entry points to the site (as highlighted in the site plan to the right). The diagrams that follow illustrate the interesting spaces created by this approach to each buildingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s placement.


SITE PLAN

07 - SCHEMATIC DESIGN

87


88


SITE PLAN

07 - SCHEMATIC DESIGN

89


90

Floor Plans


FLOOR PLANS

07 - SCHEMATIC DESIGN

91


92


FLOOR PLANS

07 - SCHEMATIC DESIGN

93


94


FLOOR PLANS

07 - SCHEMATIC DESIGN

95


96


EXTERIOR & MASSING

07 - SCHEMATIC DESIGN

Exterior & Massing 97


98

7KHSRVVLEOHH[WHULRUWH[WXUHVDQG多QLVKHV were explored during the schematic design phase. Left, a hand rendering can be seen that illustrates the plausible scale and direction of materials. The salvaged wood can be seen as YHUWLFDOOLQHVRQWKH多WQHVVFHQWHUER[DQGD scaled pattern can be seen beyond it.


99 07 - SCHEMATIC DESIGN

The concept has always stressed the importance of the waterfall that exists on-site and this scheme is no different. The buildings begin to not only radiate about the waterfall they begin to make gestures towards the waterfall. The lecture hall tilts up to express the importance of the waterfall while providing a VORSHGĂ&#x20AC;RRUIRUYLHZLQJOHFWXUHV

EXTERIOR & MASSING

Although the diagrams and massing are very interesting and dynamic the concept struggles to integrate the buildings and their context. The buildings became too separated and lacked cohesion and function. $GGLWLRQDOO\WKHOD\RXWVWUXJJOHVWRÂżQGDQLQWHUQDO and external identity within the neighborhood.


100


08 Design Development


102


FLOOR PLANS & LAYOUTS

08 - DESIGN DEVELOPMENT

Floor Plans & Layouts 103


104


FLOOR PLANS & LAYOUTS

08 - DESIGN DEVELOPMENT

105


106


FLOOR PLANS & LAYOUTS

08 - DESIGN DEVELOPMENT

107


108


FLOOR PLANS & LAYOUTS

08 - DESIGN DEVELOPMENT

109


110


FLOOR PLANS & LAYOUTS

08 - DESIGN DEVELOPMENT

111


112

Form & Design


FORM & DESIGN

08 - DESIGN DEVELOPMENT

113


114


FORM & DESIGN

08 - DESIGN DEVELOPMENT

115


116


FORM & DESIGN

08 - DESIGN DEVELOPMENT

117


118


SUSTAINABILITY STUDIES

08 - DESIGN DEVELOPMENT

Sustainability Studies 119


120


SUSTAINABILITY STUDIES

08 - DESIGN DEVELOPMENT

121


122

Material Studies

The following section features vignettes that explore the possibilities of how existing materials from the deconstructed mills might EHUHXVHG7KH多UVWYLJQHWWHLOOXVWUDWHVD way to utilize the existing single-pane glass windows as roof or wall shingles. Because the VLQJOHSDQHJOD]LQJLVQRWHQHUJ\HI多FLHQWRU code compliant it will not be used for exterior fenestrations. Therefore, this possible new use allows for less waste. The materials vignette takes an overall look at the existing mills and the reuse possibilities within the new concept. For example, the existing brick facade can be reused as a brick and mortar wall, a caged brick retaining wall, or as aggregate for new concrete.


MATERIAL STUDIES

08 - DESIGN DEVELOPMENT

123


124


MATERIAL STUDIES

08 - DESIGN DEVELOPMENT

125


126


09 Final Design


128


129

The prefabrication building shares an edge with the canal while being adjacent to the main salvage building. The DUFKLWHFWXUDORI¿FHDQG ¿WQHVVFHQWHUHPEUDFHWKH waterfall and create a multi- purpose outdoor space for the facility and community abroad. The largest of the existing mills will be deconstructed down to the ground level. The ground level will be reused as an open salvage yard. This salvage yard will be semideconstructed to advertise the facility’s services.

09 - FINAL DESIGN

7KH¿QDOGHVLJQFRPELQHV elements from each of the aforementioned design phases. In the diagram on the left the waterfall has now been illustrated as the most important symbol. Additionally, the map (far left) demonstrates the importance of Amsterdam’s plans for a public green way which passes straight through the site.

SITE OVERVIEW

Site Overview


130


SITE OVERVIEW

09 - FINAL DESIGN

131


132


SITE OVERVIEW

09 - FINAL DESIGN

133


134


FLOOR PLANS & LAYOUT

09 - FINAL DESIGN

Floor Plans & Layout 135


136


FLOOR PLANS & LAYOUT

09 - FINAL DESIGN

137


138


FLOOR PLANS & LAYOUT

09 - FINAL DESIGN

139


140


FLOOR PLANS & LAYOUT

09 - FINAL DESIGN

141


142


FLOOR PLANS & LAYOUT

09 - FINAL DESIGN

143


144


145 09 - FINAL DESIGN

Right:7KHDUFKLWHFWXUDORI多FHLVDODUJH two-story space with the main entry on the second level. A steel spiral staircase will be salvaged from the existing power house and become a main feature in the space. The two-story curtain-wall overlooks the creek, waterfall, and prefabrication building.

FLOOR PLANS & LAYOUT

Above: The main gallery space features an exposed salvaged concrete lattice with glazing in between. The gallery stair exists on the interior and continues out into the exterior plaza.


146


FLOOR PLANS & LAYOUT

09 - FINAL DESIGN

147


148


149 09 - FINAL DESIGN

Left and Below: The main salvage building expresses the steel trusses fabricated out of existing steel studs. Additionally, the rainwater collection cisterns are displayed as sculptures below the catwalks.

FLOOR PLANS & LAYOUT

Right: The SUHIDEULFDWLRQRI多FH will display the crossing structural members. The clerestory windows allow southern sunlight into the space and natural ventilation.


150


FABRICATION PROCESS DIAGRAM

09 - FINAL DESIGN

Fabrication Process Diagram 151


152


FABRICATION PROCESS DIAGRAM

09 - FINAL DESIGN

153


154


The Existing Conditions phase (Left) represents the building prior to deconstruction. Therefore, this form is used for the salvage building. The Design Development phase (left) represents the building during deconstruction and repurpose. Therefore, representing he prefabrication building. Finally, the New Construction phase symbolizes a completed contemporary structure. The architectural building expresses this phase.

09 - FINAL DESIGN

155

The exterior forms are derived from the evolution of Cycleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s design process. Amsterdam, New York contains many agricultural buildings with a clerestory salt-box look.

EXTERIOR CONCEPT, MASSING, & DESIGN

Exterior Concept, Massing, & Design


156


EXTERIOR CONCEPT, MASSING, & DESIGN

09 - FINAL DESIGN

157


158

Sustainable Stratagies Cycle’s facility, being completely constructed out of salvaged materials, will inherently be considered a sustainable and environmentally conscious building. In addition to its materials, Cycle’s facility uses multiple sustainable strategies in both its systems and design. The prefabrication and salvage buildings contain YHU\ODUJHRSHQVSDFHVWKDWZLOOEHYHU\GLI¿FXOWWR thermally control using an active system. Therefore, Cycle’s facility will utilize a passive heating and cooling system strategically designed into the buildings forms. As illustrated in the sections (Right), the glass slice between the two buildings is placed directly above an existing tunnel that carries water from the canal to the power house. With low operable windows and high operable clerestory windows the liquid cooled air will both ventilate and thermally control the large spaces.


SUSTAINABLE STRATAGIES

09 - FINAL DESIGN

159


160

The existing mill site provides many sustainable system options. The existing canal and dams will provide hydropower to most of the building. Additionally, the salvage building will have solar arrays to provide ample power for operations. The canal will also be useful as a water-sourced heat pump while rain water, collected in the cisterns displayed within the salvage building, will be used for irrigation and non-potable purposes.


SUSTAINABLE STRATAGIES

09 - FINAL DESIGN

161


162

/(('&HUWL多FDWLRQ


LEED CERTIFICATION

09 - FINAL DESIGN

163


164


165

The structure of Cycle’s facility will take advantage of the salvaged materials in the most HI¿FLHQWZD\ZKLOHDVVLVWLQJLQDVXFFHVVIXO delivery of the architectural concept. The most effective structural feature is the use of a concrete shear wall and steel tension/ compression members that allow for very large (over 30’-0”) column free cantilevers (See pages 167 and 171). Left: This structural plan illustrates the methods used within the building and the structural grid that guides each element. Notice the column locations and shear walls highlighted in yellow. Pages 164-173: The diagrams on the following pages demonstrate how each building will be constructed and structured.

STRUCTURAL STUDIES

09 - FINAL DESIGN

Structural Studies


166


STRUCTURAL STUDIES

09 - FINAL DESIGN

167


168


169 09 - FINAL DESIGN STRUCTURAL STUDIES

Above: The salvage building will feature metal trusses fabricated on-site using reclaimed metal studs from the existing mill structures. Simple 6â&#x20AC;? metal studs, when fastened together as a truss, can withstand design loads much higher than their original purpose.


170


STRUCTURAL STUDIES

09 - FINAL DESIGN

171


172


STRUCTURAL STUDIES

09 - FINAL DESIGN

173


174


175 09 - FINAL DESIGN

The main entrance to Cycleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s facility features a perforated steel wall that serves as a billboard to its function while providing shading from the setting sun.

PROJECTS RENDERINGS

Projects Renderings


176

The northern entry to the site greets pedestrians with the conceptual forms that help shape the pathways along the canal. The canal will serve the building in many functional ways but it will also serve the public in many recreational ways.


177 09 - FINAL DESIGN PROJECTS RENDERINGS

The cantilevered prefabrication RI多FHRIIHUVVKDGHIRUD visitor walking along the canal while allowing for a two-story manufacturing space inside. Additionally, the punched windows allow the visitor to view the manufacturing process during their journey.


178

7KHDUFKLWHFWXUHRI¿FHDGGVWR the composition and drama when travelling along the canal. 7KHWZRVWRU\JODVVER[ÀRDWV over the canal and faces the prefabrication building. The large glass wall will fully retract and create a truly RSHQRI¿FHHQFRXUDJLQJWKH juxtaposition of exterior and interior space.


179 09 - FINAL DESIGN PROJECTS RENDERINGS

From below the waterfall visitors can observe the DUFKLWHFWXUHÂżWQHVV and gallery spaces. The composition of boxes creates a dynamic interior and exterior spaces for visitors and employees to explore. The ÂżWQHVVER[FDQWLOHYHUVRYHU the exterior plaza and creates shading for the cafe.


180

The southern entrance to the facility also expresses the architectural concept and building program while creating spaces for public use. The round plaza can be seen below the tilted lecture. The plaza reaches out and connects to the exterior gallery and cafe with a salvaged heavy timber bridge. This particular view also emphasizes the relationship of the buildings to both the canal and the waterfall.


181 09 - FINAL DESIGN PROJECTS RENDERINGS

One of the many public uses for the facility can be seen when the exterior gallery and cafe are utilized as outdoor seating for a concert that is taking place under the tilted up lecture hall.


182


Appendix Business Plan


184


185

Contents (Appendix) 188 188 188

2.0 Company Summary 2.1 Company Ownership Chart: Start-Up 2.2 Start-up Summary Table: Start-Up Table: Start-Up Funding Chart: Market Analysis (Pie)

3.0 Services 4.0 Market Analysis Summary

188 188 189 189 189 189 190 Table: Ratios

4.1 Market Segmentation 4.2 Service Business Analysis Table: Market Analysis

5.0 Strategy and Implementation Summary 5.1 Sales Strategy 5.1.1 Sales Forecast 5.2 Competitive Edge Chart: Sales Monthly Table: Sales Forecast Chart: Sales by Year

6.0 Management Summary 6.1 Personnel Plan Table: Personnel 7.2 Break-even Analysis Chart: Break-Even Analysis Table: Break-Even Analysis

7.0 Financial Plan

195

7.1 Important Assumptions Table: General Assumptions 3URMHFWHG3UR多WDQG/RVV 7DEOH3UR多WDQG/RVV 7.4 Projected Cash Flow Table: Cash Flow Chart: Cash Flow 7.5 Projected Balance Sheet Table: Balance Sheet 7.6 Business Ratios

195 195   197 197 197 198 198 199

Table: Ratios

199 199

190 190 190 190 191

192 192 192 192 192 193 193

194 194 194 195 195 195

Appendix Table: Sales Forecast Table: Personnel Plan Table: General Assumptions 7DEOH3UR多WDQG/RVV Table: Cash Flow Table: Balance Sheet

APPENDIX - BUSINESS PLAN

187

1.1 Mission 1.2 Keys to Success 1.3 Objectives

200 200 200 201  202 203

CONTENTS

1.0 Executive Summary


186


187 Cycle, Design/reBuild will purchase foreclosed/ vacant properties (or utilize a clientâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s existing property), deconstruct the building, store the salvaged materials inhouse, design new structures, build the new structures in house using the salvaged materials, and ship structures to their respective locations. Essentially, we will recycle buildings. Additionally, the implementation of deconstruction, prefabrication, and building information modeling will produce the least possible construction waste. Potential clients for Cycleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s market are broken down into six categories: home owners looking to build new homes, home owners looking to remodel, government, community development, small corporations, and large corporations. Home owners are the largest group based on shear population and this will be emphasized in DOORIWKHÂżUP¡VPDUNHWLQJDQGSURPRWLRQDOHIIRUWV 7DUJHWLQJWKHUHPDLQLQJÂżYHJURXSVZLOOEHGHSHQGHQW upon establishing meaningful relationships, and responding and qualifying for request for proposals. &\FOHZLOOSURGXFHDWDORVVWKHÂżUVW\HDURIRSHUDWLRQ EXWZLOORSHUDWHLQSURÂżWIRUWKHVHFRQGDQGWKLUG \HDUV RI RSHUDWLRQV  &\FOH¡V SURÂżW ZLOO H[FHHG $163,000 dollars by the third year of operations. 7KH PRVW VLJQLÂżFDQW FKDOOHQJHV DKHDG LQFOXGH securing the suitable location, establishing the initial client base, and ultimately positioning the ÂżUP WR EH DEOH WR KDYH D SUHVHQFH LQ D ODUJHU global market. This business plan outlines the objective, focus, DQGLPSOHPHQWDWLRQRIWKLVVWDUWXSÂżUP

APPENDIX - BUSINESS PLAN

Cycle, Design/reBuild, will be a new form of design/ build company specializing in design, deconstruction, and prefabrication.

1.0 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Summary

1.0 Executive Summary


188

1.1 Mission Cycle, Design/reBuild, will be a new form of design/build company specializing in design, deconstruction, and prefabrication. Cycle, Design/reBuild will purchase foreclosed/vacant properties (or utilize a clientâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s existing property), deconstruct the building, store the salvaged materials in house, design new structures, build the new structures in house using the salvaged materials, and ship structures to their respective locations. Essentially, we will recycle buildings. Additionally, the implementation of deconstruction, prefabrication, and building information modeling will produce the least possible construction waste. This business plan outlines the objective, focus, and implementation of this start-up GHVLJQEXLOGÂżUP 1.2 Keys to Success 1. Provide a service that is less wasteful, less costly, and produced faster than the competitionâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s. 2. Utilizing a diverse staff including architects, construction managers, contractors (plumbing, HVAC, carpenters, welders, etc...), and specialized supporting staff to produce the best possible buildings. 3. Using technology and innovation to assist the process of deconstruction, using salvaged materials, and prefabrication.

1.3 Objectives

1. Sales of $600,000 in 2014 and $800,000 by 2015. 2. Market expansion of 50% per year via word of mouth, social media, and competitions. 3. Creating a new combination of building information modeling, prefabrication with salvaged materials, and design/ build.

2.0 Company Summary Cycle, Design/reBuild, will provide design, construction, and deconstruction services of residential and small scale commercial buildings. The combination of an integrated construction process with the affordability of salvaged materials, deconstruction, and prefabrication will SURYLGHWKHPRVWFRVWHIIHFWLYHHIÂżFLHQW and beautiful buildings for our clients. 2.1 Company Ownership Cycle Design/reBuild will be created as a New York corporation based in Amsterdam, New York. It will be owned by its principal investor and operator, Jeffrey Pinheiro.

2.2 Start-up Summary


189 Cycle’s start-up costs total $7,526,000. The most VLJQL¿FDQWSXUFKDVHVQHHGHGDUHWKHODQGDFTXLVLWLRQ in Amsterdam, New York, the construction of a new facility, an information technology infrastructure, and major prefabrication equipment.

Table: Start-Up Funding

APPENDIX - BUSINESS PLAN

Start-Up Table: Start-Up

2.0 COMPANY SUMMARY

Chart: Start-Up


190

3.0 Services Cycle Design/reBuild will provide many levels of service to cater to large and small corporations, along with making it affordable for lower, middle, and upper socioeconomic classes.

Market Chart: Market Analysis (Pie)

4.1 Market Segmentation Potential clients for Cycle’s market is broken down into six categories: home owners looking to build new homes, home owners looking to remodel, government, community development, small corporations, and large corporations. Home owners are the largest group based on shear population and this will EHHPSKDVL]HGLQDOORIWKH¿UP·VPDUNHWLQJ and promotional efforts. Targeting the UHPDLQLQJ¿YHJURXSVZLOOEHGHSHQGHQWXSRQ establishing meaningful relationships, and responding and qualifying for request for proposals. 4.2 Service Business Analysis

4.0 Market Analysis Summary Cycle Design/reBuild will provide its services to home owners looking to build new homes, remodel existing homes, small and large corporations, government agencies, and community development groups. Although we are going to cater to a relatively broad scope of customers, the company will decide what the target market is based on sales and trends experienced in the initial months of operation.

The architecture business across the country is primarily made up of small- to PLGVL]HG¿UPVVSHFLDOL]LQJLQDSDUWLFXODU architectural type. Cycle’s main competitors ZLOOEHPLGVL]HGDUFKLWHFWXUH¿UPVZLWKD tendency to go after design/build projects. In addition, construction companies competing for similar size projects will be a threat to Cycle. Cycle will have an advantage over both the construction FRPSDQLHVDQGDUFKLWHFWXUH¿UPVEHFDXVHRI its unique process and integrated delivery methods.


4.0 MARKET ANALYSIS SUMMARY

APPENDIX - BUSINESS PLAN

Table: Market Analysis 191


192

Sales Strategy 5.0 Strategy Summary

and

Implementation

,Q WKH ÂżUVW \HDU RI EXVLQHVV &\FOH ZLOO focus on the Amsterdam area of Montgomery &RXQW\1HZ<RUN$VWKHÂżUPJURZVVDOHV will expand throughout New York and across the country, eventually spreading worldwide. 5.1 Sales Strategy â&#x20AC;&#x153;Salesâ&#x20AC;? in this business is a direct result of exceptional client service. It is based RQWKHÂżUP¡VLPDJHDQGWKHUHIHUUDOVWKDW result. The more clients this company pleases, the more referrals are given. We will work to provide a positive experience in all cases so our clients will refer and return to us for future work as well.

5.2 Competitive Edge This company will have a competitive edge over both architecture and construction ÂżUPV EHFDXVH LW ZLOO FRPSOHWH SURMHFWV much faster and utilize a fully integrated delivery process. The relationships between the architectural designers, contractors, and sub-contractors will be YHU\LPSRUWDQWWRWKHHIÂżFLHQF\DQGTXDOLW\ of the end product. Additionally, the use of indoor prefabrication will allow for construction in a controlled environment under tight regulations. This will produce buildings with little waste and high quality construction.

Chart: Sales Monthly 5.1.1 Sales Forecast 6DOHVDUHEURNHQGRZQLQWRÂżYHFDWHJRULHV deconstruction, design development, construction documents, construction (prefabrication), and construction (onsite). These three categories put together make up one Cycle Design/reBuild project. The totals for each project are based on a 10% cut from the total construction costs of each job. The following table and chart provides an overview of our forecast sales. Actual sales could vary depending on the project size and budget.


5.0STRATEGYANDIMPLEMENTATIONSUMMARY

APPENDIX - BUSINESS PLAN

Table: Sales Forecast

Chart: Sales by Year

193


194

Management 6.0 Management Summary This company will start with the founder, Jeffrey Pinheiro, as a licensed architect and managing owner, one project manager, one architectural production coordinator, one general contractor, two carpenters, two HVAC technicians, one electrician, one welder, three miscellaneous subcontractors, one salvage yard manager, and six administrative staff members (two staff members for each department). 6.1 Personnel Plan The following table summarizes our personnel H[SHQGLWXUHV IRU WKH 多UVW WKUHH \HDUV RI operation.

Table: Personnel


195

Finances Cycle, Design/reBuild will increase growth and WHFKQRORJ\ ZLWK FDVK Ă&#x20AC;RZ DV LW LQFUHDVHV WKURXJK the years. Further money will be set aside to pay 7.2 Break-even Analysis for further consulting as needed. 7.1 Important Assumptions The annual assumptions made in the following table are based on a stable economy. We will adjust these assumptions as changes occur in the now tumultuous economy the Montgomery County area is experiencing.

The following chart and table summarize our break-even analysis.

Chart: Break-Even Analysis

7.0 FINANCIAL PLAN

Table: General Assumptions

APPENDIX - BUSINESS PLAN

7.0 Financial Plan

Table: Break-Even Analysis


196

3URMHFWHG3UR¿WDQG/RVV &\FOHZLOOSURGXFHDWDORVVWKH¿UVW\HDU RIRSHUDWLRQEXWZLOORSHUDWHLQSUR¿WIRU the second and third years of operations. &\FOH·VSUR¿WZLOOH[FHHGGROODUV by the third year of operations.

7DEOH3UR¿WDQG/RVV


197 7.4 Projected Cash Flow

Chart: Cash Flow

7.0 FINANCIAL PLAN

Table: Cash Flow

APPENDIX - BUSINESS PLAN

&DVKÀRZLVYLWDOWRWKHZHOOEHLQJRIWKLV company because of the duration of payment. The following chart and table below show FDVKÀRZSURMHFWLRQV


198

7.5 Projected Balance Sheet The following table shows our projected Balance Sheet and net worth over the next three years.

Table: Balance Sheet


199 APPENDIX - BUSINESS PLAN

Business ratios for the years of this plan are shown below. Industry SUR多OH UDWLRV EDVHG RQ the Standard Industrial &ODVVL多FDWLRQ 6,&  FRGH 7383, Independent Artists (including Architects), are shown for comparison.

Table: Ratios

7.0 FINANCIAL PLAN

7.6 Business Ratios


200

Detailed Tables Appendix Table: Sales Forecast

fabrication)

Table: Personnel Plan


201 APPENDIX

7DEOH3UR多WDQG/RVV

APPENDIX - BUSINESS PLAN

Table: General Assumptions


202

Table: Cash Flow


APPENDIX

APPENDIX - BUSINESS PLAN

Table: Balance Sheet 203

Cycle - Design/reBuild  

My Master of Architecture thesis book from the University of Hartford.

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