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BUILDING SERVICES (ARC 2423) PROJECT 1 CASE STUDY AND DOCUMENTATION OF BUILDING SERVICES SYSTEMS __________________________________________________

GROUP MEMBER CHEAH HOONG FEI [ 0311690 ] KARYN WONG YEE WEN [ 0311582 ] LIM YU JIE [ 0311904 ] SEE CUL WEI [ 0310747 ] SHARON WONG [ 0311448 ] TAN YOUEN [ 0310344 ]

TUTOR MR. SIVA


CONTENT ABSTRACT

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

1.0 INTRODUCTION

2.0 WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM

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17 - 36

2.1 Introduction 2.2 Literature Review 2.2.1 Water Distribution System 2.2.2 Gravity and Pumped Combination Distribution System 2.2.3 Indirect Water Supply System 2.3 Case Study 2.4 Components of Water Supply System 2.4.1 Water Bulk Meter 2.4.2 Valve 2.4.3 Pump System 2.4.4 Piping 2.4.5 Water Suction Tank 2.4.6 Water Storage Tank 2.5 Analysis 2.6 Conclusion

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3.0 Electrical Supply System

37 - 61

3.1 Introduction 3.2 Literature Review 3.3 Case Study 3.4 Electrical Distribution System 3.5 Component of System 3.5.1 TNB Substation (High Voltage Room) 3.5.2 Low Voltage Room (Main Switch Room) 3.5.2.1 Main Switch Board 3.5.2.2 Sub Switchboard 3.5.2.3 Circuit Breaker 3.5.2.4 Rubber Mat 3.5.2.5 Fire Extinguishers 3.5.2.6 Instruction of Shock Survival 3.5.2.7 Notice 3.5.3 Electrical Riser Room 3.5.3.1 Bus Duct System 3.5.3.2 Distribution Board 3.5.4 Gen-set Room 3.5.4.1 The Generator Set 3.5.4.2 Diesel Fuel Tank 3.5.4.3 Ventilator Silencer 3.5.4.4 Cable Tray System 3.5 Analysis

4.0 SEWARAGE, SANITARY & DRAINAGE SYSTEM

62-85

4.1 Introduction 4.2 Literature Review 4.3 Case Study II


4.4 Sanitary System 4.5 Sanitary Appliances 4.5.1 Water Closet (WC) 4.5.2 Traps 4.5.3 Gratings 4.5.4 Septic Tank 4.5.5 Manholes 4.6 Drainage System 4.6.1 Components of System 4.7 Uniform Building by Law (UBBL 1984) 4.8 Analysis

5.0 MECHANICAL TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM

86-113

5.1 Introduction 5.2 Literature Review 5.3 Case Study −Elevators 5.3.1 Placement Of Elevators 5.3.2 External Components Of Elevators 5.3.2.1 Lift Doors 5.3.2.2 Call Buttons 5.3.2.3 Hall Lantern 5.3.2.4 Fireman's Lift Switch 5.3.3 Internal Components Of Elevators 5.3.3.1 Floor Selection Buttons And Emergency Call Button 5.3.3.2 Lighting And Ventilation 5.3.3.3 Emergency Railings 5.3.4 Operations Of Elevators 5.3.4.1 Machine Room 5.3.4.2 Control Panel III


5.3.4.3 Ventilation 5.3.4.4 Lift Supervisory Panel 5.3.5 Safety Features 5.4 Case Study − Escalators 5.4.1 Placement Of Escalators 5.4.2 Components Of Escalators 5.4.2.1 Landing Platforms 5.4.2.2 Truss 5.4.2.3 Steps 5.4.2.4 Handrails 5.4.3 Operations Of Escalators 5.4.3.1 Drive Machine And Gear Reducer 5.4.3.2 Step Drive System 5.4.3.3 Handrail Drive System 5.4.3.4 Auto-Lubrication System 5.4.3.5 Braking System 5.4.4 Safety Features 5.5 Uniform Building By-Law And Other Requirements 5.6 Analysis

6.0 MECHANICAL VENTILATION & AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM 114-146 6.1 Introduction 6.2 Literature Review 6.2.1 Mechanical Ventilation 6.2.2 Air Conditioning System 6.2.2.1 Centralized System 6.2.2.1 Split System Unit 6.3 Case Study IV


6.3.1 Introduction to the air conditioning system in the Curve NX 6.3.2 Air Conditioning System 6.3.2.1 District Cooling Plant 6.3.2.2 District Cooling 6.3.2.3 Heat Exchanger 6.3.2.4 Air Handling Unit (AHU) 6.3.2.5 Chilled Water Cassette Fan Coil Unit 6.3.2.6 Split System Unit 6.3.3 Natural and Mechanical Ventilation Unit 6.3.3.1 Windows as Natural Ventilation 6.3.3.2 Jet Fan Ventilation System 6.3.3.2.1 Jet Truss System 6.3.3.3 Escape Stair Pressurization System 6.3.3.4 Pressurize Fan 6.3.3.5 Damper 6.4 UBBL 6.5 ASHRAE 6.6 MS1525 6.7 Analysis

7.0 FIRE PROTECTION

147-182

7.1 Introduction 7.2 Literature Review 7.3 Active Fire Protection System 7.3.1 Fire Detection & Alarm Devices 7.3.1.1 Smoke Detector 7.3.1.2 Fire Alarm Bell 7.3.1.3 Horn Loud Speaker V


7.3.2 Fire Control Room 7.3.2.1 Fire Control Panel 7.3.3 Fire Intercom System 7.3.3.1 Fire Break Glass Call Point 7.3.3.2 Manual Pull Station 7.3.3.3 Emergency Escape Lighting 7.3.4 Water Based Systems 7.3.4.1 Fire Sprinkler System 7.3.4.2 Dry Riser 7.3.4.3 Pumps 7.3.4.4 Water Storage Tank 7.3.4.5 External Fire Hydrant 7.3.4.6 Hose Reel System 7.3.5 Non-water Based System 7.3.5.1 Portable Fire Extinguisher 7.3.5.2 Aerosol Fire Suppression System 7.4 Passive Fire Protection System 7.4.1 Fire Resistant Escape Stairs 7.4.1.1 Stair Type 7.4.1.2 Materials Used 7.4.1.3 Location & Dimensions 7.4.2 Fire Resistant Doors 7.4.3 Smoke Curtain 7.5 Analysis

8.0 CONCLUSION

9.0 REFERENCE

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ABSTRACT The purpose of this case study and documentation is to provide a better understanding on the basic principles, process and equipment of various building services systems through real life project which is also known as experiential learning. In a group of six, we had conducted a site visit to The Curve NX, a commercial building located at Mutiara Damansara. Through this program, we had the chance to explore the integration of various building services systems in the building such as water and electrical supply, sewerage, mechanical transportation and airconditioning system. The literature review and our own analysis also allowed us to demonstrate our understanding of building services systems and familiarity on the drawing conventions and standards for different building services systems of The Curve NX.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT We would like to extend our gratitude to each individual that has helped and assisted our team to complete this case study and documentation report. Without your involvement, this research report would be insufficient and unsatisfactory. First of all, we would like to take this opportunity to thank all the lecturers for their guidance in teaching, so we are able to complete this informative report on time. A special thanks we would like to give to Mr Siva for guiding us through each tutorial and providing us with an aim to accomplish. We would also like to thank the architect or The Curve NX, Dato Ar Hajeedar to allow our team to visit The Curve NX and provide us with all the important information including the statistics information and floor plans. We are also grateful that Mr Faizal his team for bringing us for a tour around the building and explaining the systems of each services to us. Without their helping, we would not have been able to complete this report on time with such information on hand. Once again, as a group we would like to thank everyone who extending a helping hand to help us make this report possible.

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1.0 INTRODUCTION

Location KidZania Kuala Lumpur Curve NX, No. 18, Jalan PJU7/5 Mutiara Damansara 47810 Petaling Jaya Selangor

Year of establishment 2010

Architect HAJEEDAR AND ASSOCIATES SDN

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The Curve NX, located at Mutiara Damansara is connected to the Curve. It is within walking distance from a selection of world class retail establishments namely, the Curve, IKEA Home Furnishings, IPC Shopping Centre, and Tesco Hypermarket and accessible by bridges and walkways around the building. The Curve NX mainly build for the curve for its parking space. The Main tenant for the Curve NX is ZIDZania which occupies the upper top two floors (level 5 and level6). In order for visiors to stay comfortable shopping at the Curve NX, electrical supply, mechanical ventilation and transportation system is provided for the convenience of the shoppers inside the building. Fire protection system is installed in the building for safety purposes and to minimize the loss and injuries of visitors during fire. The Curve NX also provided an organized sewage system for visitors and staffs and they are able to prevent unwelcomed scents entering the building.

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2.0 Water Supply System

2.1 Introduction Water is the major constituent of fluids of living things and is vital even essential especially to us. Freshwater is one of the prime resources for human beings as well as for all other living creatures that are naturally on earth. Clean and safe potable water is vital for our daily healthy living which able to provide us sufficient vigor and also health of natural environment. Implementation of clean, safe, sufficient and appropriate water system especially for public and residential area is very crucial and it cannot be neglected. According to the Laws of Malaysia ACT 655, the Water Service Industry ACT 2006, page 18, says that the term “water supply system” means: ‘The whole of a system incorporating public mains, water pipes, chambers, treatment plants, pumping stations, service of balancing reservoirs or any combination thereof and all other structures, installations, buildings, equipment and appurtenances used and the lands where the same are located for the storage, abstraction, collection, conveyance, treatment, distribution and supply of water.’ In this case study report, we are going to cover the process of the overall water supply system used in Malaysia, and its relation to our building. This case study will also assisted my group members and I getting more further understanding in those main elements, the functionalities, and the importance in studying this system as it will also assist us in designing our future designs mainly expressed in term of hydrology.

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2.2 Literature Review 2.2.1 Water Distribution System The purpose of this distribution system is to deliver water to consume with appropriate quality, quantity and pressure to the consumers has already been treated. A proper water distribution system is needed to ensure a constant flow of water supply. The different types of water distribution system are generally depends on the topography of the area. The type of water distribution system are gravity distribution system, pumped distribution system and gravity and pumped combination system.

2.2.2 Gravity and Pumped Combination Distribution System The gravity and pumped combination distribution system is the most common used system in Malaysia. It uses a pumped system to get the water from the source to the treatment plants and the service reservoir and then changes to a gravity distribution system. The excess water during low demand periods get stored in reservoir and get supplied during high demand period. It is economical as it has low operational cost, efficient and reliable system.

Figure 2.2.2.1 Gravity and Pump Combination (Source: www.spiraxsarco.com)

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2.2.3 Indirect Water Supply System The implementation of indirect water supply system has many advantages. Firstly, its because of the presence of storage tank as the water supply would not be disrupted in the event of failure at the main water supply source. Secondly, the water that enters the building fills up the tank slowly, so the pressure at the main is reduced and therefore smaller pipes can be used. And most importantly, there is no risk of back-siphonage which is caused by negative pressure from a partial vacuum in the supply piping.

Diagram 2.2.3.1 Indirect Water Supply System (Source: searchpp.com )

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2.3 Case Study

Water Supply Malaysia receives abundant rainfall averaging 3,000 mm annually that contributes to an estimated annual water resource of some 900 billion cubic meters. About 97% of raw water supply for agricultural, domestic and industrial needs are derived from surface water sources primarily rivers. Water supply system is mainly used for collection, treatment, transmission, storage, commercial establishment, industry and also for residences, educational building. In Malaysia, Jabatan Bekalan Air which also known as “JBA” is the one and only water supply. JBA distributes water throughout the whole country and in each state, those water is received by its own private company. For Selangor district, the private company that receives the water supply from JBA is Syarikat Bekalan Air Selangor Sdn. Bhd. (SYABAS). SYABAS is then distributes the water to the entire Selangor district. SYABAS supplies treated water to over 7 million consumers in Selangor, Putrajaya and Kuala Lumpur. In relation to Kidzania @ Curve NX, the water storage tank is located at the rooftop of the building. Water from SYABAS is pumped to the reservoir by using a pumped distribution system. From there, it uses gravity distribution system to transport water to Kidzania. The water flows into the water suction tanks that are located at the basement and it then pumped the water to the water storage tank which located at the rooftop of building. Water is stored and will distribute to the other part of building.

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Figure 2.3.1 Water Distribution System Diagram

The source of water supply from SYABAS is transported to the water mains through communication pipes. The communication pipes end at the bulk meter, where it is then transported into the building via service pipes. It then transfers the water and stores water into a suction tank that is situated at the basement of building. From there, electrical booster pumps pump up the water to the storage tank which located at the top floor and it then transport the water to parts of the building. The following plan drawings show the location of the bulk meter, suction tank and the water storage tank respectively.

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Bulk meter

Figure 2.3.2 Bulk Meter indication on Ground Floor Plan

Figure 2.3.2.1 SYABAS Bulk Meter

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Suction Tank

Figure 2.3.3 Suction Tank located at the basement of Kidzania.

Figure 2.3.3.1 Suction Tank

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Water Storage  Tank   Figure  2.3.4  Water  Storage  Tank  which  located  at  7th  floor,  the  top  floor  of  building.    

Figure 2.3.4.1    Water  Storage  Tank    

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2.4 Components of Water Supply System 2.4.1 Bulk Meter

Water bulk meters are supplied at the discretion of the local water authorities and most new buildings are required to have them.

Diagram 2.4.1.2 SYABAS Water Bulk Meter

Diagram 2.4.1.1 Bulk Meter

Dimension : 100 mm Diameter

Diagram 2.4.1.3 Diaplacement of Water Meter

Diagram 2.4.1.4 Patent Water Meter

(Source: www.practicaldiy.com/plumbing/water-supply)

(Source: www.practicaldiy.com/plumbing/water-supply)

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2.4.2 Valve In any pipe system, there has to be valves present, the main function of valve is to regulate the movement of water flow to the building. It allows or completely stops the movement of water by opening, closing or partially opening the passageway.

Figure 2.4.2.1

2.4.2.2 Components of a valve and function

Figure 2.4.2.3 Components of a valve ( Source: en.wikidepia.com )

1. Body - Outermost casing, made of cast iron. 2. Ports - Where the service and communication pipes are connected 3. Seat - Connects disc to form a seal 4. Stem – Holds the handle, moves through up and down through the bonnet 5. Disc - The moving part inside the valve that prevents the water flow when it forms a seal in contact with the seat. Closed position at 11. 6. Handle – To open and close the valve , closed position at 12. 7. Bonnet – Covers the body, bolted or screwed in. 8. Packing – Between stem and bonnet to maintain seal. 9. Gland nut – Part of the moving mechanism.

Under UBBL, 1984 Section 226: Automatic System for Hazardous Occupancy Where hazardous processes, storage or occupancy are of such character as to required automatic system sprinkles or other automatic extinguishing system, it shall be of a type and standard appropriate or handled or for the safety of occupants.

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2.4.3 Pump System

The selection of pump varies depending on the factors and the suitability of the pump to the building or space made available for the water pumps. A pump is a device that moves fluids by mechanical action. Pumps can be classified into three major groups according to the method they used to move the fluids: direct lift, displacement and gravity pumps. Figure 2.5.1 and 2.5.2 shows 2 pumps that found in water supply room. These devices are called “Booster Pumps”.

Figure 2.4.3.1 Booster Pump at Suction Tank Room

Figure 2.4.3.2 Booster Pump

Booster pump is function to pump water from the suction tank all the way to the water storage tank on the rooftop. The booster pumps are electricity powered and can consume a lot of electricity. The two booster pumps effectively worked together to pump the water up to the building.

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The hydro pneumatic pump is used with the water storage tank located at rooftop of Kidzania building. The pump consists of a pressure vessel and a pressure pump. The pressure vessel contains water with a pressurized air space to provide pressure for the system. Water flows from the vessel, thus increasing the air space and decrease air pressure. It signals the pump to start whenever the pressure is low. The demand with excess volume backing up in the pressure vessel will meet the pump and when the upper level is reached, the pump will shut off. Newer pressure vessels have a neoprene bladder to separate the air space from the water.

Diagram 2.4.3.3 Source: www.h2obazaar.com

The gravity makes it easier for the water pump to distribute water sources down to the lower levels, they are 6th, 5th and 4th floor since the water storage tank is located on the 7th floor of the building which is the top floor. Diagram 2.5.3 shows how the hydro pneumatic pump system functions.

 

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Figure 2.4.3.4 Two Hydro Pneumatic Water Pump System located at rooftop pf building.

Under UBBL 1984 Section 247(2): Water Storage Main water storage tanks within the building, other than for hose reel systems, shall be located at ground, first or second basement levels with fire brigade, pumping inlet connections accessible to fire appliances.

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2.4.4 Piping System

Similar to water pump, the equipment for water piping system for distribution of water also various according to its functionality and usage in supplying water to their respective areas or destinations. Each and every of the pipe size and material correspond to their respective distribution outlets to provide the necessary pressure for the usage of the functionalities. 2.4.4.1 PVC Pipe PVC is a flexible plastic, it is used to produce a wide variety of piping. Larger PVC pipes are often used in plumbing to distribute non-portable water. The benefit of using PVC is resistant to sunlight, oxidation and a variety of chemicals. In this building, PVC pipe is used for cold water distribution system which is supplied in straight lengths up to 9000mm long and in standard color of blue as shown in figure 2.4.4.1.1 below. Its jointing can be by a screw thread but the most common method is by solvent welding. This involves cleaning and chamfering the end of the pipe which is coated with the correct type of cement and pushed into a straight coupling which has also been given a similar coat of cement.

Figure 2.4.4.1.1

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2.4.4.2 Steel Pipe Steel pipes for domestic water supply can be obtained as black tube, galvanized or coated and wrapped for underground services. This Kidzania building is using galvanized iron pipe as known as “GI Pipe” as it transport the water from water suction tank to water storage tank which located at top of the floor. It has a 21mm of diameter and it corrodes faster specially in water submergence.

Figure 2.4.4.2.1

In reference to the Uniform Building By-Laws (UBBL), there are no regulations code that states there are needs in providing water services according to the by-laws. In accordance to this matter, the water services provided throughout the mall are based on the regulations set by the engineers and are accordance to the drawing given. According to MS1525 code 8.5: “All piping installed to serve buildings and within buildings should be adequately insulated to prevent excessive energy losses. Additional insulation with vapor barriers maybe required to prevent condensation under some conditions.”

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2.4.5 Water Suction Tank The presence of water suction tank is because of the indirect water distribution system is uses. Water that transported into the building is stored in the suction tank before it is stored in the main water storage tank which located on roof top. This is good because it reduces the pressure of the water that comes from the main supply. The water that comes from main supply would only be transported to the suction tank that is in the basement, so it uses the gravitational force to transfer the water. Besides that, it also bring some benefits as its smaller pipes are sufficient to carry the water and resist the pressure as well as reducing the cost.

Figure 2.4.5.1 Water Suction Tank which located at basement.

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2.4.6 Water Storage Tank

Figure 2.4.6.1 Water Tank Dimension: 16000mm x 5000mm x 3000mm

Kidzania Centre has a huge water storage tank which located at roof top of this building. It is needed to hold a larger volume of water, has a capacity of 370m3 of water and it is made up of galvanized steel on the exterior and has interior PVC linings. The water tanks used is called sectional panel tank because the outer part of the water tank is made up of identical modular square panels. To store water, water storage are installed and there are requirements linking to the installation and protection of storage tank:

• • • •

Tanks are installed on bases above ground level, platform where the location of the tank is designed to bear the weight of the tank when it is filled to its maximum capacity without unnecessary alteration taking place. Tanks are supported in a manner so no load is transmitted to any of the attached pipes Tanks are located somewhere accessible for inspection, repairs, maintenance and replacement. Tanks are provided with a cover designed to prevent the entry of any dust, roof water, surface water, ground water, birds, animals or insects. Tanks are placed where it is located not directly beneath any sanitary plumbing or any other pipes conveying non-portable water.

 

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Figure 2.4.6.2  Position  of  overflow  pipes  

The tank is fitted with an overflow pipe which directs water out of the tank in case the inward water flow exceeds the water tank capacity. It is located outside of the tank as we can see on figure 2.4.6.2.

Figure 2.4.6.3  Position  of  distribution  pipe  and  valve  

From the water tank itself, several distribution pipes are connected to it. The function is to distribute water to all parts of the building. The inner red highlighted line is the gate valve. Gate valves either permit or prevent the completely flow of water.

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UBBL 1984 Section 247: Water Storage 1) Water storage capacity and water flow rate for firefighting system and installation shall be provided in accordance with the scale as set out in the tenth schedule to these by-laws. 2) Main water storage tanks within the building, other than for the hose reel system, shall be located at ground, first or second basement levels. With the fire brigade pumping inlet connection accessible to fire appliances. 3) Storage tanks for automatic sprinkle installation where full capacity is provided without the need for replenishment shall be exempted from the restrictions in their location.

2.5 Analysis Throughout the site visit, we found it is to be true that Kidzania Centre complies with the regulations of UBBL. Kidzania Centre has made the right choice to utilize the combination of gravity and pumped distribution system because the water storage tank, which located on the rooftop above 6-storey high, could generate relatively sufficient amount of gravitational force to transport water to every part of the building. However, through all the research that we did, we have realized that the main disadvantage of this water supply system is the booster pump itself. As we know, the booster pumps are electrically generated and they required a lot of electricity. They consume a lot of electricity in order to keep it functioning and the water running smoothly. The booster pumps consume so much electricity and we think that it could be replace with less energy consuming pumps, for instance hydraulic pumps or pumps powered by high air pressure or compressed air. It does not need very powerful pumps to transport water to the top of the floor because it is just a medium rise building with only 6 floors.

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2.6 Conclusion To conclude that, we have identified and clearly understand that relevant information related to water supply system in Kidzania Centre. We have understood how each components function and its connectivity as well as space implications. Therefore we can conclude that the fundamental purpose of water supply system is to make sure every floor from the basement, ground floor to the top floor that there is an adequate and sufficient supply of clean water.

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3.0 Electrical Supply System 3.1 Introduction Electricity is the key component to modern technology. Everything in our world today depends on having the power to keep them running. It has long played an important part in buildings and it has become a fundamental system supply as it provides the power to move all appliances. For instance, lighting, ventilation systems, heating and cooling systems, mechanical transportation and telecommunication equipment. Without electricity, our lives would be a mess. Electricity suppliers in Malaysia differs according to different areas of the country. Electricity in Peninsular Malaysia is distributed by Tenaga Nasiaonal Berhad (TNB), whereas in Sabah and Sarawak electricity is distributed by Sabah Electricity Sdn Bhd and Sarawak Energy Bhd respectively. These electrical utility companies generate and provide electricity throughout the whole country in many ways. It is generally generated at power plants and distributed through transmission lines through multiple distribution systems before consumption. There are two types of power plants in Malaysia which are thermal power plant and hydroelectric power plant. Thermal power plant produces power by using conventional steam turbine and steam generator principally fired by coal, oil or natural gas (steam power plant, whereas hydroelectric power plant generate electrical energy from flowing water as it descends from a height, and potential energy is converted to electrical energy. These companies also involved in services such as repairs, testing, and also maintenance of equipment to generate electricity for transmission and distribution. In Peninsular Malaysia, all equipment proposed to be installed and connected to TNB supplies must fulfil the following stated short circuit ratings. 1. Electricity Supply Act 1990 – Act 4472 2. License Supply Regulations 19903 3. Occupational, Safety & Health Act 19945 4. Electricity Regulations 19944 5. Malaysia Standard MS IEC 60364 Electrical Installation of Buildings

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3.2 Literature Review

Figure 3.2.1 General Electrical Distribution System. (Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_power_distribution)

Figure 3.2.1 displays the TNB customers are connected with power at generating station from hydroelectric and thermal plants through a network system made up of transmission lines, substations and distribution lines. Generating station (also called power station) produce large quantities of electricity to supply electric power system. Generating station converts heat of fuel (gas, coal, oil) and hydraulic energy (falling water) to electricity. These power plants normally generate current in generating station at high voltage (11-25kV) to be distributed to consumers. The transmission division manages and operates the 132 kV, 275 kV and 500 kV transmission network of TNB known as the National Grid. At this stage, the voltage is significantly increased by passing it through step-up transformers. Then the electricity is routed onto a network of high-voltage transmission lines capable of efficiently transporting electricity over long distances. At the electric distribution substation that serves your home, the electricity is removed from the transmission system and passed through step-down transformers that lower the voltage (33kV and 11Kv). The electricity is then transferred onto your local electric co-op's network of distribution lines and delivered to your home.

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3.3 Case Study The Curve NX is a relatively big commercial building consisting of 7 levels, as well as two basement car parks. The electrical supply is generated from the main power plant, supplied by Electric Utility Company Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB). It is then delivered to the district transmission substation and further transmitted to the TNB substation located within the building.

Figure 3.3.1 The location of electrical distribution rooms at Ground Floor of The Curve NX.

Figure 3.3.1 displays the main electrical distribution rooms on Ground Floor of The Curve NX, which includes: •

TNB Substation (High Voltage Room)

Low Voltage Room (Main Switch Room)

Gen-Set Room TNB Room, Low Voltage Room and Gen-Set Room locate side by side to

reduce occurrence of voltage loss through travel distance, due to resistance in the transmission cable.

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3.4 Electrical Distribution System

Figure 3.4.1 Main Electrical Distribution System in The Curve NX.

Figure 3.4.2 Schematic Diagram of 2 MSB systems in LV Room.

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Figure 3.4.3 Overall Schematic Diagram of Electrical Distribution Systems in The Curve NX.

Figure 3.4.3 displays the electrical distribution system in The Curve NX. From the TNB substation (also known as High Voltage Room), the current will then be transmitted to the Low Voltage Room to be further distributed to several step down transformers to lower the voltage according to usage and consumption in buildings. From Low Voltage Room, also known as the Main Switchboard Room, houses the main switches of different facilities in a building. Each panel receives their respective currents from the transformers. Circuit breakers are installed in the Low Voltage Room should there be excessive power surges that may potentially harm the electrical appliances within the room. Next, current from main switch boards are transferred to distribution boards. This transfer is aided by electrical risers located at every level of the building, using bus ducts. In each riser room, a sub switch board is installed. The function of the sub switch board is to regulate the electrical supply using meters to that particular level by the main switch board. This is to prevent power surges that may result in an electricity trip and to ensure that only the level affected will have its electricity supply cut off. However, Gen-Set Room is connected to the Main Switch Room (LV Room) which has a back-up generator in case TNB fails to supply electricity.

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3.5 Components of System 3.5.1 TNB Substation (High Voltage Room) The TNB substation also known as High Voltage Room is the direct link of electricity supply from the transmission lines or underground cables to be supplied to The Curve NX. Like most shopping malls or commercial buildings, it is located at the back of the building, with a relatively safe distance away from the public.

Figure 3.5.1.1 The location of TNB substation is at ground floor of The Curve NX.

Like most TNB substations, it is slightly elevated and have a slight ramp in front of the entrance to drain and prevent water from flooding into the room. It is located at the Ground floor, and is easily accessible by authorized personnel from TNB. It has a voltage of 11kV. However from here, voltage is stepped down by transformers to be passed to the Consumer Low Voltage (LV) Room that will then distribute the electricity to various parts of the building. The TNB Substation is for authorized personnel only, which means only TNB electrical engineers and the likes are allowed to access the room due to safety reason.

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Figure 3.5.1.2 TNB Substation at Ground Floor of The Curve NX.

Figure 3.5.1.3 Notice of TNB substation.

Electrical Supply Act 1990, Electrical Regulations 1994; Regulation 38, Notice. (1) A standard notice displaying the words "DILARANG MASUK" shall be placed outside a place containing electrical equipment where unauthorized interference with the equipment is to be expected and where such interference is dangerous. (2) The notice referred to in sub regulation (1) shall be of suitable material, 350 millimetres wide and 240 millimetres high with the lettering in black on a white background, and the words "DILARANG MASUK" shall be inscribed in capital letters in the middle, the inscription being 290 millimetres long and 30 millimetres high and the spacing of letters being 6 millimetres wide.

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3.5.2 Low Voltage Room (Main Switch Room) The stepped down current from the TNB Room (HV Room) is then transferred to the Low Voltage Room. The Low Voltage Room is located beside the TNB substation in order to reduce the voltage drop because the longer the journey of the current need to travel, the higher the reduction in the current due to the resistance in the wires. In this room, the electric supply goes through the step transformer. Through the transformer, the voltage of the electric supply is reduced from 11kV to 415V which are much more suitable for usage. The electric supply is now ready to be distributed to other parts of the building. At The Curve NX, the LV Room houses all the Main Switch Boards with Circuit Breakers, Sub Switch Boards, Distribution Boards and Rubber Mats.

Figure 3.5.2.1 The location of Low Voltage Room beside the TNB substation.

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3.5.2.1 Main Switch Board The Main Switch Board is the main power switches of the entire building. The role of a switchboard is to divide the current supplied to the switchboard into smaller currents for further distribution and to provide switching, current protecting and metering for those various currents. Each switchboard is protected and controlled by electrical disconnect switches and circuit breaker. There are three Main Switch Boards in The Curve NX. The step down transformers distribute electricity through under floor cables to their respective switchboards. There are also meters to record supplied to the tenants and least tenants (Kidzania). The first Main Switch Board is for normal daily systems in the building. For example, cold water supply, lift, escalator, air conditioning system and lighting for every floors. The second Main Switch Board is for essential systems in the building, which are firefighting system, CCTV and lighting for basement car parks. The last Main Switch Board is only functioned when the second Main Switch Board (Essential) is fail to function.

Figure 3.5.2.1.1 The Main Switch Boards With Circuit Breaker In The Low Voltage Room.

Figure 3.5.2.1.2 The Second Main Switch Board With Circuit Breaker For Essential Systems.

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Figure 3.5.2.1.3 The Second Main Switch Board With Circuit Breaker For Normal Daily Systems.

Figure 3.5.2.1.4 The Third Main Switch Board With Circuit Breaker For Back-up Proposes.

Electricity Supply Act 1990, Electricity Regulations 1994; Regulation 19. Arrangement of switchboard in general. (1) The general arrangement of a switchboard shall be as follows: (a) all its parts which may have to be adjusted or handled shall be readily accessible; (4) An apparatus appertaining to a switchboard and requiring handling shall be placed or arranged in such a manner that the same may be operated from the working platform of the switchboard, and any measuring instrument and indicator connected therewith shall be placed in such a manner that the same may be observed from the working platform.

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3.5.2.2 Sub Switchboard Sub switchboard has the same functionality of the main switchboard which is to connect and disconnect the electric supply from the main switchboard. It regulate the electricity supply from the main switchboard in Low Voltage Room. The sub switchboard are provide at the respective services point such as AHU (Air Handling Unit) Room, Fire Pump Room, Exhaust Fan Room and so on.

Figure 3.5.2.2.1 Location of sub switchboard in Fire Pump Room at Ground Floor.

Figure 3.5.2.2.2 Sub switchboard in Fire Pump Room at Ground Floor.

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Figure 3.5.2.2.3 Location of sub switchboards in AHU Rooms and Exhaust Fan Room at roof top.

Figure 3.5.2.2.4 Sub switchboard in AHU Room at roof top.

Electricity Supply Act 1990 [ACT 447]; Electricity Regulations 1994; Regulation 37. Room for switchboard or equipment. Any part of an installation where the switchboard or equipment is installed in any premises— (a) shall be adequately lighted, ventilated and kept dry; (b) shall be free from obstruction to facilitate the safe working of the switchboard or equipment; 48


3.5.2.3 Circuit Breaker A circuit breaker is one of the most important safety components in Low Voltage Room. Whenever electrical wiring in a building has too much current flowing through it, these simple machines cut the power until someone can fix the problem. In The Curve NX, air circuit breaker is used. It functions when there is an overcurrent. Overcurrent can be caused by ground fault, short circuit, and overload. Air circuit breaker interrupts the current flow and condensed air becomes the medium of the arc of disconnected circuit.

Figure 3.5.2.3.1 The Air Circuit Breaker on Main Switch Board in Low Voltage Room.

Figure 3.5.2.3.2 Air Circuit Breaker diagram. (Sources: http://nuclearpowertraining.tpub.com/h1011v4/css/h1011v4_122.htm)

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Electricity Supply Act 1990, Electricity Regulations 1994; Regulation 16, Switch, switch fuse, fuse switch, circuit breaker, contractor, fuse etc. (1) Any switch, switch fuse, fuse switch, circuit breaker or isolating link shall be— (b) Constructed and adjusted in such a manner as to and maintain efficient contact; (d) Constructed or arranged in such a manner that it cannot accidentally come into contact with any live conductor when left in the "off" position;

3.5.2.4 Rubber Mat Rubber Mats are placed on the floor in Low Voltage Room as a safety measures for the maintenance crew or staffs in order to prevent human bodies to become a conductor for earthling during a high voltage current leak. In short, rubber mats minimize chances of fatal electric shocks.

Figure 3.5.2.4.1 Rubber mats in Low Voltage Room.

Electricity Supply Act 1990, Electricity Regulations 1994; Regulation 19, Arrangement of switchboard in general (2) A rubber mat of suitable size and thickness shall be placed on the floor in front of every switchboard to prevent danger of electric shock to an operator.

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3.5.2.5 Fire Extinguishers

Figure 3.5.2.5.1 Fire Extinguisher in LV Room

Electricity Supply Act 1990, Electricity Regulations 1994; Regulation 40. Fire extinguishers. Fire extinguishers shall be provided by the owner, management, licensee or supply authority of an installation, other than a domestic installation, and the extinguishers shall be kept on the premises for use at any time.

3.5.2.6 Instruction of Shock Survival

Figure 3.5.2.6.1 Instruction of Shock Survival placed on the wall of LV Room.

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Electricity Supply Act 1990, Electricity Regulations 1994; Regulation 39. Instructions for treatment of electric shock. (1) Instructions in the national language as to the proper mode of treating a person suffering from electric shock shall be affixed to any installation, other than a domestic installation, where persons are normally employed and where electricity is generated, transformed or used.

3.5.2.7 Notice

Figure 3.5.2.7.1 Electric Sign is placed on the door of LV Room.

Electricity Supply Act 1990, Electricity Regulations 1994; Regulation 38. Notice. (3) A standard notice displaying the word "BAHAYA" shall be placed in a conspicuous position near the switchboard. (4) The notice referred to in sub regulation (3) shall be of suitable material, 240 millimetres wide and 350 millimetres high with the lettering in red on a white background, and at the top it shall bear a line of three conventional thunderbolts each 80 millimetres high and 6 millimetres wide at the broadest part, and below these the word "BAHAYA" shall be inscribed in capital letters, the inscription being 190 millimetres long and 28 millimetres high and the spacing of letters being 6 millimetres wide.

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3.5.3 Electrical Riser Room The electrical riser room is a space in the building where it acts as a core for the electrical supply to be brought towards to the upper floors of the building. Electrical riser rooms are located at every level in The Curve NX. The electric rooms are allocated at each level to provide electricity channelled from the Low Voltage Room for usage at each level. This is where bus ducts come into play as well. The power supply runs along the bus duct system up the electrical risers at every level and power is supplied to every electric room to the Sub Switchboards and Distribution Boards.

Figure 3.5.3.1 Location of electrical riser room in every floor of the building.

Figure 3.5.3.2 Electrical riser room in every floor of The Curve NX.

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3.5.3.1 Bus Duct System Bus duct are conductor bars which are encased with insulators in grounded enclosure fittings. The bus duct is commonly used as connection for large switchgears. The bust ducts in The Curve NX is found in the electrical riser room. It is used to transport electricity down the length of the building to the roof level A tap off unit is connected to the bus duct to distribute the electricity into the sub switchboard and distribution boards.

Figure 3.5.3.1.1 Bus duct system in The Curve NX.

Figure 3.5.3.1.2 Bus duct system diagram. (Source: http://electrical-engineering-portal.com/siemens-busway-purpose-and-definition)

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3.5.3.2 Distribution Board The distribution board (DB) is a component of the electrical supply system in a building that divides the electricity into subsidiary circuits. A distribution board functions similar to a switchboard, however the structure of a distribution board is much less complicated. Also, it is a sub division of electricity from the switchboard that supply for only a specific level in The Curve NX. If one of the office units in that particular floor needs repair in any electrical related matter, the other level of office unit in that particular floor will not be affected. Within the distribution board are switches which again sub divide the unit into smaller division where electricity is supplied. Each switch is fitted with fuse, so the electrical appliances will not be damaged if any power surge.

Figure 3.5.3.2.1 Distribution board in electrical riser room.

Figure 3.5.3.2.2 Distribution board and its components diagram. (Source: https://leannekroll.wordpress.com/current-projects/)

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3.5.4 Genset Room Genset Room is located directly next to the Low Voltage Room. It is responsible to provide temporary power supply to the building until the problem is rectified and the power restored when there is power supply breakdown from TNB. The function of this genset is to supply electricity to essential facilities such as emergency lighting, lifts, firefighting and CCTV.

Figure 3.5.4.1 The location of Gen-Set Room at Ground Floor of The Curve NX.

3.5.4.1 The Generator Set The generator in The Curve NX runs on diesel and provide a power of 400V. It is automatically turned on when a loss of supply from the main source, TNB. Also, when fire occurs and the main electrical supply has to be cut off, the generator set is crucial to provide electricity for firefighting equipment such as hose reel pump, firefighter’s lift and so on. The generator set is connected to the main switchboard in Low Voltage Room. A diesel engine burns diesel fuel in order to produce motion for the generator, which converts the motion into electricity by using electromagnets.

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Figure 3.5.4.1.1 Perkins Diesel Generator Set.

Figure 3.5.4.1.2 Diesel generator set diagram. (Source: http://imgbuddy.com/diesel-generator-block-diagram.asp)

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3.5.4.2 Diesel Fuel Tank The fuel tank usually has sufficient capacity to keep the generator operational for 6 to 8 hours on an average. However, in The Curve NX, the fuel tank in the generator set is top up manually from the external diesel fuel tank in the genset room if the fuel in generator is running out.

Figure 3.5.4.2.1 Diesel fuel tank in genset room.

Figure 3.5.4.2.2 Diesel Fuel Tank/ Storage diagram. (Source: http://www.vectec.co.uk/fuel-tanks/rectangular-aboveground-enclosed-bunded-fuel-tanks.html)

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3.5.4.3 Ventilator Silencer Generator set produces heat and noise during operation. It’s been estimated that up to 10% of the heat content of the fuel consumed by the average internal combustion engine is dissipated to the surrounding area as heat. This heat must be removed to maintain proper and safe genset operation. Besides that, generator set produces loud noise which usually come from the engine, cooling fan, mechanical vibration and so on. Therefore, ventilation silencer is used in the genset room of The Curve NX in order to provide ventilation that sufficiently move air to control temperature in all areas of the engine room. It is also used as a noise reduction to avoid noise pollution in the genset room.

Figure 3.5.4.3.1 Ventilation silencer in genset room.

Figure 3.5.4.3.2 Ventilation silencer diagram. (Source: http://www.dorse.com/solutions/featured-products)

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3.5.4.4 Cable Tray System Cable trays are a type of building material used to carry wires, cables and conduits safely through a building. Instead of allowing wires to be run throughout the walls and ceiling space unprotected. They are found in the Ground Floor which suspend the transmission cables from the generator set to the main switch board for fire emergency.

Figure 3.5.4.4.1 The cable tray system connected from genset room to Low Voltage Room.

Figure 3.5.4.4.2 Cable tray system diagram. (Source: http://www.sheetsdb.net/cable-tray-systems/)

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3.5 Analysis Based on my observations, The Curve NX has abided to most of the regulations stated on Electricity Regulations 1994 and other law and regulations by the authorities. I noticed that many precautions are taken by the management to ensure a safety working environments for the maintenance team. For example, every components and equipment are arranged neatly in every rooms; there are also fire extinguishers, rubber mat floorings, safety instruction boards in the rooms to avoid accident. Furthermore, from my findings, there is no any broken cable or old equipment in The Curve Nx. Therefore, I believe that the maintenance team has done a great job in managing the system in the building. The electrical supply runs efficiently as the maintenance is carried out regularly to ensure all the systems work well throughout the year. Besides that, there are always backup systems in the building to work continuously during power shortage. For instance, there is a back-up Main Switch Board which is only functioned when the second Main Switch Board (Essential) is fail to function, and an external diesel fuel tank in gen-set room if the fuel in generator is running out. In short, for my opinion, The Curve NX has a good electrical supply systems which follows the necessary requirements set by the governments for operating the building in terms of electricity. It generally is a pleasant building to be studied upon its electrical supply systems as I really learnt a lot of knowledge about electrical supply system from there.

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4.0 Sewerage, Sanitary and Drainage System 4.1 Introduction Sewerage system plays an important role in ensuring public health, environmental protection and enhancing the standard of living of the general population. Wastewater is produced in large amount in a building and the sewerage system is the answer to it. Wastewater is then divided to black water and grey water. Black water is used to describe wastewater containing feces, urine from flush toilets; grey water or sullage, is the wastewater generated from domestic activity such as washing food, clothes and dishware and it can be recycled. The systems can be distinguished into two types, namely the combined sewage and separate sewerage. Combined sewerage is designed to carry stormwater, industrial wastes and domestic sewage, while separate sewerage carries surface run-off and wastewater separately. It consists of a network of underground sewer pipe, pump stations, sewage treatment plants and sludge treatment facilities. This system usually operates based on by gravity due to the slope of the pipe which reduces the high cost required for pumping. The efficiency of the sewerage system is affected by the flow of the wastewater. In designing a sewerage system, the type and size of the pipe to be used must be able to accommodate the peak flow. There is a standard code and criteria of practice for sewerage design in Malaysia (MS 1228:1991).

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4.2 Literature Review The sewerage system is designed to collect wastewater or foul sewage through sewer pipes and discharges it to the treatment plants or facilities to ensure the sewage is released to the natural water bodies in an appropriate condition and quality. In Malaysia, sewerage systems range from simple toilet with little or no treatment provided to modern sewage treatment plants that treat the sewage to the desired quality accordance to environment standard. A premise sewerage system is either connected to a public sewage treatment plant or an individual septic tank. Indah Water Konsortium (IWK) is responsible to provide service and maintenance to public sewage treatment plants and all the underground pipes and also provide desludging services to individual septic tanks (Abd Aziz, 2006).

Figure 4.2: Sewage system Source: http://www.iwk.com.my/v/customer/connected-services-my

IWK decided to divide the underground pipe into two sections, public pipe and private pipe to make sure that all underground pipes operate without any problem. Public pipe is under the responsibility of IWK and the private pipe is under individual responsibility. An individual have to pay for the IWK services when the private pipe need for servicing.

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4.3 Case study Curve NX building consists of 9 floors. The building consists of few features of sewerage system which are collection, conveyance, treatment and disposal. Location of wash closets on each are similar because of direct stack shared all through the levels is more cost efficient and space efficient. The waste from the waste closets from every floor is collected and conveyed through the system of pipe line; soil pipe, vent pipe and waste pipe. The sewage is treated by removing contaminants from sewage and discharge to the nearest manhole then flow into the drainage.

p

Manhole Soil pipe Waste pipe

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4.4 Sanitary system

Figure 4.4: Schematic diagram of sanitary system

All sanitary appliances should be made from impervious materials, be quiet in operation, easy to clean and be of a convenient shape fixed at a suitable height. A number of materials are available for most domestic sanitary fittings including: Vitreous china: a white clay body which is vitried and permanently fused with a vitreous glazed surface when fired at a very high temperature generally to the recommendations of BS 3402. This materials are non-corrosive, hygienic and easily cleans with a mild detergent or soap solution. Glazed fireclay: consists of a porous ceramic body glazed in a similar manner to vitreous china; they are exceptionally strong and resistant to impact damage but will allow water penetration of the body if the protective glazing is damaged. It is non-corrosive, hygienic and easily cleaned.

4.5 Sanitary appliances Is a fixture connected to the sewer pipe. It allows a person to put in sewage or liquids into the sewage system. Wastewater that are produced here will be discharged into the waste and soil pipes which flow down the stack to the main discharge outlet. Floor traps which are located on the floor will also connect to these stacks. All the discharge points and traps requite a trap seal to prevent foul gases from exiting though the inlet. 65


4.5.1 Water closet (WC) (i) Floor-mounted water closet

Figure 4.5.1.1: Floor-mounted WC in Curve NX

Figure 4.5.1.2: Compartments of WC

Source: http://www.hometips.com

It is the most common type found in Malaysia. It is suitable to be used in office and commercial building because it is economic, simple and efficient. Blockage rarely happens. Several different types of mechanisms are used to accomplish a toilet’s basic operation. Flush valves are 2 ½ inches in diameter. The flapper hinges onto the vertical overflow pipe that’s next to the valve, and a small chain connects the flapper to the trip lever. As the tank of a toilet empties, a float ball drops and activating the ballcock which released water into the tank. The water is delivered ti the ballcock through a supply tube. When turned clockwise, this valve shuts off the flow of water to the tank. To prevent overflow, the top of the overflow tube is open and acts as a drain if the tank’s water level rises too high. Plastic connectors are used for joining the outlet to the soil branch pipe. The flush pipe joint is usually made with a rubber cone connector, which fits tightly between water closet and pipe. Soil waste from water closet outlet is connected to the soil stack.

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In all buildings, the size of the latrines, water-closets and bathrooms shall be UBBL (a) In the case of latrines or water-closets with pedestal-type closet fittings, not less than 1.5 meter by 0.75 meter.

Figure: Dimension of latrine comply to minimum dimension stated by the UBBL Source: http://www.ada.gov/images/reg3a/fig28.gif

(ii) Squatting water closet

Figure 4.5.1.3: Squatting water closet in Curve NX

Figure 4.5.1.3: System of squatting water closet

Source:https://www.plumbingsupply.com

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(iii)

Urinals

Figure 4.5.1.4: Urinal in Curve NX

Figure 4.5.1.5: System of urinal

Source:http://equipartscorporation.com/partsandunits/waterfreeurinal

Urinals are usually found in male toilet and it is only for urination. Bowl urinals with automatic flushing system to save water consumption. Urinals are washed at intervals by means of an automatic flushing cistern discharging 4.5L of water per bowl. This system is advantages as it saves water, and is easily maintained. This is connected to waste pipe. Public urinals usually have a plastic mesh guard, which may contain a deodorizing and to prevent solid objects such as cigarette butts, feces, chewing gum, or paper from being flushed and possibly causing a plumbing stoppage. Ice may be put to replace the deodorizer block to serve the same function as the deodorizer block.

UBBL (a) In the ease of water-closets with fittings other than pedestal-type closet fittings, not less than 1.25m by 0.75m

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(iv)

Basins

Figure 4.5.1.6: Wall-mounted basin in Curve NX

Figure 4.5.1.7: Compartments of basin

Source: http://www.bathsource.co.uk/acatalog

It is a plumbing fixture used for washing hands and etc. The type of wash basin used in Curve NX is the wall-mounted basin. The plumbing lines for the wall-mounted sinks run directly into the wall and are therefore more pleasing to the eyes. Maintenance are easy as the design opens up the space underneath the sink. The design making it easier to repair whenever the blockage happens. Solid ceramic is used in Curve NX because it represents a good trade-off between cost, usability, durability, and ease of cleaning.

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4.5.2 Traps The function as trap to provide a water sea between the drainage piping and the outlet of the plumbing features. This water sea is to prevent building of odors, sewage gases and vermin from the sewer from entering the space. If a plumbing fixture has not been used for months, water inside the trap will evaporate and causing the gases to enter the room. (i)

Bottle trap

Figure 4.5.2.1: Bottle trap in Curve NX

Figure 4.5.2.2: Diagram of bottle trap

Source: http://www.faqs.org/patents/img/20090308463_04

The bottle trap is an essential element and device of the basins plumbing that keeps the bathroom hygienic and clean. Lot of waste and dirt is accumulated in this sewer and naturally the accumulation causes a lot of harmful gases. Bottle trap contains a waterseal of about 50mm to 75mm to prevent gases escaping into sanitary fittings. When more water gushes in the water inside the bottle trap goes into the drain and fills with the new water that comes from the waste. Thus the trap always remain filled with a certain amount of water so it doesn’t allow the return waste and gases to enter it and pave their way upwards into and out of the basin right into the bathroom.

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(ii)

S trap

Figure 4.5.2.3: Details diagram of S trap Source: http://terrylove.com/forums/index.php?attachments/ptrap-critical-jpg.16462/

A trap is an S or J-shaped pipe located below or within a plumbing fixture. Because of its shape, the trap retains a small amount of water after the fixture’s use. This water in the trap creates a seal that prevents sewer gas from passing from the drain pipes back into the occupied space of the building. This type of trap is able to carry heavy objects that are inadvertently dropped into the sink.

UBBL (1) Where ducts or enclosures are provided in any building to accommodate pipes, cables or conduits the dimensions of such ducts or enclosures shall be: (a) Adequate for the accommodation of the pipes, cables or conduits and for crossings of branches and mains together with supports and fixing; and (b) Sufficiently large to permit access to cleaning eyes. Stop cocks and other controls there 10 enable repairs, extensions and modifications to be made to each or all of the services accommodated. 71


(iii)

Floor trap

Figure 4.5.2.4: Floor trap

Figure 4.5.2.5: System diagram of floor trap

Source: http://terrylove.com/forums/index.php?attachments/ptrap-critical-jpg.16462/

A floor trap is a plumbing fixture that is installed in the floor of a building, mainly designed to remove any standing water on the floor and transport them out from the room. They usually range from 2 inches to 12 inches and they have gratings that made of cast iron or UPVC material and have removable grating (JALI) on the top of the trap. The floor around the drain is also sloped to allow the water to flow to the trap. Traps should be convenient for cleaning. A good trap should maintain an efficient water seal under all conditions of flow. The minimum depth of the water seal should be 50mm deep.

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(iv)

Vent pipe

Figure 4.5.2.6: Vent pipe in Curve NX

Figure 4.5.2.7: System of vent pipe

Source: http://www.smaller-homes.com/images/uprightsystem.JPG

Vent pipes are found at the roof level of Curve NX. Plumbing vents, which are also referred to as the venting system. The vents serve a very important purpose for plumbing. Rather than carrying water through the pipes leading to the vents, these pipes carry sewer gases. Plumbing vents help to bring oxygen into plumbing system, which assists with the aerobic sewage digestion that is necessary for breaking the waste down. In addition, the vents help maintain the water seals in the plumbing traps, which prevents sewer gases from getting into the building. Without the help of plumbing vents, water and waste would not move properly through the pipes in the building. This is because the venting helps to maintain neutral air pressure within the drains.

UBBL (a) The access, openings to ducts or enclosures shall be long enough and suitably placed to enable lengths of pipe to be installed and removed.

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(v)

Gully trap

Figure 4.5.2.8: Gully trap

Figure 4.5.2.9: Details diagram of gully trap

Source: http://www.draindomain.com/drainage%20gullies.html

A gully trap is a basin in the ground with a water seal to prevent foul odours from the sewer reaching the surface. Gully traps are buried in the ground with the tops or surround raised above ground level to prevent ground water entering into the sewer.Gully traps receive discharge from wastewater fixtures. One gully trap may receive discharge pipes from several outlets. Each residential building must have at least one gully trap. If a drainage system becomes blocked, the gully trap provides the point where sewage can overflow outside the building, instead of building up inside the pipe and overflowing inside the building. Gully traps must have an overflow rim at least 150mm below the overflow level of the lowest fixture served by the system, located within the legal boundary of the land on which the building stands, to prevent surface water from entering the trap, be constructed so the grate will lift to allow surcharge, have at least one discharge pipe feeding into it to maintain the water seal. The advantage of using a gully trap is that it reduces the number of connections required to the drain and the length of pipe.

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(vi)

Grease trap

Figure 4.5.2.10: Grease trap

Figure 4.5.2.11: System of grease trap

Figure 4.5.2.12: Diagram of grease trap Source: http://www.swanenviro.co.uk/images/grease-trap-how-it-works2.gif

A grease trap, sometimes called a grease interceptor, is an essential piece of restaurant equipment that is required to keep the sewers functional. It acts as a filter to remove fats and oils from water before it enters the municipal waste system. A grease trap looks like a large box or barrel spliced into the water drainage line. When the water enters the trap, it cools down, allowing the lighter oil to precipitate out to the top. A series of baffles collect oil and chunks of material while the water sinks to the bottom. An exit pipe at the base of the device allows the treated water to flow out, while the grease remains enclosed cleaned and maintained. 75


4.5.3 Gratings

Figure 4.5.3.1: Gratings

Figure 4.5.3.2: Details diagram of grating

Source: http://www.mechanicalmetals.com/bar-grating/

Gully inlets are inlets where surface water from roads and paved areas are entering the sewer system. Gullies consists of a grating which is any regularly spaced collection off essentially identical, parallel, elongated elements. All sanitary appliances outlet holes except for water closets and bidets to the waste water pipes are fitted with a grate or perforated cover. A grating covering a drain can be a collection of iron bars held together by lighter iron frame. Gratings over drains and air vents are used as filters, to block movement of large particles and to allow movement of small particles. A water seal is incorporated to act as an odor trap for those gullies connected to combined sewer. Gullies are connected to the sewer by lateral pipes.

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4.5.4 Septic tank

Figure 4.5.4.1: Septic tank

Figure 4.5.4.2: Details of septic tank

Source: http://www.blockbusterdrain.co.za/septic_tank_two_compartment.jpg

A septic tank in Curve NX consists of a tank of 2,000 gallons connected to an inlet wastewater pipe at one end and a septic drain field at the other. Septic tank is to store the solid materials and waste produced from the building. It is constructed using concrete and it must be resistant to decay. Septic tank stores the wastewater and discharges it to a disposal field before it proceed for further treatment. During that time, waste will discharged and form 3 layers which is sludge layer for solid and heavier sewage, scum layer for lighter solids such as fats and grease, and middle layer for partially liquid wastewater. Waste water enters the first chamber of the tank, allowing solids to settle and scum to float. The settled solids are anaerobically digested, reducing the volume of solids. The liquid component flows through the dividing into second chamber, where further settlement takes place, with the excess liquid then draining in a relatively clear condition from the outlet into leach field.

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4.5.5 Manholes

Figure 4.5.5.1: Manhole

Figure 4.5.5.2: Details of manhole

Source: http://web.deu.edu.tr/atiksu/ana52/manhole1

Manholes or maintenance holes are underground chambers which are dug into the ground to ensure that sewer lines and other utilizes such as electrical cables are able to be checked for damage and maintenance. Sewer lines run across manholes, and if they are damaged, manholes are access pointes to get to the damaged pipe. Manhole openings are protected by manhole cover, a flat plug designed to prevent accidental or unauthorized access to the manhole.

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4.6 Drainage system

Figure 4.6.1: The direction of the flow of storm water

Storm water drainage is the process of draining excess water from streets, sidewalks, roofs, buildings, and other areas. The systems used to drain storm water are often referred to as storm drains, but they are also called storm sewers and drainage wells. Sometimes people confuse storm water drainage systems with sanitation sewers, but storm drains often function separately from sewer systems created for sanitation purposes. Storm water collects because of precipitation. Some of this water soaks into the ground, but without proper drainage, excess water may collect and present dangers to both people and physical property. Excess water can lead to flooding, making unsafe conditions for humans and animals and damaging cars and buildings.

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4.6.1 Components of system (i)

Gutter

Figure 4.6.1.1: Aluminium gutter

Figure 4.6.1.2: System of gutter

Source: https://s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/originals/1b/df/7d/1bdf7db564e8314f86fc32466ab83da8.jpg

The main purpose of the rain gutter is to protect Curve NX foundation by channeling water away from its base. The gutter also helps to reduce erosion, prevents leaks in basements and crawlspaces, protects painted or stained surfaces by reducing exposure to water, and provides a means to collect rainwater for later use. The rain gutters in Curve NX is made from aluminium. Aluminium is the most popular metal used for gutters. It is low cost and easily maintained. It will not rust and has a life expectancy of approximately 30 years. Water collected by the rain gutter is fed to a downspout, from the roof edge to the base of the building where it is either discharged or collected.

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(ii)

Downspout

Figure 4.6.1.3: Types of downspout

Figure: 4.6.1.4: Details of downspout

Source: http://www.marc.org/Environment/Water-Resources/images/standpipe.aspx

Rainwater downspouts play an important role in drainage system. Downspouts are drainage pipes that direct rainwater from the roof to the ground. This is where the rainwater is lead away from the buildings foundation. Downspouts are most commonly seen attached to the corner of building. Without perfectly working downspouts, rainwater will fall off the roof edge and may cause flooding and damage to the building. The problem with downspouts is that they clog very easily when leaves, twigs, and other debris accumulate within the downspout itself. This makes it difficult for the rainwater to drain properly throughout the downspout. Downspouts are mostly attached to the house by downspout brackets, which can be easily removed for further cleaning if the downspout becomes highly clogged with debris.

UBBL 84. (a) Suitable measure shall be taken to prevent the penetration of dampness and moisture into a building. (b) Damp proof courses where provide shall comply with BS 743 (materials for horizontal D.P.C)

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(iii)

Perimeter drain

Figure 4.6.1.5: Perimeter drain

Perimeter drain function is to collect the rainwater from downspout and the surface of the ground and redirect the water away from the building. Perimeter drain consists of a perforated pipe (typically a PVC pipe with weep holes along one side) set in a trench and covered with gravel. It can be cover with a nylon filter sock to prevent the pipe filling with debris. Usually the water that enters the pipe is then redirected to the sump pump or away from the foundation by gravity flow. UBBL (a) All ground under raised building shall be suitably finished and graded to prevent the accumulation of water or the growth of unwanted vegetation or for the breeding of vermin.

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4.7 Uniform Building by Law (UBBL 1984) Under UBBL By-Law 1984, section 43: In all buildings, the size of latrines, water closets and bathrooms shall be(a) In the case of latrines or water-closets with pedestal-type closet fittings, not less than 1.5 meters by 0.75 meters (b) In the case of water- closets with fittings other than pedestal-type closet fittings, not less than 1.25 meters by 0.75 meters (c) In the case of bathrooms, not less than 1.5 square meters with a width of not less than 0.75 meters (d) In the case of bathrooms, with closet fittings, not less than 2 square meters with a width of not less than 0.75 meters

Sewage system By-Law: Laws of Malaysia Act 133, Street, Drainage and Building Act 1974 -

Under Laws of Malaysia Act 133, no water-pipe, stack pipe or downspout for conveying surface water from any premises shall be used or be permitted to serve or act as a ventilating shaft to any drain or sewer.

-

Under Water Services Industry Act 2006 No 35, it shall be the duty of every facilities license to construct refurbish, upgrade, maintain and repair its water supply system and sewerage system and all other assets in relation to the systems such that the facilities license is and continues to be able to meet its obligation.

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Water supply By-Law: Street Drainage and Building Act 1974 -

No 56, rain water pipes not be used as soil pipe. No pipe used for the carrying off rain water from any roof shall be used for the purpose of carrying off the soil or drainage from any privy or water closet or any sullage water.

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Under JKR20800 132-23:1:3:1. Storage tank shall be watertight and properly supported, provided with dust and mosquito proof cover. The cover shall be constructed that it shall not be airtight. The storage shall be provided with a high pressure ball value on the inlet and of the same size as inlet pipe, overflow/ warning pipe shall be discharge outside the building.

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4.8 Findings and analysis In Curve NX, liquid waste are being release in sanitary appliances and being flush into the vertical waste pipe also called as stacks. From stacks is then travel to the septic tank in the basement of the building and through a soil pipe, wastewater is being pumped into the public sewer line. Wastewater is then travel along the public sewer line to a wastewater treatment plant nearby for treatment before clean water being send to the nearby water sources. Grease interceptor traps are used only at ground and first level of the building where restaurant is located. Grease from wastewater can cause pipes to block as they solidify on the inner wall of the pipe. A grease interceptor trap consists of a tank which holds water in a sufficient amount to cause the washing up water to stagnate and cool. Thus allow the grease to float to the water surface and maybe solidify and thrown away while the normal liquid being send out through an outlet pipe. Most of the sewage pipes and vents, including the storm drains and sewer are hidden and cannot be seen. Most sewage pipes run across above ceiling panels, and behind walls. This is a good thing for the aesthetics of the building interior and exterior. The smell and odor around the building is kept fresh, as every plumbing fixture and sewage inlet such as water closets and floor traps are connected to a stack vent. Every stack vent has a vent pipe till the roof to allow the smell of the sewage to escape the building. Curve NX is categorized as a separate sewage system. Storm water and wastewater are separated by two different pipes. Even though it is at a higher cost during installation, but its efficiency is much higher due to the prevention of sewer overflowing and preventing flooding from happening. Separate sewage system also makes the maintenance easier as the pipes are separated and repairing and maintenance work will be much more convenient. In conclusion, Curve NX is a very efficient design in terms of sanitation and drainage. It has all the basic requirements of sanitation services and storm water systems. The sewage systems in the building are functional, efficient and aesthetically acceptable. The wastewater system for Curve NX is well planned and it complies with standards and requirement of regulatory bodies in Malaysia.

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5.0 Mechanical Transportation System 5.1 Introduction The most important, out of the many decisions made by the designer would probably be the selection of the vertical transportation equipment, that is, the passenger and service elevators and the escalators of the building. The general purpose of the mechanical transportation system is to enable passengers and goods to move, or be moved, in a reasonable, quick, and efficient way. It is designed so to serve users in the building by minimizing their movement around the built spaces. Elevators and escalators are integral parts of the physical building facility of the transportation systems. Therefore, this section is to identify and provide explanations on the functions and specifications of the geared traction elevator system and the escalators system with parallel arrangements found in the case study building, The CurveNX.

5.2 Literature Review No systems in a multi-storey structure are taken for granted more consistently than elevators and escalators, which are relied upon to move people quickly and safely under all conditions, including emergencies. Vertical transportation of goods and people has originated from the depth of history where simple rope and pulley block systems were used. This

transportation

should

be

rapid,

trouble-free,

and

economical.

Furthermore, because vertical transportation accounts for 10%-15% of the construction budget in buildings, somewhat less of the building area and somewhat more of the operating cost −and is a determining factor in building shape, core layout, and lobby design. Accordingly, requirements must be anticipated at an early stage of building design, with full regard to the dependence on other services such as electricity, fire protection, means of escape, co-ordination of installations and longer-term maintenance of the facility (Greeno, 1997). Therefore, elevator and escalator selection and design integration are major tasks for the architectural designer.

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5.3 Case Study −Elevators Ideal performance of an elevator installation will provide minimum waiting time for a car at any floor level, comfortable acceleration and rapid transportation. The elevator system has to provide quick, quiet operation doors, good floor status and travel direction indication, easily operated car and landing call buttons, safe operation of mechanical equipment during loading, comfortable lighting and reliable emergency and security equipment. This case study will provide further explanations of the placing, components and operations of the elevators within the selected building. There are three common types of elevators in a high rise building: 1 Geared and gearless traction elevators 2 Hydraulic elevators 3 Machine roomless elevators The elevators that are used in the CurveNX buliding is found to be operated by geared traction system with a motor room on the rooftop level. 5.3.1 Placement Of Elevators

Figure 5.3.1.1 shows the placement of elevators in all of the levels of the building.

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Figure 5.3.1.2 shows the section of the building exceeding 4 storeys and above.

The location of the elevators should be carefully planned out and placed in the central area of the building and the proximity of entrances to the building and staircases should be taken into account. The lift lobby should be large enough to allow traffic to move in both directions on the landing without being obstructed by people waiting for the lift. The lobbies should be visible from the entrance halls, but intending passengers should not be able to see the entrance hall from the lift, as they may hold the lift for late arrivals, which then causes disturbances and the wear of the control system.

UBBL - SECTION 124 For all non-residential buildings exceeding 4 storeys above or below the main access level at least one lift shall be provided.

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5.3.2 External Components Of Elevators 5.3.2.1 Lift Doors

Figure 5.3.2.1.1 shows the waiting lobby for the elevators.

Figure 5.3.2.1.2 shows the car door of the elevator.

Figure 5.3.2.1.3 shows the centre opening used for car doors.

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Figure 5.3.2.1.4 shows detailed mechanisms found in the car door of a lift.

The automatic car door with centre opening has a width of 1400mm. It has two components, one that is fitted to the lift car and one to the landing. Photocells and reflectors are placed in between the two doors to detect and prevent the doors from forcefully shutting while a user is still entering the lift.

UBBL - SECTION 152 Every opening in a lift shaft or lift entrance shall open into a protected lobby unless other suitable means of protection to the opening to the satisfaction of the local authority is provided. These requirements shall not apply to open type industrial and other special buildings as may be approved by the D.G.F.S.

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5.3.2.2 Call Buttons

Figure 5.3.2.2.1 shows the call buttons placed alongside the car door in the lift lobbies.

Call buttons are to be positioned at a level appropriate for use by people with disabilities and younger children. A device located in the lobby near the elevator that allows users to register calls for lifts on designated floors. It consist of an up button and a down button that will light up upon being pressed to indicate that the command is being executed and the lift will be programmed to move to the designated landing. In a group of two elevators like this building, the call buttons may be linked to a central dispatch computer, where only one car is called at one time.

5.3.2.3 Hall Lantern

Figure 5.3.2.3.2 shows the hall lantern indicator placed above the car door.

An indicator mounted in the lobby right above the lift door that signals light to indicate the arriving elevator or the direction in which the lift is to travel. The hall lanterns have audible signals that sound once for elevators which are going up and twice for elevators that are going down. 91


5.3.2.4 Fireman's Lift Switch

Figure 5.3.2.4.1 shows the position of the fireman's lift switch in the ground floor lobby.

The fireman's lift switch operates whereby if the toggle switch is activated, the fireman's elevator will go to the fire recall floor. In this case, the fireman's elevator is known to be Lift 1 of the CurveNX building where the fireman's switch is located on the ground floor level. Upon reaching the designated landing, passengers are able to evacuate the elevator and building safely. The elevator will remain open and it will no longer accept hall calls after it has arrived at its landing. UBBL - SECTION 229 In a building where the top occupied floor is over 18.5 meters above the fire appliance access level fire lifts shall be provided. (18.5 meters from main discharge ground level to the landing floor of the topmost floor level shall be provided with a fire lift and the system shall be linked or connected to the Fire Command Centre (F.C.C.)) UBBL - SECTION 243, (3) Fire lifts shall be located within a separate protected shaft if it opens into a separate lobby. UBBL - SECTION 243, (4) Fire lifts shall be provided at the rate of one lift in every group of lifts which discharge into the same protected enclosure or smoke lobby containing the rising main, provided that the fire lift are located not more than 61 meters travel distance from the furthermost point of the floor. (Fire lift must be NOT more than 61m from the furthest point of the building) 92


5.3.2.5 Smoke detectors

Figure 5.3.2.5.1 shows the positioning of the smoke detectors in the lift lobbies of every floor.

The lift lobbies provides smoke detectors which automatically triggers the alarm when in a case of a fire emergency. With that being set off and with the control of the fireman’s lift switch activated, all lift s will return to their designated landing except for the fireman’s lift (Lift 1) which can be operable and only responds to car calls instead of landing calls.

UBBL - SECTION 153 All lift lobbies shall be provided with smoke detectors.

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5.3.3 Internal Components Of Elevators 5.3.3.1 Floor Selection Buttons And Emergency Call Button

Figure 5.3.3.1.1 shows the general layout for an elevator control panel.

The floor selection buttons are used to select floors that the passengers intend to get off at and it will illuminate once it is pressed. Emergency call button are offset below the floor selection buttons, which includes emergency stop, emergency alarm and an intercom.

5.3.3.2 Lighting And Ventilation

Figure 5.3.3.2.1 shows the artificial lighting and ventilation found in the lift interior.

According to MS1525, lighting must provide a suitable visual environment within the space of a car lift. The recommended average illuminance level in the lift 94


interiors should be 100 Lux. Adding to that, MS1525 also states that the space of the car lift should be provided with an adequate force ventilation (<10 air change per hour when doors are closed) during the periods where the lift is available for use, and where ventilating fans or blowers are securely fastened in place which usually is located above the car ceiling or outside the car enclosure. The ventilation of this lift is situated at the sides of the car ceiling where it is hidden from sight by the illumination.

5.3.3.3 Emergency Railings

Figure 5.3.3.3.1 shows the elevator railing on all sides of the lift shaft.

The elevator rails are located at the side walls of the lift shaft. Based on EN 81 ISO/TR 11071 standards, the grab bars must be provided on both the sides and the rear of the lift car and is to be positioned at a height of 900mm to 1200mm from the lift landing finished floor level. These railings must be positioned in such a way that all the passengers are able to grab onto it at any direction.

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5.3.4 Operations Of Elevators

Figure 5.3.1.4 .1 shows the shell of the elevator

Figure 5.3.1.4.2 shows the details of the lift mechanism

The car lift, cables, elevator machine, control equipment, counterweights, hoist way, rails, penthouse, and pit are the principle parts of a traction elevator installation. The car is a cage made of fire-resistant material supported on a structural frame, to the top member of which the lifting cables are fastened. By means of guide shoes on the side members, the car is guided in its vertical travel in the shaft. The car is provided with safety doors, operating-control equipment, floorlevel indicators, illumination, emergency exits, and ventilation.

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5.3.4.1 Machine Room

Figure 5.3.4.1.1 shows the placement of the motor rooms on the rooftop level.

Figure 5.3.4.1.2 shows the geared traction system in the motor room.

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Figure 5.3.4.1.3 shows the gearbox in the motor room.

Figure 5.3.4.1.4 shows a diagram of the motor room.

The machine room is located at the top of the lift shaft as this position provides the greatest effiency. The room should be ventilated and consideration must be given to the transmission of sound by insulation the concrete base of the machine from the walls and floor. The walls and ceiling are painted to avoid the formation of dust, which can damage the equipemnt and cause a breakdown of the electrical circuit due to poor contacts.

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The overhead lifting beam directly over the machine is installed for positioning or dismantling the equipment, and an access hatch in the floor, above the landing, through which the equipment can be lowered for repair or repacement is also required.

Figure 5.3.4.1.5 shows a diagram of a geared traction system.

The geared traction machine consists a worm and gear interposed between the driving motor and the hoisting sheave. The driving motor can therefore be smaller, cheaper, high-speed unit rather the large, low-speed unit required by a gearless installation. These are used for car speeds up to 2.3 m/s and maximum rise of about 90 m. In this case, the speed of the car for the CurveNX building is 1.0 m/s. With an appropriate drive and control system, a geared traction machine can give almost the same high-quality, accurate, smooth ride as is available from a gearless installation.

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5.3.4.2 Control Panel

Figure 5.3.4.2.1 shows the control panel located in the motor room.

An electrical control panel is used to operate the equipment in the machine room. It is a cabinet containing a series of electrical components to control or isolate any circuit of equipment in the room.

5.3.4.3 Ventilation

Figure 5.3.4.3.1 shows a fan-assisted ventilation located in the motor room.

Heating will be needed to maintain a minimum temperature of 10â&#x2014;ŚC and fanassisted ventilation to remove excess heat from the machine room.

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5.3.4.4 Lift Supervisory Panel

Figure 5.3.4.4.1 shows a lift supervisory panel in the security room.

A monitor panel is placed in the security/control room whereby the floor levels at which all the lifts are can be observed. It is to ensure the operation of the lifts within the building and in any case, allow the guards to know at which lift and level when passengers are trapped inside the lift.

5.3.5 Safety Features The protection of the passengers during normal operation is ensured by a number of safety features as below: 1 Main brake of an elevator is mounted directly on the shaft of the elevator machine. The elevator is first slowed by dynamic braking of the motor and the brake then operates to clamp the brake drum, thus holding the car still at the floor. 2 Rope system in an elevator has to be built with multiple ropes (between 4 to 8) for when an unlikely event where one of the ropes snaps, the rest will continue to hold the elevator up. 101


3 Roped elevator cars have built-in breaking system that grab onto the rail when the car moves too fast. It is very unlikely that an elevator car would fall to the bottom even when all the ropes were to snap or sheave system were to release them. 4 Even when all of the above fails, and the elevator does fall down the shaft, the shock absorber at the bottom of the shaft will act as a cushion to soften the elevator's landing and increase impact time to reduce the damage.

5.4 Case Study â&#x2C6;&#x2019;Escalators Escalators are continuous conveyors designed for moving large numbers of people quickly and efficiently from one floor to another. Unlike a normal lift installation it requires no waiting time, but in order to achieve a similar service like the lift, it would require a larger floor space. It has the advantage of being reversible to suit the main flow of traffic during peak times.

5.4.1 Placement Of Escalators

Figure 5.4.1.1 shows the placement of escalators and staircases on the plan.

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Figure 5.4.1.2 shows the parallel arrangement of escalators found in the entrance of the building.

The escalators found in the CurveNX building are products of Schindler. It is located at the centre of the building plan and provides service from the ground floor all the way to the 5th floor of the building. The escalator arrangement in CurveNX building is in parallel arrangement.

Figure 4.4.1 (c) shows the elevations of the parallel arrangements.

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5.4.2 Components Of Escalators

Figure 5.4.2.1 shows the detailed components of the escalator.

The landing platforms, truss, tracks, steps, handrails, balustrade, drive system, auto-lubrication system, braking system, safety devices, electrical and control systems are the principle parts of an escalator installation. 5.4.2.1 Landing Platforms The floor plates house the curved sections of the tracks, as well as the gears and motors that drive the stairs. The top platform contains the motor assembly and the main drive gear whereas the bottom platform holds the step return idler sprockets. This components also anchor the ends of the escalator truss. Major components of landing platforms are comb plates, comb segments, access covers and comb lights.

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5.4.2.2 Truss

Figure 5.4.2.2.1 shows the truss section of an escalator.

The escalator truss is a structural frame that consist of the lower section, incline section and upper section. A welded steel structure that bridges the top and bottom landings. The truss carries all the straight track section connecting the upper and lower sections. The tracks are steel angles attached to the truss on which the step rollers are guided, thus controlling the motion of the steps. The structural steel truss members are able to carry the entire load of the escalator equipment and steel coverings.

5.4.2.3 Steps

Figure 5.4.2.3.1 shows the steps components of an escalator.

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The step plate is the surface area where the users step on and is usually made of aluminium plate with longitudinal cleats that run through the combs and provide secure footing. Demarcation lines are yellow strips around the step thread that are used to visually locate the step separation. Frame yoke is the main support for the riser, step thread and step wheels. Trail wheels are to guide the step and support its load on the track which prevents it from going out of plane. 5.4.2.4 Handrails

Figure 5.4.2.4.1 shows the handrail components of an escalator.

The handrails is driven by sheaves powered from the top sprocket assembly. The handrails are synchronized with the thread motion to provide stability to passengers and support for entering and leaving passengers.

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5.4.3 Operations Of Escalators 5.4.3.1 Drive Machine and Gear Reducer

Figure 5.4.3.1.1 shows the escalator using internal drive system.

Figure 5.4.3.1.2 shows the escalator drive and gear reducer.

The internal drive is located at the upper landing inside the truss between the step bands. The main drive gear or gear reducer is an enclosed, mechanical device that takes the drive motor torque and transmits this torque to the bull gear through a gearbox shaft or the main drive chain. It contains a steel worm gear that is coupled onto the motor shaft and it meshes with the bronze gear.

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5.4.3.2 Step Drive System

Figure 5.4.3.2.1 shows the step drive system of an escalator.

The main drive axle is driven by the motor and reducer assembly. Sprockets on both ends of the main drive axle transfer power to the step drive system. The step chains are endless links connected with link pins to make a complete loop and are attached to an axle on each side of the steps to form a loop which runs for the length of the truss.

5.4.3.3 Handrail Drive System

Figure 5.4.3.3.1 shows the handrail drive system of an escalator.

The handrail drive moves the handrail along the tracking system through traction on the V-shaped handrail underside. This system consists of handrail drive, sprockets, chains, take-up devices, and support rollers.

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5.4.3.4 Auto-lubrication System

Figure 5.4.3.4.1 shows the auto-lubrication system.

The escalators have this system that supplies oil to lubricate the main drive chain, step chain and handrail drive chains. The oil flow rate can be adjusted by setting an automatic timer control to supply more or less lubrication. The system dispenses the pre-determined amounts of oil to be distributed to the bearing points.

5.4.3.5 Braking System

Figure 5.4.3.4.1 shows the braking system.

The braking systems have to achieve conflicting requirements which is to stop the escalator within an acceptable distance to prevent injury and not to stop too

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quickly that will cause passengers to fall. This system has two brakes which are the operational brake that acts on high speed shaft and the auxiliary brake on low speed shaft.

5.4.4 Safety Features The protection of the passengers during normal operation is ensured by a number of safety features as below: 1 Handrails and steps travel at exactly the same speed (0.51m/s) to ensure steadiness and balance. 2 Balustrades are designed to prevent catching of passengers' clothing or packages. 3 Comb plate switches actuated by any object caught between the step and teeth of the comb plate 4 Overload relays that trip if the motor should take an excessive current due to an overload, mechanical defect or any other issues. The power supply is switched off and a brake applied, bringing the escalator to a smooth stop. 5 Adequate illumination provided at all landings, at the comb plates, and completely down all stairways. 6 A non-reversing device to prevent an 'up' travelling escalator from reversing in the event of failure of the driving gear. 7 Switches to stop the escalator if any object is carried by the handrail into the newel openings. 8 Provide fire protection near escalators such as fire shutter mechanism to seal the top of the escalator shaft and sprinklers installation to provide a continuous curtain of water down the escalator void. 9 An emergency stop button is provided at both upper and lower landing of the escalator that allows anyone to stop the escalator immediately in the event of an emergency.

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Figure 5.4.4.1 shows the safety signage placed at the sides of the escalators.

10 A safety sign is placed at the sides of the escalators before users engage onto the step plate to ensure the safety measures that are to be taken while using the mean of transport.

5.5 Uniform Building By-Law And Other Requirements According to the UBBL and other requirements, section 124 states that any non-residential buildings more than 4 storeys are to provide lift services. In this case, the Curvenx consists of 8 floors in total and provides 3 passenger lifts, 1 firemanâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s lift and 1 service lift which is sufficient to the users in the building. Every opening in a lift shaft or lift entrance shall open into a protected lobby whereby ventilation, openings and smoke detectors are provided in each lobby. Section 229 states the building with floor higher than 18.3m are to provide means of access and fighting fire from within building via fire lifts in protected lobbies, staircases or corridors which are directly accessible from outside. Other requirements are also obliged such as comfortable visual environment within the space of the car lift, adequate ventilation in the car lift, safety fire measures which are based on ms1525. As for ISO/TR 11071, it provides safety rules for the construction and installation of lifts. For example, the elevator rails are to be located alongside the walls of the lift shaft (EN 81 ISO/TR 11071).

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Figure 5.5.1 shows the overall summary of the placement of the lifts, escalators and staircases in the CurveNX building.

The lift specifications in the building can be summarized as shown below: Type: Lift 1 (Firemanâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s lift), Lift 2, Lift 3, Lift 4, Service Lift Capacity (kg): 1365 kg (20 people) Speed (mps): 1.0 mps Maximum travel (m): Maximum stops: 8 Machine: Geared traction system Machine and control room location: Adjacent to top landing Control system: Fujitec Viridian Car opening: Centre, front opening Lift dimensions (m): 19.5m x 20.5m Landings: Basement 2 to 6th floor 112


5.6 Analysis The vertical transportations found in the case study building are geared traction elevators and parallel arrangement escalators. It is built for its own specifications where it fulfils the said requirements of a building of its own scale and capacity. The lift motor room is situated at the roof top level where the lift shaft is installed just below it which provides the greatest efficiency. The lifts are strategically placed in pairs in the building plan for passengers except for the service lift which is placed conveniently for easy accessibility of transportation of goods. All lifts provides access from the lowest floor (basement 2) to the highest floor (top level) of the building. As for the escalators, they are placed at the centre of the building plan to provide quicker and no waiting time for the users. It provides service from the ground floor all the way to the 5th floor of the building. In conclusion, it can be seen that the vertical transportation system in the building is built for efficiency and adhere to the uniform building by-laws and other requirements.

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6.0

MECHANICAL VENTILATION & AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM

6.1

Introduction HVAC (heating, ventilating, and air conditioning; also heating, ventilation, and air

conditioning) is the technology of indoor and vehicular environmental comfort. Its goal is to provide thermal comfort and acceptable indoor air quality. Heating systems are not appropriate in Malaysia as it is a tropical country, averaging between 22°c and 32°c. HVAC is important in the design of medium to large industrial and office buildings such as skyscrapers and in marine environments such as aquariums, where safe and healthy building conditions are regulated with respect to temperature and humidity, using fresh air from outdoors. 6.2

Literature Review

6.2.1 Mechanical ventilation Mechanical ventilation is used for applications where natural ventilation is not appropriate. The most basic of mechanical ventilation systems is the extractor fan often found in domestic bathrooms and kitchens where the aim is to remove smoke/odors from the room. These fans are directly connected to a duct that exhausts through an external wall or a roof stack and are either controlled directly via a switch or wired into the lighting circuit so that they operate when the light is switched on. Some buildings do not have a mechanical air extraction system but are supplied with mechanically drawn air. This is often used for large internal spaces such as offices and workshops and often combined with heating, cooling and humidification systems, so that air entering the space is the right temperature and humidity. The location of air inlets is crucial – they should not be located close to air outlets or sources of smoke or other pollution otherwise polluted air will be drawn into the system. Air is typically distributed around the building in metal ducting, traditionally of a rectangular cross section but increasingly nowadays of a circular cross section. This design improves air flow. Ductwork should be insulated to reduce heat loss but often historically has not been. The longer and bandier the route of the ductwork is, the less effective it will be. Long runs are typically discouraged. It is important to get the pressure in the system right as if it is too high, it would cause excessive draughts and 114


noise. Outlets from ventilation ducts can take many forms. Ducts are often located behind suspended ceilings with downward facing outlets fitted with diffusers. The location of outlets should be carefully planned to ensure maximum benefit from the ventilation system. In the larger ventilation systems, air is normally drawn into the building via an Air Handling Unit (AHU). This is a device that can contain fans, filters, heating and cooling coils and humidification equipment. It is important to filter air before it enters large central systems. This removes particulates and dust from the air. General ventilation systems typically use disposable fabric filters that consist of pleated fabric on a wire frame with a cardboard outer frame. 6.2.2 Air Conditioning system Air conditioning is the process of altering the properties of air primarily temperature and humidity to more comfortable conditions, typically with the aim of distributing the conditioned air to an occupied space to improve thermal comfort and indoor air quality. In particular to maintain a cool atmosphere in warm conditions, especially in a country of tropical climate like Malaysia. 6.2.2.1 Centralized System Central air conditioners circulate cool air through a system of supply and return ducts. Supply ducts and registers (i.e., openings in the walls, floors, or ceilings covered by grills) carry cooled air from the air conditioner to the home. This cooled air becomes warmer as it circulates through the home; then it flows back to the central air conditioner through return ducts and registers. Three subsystems of centralized system are: - chilled water system - air delivery system - heat rejection system (a.k.a condenser water system) In a packaged central air conditioner, the evaporator, condenser, and compressor are all located in one cabinet, which usually is placed on a roof or on a concrete slab next 115


to the house's foundation. This type of air conditioner also is used in small commercial buildings. Air supply and return ducts come from indoors through the home's exterior wall or roof to connect with the packaged air conditioner, which is usually located outdoors. Packaged air conditioners often include electric heating coils or a natural gas furnace. This combination of air conditioner and central heater eliminates the need for a separate furnace indoors

Figure 6.3.2.1.1: Typical centralized system Source: http://centralairtodays.blogspot.com/2010/09/schematic-diagram-of-central-air.html

6.2.2.2 Split System Unit A split air conditioner consists of two main parts: the outdoor unit and the indoor unit. The outdoor unit is installed on or near the wall outside of the room or space that you wish to cool. The unit houses the compressor, condenser coil and the expansion coil or capillary tubing. The sleek-looking indoor unit contains the cooling coil, a long blower and an air filter. This kind of air conditioner system has many advantages over traditional air conditioners. Perhaps the most obvious benefit is the quiet performance of a split air conditioner system. The parts of an air conditioner that make the most noise are the compressor and the fan that cools the condenser. In a split system, the compressor and fan for the condenser are located outside of the room being cooled and therefore the major sources of noise are removed - unlike with window units. 116


Figure 6.2.2.2.1: Split system unit

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6.3 Case Study 6.3.1 Introduction to the air conditioning system in The Curve NX The Curve NX uses a centralized control system for its air conditioning system. It is a control system for its air-conditional system which will be controlled in one control room and everything will be routed back to a single device. The District cooling plant is situated at The Curve, supplying chill water to the heat exchanger, then pumping chilled water to AHU or FCU to the equipment to supply cooled air to the spaces. The system goes vice versa such that it has a constant supply of fresh air and extract of contaminated air from spaces. AHU which is bigger and more complex than FCU is used to ventilate the entire building whereas the latter will only be used in smaller and local spaces only. Neither AHU nor FCU is located at the car park as these areas do not require chilled air supply. 6.3.2 Air conditioning system 6.3.2.1 District cooling plant District cooling plant is where chilled water is delivered via a service corridor insulated pipeline to buildings to cool the indoor air of the building within a district. Each building has specially designed units to use this water to lower the temperature of the passing through the buildingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s air conditioning system. The output of the district cooling plant is sufficient to meet the cooling-energy demand building. It can replace any type of air conditioning systems but primarily serving large buildings which consume large amount of electricity, just like in curve NX. Instead of using a Chiller, district cooling plant is used to save electricity bill. District cooling plant is situated at the Curve.

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Figure 6.3.2.1.1: map of the curve area (source : google maps)

District cooling plant at the curve

The curve NX

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6.3.2.2 District Cooling

Figure 6.3.2.2.1: Chill water delivery bridge

The chill water transported using the service corridor from the curve to the curve nx due to the large capacity of chill water produced from the curve. Cold water is pumped through the district cooling system from the curve, shown in picture below, to a heat exchanger in level 2 at the Curve NX.

Figure 6.3.2.2.2: Heat exchanger room

120


Chill water from district cooling plant

Heat exchanger

Pump

Equipment

AHU/FCU

Figure 6.3.2.2.3: Process of district cooling

District cooling plant is where chilled water is delivered via a service corridor insulated pipeline to buildings to cool the indoor air of the building within a district. Each building has specially designed units to use this water to lower the temperature of the passing through the buildingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s air conditioning system. The output of the district cooling plant is sufficient to meet the cooling-energy demand building. It can replace any type of air conditioning systems but primarily serving large buildings which consume large amount of electricity, just like in curve NX. Instead of using a Chiller, district cooling plant is used to save electricity bill. District cooling plant is situated at the Curve.

121


6.3.2.3 Heat Exchanger The heat exchanger located at level two the Curve NX is used to convert water temperature from approximately 2째C - 5째C, then transfer the cold water from the high pressure pipeline (district cooling plant) to the lower pressure internal system (AHU or FCU). After use in AHU or FCU, the warmer water returns to the heat exchanger for cooling again. The type of heat exchanger for the Curve NX is the plate heat exchanger. One is composed of multiple, thin, slightly separated plates that have very huge surface areas and small fluid flow passages for heat transfer. This stacked-plate arrangement typically has lower volume and cost than the shell and tube heat exchanger. Advances in gasket and brazing technology have made the plate-type heat exchanger increasingly practical. In HVAC applications, large heat exchangers of this type are called plate-andframe; when used in open loops, these heat exchangers are normally of the gasket type to allow periodic disassembly, cleaning, and inspection. There are many types of permanently bonded plate heat exchangers, such as dip-brazed, vacuum-brazed, and welded plate varieties, and they are often specified for closed-loop applications such as refrigeration. Plate heat exchangers also differ in the types of plates that are used, and in the configurations of those plates

Figure 6.3.2.3.1: Heat exchanger room

122


Figure 6.3.2.3.2: Chill water supply and Chill water return piping

Figure 6.3.2.3.3: Heat Exchanger

Figure 6.3.2.3.4: Heat Exchange pump

123


Figure 6.3.2.3.5: Location of heat exchanger room

Location of Heat exchanger room

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6.3.2.4 AHU (Air Handling Unit) Air handling units (AHUs) also known as Air handlers are used to supply and circulate air around a building, or to extract stale air as part of a buildingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) system. Essentially, an Air Handling Unit system comprises a large insulated metal box that contains a fan, heating and/or cooling elements, filters, sound attenuators and dampers. In most cases, the AHU is connected to air distribution ductwork; alternatively, the AHU can be open to the space it serves. Supply air passing through the AHU is filtered and is either heated or cooled, depending on specified duty and the ambient weather conditions. In some buildings, Air Handling Units are used only to supply fresh air for ventilation and extract stale air. For heating or cooling, AHUs may be connected to central plant such as boilers or chillers, receiving hot or chilled water for heat exchange with the incoming air. Alternatively, heating or cooling may be provided by electric heating elements or direct expansion refrigeration units built into the air handler. When AHU systems are used to extract stale air from the building, a controlled proportion of this air may be recirculated to avoid having to condition all supplied air. AHUs can also incorporate heat recovery mechanisms to extract heat from the air being expelled and use it to heat incoming supply air. The below photo shows the AHU room located on the 7th floor of the complex.

Figure 6.3.2.4.1: AHU on top of the Curve NX

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Figure 6.3.2.4.2: Air handling unit diagram Source: http://www.akitarescueoftulsa.com/air-handler-unit-diagram/

Figure 6.3.2.4.3: AHU Supply duct

Figure 6.3.2.4.4: AHU

126


Figure 6.3.2.4.5: AHU Return duct

Figure 6.3.2.4.6: AHU placement on 7th floor

There are 4 AHUs in the Curve NX which all located at the top floor of the building.

127


6.3.2.5 Chill Water Cassette Fan Coil Unit (FCU) The fan coil Unit in the Curve NX uses a commercial based Chilled water cassette fan coil unit where there is 172 number of it and which it utilizes chilled water as a cooling medium. The principal advantage of installing a fan coil unit system that wholly employs water as the cooling medium is that there is no need for the specific checking and maintenance demanded by the F Gas regulations pertaining to those installations that necessitate the presence of refrigerant within the building envelope. Chilled water is pumped from heat exchanger room in the building, through Chilled water piping straight into chilled water cassette fan coil unit where the fan inside the unit will blow out the colder air Each Chill Water Cassette fan coil unit can temperature can be adjusted to user requirements and adjustable louvers allows efficient distribution throughout the entire building itself.

Figure 6.3.2.4.1 : Chill water cassette fan coil unit

128


Figure 6.3.2.4.2: Chill water cassette fan coil unit located at Ground floor

Figure 6.3.2.4.3: Chill water cassette fan coil unit located at reception area

129


Speed Air throw L

Meters

1

2

3

3.0 – 3.4

3.5 – 4.6

3.8 – 5.5

Figure 6.3.2.4.4: Air diffusion at 30 degree angle

Speed

1

2

3

Air throw

L Meters

3.3 – 3.8

3.9 – 5.1

4.2 – 5.8

Height

H Meters

2.2 – 2.4

2.6 – 3.1

2.8 – 3.6

Distance

B Meters

2.5 – 3.0

2.9 – 4.0

3.1 – 4.6

Figure 6.3.2.4.5: Air diffusion at 45 degree angle

130


Figure 6.3.2.4.3: Cross section of the Curve NX

Total area covered using chilled water cassette fan coil unit

131


6.3.2.6 Split Unit System Several areas of the curve NX have split unit air conditioning because areas may still have occupants during off-hours. Its is mandatory to have full ventilation in the occupied spaces, split units are placed in the office and the security room which act as the control room. Air- condition ledges were also designed to park the compressors for the split units. In split air-conditioning unit, the amount of cold air entering the room is controlled by thermostat or a remote control. This is also to maintain optimum thermal comfort and also to elongate lifetime of mechanical device such as transformer or the genset. The compressor in the Curve NX sits on the ground. Split unit system has the advantage of being more compact in comparison to a centralized air-conditioning system.

Figure 6.3.2.5.1: Split unit air-conditioning system located at security room

Split units consist of two components, an indoor unit and an outdoor unit. The outdoor unit is the condenser and the compressor in which the gas refrigerant is air cooled. The outdoor unit connects to the indoor unit through a copper connection pip and electrical wiring. Gas refrigerant is pumped through the connection into the indoor unit. Cool air is drawn through the evaporator coil within the indoor unit and a fan functions to blow the distribute the chilled air into the room. 132


Figure 6.3.2.5.2: Designed ledges for the compressors

Figure 6.3.2.5.3: Location of Split unit system

133


Figure 6.3.2.5.4: Location of split unit system

According to MS1525 8.3.1 Zones which are expected to operate non-simultaneously for more than 750 hour per year should be serve by separate air distribution systems. As an-alternative-off-hour controls should be provided in accordance with 8.4.4. 8.4.4 Systems that serve zones, which can be expected to operate non-simultaneously for more than 750 hours per year, should include isolation devices and controls to shut off the supply of cooling to each zone independently. Isolation is not required for zones expected to operate continuously

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6.3.3 Natural and Mechanical Ventilation

Ventilation

Natural Ventilation

Windows and openings

Mechanical Ventilation

Jet fan Ventilation System

Pressurization ventilation system

Figure 6.3.3.1: Diagram of overview of natural ventilation and mechanical ventilation

By archiving thermal comfort, ventilation is the main focus in architecture elements to put into consideration. Each system consist of different type of application and devices in order to make air flow throughout the spaces in the building,

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6.3.3.1 Windows as Natural ventilation

Figure 6.3.3.1.1: Windows in Heat exchange room

Windows plays a very important role in sure of natural flowing ventilation in the building. In the Curve NX, windows are placed in places that are sufficient to provide ventilation and meet the requirements stated in UBBL law. The windows in the Curve NX allows full airflow of natural ventilation. UBBL - SECTION 39.(II) Every room designed, adapted or used for residential, business or other purposes except for hospitals and schools shall be provided with natural ventilation and natural lighting by means of one or more windows having a total area of not less than 10% of the clear floor area of such rooms and shall have openings capable of allowing free uninterrupted passage of air or not less than 5% of such area

136


Figure 6.3.3.1.2: An overview of the building with ventilated windows to allow natural ventilation

Louvers are rarely seen as primary design elements in the language of modern architecture, but rather simply a technical device. In the Curve NX has mirrored louver system to limit glare and of redirect diffuse light. This allows less radiation from the sun that will increase the temperature of the parking in level 1 to level 4. Thus cross-ventilation can occurs because of the openings throughout the parking area.

137


6.3.3.2 Jet Fan Ventilation system 6.3.3.2.1 Jet Truss System

Figure 6.3.3.2.1.1: Kruger jet fan placed on all the levels including basement

Figure 6.3.3.2.1.2: The position of the jet fan strategically placed in the car park area

In an enclose carpark basement or the level above normally require ventilation system to help the firefighting operations. This system also helps to prevent carbon monoxide build up during emergency moments like fire outrage where the jet fans propels the smoke out of the carpark area. The jet fan ventilation system is also known as the impulse ventilation system. It is based on a number of small, strategically located high velocity jet fans mounted directly beneath the ceiling. 138


ASHRAE â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 6.4.3.4 Ventilation System Controls Enclosed Parking Garage Ventilation, Enclosed parking garage ventilation system shall automatically detect contaminant levels and stage fans or module fan airflow 50% of levels of design capacity provided acceptable contaminant level are maintained

Figure 6.3.3.2.1.3: Kruger jet fan

Figure 6.3.3.2.1.3: The one-way blown description of jet fan Source:http://www.systemair.com/Documents/Downloads/Leaflets%20and%20Catalogues/English/Car_Park_Systems_201108_EN_E4081_klein.pdf

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6.3.3.3 Escape Stair Pressurization System

Figure

6.3.3.3.1:

Basic stair pressurization system. Clean air is escape stairs that can create a positive pressure in the critical spaces

supplied

into

the

Source : http://www.smh.com.br/en/?pg=escape-stairs-pressutization-system

The escape stair pressurization system is form of mechanical ventilation system, where it maintains positive pressure in critical state areas to prevent smoke from entering the stairs. A pressurization system have three main components: (I)

Supply Air – air is injected into the area that is protected

(II)

Pressure Relief – to prevent overpressure when door are closed

(III)

Air Release – smoke is released from the adjoining fire area

140


6.3.3.4 Pressurize Fan

Figure 6.3.3.4.1: Pressurize fan to examine air pressure

Pressurization fan for the purpose of introducing fresh air into the specified area required. The run and standby fans and control equipment should be housed in a separate plant room or outdoors and the inlet should be protected from smoke. The system consists of the installation of a fan with an electric motor mounted in an insulated compartment. The outside air is captured through a shutter that has a particle filter. The insufflating of air to the escape stair occurs through the air release pipe generated by the fan. The pressurization system may be activated manually or through the systems and devices described below: ď&#x201A;ˇ

- Automatically, by means of a fire detection system;

ď&#x201A;ˇ

- Manually, by buttonhole installed at the entrance gate of the building;

ď&#x201A;ˇ

- Manually, directly on the electric fan panel. The air pressure counterbalance that is required in the stair is controlled through

manual and automatic dampers properly calculated and installed at the release area of the fan and at the top of the stair. 141


6.3.3.5 Damper ASHREA â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 6.2.3.4 Ventilation System Controls (2) Damper Control All outdoor air intake and exhaust system shall be equipped with motorized dampers that will automatically shut when the systems or spaces served are not in use. Ventilation outdoor air and exhaust relief dampers shall be capable of automatically shutting off during building warm up, cool down and setback. When ventilation reduce energy cost or when ventilation must be supplied to meet code requirements

Figure 6.3.3.5.1: Damper in the staircase area

Pressure relief dampers, to release internal excess air pressure in the closed-door condition from the stairs area. They usually have adjustable open pressure, which is capable of maintaining a relatively constant pressure at various airflows and closes upon a decrease of diffential pressure. This should be ducted to discharge directly to the atmosphere independent of the wind direction. Damper are set to a start opening of 50 Pa pressure differentials. Figure 6.3.3.5.2: Damper at level 7 emergency exit door

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6.4 UBBL UBBL â&#x20AC;&#x201C; SECTION 41. Part III Space, Light and Ventilation Mechanical ventilation and Air-conditioning. (1) Where permanent mechanical ventilation or air-conditioning is intended, the relevant building by-laws relating to natural ventilation, natural lighting and heights of rooms may be waived at the discretion of the local authority. (2) Any application for the of the relevant by-laws shall only be considered if in addition to the permanent air-conditioning system there is provided alternative approved means of ventilating the airconditioned enclosure, such that within half an hour of the air-conditioning system failing, not less than the stipulated volume of air specified hereinafter shall be introduced into the enclosure during the period when the air-conditioning system is not functioning (3) The provisions of the Third Schedule to these by-laws shall apply to buildings which are mechanically ventilated or air-conditioned. (4) Where permanent mechanical ventilation in respect of lavatories, water-closets, bathrooms or corridors is provided for and maintained in accordance with the requirements of the Third Scheduled to these by-laws, the provisions of these by-laws relating to natural ventilation and natural lighting shall not apply to such lavatories, water-closets, bathrooms and corridors.

143


6.5 ASHRAE ASHRAE â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 6.3.2 Criteria. The HVAC system must meet ALL of the following criteria: a. The system serves a single HVAC zone. b. The equipment must meet the variable flow requirements of section 6.4.3.10 c. Cooling (if any) shall be provided by the unitary packaged or split-system air conditioner that is either air-cooled or evaporative cooled with efficiency meeting the requirements shown in Table 6.8.1A (air-conditioners). Table 6.8.1B (heat pumps) or table 6.8.1 D (packaged terminal and room air conditioners and heat pumps) for the applicable equipment category. d. The system shall have an air economizer meeting the requirements for Section 6.5.1 e. The system shall meet the exhaust air energy recovery requirements of Sections 6.5.6.1

144


6.6 MS 1525 MS 1525: 2007: 8.10 ACMV system equipment ACMV system equipment provides, in one (single package) or more (split system) factory assembled packages, means for air-circulation, air-cleaning, air-cooling with controlled temperature and dehumidification/ the cooling function may be either electrically or heat operated, and the refrigerant condenser may be air, water or evaporative-cooled. Where the equipment is provided in more than one package, the separate packages should be designed by the manufacturer to be used together.

9.91 Energy management System (EMS) The Energy Management System (EMS) is a subset of the building Automation system ( BAS ) function. It should be considered for buildings having area greater than 4000m2 of air-conditioned space. Generally, a building automation system has three function: I)

Control of equipment;

II)

Monitoring of equipment; and

III)

Integration of equipment sub-system

9.2 Control of equipment The purpose of the control of equipment is to save energy. This is performed by the EMS function of the building automation system.

9.3 Monitoring of equipment The purpose of monitoring the equipment is to improve the efficiency of the operations by: I)

Providing centralized information of the current equipment conditions;

II)

Providing historical information of equipment conditions;

III) Providing a â&#x20AC;&#x153;management by exceptionâ&#x20AC;? function to alert the operator of any abnormal equipment conditions; and IV)

Providing analysis tools to aid the study of the equipment operations.

9.4 Integration of equipment subsystem Equipment subsystem are integrated for the purpose of improving: 145


I) Safety/security; the example, in the event of a fire, air-handling units can be used to create a sandwich system for smoke control; II) Indoor air quality; for example, by utilizing the smoke purging the system for periodic air purging to achieve good indoor air quality; III) Information management; by allowing information from multiple equipment subsystems to be stored and reported in a consistent formant; and IV) Overall system reliability; the intelligent controller of an equipment subsystem may be configured to provide redundancy as a standby unit for another systems without incurring additional cost

6.7 Analysis The air conditioning system is the Curve NX are quite different from other building, as the system are based on heat exchanger system. It seem to have complied with all the existing building by-laws. The system allows high efficiency while providing optimum thermal comfort to the users. As for my conclusion, this building the Curve NX has a special air conditioning system. By having a chill water air conditioning system it has high efficiency and use a low amount of power to operate the system. The advantage of using heat exchange system is easier to maintain and operate. The importance of thermal comfort makes the system valuable today. The need for ventilation is not left out, having vents and pressurization unit. In overall terms, the system is organized properly to fit the demand of the clients and the needs of the habitants in the building.

146


7.0 Fire Protection 7.1 Introduction Fire protection consists of methods to prevent fire from turning destructive, it also refers to minimize the impact of uncontrolled fire in order to reduce the risk of death, injury or property damage. Safety planning practices and drills are included as well as education on fire, research, investigation, safety planning, building construction, safe operations, training and testing of mitigating systems (Cuthbert, 2015). The action of fire protection has to be taken daily. The fire regulations have to be implemented in factories, living areas, public places, and transportation. 7.2 Literature Review There are two basic essential system for fire protection which are active and passive fire protection system. Active fire protection system contains manual or automatic detection of fire, the usage of fire and smoke alarms, firefighting as well as first aid. Whereas passive fire protection system is referring to the design of building and infrastructures, use of fire resistance material in construction, provision of isolating fire, fire walls and doors, smoke doors, training of firefighting, signage, markings and evacuation of building in case of fire (Nulfire, 2014). Active Fire Protection System This system practice the action of moving parts in order to protect a building or structure from fire. It can functioned automatically or manually however some procedures are required in order to activate them. For example, water sprinkler system is operated automatically whereas fire extinguisher is used manually. The benefits of active fire protection system are freedom are permitted in designing and innovative is encouraged. This system works to detect, suppress control and extinguish fire. According to Nulifire (2014), the overall aim of active system is to extinguish fire by: 

Detecting the fire early and evacuating the building

Alerting emergency services at an early stage of the fire

Control the movement of smoke and fire

Suppress and starve the fire of oxygen and fuel

147


There are several systems in active fire protection: 1. Fire detection systems and alarm devices 

Smoke Detectors

Fire Alarm Bell

Horn Loud Speaker

2. Fire Control Room 

Fire Control Panel

3. Fire Intercom System 

Master Control Console

Remote Control Handset

Fire Break Glass Call Point

Manual Pull Station

Fireman Switch

4. Emergency lighting

5. Water-based systems 

Fire Sprinkler System

Dry Riser

Pumps

Water Storage Tank

External Fire Hydrant

Hose Reel System

6. Non-water based systems 

Portable Fire Extinguisher

Aerosol Fire Suppression System

148


Passive Fire Protection System The installation of passive fire protection system is to prevent the passage of hot gasses and flame from passing between fire isolated compartments. Mechanical or electrical activation are not required in this system and this system require no maintenance once they are installed. Passive fire protection system are involved as part of the fabric of buildings and they are in the form of fire resistant walls, floors and doors. In order to suit the various building requirements each area has a variety of different solutions. For instance, fire resistant walls can be constructed using panels of reinforced cement with steel sheets bonded to each side, or through the application of a cementitious fire spray (King M. 2015).

According to Nulifire (2014), the overall aim of passive systems is to contain the fire by: ď&#x201A;ˇ

Use of fire rated partitions and doors to prevent the fire and smoke from moving from one compartment to another

ď&#x201A;ˇ

Delaying the collapse of the building structure

ď&#x201A;ˇ

Delaying the growth on the fire

149


7.3

Active Fire Protection

7.3.1 Fire Detection System and Alarm Devices

Figure 6.3.1.1: Smoke Detector (Source: http://www.firealarms.gb.com/)

Fire detection system and alarm devices are designed to notify building occupants when there’s a fire situation occurring. Generally they use smoke, heat or flame detectors to discover the outbreak of fire and to warn the fire brigade and the building occupants. Fire alarm system operates in two ways, it is either automatically or manually, Operation of the automatic system are the smoke and heat detectors while the manual system is the fire break glass call point and the manual key switch. Thus, architects’ responsibility are essential as each fire detection and alarm systems are installed based on the building’s requirements in order to protect occupants’ life, asset and property.

7.3.1.1 Smoke Detector

Figure 7.3.1.1.1: Smoke detector used in Curve NX

Figure 7.3.1.1.2: Smoke detector diagram

Smoke Detector 150


Smoke detector acts as an indicator of fire. A device that detects smoke and issue a signal to fire alarm control panel as part of a fire alarm system. Smoke detectors are classified into two types which are photoelectric and ionization smoke detectors. The smoke detector used in Curve NX is photoelectric smoke detector. It gathers information from its smoke sensing element and converts it into digital signals. To make an alarm decision, it compares the information to historical readings and time patterns. They are powered by a central fire alarm system which is driven by building power with a battery backup.

Figure 7.3.1.1.3: Diagrammatic arrangement of fire-detector system

S Smoke Detector Figure 7.3.1.1.4: Arrangement of smoke detectors located at level 6

151


UBBL â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Section 225 (1) Every building shall be provided with means of detecting and extinguisher fire and alarms together with illuminated exit signs in accordance with the requirements as specified in the Tenth Schedule to these By-Laws.

Figure 7.3.1.1.5: Placement of fire detecting system, fire extinguisher and illuminated exit signs according to By-Laws 225.

152


7.3.1.2 Fire Alarm Bell

Figure 7.3.1.2.1: Fire alarm bell

Figure 7.3.1.2.2: Fire alarm bell installation (Source: http://www.bromindo.com/portfolio/hong-chang-firealarm-bell-coil-driven/)

The device is activated from the smoke detectors and heat detectors. It helps to alert people through when smoke is present. The fire alarm bell operates by the electromagnet. It will produce a repetitive buzzing sound when an electric current is applied. There are two sorts of fire alarm bell, the vibrating bell and the single-stroke bell. Vibrating bell will ring constantly until the power is cut off whereas the singlestroke bell will not ring continuously unless the power is turned off and again.

UBBL, Section 237 :  

  

Fire alarms shall be provided in accordance with enth Schedule to these bylaws. All premises and building with gross floor area excluding car park and storage area exceeding 9290 square meters or exceeding 30.5m height shall be Provided with a two-stage alarm system with evacuation (continuous signal) to be given immediately in the affected section of the premises while an alert (Intermittent signal) be given adjoining section. Provision shall be made for the general evacuation of the premises by action of a master control

153


7.3.1.3 Horn Loud Speaker The horn loudspeaker acts as a fire alarm signaling device in Cure NX. They are mostly found in the basement parking of the building. It has a large diaphragm

which

provides

periodic

pressure to a small entry port of a long horn.

The

most

benefit

of

horn

loudspeaker is they are more efficient. They can naturally produce 10 times Figure 7.3.1.3.1: Horn Loud Speaker

more sound power than a cone speaker

from a given amplifier output. Thus, horns are widely used for fire alarm signaling in order to notify the occupants of the building when there is the presence of fire.

7.3.2 Fire Control Room

Figure 7.3.2.1: Security or Fire Control Room and Fire Control Panel

UBBL, Section 238: Command and Control Centre Every large premises or building exceeding 30.5 meters in height shall be provided with a command and control center located on the designated floor and shall contain a panel to monitor the public address, fire bridge communication, sprinkler, water flow detectors, fire detection and alarm systems and with a direct telephone connection to the appropriate fire station by passing the switchboard.

154


Security and Fire Control Room Figure 7.3.2.2: Security and Fire Control Room located at the ground floor

155


7.3.2 Fire Control Room 7.3.2.1 Fire Control Panel Fire control panel is the main controlling component of the fire detection and alarm system. The panel obtains information from automatic and manual fire alarm devices following by supplying power to the detection devices and transponders. At that time, the control panel will provide transmission

of

power

to

the

notification

appliances and deliver condition of devices, sensor or transsmitter connected to the control unit. There are four kinds of panels which are coded panels, conventional panels, addressable panels and Figure 7.3.2.1.1 Control panel in the fire control room

multiplex systems. However, addressable control panel was found in Curve NX. Addressable control panel is a more advanced way of providing fire alarm protection. The panel can monitor several hundred devices depending on the protocol used. It engage one or more Signalling Line Circuits.

UBBL, section 155: Fire mode of operation The fire mode of operation shall be initiated by a signal from the fire alarm panel which may be activated automatically by one of the alarm devices in the building or manually.

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7.3.3 Fire Intercom System 7.3.3.1 Fire Break Glass Callpoint

Figure 7.3.3.1.1: Fire Break Glass device

Figure 7.3.3.1.2: Dimension of a fire break glass call point (Source: http://www.hafele.co.uk/shop/p/fire-safety-equipment/break-glassunit/31463/7613)

Fire break glass call point is a device that allows inhabitants to raise the alarm when there is an emergency fire incident occuring. The device has a fragile glass element which occupants can just break the glass and it will trigger the alarm system. Below are some regulation for the correct positioning of call points (The Safety Centre, 2011): 

Call points should be located on all final exits, all storey exits. In other words, entrances to stairwells and also consideration should be taken to locating call point units near to any high risks or special hazards.

Call points should be distributed in a building so that no one need travel any more than 45 metres to reach the nearest call point.

For high risk areas and special hazards areas a person should have to travel no more than 25 metres to reach the nearest manual call point.

The mounting height of call points should be 1.4 metres above the floor level and call points should project by 15mm from the wall which allows to be seen from the side.

157


7.3.3.2 Manual Key Switch

Figure 7.3.3.2.1: Manual key switch found at Curve NX

Figure 7.3.3.2.2: Dimension of manual key switch (Source: http://demcoalarm.com/pdf/KeyBox.pdf)

Manual key switch box are normally located where restricted access is required such as genset room, TNB room and LV room. Occupant can immmediately activate the key switch box while the room is on fire. Testing on the manual fire alarm box will be taken annually.

7.3.3.3 Emergency Light

Figure 7.3.3.3.1 and 2: Emergency â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Keluarâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; Signage and Emergency Light

Emergency lighting is lighting for an emergency situation when the main power supply is cut and any normal illumination falls (Safelincs, 2011). Normally emergency lighting is necessary to operate fully automatically and provide illumination of a sufficiently high level to allow occupants to evacuate the premises safely.

158


Figure 7.3.3.3.3: Location of Emergency Lighting at level 6

UBBL, Section 255: Every building shall be provided with means of detecting and extinguishing fire and with fire alarms together with illuminated exit signs in accordance with the requirements as specified in the Tenth Schedule to these by-laws.

159


7.3.4 Water Based Systems 7.3.4.1 Fire Sprinkler System 1. Sprinkler

Figure 7.3.4.1.1: Pendent sprinkler

Figure 7.3.4.1.2: Cross section of pendent sprinkler

Figure 7.3.4.1.3: Types of Sprinkler (Source: http://www.enggcyclopedia.com/2011/11/fire-sprinklers/)

The type of the sprinkler commonly used in the indoor of Curve NX is the most typical pendent sprinkler and the sprinkler system that is used is wet pipe sprinkler system. It is the most common type of fire sprinkler system. Sprinkler installtion is a first aid system for dealing with a fire in its early stages and cannot be relied upon to deal with a large fire which has started in, or spread from, an unprotected part of the building (Hall, 1977, p.71). It is essential, hence, sprinkler installation should cover the whole of the building and not just the parts that are considered to have a high fire risk.

160


Figure 7.3.4.1.4: Upright sprinkler found in the carpark of Curve NX

Figure 7.3.4.1.5: Components of sprinkler (Source: http://www.tpub.com/utilities/35.htm)

Figure 7.3.4.1.6: Types of sprinkler (Source: http://www.enggcyclopedia.com/2011/11/fire-sprinklers/)

The upright sprinkler is mostly found at the carpark of Curve NX. The sprinkler outlets are located at ceiling level and distance between each sprinkler is about 3 metres in The Curve NX. Positioning of sprinklers (Hall, 1977, p.79) : 

Sprinklers must be placed so that the deflectors are not more than 300mm from non-resisting ceilings and not more than 450mm from fire-resisting ceilings.

There must be a clear span of 300mm below the level of a deflector within a radius of 600mm from each sprinkler.

In storage room, therefore, goods must not be stored within 300mm of the level of the defelctors above them.

Sprinklers must not be placed within 600mm of columns or beams.

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UBBL, Section 225: Detecting & Extinguishing Fire 1. Sprinkler valves shall be located in a safe and enclosed position on the existence wall and shall be readily accessable to the fire authority. 2. All sprinklers system shall be electricity connected to the near cut fire station to provide immediate and automatic relay of the alarm where activated.

Figure 7.3.4.1.7: Sprinkler Spacing Arrangement

Figure 7.3.4.1.8: Typical arrangement of sprinkler system

(Source : http://chawlwin.blogspot.com/2010/03/understanding-automatic-fire-sprinkler.html)

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7.3.4.2 Dry Riser

Figure 7.3.4.2.1: Dry Riser located at ground floor

Figure 7.3.4.2.2: Typical Dry Riser Layout

As the name implies, dry riser does not usually contains water, however is charged with water by the fire brigade during an outbreak of fire. The fire brigade will connect the suction side of their pumps to a water main via a fire hydrant. The outlet side of the pumps are connected to the dry riser inlet, or inlets at ground level and the pumps force water from the main into the riser. A dry riser, therefore, is merely an extension of the firemanâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s hose and should only be installed where prompt attention can be relied upon from the local fire brigade, or from trained fire-fighting personnel in the premises. UBBL 1984, Section 290: 1. Dry rising system shall be provided in every building in which the topmost floor is more than 18.3 meters but less than 30.5 meters above fire appliance access level. 2. A hose connection shall be provided in each firefighting access lobby. 3. Dry risers shall be of minimum â&#x20AC;&#x153;Class Câ&#x20AC;? pipes with fittings and connections of sufficient strength to withstand 21 hours water pressure. 4. Dry risers shall be nested hydrostatically to withstand not less than 14 bars of pressure for two hours in the presence of the Fire Authority before acceptance. 5. All horizontal runs of the rising systems shall be pitched at the rate of 6.35 millimeters in 3.05 meters. 6. The dry riser shall be not less than 102 millimeters in diameter in buildings in which the highest outlets is 22.875 meters or less above the fire brigade pumping inlet. 7. 102 millimeters diameter dry risers shall be equipped with a two-way pumping inlet and 152.4 millimeters dry risers shall be equipped with a fourway pumping inlet. 163


7.3.4.3 Pumps

Figure 7.3.4.3.1: Fire Pump Room

Fire Pump Room Figure 7.3.4.3.2: Fire Pump Room is located at the ground floor

Pumps are necessary to provide a sufficient supply of water to each riser at all times, duplicate pumps should be provided. Each pump should be connected in parallel, with their suctions permanently â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;wetâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; when the tank is filled (Hall, 1997, p.83).

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Figure 7.3.4.3.3: Jockey Pump

Figure 7.3.4.3.4: Duty Pump

Figure 7.3.4.3.5: Standby Pump

Figure 7.3.4.3.6: Cut In and Cut Out pressure for sprinkler system

Sprinkler Pump Set Jockey Pump Jockey pump, also known as presseure-maintenance pump, is connected to a fire sprinkler system to maintain pressure in the sprinkler pipes. It is designed to ensure that if a fire-sprinkler is activated, there will be a pressure drop, which will be sensed by the fire pump automatic controller and cause the fire pump to start. In Curve NX, the Start Pressure is set by 100 psi and the Stop Pressure is set by 120 psi therefore the differential pressure is 10 psi. The controller runs without period timer, thus, it operates automatically start and stop depending directly by the pressure swtich settings. Duty and Standby Pump Duty pump will take the lead when the pressure in pipe goes down to 80 psi and provide enough pressure of water so that the system is running in order. However, if the pressure goes down to 60 PSI or the duty pump fails to operate when some defaults caused, standby pump is automatically activated by the system. Hence, the duty pump can be switched off manually from the control panel in case of necessity. 165


7.3.4.4 Water Storage Tank

Water Storage Tank Figure 7.3.4.4.1: Location of water stotage tank located room in the fire pump room

Figure 7.3.4.4.2: water stotage tank located in the fire pump

The location of the fire water storage tank is at the ground floor of Curve NX in the fire pump room. The water storage tank are required to provide sufficient water for the sprinkler system and the hose reel system. UBBL, Section 247: 1. Water storage capacity and water flow rate for the firefighting system and installation shall be provided in accordance with the scale as set out in the tenth schedule to these By-laws. 2. Main water storage tanks within the building, other than for the hose reel system, shall be located at ground, first or second basement levels, with the fire brigade pumping inlet connection accessible to fire appliances. 3. Storage tank for automatic sprinkler installation where full capacity is provided without the need for replenishment shall be exempted from the restrictions in their location.

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7.3.4.5 External Fire Hydrant

Figure 7.3.4.5.1 and 2: External Fire Hydrant and Hose Reel located at the outdoor of Curve NX

Fire Hydrant Figure 7.3.4.5.3: Location of external fire hydrant at Curve NX

UBBL, Section 225(2): Detecting & Extinguishing Fire Every building shall be served at least one fire hydrant located not more than 91.5 meters from the nearest point of the fire brigade access. UBBL, Section 225(3): Detecting & Extinguishing Fire Depending on the size and location of the building and the provision of access for fire appliances, additional fire hydrant shall be provided as may be required by the fire authority.

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Figure 7.3.4.5.4: External fire hydrant found at the outdoor of Curve NX

Figure 7.3.4.5.5: Dry and wet barrel hydrant

(Source: http://www.madehow.com/Volume-4/Fire-Hydrant.html)

Fire hydrant is normally an above-ground connection that provides access to a water supply for firefighting purpose. If the hydrants are connected to the water mains buried in the street, the water supply are mostly pressurized. Each hydrant found in Curve NX has two outlets which a fire hose can be connected. Hydrants are sized to provide a minimum flowrate of about 250 gallons per minute in order to provide adequate water for firefighting, even though most hydrants can supply more than that. Nevertheless, the type of fire hydrant used in Curve NX is the wet-barrel type. There are two types of pressureized fire hydrants (Cavette, 2015), (Figure 6.3.4.5.4): Wet-barrel hydrant  

Hydrant is connected directly to the pressurized water source Upper barrel of the hydrant is always filled with water and each outlet has its own valve with a stem that sticks out the side of the barrel.

Dry-barrel hydrant    

Hydrant is separated from the pressurized water source by a main valve in the lower section of the hydrant below ground. Upper section remains dry until the main valve is opened by means of a long stem that extends up through the top of the hydrant. No valves on the outlets Usually used in a winter country to prevent hydrant from freezing

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7.3.4.6 Hose Reel System

Figure 7.3.4.6.1: One of the hose reels in Curve NX

Figure 7.3.4.6.2: Swinging-type hose reel

Figure 7.3.4.6.3: Hose reel system (Source: http://dynoklang.com.my/site/index.php?cat=29&page=71)

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Hose reel systems are installed for the occupants of the building to use during the early stages of fire and involves hose reel pumps, fire water tank, hose reels, pipe work and valves. Generally, hose reel systems serves as a preliminary firefighting aid. When the hose reel is brought into use the pressure in the pipe immediately downstream of the pump check valves will drops below the field adjusted pressure setting of the pressure switch thereby triggering the pump to come into operation automatically to feed a steady supply of water to discharge through the hose (Dyno, 2012). The fire hose reel outlets should be properly housed in glass fronted cabinet secured under lock and key (Dyno, 2012). UBBL, Section 244(c): Hydraulic Hose Reels Hose reel shall be located at every 45 meters (depends on the building form). Besides, fire hose reel should be located at the strategic places in buildings, especially nearer to firefighting access lobbies in order to provide a reasonably accessible and controlled supply of water for fire extinguishing.

Fire Hose Reel Figure 7.3.4.6.4: Location of the fire hose reel at ground floor

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7.3.5 Non-water based Systems 7.3.5.1 Portable Fire Extinguisher The term ‘portable fire extinguisher’ generally covers first-aid fire fighting appliances which can be carried by hand and from which the extinguisher agent can be expelled, usually under pressure (Hall, 1997, p.88). At the early stages of fire, they are very essential for extinguishing, however, they cannot be used to deal with large fires. Portable fire extinguisher are mostly involve in buildings having sprinklers and hose reels. It is essential for the staffs of the building to be trained in being able to use the fire extinguisher. Fire extinguishers are divided into five categories based on different type of fire. According to Fire Extinguisher Malaysia (2012), the most common type of fire extinguisher used in Malaysia are ABC Dry Powder Extinguisher and Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Extinguisher.

Figure 7.3.5.1.1: 5 classes of fire extinguisher (Source: http://www.fireextinguishermalaysia.com/Fire-Extinguisher-Types.html)

According to Hall F. (1997), there are several ways to consider in selecting the right type of fire extinguisher, but the most important are as follows:    

It must contain the type of extinguishing agent suitable for the fire it may be require to extinguish. It must not be dangerous to the user. It must be simple to use. It must be efficient and reliable. 171


7.3.5.1 Portable Fire Extinguisher There are two types of fire extinguishers found in Curve NX:

Figure 7.3.5.1.1: ABC Powder extinguisher in Curve NX

Figure 7.3.5.1.2: Componenets of ABC Dry Powder extinguisher

1. ABC Dry Powder Extinguisher Suitable for mixed fire risk environments and are expecially suited for flammable liquid and fire involving flammable gases such as natural gas, hydrogen, methane and etc. Safe for Class A, B and C fire, ideal for home and vehicle use.

Figure 7.3.5.1.3: Carbon Dioxide Extinguisher in Curve NX

Figure 7.3.5.1.4: Componenets of Carbon Dioxide Extinguisher

2. Carbon Dioxode Extinguisher Suitable for Class B, C & E fire, involving flammable liquids and electrical hazards. CO2 is harmless to electrical equipment and is ideal for modern office. Not safe for wood, paper, cloths.

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According to Fire Ground News 2010, the way they teach public and their own is to remember the simple acronym â&#x20AC;&#x153;PASSâ&#x20AC;?. Each letter in the word stands for a separate step in how to properly use a fire extinguisher. 1. P - Pull the safety pin usually located around the handle of the extinguisher. 2. A - Aim the fire extinguisher at the base of the fire. 3. S - Squeeze the handle to begin to discharge the extinguisher. 4. S - Sweep the extinguisher side to side while aiming at the base of the fire until the fire is out UBBL, Section 227: Portable Fire Extinguisher shall be provided in accordance with relevant codes of practice and shall be sited in prominent position on exit routs to be visible from all direction and similar extinguishers in a building shall be of the same method of operation.

Figure 7.3.5.1.6: Location of fire extinguishers at ground floor

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7.3.5.2 Aerosol Fire Suppression Generator

Figure 7.3.5.2.1: Aerosol fire suppression generator found in genset room and LV room

Aerosol fire suppression generator is a relatively new technology which undergoes a chemical reaction to produce aerosol upon the activation of the canister which is the actual extinguishing medium. The generator is electrically discharging an aerosol over 10 to 20 seconds. Aerosol generators could be the solution when the space is being protected. It is a non-pressurized metal canister containing a solid aerosol-generating compound. The aerosol generator has low toxicity and test certifications. It is compact and weight saving when compared with other fire extinguishing systems. There are several benefits of aerosol generator, it consist of low maintenance cost. It is simple to be installed and no maintenance on aerosol modules required. Not only that, it has high performance. For example, the generator respond extremely faster after detection of fire. Hence, it is suitable to be installed in the electrical room as it is the smallest and lightest fire extinguisher and rapid system discharge in sudden extinguishing action. In Curve NX, aerosol fire suppression system are mostly found in the electrical room such as genset room and LV room.

UBBL, Section 236: Special Hazards Places constituting special hazards or risks due to the nature of storage, trade, occupancy, or size shall be required to be protected by fixed installations, protective devices, systems and special extinguishers as may be required by the Fire Authority. 174


Aerosol Fire Suppression System Figure 7.3.5.2.2: Location of aerosol fire suppression generator

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7.4 Passive Fire Protection System 7.4.1 Fire Resistant Escape Stairs 7.4.1.1 Type of stairs The fire resistant escape stairs found in Curve NX were reinforced concrete stairs enclosed within concrete walls. The type of staircase found was considered a half landing stairs. It contains a flat area of flooring where a stairway make a 180 degree turn between main floors. This enable to provide an easy flow of a large number of occupants evacuating the building when there is fire in a faster and shorter time in order to ensure a safety evacuation. 7.4.1.2 Type of material used Reinforced concrete was used to construct the staircases in Curve NX. There are some important characteristics that are to be considered in constructing a fire resistant escape stairs such as: ď&#x201A;ˇ

Strength: Concrete is the most suitable materials to be used as it is one of the few materials that gain strength over time, thus, it allows to provide strength and stability to the building and stairs in case of an unexpected fire disasters occur. Concrete can withstand the huge weight concentrated on a particular small area in the building exerted by the building occupants in rush during the evacuation in the building.

ď&#x201A;ˇ

Fire resistant: Concrete is natural fire and heat resistant, hence it produce an effective barrier between different floors and rooms within the building. This allows to avoid spreading of fire through the entire building while withstanding extremely high heat from the fire for a long period of time.

ď&#x201A;ˇ

Thermal mass: Concrete reduces the passage of heat moving through the building lessening thermal heat gain and changes in temperature within the fire escape lobby averting the overheating of the enclosed area.

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7.4.1.3 Location and Dimensions Location of fire escape staircase are very important in a building. The staircases have to be easily accessible from any location in the building. The staircases are designed in vertical circulation pathway and there are four fire escape staircases on each floor.

Fire Resistant Escape Staircase Figure 7.4.1.3.1: Location of fire resistant escape staircases

UBBL, Section 162: Fire Resistant Stairs 1. Except as provided for in by-law 194 every upper floor shall have means of egress via at least two separate staircases. 2. Staircase shall be of such width that in the event of any one staircase not being available for escape purposes the remaining staircases shall accommodate the highest occupancy load of any one floor discharging into it calculated in accordance with provisions in the Seventh schedule to these By-Laws. 3. The required width of a staircase shall be the clear width between walls but handrails may be permitted to encroach on this width to a maximum 75 millimeters. 4. The required width of a staircase shall be maintained throughout its length including at landings. 5. Doors giving access to staircases shall be so positioned that their swing shall at no point encroach on the required width of the staircase or landing.

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Figure 7.4.1.3.2: One of the fire escape staircases found in Curve NX

STAIRS ON SITE

INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS

TREAD

315mm

NOT LESS THAN 225mm

RISER

175mm

NOT MORE THAN 180mm

TOTAL RISER PER FLIGHT

9 RISERS

NOT MORE THAN 16 RISERS

WIDTH

1240mm

NOT LESS THAN 910mm

HANDRAIL

1000mm

NOT LESS THAN 900mm

LANDING

1185x2570mm

LENGTH: NOT LESS THAN 2225mm

After comparing the dimensions of the fire escape staircases on site and the international standards, we found that the tread of the staircase is 90mm more than the requirement whereas riser is 5mm less than the international standard which are still within the requirements. Total riser of a single flight of the fire escape staircase on site is 9 risers while the international standards stated not more than 16 risers per flight. The width of the stairs on site is 330mm more than the international standard requirement while the height of the handrail is 1000mm more than the requirement. Length of the fire escape staircase on site is 2570mm which is 345mm more than the standard requirement. As a result, the fire escape staircases on Curve NX meets all above the international standard requirements.

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7.4.2 Fire Resistant Doors There are two important functions of fire doors: they form a barrier to stop the spread of fire when closed and provide a means of escape when opened. Fire doors are designed to delay the passage of smoke and fire in different degrees depending upon its location in the building. Fire resistant doors are found in all the technical, mechanical as well as the office areas and the fire escape staircases.

UBBL, Section 162: Fire Rated Doors 1. Fire doors of the appropriate FRP shall be provided. 2. Openings in compartment walls and separating walls shall be protected by a fire door having a FRP in accordance with the requirements for that wall specified in the Ninth Schedule to these By-laws. 3. Opening in protecting structures shall be protected by fire doors having FRP of not less than half the requirement for the surrounding wall specified in the Ninth Schedule to these By-laws but in no case less than half hour. 4. Openings in partition enclosing a protected corridor or lobby shall protected by fire doors having FRP of half-hour. 5. Fire doors including frames shall be constructed to a specification which can be shown to meet the requirements for relevant FRP when tested in accordance with section 3 of BS 476:1951. UBBL, Section 164 (1) All fire doors shall be fitted with automatic door closers of the hydraulically spring operated type in the case of swing doors and of wire rope and weight type in the case of sliding door.

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7.4.2 Fire Resistant Doors

Figure 7.4.2.1: Fireproof doors used in fire resistant staircase. Figure 7.4.2.2 and 3: Fireproof doors used in genset room and LV room

Figure 7.4.2.4: Automatic door closer hinged

Futhermore, automatic door closer hinge and devices were installed to fulfill the requirements of By-Laws Section 164 (1). The fire door is always closed all the time therefore automatic door closer hinge is used. The dooe closer will automaticallu shut the fire door when there is a fire occuring in order to form compartment and avoid fire from spreading one to another spaces.

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7.4.3 Smoke Curtain

Figure 7.4.3.1: Smoke curtain found in mechanical system rooms

A smoke curtain is to limit the flow and movement of the fire gases inside of a building in case of a fire. It is part of a unit to keep areas free from smoke. It is made of incombustible material in order to prevent smoke and fire from spreading to another space. Smoke curtains were found on top of each mechanical and electrical systems roomsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; entrances. When there is fire occurring, the smoke curtain will automatically dropped down to form a barrier between the interior and exterior to avoid fire from spreading in and out of the space. Hence, smoke curtain is very effective in isolating fire source with the cooperation of another components of passive fire protection system.

UBBL, Section 161 (1): Any fire stop required by the provisions of this part shall be so formed and positioned as to prevent or retard the passage of flame.

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7.5 Analysis The Curve NX has fulfilled most of the regulations according to the Uniform Building By-Law (UBBL). The fire protection systems in the building are fully equipped. All of the fire equipment and machines in Curve NX are maintained and tested regularly in order to ensure it works accordingly when there is a fire breakdown. Most of the fire protection devices are still well maintained and in good condition. This is to make sure that all fire protection systems can be fully activated during the event of fire. For example, the sprinkler valve are wide opening instead of closing as this is the most common cause of failure in a sprinkler system. The fire pump rooms of Curve NX is also fully equipped and well maintained as it plays an important role in fire protection systems. Fire protection systems can be seen everywhere in Curve NX. This enable to avoid the fire from spreading through the spaces in the building and to protect the property as well as the building occupants from getting injured. According to the mechanical engineer, the building has implemented the individual schedules, checklist for maintaining and servicing those critical systems. As a result, both active and passive fire protection system are essential in order to protect a building when there is a fire breakdown. The main purpose of fire protection system is to protect lives, assets and property. Without fire protection system, a building will not work properly.

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8.0 Conclusion As a general conclusion, we have chosen The CurveNX building in Mutiara Damansara for our case study simply because it provides both efficient and sufficient service systems for us to carry out the project. Services which includes water supply system, electrical supply system, sewerage, sanitary and drainage system, mechanical transportation system, mechanical ventilation and air conditioning system and fire protection system. We were able to successfully identiy all the required building services component installed in the building itself by doing a thorough study on all the services systems. Throughout the whole project, we learned the importance of understanding how the building services component function and how to translate our understandings into explanation and diagrammatic form. With the guidance of various sources such as books, laws, internet etc, we could understand and explain the principles of the different systems of the building with the implication of the uniform building by-laws and other regulations. In conclusion, this project has given us an insight on how a functional building works in providing the optimal safety and comfort to the occupants inside the building. In this group of 6, we had shared team work amongst us during the study of our research and had experience first hand in exploring and understanding those services during the site visit. We would like to extend our gratitude towards Mr. Siva for his guidance throughout the entire project. Thank you.

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