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AIR JOURNAL JEANNE ANG | 691939 STUDIO 3 | FINN WARNOCK


Jeanne Aye Young


CONTENTS

How I Got Here 4

PART A Conceptualisation 6

PART B Criteria Design 26

PART C Detailed Design 78


How I Got Here. When I was 15, I started doodling on the back of exam papers and dancing in front of my mom’s full-length mirror, and from there, my interest in the arts slowly grew. The idea of creating something new and original really appealed to me and when I moved to Melbourne, and was presented the option to do art-based subjects in high school, I quickly grabbed hold of this opportunity. Registering into the architecture course was a rash decision at the end of Year 12 but in two years, tertiary education has greatly shaped my mind and made me perceive architecture, art and design in a new light. I now understand the interdisciplinary nature of systems, am aware of the contradictions that somehow complement each other, and recognise the potential of integrating digital means to design. Studying architecture has made me passionate about combining my creative interests with real-life issues in search of effective solutions that do not simply solve a problem, but also instigate a new form or concept. I realise that having a good command of digital tools is essential in achieving this as our world is becoming more tuned in towards the digital realm. The digital realm also now serves as a platform for in terms of generating a design but in sharing them have been experimenting with various softwares since Adobe Creative Suite programs, Photoshop, InDesign, program, Rhinoceros, and am now looking forward to add

getting ideas out there, not just with others too. In saying that, I starting school here, such as the and Illustrator, the 3D modelling the Grasshopper plug-in to the list.


6

DESIGN FUTURING. A1 DESIGN COMPUTATION. A2 COMPOSITION / GENERATION. A3 CONCLUSION. A4 LEARNING OUTCOMES. A5 APPENDIX. A6

A

C O N C E P T U A L I S A T I O N


A1. DESIGN FUTURING Contemporary architecture is very much about breaking conventions. There are many ways this is achieved, for example, through collaborative efforts, allowing the flow and implementation of ideas from different fields, or, through research and experimental projects, exploring the possibilities of art, science and technology in form-making. These actions are not only reflected in the methodology of design, but also in the aesthetic values and outcome of the architecture. For example, there is an increased focus on connectivity and fluidity within designs. Not just in form but within the concept too. This is just representative of where our society is currently heading, as what architecture does, is give form to the values we live by.1 In saying that, architectural design now also has a high focus on sustainability. Be it ecological, economical or social, as we become more aware that creating something leads to destroying another, there is profound interest in finding ways to tackle the consequences of building.2 With two selected precedents, some values of our current society will be further highlighted and how these, alongside technological innovations, allow for a new form of architecture to be realised.

[1] Tony Fry, Design Futuring: Sustainability, Ethics and New Practice (Oxford: Berg, 2008), p. 3. [2] Ibid., p. 4.


8

A1

DESIGN FUTURING

Figure 1. A/N Blog, Clive Wilkinson Architects Makes a Superdesk, <http://blog.archpaper.com/2015/02/clive-wilkinson-architects-makes-a-superdesk/#.Vuawc4x941i>, [acccessed 12 March 2016].


DESIGN FUTURING

A1

9

Figure 2. A/N Blog, Clive Wilkinson Architects Makes a Superdesk, <http://blog.archpaper.com/2015/02/clive-wilkinson-architects-makes-a-superdesk/#.Vuawc4x941i>, [acccessed 12 March 2016].

The renovated interior of the Barbarian Groupâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s office is a clear example of fluidity and connectivity being highlighted within a design form and concept. The traditional layout of an office with separated blocks is replaced with a single-surfaced table, materialising the theme of collaboration and connection.1 The conventional perception of an office desk is also challenged in this case, showing the imaginative strides taken by designers today. The architect not only created a flexible system that enhances the companyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s current working environment, but also aimed to bring forth the potential for growth by making it an open structure.2 Speculation is yet another key aspect within design fields today and contemporary works of architecture are used to prompt discussions regarding what is ideal and preferable for the future.3

THE BARBARIAN GROUP New York, New York by Cleve Wilkinson Architects

[1] A/N Blog, Clive Wilkinson Architects Makes a Superdesk, <http://blog.archpaper.com/2015/02/clive-wilkinsonarchitects-makes-a-superdesk/#.Vuawc4x941i>, [acccessed 12 March 2016].

[2] Elaine Louie, Table Manners at Work, (New York: The New York Times, 2014), <http://www.nytimes. com/2014/02/13/garden/table-manners-at-work.

The desk structure is made out of individual pieces of laser-cut plywood panels, and with multiple joints, it was easily transported and assembled on site.4 With the use of 3D modelling softwares, the unconventional geometry is effectively represented and each customised panel was accurately fabricated. The unique desk form, although connective in nature, has archways and other spatial features that create separate spaces. This sort of complementing contrasts is highly seen within works of architecture now as we seek to find a balance between contradicting aspects. In this case, the architect effectively created a unifying structure that encompasses a variety of spaces.

html?partner=rssnyt&emc=rss&_r=2>, [accessed 12 March 2016].

[3] Anthony Dunne & Fiona Raby, Speculative Everything: Design Fiction, and Social Dreaming, (Massachussetts: MIT Press, 2013), p. 6. [4] A/N Blog, Clive Wilkinson Architects Makes a Superdesk, <http://blog.archpaper.com/2015/02/clive-wilkinsonarchitects-makes-a-superdesk/#.Vuawc4x941i>, [acccessed 12 March 2016].


10

A1

DESIGN FUTURING

Figure 3. Archdaily, Ribbon Chapel / Hiroshi Nakamura & NAP Architects <http://www.archdaily.com/594947/ribbon-chapel-nap-architects>, [accessed 18 March 2016].


DESIGN FUTURING

A1

Figure 4. Archdaily, Ribbon Chapel / Hiroshi Nakamura & NAP Architects

Figure 5. Archdaily, Ribbon Chapel / Hiroshi Nakamura & NAP Architects

<http://www.archdaily.com/594947/ribbon-chapel-nap-architects>,

<http://www.archdaily.com/594947/ribbon-chapel-nap-architects>,

[accessed 18 March 2016].

[accessed 18 March 2016].

RIBBON CHAPEL

With the Ribbon Chapel, the architects effectively incorporated symbolism with structure. The structure is essentially two entwining stairways that meet together at the top, illustrating the act of marriage.5 Again, there is an idea of connectivity being played out here, both in form and in concept. Furthermore, by entwining the stairways, the architects managed to realise a self-supporting structure, whilst conceptually reinforcing the idea of two coming together to support one another.6 This is reflective of the exploration on reciprocal structures, which were commonly used for roof framing structures, but now, increasingly adapted in other aspects within architecture.7 Parameters would have been applied to a digital model in order to inform the diameter and overall positioning of the design features, and by applying known construction knowledge, calculations were made to inform the support and bracing needed to realise the final form.8 This highlights the importance of mathematics, science and technology in helping us visualise, model and construct. The design for the chapel also blends the boundaries of architectural elements. The structural stairways make up the facade of the building, act as roofs, eaves and walls9, provide external circulation and shape the internal space too. Through this, hybridisation between aesthetic feature and function, as well as between functional components themselves, are established.

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Hiroshima, Japan by Hiroshi Nakamura/ NAP Architects

[5] Hiroshi Nakamura & NAP CO., Ltd., Ribbon Chapel, <http://www.nakam.info/en/>, [accessed 12 March 2016].

[6] Ibid.

[7] Alberto Pugnale and others, â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;The Principle of Structural Reciprocityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;, Full Papers:Taller, Longer, Lighter (2011), <http://vbn.aau.dk/files/56095311/the_principle_of_ structural_reciprocity.pdf>, [accessed 18 March 2016] (p. 4).

[8] Archdaily, Ribbon Chapel / Hiroshi Nakamura & NAP Architects, <http://www.archdaily.com/594947/ribbonchapel-nap-architects>, [accessed 18 March 2016].

[9] Ibid.


12

A2

DESIGN COMPUTATION

Figure 6. nArchitects, MOMA/P.S.1 Canopy, <http://narchitects.com/work/momap-s-1-canopy-3/>, [accessed 7 March 2016].


A2

DESIGN COMPUTATION

13

Figure 7. Architect Magazine, Canopy at MoMA PS1, <http://www.architectmagazine.com/project-gallery/canopy-at-moma-ps1>, [accessed 7 March 2016].

â&#x20AC;&#x153; With the use of digital technologies, the design information is the construction information. â&#x20AC;? Kolarevic, 2003.1

MOMA/ P.S.1 CANOPY

A2. DESIGN COMPUTATION With the precedents discussed before, it is evident that computers play an inevitable role in realising the final designs. In most cases, computers are not just used to document and fabricate final products, they are also used in the early stages of idea generation and development. Scripting is comparable to initial sketching, and this clearly shows the shift within the paradigm of design thinking.2 Following up on hybridity being a key value in society these days, the collaboration of creative thinking and rational computation has allowed for the boundaries of architecture and design to be pushed. Complex geometries are now easier to generate with the use of parametric modelling, and as these information can be extracted or transferred to other softwares or machines, producing them has become more achievable too.3 Computation was essential in executing the Canopy pavilion where nArchitects was able to find the middle ground between geometric precision and natural variables. Using parametric means, they created a digital model where the length and intersections points of every arc were depicted. This enabled them to determine the orientation and splicing method of the bamboo pole whilst constructing the pavilion.4

Queens, New York by nArchitects

[1] Branko Kolarevic, Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing, (New York; London: Spon Press, 2003), p. 7. [2] Rivka Oxman and Robert Oxman, Theories of the Digital in Architecture, (London; New York: Routledge, 2014), p. 7.

[3] Branko Kolarevic, Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing, (New York; London: Spon Press, 2003), p. 7.

[4] nArchitects, MOMA/P.S.1 Canopy, <http://narchitects. com/work/momap-s-1-canopy-3/>, [accessed 7 March 2016].


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A2

DESIGN COMPUTATION

Figure 8. Archdaily, EXOtique / PROJECTiONE, <http://www.archdaily.com/125764/exotique-projectione>, [accessed 13 March 2016].


DESIGN COMPUTATION

A2

15

Figure 9. Archdaily, EXOtique / PROJECTiONE, <http://www.archdaily.com/125764/exotique-projectione>, [accessed 13 March 2016].

EXOTIQUE

With EXOtique, the hexagonal modules were achieved via Grasshopper algorithms. Fabricating the modules with tabs, labels and connections, enabled for a product that is easily assembled, selfsupporting and free of hardware connections.5 This resulted in a final product that truly celebrates its material properties, and it also suggests that digital fabrication is expanding the potential of reciprocal structures. This is exemplar of another key outcome of design computation, performative designs. Architects are using means of computation to simulate structural and material performances as a methodology of design, and this is especially useful in simulating user experience.6 There is also what is known as the emergent form, where the multiplicity of algorithmic scripting enables different forms to be explored and adopted for optimum performance.7

Muncie, Indiana by PROJECTiONE

[5] Archdaily, EXOtique / PROJECTiONE, <http://www. archdaily.com/125764/exotique-projectione>, [accessed 13 March 2016].

The accessibility of design computation is also a factor that builds collaboration between different disciplines where the computer facilitates communication during the design process. Computation is definitely changing the execution of a design, from the initial idea generation to the final assemblage of modules. This is causing a shift in culture, where workflow is becoming more of a loop rather than a top-down linear process, ultimately paving the way for a new form of architecture.

[6] Brady Peters, â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thoughtâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;, Architectural Design, 83, 2 (2013) pp. 8-15, (p. 13).

[7] Branko Kolarevic, Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing, (New York; London: Spon Press, 2003), p. 26.


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A3

COMPOSITION / GENERATION

Figure 10. 3GATTI, SND Concept Store, <http://3gatti.com/#1866>, [accessed 17 March 2016].


COMPOSITION / GENERATION

A3

17

Figure 11. 3GATTI, SND Concept Store, <http://3gatti.com/#1866>, [accessed 17 March 2016].

SND CONCEPT STORE

A3. COMPOSITION / GENERATION

Chongqing, China by 3GATTI

A radical movement born out of design computation is generative architecture, where as opposed to traditionally planning out the composition of a building, architects and designers are now able to generate forms by entering a set of rules, parameters and logic to a computer program.1 This presents new opportunities in form-finding as this methodology of design treats each input of logic as a variable, which can be easily modified to produce multiple outcomes.2 Often, unexpected results are attained, further expanding the potential of generating forms as it is now not only limited to the designerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s visualising capacity. In saying that, complex forms can start to take shape based off rules set by parameters. In the SND Concept Store by 3GATTI, the architects imagined the weight of objects pulling down the ceiling at certain points, and by using a material simulation software, they were able to model the effect this had at each point. The scale-like patternation was also achieved by applying algorithmic rules to the program, generating more than 10,000 separate surfaces which were then machine fabricated to precision.3

[1] Branko Kolarevic, Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing, (New York; London: Spon Press, 2003), p. 13.

[2] Ibid, 17.

Form generation allowed for the morphing and manipulation of a simple surface whilst taking into consideration the materiality and spatial parameters, suggesting the potential of creating unconventional geometry within set constraints.

[3] 3GATTI, SND Concept Store, <http://3gatti.com/#1866>, [accessed 17 March 2016].


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A3

COMPOSITION / GENERATION

Figure 12. Archdaily, Eegoo Offices/dEEP Architects, <http://www.archdaily.com/194769/eegoo-offices-deep-architects>, [accessed 18 March 2016].


COMPOSITION / GENERATION

A3

Figure 13. Archdaily, Eegoo Offices/dEEP Architects, <http://www.archdaily.

Figure 14. Archdaily, Eegoo Offices/dEEP Architects, <http://www.archdaily.

com/194769/eegoo-offices-deep-architects>, [accessed 18 March 2016].

com/194769/eegoo-offices-deep-architects>, [accessed 18 March 2016].

EEGOO OFFICES

This methodology is also enabling the integration of biomimicry into architecture as it allows for the translation of natural patterns and scientific calculations into a visual form.4 dEEP Architects employed a cellular sequence in generating the interior of the Eegoo Offices, which not only informed the aesthetic qualities but the spatial organisation as well. Office spaces and circulation follow the generated cellsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; shape and sizes, resulting in a space that appears to be composed randomly but was in fact generated following an organised nodal sequence.5 Here, the architects effectively merged the generated form with symbolism and materiality, creating an office space that is dynamic and innovative. However, it is arguable that since generative architecture is highly based off logic and rational inputs, the creative aspect will be lacking. Also, there is a potential of the end result being either too literal or deprived of poetic qualities. This is where a balance has to be met in order to maximise the potential of combining the rational programming of computers and the creative intuition of the human mind.6 In saying that, performance, tectonics, materiality, or any other constraints assigned to a project, are becoming more and more integrated within the process of generating a form.7 This creates a digital boundary but it allows us to roam within our own creativity. There is no perfect system or way of designing, therefore piecing together the advantages of each methodology is a viable approach to designing.

19

Beijing, China by dEEP Architects

[4] Rivka Oxman and Robert Oxman, Theories of the Digital in Architecture, (London; New York: Routledge, 2014), p. 7.

[5] Archdaily, Eegoo Offices/dEEP Architects, <http://www. archdaily.com/194769/eegoo-offices-deep-architects>, [accessed 18 March 2016].

[6] Yehuda E. Kalay, Architectureâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s New Media: Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design, (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2004), p. 3.

[7] Oxman, p. 6.


A4. CONCLUSION Architecture and design serve as a platform for collaboration and speculation, resulting in a society that is becoming increasingly driven by hybridity.1 From the aesthetics of projects being proposed and realised to the methodology of design, there is often a collaboration between different disciplines, concepts and media. As information is so easily shared and accessed these days, we have the privilege of adopting different ideas and merging them into a solution for our own design problems. This is the biggest potential of the digital and contemporary age, as there are no set rules and so many design possibilities. What interests me most is the complementation of two very different elements, for example, the rational computer and the creative mind. As mentioned in A1, there is a trend in architecture where contradicting elements are brought together in a unifying way. Furthermore, many designers have successfully done this in producing a structure that is fully self-supported, highlighting this idea of cohesion. In saying that, I am interested to further explore the potential of digital design in generating forms and producing self-supported structures, with the aim of bridging two contradicting elements together.

[1] Anthony Dunne & Fiona Raby, Speculative Everything: Design Fiction, and Social Dreaming (Massachussetts: MIT Press, 2013), p. 6.


A5. LEARNING OUTCOMES Throughout the Part A module, I came across many design precedents that highlighted the potential of incorporating digital means to design. Although I was already aware of this, the lectures, readings and tutorials expanded my knowledge on digital design as I now know the difference between computerisation and computation. Computers are not just used for documenting, visualising or rendering, but they have the potential to generate designs too. A different form of thinking will have to be applied when adapting to computation as information have to be inserted to a program to generate solutions. In a sense, this requires a more profound understanding of structural and performance systems, as these information have to be firstly deconstructed before the programs can reconstruct them into a new result. Prior to this, I have only used computers in later stages of the design process. Through the algorithmic sketch tasks, I have started to practice generative design and am intrigued by both the design outcomes and process. I realised that how I conceived the design within my own thoughts was different from how it would have been if I was sketching it out by hand. This made me truly aware of how computers are changing the way we conceptualise and I am interested to see how I will develop in this throughout the course of Studio Air.

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A6. APPENDIX - ALGORITHMIC SKETCHES Through the algorithmic sketch tasks, I had the chance to explore form generation using attractor points. The multiplicity of Grasshopper quickly became apparent to me when just a simple change of value in the number s lider could result in strikingly different results. All definition put into the plug in act as a variable that manipulates the form whilst working within set parameters. Experimenting with different numerical parameters, input functions, defined geometry and relocating the attractor points allowed me to generate varied and unexpected forms. Again, it became apparent to me that although Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;m working within the boundary of parameters, there are endless possibilities to the outcomes I can achieve. I gathered that parametricism itself is reflective of the nature of design; whilst having to work within a framework shaped by issues, opportunities and constraints, there are infinite amount of solutions to the design problem.

This is the plan view of the initial form generated using an attractor point. The circular patternation was achieved by applying mathematical functions to a rectangular grid parameter which then informs the radius value of each circle. By changing the defined geometry and values entered into the mathematical functions, interesting shapes that overlay start to form. Parametricism allows for patternation and this does not neccesarily have to be employed for the overall form of building, but could also be incorporated to facades or surfaces.


23

Attractor point and loft function.

Introducing multiple attractor points to create folds in different directions.

Changing degree of curves and allocating multiple points to one attractor point component creates unpredicted results.

Iteration to desired form by changing values, degree of curves and location of points.


REFERENCES 3GATTI, SND Concept Store, <http://3gatti.com/#1866>, [accessed 17 March 2016].

A/N Blog, Clive Wilkinson Architects Makes a Superdesk, <http://blog.archpaper.com/2015/02/clive-wilkinson-architects-makes-a-super desk/#.Vuawc4x941i>, [acccessed 12 March 2016].

Archdaily, Eegoo Offices/dEEP Architects, <http://www.archdaily.com/194769/eegoo-offices-deep-architects>, [accessed 18 March 2016].

Archdaily, EXOtique / PROJECTiONE, <http://www.archdaily.com/125764/exotique-projectione>, [accessed 13 March 2016].

Archdaily, Ribbon Chapel / Hiroshi Nakamura & NAP Architects, <http://www.archdaily.com/594947/ribbon-chapel-nap-architects>, [accessed 18 March 2016].

Architect Magazine, Canopy at MoMA PS1, <http://www.architectmagazine.com/project-gallery/canopy-at-moma-ps1>, [accessed 7 March 2016].

Dunne, Anthony, and Fiona Raby, Speculative Everything: Design Fiction, and Social Dreaming, (Massachussetts: MIT Press, 2013).

Fry, Tony, Design Futuring: Sustainability, Ethics and New Practice, (Oxford: Berg, 2008).

Louie, Elaine, Table Manners at Work, (New York: The New York Times, 2014), <http://www.nytimes.com/2014/02/13/garden/table-man ners-at-work.html?partner=rssnyt&emc=rss&_r=2>, [accessed 12 March 2016].

Hiroshi Nakamura & NAP CO., Ltd., Ribbon Chapel, <http://www.nakam.info/en/>, [accessed 12 March 2016].

Kalay, Yehuda E., Architecture’s New Media: Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design, (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2004).

Kolarevic, Branko, Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing, (New York; London: Spon Press, 2003), p. 13.

nArchitects, MOMA/P.S.1 Canopy, <http://narchitects.com/work/momap-s-1-canopy-3/>, [accessed 7 March 2016].

Pugnale, Alberto, Dario Parigi, Poul Henning Kirkegaard, and Mario Sassone, ‘The Principle of Structural Reciprocity’, Full Papers:Taller, Longer, Lighter (2011), <http://vbn.aau.dk/files/56095311/the_principle_of_structural_reciprocity.pdf>, [accessed 18 March 2016].

Peters, Brady, ‘Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought’, Architectural Design, 83, 2 (2013) pp. 8-15, (p. 13).

Oxman, Rivka, and Robert Oxman, Theories of the Digital in Architecture, (London; New York: Routledge, 2014).


A


26

RESEARCH FIELD. B1 CASE STUDY 1.0. B2 CASE STUDY 2.0. B3 TECHNIQUE: DEVELOPMENT. B4 TECHNIQUE: PROTOTYPES. B5 TECHNIQUE: PROPOSAL. B6 LEARNING OUTCOMES. B7 APPENDIX. B8

B

C R I T E R I A

D E S I G N


B

B1. RESEARCH FIELD - TESSELLATION Tessellation is an architectural tectonic that presents opportunities in realising the fabrication and construction of complex shapes. This is done so by creating panels off a generated surface, and through parametric means, there are many possibilities with how these panels can be manipulated to meet the design criteria. For our Studio Air project, we will be proposing a ceiling installation, constructed out of timber veneer, for a meeting room in Hachemâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s new office. With this preliminary criteria, tessellation appears to be a viable approach in designing an installation that can be broken down into modular parts, fabricated, and easily assembled on site. Individual modules can be connected via interlocking tabs or segments, and this tectonic also presents potential in achieving structural stability.1 Furthermore, as we have timber veneer as the set material, we can take the material performance into account and set this as parameters for panelisation in terms of length constraints and flexibility.2 The conceptual design implications of tessellation as a tectonic, as well as the opportunities it presents for our ceiling installation in terms of form generation and fabrication, will be further discussed with a few selected precedents.

[1] Sigrid Adriaenssens and others, Shell Structures for Architecture: Form Finding and Optimization, (London; New York: Routledge, 2014), p. 83. [2] Ibid., p. 83.


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B1

RESEARCH FIELD

TESSELION

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania by Skylar Tibbits Tesselion represents the potential of constructing curved surfaces out of flat panels. Deriving planar surfaces from complex geometries is a key exploration within parametric architecture as this approach allows for fast and easy construction.1 Working digitally and through parametric means, structural efficiency in the way the panels are organised can be achieved too.2 Each panel can be treated individually, and this allows for the optimisation of patterning and perforation. Although dealing with planar surfaces, tessellation as a tectonic is still able to achieve curvature and fluidity with the overall form. These aesthetic qualities are of interest to me, especially when they are born out of flat, angular geometries.

[1] SJET, Tesselion, <http://www.sjet.us/PHILA_TESSELION.html>, [accessed 5 April 2016]. Figure 1. masterarchitectureAMS, Images and Graphic Ideas, <https://masterarchitectureams. wikispaces.com/Images+and+Graphic+Ideas>, [accessed 5 April 2016].

[2] Ibid.

DRAGON SKIN PAVILION

Kowloon Park, Hong Kong by Emmi Keskisarja, Pekka Tynkkynen, Kristof Crolla (LEAD) and Sebastien Delagrange (LEAD)

Figure 2. Archdaily, Dragon Skin Pavilion / Emmi Keskisarja + Pekka Tynkkynen + Kristof Crolla (LEAD) and Sebastien Delagrange (LEAD), <http://www.archdaily.com/215249/dragon-skin-pavilion-emmi-keskisarja-pekka-tynkkynen-lead>, [accessed 5 April 2016].

This project explores the potential of post-formable plywood in creating a self-supported volume.3 Panels are designed with slits that interlock when bent, celebrating the flexibility and integrity of the material. The connections are articulated in a geometrically patterned manner, allowing for these to contribute to the overall aesthetics of the structure. This is a case of structure, aesthetics and effects being effectively deployed through the use of tessellation. Furthermore, the way the panels bend and meet introduces voids which filter light into the encompassed space. With the ceiling installation, it is important to consider light treatment as well as shadows cast onto working surfaces. For our project, the Dragon Skin Pavilionâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s inward effects could be reversed to address the lighting and shadow criteria. [3] Dragon Skin, Dragon Skin, <http://dragonskinproject.com/>, [accessed 5 April 2016].


RESEARCH FIELD

B1

29

ARCHIPELAGO PAVILION

Copenhagen, Denmark by Chalmers University of Technology and Rรถhsska Museum of Design

Similar to the previous precedent, the Archipelago Pavilion also presents volume, but here, the structure also appears to be a single surface. Tessellation is used here to connect prefabricated steel sheets in a way where a dynamic sense of space is introduced by the webs of spaces created.4 Timber veneer has a bending flexibility, allowing it to create this sort of structure too. However, it has limitations in strength and fabrication as compared to steel, and creating a three-dimensional panel is not as feasible. Parametric modelling can help define these limitations and a suitable form could be generated, perhaps by creating smaller panels or integrating other support elements (i.e. tabs or interlocking segments). [4] eVolo, Archipelago Parametrically Designed Pavilion, <http://www.evolo.us/architecture/ Figure 3. eVolo, Archipelago Parametrically Designed Pavilion, <http://www.evolo.us/ architecture/archipelago-parametrically-designed-pavilion/>, [accessed 5 April 2016].

archipelago-parametrically-designed-pavilion/>, [accessed 5 April 2016].

RESONANT CHAMBER Ann Arbor, Michigan by rvtr

This project deals highly with acoustic treatment, and is an example of using tessellation to address this. The tessellated form allows for a kinetic design where panels can be controlled to fold in and out according to acoustic needs.5 This requires a separate software to be developed which informs the folding, but with our design, the idea itself serves as inspiration on how we can combine performative needs with the tessellation tectonic, and how this might inform our design overall.

Figure 4. Archdaily, Resonant Chamber / rvtr, <http://www.archdaily.com/227233/ resonant-chamber-rvtr>, [accessed 7 April 2016].

[5] Archdaily, Resonant Chamber / rvtr, <http://www.archdaily.com/227233/resonant-chamberrvtr>, [accessed 7 April 2016].


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B2

CASE STUDY 1.0

B2. CASE STUDY 1.0 Figure 5. Archdaily, Voussoir Cloud / IwamotoScott Architecture + Buro Happold, <http://www.archdaily.com.br/br/01-54024/voussoir-cloud-iwamotoscott-architecture-mais-buro-happold>, [accessed 10 April 2016].


CASE STUDY 1.0

B2

31

Figure 6. Archdaily, Voussoir Cloud / IwamotoScott Architecture + Buro Happold, <http://www.archdaily.com.br/br/01-54024/voussoir-cloud-iwamotoscott-architecture-mais-buro-happold>, [accessed 10 April 2016].

VOUSSOIR CLOUD

Voussoir Cloud is an example of a tessellated tectonic and it uses the material performance of timber laminate to inform the structural and aesthetic design.1 The design draws inspiration from Otto and Gaudiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s hanging chain models in searching for form optimisation,2 and this can be modelled through Grasshopper using the Kangaroo plug-in. Kangaroo allows us to enter anchor points, spring and gravitational forces, and by inputing known parameters regarding the material performance, we can run a physics simulation to help search for form efficiency.

Los Angeles, California by Iwamoto Scott Architecture and Buro Happold

In this project, anchor points were located on the circumference of the base columns as well as on the surrounding walls, allowing for a catenary structure to be formed. In terms of construction, the design features tighter modules at the base columns for more structural integrity and modules have greater offset and curvatures progressing upwards. This results in greater apertures above which allow for light to filter in, demonstrating how structural ornamentation is linked to the architectural effects. Using the basic script of the Voussoir Cloud project, I experimented with how I could use physics simulation in Kangaroo to inform the design criteria for the ceiling installation. Through manipulating anchor points and rest lengths, I was able to produce iterations that serve as an initial logic that would be applied to our design later. Other than that, I explored different ways that I could potentially panellise a surface. This included experimenting with surface subdivision and also applying a Delaunay or Weaverbird definition.

[1] Iwamato Scott Architecture, Voussoir Cloud, <http:// www.iwamotoscott.com/VOUSSOIR-CLOUD>, [accessed 10 April 2016].

[2] Ibid.


32

B2

CASE STUDY 1.0

A

B

Mesh surface

Greater UV subdivision

Voronoi cells

Delaunay triangulation

C

WEAVERBIRD LAPLACIAN SMOOTHING U: 3 V: 3

U: 5 V: 2

U: 1 V: 2

U: 1 V: 1


CASE STUDY 1.0

B2

33

D

WEAVERBIRD PICTURE FRAME U: 10 V: 10 DISTANCE: 10

SPECIES B+C U: 2 V: 3 DISTANCE: 20

SPECIES A

Subdivision of mesh surface Using tools such as Voronoi and Delaunay to attain a subdivided surface, potentially infroming the panelisation of the surface.

SPECIES B

Weaverbird Laplacian Smoothing U: 1 V: 2 Distance: 50

U: 2 V: 3 D: 33

Attaining smoother edges for the mesh and creating relaxed geometry. Changing the surfave subdivision values (UV values) generate unexpected outcomes.

SPECIES C

Weaverbird Picture Frame

U:3 V: 3 D: 50

U: 3 V: 1 D: 10

Offsetting the edges of each mesh face to create a frame. Introduces apertures which could be a potential feature to introduce light in future design. Offset distance determines thickness of frame and thicker frames could result in a tucked in model.

SPECIES D

Weaverbird Laplacian Smoothing + Picture Frame

U: 3 V: 3 D 25

U: 3 V: 1 D: 35

Applying both definitions to attain form that does not appear as rigid as initial algorithm outcome. Potential in relaxing the structure of a mesh through smoothing definitions.


34

B2

CASE STUDY 1.0

E

F

Amplitude: 700 Scale factor: 0.25

G

Unary force: 0.5

Amp: 700 Smoothing

Rest length: 5

Amp: 800 Smoothing

Removing rest length

Amp: 800 Smoothing Scale factor: 0.75

Applying timer to attain different forms


CASE STUDY 1.0

B2

35

H

SPECIES E

Amplifying frame To create volume, the amplitude of frames were altered and also by introducing a scale definition, dynamic forms can be produced.

SPECIES F

Kangaroo Physics

Using physics simulation in form-finding. Manipulation of rest lengths and unary forces acting upon the mesh object.

SPECIES G

Relocating anchor points Redefining anchor points to achieve desired relaxed mesh. This is a handy tool in helping us visualise potential forms for our ceiling installation as we can input points where we would like the installation to be held in tension. Generated catenary forms serve as initial sketch ideas.

SPECIES H

Further manipulation After understanding the basics of Kangaroo, further manipulation was applied to the rest lengths, spring and unary forces. A timer was also added to attain different results. This is an efficient way of generating multiple sketch ideas.


36

B2

CASE STUDY 1.0

PANELISATION

Delaunay triangulation

This definition divides a mesh surface into triangular panels. Triangles are planar, therefore it is easy to fabricate complex geometries out of them. When turning a complex surface into basic geometries, a logic is also established, aiding us with both fabrication and construction in later stages.

STRUCTURE

Weaverbird Picture Frame

The shared edges could potentially be connected via tabs or other joining methods to create an integral self -supporting structure. Also, the aperture created within each panel could potentially be incorporated to the lighting criteria of our ceiling installation.

VOLUME

Amplifying frame Another selection criteria is producing an installation that depicts volume. The frame amplitude, when incorporated with the scaling definition produces some rather dynamic forms that could be morphed out of a single surface.


CASE STUDY 1.0

B2

37

LIGHT TREATMENT

Voids in mesh

Another potential method to allow light through the installation is to have apertures or voids within the mesh. These voids can be modelled following the basic script of the Voussoir Cloud for the base columns.

FLUIDITY

Anchor points and rest lengths By altering the location of anchor points and rest lengths of a Kangaroo physics simulation, a fluid form can be achieved from an initial rigid or angular geometry. Fluidity is a key concept for our installation as we aim to push forth the idea of creating a fluid form out of angular or basic geometries.

FORM

Further manipulation This was the form that we thought to be most successful in terms of its dynamism and irregular surface. This causes it to be non-hierarchial visually and that is an aspect we aim to further explore. We are interested in creating a form that is visually striking when viewed from different angles and directions.


38

B3

CASE STUDY 2.0

REVERSE ENGINEERING 1. Create surface A surface was lofted by first defining two curves then using the divide curve and catenary definition to manipulate the form until desired look is achieved.

2. Hexagonal cells Hexagonal grid is created off the referenced surface. The U and V parameters are altered to attain desired sizes and numbers of cells.

3. Patching cells The cells are produced as geometries which are then deconstructed to attain the edges of each individual cell. This information is then put into the patch command to create individual surface for each cells. This allows us to treat each cell as an individual component.

4. Perforating The surface of each cell is then perforated by projecting curves, culling and trimming them. Prior to this, image sampler was used to generate desired perforation pattern.

5. Creating tabs Tabs were drawn for a hexagonal module and repeatedly applied to other modules by locating the midpoint of the edges. (image on following spread)

B3. CASE STUDY 2.0


CASE STUDY 2.0

B3

39

Figure 7. PROJECTiONE.com, EXOtique <http://www.projectione.com/exotique/>, [accessed 10 April 2016].

I chose to reverse engineer this project which I had earlier researched on in Part A because it not only showcases the tessellation tectonic as a potential self-supporting structure, but also because it deals with other selection criteria for our ceiling installation too. The hexagonal panels feature a perforated pattern which allows for the filtration of light, as well as sets up an atmospheric effect for the installation space. The panels are locked onto each other using an elegantly designed tab system which enables the structure to celebrate its connection detailing as an aesthetic feature too.

EXOTIQUE Muncie, Indiana by PROJECTiONE

Furthermore, in terms of form, EXOtique does feature a sense of undulation which is made possible by understanding the material properties of styrene. Styrene is slightly flexible, and by applying a tabbing system at the edges of the panels, the panels are forced to bend within each component.1 By extrapolating this, curvature can be achieved. Our material, timber veneer, is also flexible and the design concepts presented with the EXOtique project are potentially effective in helping us kickstart a ceiling installation design that features elements of structural integrity, fluidity, lighting and other aesthetic qualities.

[1] PROJECTiONE.com, EXOtique <http://www.projectione. com/exotique/>, [accessed 10 April 2016].


40

B3

CASE STUDY 2.0

Surface unrolled ready for fabrication.

Mushroom tabs Unrolled six panels to experiment with different connection methods.

These tabs slide into slits made on the panels itself. It was found later that creating tabs off the surface is actually more aesthetically pleasing as they can be tucked and hidden.


TECHNIQUE: DEVELOPMENT

B4

41

B4. TECHNIQUE: DEVELOPMENT TAB SYSTEMS A key selection criteria for our project is the structural integrity of the design. We aim to create a selfsupporting structure as we believe this will also present opportunities at the later stages of realising the design. We aim to create a system which allows for easy assemblage, allowing for efficient construction and future cleaning and maintenance. Also, this will allow us to truly celebrate the material properties of our selected timber veneer which will inform the structure and form of our design too. Here are a few experimental tab systems which will be later fabricated and tested for efficiency.

Side tabs

Interlocks

These tabs are made with an offset

Here, we tried a different joining system

from the edges of the panels. This

where instead of tabs, slits are created to

resulted in neater results as the

interlock with one another, This was inspired

connections can be hidden under the

by the Dragon Skin Pavilion method of

top surface.

connection.


42

B4

A

B

C

D

TECHNIQUE: DEVELOPMENT


TECHNIQUE: DEVELOPMENT

B4

43

SPECIES A

Making surface into mesh and manipulating panels through Kangaroo physics.

SPECIES B

Hexagonal frid turned into mesh and using baked vertices as anchor points.

SPECIES C

Redefining and relocating anchor points.

SPECIES D

Reshaping grid mesh.


44

B4

TECHNIQUE: DEVELOPMENT

E

F

G

There is great potential in using the rotation angle of each panel panel, resulting in panels that a Ultimately this defini


TECHNIQUE: DEVELOPMENT

B4

45

SPECIES E

Readjusting anchor points prior to resetting. (Disabling real-life simulation to search for further form potential)

SPECIES F

Delaunay triangulation to create triangular panels.

SPECIES G

Manipulating cells of hexagonal grid through scaling and rotating. Attractor points also introduced to further enhance logic of form.

ATTRACTOR POINTS

attractor points to inform the final form of our design. Here, attractor points are used to inform l to introduce a dynamic, flowing aesthetic. They could also be used to define the scale of each ascend / descend in size according to the distance of the panels centroid to the attractor point. ition gives us command over how our panels twist and turn in searching for an optimised result.


46

H

I

J

B4

TECHNIQUE: DEVELOPMENT


TECHNIQUE: DEVELOPMENT

B4

47

SPECIES H

Box morph to introduce a sense of volume to each module.

SPECIES I

Surface manipulation using rotation and scale definitions.

SPECIES J

Applying box morph to twisted surface.


48

B4

TECHNIQUE: DEVELOPMENT

DESIGN PROPOSAL We are interested in creating a form that twists and turns as it represents the multitude of elements creating a dynamic work scene. Studio Air, and the field of architecture in general, is highly about collaborative efforts and we believe that characteristics of flow, integration and considered complexity are reflective of this. In combining this concept of a smooth, single surface with a fragmented, geometric panelling system, we propose a design that bridges these contrasting elements and in turn produces a coherent aesthetic. Not forgetting our aforementioned criteria, we will continue to develop this concept in search of a design solution that meets best the brief for our timber veneer ceiling installation.

+


TECHNIQUE: DEVELOPMENT

B4

49


52

B5

TECHNIQUE: PROTOTYPES


TECHNIQUE: PROTOTYPES

B5

53

B5. TECHNIQUE: PROTOTYPES


52

B5

Materiality

TECHNIQUE: PROTOTYPES


TECHNIQUE: PROTOTYPES

B5

53

The flexibility of the timber veneer material enabled us to create a flexible structure which we could potentially use ceiling ties to hold up. This presents the potential of curving and manipulating the material even after fabrication. However, this also presents the issue of creating a structure that will not deflect if we kept to our selfsupporting concept and not use additional structural reinforcements.


Testing effects

Experimenting with lighting and shadow effects. Besides light being filtered through the perforation, we noted that by overlaying two sheets of perforated timber veneer, an interesting lighting quality can be achieved as shown on the right.


56

B5

TECHNIQUE: PROTOTYPES


TECHNIQUE: PROTOTYPES

B5

Connection Exploring with a different connection system. This system presents more potential than the tab system as the interlocking of segments add to the structural integrity. There is flexibility in terms of the panel rotation, which could add to the volume and dynamism of the design too.

57


58

B5

TECHNIQUE: PROTOTYPES


TECHNIQUE: PROTOTYPES

B5

1.

Timber veneer material is flexible and curvature and folding allows for volume to be formed.

2.

Standard perforation light and shadow tests. Projected effects were as predicted.

3.

Using the double skin method, different effects were achieved. Overlaying panels create shimmering effect.

4.

Further development of tabbing methods. Side tabs that extent out of edges work better and create neater aesthetics than tabs inserted into slits on panelâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s surface.

5.

Interlock method of connecting panels create a more variable structure. More suitable for our design direction.

59


60

B6

TECHNIQUE: PROPOSAL

REINSTATING CRITERIA Form Fluidity and volume present

Fabrication Self-assemblage, efficient, aesthtically considered

Light Voids / perforation that allow for light filtration

B6 presents a series of iterations and further development for a design proposal that meets the above criteria. The concept diagrams help illustrate some key ideas that we will like to bring forth with our design. The design will feature a series of spiralling panels that create an organiclike shape and will also have voids where the panels are on different angles. This will allow for light to penetrate through as well as create a diffusing aesthetic.


TECHNIQUE: PROPOSAL

B6

61

B6. TECHNIQUE: PROPOSAL


62

B6

TECHNIQUE: PROPOSAL

Selected form


TECHNIQUE: PROPOSAL

B6

Further manipulating attractor points in determining the scale factor of panels as well as the roatation angle has enabled us to produce various iterations that meet our stated criteria. Tentatively, our form logic will lie on the distribution of the meeting room space. Spanning 6000 by 4000 mm, our installation will run through the centre of the room, directly above the conference table. The installation will slighlty converge towards the end of the room, suggesting for a more fluid and dynamic aesthetic.

63


64

B6

TECHNIQUE: PROPOSAL


TECHNIQUE: PROPOSAL

B6

65


66

B6

TECHNIQUE: PROPOSAL


TECHNIQUE: PROPOSAL

B6

67


68

B6

TECHNIQUE: PROPOSAL

PLAN VIEW


TECHNIQUE: PROPOSAL

B6

69


70

B6

TECHNIQUE: PROPOSAL

SOUTH VIEW

NORTH VIEW


TECHNIQUE: PROPOSAL

WEST VIEW (FRONT)

B6

71


B7. LEARNING OUTCOMES In Criteria Design, we were encouraged to experiment with Grasshopper definitions and to uncover the potentials of parametric design in generating forms. From the interim feedback and my own experience whilst developing matrices, I realised that it is essential to have a selection criteria to inform the form-finding and optimisation process. Having a refined selection criteria enables us to filter through iterations more effectively and helps ensure that we stick to designing with a concept. Initially, it was hard to decide on a set of criteria as algorithmic design outcomes seem to be random and unexpected. However, after more practice and having a better understanding of what we can do with parametric scripting, I now have a lot more control of the design outcome, thus allowing me to set a solid list of design criteria. In saying that, we did not manage to prepare a proposal that highlights all of our intended criteria, especially with the light treatment aspect. This will definitely be an aspect to look into more detail for Part C. As we set out to create an integral structure, we became aware of how aesthetics, ornamentation and structure are all tied together and being able to digitally control these aspects also presented new ideas on how to integrate them. I was particularly interested in working out a connection system for Part B as I believe this will tie the project together structurally, aesthetically and also inform the fabrication and construction process for Part C. We will move forth with the interlocking connections as we see that as having most potential in addressing our the above selected criteria. criteria.

73


B8. APPENDIX - ALGORITHMIC SKETCHES

Using the Kangaroo physics simulation plug-in, springs, rest lengths ,and anchor points can be manipulated to create these geometrical compositions. By adding a timer various results can be easily attained and baked. On the next page, Kangaroo is further explored in terms of creating relaxed forms. Also the catenary and surface manipulation definitions were explored with the bottom-most algortihmic sketches.


75


REFERENCES

Archdaily, Dragon Skin Pavilion / Emmi Keskisarja + Pekka Tynkkynen + Kristof Crolla (LEAD) and Sebastien Delagrange (LEAD), <http:// www.archdaily.com/215249/dragon-skin-pavilion-emmi-keskisarja-pekka-tynkkynen-lead>, [accessed 5 April 2016].

Archdaily, Voussoir Cloud / IwamotoScott Architecture + Buro Happold, <http://www.archdaily.com.br/br/01-54024/voussoir-cloud-iwamo toscott-architecture-mais-buro-happold>, [accessed 10 April 2016].

Dragon Skin, Dragon Skin, <http://dragonskinproject.com/>, [accessed 5 April 2016].

Archdaily, Resonant Chamber / rvtr, <http://www.archdaily.com/227233/resonant-chamber-rvtr>, [accessed 7 April 2016].

eVolo, Archipelago Parametrically Designed Pavilion, <http://www.evolo.us/architecture/archipelago-parametrically-designed-pavilion/>, [accessed 5 April 2016].

masterarchitectureAMS, Images and Graphic Ideas, <https://masterarchitectureams.wikispaces.com/Images+and+Graphic+Ideas>, [accessed 5 April 2016].

PROJECTiONE.com, EXOtique <http://www.projectione.com/exotique/>, [accessed 10 April 2016].

SJET, Tesselion, <http://www.sjet.us/PHILA_TESSELION.html>, [accessed 5 April 2016].


B


78

DESIGN CONCEPT. C1 TECTONIC ELEMENTS. C2 DESIGN PROPOSAL. C3 DETAIL MODEL. C4 LEARNING OUTCOMES. C5

C

D E T A I L E D

D E S I G N


C

C1. DESIGN CONCEPT INTERPLAY To proceed with designing and fabricating a final prototype, we adopted a concept of ‘interplay’ to provide a backbone and logic that drives the form and overall outcome of our design. The final prototype suggests an interplay between frame and panel, form and structure, solid and void, and light and space. With the research on tessellation in Part B, panelisation will be a key tectonic that will provide the structure and aesthetics of our design. On top of that, ideas gained from the research on the strip tectonic, as well as patterning, will also be employed. As an overview, we were interested in manipulating the material, timber veneer, to create a sculpture-like installation that function as a light feature too. Taking advantage of timber veneer’s flexibility, we aim to introduce a sense of fluidity through the bending and rotation of panels.

FRAME AND PANEL

SOLID AND VOID

Using tesselation a frame and panel

Due to the relationship of the frame and panel

system is established. The relationship

system, there is the opportunity to create

is so that the voids created by each

openings which contributes to the overall

layer outlines the shape for the other.

light effect.

FORM AND STRUCTURE The panels that give shape to the design are also what makes up part of the structural framework.

SPACE AND LIGHT This relationship will be illustrated in later stages of the design process. Ultimately, the light emitted from the installaton will paint the atmosphere of the space.


80

C1

DESIGN CONCEPT: PRECEDENT STUDY

EXOTIQUE

Muncie, Indiana by PROJECTiONE

This precedent informed the use of panels and creating a tab system to allow the panels to be self-connecting, creating an integral system. Also, light is treated in such a way that it is filtered through the perforations, as well as through the thin voids between each panel. We liked the subtle line of light outlining the panels and were inspired to introduce this sort of linear light filtration in our design. Figure 1. PROJECTiONE.com, EXOtique <http://www.projectione.com/ exotique/>, [accessed 10 April 2016].

LUMINESCENT LIMACON Troy, New York by Andrew Saunders

The heavy contrast lighting created by the internal light source appealed to us and so did the fluid effect created by the folded sheets. With this precedent, we looked at how we could introduce a dramatic light effect to our ceiling installation and also how we could give our design a sense of volume and fluidity.

Figure 2. suckerPunch, Luminescent Limaรงon, <http://www.suckerpunchdaily. com/2011/12/16/luminescent-limacon/#more-17501>, [accessed 5 June 2016].

Dior Ginza

Tokyo, Japan by Kumiko Inui

With this precedent, we adopted the double-skin concept as we were interested in how we could create different patterns and establish shadow effects through the layering of sheets. Combining ideas from these three precedents and more, we looked at creating an installation that is composed of two or more layers with voids created by the individual panels contributing to the filtration of light and overall effect produced.

Figure 3. Office of Kumiko Inui, Dior Ginza, <http://www.inuiuni.com/ projects/234/>, [accessed 5 June 2016].


DESIGN CONCEPT: PRECEDENT STUDY

C1

COMBINED IDEAS + APPROACH Jeanne FIrstly, we aim to produce a design that exudes fluidity and this will be brought forth by elegant curvatures. Panelising the surface of the curved form will assist in fabrication and construction as the surface will be divided into planar panels. Treating each panel as a unique module also presents opportunities for further manipulation such as the bending and rotating of panels.

Aye Creating a form with an internal lighting feature, and externally composed of slits and voids that can be parametrically controlled according to desired effects is the approach we are taking. With the tesselation feature, we can easily control these voids and other aesthetics features.

Young Patterns created using the image sampler and attractor points definitions inspired us to further explore the potential of using these definitions in establishing a logic for our form and design. We will use attractor points especially, to determine scales and rotation angles of the frames and panels in accordance to its position within the design, and relative to the site.

81


82

C1

DESIGN CONCEPT: WORKFLOW

FORM FINDING

SURFACE

WORK

The diagrams show the workflow developed and refined, leading up t

PANELISING ‘HEX’ PANELS

CONNECTIONS AND PROTOTYPING

LIGHT INTEGRATION


DESIGN CONCEPT: WORKFLOW

FORM DIVISION

E DIVISION

KFLOW

on how the design proposal was to the fabrication of a detail model.

PANELISING ‘X’ PANELS

SITE NTEGRATION

C1

83


84

C1

DESIGN CONCEPT: FORM FINDING


DESIGN CONCEPT: FORM FINDING

C1

85

FORM FINDING Using a NURBS control definition, iterations of forms were effectively achieved. The twisting form is a result of lofting a series of closed curves where each curve is a scaled and rotated version of the original curve. Initially we went with random testing of values to see what results suit our design intent most but later we applied a set of rules to help choose a final form. We applied a symmetrical rule and set the rotation of each cross-section curve to be 90 degrees from the previous curve. This allowed us to achieve a neat form that was informed by a few simple principles. Having an order and logic to our form allowed us to make iterations in a much more controlled manner, and it also gave us the opportunities to add a layer of complexity to it later without overcomplicating it visually. Our final form has an oval-shaped opening which diminishes in size as entering the room. The first and end curves are perpendicular allowing the surfaces in between to twist and morph.


86

C1

DESIGN CONCEPT: PANELISATION

PANELISATION: SURFACE DIVISION The first step in panelising our form is to divide the surfaces into planarised panels. This gives us developable surfaces that is easier to work with and can be later fabricated.

Triangulation A Panel approximation

Triangulation B Right-angled triangles

Triangulation C Equilateral triangles


DESIGN CONCEPT: PANELISATION

C1

These methods of surface division into panels were not ideal as they were only approximation from our curved form. Our final solution was to first create a hexagonal grid on the surface then creating a planar patched surface for each divided surface after.

Delaunay Triangulation Mesh approximation

Weaverbird Laplacian Smoothing Creating relaxed mesh that could represent voids

Box Morph Mapping geometrry onto surface then splitting

87


88

C1

DESIGN CONCEPT: PANELISATION

i

PANELISATION: PROCESS

1. Initial form FInal form attained by setting geometrical and numerical rules.

2. Form division Creating a top and bottom layer to allow for ease of installation. Also, by splitting the form, two strip voids are created at where the form splits. This adheres to our design intent of introducing a linear void for light to filter through

3. Diagrid Creating a grid that intersects with initial hexgrid so that points for the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Xâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; panels can be attained.


DESIGN CONCEPT: PANELISATION

C1

4. Offset and surface division Hexagonal grid offet and patched. Remaining surface matched with diagrid to attain intersection points.

5. ‘X’ Panels X shaped panels that form the frame of the installation. Hexagonal voids are created as a result.

6. ‘Hex’ Panels Initial patched surface that were offset. Bending and rotation achieved using Kangaroo plug-in and C# code.

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90

C2

TECTONIC ELEMENTS

C2. TECTONIC ELEMENTS

+


TECTONIC ELEMENTS

C2

FRAME + PANELS A key aspect of our design is the interplay between frame and panels. The frame is essentially made up of ‘X’ panels, and the voids created in between outline the shapes for the ‘Hex’ panels. This establishes a system where these two layers of the design are integral to each other. The ‘X’ panels provide a framework for the ‘Hex’ panels that shoot and bend out. This aesthetic of shooting and bending give the form created by the ‘X’ panels a sense of movement and more volume as it appears to be peeling off the overall form. The peeling off effect is further enhanced where at some parts, the panels fully sit within the voids, showing that they are initially part of the same surface. Dividing our surface up according to the diagrid intersection points also allowed us to develop a diagonal stripped tectonic. This is so that the panels are not only treated as individual modules, but they can also be grouped into strips which will allow for easier and more efficient assembly later.

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92

C2

TECTONIC ELEMENTS: MODULAR ASSEMBLY

MODULAR ASSEMBLY

1. Offset hexagonal grid

2. Create ‘X’ panels

Voids in between outline shapes for ‘X’ panels.

In turn, outlines for ‘Hex’ panels are achieved.

3. Create ‘Hex’ panels

4. Manipulation of ‘Hex’ panels

Hexagonal panels fill back the voids created bt ‘X’ panels.

‘Hex’ panels are modelled to either shoot out (at ends), bend, fit, or recess from the frame.


TECTONIC ELEMENTS: FULL FORM ASSEMBLY

C2

93

TOP ‘HEX’ PANELS

FULL FORM ASSEMBLY TOP ‘X’ PANELS

The full form of our design consist of four separate layers. The top and bottom frame, created from ‘X’ panels’ and the top and bottom ‘Hex’ panels which peels from the framework. These panels that peel will fill the void but as not all of them fit perfectly, there will still be voids present to allow for controlled light filtration.

BOTTOM ‘X’ PANELS

BOTTOM ‘HEX’ PANELS

The bottom layers mirror the top, creating a symmetrical and balanced outcome. Working with symmetry and an ordered principle from the start has eased up our design process and even introduced new possibilities. The two layers will match up with a slight void, created by offsetting both layers slightly, at two ends. This will again contribute to the lighting effects of the overall design.


94

C2

TECTONIC ELEMENTS: CONNECTION AND PROTOTYPES

PERPENDICULAR NOTCHES Deriving from the diagonal strips feature, and also from the interlocking connection detail from Part B prototyping, we tried a perpendicular notching system which will highlight the design’s diagonal flow. However, we descided against this system as it will overcrowd the desgin when the ‘Hex’ panels are added later.


SLITS + TABS Timber veneer has prove itself to be a rather self-integral material. Due to its flexibility, it will bend according to the direction of the grain and if forced, it can take on a complex form, without reinforcement, to a certian degree. The material we got this time round was thinner and more fragile therefore at a full scale level this connection detail may not be ideal.


96

C2

TECTONIC ELEMENTS: CONNECTION AND PROTOTYPES

GRAIN DIRECTION It is important to consider the timber grain when preparing files to laser cut since we are making use of the material properties. For our design, we will be cutting perpendicular to the grain direction to allow for the bending of the panels.

Perpendicular to grain

Along grain


TECTONIC ELEMENTS: CONNECTION AND PROTOTYPES

C2

97

EYELETS / FASTENERS (selected connection/method)

Adding on the the previous slits and tabs connection, reinforcing the full scale panels witn either eyelets or fasteneres could be a viable solution. They provide a neat, secure and aesthetically pleasing finish which will be of great assist if repairwork needs to be done to the installation.


C3. DESIGN PROPOSAL


PLAN VIEW


101


SIDE VIEW


103


FRONT VIEW


105


General Lighting Lighting installed at the bottom of installation for general use.


Atmospheric Lighting Lighting installed within installation and filtered through strips and voids to create dramatic effect.


C4. DETAIL MODEL


116

C4

DETAIL MODEL: ASSEMBLING PROCESS

1

2

3

5

6

7

9

10

11


DETAIL MODEL: ASSEMBLING PROCESS

C4

117

4 1. Arranging ‘X’ panels. 2. Arranging ‘Hex’ panels. 3. Assembling frame, wire used to hold twisted surface in shape. 4. Top frame complete.

8

5. Panels at ends shoot out. 6. Panels further in creating a bent shape. 7. Panels fitting in and becoming part of the frame in the middle. 8. Bending the shooting panels to achieve greater contrast.

12

9. Top and bottom layers complete. 10. Assembling both layers together. 11. Suspending installation. 12. Integrating lights.


118

C4

DETAIL MODEL: SEQUENCE

‘Hex’ panels at the first and last two rows shoot out to enhance a sense of openness and to diffuse light to the environment. This is intended to create a radiating effect.

Moving away from t bend, showing off th veneer. It also traps m a scattered light a


the ends, the panels he flexibility of timber more light in, creating and shadow effect.

DETAIL MODEL: SEQUENCE

In the middle rows, the panels fit into the voids, creating a contrasting effect from the other two features. Light still escapes however, from the slits created where the form is divided.

C4

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Radiating effect


Interplay relationships (1)


Interplay relationships (2)


From a distance.


C5. LEARNING OUTCOMES IWith the design proposal and detail model in Part C, we were required to find the balance between practicality and the flexibility of the digital realm. With our physical prototypes, we faced challenges with connecting panels due to scale and maintaining the twisting from of the design. Through realising our design physically, we were able to make amends such as introducing a flexible fastening reinforcement to ensure stability yet maintain the designâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s simple assemblage. If the design was to be built at a one to one scale however, more reinforcement would probably be needed to hold the form, such as a wireframe that follows the curve of the diagonal strips. Whilst working on realising the project, I was able to apply the material attained from Part A and B and also, the material from my group membersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; research too. Our collaboration had allowed us to come up with a design that tackles a variety of aspects, from panelling surfaces to strip sectioning and lighting considerations. Although we are collectively satisfied with the final outcomes, there is always room for improvement, especially in the design field. A main comment we received at the presentations was that our design was not suitable for a ceiling installation and resembled a centre lighting piece instead. A sculpture-like installation with light and shadow effects highlighted had been a key motif for our design but we could look into how we might unroll some parts of the consolidated form to create a design that is more encompassing of the ceiling space. Since we have developed a strip connective structure, we could group the panels in their respective diagonal strips and further manipulate these to flow over the ceiling space. More refinement could also be done for the connection details of our design at its current stage. Getting hold of material that is slightly thicker and suitable for a one to one prototype would be ideal to experiment with the slit and tab system. However, at this point, eyelets and fasteners are an economic and viable solution to ensure both integrity and flexibility. In terms of generating design ideas by purely using parametric and digital means, this project had been a first for me, and it was an eye-opener to experience the difference in thinking and solution searching between hand sketching and algorithmic scripting. Designing digitally required a high sense of logic, in order to be able to match a component to another to build a definition, but after the definition is complete, iterations are easily and effectively attainable, and this is where one of the greatest advantages of digital design comes in. Often unexpected results are attained and this is where generative design is celebrated, when we come across a form we previously had never imagined.

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REFERENCES

Office of Kumiko Inui, Dior Ginza, <http://www.inuiuni.com/projects/234/>, [accessed 5 June 2016].

PROJECTiONE.com, EXOtique <http://www.projectione.com/exotique/>, [accessed 10 April 2016].

suckerPunch, Luminescent Limaรงon, <http://www.suckerpunchdaily.com/2011/12/16/luminescent-limacon/#more-17501>, [accessed 5 June 2016].


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AIR

SEMESTER 1, 2016


Architecture Design Studio: Air Journal