race relations progress report
in association with
table of contents executive summary
demographics of jacksonville, florida
perceptions of race relations
perceptions of racism and discrimination
employment and income
neighborhoods and housing
health access and outcomes
justice and the legal system
political process and civic engagement
Jacksonville Community Council Inc. 2434 Atlantic Boulevard, Jacksonville, FL 32207 Phone: 904/396-3052 Fax: 904/398-1469 www.jcci.org
progress report â€˘ 1
executive summary Across the United States, communities are grappling with the issues of race relations and racial disparities. In a recent national Gallup poll (2004), 45 percent of respondents thought race relations would always be a problem for the United States; 51 percent were more optimistic, saying that a solution would eventually be worked out. The 50th anniversary of Brown v. Board of Education in 2004 elicited national conversation about continuing racial disparities in education. In March 2005, commenting on the National Healthcare Disparities Report, Senators William Frist and Edward Kennedy joined in calling racial disparities in health outcomes a “national embarrassment” and “an affront to the U.S. promise of equal opportunity for all.” And the National Urban League’s The State of Black America 2004 used racial disparities to calculate an “equality index,” arguing that over the last 216 years, black Americans have progressed from being Constitutionally defined as 3/5 of a person to enjoying a quality of life 75 percent as good as that of a white American. Within this national context, the Jacksonville community seeks to improve race relations and address racial disparities. JCCI’s 2002 study, Beyond the Talk: Improving Race Relations, concluded that reaching a vision of racial justice and inclusion required eliminating racial disparities and discrimination. To build support for that vision, the report called on JCCI to develop a report card to measure progress and hold the community accountable for achieving this vision. This baseline report is the result of that charge, and reflects the combined efforts of JCCI, Jacksonville University, Edward Waters College, and the citizens of Jacksonville. The progress report uses available community information, telephone surveys, and focus groups to measure the current state of race relations and racial disparities. Due to funding limitations, survey responses and focus groups were limited to black and white participants, but community data, where available, is broken down by all available racial and ethnic diversity categories. The report examines perceptions of race relations and discrimination. Black and white perceptions of race relations in Jacksonville have always been different, but the gap between those perceptions has been getting wider. Black survey respondents reported their experiences with discrimination. White survey respondents told about their experiences with “reverse discrimination.” Among all survey respondents, generational differences played a significant role in how respondents viewed race relations in Jacksonville.
The report measures racial disparities across six elements of community life: education, employment and income, neighborhoods and housing, health care access and outcomes, justice and the legal system, and political and civic engagement. In education, public school student performance for all groups has improved, but because white student performance has generally increased faster, the achievement gap between white and black students has widened. The same is true for college continuation rates as well. Since 1990, educational attainment has similarly improved, though the disparities remain. In employment and income, the black middle class has increased, but half of all black families live below 175 percent of the federal poverty line ($32,988 for a family of four in 2004). Black families received public assistance at five times the rate of white families. Business leadership and ownership in Jacksonville remained predominantly white, as only 3.6 percent of local CEOs were black in 2000. Jacksonville neighborhoods have been desegregating. The community is now the second-least segregated major city in the United States. However, the disparity in homeownership has grown, with a lower rate of black families owning their own home, and three out of ten black homeowners using subprime lending to finance their home purchase. In health outcomes, racial disparities in infant mortality, prostate cancer deaths, and deaths due to diabetes have increased. The mortality rates for heart disease, stroke, and breast cancer have declined, with the racial disparities decreasing. Black families reported lower rates of health insurance coverage, and lower rates of employerprovided coverage. In the legal system, racial disproportions in arrests and incarcerations continued. 86 percent of black respondents thought “racial profiling” was widespread. Black juvenile arrestees were handled by the justice system or committed for delinquency at higher rates than whites, while white juvenile arrestees were placed on probation or entered a diversionary program at higher rates. In politics and civic engagement, 2004 saw a surge in black voter registration. In the 2004 elections, only 3 percent of whites and 4 percent of blacks surveyed reported encountering difficulty in voting. In another survey, more black respondents said they could influence local government decision-making than white respondents.
progress report • 3
introduction In the fall of 2001, JCCI boldly embarked on a study of race relations in Jacksonville. More than 100 people signed up for what turned out to be nine months of weekly sessions to assess race relations in Jacksonville and to determine how they could be improved. Judge Brian Davis and Bruce Barcelo chaired the study, entitled Beyond the Talk: Improving Race Relations. The intent of the study was to confirm whether racial disparities do in fact exist and to examine in a time of calm the practices of public and private institutions that may perpetuate mistrust and even anger among the races. The study committee heard from 51 resource presenters and reviewed a wealth of research data. The study documented that racial disparities were prevalent locally in six areas: education, income and employment, housing, health, criminal justice, and the political process. Beyond the Talk concluded that quality of life disparities are caused by multiple factors: individual racism, individual behavior, and the practices of public and private institutions. Beyond the Talk presented a set of 27 recommendations to improve race relations in Jacksonville and to eliminate racial disparities. A primary recommendation stated that JCCI should convene citizens to create and distribute an annual report card on race relations in Jacksonville, modeled after JCCI's Quality of Life Progress Report. The report card should measure raced-based disparities as well as perceptions of racism and discrimination in the community. The recommendation also called for the report card to prioritize these measures based on the need for action to improve race relations. However, the committee of citizens that reviewed the report felt that all the measures were crucial to improvement and decided not to prioritize them in this initial report. The Beyond the Talk study included a vision for Jacksonville of racial justice and inclusion, in which all residents feel free to, and actually do, participate fully in public life, unimpeded by racial disparities or discrimination. This first progress report is designed to serve as a benchmark for measuring future progress, but available trend data has also been included where appropriate. Over time, the progress report will serve as a catalyst for community-wide accountability, documenting the degree of progress toward resolving racial disparities and improving race relations in Jacksonville. All indicators measure the quality of life in Jacksonville/ Duval County, Florida, unless otherwise noted.
Jacksonville University (JU) and Edward Waters College (EWC) joined with JCCI to create this progress report. JCCI was tasked with researching objective data from various public and private sources in the community. JU developed a survey instrument (see p. 31) to further probe race relations in Jacksonville and administered that survey. EWC and JU led focus groups to further explore perceptions of race relations and racial disparities in Jacksonville. This effort received major support from the City of Jacksonville, the Weaver Family Foundation, and the Ida M. Stevens Foundation. Significant support was also provided by The Community Foundation, the Dalton Agency, the Jessie Ball duPont Fund, Wachovia Bank, CSX Corporation, the Jacksonville Regional Chamber of Commerce, United Way of Northeast Florida, and anonymous individual support. Special thanks to the citizen task force that identified the indicators and reviewed the document as it progressed for fairness, clarity, and accuracy. Afesa Adams served as the chair. Participants in the design and review of this progress report included Michael Boylan, Joy Burgess, Doug Saint Carter, John Cobb, Jim Crooks, Richard Danford, Bill David, Brian Davis, Charles Griggs, Robert Henline, Charlene Taylor Hill, Joe Honeycutt, Rodney Hurst, Pete Jackson, Sharon Laird, Marietta LeBlanc, Wally Lee, Bill Livingood, Frank Mackesy, Claud Meyers, Doug Milne, Ray Oldakowski, Melanie Patz, Glori WhitePeters, Rhonda Poirier, Peter Racine, Bruce Reid, Cheryl Riddick, Connie Smith, Mary Ellen Smith, Maria Taylor, Deborah Thompson, Jennifer Towers, Glenda Washington, Jamie Wilbanks, and Delphia Williams. Most importantly, we thank you for reading this progress report and actively urge you to use the information contained within to work to end racial disparities and to improve race relations. Additional copies of this report are available at JCCIâ€™s office at 2434 Atlantic Boulevard, Jacksonville, Florida 32207, or call JCCI at (904) 3963052. The progress report is also available online at www.jcci.org. For questions or comments about the progress report, please e-mail email@example.com.
progress report â€˘ 5
demographics of jacksonville, florida The progress report focuses on Jacksonville/Duval County, Florida, a consolidated city-county government. Sometimes data in this document refer to the Jacksonville Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA), which includes the counties of Clay, Duval, Nassau, and St. Johns. Where possible, the report attempts to capture data representing the broad racial and ethnic diversity of Jacksonville; however, both data limitations and relative population size restrict some of the racial and ethnic breakdowns in the indicators. The progress report includes responses to a Jacksonville University survey. Funding constraints limited that survey to black and white respondents. More information about the survey methodology is found on page 31. In addition, some data from an American Public Dialogue survey conducted for JCCI’s 2004 Quality of Life Progress Report are included for discussion. Its methodology is found on p. 31 as well. The 2000 U.S. Census provided the following information about Northeast Florida’s population: Native White Black American Asian Hispanic Baker County 84.0% 13.9% 0.4% 0.4% 1.9% Clay County 87.4% 6.7% 0.5% 2.0% 4.3% Duval County 65.8% 27.8% 0.3% 2.7% 4.1% Nassau County 90.0% 7.7% 0.4% 0.5% 1.5% St. Johns County 90.9% 6.3% 0.3% 1.0% 2.6% Total 72.9% 21.5% 0.3% 2.3% 3.8%
Other 1.2% 3.4% 3.4% 1.3% 1.6% 3.0%
The University of Florida’s Bureau of Economic and Business Research provided these detailed estimates of Jacksonville’s 2003 population: Age 0-17 18-64 65+ Total
White 117,261 338,799 65,811 521,871
Black 77,941 143,573 16,410 237,924
Hispanic 12,056 23,362 1,802 37,220
Other 9,578 17,664 2,022 29,264
Total 216,836 523,398 86,045 826,279
The City of Jacksonville is divided geographically into six planning districts. Racial makeup of these planning districts, along with the Beaches and Baldwin municipalities, in 2000 were: Native Total White Black American Asian Other Population Urban Core 17.3% 80.6% 0.3% 0.4% 1.4% 42,635 Greater Arlington 69.4% 21.8% 0.4% 3.9% 4.6% 186,072 Southeast 81.1% 11.2% 0.3% 3.8% 3.6% 195,721 Southwest 70.6% 21.5% 0.4% 3.5% 4.0% 133,867 Northwest 40.8% 56.4% 0.3% 0.9% 1.6% 128,848 North 66.0% 31.6% 0.4% 0.5% 1.5% 48,474 Atlantic Beach Jacksonville Beach Neptune Beach Baldwin
82.2% 90.9% 96.1% 67.1%
12.7% 4.8% 0.7% 30.9%
0.3% 0.3% 0.4% 0.2%
2.1% 1.7% 1.1% 0.9%
2.7% 2.3% 1.7% 0.9%
13,368 20,990 7,270 1,634
Population counts and projections for Duval County by the Bureau of Economic and Business Research are as follows: Total Year White Black Hispanic Other Population 2000 64.6% 28.0% 4.1% 3.3% 778,879 2010 60.5% 30.3% 5.2% 4.0% 910,502 2020 57.5% 31.9% 5.9% 4.7% 1,026,113 2030 55.3% 33.0% 6.6% 5.1% 1,130,873
progress report • 7
perceptions of race relations The Beyond the Talk: Improving Race Relations study found that “differing perceptions of the quality of race relations are related to differing perceptions of the extent of discrimination in Jacksonville.” The study further concluded that these differences in perceptions of discrimination and the existence of racial disparities in the community made significant differences in opinion about public policy towards race-based issues. Because of limitations in the survey instruments, perceptions of race relations and discrimination were measurable only for white and black populations. The Beyond the Talk study found that the increasingly diverse population of Jacksonville, with growing Hispanic, Asian, and other racial and ethnic populations, adds complexity to efforts to address race relations. JCCI has been tracking perceptions of racism in Jacksonville since 1985. In 2004, the difference in perceptions of racism in the community were the largest since the survey began (a 27 point gap, with 43 percent of white respondents agreeing that racism was a problem in Jacksonville, compared to 70 percent of black respondents). Perceptions of racism among black respondents declined from a high of 78 percent in 1994 to 59 percent in 1999, before rising to 70 percent in 2004. With the exception of a spike in 2001, however, white responses have been generally declining since a peak of 67 percent in 1992.
is racism a problem in jacksonville? (yes responses)
limitations of sample size, the statistical reliability for the subpopulation responses is considerably less accurate than the overall response rate. It was with this concern in mind that Jacksonville University designed and completed its survey for this report, which included statistically reliable response rates for both black and white respondents. See description of the survey methodologies on page 31.
Since the survey (conducted by American Public Dialogue) began, the community perception of racism has risen and fallen, with white and black perceptions moving in parallel lines (though never meeting). In 2002, however, the trend lines began diverging, suggesting that the task of building a community consensus around a shared understanding of the existence and extent of racial discrimination and racial disparities is both more difficult and more necessary than it has been in the last 20 years. In focus groups, one prevailing theme among white participants was to blame the media for exaggerations and falsehoods, insisting that racial disparities in the standard of living were myths and that whites were more likely to be victims of racial discrimination than blacks. These perceptions were characterized by one participant’s statement: “It’s an uphill battle to be a white male in the U.S.” Age appeared to influence perceptions, however. As one younger white participant observed, “We are not yet far enough removed from the days of segregation to think that an entire population has had the opportunity to catch up.” The Jacksonville University survey also found differences in perceptions of race relations. Fifty-one percent of white respondents felt race relations were “excellent” or “good,” compared to 23 percent of black respondents. This is a shift from an earlier 2000 Jacksonville University survey conducted during the controversy about the Presidential election, in which 63 percent of white and 19 percent of black respondents rated race relations as “excellent” or “good.”
race relations in jacksonville Survey Question: Overall, how would you rate race relations between whites and blacks in Jacksonville?
note Survey conducted by American Public Dialogue for the JCCI Quality of Life Progress Report. The survey, conducted annually since 1985, was designed to provide a representative sampling of the Jacksonville population as a whole, and in 2004 included 328 white respondents, 105 black respondents, and 32 other respondents. Because of the progress report • 9
When asked, Do you have any close personal friends who are a different race than you?, 14 percent of white and 29 percent of black respondents said “no”. When asked, Have you invited someone of a different race to visit your home in the last month or so?, 41 percent of white and 57 percent of black respondents said “no.” Age made a difference in the responses; young black respondents were significantly more likely to have a friend of a different race than older black respondents (80 percent “yes” v. 56 percent) and more likely to have invited someone of a different race to their home (54 percent “yes” v. 29 percent). Similarly, young white respondents more often invited over someone of a different race (72 percent “yes” v. 42 percent for older white respondents). Generational differences were also evident within the focus groups. Older black participants discussed the civil rights movement and their memories of living in the segregated South. Many said that today’s youth take for granted what advantages they have today compared to what was available just 20 years ago. They argued that those who were not around to experience the upheaval of the civil rights movement could not grasp how deeply rooted and prevalent racism is. Some younger black participants, on the other hand, said that while discrimination is certainly still a problem, one must find a way to move beyond it in order for progress to continue. Some said that discrimination is more of an excuse than a real handicap to progress and pointed out that opportunities have expanded.
race relations in jacksonville compared to united states Survey Question: In general, would you say that race relations between whites and blacks in Jacksonville are better, about the same, or worse than they are in the rest of the United States?
When comparing the respondents’ perceptions of race relations in Jacksonville to their perceptions of race relations in the United States, white respondents (49 percent) and black respondents (56 percent) thought they were about the same. However, generational differences appeared among both black and white respondents. Younger (18-39) white respondents were more likely to think race relations were worse in Jacksonville (18 percent compared to 12 percent of middle-aged [40-59] or older [60+] white respondents). However, younger black respondents were more likely (25 percent) to think race relations were better in Jacksonville than the rest of the country, compared to 14 percent of middle-aged and 23 percent of older black respondents. Older black and younger white respondents were equally likely to say that race relations were the same in Jacksonville compared to the rest of the country (65 percent), while younger black respondents (57 percent) were aligned with older white respondents (56 percent).
10 • race relations
perceptions of racism and discrimination The Beyond the Talk study concluded: “The wide range of perceptions among Jacksonville’s citizens about past and current racial disparities impedes resolution of all problems in race relations. Because people tend to draw conclusions and make decisions about current situations based on the filter of past experiences, people of different races may reach significantly different conclusions about the same event.” Survey responses consistently show different personal experiences with racial discrimination and different perceptions about the extent to which racism and discrimination exist in the Jacksonville community.
When asked about their overall experiences with racial discrimination, 30 percent of black respondents felt that they had been discriminated against in the previous month. These results were consistent among the different age groups surveyed.
personal unfair treatment Survey Question: Can you think of an occasion in the last month or so when you felt you were treated unfairly because you were black?
unfair treatment Survey Question: Just your impression, are blacks in Jacksonville treated less fairly than whites in the following situations? (yes responses)
Black respondents were more likely to explain racial disparities in Jacksonville as the effect of racial discrimination.
explanation for racial disparities Survey Question: On the average, black people have worse jobs, income, and housing than white people. Do you think this is mostly due to discrimination against blacks, or is it mostly due to something else?
For this question, 68 percent of older black respondents (60 years or older) said they felt blacks were treated less fairly in stores, compared to 84 percent of black respondents aged 40-59 and 83 percent of those 18-39. For white respondents, 13 percent of the older population thought blacks were treated less fairly in stores, compared to 26 percent of those aged 40-59 and 37 percent of those 18-39. Similar results were obtained through the American Public Dialogue survey, in which 45 percent of black respondents reported personally experiencing discrimination while shopping.
racism while shopping Survey Question: Thinking about your own possible experience with racism, do you believe that you have personally experienced racism during the past year while shopping in Jacksonville?
Age affected responses to this question. Sixty percent of older black respondents blamed discrimination for racial disparities in Jacksonville, compared to 55 percent of those 40-59 and 43 percent of those 18-39. Among white responders, 15 percent of those over 60, 8 percent of those aged 40-59, and 19 percent of those 18-39 considered racial discrimination to be the primary cause of disparities.
progress report • 11
Some white respondents also perceived themselves as victims of racial discrimination. This type of incident is sometimes referred to as “reverse discrimination,” because it occurs contrary to the patterns of historical discrimination in this country (see the 1978 Bakke Supreme Court case). When asked about their personal experiences with discrimination, over one-third of white respondents felt they had experienced discrimination.
reverse discrimination Survey Question: Do you feel you have ever been the victim of reverse discrimination?
Black and white respondents held disparate perceptions of the extent of discrimination in Jacksonville, who experiences discrimination, and the influence of racial discrimination on the quality of life of Jacksonville’s residents. These differences in perceptions about the problems were reflected in disparate views about government’s role in addressing racial problems. When asked about the role government should play in addressing racial disparities, 78 percent of black respondents felt that the government should play a “major role,” compared to 25 percent of white respondents. By contrast, 26 percent of white respondents said government should play no role, compared to 4 percent of black respondents.
role of government Answers varied by the age of the respondent. While this question allowed the respondent to refer to a lifetime of experience (and is not parallel to the similar question asked of black respondents, which asked about discrimination experienced within the prior month), younger respondents were more likely to report experiencing discrimination than older respondents.
Survey Question: How much of a role, if any, do you think the government should have in trying to improve the social and economic position of blacks in this country—a major role, a minor role, or no role at all?
reverse discrimination by age group Survey Question: Do you feel you have ever been the victim of reverse discrimination? (white respondents)
In focus groups, some white respondents complained of a “system geared against whites.” In another focus group, white participants shared the view that “whites are more likely to be victims of discrimination than blacks” and that Jacksonville was experiencing a “growing problem of reverse discrimination.”
12 • race relations
However, white respondents who felt discrimination was a primary cause of racial disparities supported a strong government role in addressing the problems (44 percent said a major role and 44 percent a minor role). Similarly, black respondents who pointed to discrimination as the primary cause of racial disparities favored government intervention, with 88 percent replying that government should play a major role and 9 percent a minor role. This is consistent with the findings of the Beyond the Talk study, which stated: “National studies report that differing perceptions about discrimination made significant differences in opinions about public policy toward race.” The study concluded that the wide range in perceptions about discrimination impeded the community’s efforts to resolve problems in race relations.
education In education, public school student performance for all groups has improved, but because white student performance has generally increased faster, the achievement gap between white and black students has widened. The same is true for college continuation rates as well. Since 1990, educational attainment has similarly improved, though the disparities remain. Duval County's public schools are becoming increasingly diverse. In 2003, the public school student population was 47 percent white, 43 percent black, and 5 percent Hispanic. However, because one out of every five students in Jacksonville does not attend public school, the total school-age population is somewhat less diverse, with 54 percent of the students being white, 36 percent black, and 5 percent Hispanic. In 2003, 79.7 percent of the students attended public school and 18.6 percent attended private school. The private school student population was 82 percent white, 10 percent black, and 8 percent Hispanic.
In other measures of student demographics, in 2002-03, 61 percent of students taking AP or Honors classes in the Duval County Public Schools were white, 26 percent black, 6 percent Asian, and 4 percent Hispanic. A higher percentage of black and Hispanic students are participating in Gifted programs than in previous years, though the numbers remain disproportionate to the total student population. In 2002-03, 69 percent of gifted students were white, 17 percent black, 6 percent Asian, and 4 percent Hispanic. In the 2004-05 school year, 57.2 percent of all students attended racially-balanced (formerly “desegregated”) schools, down from a high of 63.7 percent in 1998-99. In 2004-05, 64.6 percent of “non-black” students (including white, Asian, and Hispanic students) attended racially-balanced schools, compared to 47.5 percent of black students.
students in racially-balanced schools Duval County Public Schools
duval county public school population K-12 student demographics
Public school student demographics differ from teacher demographics. The public schools have seen an increase in black, Hispanic, and Asian teachers from 1998 to 2003, and the proportions represent the diversity of the community at large. However, student diversity is increasing faster than teacher diversity.
duval county public school population
Pre-K-12 teacher demographics
In 1990, the Jacksonville Branch of the NAACP and the Duval County School Board entered into a Desegregation Stipulation and Agreement that defined “desegregated schools” as those in which the student body is at least 20 percent black and at least 45 percent white. In 1999, the federal district court declared the Duval County Public Schools “unitary,” indicating the end of court-ordered desegregation. The decision was upheld on appeal in 2001. Racial disparities appear in student performance within the public education system. Over the past seven years, progress in student achievement has occurred across the board, with some of the largest gains for black youth in elementary school reading and high school math scores.
progress report • 13
In all areas, however, the percentage of Asian students scoring at least a 3 on the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) tends to track with or better than white students, with Hispanic student percentages falling between white and black student percentages. Because white student gains outpaced black student gains, the gap in outcomes has become larger.
Elementary school math scores
public school student performance Percent scoring at level 3 or above on the FCAT
Elementary school reading scores
Middle school math scores
Middle school reading scores
High school math scores
High school reading scores
14 â€˘ race relations
Perceptions of the ability of children to succeed in the educational system differ by race. Black survey respondents were more pessimistic about the chances for success of black children.
chance for a good education Survey Question: In general, do you think that black children have as good a chance as white children in Jacksonville to get a good education, or don't you think they have as good a chance?
Racial disparities in education outcomes were also evident in high school graduation rates, dropout rates, and college continuation rates. Youth who do not complete high school have a difficult time finding employment or advancing beyond lower-paying jobs. College training is often necessary for higher-wage employment. Racial disparities in high school completion or college entrance can result in long-term economic disparities.
In focus groups, black participants felt that college emphasis was lacking in predominantly black high schools. One reported, “I never saw a guidance counselor the whole time I was at Raines.” Another black female reported of her high school experience: “My guidance counselor didn’t have SAT registration forms or know where or when it was.” However, both black and white focus group participants agreed that the responsibility for educating students for the workforce was a joint venture between the schools and parents. From 1997-98 to 2001-02, a higher percentage of students have been attending college. The fastest growth rate in those going on to college (college continuation rates) has been among Hispanic students, where the rates have increased by 16.3 points over the five-year period. White college continuation rates increased by 6.7 points, black college continuation rates by 4.4 points, and Asian college continuation rates by 3.0 points.
higher education in jacksonville College continuation rate
In the Duval County Public Schools, high school graduation rates for all students improved in 2003.
duval county public school performance High school graduation rate
In 2003-04, dropout rates increased in all categories. Because of the increases, white and black dropout rates were nearly equal in 2003-04.
Perceptions about racial differences in college acceptance vary significantly in Jacksonville. White respondents believed (86 percent) that black students had the same or better chance of being accepted to college as white students. The majority of black respondents (66 percent) believed that white students had a better chance to get accepted to college. Several focus groups (black and white) reported that education was the key to success.
duval county public school performance High school dropout rate
progress report • 15
chances for college Survey Question: If two equally qualified students, one white and one black, applied to a major college or university in the United States, who do you think would have the better chance of being accepted to the college, the white student, the black student, or would they have the same chance?
Across racial and ethnic groups in Jacksonville over the past decade, more adults have obtained high school diplomas, and more adults have received college degrees. The rate of growth in high school diplomas from 1980 to 2000 was highest among black adults, where the rates advanced by nearly 26 points in 20 years. In college degrees, however, the fastest growth was among white adults, where the rates advanced by 4.3 points in 10 years from 1990 to 2000.
educational attainment in jacksonville Adults over 25 with high school diplomas
The Beyond the Talk study found that “the pervasive effects of disparities in education and income mutually reinforce one another and deepen all other disparities.” The report concluded that “Jacksonville’s failure to eliminate racial disparities in educational expectations, placements, and achievement has lifelong negative consequences for many children and inhibits resolving racial tensions. Eliminating disparities in school performance is critical to ensuring a high quality of life for all Jacksonville citizens.”
educational attainment in jacksonville Adults over 25 with bachelor’s degrees or higher
College readiness can be measured by the percentage of Duval County public high school graduates attending Florida public colleges and universities who pass math and reading college placement tests. These measures show that racial disparities in college readiness have been improving in reading scores, but worsening in math preparation.
higher education in jacksonville
Fall 2003 enrollment
college readiness Math
16 • race relations
College teachers, 2000
higher education student population
employment and income In employment and income, the black middle class has increased, but half of all black families live below 175 percent of the federal poverty line ($32,988 for a family of four in 2004). Black families received public assistance at five times the rate of white families. Business leadership and ownership in Jacksonville remained predominantly white, as only 3.6 percent of local CEOs were black in 2000. The Beyond the Talk study concluded that “race-based economic disparities create divisions in Jacksonville which inhibit positive race relations.” It found that the impacts of economic disparities were felt in all other areas of disparity the study explored. The study continued: “The effects of poverty, as with poor education, worsen over time. Wealth is traditionally accumulated over generations, and passed down to children and grandchildren. Historical racial inequities may be felt for several generations.” Across the Jacksonville Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA), which includes Clay, Duval, Nassau, and St. Johns Counties, Census data reveals positive economic growth from 1990 to 2000 across all racial lines. The largest gains were in the “Affluent” category (more than 350 percent of the poverty line), with gains between four and six points across the board. The largest shift was in black households moving out of poverty, 10 points. However, in 2000, half of all black families were poor (with incomes less than 175 percent of the poverty line).
note Income classes defined by a Lewis Mumford Center analysis of 2000 U.S. Census data. Categories are determined by the relationship to the official federal poverty line. “Poor” includes family income less than 175 percent of the poverty line ($22,500 in 1990 and $30,000 in 2000 for a family of four). “Middle Income” represents 175 to 350 percent of the poverty line ($22,501 to $44,999 in 1990 and $30,001 to $59,999 in 2000 for a family of four); and “Affluent” more than 350 percent of the poverty line ($45,000 in 1990 and $60,000 in 2000 for a family of four).
income classes, jacksonville msa Poor (less than 175 percent of poverty line)
income classes, jacksonville msa Middle income (between 175 and 350 percent of poverty line)
income classes, jacksonville msa Affluent (more than 350 percent of poverty line)
The income growth also means that the size of the middle class is roughly equivalent among white, black, Hispanic, and Asian families, ranging from 32.4 to 35.4 percent of the respective populations. Significant disparities still exist among those households in poverty and those that are affluent. Other measures of poverty find similar disparities. Because Census information is only available every ten years, a proxy measure for children in poverty has been public-school student participation in free and reducedprice lunch programs, eligibility for which is based on household income being less than 185 percent of federal poverty levels. In 2003-04, 65 percent of black schoolchildren were eligible for the program, compared to 26 percent of white children, 54 percent of Hispanic children, and 31 percent of Asian children. This marks an increase from 2002-03, when 60 percent of black students, 24 percent of white students, 51 percent of Hispanic students, and 28 percent of Asian students qualified for the program. Another way to examine poverty and need is through eligibility for public assistance. In 2004, the rate of white recipients of Food Stamps per 1,000 was half that of the Hispanic rate and one-fifth the rate in the black population. Similar rates were found among recipients of cash assistance through the Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) program.
progress report • 17
public assistance in 2004 Rates per 1,000 population
Survey responses demonstrate how this income disparity affects day-to-day living. One-third of black respondents (32 percent) reported not having enough money to buy clothing their family needed in the past year, compared to 18 percent of white respondents. When asked about their ability to buy food that the family needed, 20 percent of black respondents (and 8 percent of white respondents) reported not having enough money in the past year to meet this basic need. Perceptions of fairness in employment vary in Jacksonville. White respondents (79 percent) tended to think the labor market was fair (or favored black jobseekers); black respondents, on the other hand, thought the Jacksonville labor market was less fair (74 percent).
Of the white survey respondents who reported experiencing racial discrimination (36 percent of the white respondents), 10 percent reported being discriminated against while getting a job and 3 percent reported on-the-job racial discrimination. Black respondents were more likely to say that black employees were treated less fairly than whites (70 percent to 9 percent for white respondents) and more likely to report personally experiencing racism on the job in the past year (34 percent to 8 percent of white respondents). Both whites (94 percent) and blacks (93 percent) felt that businesses should not be allowed to consider race as one of the factors in making hiring decisions. In measures of business ownership and leadership, racial disparities continue. In 2004, none of the 50 fastest growing private companies identified by The Business Journal of Jacksonville were headed by black leadership.
jacksonville business leadership Leadership of 50 fastest-growing private companies, 2004
chances for employment Survey Question: In general, do you think that black people have as good a chance as white people in Jacksonville to get any kind of job for which they are qualified, or don't you think they have as good a chance? In 2000, less than 4 percent of all chief executive officers in Jacksonville were black.
jacksonville business leadership Chief Executive Officers, 2000
Responses to the survey question varied among white respondents according to their level of education. White high school graduates were more likely (90 percent) to say black chances for employment were as good or better than white chances, compared to 72 percent of white college graduates. Black respondents differed according to the length of time they had been in Jacksonville; those who had been here over 10 years were more likely (79 percent) to say black applicants had a poorer chance, compared to 57 percent of black respondents who had moved to Jacksonville within the last 10 years.
18 â€˘ race relations
Among the top minority-owned businesses in Jacksonville, one-fourth were owned by black individuals, but their revenues made up only 5 percent of the total revenues among top minority-owned businesses.
minority business ownership Top 36 racial-minority owned businesses, by race of owner, 2003
Total City contracts for the first quarter of fiscal year 2004-05 (October-December 2004) amounted to $71,866,050, of which the new Jacksonville Small Emerging Businesses (JSEB) program accounted for 11.5 percent, or $8,249,177. Of those receiving contracts through JSEB, racial-minority owned businesses accounted for just over half of that dollar amount ($4,203,642), which was 5.8 percent of the City contract total.
jacksonville city contracts Total amount and percent of contracts going to racialminority owned businesses through the Jacksonville Small Emerging Businesses Program, first quarter 2004-05
minority business ownership Revenue of top 36 racial-minority owned businesses, by race of owner, 2003
Minority-owned businesses can also receive contracts from state, federal, and private entities. By contrast, total revenues of these black-owned businesses made up less than one-half of 1 percent of the revenues of the eight private companies in Jacksonville with the largest revenue gains in 2002 ($1,119,700,000), all of which had white ownership and leadership.
progress report â€˘ 19
neighborhoods and housing Jacksonville neighborhoods have been desegregating. The community is now the second-least segregated major city in the United States. However, the disparity in homeownership has grown, with a lower rate of black families owning their own home, and three out of ten black homeowners using subprime lending to finance their home purchase.
jacksonville residential segregation Dissimilarity index
From 1980 to 2000, measures of racial segregation in Jacksonville improved significantly. In 2000, when compared to other American cities with at least 500,000 population and a population at least 10 percent black, Jacksonville ranked as the second-least segregated city, behind only Nashville.
However, even with increased residential movement, Jacksonville retained a significant proportion of neighborhoods that were racially identifiable as “white” or “black,” with 75 to 100 percent of the residents in a 2000 Census Tract identified as being of the same race.
jacksonville residential segregation
jacksonville residential segregation
Percent of white families who would have to move to make each neighborhood reflect the diversity of the community as a whole
Census tract demographics, 2000
The Dissimilarity Index, which measures the percent of white residents who would have to move in order for the population in each neighborhood to resemble the total population of the city, has fallen from 72 percent in 1980 to 50 percent in 2000. Measures of segregation are lower for Asian and Hispanic residents. In 2000, 22 percent of white families would have to move to make each neighborhood reflect the city’s makeup with regards to Hispanic families, and 30 percent would have to move to do the same for the Asian population.
When surveyed, black and white respondents had different perceptions about the ability of black people to obtain the housing that they want in Jacksonville.
fairness in housing Survey Question: In general, do you think that black people have as good a chance as white people in Jacksonville to get any housing they can afford, or don't you think they have as good a chance?
In a separate survey, 17 percent of black respondents reported personally experiencing racism during the previous year while renting or buying housing in Jacksonville. (American Public Dialogue, 2004) 20 • race relations
From 1980 to 2000, white homeownership rates rose from 70.5 to 73.3 percent, while Hispanic homeownership rates fell from 59.4 to 52.7 percent and black homeownership rates declined from 56.6 to 50.9 percent. However, homeownership rates in Jacksonville among all racial and ethnic groups are higher than in the United States as a whole. Nationally in 2000, 72.4 percent of white households, 46.3 percent of black households, and 45.7 percent of Hispanic households were homeowners.
One option for those unable to obtain conventional mortgage financing is to turn to a subprime loan. According to Consumer Action, a subprime loan is the extension of credit to a person with a damaged credit history who is considered to be a high-risk borrower. Subprime loans have higher—sometimes much higher— than average interest rates. Subprime lenders reduce their risk in making loans by charging borrowers a higher interest rate and sometimes additional fees. While not all subprime loans represent predatory lending, nearly all predatory lending involves subprime loans.
jacksonville homeownership rates 1980-2000
A primary factor in homeownership is obtaining financing to purchase the home. In 2003, black applicants for conventional mortgages were nearly three times as likely to be denied financing as white applicants. Hispanic applicants were denied financing at nearly double the rate of white applicants.
In the Jacksonville Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA), black families were four times as likely to refinance a home using subprime loans and five times as likely to purchase a home using subprime loans as white families. Across the country in 2002, Jacksonville had the highest concentration of subprime purchase loans in minority neighborhoods (defined as those Census Tracts in which 80 to 100 percent of the population is minority), with 59.5 percent of loans in these neighborhoods being subprime loans. In other words, in Jacksonville’s minority neighborhoods, six out of ten homes are purchased through subprime loans, the highest rate in the country.
subprime loan rates Jacksonville MSA, 2002
When broken down by applicant income levels, the disparities continue within similar income brackets. Upperincome black applicants (making over $66,000 per year) were more than three times as likely to be denied a conventional mortgage as their white peers. These disparities worsened from 2002 to 2003.
conventional mortgage denial rates Jacksonville MSA, 2003
The disparity between minority and non-minority neighborhoods in using subprime loans for refinancing is also high. Of all home refinancing in minority neighborhoods, 59.5 percent is done through subprime lending, compared to 5.8 percent in white neighborhoods. The disparity between these two rates ranks as the thirdhighest in the country, behind Fresno and Indianapolis. Among housing-related occupations, real estate brokers and agents were predominantly white, while the demographics of loan counselors and officers reflected the population diversity of the community.
note Analysis performed by ACORN (the Association of Community Organizations for Reform Now). Income categories are as follows: Low-income (below 50% Median, less than $27,450); Moderate-income (50-79% Median, $27,450 - $43,920); Middle-income (80-119% Median, $43,920-$65,880); and Upper-income (Above 120% Median, more than $65,880).
progress report • 21
housing related occupations
median neighborhood household income
Real estate brokers and agents, 2000
The average family, by race, lives in a neighborhood with the following average income
housing related occupations Loan counselors and officers, 2000
The average black family lives in a neighborhood where nearly 10 percent of the homes are vacant and 58.7 percent of the families are homeowners (the rest being rental housing), and nearly 20 percent of the population lives below the official poverty line. These indicators all show improvement from 1990, but remain worse than the neighborhood experience of the average white or Hispanic family.
percent vacant housing The average family, by race, lives in a neighborhood with this amount of vacant housing Jacksonville residents feel differently about the neighborhoods they live in. In response to the American Public Dialogue survey, white respondents consistently responded that they felt safe in their neighborhoods at higher rates than black respondents.
perceptions of neighborhood safety
percent below poverty line
Survey Question: Do you feel safe walking alone in your neighborhood at night?
The average family, by race, lives in a neighborhood with this much poverty
percent homeownership The average family, by race, lives in a neighborhood with this percentage of homeowners
Other measures of neighborhood differences show income and homeownership disparities. The Lewis Mumford Center used the U.S. Census to calculate the neighborhood characteristics experienced by members of different racial and ethnic groups in Jacksonville. They found that in 2000, the average white family in Jacksonville lives in a neighborhood where the median household income is $45,569. The average black family lives in a neighborhood where the median household income is $33,154.
22 â€˘ race relations
health access and outcomes In health outcomes, racial disparities in infant mortality, prostate cancer deaths, and deaths due to diabetes have increased. The mortality rates for heart disease, stroke, and breast cancer have declined, with the racial disparities decreasing. Black families reported lower rates of health insurance coverage and lower rates of employerprovided coverage. When surveyed about perceptions of health care access, the majority of white respondents (88 percent) said that blacks have as good or better access to health care as whites. The majority of black respondents (51 percent) disagreed.
health care access Survey Question: In general, do you think that black people have as good a chance as white people in Jacksonville to get any health care they can afford, or don't you think they have as good a chance?
When asked about their perceptions of the health care available in Jacksonville in the American Public Dialogue survey, black respondents rated the medical system lower than white respondents.
health care quality
health care treatment Survey Question: Just your impression, are blacks in Jacksonville treated less fairly than whites in getting health care from doctors and hospitals?
Fewer black respondents reported having health insurance coverage in the American Public Dialogue survey.
people who lack health insurance Survey Question: Are you currently covered by any type of health insurance such as coverage through your employer, Medicaid, Medicare, or private insurance? (“no” responses)
White respondents more often had employer-provided health insurance coverage.
types of health insurance coverage Survey Question: Are you currently covered by any of the following types of health insurance?
Survey Question: In your opinion is the health and medical care available in Jacksonville excellent, good, fair, or poor? (“excellent” or “good” responses shown)
More black respondents had trouble paying for health care in the past year. The majority of black survey respondents felt they were treated less fairly in getting health care.
paying for health care Survey Question: During the past year, have you always had enough money to pay for medical or health care?
progress report • 23
Health outcomes in Jacksonville demonstrate that addressing race-based disparities is a life-or-death situation. Infant mortality rates measure the number of babies that die before reaching their first birthday per 1,000 infants in the population. In Jacksonville, black children die at rates more than twice as high as white infants. The total infant mortality rate for Florida is 7.5 per 1,000, and for the United States is 6.3 per 1,000.
hospital pregnancies Not covered by insurance, 2003
health related occupations Physicians and surgeons, 2000
infant mortality rates Infant deaths per 1,000 births
health related occupations Registered nurses, 2000 Infant mortality may be affected by a number of factors. A higher percentage of black mothers had less than a high school education, which research confirms affects health outcomes. A higher rate of black infants were born weighing less than 2,500 grams (about 5.5 pounds), putting them at higher risk. And black infants were more likely to be born to teenage mothers, another health risk factor.
health related occupations factors affecting infant health outcomes
Physician assistants, 2000
health related occupations Nursing, psychiatric, and home health aides, 2000 For hospital pregnancies, Hispanic mothers were least likely to be covered by some form of insurance (including both private insurance and Medicaid/ Medicare).
24 â€˘ race relations
The age-adjusted death rate is a tool used by health researchers to examine overall mortality rates within a population while controlling for age distribution. While everyone dies, a lower death rate suggests a longer life expectancy. The 2001-03 three-year average ageadjusted death rate in Jacksonville for whites was 926.3, compared to 1,126.0 for blacks. In other words, black individuals were more likely to die during this time period than whites were.
deaths due to diabetes Age-adjusted rates per 1,000 population
Racial disparities also continue in specific causes of death. The age-adjusted mortality rates for heart disease, stroke, and breast cancer are declining, and the racial disparities are decreasing. However, for both prostrate cancer and diabetes, both the incidences and the racial disparities are increasing.
deaths due to heart disease Age-adjusted rates per 1,000 population
deaths due to breast cancer Age-adjusted rates per 1,000 population
deaths due to stroke Age-adjusted rates per 1,000 population
deaths due to prostate cancer Age-adjusted rates per 1,000 population
progress report â€˘ 25
justice and the legal system Racial disproportions in arrests and incarcerations continued. Eighty-six percent of black respondents thought “racial profiling” was widespread. Black juvenile arrestees were handled by the justice system or committed for delinquency at higher rates than whites, while white juvenile arrestees were placed on probation or entered diversionary programs at higher rates. While both black (86 percent) and white (96 percent) survey respondents report being satisfied with the effectiveness of public-safety services provided by the City of Jacksonville, trust in the fairness of the legal system differs by race.
satisfaction with public-safety services Survey Question: As you think about the effectiveness of public services provided by the City of Jacksonville, how satisfied are you with public safety services such as fire, rescue, and police?
law and justice related occupations Lawyers, 2000
When asked about the chances of receiving fair treatment in court, however, black respondents rated it slightly better than the perceptions of unfair treatment by the police. Black respondents who had moved to Jacksonville within the last 10 years were more likely to perceive the court system as unfair than blacks who had lived in Jacksonville for longer than 10 years.
fair treatment in court Survey Question: In general, do you think that black people have as good a chance as white people in Jacksonville to get fair treatment by the courts, or don't you think they have as good a chance?
fair treatment by police Survey Question: Just your impression, are blacks in Jacksonville treated less fairly than whites in dealing with the police? (“yes” answers)
The Jacksonville Sheriff’s Office has both officers and officials that in general reflect the demographics of the community. In the court system, however, both lawyers and judges are disproportionately white; corrections officers, on the other hand, are disproportionately black.
law and justice related occupations Perceptions of police fairness differed among white respondents by age, as 42 percent of those over 60 thought blacks were treated less fairly, compared to 57 percent of those 18 to 39. White responses also differed by the amount of education they had received, with 41 percent of high school graduates thinking the police treated blacks less fairly, compared to 60 percent of those with college degrees. Black responses to this survey question differed by education level as well, with 89 percent of high school graduates thinking that the police treated blacks less fairly, compared to 95 percent of those with college degrees. 26 • race relations
Jacksonville Sheriff’s Office sworn officers, 2003
law and justice related occupations
Corrections officers, 2000
Proportion of the population by category
law and justice related occupations Judges, 2004
The pattern of traffic citations shows a consistent disproportionate number of citations given to black motorists.
traffic citations Percent of all citations issued
When asked about racial profiling, 37 percent of whites thought the practice was widespread. These responses varied by age; younger white respondents were more likely (57 percent) to believe racial profiling existed, compared to 35 percent of those over 60. Black respondents felt that they personally had been stopped because of their race at higher rates (28 percent) than white respondents (5 percent). Sixteen percent of older blacks felt they had been racially profiled, compared to 37 percent of younger blacks age 18 to 39.
Black citizens of Jacksonville are arrested at disproportionate rates. In 2003, blacks accounted for 64 percent of juvenile arrests; 56 percent of adult arrests.
jacksonville sheriff’s office arrests 2003
racial profiling Survey Question: In some areas, it has been reported that police officers stop motorists of certain racial groups because the officers believe that these groups are more likely than others to commit certain types of crimes. Do you believe that this practice, known as “racial profiling,” is widespread or not in Jacksonville? (“yes” answers)
Among adults, blacks were incarcerated at rates disproportionate to their population, and this was especially true in drug-related incarcerations.
incarcerations in jacksonville 2003
Disparities in the justice system are often discussed in terms of disproportionate impacts, that is, the outcomes compared to the percentage of the population.
progress report • 27
Black juvenile arrestees were more likely to be handled judicially, tried as adults, or committed for delinquency. White arrestees were more likely to be placed on probation or enter a diversionary program.
juvenile justice referral outcomes Duval County, 2002-03
28 â€˘ race relations
political process and civic engagement In politics and civic engagement, 2004 saw a surge in black voter registration. In the 2004 elections, only 3 percent of whites and 4 percent of blacks surveyed reported encountering difficulty in voting. In another survey, more black respondents said they could influence local government decision-making than white respondents.
perception of electability Survey Question: In general, do you think that a qualified black candidate has as good a chance as a qualified white candidate to get elected in Jacksonville, or don't you think they have as good a chance?
Civic engagement through the political process can offer an opportunity to address racial disparities through public policy. While black respondents were more pessimistic about their ability to access elected officials, blacks consistently outpolled whites in their self-perceived abilities to influence local government.
access to public officials Survey Question: In general, do you think that black people have as good a chance as white people in Jacksonville to get access to elected officials, or don't you think they have as good a chance?
White survey respondents were more likely (83 percent) to say that Jacksonville’s election process produces a fair outcome than were black respondents (47 percent). However, when asked specifically about the 2004 Presidential election, only 3 percent of whites and 4 percent of blacks reported encountering difficulty in voting.
fairness in voting Survey Question: How confident are you that the election process in Jacksonville produces a fair outcome?
perception of influence Survey Question: As a citizen of Jacksonville, how would you describe your ability to influence local government decision making? Would you say that you have great influence, moderate influence, a little influence, or no influence at all? (“great” or “moderate” influence shown)
In 2004, a higher percentage of black residents were registered to vote than either whites or Hispanics.
voter registration 2000-2004
voter turnout Percentage turnout of registered voters, 2004
progress report • 29
Elected officials in Jacksonville tend to reflect the demographics of the community, in terms of black and white residents, in part resulting from designated minorityaccess districts. However, Jacksonville does not have any Hispanic or Asian elected officials. Of the five county-wide elected officials (Mayor, Sheriff, Property Appraiser, Supervisor of Elections, and Tax Collector), all were white in 2005.
willingness to vote for a black mayor Survey Question: If a qualified candidate for mayor were black, would you be more likely to vote for that candidate because they were black, less likely to vote for that candidate because they were black, or would race not play a role in your decision?
jacksonville elected officials 2005
When asked about the highest local political office, survey respondents differed on how they would react to a black candidate for mayor. Black respondents (28 percent) stated they were more likely to vote for a black candidate for mayor, while white respondents (92 percent) said race did not play a role in their decision. Older black respondents (40 percent) were more likely to prefer a black candidate for mayor, while younger black respondents (72 percent) were more likely to say that race did not matter.
30 • race relations
White survey respondents tended to rate locally-elected leadership higher than black respondents. In the American Public Dialogue survey, 74 percent of white respondents said that local government elected leadership was “excellent” or “good,” compared to 35 percent of black respondents.
perception of local government Survey Question: We would like you to turn your attention to the government of Jacksonville. In your opinion, is the quality of leadership in our local government excellent, good, fair, or poor? (“excellent” or “good” responses shown)
survey methodology Jacksonville University, 2004 Data Collection Period:
October 15 - November 23, 2004
List Based RDD provided by Survey Sampling International
Whites 514, Blacks 400
Margin of Error:
60% (2,657 telephone numbers, 1,512 working numbers with eligible respondents, 914 completed interviews)
American Public Dialogue, 2004 Survey Type:
Telephone survey, monitored
September 14-16 and 21-22, 2004. Data collected between 5:30 pm and 9:00 pm
Geographically stratified telephone listings of residents in Duval County, Florida
Data collection and tabulation performed by American Public Dialogue staff on a client-blind basis
465 completed responses. Whites 328, Blacks 105, Hispanic 5, Asian 3, Other 13, Refused 11 (Calls attempted: 4972; Contacts made: 1493; Refusals: 1028)
Note: Statistical reliability for the cross-tabulations in this survey is considerably less accurate than the overall. In addition, please assume that any cross-tabulation in which the cell size (the "Forms" column) is less than n=50, is fairly indistinct and should not be relied upon for major or critical assumptions.
Focus Group Methodology Focus group participants were randomly selected from the group of survey respondents who replied "yes" to being victims of discrimination or reverse discrimination. The survey respondents were offered a $50 honorarium for participating in the focus group that would last approximately two hours. There were eleven focus groups, eight with black participants, three with white participants. Focus groups were held in a conference room on the Jacksonville University campus. Focus groups were segregated by race to facilitate frank and honest discussions. Focus groups ranged in size from three to eight participants. Each focus group also included two moderators and two students from Edward Waters College. The moderators were responsible for leading the discussion and encouraging input. They used the race relations questionnaire as a guide for the discussions. The students were responsible for taking notes and recording responses for the race relations report.
progress report â€˘ 31
about jcci Jacksonville Community Council Inc. (JCCI) was created in 1975 with the goal of improving the quality of life in Jacksonville through informed citizen participation in public affairs. JCCI is a nonprofit, nonpartisan, broadbased civic organization. It involves citizens in community issues through open dialogue, impartial research, consensus building, and leadership development. Each year, JCCI produces an annual report on the quality of life in Jacksonville. It also selects issues for in-depth community study. Diverse study committees meet weekly for about six months, gaining a thorough understanding of the problem and reaching consensus on key findings as well as recommended solutions. Following completion of the study and publication of a report, an advocacy task force of citizens takes the report to the community and seeks to place the issues on the community agenda. The goal is to seek further deliberation, increased public awareness, and finally, action by appropriate officials.
In addition to its annual studies and the Quality of Life Progress Report, JCCI plans and coordinates services for United Way of Northeast Florida and the Human Services Council (HSC), a coalition of local funders of human services. JCCI Forward, an initiative that seeks to involve community-minded people with important issues facing the community, provides the venue for up-and-coming leadership to be involved, engaged, and connected with government and business leaders. Upon request, JCCI provides a variety of planning, research, consultation, and facilitation services under contract. JCCI receives funding from United Way of Northeast Florida, the City of Jacksonville, the Duval County Public Schools, Jacksonville Children’s Commission, corporations, and individual members. JCCI membership is open to all interested in building a better community. More information about JCCI and its projects is available at www.jcci.org.
board of directors Gerald Weedon, President Mary Ellen Smith, President-Elect Helen Jackson, Secretary-Treasurer Judge Henry Adams Christine Arab Ron Autrey Dave Balz William H. Bishop III David Boree Michael Boylan Joy Burgess John Cobb Randy Evans
Ronnie Ferguson Dana Ferrell David M. Foster Allan T. Geiger Eric Holshouser Earl Johnson, Jr. William Kwapil Wally Lee Tony Mahfoud Carla Marlier Marsha Oliver Bryant Rollins Susan Siegmund Glenda Washington Richard Weber Mary Lou Zievis
J.J. Daniel Jack H. Chambers Yank D. Coble, Jr. Robert D. Davis George W. Corrick Howard R. Greenstein Jacquelyn D. Bates David M. Hicks James C. Rinaman Kenneth W. Eilerman J. Shepard Bryan, Jr. Juliette Woodruff Mason Lucy D. Hadi Charles P. Hayes, Jr.
jcci staff Charles R. Cramer, Executive Director Ben Warner, Associate Director Clanzenetta “Mickee” Brown Chandra Echols
32 • race relations
Earlene Hostutler Laura Lane Anne-Marie Logrippo Cheryl Murphy Scott Sanborn Michelle Simkulet Lashun Stephens
Steve Pajcic Tracey I. Arpen, Jr. Guy Marvin III Luther Quarles III W.O. Birchfield Michael J. Korn William E. Scheu Afesa Adams William D. Brinton Sherry Burns Sue K. Butts Edgar Mathis David M. Foster John Cobb
2434 atlantic boulevard • jacksonville, fl 32207 904.396.3052 • www.jcci.org • firstname.lastname@example.org
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