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Sarf in Short


ُُ‫تغُ اهلل اٌشمحٓ اٌشد‬

‫اٌظشف‬ (1)

‫اٌظٖشِف‬

investigates the behaviour of the word

relation to other words

) ‫(ؤٍََّاخ‬

in the sentence

) ‫(اٌْىٍََّٔح‬

individually i.e. not in

) ‫(اٌْجٍَُِّح‬.

More specifically, it

investigates the ‫ اٌْىٍََّٔح‬from the perspective of its formal structure and the changes that affect that structure either to give rise to different meanings or ease the overall pronunciation of the word. (2) The ‫ اٌََْىٍََّٔح‬in Arabic is of three types: (a) the

ُِ‫( االع‬noun which includes adjectives, adverbs, pronouns, etc.) e.g. ‫ؿَأٌة‬

(student), ‫( سِعَاٌَح‬letter, message), ٍََُ‫( ل‬pen), etc. (b) the ًِ‫( اٌْ ٔفؼ‬verb) e.g. َ‫ورَة‬ َ (wrote), ُ‫( َ ْىرُة‬write, will write) and ِ‫( اُ ْورُة‬Write!) (c) the ‫( اٌْذَشِف‬particle) e.g. ًَْ٘ (used to convert statements into questions),

ٍِٔ‫( ف‬in), ٌَُِ

(did not), etc. (3) The ‫ اٌْذَشِف‬and those of the ُِ‫ االع‬and ًِ‫ اٌْ ٔفؼ‬which resemble the ‫ اٌْذَشِف‬structurally, semantically and functionally (such as the

‫ اٌؼَّٖائٔش‬, ٔ‫ ؤَعَِّاء اإلِشَاسَج‬, ‫طىٌَِح‬ ُ ِ‫ األَ ِعَُ اء اٌْ َّى‬,

َِ‫ ؤَعَِّاء اال ِعٔرفْهَا‬, ٔ‫ ؤَعَِّاء اٌشٖ ِشؽ‬, etc.) do not form part of the subject-matter of ‫اٌظٖشِف‬ because of the fact that their rigid structures are not amenable to the type of changes that is commonly studied in and the

ُِ‫االع‬

‫ اٌظٖشِف‬. Hence, ‫ اٌظٖشِف‬only deals with the ًِ‫اٌْ ٔفؼ‬

and more specifically those among them that do not bear any

structural, semantic or functional resemblance to the (4) ‫ اٌظٖشِف‬can be divided into three sections: (a) ًِِ‫اٌْ ٔفؼ‬

‫( طَشِف‬Morphology of the Verb), 1

‫اٌْذَشِف‬.


(b) ُِ‫ع‬ ِ ‫اال‬ (c)

‫( طَشِف‬Morphology of the Noun) and

ً‫( طَشِف اٌْ ٔفؼًِِ وَاال ِعُِ َِؼا‬Morphology of the Verb and Noun together), also called

" ‫شرَشَن‬ ِ ُّ ٌْ‫( "اٌظٖشِف ا‬Shared Morphology i.e. the Morphology common to the Verb and Noun).

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ًِِ‫طشِف اٌْ ٔفؼ‬ َ (5) ًِِ‫اٌْ ٔفؼ‬

‫ طَشِف‬investigates the ًِِ‫ اٌْ ٔفؼ‬from seven perspectives:

(a) the time of the occurrence of the action (b) the number of ‫األَطِ ٍُٖٔح‬

‫( األَدِشُف‬number of root letters)

(c) the presence or absence of

ٕ‫( ؤَدِشُف ػ ٍَّٔح‬weak letters, namely: the ‫ اٌْىَاو‬, the ‫األٌَٔف‬

and the ‫ ) ا ٌَُْاء‬among the root letters (d) intransitivity and transitivity (e) the presence or absence of the ًٔ‫( اٌْفَاػ‬doer / subject of the verbal sentence) (f) flexibility and inflexibility (i.e. rigidity) (g) intensification or non-intensification

(6) The first perspective: the time of the occurrence of the action The ًِ‫ اٌْ ٔفؼ‬from this perspective is divided into three categories: (a)

ٍِٔ‫( اٌْ ٔفؼًِ اٌَّْاػ‬past tense / perfect), which denotes the occurrence of the action in

the past, like: "َ‫ورَة‬ َ " (wrote), (b)

‫( اٌْ ٔفؼًِ اٌْ ُّؼَاسِع‬present or future tense / imperfect), which denotes the occurrence

of the action in the present or future tense, like: (c)

ِ‫ٔفؼًِ األَ ِِش‬

"ُ‫( "َ ْىرُة‬write/s or will write), and

(verb of command / imperative), which denotes the request for the

occurrence of the action in the future, like: "ِ‫ورُة‬ ْ ُ‫( "ا‬Write!) (7) The second perspective: the number of

‫األَدِشُف األَطِ ٍُٖٔح‬

(number of root

letters) The ًِ‫ اٌْ ٔفؼ‬from this perspective is divided into two categories: (a) ٍٓٔ‫( اٌثُّالَث‬triliteral), which is a ًِ‫ ٔفؼ‬comprising three root letters, like: "َ‫ورَة‬ َ " (wrote) (b)

ٍٓٔ‫( اٌشٗتَاػ‬quadriliteral), which is a ًِ‫ ٔفؼ‬comprising four root letters, like: " َ‫"دَدِشَج‬

(rolled) Each of these two categories is sub-divided into two more categories.

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Thus, the ٍٓٔ‫ اٌثُّالَث‬is sub-divided into: (i) ‫اٌُّْجَشٖد‬

ٍٓٔ‫( اٌثُّالَث‬naked / divested triliteral), which is any ٍٓٔ‫ ثُالَث‬divested and stripped of

any additional letters such that it only consists of root letters, like:

"َ‫( "خَشَج‬went out),

"َ‫( "فَشِح‬was happy), "َُٓ‫( " َدغ‬was good), etc. and (ii) ‫اٌَّْضَِِذ‬

ٍٓٔ‫( اٌثُّالَث‬increased / augmented triliteral), which is any ٍٓٔ‫ ثُالَث‬whose root form

is increased by the addition of up to three letters, like:

" َ‫( "ؤَخِشَج‬put out, threw out),

"َ‫( "ذَخَشٖج‬graduated), "َ‫( "أ ِعرَخِشَج‬took out, extracted), etc. Likewise, the ٍٓٔ‫ اٌشٗتَاػ‬is sub-divided into: (i)

‫( اٌشٗتَاػٍٔٓ اٌُّْجَشٖد‬naked / divested quadriliteral), which is any ٍٓٔ‫ سُتَاػ‬divested and

stripped of any additional letters such that it only consists of root letters, like:

"َ‫"دَدِشَج‬

(rolled), "ََْ‫( "ؿَِّإ‬put at ease), etc. and (ii)

‫( اٌشٗتَاػٍٔٓ اٌَّْضَِِذ‬increased / augmented quadriliteral), which is any ٍٓٔ‫ سُتَاػ‬whose root

form is increased by the addition of up to two letters, like:

" َ‫"َذذَدِشَج‬

(was rolled),

"ََّْ‫( "أؿَّْإ‬was at ease), etc. (NB! For more details see the Appendix 1 at the end of the book) (8) The third perspective: the presence or absence of

ٕ‫( ؤَدِشُف ػ ٍَّٔح‬weak letters,

namely: the ‫ ا ٌْىَاو‬, the ‫ األٌَٔف‬and the ‫ ) ا ٌَُْاء‬among the root letters The ًِ‫ اٌْ ٔفؼ‬from this perspective is divided into two categories: (a)

‫ذُِخ‬ ٔ ٖ‫( اٌظ‬sound / strong), which is a ًِ‫ ٔفؼ‬whose root letters are free from ٕ‫ؤَدِشُف ػ ٍَّٔح‬

(weak letters), and consists of three types: (i) ٌُٔ‫اٌغٖا‬

‫ذُِخ‬ ٔ ٖ‫( اٌظ‬super sound / strong), which is a ‫ذُِخ‬ ٔ َ‫ ط‬that is free from ‫ؼ ٔؼُِف‬ ِ ‫اٌٖر‬

(doubling i.e. have two identical root letters) and

‫( اٌْهَِّض‬having one of the root letters

as a ‫) َِّ٘ضَج‬, like: "َ‫ورَة‬ َ " , "َ‫ "خَشَج‬, etc. (ii)

‫ اٌْ ُّؼَاػَف‬/

‫ؼؼٖف‬ َ ُّ ٌْ‫ذُِخ ا‬ ٔ ٖ‫( اٌظ‬doubled strong), which is a ‫ذُِخ‬ ٔ َ‫ ط‬that has two

identical root letters, like: "ٖ‫( " َِذ‬extended, lengthened), "َ‫( "صٌَْضَي‬quaked, shook), etc. (iii)

‫ذُِخ اٌَّْهِ ُّىِص‬ ٔ ٖ‫( اٌظ‬hamzated strong), which is a ‫ذُِخ‬ ٔ َ‫ ط‬that has one of the root

letters as a ‫ َِّ٘ضَج‬, like: "ًََ‫( "ؤَو‬ate), "َ‫( "عَإَي‬asked), "َ‫( "لَشَؤ‬read), etc.

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(b) ًَّ‫ّ ِؼر‬ ُ ٌْ‫( ا‬weak), which is a

ًِ‫ ٔفؼ‬whose root form constitutes at least one of the three

ٔ‫ ؤَدِشُف اٌْؼٍَّٔح‬and comprises four types: (i) ‫ّثَاي‬ ٔ ٌْ‫( ا‬quasi-sound), which is a

ًَّ‫ ُِ ِؼر‬whose first root letter is a

ٕ‫( دَشِف ػ ٍَّٔح‬weak

letter), like: "ًََ‫( "وَط‬reached, arrived), "َ‫( "َثِظ‬was dried), etc. (ii)

‫( األَ ِجىَف‬hollow), which is a ًَّ‫ ُِ ِؼر‬whose second root letter is a ٕ‫ دَشِف ػ ٍَّٔح‬, like: "َ‫"لَاي‬

(said), "َ‫( "تَاع‬sold), etc. (iii) ‫( إٌٖالٔض‬defective), which is a

ًَّ‫ ُِ ِؼر‬whose last root letter is a ٕ‫ دَشِف ػ ٍَّٔح‬, like: " ‫"دَػَا‬

(called, invited), "ًَِ‫( " َس‬threw, cast), etc. (iv) ‫اٌٍ ٔفُِف‬ َّ (two-folded), which is a ًَّ‫ ُِ ِؼر‬whose first and third root letters or second and third root letters are from the

ٔ‫ ؤَدِشُف اٌْؼ ٍَّٔح‬, like: "ًَ‫( "وَل‬protected, safeguarded), " ًَ‫" َوػ‬

(comprehended, fathomed), "‫( "َٔىَي‬intended), "‫( " َسوَي‬reported, narrated), etc. (9) The fourth perspective: intransitivity and transitivity The ًِ‫ اٌْ ٔفؼ‬from this perspective is divided into two categories: (a) َِ‫اٌالص‬ َّ (intransitive), which is a

ًِ‫ ٔفؼ‬whose action is confined to the ًٔ‫( اٌْفَاػ‬doer /

subject of a verbal sentence) and not transferred directly onto a

ٔٗ‫( َِ ْف ُؼىِي ِت‬direct

object), like: "َ‫( "فَشِح‬was happy), "َ‫( "جٍََظ‬sat), etc. (b) ٌِ‫َذ‬ ِّ ‫( اٌْ َُّرؼ‬transitive), which is a transferred directly onto a ٔٗ‫ِت‬ (i) ٕ‫دذ‬ ٔ ‫وَا‬

ًِ‫ ٔفؼ‬whose action is not confined to the ًٔ‫ اٌْفَاػ‬but is

‫فِىِي‬ ‫ َِ ُػ‬, and further comprises three types:

ٍ‫َذٌِ بًٌَِ َِ ْف ُؼىِي‬ ِّ ‫( اٌْ َُّرؼ‬transitive to one direct object only i.e. singly transitive), like:

"َ‫ " َورَة‬in for example: "َ‫( " َورَةَ صََِذْ اٌشِّعَاٌَح‬Zayd wrote the letter), (ii)

ٌَُِِِٓ‫( اٌْ ُّرَغَِّدٌِ بًٌَِ َِ ْف ُؼى‬transitive to two direct objects i.e. doubly transitive), like: "ٖٓ‫" َظ‬

in for example: "ً‫وَشَِِّا‬

‫( "ظَٖٓ صََِ ْذ خَأٌذًا‬Zayd thought Khalid to be noble / generous), and

"ًَ‫ "ؤَػِـ‬in "ً‫( "ؤَػِـًَ صََِ ْذ خَأٌذًا ٔورَاتا‬Zayd gave Khalid a book), and

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(iii)

ًَُِ‫َذٌِ بًٌَِ ثَالََثحٔ َِفَا ٔػ‬ ِّ ‫( اٌْ َُّرؼ‬transitive to three direct objects, i.e. triply transitive), like:

"ٍََُ ِ‫ "ؤَػ‬in for example: "ً‫( "ؤَػِ ٍََُ ػٌٍٍَّٔ صََِذًا خَأٌذًا وَشَِِّا‬Ali informed Zayd that Khalid is noble / generous), and

"‫ "َؤسَي‬in "

ً‫( "َؤسَي اٌْ ُّذَسِّطُ اٌـَّأٌةَ اٌْ َّغِإٌََ َح عَهِ ٍَح‬The teacher made the

student see the problem as being easy) Some scholars add a third category, namely: that which is neither

َِ‫ َالص‬nor ٍّ‫ َُِرؼَذ‬, and

comprises verbs such as "َْ‫ "وَا‬and its sisters and "َ‫ "وَاد‬and its sisters. (10) The fifth perspective: the presence or absence of the

ًٔ‫( اٌْفَاػ‬doer / subject

of the verbal sentence) The ًِ‫ اٌْ ٔفؼ‬from this perspective is divided into two categories: (a)

َِِ‫( اٌْ َّ ِثٍِٕٓ ًٌَِْٔؼِ ٍُى‬active form of the verb), which is a ًِ‫ ٔفؼ‬whose ًٔ‫ اٌْفَاػ‬is mentioned

(even in the implied and implicit sense) in the sentence and not dropped, like:

"َ‫ " َورَة‬in "َ‫( " َورَةَ اٌـَّأٌةُ اٌْخٔـَاب‬The student wrote the letter), "ُ‫ "َ ْىرُة‬in "َ‫( "َ ْىرُةُ اٌـَّأٌةُ اٌْخٔـَاب‬The student is writing the letter), and "ِ‫ "اُ ْورُة‬in "]َ‫[ "اُ ْورُةِ [ؤَِٔد‬Write (you)] (b)

ِ‫( اٌْ َّ ِثٍِٕٓ ٌٍَّْٔجِ ُهىِي‬passive form of the verb), which is a ًِ‫ ٔفؼ‬whose ًٔ‫ اٌْفَاػ‬is not

mentioned (not even in the implied and implicit sense) in the sentence, that is, it is dropped from the sentence, leaving a vacuum which is normally filled by the

ٔٗ‫( اٌْ َّ ْف ُؼىِي ِت‬direct object), like: "َ‫ " ُورٔة‬in "ُ‫( " ُورٔةَ اٌْخٔـَاب‬The letter was written) and "ُ‫ "َُ ْىرَة‬in "ُ‫بُ اٌْخٔـَاب‬ َ‫( "َُىْد‬The letter is being written) (11) The sixth perspective: flexibility and inflexibility (i.e. rigidity) The ًِ‫ اٌْ ٔفؼ‬from this perspective is divided into two categories: (a) ‫َّرظَشِّف‬ ُ ٌْ‫( ا‬flexible), which is of two types: (i) ٔ‫اٌٖرظَشٗف‬

َٓ‫( اٌرٖا‬fully-flexible), which is a ًِ‫ ٔفؼ‬that exists in all three states of the ًِ‫ اٌْ ٔفؼ‬,

that is: the ٍِٔ‫ اٌَّْاػ‬, the ‫ّؼَاسِع‬ ُ ٌْ‫ ا‬and the ‫ ا َألِِش‬, like:

6


(ii)

ٍِٔ‫اٌَّْاػ‬

‫اٌْ ُّؼَاسِع‬

‫ا َألِِش‬

َ‫َورَة‬

ُ‫َ ْىرُة‬

ِ‫اُ ْورُة‬

to write, record

َ‫ػَشَب‬

ُ‫ٌػِشِب‬ َ

ِ‫أػِشِب‬

To hit, beat, strike

Meaning

ٔ‫( إٌٖالٔض اٌٖرظَشٗف‬semi-flexible), which is a ًِ‫ ٔفؼ‬that exists in only two of the three

states, that is: the ٍِٔ‫ اٌَّْاػ‬and the ‫ّؼَاسِع‬ ُ ٌْ‫ ا‬only, or the ‫ اٌْ ُّؼَاسِع‬and the ‫ ا َألِِش‬only, like:

ٍِٔ‫اٌَّْاػ‬

‫اٌْ ُّؼَاسِع‬

َ‫وَاد‬

ُ‫َىَاد‬

َ‫(َِا) صَاي‬

ُ‫(َِا) َضَاي‬

‫ا َألِِش‬

Meaning to be on the verge, almost, nearly to continue

ُ‫َذَع‬

ِ‫دَع‬

to leave, abandon

ُ‫َ َزس‬

ِ‫َرس‬

to leave, abandon

(b) ‫( اٌْجَأِذ‬rigid), which is a ًِ‫ ٔفؼ‬that exists in only one of the three states, like:

ٍِٔ‫اٌَّْاػ‬

‫اٌْ ُّؼَاسِع‬

‫ا َألِِش‬

Meaning

َ‫ٌَُِظ‬

not

ًَ‫َػغ‬

hopefully

ُ‫َ ِهُِؾ‬

shouts, makes a noise

َ‫َذؼَاي‬

Come!

ٔ‫َ٘اخ‬

Give!

(12) The seventh perspective: intensification or non-intensification The ًِ‫ اٌْ ٔفؼ‬from this perspective is divided into two categories: (a) ‫ّاَوَّذ‬ ُ ٌْ‫( ا‬corroborated), which is a ًِ‫ ٔفؼ‬that has either the ‫اٌث ٔمٍَُِح‬ َّ

ٔ‫( ُٔىِْ اٌٖرىِ ٔو ُِذ‬emphatic

ِْ‫ إٌٗى‬of corroboration) or the ‫خ ٔف ُِفَح‬ َ ٌْ‫( ُٔىِْ اٌٖرىِ ٔو ُِذٔ ا‬non-emphatic ِْ‫ إٌٗى‬of corroboration) suffixed to it. (b)

ٔ‫َوذ‬ َّ ‫َغُِش اٌْ ُّا‬

(non-corroborated), which is a

ًِ‫ٔفؼ‬

that does not have the

‫اٌث ٔمٍَُِح‬ َّ ٔ‫ ُٔىِْ اٌٖرىِ ٔو ُِذ‬or the ‫خ ٔف ُِفَح‬ َ ٌْ‫ ُٔىِْ اٌٖرىِ ٔو ُِذٔ ا‬suffixed to it. In the case of the ٍِٔ‫ اٌَّْاػ‬the suffixing of the ٔ‫و ُِذ‬ ٔ ِ‫اٌٖرى‬

7

ِْ‫ ُٔى‬is disallowed.


In the case of the

‫ ا َألِِش‬the suffixing of the ٔ‫ ُٔىِْ اٌٖرىِ ٔو ُِذ‬is optional, like: "

[Worship your Lord (in the emphatic sense)],

َ‫"وَا ِػُثذََّْ سَتٖه‬

"َ‫[ "وَا ِػُثذِ سَتٖه‬Worship your Lord (in the

non-emphatic sense)], etc. In the case of the ‫ّؼَاسِع‬ ُ ٌْ‫ ا‬the suffixing of the ٔ‫اٌٖرىِ ٔو ُِذ‬ (i) necessary, which is when the in an oath construction with the like:

ِْ‫ ُٔى‬is either:

‫ اٌْ ُّؼَاسِع‬denotes the future and is in the affirmative

ُِ‫غ‬ َ ‫ اٌالَ ( الََ اٌْ َم‬of oath) not being separated from it,

" ٔ‫( "وَاهللِ ٌَُٕ ِث َؼثَٖٓ َىََِ اٌْ ٔمَُا َِح‬By Allah! We will be raised on the Day of Resurrection),

﴾ُِ‫طَٕاَِ ُى‬ ِ َ‫( ﴿ذَاهللِ ٌَإَ ٔو ُِذََّْ ؤ‬By Allah! I will play a trick on your idols), or (ii) close to being necessary, which is when the

‫اٌْ ُّؼَاسِع‬

is preceded by the

conditional "ِْْ‫( "ب‬meaning “if”) that is assimilated into the additional

"‫ "َِا‬so as to form

"‫ "ِبِٖا‬, like: "ْ‫َْ فَإَِٔدَ َٔاجِخ‬ َّ ‫جرَ ِهذ‬ ِ َ‫( "ِبِٖا ذ‬If you really work hard, then you will be successful), or (iii) often, which is when the

‫ اٌْ ُّؼَاسِع‬is preceded by an ٍ‫( ؤَدَاج ؿٍََة‬particle of request

such as command, prohibition, supplication, gentle or urgent request, wishing, inquiring), like:

﴾َِْ‫أٌ ُّى‬

َّ‫غثَٖٓ اهللَ غَافٔالً ػَّٖا َؼًَُِّ اٌظ‬ َ‫ذ‬ ِ َ‫﴿وَالَ ذ‬

(Do not think that Allah is

unmindful of what the wrongdoers are doing) (iv) rare, which is when the

‫ اٌْ ُّؼَاسِع‬is preceded by the negative "‫ " َال‬or the additional

"‫ "َِا‬, like: ﴾ ً‫طح‬ ٖ ‫ظ ُِثَٖٓ َّاٌزََِٔٓ ظٍََ ُّىِا ُِِٔٓو ُِ خَا‬ ٔ ‫﴿وَاٖذ ُمىِا ٔف ِرَٕ ًح الَ ُذ‬

(And guard yourselves against a

severe punishment which will not only afflict the wrongdoers …) (v) very rare, which is when the (conditional word) other than position the ‫ اٌشٖشِؽ‬or ٔ‫اٌشٖ ِشؽ‬

‫اٌْ ُّؼَاسِع‬

is preceded by

" ٌَُِ"

or an

ٍ‫ؤَدَاج جَضَاء‬

" ‫( "ِبِٖا‬and it makes no difference whether it is in the

‫ ) َجىَاب‬and is found mostly in poetry, like:

ٍِٔ‫ؤَتَذاً وَ َلرًُِ َتِٕ ٍِ ُلَر َُِث َح شَاف‬

ٍ‫َِِٓ َذ ْث َمفَِٓ ِِٕٔ ُه ُِ فَ ٍَُِظَ تِأئٔة‬

*

Whosoever you find of them will not return - ever - and killing Banu Qutaybah is a healing

(vi) disallowed, which is when one of the conditions for the necessary corroboration is violated, like:

"

َِْ‫هلل الَ َفٍْٔخُ اٌظَّأٌ ُّى‬ ِ ‫"وَا‬

(By Allah! The wrongdoers will not be

successful)

8


ُِ‫طشِف اال ِع‬ َ (13) ُِ‫ع‬ ِ ‫اال‬

‫ طَشِف‬investigates the ُِ‫ االع‬also from seven perspectives:

(a) the stripping or addition of additional letters (b) rigidity (non-derivation) and derivation (c) masculinity and femininity (i.e. gender) (d) the type of ending (e) number (f) diminution (g) relation and ascription (14) The first perspective: the stripping or addition of additional letters The ُِ‫ االع‬from this perspective is divided into two categories: (a)

‫اٌُّْجَشٖد‬

(naked or divested), which is an

ُِ‫اع‬

divested and stripped of any

additional letters and comprises three types: (i) ٍٓٔ‫اٌثُّالَث‬

‫( اٌُّْجَشٖد‬trilateral naked), like: "ًُ‫( "سَج‬man), "‫( "فَشَط‬horse, mare), etc.

(ii) ٍٓٔ‫اٌشٗتَاػ‬

‫( اٌُّْجَشٖد‬quadriliteral naked), like: "‫( " َج ِؼفَش‬Ja’far, brooklet), " َُ٘‫( " ٔد ِس‬dirham),

etc. (iii) ٍٓٔ‫خَّاع‬ ُ ٌْ‫ا‬ (b)

‫( اٌُّْجَشٖد‬quinqueliteral naked), like: "ًَ‫( " َعفَشِج‬quince), etc.

‫( اٌَّْضَِِذ‬increased or augmented), which is an ُِ‫ اع‬that can be increased up to

seven letters by the addition of additional letters to the root form and comprises numerous forms, some of which are illustrated in the following table:

9


The Increased / Augmented Form

Root Form

Additional Letter(s)

Triliteral Root

ُٔ٘‫( فَا‬someone understanding)

ُِ‫فَه‬

the ‫األٌف‬

‫( َِؼِ ُشوِب‬beaten, coined)

‫ػَشِب‬

the ُُ‫ امل‬and ‫اٌىاو‬

ًِ‫غَرغِه‬ ِ ُِ (someone finding something easy)

ًِ‫عَه‬

the ُُ‫ امل‬, ‫ اٌغني‬and ‫اٌراء‬

‫( أ ِعرٔخِشَاج‬extracting, taking out)

‫خشج‬

the

ً‫ مهضج اٌىط‬, ‫ اٌغني‬, ‫اٌراء‬

and ‫األٌف‬ Quadriliteral Root

‫( ُِذَدِشِج‬someone rolling something)

‫دَدِشَج‬

the ُُ‫امل‬

‫( َُِرذَدِشِج‬something being rolled)

‫َدحِ َسج‬

the ُُ‫ امل‬and ‫اٌراء‬

َ‫( أدِشِِٔجَا‬gathering, assembling)

َُ‫دَشِج‬

the

ً‫ مهضج اٌىط‬, ْ‫ إٌى‬, and

‫األٌف‬ Quinqueliteral Root

ًُِ‫غِث‬ َ ٍْ َ‫( ع‬the of a well in Jannah)

ًَ‫غث‬ َ ٍْ َ‫ع‬

the ‫اٌُاء‬

ِْ‫( صََِضَ ُفى‬jujube, linden tree)

َٓ‫صََِضَف‬

the ‫اٌىاو‬

ًُِ‫جِث‬ َ َِٔ‫( ص‬ginger)

ًَ‫جث‬ َ َِٔ‫ص‬

the ‫اٌُاء‬

(15) The second perspective: rigidity and derivation The ُِ‫ االع‬from this perspective is divided into two categories: (a) ‫( اٌْجَأِذ‬rigid / non-derived), which is an

ُِ‫ اع‬that is not derived from anything and

comprises two types: (i)

ٔ‫ اعُِ اٌزَّاخ‬or

ُِِٓ‫( اعُِ اٌْ َؼ‬concrete noun), which is an ُِ‫ اع‬that is not only non-

derivative but also none of the derived nouns is derived from it, and refers to an entity or essence the nature of which is that it can be qualified and described by highlighting a quality or attribute in it, like: "ًُ‫( "سَج‬man), "‫( "فَشَط‬horse, mare), and (ii)

ًَٕ‫( اعُِ اٌْ َّ ِؼ‬abstract noun), which is an ُِ‫ – اع‬even though it is non-derivative – all

derivatives are derived from it and is thus appropriately called the

‫ظذَس‬ ِ َّ ٌْ‫( ا‬ultimate

source); moreover, it denotes the qualities, states and actions that inhere in entities and essences and which make it possible for the latter to be qualified and described,

10


like:

"‫( "جََّاي‬beauty), "ِٓ‫( " ُدغ‬goodness), "‫( "تَُاع‬whiteness), "‫( " َغؼَة‬anger), " ‫" ٔورَاتَح‬

(writing), "‫( "جُ ٍُىِط‬sitting), etc. [Thus, if something possesses the quality of (beautiful), or if someone is in a state of

‫اٌْجََّاي‬

you can say that it is

ًُِّٔ َ‫ج‬

‫( اٌْ َغؼَة‬anger) you can say that he is ْ‫ؼثَا‬ ِ ‫َغ‬

(angry) or if someone performs the action of

‫( اٌْ ٔىرَاتَح‬writing) you can say that he is

‫( وَاذٔة‬someone writing), etc.] (b)

ٓ‫شرَك‬ ِ ُّ ٌْ‫( ا‬derivative), which is an ُِ‫ اع‬that is formed from the ‫ظذَس‬ ِ َّ ٌْ‫ ا‬on a specific

pattern or patterns to indicate the particular manner in which the quality, state or action is related to someone or something (i.e. a vague entity or essence), and comprises seven types: [someone / something (i) ًِٔ‫اٌْفَاػ‬

+

quality / state / action

=

derivative]

ُِ‫( اع‬active participle), which is an ٓ‫شرَك‬ ِ ُِ ُِ‫ اع‬formed from the ‫ظذَس‬ ِ َّ ٌْ‫ ا‬on a

specific pattern to indicate that someone or something is performing the action indicated by the

‫ظذَس‬ ِ َّ ٌْ‫ ا‬in a non-permanent sense, like: " ‫( "وَاذٔة‬someone writing),

"ُْ‫( "لَأئ‬someone or something standing), "ْ‫( " ُِغَافٔش‬someone traveling), etc. (ii)

ِ‫( اعُِ اٌْ َّ ْف ُؼىِي‬passive participle), which is an ٓ‫شرَك‬ ِ ُِ ُِ‫ اع‬formed from the ‫ظذَس‬ ِ َّ ٌْ‫ ا‬on a

specific pattern to indicate that someone or something is the object receiving the action indicated by the

‫ظذَس‬ ِ َّ ٌْ‫ا‬

, like:

" ‫"َِ ْىُرىِب‬

(something written),

" ْ‫غرَخِشَج‬ ِ ُِ "

(something taken out or extracted), etc. (iii) )ًِٔ‫اٌْفَاػ‬

‫ظذَس‬ ِ َّ ٌْ‫ا‬

ُِ‫شثٖهَح (تِا ِع‬ َ ُّ ٌْ‫اٌظفَح ا‬ ِّ (descriptive noun), which is an ٓ‫شرَك‬ ِ ُِ ُِ‫ اع‬formed from the

(of an intransitive verb) on specific patterns to indicate that someone or

something is the bearer or possessor of the quality indicated by the

‫ظذَس‬ ِ َّ ٌْ‫ ا‬and is not

confined to any particular tense but rather stretches from the past into the continuous present, like:

"ًٌُِّٔ َ‫( "ج‬beautiful), "َْٓ‫( " َدغ‬good), " ‫( "ؤَِتَُغ‬white), " ْ‫ؼثَا‬ ِ ‫" َغ‬

(angry), etc. (iv) ًُِِ‫ؼ‬ ٔ ‫اٌٖر ْف‬ the

ُِ‫( اع‬comparative or superlative form), which is an ٓ‫شرَك‬ ِ ُِ ُِ‫ اع‬formed from

‫ظذَ س‬ ِ َّ ٌْ‫ا‬

on the pattern of

" ًَُ‫"ؤَ ْفؼ‬

to indicate that someone or something is

surpassing something or someone-else in a shared quality which is denoted by the

‫ظذَس‬ ِ َّ ٌْ‫ ا‬, e.g. "ًَُِّ‫( ؤَج‬more beautiful), "َُٓ‫( "ؤَ ِدغ‬better), "ُ‫( "ؤَ ْغؼَة‬angrier), etc.

11


(v), (vi) ْٔ‫وَاٌَّْىَا‬ from the

ْٔ‫( اعَِّا اٌ ٖضَِا‬nouns of time or place), which are

ْٔ‫شرَمَّا‬ ِ ُِ ْٔ‫ اعَِّا‬formed

‫ظذَس‬ ِ َّ ٌْ‫ ا‬on specific patterns to indicate the time or place in which the action,

denoted by the

‫ظذَس‬ ِ َّ ٌْ‫ ا‬, is occurring, like: " ْ‫ " َِشِشِق‬and " ‫( " ََؿٍَْغ‬time or place of the

rising of the sun),

" ْ‫( " َِغِشِب‬time or place of the setting of the sun), " ًَ‫( " َِذِخ‬entry),

"‫( "َِخِشَج‬exit), etc. (vii) ٔ‫اٌَِح‬

ُِ‫( اع‬noun of tool or instrument), which is an ٓ‫شرَك‬ ِ ُِ ُِ‫ اع‬formed from the ‫ظذَس‬ ِ َّ ٌْ‫ا‬

on the patterns of

"ًَ‫ " ِٔ ْفؼ‬, " ‫ " ِٔ ْفؼٍََح‬or " ‫ " ِٔ ْفؼَاي‬to indicate the tool or instrument with

which the action indicated by the

‫ظذَس‬ ِ َّ ٌْ‫ ا‬is accomplished, like: "‫( " ِٔثِشَد‬file), " ‫"ِٔ ْىَٕغَح‬

(broom), "‫( " ِٔ ْفرَاح‬key), etc. (16) The third perspective: masculinity and femininity (i.e. gender) The ُِ‫ االع‬from this perspective is divided into two categories: (a) ‫( ُِزَوَّش‬masculine), like: "ًُ‫( "سَج‬man), "ًَ‫جث‬ َ " (mountain), "ٍََُ‫( "ل‬pen), etc. (b) ‫( ُِأَٖث‬feminine), which is of two types: (i) ٍٓٔ‫د ٔم ُِم‬ َ (real), which is an beings or animals, like:

‫ اعُِ ُِأَٖث‬that denotes a female whether amongst human

"‫( "فَاؿَّٔح‬Fatimah), "‫( "صَََِٕة‬Zaynab), " ‫( "ٔاِِشَؤَج‬woman), " ‫"لٔـَّح‬

(female cat), etc. (ii)

ٌٓ‫( َِجَا ِص‬metaphorical), which is an

‫ اعُِ ُِأَٖث‬that does not denote a female

whether amongst human beings or animals but because of having been used as

‫ ُِأَٖث‬by the ancient Arabs it has acquired the status of ‫ ُِأَٖث‬, like: " ‫( "شَِّظ‬sun), "‫( "َؤسِع‬earth), "ُِٓ‫( " َػ‬eye, spring), etc. The ‫ّأَٖث‬ ُ ٌْ‫ ا‬also comprises three more categories: (i)

ٍٓٔ‫( ٌَفْظ‬feminine in form only), which is an ُِ‫ اع‬whose meaning is ‫ ُِزَوَّش‬but whose

form is feminine due to having one of the

ٔ‫الَِاخ اٌرٖإُِِْٔث‬ َ َ‫( ػ‬signs of femininity) suffixed

to it, like: "‫( "دَِّضَج‬Hamzah), "‫( "ؿٍَْذَح‬Talhah), "‫( "صَوَشَِٖا‬Zechariahs), etc.

12


(ii) ٌٓ‫( َِ ِؼَٕ ِى‬feminine in meaning only), which is an whose form is

ُِ‫ اع‬whose meaning is ‫ ُِأَٖث‬but

‫ ُِزَوَّش‬due to it not having one of the ٔ‫الَِاخ اٌرٖإُِِْٔث‬ َ َ‫ ػ‬suffixed to it, like:

"ََُِ‫( "َِش‬Maryam, Mary), "‫( "صَََِٕة‬Zaynab), "‫( " ِٕٔ٘ذ‬Hind), etc. (iii) ٌٓ‫َو َِ ِؼَٕ ِى‬

ٍٓٔ‫( ٌَفْظ‬feminine in both form and meaning), which is an ُِ‫ اع‬that is ‫ ُِأَٖث‬in

both form and meaning, like: "‫( "فَاؿَّٔح‬Fatimah), "ًٍََّْ‫( "ع‬Salma), "‫( "ؤَعَِّاء‬Asma), etc. The ٔ‫اٌرٖإُِِْٔث‬ (i) the

‫الَِاخ‬ َ َ‫ ػ‬are two in number:

‫( اٌرٖاء اٌَّْشُِتىِؿَح‬i.e. the joined or closed ‫ اٌرٖاء‬because it is joined or close at its

ends), like: "‫غ َُِٕح‬ ِ ‫( " َد‬Hasinah), "‫( "فَاؿَّٔح‬Fatimah), "‫( "ػَأئشَح‬Aishah), etc. (ii) the

‫ األٌَٔف‬, which is either ‫ظ ِىسَج‬ ُ ‫( َِ ْم‬shortened), like: " ًَٕ‫غ‬ ِ ‫( " ُد‬Husna), " ًٍَّْ‫" َع‬

(Salma), etc. or ‫ذوِدَج‬ ُ ِّ َِ (lengthened), like: "‫غَٕاء‬ ِ ‫( " َد‬Hasna), "‫( "ؤَعَِّاء‬Asma), etc. Remark: Even though it is not customary in

‫ اٌظٖشِف‬to go into a similar classification

for the ‫ّزَوَّش‬ ُ ٌْ‫ ا‬, I have thought it in order to treat the ‫ اٌْ ُّزَوَّش‬in a similar fashion. Thus, the ‫ّزَوَّش‬ ُ ٌْ‫ ا‬can either be ‫ ُِزَوَّش‬:

 in meaning and in form like "ٍٍَٓٔ‫ "ػ‬, "ًََّ‫ "ج‬, etc. or  in meaning only like "‫( "دَِّضَج‬Hamzah), "‫( "ؿٍَْذَح‬Talhah), etc. or  in form only, like "‫ورَاب‬ ٔ " (book), "ٍََُ‫( "ل‬pen), etc. (17) The fourth perspective: the type of ending The ُِ‫ االع‬from this perspective is divided into five categories: (a)

‫( اٌْ َّ ِٕ ُمىِص‬defective), which is any declinable ُِ‫ اع‬that terminates in a ‫ ََاء‬preceded

by a ‫وغِشَج‬ َ (i.e. "ٌِ-" ِ ), like: "ٍِٔ‫( "اٌْمَاػ‬the judge), "ٍِٔ‫( "اٌَّْاػ‬the past), etc. (b)

‫ظىِس‬ ُ ‫اٌْ َّ ْم‬

(shortened), which is any declinable

ُِ‫اع‬

that terminates in an

(whether it is written as an actual ‫ ؤٌَٔف‬or a dot-less ‫ ) ََاء‬preceded by a or "‫َي‬-"), like: "‫( "اٌْ َؼظَا‬stick), "ًَ‫( "اٌْ َفر‬the young lad), etc.

13

‫ؤٌَٔف‬

‫( َفرِذَح‬i.e. "‫َا‬-"


(c)

‫( اٌَّْ ِّ ُذوِد‬lengthened), which is any declinable ُِ‫ اع‬that terminates in an ‫ ؤٌَٔف‬which

is extended by a ‫( َِّ٘ضَج‬i.e. "‫َاء‬-" ), like: "‫( "دَِّشَاء‬red fem.), "

‫( "طَذِشَاء‬desert), " ‫" ٔوغَاء‬

(type of cloth or clothing), "‫( "بِ ِٔشَاء‬creating, producing, establishing), etc. (d)

ِ‫ذُِخ‬ ٔ ٖ‫شِثُِٗ تِاٌظ‬ ٖ ٌ‫( ا‬quasi-strong), which is every declinable ُِ‫ اع‬terminating in a ‫ وَاو‬or

‫ ََاء‬preceded by a ِْ‫( عُ ُىى‬i.e. "ٍْ‫و‬-" َْ and "ٌٍْ-" َْ ), like: "ْ‫( "دُ ٍْى‬sweet), "ٍِْ‫( " َظث‬deer), etc. (e) ‫ذُِخ‬ ٔ ٖ‫( اٌظ‬strong), which is every declinable

ُِ‫ اع‬that does not terminate in any of

the four previous endings, like: "‫ورَاب‬ ٔ " (book), "ًُ‫( "سَج‬man), etc. (18) The fifth perspective: number (singular, dual and plural) The ُِ‫ االع‬from this perspective is divided into three categories: (a)

‫( اٌْ ُّفْشَد‬singular), which is any ُِ‫ اع‬that denotes a single masculine or feminine

object, like: "ْ‫( "ؿَأٌة‬one male student), "‫( "ؿَأٌثَح‬one female student), etc. (b)

ًٖٕ‫( اٌْ َُّث‬dual), which is any ُِ‫ اع‬that denotes two masculine or feminine objects by

suffixing the ‫ األٌَٔف‬and

ِْ‫( إٌٗى‬i.e. "ْٔ‫َا‬-" in the case of ‫ ) اٌشٖفْغ‬or the ‫ اٌَُْاء‬and ِْ‫إٌٗى‬

(i.e. "ََِِٓ-" in the case of ‫ اٌٖٕظِة‬and ٓ‫ ) اٌْجَش‬to the singular form, like:

ْٔ‫( ؿَأٌَثُِِٓ – ؿَأٌثَا‬two male students) ْٔ‫( ؿَأٌَثَرُِِٓ – ؿَأٌَثرَا‬two female students) (c) ‫( اٌْجَِّغ‬plural), which is any ُِ‫ اع‬that denotes three or more masculine or feminine objects and comprises two types: (i) ِ‫ذُِخ‬ ٔ ِ‫اٌٖرظ‬

‫ جَِّغ‬or ٔ‫ال َِح‬ َ ٖ‫( جَِّغ اٌغ‬sound plural), which is when the singular form remains

intact and unbroken when forming the plural form and which in turn comprises two types:

 ٌُٔ‫( جَِّغ اٌْ ُّزَوَّشِ اٌغٖا‬sound masculine plural), which is any ُِ‫ اع‬that denotes three or more males by suffixing the

‫ اٌْىَاو‬and ِْ‫( إٌٗى‬i.e. "َِْ‫و‬-" ُ in the case of ‫ ) اٌشٖفْغ‬or the

‫ اٌَُْاء‬and ِْ‫( إٌٗى‬i.e. "ََِِٓ-" in the case of ‫ اٌٖٕظِة‬and ٓ‫) اٌْجَش‬, like: َِْ‫ؽأٌِثَُِٓ – ؿَأٌُثى‬ َ

14


 ٌُٔ‫( جَِّغ اٌْ ُّأَٖثٔ اٌغٖا‬sound feminine plural), which is any ُِ‫ اع‬that denotes three or more females by suffixing the dropping the

‫ األٌَٔف‬and ‫( اٌرٖاء‬i.e. "ٍْ‫َاخ‬-" ) to the singular form after

‫( ذَاء اٌرٖإُِِْٔثٔ اٌْ ُّرَذَشِّوَح‬vowelled ‫ اٌرٖاء‬of femininity), like: "ٍْ‫( "ؿَأٌثَاخ‬three or

more female students) (ii)

ِ‫غُِش‬ ِ ‫جَِّغ اٌرٖ ْى‬

(broken plural), which is when the singular form changes when

forming the plural form and which in turn comprises two types:

ٔ‫( جُ ُّىِع اٌْمٍَّٔح‬plurals of paucity), which are plural forms that denote three to ten objects and comprise four forms:

"‫"ؤَشِهُش‬

(months) (sing. "ْ‫) "شَهِش‬

ًُ‫ؤَ ْفؼ‬

"‫"ؤَػِ ّٔذَج‬

(pillars, columns) (sing. "ْ‫ّىِد‬ ُ َ‫) "ػ‬

‫ؤَ ْفؼٍَٔح‬

"‫"ؤَ ْلفَاي‬

(locks) (sing. "ًٌْ‫) " ُلف‬

‫ؤَ ْفؼَاي‬

"‫" ٔف ِرَُح‬

(young lads) (sing. "ًّ‫) " َفر‬

‫ٔفؼٍَِح‬

 ٔ‫ىثْشَج‬ َ ٌْ‫( جُ ُّىِع ا‬plurals of multitude), which are plural forms that denote eleven to an infinite number of objects, and comprise the following forms:

"ُٓ‫" ُعف‬

(ships) (sing. "ٌ‫ع ٔف َُِٕح‬ َ")

ًُ‫ُفؼ‬

"‫"شُهِة‬

(gray) (sing. "‫) "ؤَشِهَة‬

ًِ‫ُفؼ‬

"‫"ُتغَاج‬

(tyrants, oppressors) (sing. "ٍ‫) "تَاؽ‬

‫ُفؼٍََح‬

"‫طىَس‬ ُ "

(pictures, images) (sing. "‫ط ِىسَج‬ ُ ")

ًَ‫ُفؼ‬

"ًَ‫"َِشِػ‬

(sick people, patients) (sing. "ْ‫) "َِشَِِغ‬

ًٍَِ‫َفؼ‬

"‫"لُ ٍُىِب‬

(hearts) (sing. "ْ‫) "لٍَْة‬

‫ُف ُؼىِي‬

"‫"تِذَاس‬

(seas) (sing. "ْ‫) "تَذِش‬

‫ٔفؼَاي‬

"‫" ٔػثَش‬

(lessons) (sing. "ٌ‫ػثِشَج‬ ٔ")

ًَ‫ٔفؼ‬

"ْ‫"غٍَّْٔا‬

(young lads, servants) (sing. "ََْ‫) "غُال‬

َْ‫ٔفؼِال‬

"‫"ؤَ ِش ٔمَُاء‬

(wretched, villain) (sing. "ٌٍّٔ‫شم‬ َ")

‫ؤَ ْفؼٔالَء‬

"‫"ػٍََّح‬

(workers, labourers) (sing. "ًٌِٔ‫) "ػَا‬

‫َفؼٍََح‬

"‫"لُـَّاع‬

(people severing or cutting) (sing. "ْ‫) "لَاؿٔغ‬

‫ُفؼٖاي‬

"ْ‫ؼثَا‬ ِ ‫" ُل‬

(sticks, branches) (sing. "ْ‫ؼُِة‬ ٔ ‫) " َل‬

َْ‫ُفؼِال‬

"‫" ٔفٍََُح‬

(elephants) (sing. "ٌ‫) " ٔفُِ ٍَح‬

‫ٔفؼٍََح‬

"‫"ػٍََُّاء‬

(scholars, learned people) (sing. "ٌُْٔ‫) "ػَا‬

‫ُفؼَالَء‬

15


"‫"شُشٖد‬

(fugitive, stray, defectors) (sing. "ْ‫) "شَاسِد‬

ًٖ‫ُفؼ‬

"ُٔ٘‫" َدسَا‬

(dirhams) (sing. "َُْ٘ ‫) " ٔد ِس‬

ًٌٔ‫َفؼَا‬

"‫"دََٔأُِِش‬

(dinars) (sing. "ْ‫) "دٔ ََِٕاس‬

ًٌَُِ‫فَا‬ َ‫ػ‬

ُ‫* َِشِػـــــًَ اٌْمُ ٍُىِبِ وَاٌْثِذَاسُ ٔػثَش‬

ُ‫غفُِٓ اٌشٗهِةِ اٌُْثغَاجُ طــ َىس‬ ٗ ٌ‫فٍٔ ا‬

‫ؼثَإْ ِِٔٓ ؤَجًِِ اٌْ ٔفٍََُح‬ ِ ‫ع ُل‬ ُ ‫* لُـَّا‬

‫ٔغ ٍَّْأُهُ ُِ ٌٔألَشِمَُٔا ِء َػ ٍََّـــــــح‬

ًَ‫غثِغ واٌْ َؼشِشِ أِرَه‬ ٖ ٌ‫وَاٌْؼٍََُّاءُ ػُسٖدْ َو ُِ ِٕرَهــــــــــًَ * جُ ُّىِػٔ ِه ُِ فٍٔ ا‬ In the grey ships the tyrants are images of sick-hearted people while the seas are lessons Their children work for the wretched, cutting off branches because the elephants And the scholars are astray and the final of their plurals ends finishes in the seventeenth (position)

NB! In the final analysis the division of the

ِ‫غُِش‬ ِ ‫ جَِّغ اٌرٖ ْى‬into ٔ‫ جَِّغ اٌْم ٍَّٔح‬and ٔ‫ َجِّغ اٌْ َىثْشَج‬is

not a crucial one as the two types of plural are often interchangeable, such that there is no hard-and-fast rule stating that the one has to be used rather than the other. Often just one of the two types exist per noun in which case it can be used for either type. (19) The sixth perspective: diminution The ُِ‫ االع‬from this perspective is divided into two categories: (a)

‫ظغٖش‬ َ ُّ ٌْ‫( ا‬diminutive), which is any ُِ‫ اع‬that denotes the diminutive of the original

ُِ‫ االع‬from which it is formed, and comprises three forms: "‫"فُ ٍَُِظ‬

(small fels) (diminutive of "ْ‫) "فٍَْظ‬

ًُِ‫ُف َؼ‬

"ُِ‫" ُدسََِه‬

(small dirham) (diminutive of "َُْ٘ ‫) " ٔد ِس‬

ًٔ‫ُف َؼ ُِؼ‬

"‫"دَُٔ ُُِِِٕش‬

(small dinar) (diminutive of "ْ‫) "دٔ ََِٕاس‬

ًُِ‫ُف َؼ ُِ ٔؼ‬

(b) ‫ىثٖش‬ َ ٌُّْ‫( ا‬original non-diminutive), which is the original formed, like:

"‫( "فٍْٔظ‬fels, small coin) "َُ٘‫( " ٔد ِس‬dirham, silver coin) "‫( "دََِٕٔاس‬dinar, golden coin) 16

ُِ‫ االع‬from which the ‫ظغٖش‬ َ ُّ ٌْ‫ ا‬is


(20) The seventh perspective: relation The ُِ‫ االع‬from this perspective is divided into two categories: (a) ‫غىِب‬ ُ ِٕ َّ ٌْ‫( ا‬relative noun), which is any relation and ascription, that is: bearing that

"ٌ ٓ"

ُِ‫ اع‬that has the ِ‫ٌاء اٌٖٕغَة‬ َ (i.e. the ‫ اٌَُْاء‬of

) suffixed to it in order to show that the

ُِ‫االع‬

‫ اٌَُْاء‬is related to the original ُِ‫ االع‬before the suffixing of the ِ‫ ََاء اٌٖٕغَة‬,

like:

"ٌٓ‫( " ِٔظِ ِش‬Egyptian) from "‫( " ِٔظِش‬Egypt), "ٍِٓٔ‫ال‬ َ ِ‫( "بِع‬Islamic) from "ََ‫( "اإلِعِال‬Islam), "ٍِّٓ‫( "َِى‬Meccan) from "‫( "َِىَّح‬Mecca), "ٍَِٓٔ‫( " َِذ‬Medinan, civil, municipal, urban) from "‫( "اٌْ َّذََِٕٔح‬Medina, city), etc. (b) ُِٔٗ ٌَِ‫ب‬

‫غىِب‬ ُ ِٕ َّ ٌْ‫( ا‬noun related to), which is the original ُِ‫ االع‬before the suffixing of the

ِ‫ ََاء اٌٖٕغَة‬, like: "‫ " ِٔظِش‬, "ََ‫ "اإلِعِال‬, "‫ "َِىَّح‬and "‫ "اٌْ َّذََِٕٔح‬in the previous examples.

17


‫ظشِف اٌْ ُّشَِرشَن‬ ٖ ٌ‫ا‬ (21) ‫شرَشَن‬ ِ ُّ ٌْ‫ا‬

‫ اٌظٖشِف‬investigates both the ًِ‫ اٌْ ٔفؼ‬and ُِ‫ االع‬from the perspective of the

changes that affect their structures – changes which facilitate the overall pronunciation of the word. The most important of these changes are the following

َ‫( اإلِدِغَا‬assimilation, merging), ‫( اإلِػِالَي‬changes involving weak letters) and

three:

‫( اإلِِتذَاي‬substitution, replacement). (22)

َ‫ اإلِدِغَا‬is when the first of two identical letters is assimilated into the second so

as become one emphatic letter. Thus, instead of pronouncing them twice they are pronounced once only. The following are some of the important rules pertaining to

َ‫ اإلِدِغَا‬: (a) When two identical letters meet and the first of them is unvowelled and the second vowelled, then the first is assimilated into the second becoming one emphatic letter, like:

"ٌّ‫ "َِذ‬which was originally "ْ‫ " َِذِد‬on the pattern of "ًٌِ‫ " َفؼ‬, the first of the two َْٔ‫( اٌذٖاال‬i.e. two Dals) is assimilated into the second becoming "ٌّ‫ "َِذ‬. (b) When two vowelled identical letters meet in one word and they are preceded by another vowelled letter, then the first of them is first unvowelled and then assimilated into the second becoming one emphatic letter, like:

"ٖ‫ " َِذ‬which was originally "َ‫ " َِذَد‬on the pattern of "ًََ‫ " َفؼ‬, the first of the two َْٔ‫( اٌذٖاال‬i.e. two Dals) is then unvowelled becoming "

َ‫ " َِذِد‬and then assimilated into the second

becoming "ٖ‫ " َِذ‬. (c) When two vowelled identical letters meet in one word and they are preceded by an unvowelled letter, then the first of them is first unvowelled by transferring its vowel to the preceding unvowelled letter and then assimilated into the second becoming one emphatic letter, like:

"ٗ‫ "َ ُّذ‬which was originally "ُ‫ "َ ِّذُد‬on the pattern of " ًُُ‫ "َ ْفؼ‬, the first of the two َْٔ‫اٌذٖاال‬ (i.e. two Dals) is unvowelled by transferring its vowel to the preceding unvowelled

ُُِّٔ ٌْ‫ ا‬becoming "ُ‫ "َ ُّذِد‬and then assimilated into the second ‫ اٌذٖاي‬becoming "ٗ‫ "َ ُّذ‬. (d) When two identical letters meet and the first of them is vowelled and the second unvowelled and they are preceded by an unvowelled, then it is optional for the first of the two identical letters to be unvowelled by transferring its vowel to the preceding unvowelled letter, such that two unvowelled letters meet and to escape the meeting of two unvowelled letters the second of them is vowelled either with:

18


 a ‫وغِشَج‬ َ (due to it being the primary ‫ اٌْذَشَوَح‬used for the meeting of two unvowelled letters),

 ‫( َفرِذَح‬due to it being the lightest of the three ‫) اٌْذَشَوَاخ‬, or  the ‫ اٌْذَشَوَح‬corresponding the previous ‫ اٌْذَشَوَح‬, like:

"ِّ‫ "ٌَُِ َُّذ‬, "ٖ‫ "ٌَُِ َ ُّذ‬or "ٗ‫ "ٌَُِ َ ُّذ‬which was originally "ِ‫ "ٌَُِ َ ِّذُد‬on the pattern of "ًُْ‫ "ٌَ ُِ َ ْفؼ‬, the first of the two

َْٔ‫اٌذٖاال‬

preceding unvowelled

is optionally unvowelled by transferring its vowel to the

ُُِّٔ ٌْ‫ ا‬becoming "ِ‫ "ٌَُِ َ ُّذِد‬and then the two unvowelled َْٔ‫اٌذٖاال‬

meet and to escape their meeting the second is vowelled either with a the

‫ َوغِشَج‬, ‫ َفرِذَح‬or

‫ اٌؼّٖٖح‬which is the ‫ اٌْذَشَوَح‬that corresponds to the ‫ اٌؼّٖٖح‬on the preceding ُُِّٔ ٌْ‫ ا‬,

thus becoming either "ِّ‫َُّذ‬

ٌَُِ" , "ٖ‫ "ٌَُِ َ ُّذ‬or "ٗ‫ "ٌَُِ َ ُّذ‬.

(e) When the second of two identical letters has the

‫( ػَ ُِّٔش اٌشٖفْغِ اٌْ ُّرَذَشِّن‬i.e. "َُِ‫ " َفؼًَْ خ‬,

"‫ " َفؼَ ذًَُّْا‬, "ًُِْ‫ " َفؼَ ُذ‬, "ًُْٖٓ‫ " َفؼَ ذ‬, "ًََْْ‫ " َفؼ‬and " ‫ ) " َفؼَ ًَْٔا‬suffixed to it, then assimilation of the first into second is disallowed, like: "َُِ‫ " َِذَدِخ‬, "‫ " َِذَدِذَُّا‬, "ُِ‫ " َِذَدُِذ‬, "ُٖٓ‫ " َِذَدِذ‬, "َِْ‫ " َِذَد‬and "‫ " َِذَدَِٔا‬. (23) ‫ اإلِػِالَي‬is a type of change that affects weak letters as regards:

 transforming one weak letter into another, like: "‫ "دَػَا‬and "َ‫ "لَاي‬in which the ‫األٌَٔف‬ in both cases was transformed from a

‫ وَاو‬as their original forms were " َ‫ "دَ َػى‬and

"َ‫ " َلىَي‬respectively,

 unvowelling the weak letter either through dropping the vowel completely or transferring it to an unvowelled letter before it, like: unvowelled by dropping the

"ِ‫ "َذِ ُػى‬in which the ‫ اٌْىَاو‬was

‫ اٌؼّٖٖح‬as the original form was "ُ‫ "َذِ ُػى‬, and like: "ُ‫"َ ُمىِي‬

in which the ‫ ا ٌْىَاو‬was unvowelled by transferring the ‫ اٌؼّٖٖح‬to the unvowelled ‫اٌْمَاف‬ before it at the original form was "ُ‫ "َ ْمىُي‬, and

 dropping the weak letter, like: " ًُْ‫ "ل‬in which the

‫ اٌْىَاو‬was dropped due to the

meeting of two unvowelled letters as the original form was

" ْ‫ "اُ ْلىُي‬, and then the

‫ اٌْىَاو‬was unvowelled by transferring the ‫ اٌؼّٖٖح‬to the preceding unvowelled ‫اٌْمَاف‬ becoming

" ْ‫"اُ ُلىِي‬and

the result is that the

unvowelled letters meet, namely: the unvowelled

ًِِ‫َِّ٘ضَج اٌْىَط‬

is dropped and two

‫ اٌْىَاو‬and the unvowelled ََّ‫ اٌال‬,

and to escape this meeting the weak letter which is the unvowelled dropped, thus becoming "ًُْ‫ "ل‬.

19

‫اٌْىَاو‬

is


The following are some of the most important rules pertaining to (a) When the ‫ ا ٌْىَاو‬or

‫ اإلِػِالَي‬:

‫ اٌَُْاء‬is vowelled and preceded by a letter bearing a ‫ َفرِذَح‬, it is

transformed into an ‫( ؤٌَٔف‬and it does not matter whether the

‫ األٌَٔف‬is written as one or

as a dot-less ‫) ََاء‬, like: "‫ "دَػَا‬which was originally "َ‫ػى‬ َ َ‫"د‬, and "َ‫ "لَاي‬which was originally

"َ‫ " َلىَي‬or "ًَِ‫" َس‬which was originally "ٌ َ َََ‫ "س‬and " َ‫ "تَاع‬which was originally " َ‫ "َتَُغ‬, all of which are on the pattern of

" ًََ‫ " َفؼ‬but because the ‫ اٌْىَاو‬and ‫ اٌَُْاء‬is vowelled and

preceded by a letter bearing a form of the

‫ َفرِذَح‬, they were transformed into an ‫ ؤٌَٔف‬. The original

‫ األٌَٔف‬can be determined from the ‫ اٌْ ٔفؼًِ اٌْ ُّؼَاسِع‬and/or the ‫ظذَس‬ ِ َّ ٌْ‫ ا‬, for

example:

"‫"دَ ِػىَجً" – "َذِ ُػىِ" – "دَػَا‬ "َ‫" َلىِالً" – "َ ُمىِيُ" – "لَاي‬ "ًَِ‫" َسُِِاً" – "َ ِشٍِِٔ" – " َس‬ "َ‫"َتُِؼاً" – "َِثُِغُ" – "تَاع‬ (b) When the ‫ ا ٌْىَاو‬is unvowelled and occurs after a ‫وغِشَج‬ َ , it is transformed into a ‫ ََاء‬, like:

"‫ " ِٔ ُِؼَاد‬which was originally "‫ " ِٔىِػَاد‬, and "ْ‫ " ُِِٔضَا‬which was originally "ْ‫ " ِٔ ِىصَا‬, but ‫اٌْىَاو‬

because the

in each case is unvowelled and occurs after a

transformed into a ‫ ََاء‬. The original form of the

‫َوغِشَج‬

, it is

‫ اٌَُْاء‬can be determined from the ًِ‫اٌْ ٔفؼ‬

ٍِٔ‫ اٌَّْاػ‬and/or the ‫ظذَس‬ ِ َّ ٌْ‫ ا‬, for example: "َ‫"وَػِذاً" – "َ ٔؼ ُذ" – "وَ َػذ‬ "ََْ‫" َوصِٔاً" – "َضِ ُْ" – " َوص‬ (c) When the

‫ اٌَُْاء‬is unvowelled and occurs after a ‫عِٖح‬ َ , it is transformed into a ‫ وَاو‬,

like: "ُٓٔ‫ "َُىِل‬which was originally "ُٓٔ‫ "َُ ُِم‬, and " because the second transformed into a

ُ‫ "َُىِعٔش‬which was originally " ُ‫ "َُ ُِغِش‬, but

‫ اٌَُْاء‬in each case is unvowelled and occurs after a ‫ ػَّٖح‬, it is

‫ وَاو‬. We know the original form of the ‫ اٌْىَاو‬to be a ‫ ََاء‬because of

the ٍِٔ‫ اٌَّْاػ‬being "ََٓ‫ "ؤََِم‬and "َ‫ "ؤَ َِغَش‬respectively and the

‫ظذَس‬ ِ َّ ٌْ‫ ا‬of the root form being

"ُِٓ‫ "اٌَُْ ٔم‬and "‫ "اٌُْغِش‬respectively. (d) When the

‫األٌَٔف‬

(which is always unvowelled) occurs after a

transformed into an unvowelled

‫َوغِشَج‬

, it is

‫ ََاء‬, like: "‫ " َِظَاِتُِخ‬which was originally "‫ " َِظَاتِاح‬, but 20


because the

‫ األٌَٔف‬occurs after a ‫ َوغِشَج‬, it is transformed into an unvowelled ‫ ََاء‬. We

know that the

‫ اٌَُْاء‬was originally an ‫ ؤٌَٔف‬because "‫ " َِظَاِتُِخ‬is the plural of "‫ظثَاح‬ ِ ِٔ " and

the plural is formed from the singular. (e) When the

‫األٌَٔف‬

(which is always unvowelled) occurs after a

transformed into an unvowelled because the

‫ػَّٖح‬

, it is

‫ وَاو‬, like: " َ‫ " ُش ِى ٔ٘ذ‬which was originally " َ‫ "شُا ٔ٘ذ‬, but

‫ األٌَٔف‬occurs after a ‫ ػَّٖح‬, it is transformed into an unvowelled ‫ وَاو‬. We

know that the ‫ ا ٌْىَاو‬was originally an ‫ ؤٌَٔف‬because "َ‫ش ِى ٔ٘ذ‬ ُ " is the passive form of

"َ‫"شَا َ٘ذ‬

which is the active form, and the passive form is formed from the active form. (f) When the

‫ اٌْىاو‬occurs at the end of a word after a ‫ َوغِشَج‬, it is transformed into a

‫ ََاء‬, like "ٍَٔ‫ "سَػ‬which was originally "َ‫ػى‬ ٔ َ‫ "س‬, but because the ‫ اٌْىَاو‬occurs at the end after a ‫وغِشَج‬ َ , it is transformed into a because the

‫ ََاء‬. We know that the ‫ اٌَُْاء‬was originally a ‫وَاو‬

‫ظذَس‬ ِ َّ ٌْ‫ ا‬is "ْ‫ػىَا‬ ِ ِ‫ "س‬and the popular view is that the ًِ‫ اٌْ ٔفؼ‬is derived from

the ‫ظذَس‬ ِ َّ ٌْ‫ ا‬. (g) When the ‫ ا ٌْىَاو‬and the ‫ ا ٌَُْاء‬meet and one of them precedes the other in bearing a

ِْ‫عُ ُىى‬

(i.e. the first of them is unvowelled), then the

transformed into a

‫اٌْىَاو‬

is always going to be

‫ ََاء‬, like: "‫ "عَُِّذ‬which was originally "‫ " َع ُِىِد‬on the pattern of "ًٔ‫" َف ُِؼ‬,

but because the ‫ ا ٌْىَاو‬and the ‫ ا ٌَُْاء‬meet and the first of them is unvowelled, the ‫ ا ٌْىَاو‬is transformed into a ‫ ََاء‬. We know that the second of the double and emphatic ‫ ا ٌَُْاء‬was originally a ‫ وَاو‬because of the ‫ّؼَاسِع‬ ُ ٌْ‫ ا‬being "ُ‫غىِد‬ ُ َ" . (h) When the ‫ ا ٌْىَاو‬occurs at the end of a word and it is the fourth letter and upwards ,

‫[ ََاء‬and it does not matter if the ‫ اٌَُْاء‬is subsequently

then it is transformed into a transformed into an

" َ‫جى‬ َ َِٔ‫"ؤ‬

‫ ؤٌَٔف‬according to rule (a) or not], like: "ًَ‫ "ؤَِٔج‬which was originally

, but because the

transformed into a

‫اٌْىَاو‬

occurs at the end and it is the fourth letter, it is

‫ ََاء‬, which in turn is transformed into an ‫( ؤٌَٔف‬but written as a dot-

less ‫ ) ََاء‬according to rule (a). (i) When the

‫ اٌْىَاو‬or the ‫ اٌَُْاء‬occurs at the end of a word after a vowelled letter, then

their ‫ اٌْذَشَوَح‬is dropped if it is a

‫ ػَّٖح‬or a ‫( َوغِشَج‬but retained if it is a ‫) َفرِذَح‬, like: ِ‫"َذذِ ُػى‬

"ٌِ‫ بًٌَِ إٌٖا ٔد‬which was originally "ٌِ‫ "َذذِ ُػىُ بًٌَِ إٌٖا ٔد‬, but because the ‫ اٌْىَاو‬of "ُ‫ "َذذِ ُػى‬bears a ‫ ػَّٖح‬and the ‫ ا ٌَُْاء‬of "

ٌِ‫ "إٌٖا ٔد‬a ‫ َوغِشَج‬and both these letters occur after a vowelled 21


letter, the to "ٍِِٔ‫اٌْجَا‬

‫ اٌؼّٖٖح‬on the ‫ اٌْىَاو‬and the ‫ اٌْ َىغِشَج‬on the ‫ اٌَُْاء‬are dropped. This also applies

ًٍََ‫ "َ ْمؼٍِٔ اٌْمَاػٍِٔ ػ‬which was originally "ٍِِٔ‫ "َ ْمؼٍُٔ اٌْمَاػٍُٔ ػًٍََ اٌْجَا‬.

(j) When the second root letter (also called the “ٔ‫ّح‬ َ ٍَٔ‫اٌْى‬ (i.e. a vowelled

‫اٌْذَشَوَح‬

‫وَاو‬

or

ُِٓ‫ ) " َػ‬is a vowelled weak letter

‫ ) ََاء‬and occurs after an unvowelled strong letter, then the

of the second root letter is transferred to the unvowelled strong letter.

Thereafter, if the second root letter (which is the

‫اٌْىَاو‬

or

‫اٌَُْاء‬

) is not the

corresponding sister letter of the ‫ اٌْذَشَوَح‬that was transferred to the unvowelled strong letter before it, then the second root letter is transformed into the corresponding sister letter of the transferred ‫ اٌْذَشَوَح‬. This is like:

 "ُ‫ "َ ُمىِي‬which was originally "ُ‫ "َ ْمىُي‬,  "ُ‫ "َِثُِغ‬which was originally "ُ‫ "َ ِثُِغ‬,  "ُُُِ ‫ "َُ ٔم‬which was originally "َُِ‫ "َُ ْمى‬which then became "َُِ‫ "َُ ٔمى‬and then finally "ُُُِ ‫ "َُ ٔم‬,  "ُ‫ "َخَاف‬which was originally "ُ‫خىَف‬ ِ َ" which then became " ُ‫خىِف‬ َ َ" and then finally

"ُ‫ "َخَاف‬. (k) When two unvowelled letters meet and one of them is a weak letter, then it is dropped, like:

 "ًُْ‫ "ل‬which was originally "ْ‫ "اُ ْلىُي‬which then became "ْ‫ "اُ ُلىِي‬, then " ْ‫ " ُلىِي‬and then finally "ًُْ‫ "ل‬,

 "ِ‫ "تِغ‬which was originally "ِ‫ "أِتُِغ‬, which then became " ِ‫ "أِتُِغ‬, then " ِ‫ ِتُِغ‬and then finally "ِ‫ "تِغ‬,

 "ُ‫ "ؤَلَِّد‬, which was originally "ُ‫( "ؤَلَاِِد‬but even before this it was " ُ‫ "ؤَ ْل َىِِد‬, which then became "ُ‫ "ؤَ َل ِىِِد‬and then "ُ‫ "ؤَلَاِِد‬, and then finally "ُ‫ "ؤَلَِّد‬. (l) When the

ًِ‫اٌْ ٔفؼ‬

is naked triliteral starting with a

‫وَاو‬

(which is referred to as

"ٌ ٓ ِ‫ ) "ثُالَثٍٔٓ ُِجَشٖد ِٔثَاي وَاو‬on the pattern of "ًُٔ‫( "َ ْفؼ‬whether it is originally on that pattern or not), then the

‫ اٌْىَاو‬is dropped from the ‫ اٌْ ُّؼَاسِع‬, the ‫ ا َألِِش‬and the ‫ظذَس‬ ِ َّ ٌْ‫ ا‬and the

latter case it is compensated for by adding a ‫َِشُِتىِؿَح‬

 "ًُٔ‫ "َظ‬which was originally "ًُٔ‫"َىِط‬  "ًْٔ‫ "ط‬which was originally "ًْٔ‫"ٔاوِط‬

22

‫ ذَاء‬, like:


 "‫ "طٍَٔح‬which was originally "ًِ‫ "وِط‬. (24) ‫ اإلِتِذاي‬is a change that involves the substitution of one letter for another. The following are some of the most important rules pertaining to ‫ اإلِ ِتذَاي‬: (a) When the ‫ ا ٌْىَاو‬or the ‫ ا ٌَُْاء‬occurs at the end of a word after an additional ‫ ؤٌَٔف‬, then it is substituted for by a ‫ َِّ٘ضَج‬, like:

 "ٌ‫ "دُػَاء‬which was originally "ْ‫ ("دُػَاو‬because it is from "‫) "َذِ ُػىِ" – "دَػَا‬,  "ٌ‫ "ِتَٕاء‬which was originally "ٌْ‫( "ِتَٕا‬because it is from "ًَٕ‫) "َ ِثٍِِٕ" – "َت‬ (b) When the

‫ اٌْىَاو‬or the ‫ اٌَُْاء‬occurs after the ‫ األٌَٔف‬of "ًٌٔ‫( "فَاػ‬i.e. the ًِٔ‫ اعُِ اٌْفَاػ‬of the

first form), then it is substituted for by a ‫ َِّ٘ضَج‬, like:

 "ًٌٔ‫ "لَائ‬which was originally "ٌ‫( "لَاوِي‬because it is from "َ‫) "َ ُمىِيُ" – "لَاي‬,  "ْ‫ "تَائٔغ‬which was originally "ْ‫( "تَاَِغ‬because it is from "َ‫) "َِثُِغُ" – "تَاع‬ (c) When the

‫( اٌْفَاء‬i.e. the first root letter) of " ًََ‫ "أ ْفَرؼ‬is a ‫ وَاو‬or a ‫ ََاء‬, then it is

substituted for by a ‫ ذَاء‬which is then assimilated into the ‫ اٌرٖاء‬of "ًََ‫ "أ ْفَرؼ‬, like:

 "ًََ‫ "أٖذظ‬which was originally "ًََ‫ "ٔاوَِذظ‬which then became " ًََ‫ "أِذَرظ‬and then finally

"ًََ‫( "أٖذظ‬because it is from "ًََ‫) "َظًُٔ" – "وَط‬,  "َ‫ "أٖذغَش‬which was originally " َ‫ "أََِرغَش‬which then became " َ‫ "أِذَرغَش‬and then finally

"َ‫( "أٖذغَش‬because it is from "َ‫) "َ ُِغُشُ" – "َغُش‬. (d) When the ‫( اٌْفَاء‬i.e. the first root letter) of "ًََ‫ "أ ْفَرؼ‬is a ‫ ثَاء‬, then it is substituted for by a ‫ ثَاء‬and the first ‫ اٌثَّاء‬is then assimilated into the second, like:

"َ‫ "أثََّإس‬which was originally "َ‫ "أْثرََإس‬which then became "َ‫ "أْثثََإس‬and then finally "َ‫ "أثََّإس‬. (e) When the

‫( اٌْفَاء‬i.e. the first root letter) of "ًََ‫ "أ ْفَرؼ‬is a ‫ دَاي‬, a ‫ َراي‬or a ٌ‫ صَا‬, then the

‫ اٌرٖاء‬of "ًَ‫ "أ ْفَر َؼ‬is substituted for by a ‫ دَاي‬, like:  "ًَ‫ "أدٖػ‬which was originally " ًَ‫ "أدَِذؼ‬which then became " ًَ‫ "أدِدَػ‬and then finally

"ًَ‫ "أدٖػ‬, 23


 "َ‫ "أرْدَوَش‬which was originally "َ‫ "أرْذَىَش‬which then became "َ‫( "أرْدَوَش‬also permissible for "َ‫ "أرْدَوَش‬are: "َ‫ "أرَّوَش‬and "َ‫) "أدٖوَش‬,

 "َ‫ "ٔاصِ َدَ٘ش‬which was originally "َ‫ "ٔاصِذَهَش‬which then became "َ‫ "ٔاصِ َدَ٘ش‬. (f) When the ‫( اٌْفَاء‬i.e. the first root letter) of "ًََ‫ "أ ْفَرؼ‬is a ‫ طَاد‬, a ‫ ػَاد‬, a

‫ؽ اء‬ َ or a ‫ ظَاء‬,

then the ‫ اٌرٖاء‬of "ًََ‫ "أ ْفَرؼ‬is substituted for by a ‫ ؿَاء‬, like:

 "ًَ‫ـف‬ َ ِ‫ "أط‬which was originally "ًَ‫طَرف‬ ِ ٔ‫ "ا‬which then became "ًَ‫ "أطِ َـف‬,  "‫ "أػِـَشَب‬which was originally "َ‫ػرَشَب‬ ِ ٔ‫ "ا‬which then became "َ‫"أػِـَشَب‬,  "َ‫ "أؿٍََّغ‬which was originally " َ‫ "أ ْؿرٍََغ‬which then became " َ‫ "أؿْـٍََغ‬and then finally

"َ‫ "أؿٍََّغ‬,  "ٍََُ َ‫ "ٔاظْـ‬which was originally "ٍََُ َ‫ "أ ْظر‬which then became " ٍََُ َ‫( "أظْـ‬also permissible for "ٍََُ َ‫ "أظْـ‬are: "ٍََُ َّ‫ "أظ‬and "ٍََُ َّ‫) "أؿ‬ (g) When two

ْٔ‫ َٖ ِِضَذَا‬meet in one word, and the first of them is vowelled and the

second unvowelled, then the second is substitute for by a

ٍّ‫دَشِف َِذ‬

(letter of

prolongation) which is the corresponding sister letter of the preceding ‫ دَشَوَح‬, like:

"ََِٓ‫ "آ‬which was originally "ََِٓ‫"ؤَْؤ‬ "ُِٓٔ‫ "ُؤ ِو‬which was originally "ُِٓٔ‫"ُؤ ِئ‬ "ْ‫ "بََِِّا‬which was originally "ْ‫ "بِئَّْا‬. ‫متّ ِت َؼىِْ اهلل ذؼاىل‬

24

Sarf In Short  

An introductory book that summarizes the morphology of Arabic words for the beginner, non-Arabic speaker (that is, for those who do not spea...

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